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Sample records for prpsc remains unknown

  1. Role of cell death in the propagation of PrP(Sc) in immune cells.

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    Takahashi, Kenichi; Inoshima, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have suggested that macrophages, dendritic cells, and follicular dendritic cells play an important role in the propagation of PrP(Sc). Both accumulation and proteolysis of PrP(Sc) have been demonstrated in peripheral macrophages. Macrophages may act as reservoirs for PrP(Sc) particles if the cells die during transient PrP(Sc) propagation. However, whether cell death plays a role in PrP(Sc) propagation in macrophages remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the possibility of propagation and transmission of PrP(Sc) between dead immune cells and living neural cells. We found that under specific conditions, transient PrP(Sc) propagation occurs in dead cells, indicating that interaction between PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) on plasma membrane lipid rafts might be important for PrP(Sc) propagation. Co-culturing of killed donor PrP(Sc)-infected macrophages with recipient N2a-3 neuroblastoma cells accelerated PrP(Sc) transmission. Our results suggest that cell death may play an important role in PrP(Sc) propagation, whereas transient PrP(Sc) propagation in macrophages has little effect on PrP(Sc) transmission.

  2. Infectivity-associated PrP(Sc) and disease duration-associated PrP(Sc) of mouse BSE prions.

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    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Disease-related prion protein (PrP(Sc)), which is a structural isoform of the host-encoded cellular prion protein, is thought to be a causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, the specific role of PrP(Sc) in prion pathogenesis and its relationship to infectivity remain controversial. A time-course study of prion-affected mice was conducted, which showed that the prion infectivity was not simply proportional to the amount of PrP(Sc) in the brain. Centrifugation (20,000 ×g) of the brain homogenate showed that most of the PrP(Sc) was precipitated into the pellet, and the supernatant contained only a slight amount of PrP(Sc). Interestingly, mice inoculated with the obtained supernatant showed incubation periods that were approximately 15 d longer than those of mice inoculated with the crude homogenate even though both inocula contained almost the same infectivity. Our results suggest that a small population of fine PrP(Sc) may be responsible for prion infectivity and that large, aggregated PrP(Sc) may contribute to determining prion disease duration.

  3. No novel, high penetrant gene might remain to be found in Japanese patients with unknown MODY.

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    Horikawa, Yukio; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Enya, Mayumi; Ishiura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Tsuji, Shoji; Sugano, Sumio; Inoue, Ituro; Takeda, Jun

    2018-07-01

    MODY 5 and 6 have been shown to be low-penetrant MODYs. As the genetic background of unknown MODY is assumed to be similar, a new analytical strategy is applied here to elucidate genetic predispositions to unknown MODY. We examined to find whether there are major MODY gene loci remaining to be identified using SNP linkage analysis in Japanese. Whole-exome sequencing was performed with seven families with typical MODY. Candidates for novel MODY genes were examined combined with in silico network analysis. Some peaks were found only in either parametric or non-parametric analysis; however, none of these peaks showed a LOD score greater than 3.7, which is approved to be the significance threshold of evidence for linkage. Exome sequencing revealed that three mutated genes were common among 3 families and 42 mutated genes were common in two families. Only one of these genes, MYO5A, having rare amino acid mutations p.R849Q and p.V1601G, was involved in the biological network of known MODY genes through the intermediary of the INS. Although only one promising candidate gene, MYO5A, was identified, no novel, high penetrant MODY genes might remain to be found in Japanese MODY.

  4. Mechanisms of action of brief alcohol interventions remain largely unknown – A narrative review

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    Jacques eGaume

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence has shown efficacy of brief intervention (BI for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary health care settings. Evidence for efficacy in other settings, and effectiveness when implemented at larger scale is disappointing. Indeed, BI comprises varying content, and exploring BI content and mechanisms of action may be a promising way to enhance efficacy and effectiveness.We searched Medline and PsychInfo, as well as references of retrieved publications for original research or reviews on active ingredients (or components, or mechanisms of face-to-face BIs (and its subtypes, including brief advice and brief motivational interviewing [BMI] for alcohol. Overall, BI active ingredients have been scarcely investigated, almost only within BMI, and mostly among Emergency Room patients, young adults, and US college students. This body of research has shown that personalized feedback may be an effective component; specific MI techniques showed mixed findings; decisional balance findings tended to suggest a potential detrimental effect; while change plan exercises, advice to reduce or stop drinking, presenting alternative change options, and moderation strategies are promising but need further study. Client change talk is a potential mediator of BMI effects; change in norm perceptions and enhanced discrepancy between current behavior and broader life goals and values have received preliminary support; readiness to change was only partially supported as a mediator; while enhanced awareness of drinking, perceived risks/benefits of alcohol use, alcohol treatment seeking, and self-efficacy were seldom studied and have as yet found no significant support as such.Research is obviously limited and has provided no clear and consistent evidence on the mechanisms of alcohol BI. How BI achieves the effects seen in randomized trials remains mostly unknown and should be investigated to inform the development of more effective interventions.

  5. Mechanisms of action of brief alcohol interventions remain largely unknown - a narrative review.

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    Gaume, Jacques; McCambridge, Jim; Bertholet, Nicolas; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has shown the efficacy of brief intervention (BI) for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary health care settings. Evidence for efficacy in other settings and effectiveness when implemented at larger scale are disappointing. Indeed, BI comprises varying content; exploring BI content and mechanisms of action may be a promising way to enhance efficacy and effectiveness. Medline and PsychInfo, as well as references of retrieved publications were searched for original research or review on active ingredients (components or mechanisms) of face-to-face BIs [and its subtypes, including brief advice and brief motivational interviewing (BMI)] for alcohol. Overall, BI active ingredients have been scarcely investigated, almost only within BMI, and mostly among patients in the emergency room, young adults, and US college students. This body of research has shown that personalized feedback may be an effective component; specific MI techniques showed mixed findings; decisional balance findings tended to suggest a potential detrimental effect; while change plan exercises, advice to reduce or stop drinking, presenting alternative change options, and moderation strategies are promising but need further study. Client change talk is a potential mediator of BMI effects; change in norm perceptions and enhanced discrepancy between current behavior and broader life goals and values have received preliminary support; readiness to change was only partially supported as a mediator; while enhanced awareness of drinking, perceived risks/benefits of alcohol use, alcohol treatment seeking, and self-efficacy were seldom studied and have as yet found no significant support as such. Research is obviously limited and has provided no clear and consistent evidence on the mechanisms of alcohol BI. How BI achieves the effects seen in randomized trials remains mostly unknown and should be investigated to inform the development of more effective interventions.

  6. Co-existence of Distinct Prion Types Enables Conformational Evolution of Human PrPSc by Competitive Selection*

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    Haldiman, Tracy; Kim, Chae; Cohen, Yvonne; Chen, Wei; Blevins, Janis; Qing, Liuting; Cohen, Mark L.; Langeveld, Jan; Telling, Glenn C.; Kong, Qingzhong; Safar, Jiri G.

    2013-01-01

    The unique phenotypic characteristics of mammalian prions are thought to be encoded in the conformation of pathogenic prion proteins (PrPSc). The molecular mechanism responsible for the adaptation, mutation, and evolution of prions observed in cloned cells and upon crossing the species barrier remains unsolved. Using biophysical techniques and conformation-dependent immunoassays in tandem, we isolated two distinct populations of PrPSc particles with different conformational stabilities and aggregate sizes, which frequently co-exist in the most common human prion disease, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The protein misfolding cyclic amplification replicates each of the PrPSc particle types independently and leads to the competitive selection of those with lower initial conformational stability. In serial propagation with a nonglycosylated mutant PrPC substrate, the dominant PrPSc conformers are subject to further evolution by natural selection of the subpopulation with the highest replication rate due to its lowest stability. Cumulatively, the data show that sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease PrPSc is not a single conformational entity but a dynamic collection of two distinct populations of particles. This implies the co-existence of different prions, whose adaptation and evolution are governed by the selection of progressively less stable, faster replicating PrPSc conformers. PMID:23974118

  7. Recombinant PrPSc shares structural features with brain-derived PrPSc: Insights from limited proteolysis.

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    Sevillano, Alejandro M; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Younas, Neelam; Wang, Fei; R Elezgarai, Saioa; Bravo, Susana; Vázquez-Fernández, Ester; Rosa, Isaac; Eraña, Hasier; Gil, David; Veiga, Sonia; Vidal, Enric; Erickson-Beltran, Melissa L; Guitián, Esteban; Silva, Christopher J; Nonno, Romolo; Ma, Jiyan; Castilla, Joaquín; R Requena, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Very solid evidence suggests that the core of full length PrPSc is a 4-rung β-solenoid, and that individual PrPSc subunits stack to form amyloid fibers. We recently used limited proteolysis to map the β-strands and connecting loops that make up the PrPSc solenoid. Using high resolution SDS-PAGE followed by epitope analysis, and mass spectrometry, we identified positions ~116/118, 133-134, 141, 152-153, 162, 169 and 179 (murine numbering) as Proteinase K (PK) cleavage sites in PrPSc. Such sites likely define loops and/or borders of β-strands, helping us to predict the threading of the β-solenoid. We have now extended this approach to recombinant PrPSc (recPrPSc). The term recPrPSc refers to bona fide recombinant prions prepared by PMCA, exhibiting infectivity with attack rates of ~100%. Limited proteolysis of mouse and bank vole recPrPSc species yielded N-terminally truncated PK-resistant fragments similar to those seen in brain-derived PrPSc, albeit with varying relative yields. Along with these fragments, doubly N- and C-terminally truncated fragments, in particular ~89/97-152, were detected in some recPrPSc preparations; similar fragments are characteristic of atypical strains of brain-derived PrPSc. Our results suggest a shared architecture of recPrPSc and brain PrPSc prions. The observed differences, in particular the distinct yields of specific PK-resistant fragments, are likely due to differences in threading which result in the specific biochemical characteristics of recPrPSc. Furthermore, recombinant PrPSc offers exciting opportunities for structural studies unachievable with brain-derived PrPSc.

  8. Small protease sensitive oligomers of PrPSc in distinct human prions determine conversion rate of PrP(C.

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    Chae Kim

    Full Text Available The mammalian prions replicate by converting cellular prion protein (PrP(C into pathogenic conformational isoform (PrP(Sc. Variations in prions, which cause different disease phenotypes, are referred to as strains. The mechanism of high-fidelity replication of prion strains in the absence of nucleic acid remains unsolved. We investigated the impact of different conformational characteristics of PrP(Sc on conversion of PrP(C in vitro using PrP(Sc seeds from the most frequent human prion disease worldwide, the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD. The conversion potency of a broad spectrum of distinct sCJD prions was governed by the level, conformation, and stability of small oligomers of the protease-sensitive (s PrP(Sc. The smallest most potent prions present in sCJD brains were composed only of∼20 monomers of PrP(Sc. The tight correlation between conversion potency of small oligomers of human sPrP(Sc observed in vitro and duration of the disease suggests that sPrP(Sc conformers are an important determinant of prion strain characteristics that control the progression rate of the disease.

  9. Protease-sensitive conformers in broad spectrum of distinct PrPSc structures in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are indicator of progression rate.

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    Chae Kim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin, range, and structure of prions causing the most common human prion disease, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD, are largely unknown. To investigate the molecular mechanism responsible for the broad phenotypic variability of sCJD, we analyzed the conformational characteristics of protease-sensitive and protease-resistant fractions of the pathogenic prion protein (PrP(Sc using novel conformational methods derived from a conformation-dependent immunoassay (CDI. In 46 brains of patients homozygous for polymorphisms in the PRNP gene and exhibiting either Type 1 or Type 2 western blot pattern of the PrP(Sc, we identified an extensive array of PrP(Sc structures that differ in protease sensitivity, display of critical domains, and conformational stability. Surprisingly, in sCJD cases homozygous for methionine or valine at codon 129 of the PRNP gene, the concentration and stability of protease-sensitive conformers of PrP(Sc correlated with progression rate of the disease. These data indicate that sCJD brains exhibit a wide spectrum of PrP(Sc structural states, and accordingly argue for a broad spectrum of prion strains coding for different phenotypes. The link between disease duration, levels, and stability of protease-sensitive conformers of PrP(Sc suggests that these conformers play an important role in the pathogenesis of sCJD.

  10. Pilot study to establish a nasal tip prediction method from unknown human skeletal remains for facial reconstruction and skull photo superimposition as applied to a Japanese male populations.

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    Utsuno, Hajime; Kageyama, Toru; Uchida, Keiichi; Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Sakurada, Koichi; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Skull-photo superimposition is a technique used to identify the relationship between the skull and a photograph of a target person: and facial reconstruction reproduces antemortem facial features from an unknown human skull, or identifies the facial features of unknown human skeletal remains. These techniques are based on soft tissue thickness and the relationships between soft tissue and the skull, i.e., the position of the ear and external acoustic meatus, pupil and orbit, nose and nasal aperture, and lips and teeth. However, the ear and nose region are relatively difficult to identify because of their structure, as the soft tissues of these regions are lined with cartilage. We attempted to establish a more accurate method to determine the position of the nasal tip from the skull. We measured the height of the maxilla and mid-lower facial region in 55 Japanese men and generated a regression equation from the collected data. We obtained a result that was 2.0±0.99mm (mean±SD) distant from the true nasal tip, when applied to a validation set consisting of another 12 Japanese men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Methamphetamine increases Prion Protein and induces dopamine-dependent expression of protease resistant PrPsc.

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    Ferrucci, M; Ryskalin, L; Biagioni, F; Gambardella, S; Busceti, C L; Falleni, A; Lazzeri, G; Fornai, F

    2017-07-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPc) is physiologically expressed within selective brain areas of mammals. Alterations in the secondary structure of this protein lead to scrapie-like prion protein (PrPsc), which precipitates in the cell. PrPsc has been detected in infectious, inherited or sporadic neurodegenerative disorders. Prion protein metabolism is dependent on autophagy and ubiquitin proteasome. Despite not being fully elucidated, the physiological role of prion protein relates to chaperones which rescue cells under stressful conditions.Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely abused drug which produces oxidative stress in various brain areas causing mitochondrial alterations and protein misfolding. These effects produce a compensatory increase of chaperones while clogging cell clearing pathways. In the present study, we explored whether METH administration modifies the amount of PrPc. Since high levels of PrPc when the clearing systems are clogged may lead to its misfolding into PrPsc, we further tested whether METH exposure triggers the appearance of PrPsc. We analysed the effects of METH and dopamine administration in PC12 and striatal cells by using SDS-PAGE Coomassie blue, immune- histochemistry and immune-gold electron microscopy. To analyze whether METH administration produces PrPsc aggregates we used antibodies directed against PrP following exposure to proteinase K or sarkosyl which digest folded PrPc but misfolded PrPsc. We fond that METH triggers PrPsc aggregates in DA-containing cells while METH is not effective in primary striatal neurons which do not produce DA. In the latter cells exogenous DA is needed to trigger PrPsc accumulation similarly to what happens in DA containing cells under the effects of METH. The present findings, while fostering novel molecular mechanisms involving prion proteins, indicate that, cell pathology similar to prion disorders can be mimicked via a DA-dependent mechanism by a drug of abuse.

  12. TSE strain differentiation in mice by immunohistochemical PrP(Sc) profiles and triplex Western blot.

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    van Keulen, Lucien J M; Langeveld, Jan P M; Dolstra, Corry H; Jacobs, Jorg; Bossers, Alex; van Zijderveld, Fred G

    2015-10-01

    TSE strains are routinely identified by their incubation period and vacuolation profile in the brain after intracerebral inoculation and serial passaging in inbred mouse lines. There are some major drawbacks to this method that are related to the variation in vacuolation that exists in the brains of mice infected with the same TSE strain and to variation between observers and laboratories in scoring vacuolation and determining the final incubation period. We investigated the potential of PrP(Sc) immunohistochemistry and triplex Western blotting as possible alternative methods to differentiate between TSE strains. TSE reference strains ME7, 87A/87V, 22A/22C, 79A/79V and 301C/301V were intracerebrally inoculated in RIII or VM inbred mice that differ in their PrP genotype. Immunohistochemical PrP(Sc) profiles were drawn up by scanning light microscopy both on coronal and sagittal sections. On the basis of the localization of PrP(Sc) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar cortex and the overall type of PrP(Sc) staining, all TSE strains could be well differentiated from each other through their typical strain dependent characteristics. In addition, Western blot showed that the combination of glycosylation profile and 12B2 epitope content of PrP(Sc) allowed to distinguish between all reference strains except for ME7 and 22A in VM mice. TSE strains in mice can be identified on the basis of their PrP(Sc) profile alone. The potential to identify TSE strains in ruminants with these PrP(Sc) profiles after a single primary passage in mice will be the topic of future studies. © 2014 British Neuropathological Society.

  13. Accumulation of pathological prion protein PrPSc in the skin of animals with experimental and natural scrapie.

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    Achim Thomzig

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Prion infectivity and its molecular marker, the pathological prion protein PrP(Sc, accumulate in the central nervous system and often also in lymphoid tissue of animals or humans affected by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Recently, PrP(Sc was found in tissues previously considered not to be invaded by prions (e.g., skeletal muscles. Here, we address the question of whether prions target the skin and show widespread PrP(Sc deposition in this organ in hamsters perorally or parenterally challenged with scrapie. In hamsters fed with scrapie, PrP(Sc was detected before the onset of symptoms, but the bulk of skin-associated PrP(Sc accumulated in the clinical phase. PrP(Sc was localized in nerve fibres within the skin but not in keratinocytes, and the deposition of PrP(Sc in skin showed no dependence from the route of infection and lymphotropic dissemination. The data indicated a neurally mediated centrifugal spread of prions to the skin. Furthermore, in a follow-up study, we examined sheep naturally infected with scrapie and detected PrP(Sc by Western blotting in skin samples from two out of five animals. Our findings point to the skin as a potential reservoir of prions, which should be further investigated in relation to disease transmission.

  14. How do PrPSc Prions Spread between Host Species, and within Hosts?

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    Neil A. Mabbott

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are sub-acute neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and some domestic and free-ranging animals. Infectious prion agents are considered to comprise solely of abnormally folded isoforms of the cellular prion protein known as PrPSc. Pathology during prion disease is restricted to the central nervous system where it causes extensive neurodegeneration and ultimately leads to the death of the host. The first half of this review provides a thorough account of our understanding of the various ways in which PrPSc prions may spread between individuals within a population, both horizontally and vertically. Many natural prion diseases are acquired peripherally, such as by oral exposure, lesions to skin or mucous membranes, and possibly also via the nasal cavity. Following peripheral exposure, some prions accumulate to high levels within the secondary lymphoid organs as they make their journey from the site of infection to the brain, a process termed neuroinvasion. The replication of PrPSc prions within secondary lymphoid organs is important for their efficient spread to the brain. The second half of this review describes the key tissues, cells and molecules which are involved in the propagation of PrPSc prions from peripheral sites of exposure (such as the lumen of the intestine to the brain. This section also considers how additional factors such as inflammation and aging might influence prion disease susceptibility.

  15. L-Arginine ethylester enhances in vitro amplification of PrP(Sc) in macaques with atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy and enables presymptomatic detection of PrP(Sc) in the bodily fluids.

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    Murayama, Y; Ono, F; Shimozaki, N; Shibata, H

    2016-02-12

    Protease-resistant, misfolded isoforms (PrP(Sc)) of a normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) in the bodily fluids, including blood, urine, and saliva, are expected to be useful diagnostic markers of prion diseases, and nonhuman primate models are suited for performing valid diagnostic tests for human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). We developed an effective amplification method for PrP(Sc) derived from macaques infected with the atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-BSE) prion by using mouse brain homogenate as a substrate in the presence of polyanions and L-arginine ethylester. This method was highly sensitive and detected PrP(Sc) in infected brain homogenate diluted up to 10(10) by sequential amplification. This method in combination with PrP(Sc) precipitation by sodium phosphotungstic acid is capable of amplifying very small amounts of PrP(Sc) contained in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), saliva, urine, and plasma of macaques that have been intracerebrally inoculated with the L-BSE prion. Furthermore, PrP(Sc) was detectable in the saliva or urine samples as well as CSF samples obtained at the preclinical phases of the disease. Thus, our novel method may be useful for furthering the understanding of bodily fluid leakage of PrP(Sc) in nonhuman primate models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. PrP expression, PrPSc accumulation and innervation of splenic compartments in sheep experimentally infected with scrapie.

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    Randi Sørby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In prion disease, the peripheral expression of PrP(C is necessary for the transfer of infectivity to the central nervous system. The spleen is involved in neuroinvasion and neural dissemination in prion diseases but the nature of this involvement is not known. The present study undertook the investigation of the spatial relationship between sites of PrP(Sc accumulation, localisation of nerve fibres and PrP(C expression in the tissue compartments of the spleen of scrapie-inoculated and control sheep. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Laser microdissection and quantitative PCR were used to determine PrP mRNA levels and results were compared with immunohistochemical protocols to distinguish PrP(C and PrP(Sc in tissue compartments of the spleen. In sheep experimentally infected with scrapie, the major sites of accumulation of PrP(Sc in the spleen, namely the lymphoid nodules and the marginal zone, expressed low levels of PrP mRNA. Double immunohistochemical labelling for PrP(Sc and the pan-nerve fibre marker, PGP, was used to evaluate the density of innervation of splenic tissue compartments and the intimacy of association between PrP(Sc and nerves. Some nerve fibres were observed to accompany blood vessels into the PrP(Sc-laden germinal centres. However, the close association between nerves and PrP(Sc was most apparent in the marginal zone. Other sites of close association were adjacent to the wall of the central artery of PALS and the outer rim of germinal centres. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings suggest that the degree of PrP(Sc accumulation does not depend on the expression level of PrP(C. Though several splenic compartments may contribute to neuroinvasion, the marginal zone may play a central role in being the compartment with most apparent association between nerves and PrP(Sc.

  17. Short-term study of the uptake of PrPSc by the Peyer’s patches in hamsters after oral exposure to scrapie

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    Bergström, Ann-Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2006-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) has been detected in the ileal Peyer's patches of lambs as early as one week after oral exposure to scrapie. In hamsters, the earliest reported time of PrPSc detection in the Peyer's patches after oral exposure to scrapie is 69 days post-infection. To ......The disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) has been detected in the ileal Peyer's patches of lambs as early as one week after oral exposure to scrapie. In hamsters, the earliest reported time of PrPSc detection in the Peyer's patches after oral exposure to scrapie is 69 days post...

  18. Mechanistic prospective for human PrPC conversion to PrPSc: Molecular dynamic insights

    OpenAIRE

    Nooshin Azari; Mohammad Reza Dayer; Nematollah Razmi; Mohammad Saaid Dayer

    2013-01-01

    PrPC conversion to PrPSc isoform is the main known cause for prion diseases including Crutzfeldt-Jakob, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Sheinker syndrome and fatal familial insomnia in human. The precise mechanism underling this conversion is yet to be well understood. In the present work, using the coordinate file of PrPC (available on the Protein Data Bank) as a starting structure, separate molecular dynamic simulations were carried out at neutral and acidic pH in an explicit water box at 37°C and 1 ...

  19. Temporal resolution of PrPSc transport, PrPSc accumulation, activation of glia and neuronal death in retinas from C57Bl/6 mice inoculated with RML scrapie: Relevance to biomarkers of prion disease progression

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    Currently, there is a lack of pathologic landmarks to objectively evaluate the progression of prion disease in vivo. The goal of this work was to determine the temporal relationship between transport of misfolded prion protein to the retina from the brain, accumulation of PrPSc in the retina, the re...

  20. Co-existence of Distinct Prion Types Enables Conformational Evolution of Human PrPSc by Competitive Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haldiman, T.; Kim, C.; Cohen, Y.; Chen, W.; Blevins, J.; Qing, L.; Cohen, M.L.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Telling, G.C.; Kong, Q.; Safar, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The unique phenotypic characteristics of mammalian prions are thought to be encoded in the conformation of pathogenic prion proteins (PrPSc). The molecular mechanism responsible for the adaptation, mutation, and evolution of prions observed in cloned cells and upon crossing the species barrier

  1. Detection of PrP(Sc) in peripheral tissues of clinically affected cattle after oral challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy

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    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative prion disease that affects cattle and can be transmitted to human beings as new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). A protease-resistant, disease-associated isoform of the prion protein (PrP**Sc) accumulates in the central ner...

  2. Known knowns, known unknowns and unknown unknowns in prokaryotic transposition.

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    Siguier, Patricia; Gourbeyre, Edith; Chandler, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Although the phenomenon of transposition has been known for over 60 years, its overarching importance in modifying and streamlining genomes took some time to recognize. In spite of a robust understanding of transposition of some TE, there remain a number of important TE groups with potential high genome impact and unknown transposition mechanisms and yet others, only recently identified by bioinformatics, yet to be formally confirmed as mobile. Here, we point to some areas of limited understanding concerning well established important TE groups with DDE Tpases, to address central gaps in our knowledge of characterised Tn with other types of Tpases and finally, to highlight new potentially mobile DNA species. It is not exhaustive. Examples have been chosen to provide encouragement in the continued exploration of the considerable prokaryotic mobilome especially in light of the current threat to public health posed by the spread of multiple Ab R . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Designing towards the unknown

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    Wilde, Danielle; Underwood, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    the research potential to far-ranging possibilities. In this article we unpack the motivations driving the PKI project. We present our mixed-methodology, which entangles textile crafts, design interactions and materiality to shape an embodied enquiry. Our research outcomes are procedural and methodological......New materials with new capabilities demand new ways of approaching design. Destabilising existing methods is crucial to develop new methods. Yet, radical destabilisation—where outcomes remain unknown long enough that new discoveries become possible—is not easy in technology design where complex......, to design towards unknown outcomes, using unknown materials. The impossibility of this task is proving as useful as it is disruptive. At its most potent, it is destabilising expectations, aesthetics and processes. Keeping the researchers, collaborators and participants in a state of unknowing, is opening...

  4. Detection and Localization of PrPSc in the Skeletal Muscle of Patients with Variant, Iatrogenic, and Sporadic Forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

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    Peden, Alexander H.; Ritchie, Diane L.; Head, Mark W.; Ironside, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) differs from other human prion diseases in that the pathogenic prion protein PrPSc can be detected to a greater extent at extraneuronal sites throughout the body, principally within lymphoid tissues. However, a recent study using a high-sensitivity Western blotting technique revealed low levels of PrPSc in skeletal muscle from a quarter of Swiss patients with sporadic CJD (sCJD). This posed the question of whether PrPSc in muscle could also be detected in vCJD, sCJD, and iatrogenic (iCJD) patients from other populations. Therefore, we have used the same high-sensitivity Western blotting technique, in combination with paraffin-embedded tissue blotting, to screen for PrPSc in muscle tissue specimens taken at autopsy from 49 CJD patients in the United Kingdom. These techniques identified muscle PrPSc in 8 of 17 vCJD, 7 of 26 sCJD, and 2 of 5 iCJD patients. Paraffin-embedded tissue blotting analysis showed PrPSc in skeletal muscle in localized anatomical structures that had the morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of nerve fibers. The detection of PrPSc in muscle tissue from all forms of CJD indicates the possible presence of infectivity in these tissues, suggesting important implications for assessing the potential risk of iatrogenic spread via contaminated surgical instruments. PMID:16507908

  5. Polo-like kinase 3 (PLK3) mediates the clearance of the accumulated PrP mutants transiently expressed in cultured cells and pathogenic PrP(Sc) in prion infected cell line via protein interaction.

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    Wang, Hui; Tian, Chan; Fan, Xue-Yu; Chen, Li-Na; Lv, Yan; Sun, Jing; Zhao, Yang-Jing; Zhang, Lu-bin; Wang, Jing; Shi, Qi; Gao, Chen; Chen, Cao; Shao, Qi-Xiang; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2015-05-01

    Polo-like kinases (PLKs) family has long been known to be critical for cell cycle and recent studies have pointed to new dimensions of PLKs function in the nervous system. Our previous study has verified that the levels of PLK3 in the brain are severely downregulated in prion-related diseases. However, the associations of PLKs with prion protein remain unclear. In the present study, we confirmed that PrP protein constitutively interacts with PLK3 as determined by both in vitro and in vivo assays. Both the kinase domain and polo-box domain of PLK3 were proved to bind PrP proteins expressed in mammalian cell lines. Overexpression of PLK3 did not affect the level of wild-type PrP, but significantly decreased the levels of the mutated PrPs in cultured cells. The kinase domain appeared to be responsible for the clearance of abnormally aggregated PrPs, but this function seemed to be independent of its kinase activity. RNA-mediated knockdown of PLK3 obviously aggravated the accumulation of cytosolic PrPs. Moreover, PLK3 overexpression in a scrapie infected cell line caused notable reduce of PrP(Sc) level in a dose-dependent manner, but had minimal effect on the expression of PrP(C) in its normal partner cell line. Our findings here confirmed the molecular interaction between PLK3 and PrP and outlined the regulatory activity of PLK3 on the degradation of abnormal PrPs, even its pathogenic isoform PrP(Sc). We, therefore, assume that the recovery of PLK3 in the early stage of prion infection may be helpful to prevent the toxic accumulation of PrP(Sc) in the brain tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The architecture of PrPSc: Threading secondary structure elements into the 4-rung ß-solenoid scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: We propose to exploit the wealth of theoretical and experimental constraints to develop a structure of the infectious prion (hamster PrP27-30). Recent cryo-EM based evidence has determined that PrPSc is a 4-rung ß-solenoid (Vázquez-Fernández et al. 2016, PLoS Pathog. 12(9): e1005835). This ev...

  7. Immunohistochemical study of PrPSc distribution in neural and extraneural tissues of two cats with feline spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wunderlin Sabina S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two domestic shorthair cats presenting with progressive hind-limb ataxia and increased aggressiveness were necropsied and a post mortem diagnosis of Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy (FSE was made. A wide spectrum of tissue samples was collected and evaluated histologically and immunohistologically for the presence of PrPSc. Results Histopathological examination revealed a diffuse vacuolation of the grey matter neuropil with the following areas being most severely affected: corpus geniculatum medialis, thalamus, gyrus dentatus of the hippocampus, corpus striatum, and deep layers of the cerebral and cerebellar cortex as well as in the brain stem. In addition, a diffuse glial reaction involving astrocytes and microglia and intraneuronal vacuolation in a few neurons in the brain stem was present. Heavy PrPSc immunostaining was detected in brain, retina, optic nerve, pars nervosa of the pituitary gland, trigeminal ganglia and small amounts in the myenteric plexus of the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and slightly in the medulla of the adrenal gland. Conclusion The PrPSc distribution within the brain was consistent with that described in other FSE-affected cats. The pattern of abnormal PrP in the retina corresponded to that found in a captive cheetah with FSE, in sheep with scrapie and was similar to nvCJD in humans.

  8. A new method for the characterization of strain-specific conformational stability of protease-sensitive and protease-resistant PrPSc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pirisinu

    Full Text Available Although proteinacious in nature, prions exist as strains with specific self-perpetuating biological properties. Prion strains are thought to be associated with different conformers of PrP(Sc, a disease-associated isoform of the host-encoded cellular protein (PrP(C. Molecular strain typing approaches have been developed which rely on the characterization of protease-resistant PrP(Sc. However, PrP(Sc is composed not only of protease-resistant but also of protease-sensitive isoforms. The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for the molecular characterization of both, protease-resistant and protease-sensitive PrP(Sc aggregates. We first set up experimental conditions which allowed the most advantageous separation of PrP(C and PrP(Sc by means of differential centrifugation. The conformational solubility and stability assay (CSSA was then developed by measuring PrP(Sc solubility as a function of increased exposure to GdnHCl. Brain homogenates from voles infected with human and sheep prion isolates were analysed by CSSA and showed strain-specific conformational stabilities, with mean [GdnHCl](1/2 values ranging from 1.6 M for MM2 sCJD to 2.1 for scrapie and to 2.8 M for MM1/MV1 sCJD and E200K gCJD. Interestingly, the rank order of [GdnHCl](1/2 values observed in the human and sheep isolates used as inocula closely matched those found following transmission in voles, being MM1 sCJD the most resistant (3.3 M, followed by sheep scrapie (2.2 M and by MM2 sCJD (1.6 M. In order to test the ability of CSSA to characterise protease-sensitive PrP(Sc, we analysed sheep isolates of Nor98 and compared them to classical scrapie isolates. In Nor98, insoluble PrP(Sc aggregates were mainly protease-sensitive and showed a conformational stability much lower than in classical scrapie. Our results show that CSSA is able to reveal strain-specified PrP(Sc conformational stabilities of protease-resistant and protease-sensitive PrP(Sc and that it is a valuable tool

  9. Fever of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaki, Takashi; Matsui, Akira; Tanaka, Fumiko; Okuno, Yoshishige; Mitsumori, Michihide; Torizuka, Tatsurou; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Shimbo, Shin-ichirou

    1990-01-01

    Gallium-67 scintigraphy is a commonly performed imaging modality in deteting pyrogenic lesions in cases of long-standing inexplainable fever. To re-evaluate the significance of gallium imaging in such cases, a retrospective review was made of 56 scans performed in febrile patients in whom sufficient clinical and laboratory findings were obtained. Gallium scans were true positive in 30 patients, false positive in 3, true negative in 19, and false negative in 4. In the group of true positive, local inflammatory lesions were detected in 23 patients with a final diagnosis of lung tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, and inflammatory joint disease. Abnormal gallium accumulation, as shown in the other 7 patients, provided clues to the diagnosis of generalized disorders, such as hematological malignancies (n=3), systemic autoimmune diseases (n=3), and severe infectious mononucleosis (n=one). In the group of false positive, gallium imaging revealed intestinal excretion of gallium in 2 patients and physiological pulmonary hilar accumulation in one. In the true negative group of 19 patients, fever of unknown origin was resolved spontaneously in 12 patients, and with antibiotics and corticosteroids in 2 and 5 patients, respectively. Four patients having false negative scans were finally diagnosed as having urinary tract infection (n=2), bacterial meningitis (n=one), and polyarteritis (n=one). Gallium imaging would remain the technique of choice in searching for origin of unknown fever. It may also be useful for early diagnosis of systemic disease, as well as focal inflammation. (N.K.)

  10. Proteasome inhibitors promote the sequestration of PrPSc into aggresomes within the cytosol of prion-infected CAD neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Michel; Dandoy-Dron, Françoise; Farooq Salamat, Muhammad Khalid; Laude, Hubert

    2009-08-01

    Dysfunction of the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation/proteasome system is believed to contribute to the initiation or aggravation of neurodegenerative disorders associated with protein misfolding, and there is some evidence to suggest that proteasome dysfunctions might be implicated in prion disease. This study investigated the effect of proteasome inhibitors on the biogenesis of both the cellular (PrP(C)) and abnormal (PrP(Sc)) forms of prion protein in CAD neuronal cells, a newly introduced prion cell system. In uninfected cells, proteasome impairment altered the intracellular distribution of PrP(C), leading to a strong accumulation in the Golgi apparatus. Moreover, a detergent-insoluble and weakly protease-resistant PrP species of 26 kDa, termed PrP(26K), accumulated in the cells, whether they were prion-infected or not. However, no evidence was found that, in infected cells, this PrP(26K) species converts into the highly proteinase K-resistant PrP(Sc). In the infected cultures, proteasome inhibition caused an increased intracellular aggregation of PrP(Sc) that was deposited into large aggresomes. These findings strengthen the view that, in neuronal cells expressing wild-type PrP(C) from the natural promoter, proteasomal impairment may affect both the process of PrP(C) biosynthesis and the subcellular sites of PrP(Sc) accumulation, despite the fact that these two effects could essentially be disconnected.

  11. Incidence and spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease variants with mixed phenotype and co-occurrence of PrPSc types: an updated classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parchi, P.; Strammiello, R.; Notari, S.; Giese, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Ladogana, A.; Zerr, I.; Roncaroli, F.; Cras, P.; Ghetti, B.; Pocchiari, M.; Kretzschmar, H.; Capellari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Six subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with distinctive clinico-pathological features have been identified largely based on two types of the abnormal prion protein, PrPSc, and the methionine (M)/valine (V) polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein. The existence of affected subjects

  12. PrPc Does Not Mediate Internalization of PrPSc but Is Required at an Early Stage for De Novo Prion Infection of Rov Cells▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Sophie; Daude, Nathalie; Courageot, Marie-Pierre; Chapuis, Jérôme; Laude, Hubert; Vilette, Didier

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the interactions of exogenous prions with an epithelial cell line inducibly expressing PrPc protein and permissive to infection by a sheep scrapie agent. We demonstrate that abnormal PrP (PrPSc) and prion infectivity are efficiently internalized in Rov cells, whether or not PrPc is expressed. At odds with earlier studies implicating cellular heparan sulfates in PrPSc internalization, we failed to find any involvement of such molecules in Rov cells, indicating that prions can enter target cells by several routes. We further show that PrPSc taken up in the absence of PrPc was unable to promote efficient prion multiplication once PrPc expression was restored in the cells. This observation argues that interaction of PrPSc with PrPc has to occur early, in a specific subcellular compartment(s), and is consistent with the view that the first prion multiplication events may occur at the cell surface. PMID:17626095

  13. Prion seeding activities of mouse scrapie strains with divergent PrPSc protease sensitivities and amyloid plaque content using RT-QuIC and eQuIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Vascellari

    Full Text Available Different transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE-associated forms of prion protein (e.g. PrP(Sc can vary markedly in ultrastructure and biochemical characteristics, but each is propagated in the host. PrP(Sc propagation involves conversion from its normal isoform, PrP(C, by a seeded or templated polymerization mechanism. Such a mechanism is also the basis of the RT-QuIC and eQuIC prion assays which use recombinant PrP (rPrP(Sen as a substrate. These ultrasensitive detection assays have been developed for TSE prions of several host species and sample tissues, but not for murine models which are central to TSE pathogenesis research. Here we have adapted RT-QuIC and eQuIC to various murine prions and evaluated how seeding activity depends on glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI anchoring and the abundance of amyloid plaques and protease-resistant PrP(Sc (PrP(Res. Scrapie brain dilutions up to 10(-8 and 10(-13 were detected by RT-QuIC and eQuIC, respectively. Comparisons of scrapie-affected wild-type mice and transgenic mice expressing GPI anchorless PrP showed that, although similar concentrations of seeding activity accumulated in brain, the heavily amyloid-laden anchorless mouse tissue seeded more rapid reactions. Next we compared seeding activities in the brains of mice with similar infectivity titers, but widely divergent PrP(Res levels. For this purpose we compared the 263K and 139A scrapie strains in transgenic mice expressing P101L PrP(C. Although the brains of 263K-affected mice had little immunoblot-detectable PrP(Res, RT-QuIC indicated that seeding activity was comparable to that associated with a high-PrP(Res strain, 139A. Thus, in this comparison, RT-QuIC seeding activity correlated more closely with infectivity than with PrP(Res levels. We also found that eQuIC, which incorporates a PrP(Sc immunoprecipitation step, detected seeding activity in plasma from wild-type and anchorless PrP transgenic mice inoculated with 22L, 79A and/or RML

  14. [Badminton--unknown sport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekan-Petrinović, Lidija

    2007-01-01

    For a long time, badminton was considered to be only a slow and light game for children, a game that is played outdoors and is structurally undemanding.Today, it is not an unknown and unrecognised sport, especially after it was included into the Olympics Games in 1992. Badminton is one of the oldest sports in the world. It is suitable for all ages (for children and elderly equally), women and men and even handicapped persons. Beginners can start playing badminton matches early because the basics are learned quickly. As a recreational activity, badminton is very popular in Zagreb. In the last 10 years, a number of halls specialized for badminton or offering badminton as one of available sports activities have been opened in Zagreb. At present, there are over 70 professional playgrounds for training of top contestants but also for the citizens who can play recreational badminton.

  15. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  16. Intraabdominal abscessus of unknown etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intraabdominal abscesses are in 98-99% cases the result of secondary and only in 1-2% of primary peritonitis. They are easy and successfully diagnosed. Abdominal abscesses of unknown cause are extremely rare. Case Outline. The authors present a 68-year-old man, without significant data in past history, who suddenly developed epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting and leukocytosis which was treated with antibiotics resulting in the alleviation of complaints and reduction of white blood cells count. After five days ultrasonography showed incapsulated collection of dense fluid in the epigastrium confirmed by CT scan two days later. Upper endoscopy excluded ulcer and/or perforation of the stomach and duodenum. Under local anesthesia, through the upper part of the left rectal muscle, puncture followed by incision was done, and about 50 ml of dense pus was removed. Finger exploration of the cavity showed no foreign body within the cavity. Using drainage, the recovery was quick and uneventful. By preoperative and postoperative abdominal investigations no cause of the abscess was found. Two and a half years after surgery the patient remained symptom-free with normal clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings. Conclusion. The authors presented an intraabdominal abscess of unknown cause that was successfully treated with antibiotics, percutaneous puncture and drainage under local anaesthesia. In spite of all diagnostic methods the cause of the abscess could not be found. Thus, such a possibility, although being rare, should be taken into account.

  17. [Focal myositis: An unknown disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, L; Streichenberger, N; Benveniste, O; Allenbach, Y

    2017-10-01

    Focal myositis are inflammatory muscle diseases of unknown origin. At the opposite from the other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, they are restricted to a single muscle or to a muscle group. They are not associated with extramuscular manifestations, and they have a good prognosis without any treatment. They are characterized by a localized swelling affecting mostly lower limbs. The pseudo-tumor can be painful, but is not associated with a muscle weakness. Creatine kinase level is normal. Muscle MRI shows an inflammation restricted to a muscle or a muscle group. Muscle biopsy and pathological analysis remain necessary for the diagnosis, showing inflammatory infiltrates composed by macrophages and lymphocytes without any specific distribution within the muscle. Focal overexpression of HLA-1 by the muscle fibers is frequently observed. The muscle biopsy permits to rule out differential diagnosis such a malignancy (sarcoma). Spontaneous remission occurs within weeks or months after the first symptoms, relapse is unusual. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. Subcritical Water Hydrolysis Effectively Reduces the In Vitro Seeding Activity of PrPSc but Fails to Inactivate the Infectivity of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Murayama

    Full Text Available The global outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE has been attributed to the recycling of contaminated meat and bone meals (MBMs as feed supplements. The use of MBMs has been prohibited in many countries; however, the development of a method for inactivating BSE prions could enable the efficient and safe use of these products as an organic resource. Subcritical water (SCW, which is water heated under pressure to maintain a liquid state at temperatures below the critical temperature (374°C, exhibits strong hydrolytic activity against organic compounds. In this study, we examined the residual in vitro seeding activity of protease-resistant prion protein (PrPSc and the infectivity of BSE prions after SCW treatments. Spinal cord homogenates prepared from BSE-infected cows were treated with SCW at 230-280°C for 5-7.5 min and used to intracerebrally inoculate transgenic mice overexpressing bovine prion protein. Serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA analysis detected no PrPSc in the SCW-treated homogenates, and the mice treated with these samples survived for more than 700 days without any signs of disease. However, sPMCA analyses detected PrPSc accumulation in the brains of all inoculated mice. Furthermore, secondary passage mice, which inoculated with brain homogenates derived from a western blotting (WB-positive primary passage mouse, died after an average of 240 days, similar to mice inoculated with untreated BSE-infected spinal cord homogenates. The PrPSc accumulation and vacuolation typically observed in the brains of BSE-infected mice were confirmed in these secondary passage mice, suggesting that the BSE prions maintained their infectivity after SCW treatment. One late-onset case, as well as asymptomatic but sPMCA-positive cases, were also recognized in secondary passage mice inoculated with brain homogenates from WB-negative but sPMCA-positive primary passage mice. These results indicated that SCW

  19. Prions amplify through degradation of the VPS10P sorting receptor sortilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Keiji; Tomita, Mitsuru; Yano, Masashi; Chida, Junji; Hara, Hideyuki; Das, Nandita Rani; Nykjaer, Anders; Sakaguchi, Suehiro

    2017-06-01

    Prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by prions, which consist mainly of the abnormally folded isoform of prion protein, PrPSc. A pivotal pathogenic event in prion disease is progressive accumulation of prions, or PrPSc, in brains through constitutive conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein, PrPC, into PrPSc. However, the cellular mechanism by which PrPSc is progressively accumulated in prion-infected neurons remains unknown. Here, we show that PrPSc is progressively accumulated in prion-infected cells through degradation of the VPS10P sorting receptor sortilin. We first show that sortilin interacts with PrPC and PrPSc and sorts them to lysosomes for degradation. Consistently, sortilin-knockdown increased PrPSc accumulation in prion-infected cells. In contrast, overexpression of sortilin reduced PrPSc accumulation in prion-infected cells. These results indicate that sortilin negatively regulates PrPSc accumulation in prion-infected cells. The negative role of sortilin in PrPSc accumulation was further confirmed in sortilin-knockout mice infected with prions. The infected mice had accelerated prion disease with early accumulation of PrPSc in their brains. Interestingly, sortilin was reduced in prion-infected cells and mouse brains. Treatment of prion-infected cells with lysosomal inhibitors, but not proteasomal inhibitors, increased the levels of sortilin. Moreover, sortilin was reduced following PrPSc becoming detectable in cells after infection with prions. These results indicate that PrPSc accumulation stimulates sortilin degradation in lysosomes. Taken together, these results show that PrPSc accumulation of itself could impair the sortilin-mediated sorting of PrPC and PrPSc to lysosomes for degradation by stimulating lysosomal degradation of sortilin, eventually leading to progressive accumulation of PrPSc in prion-infected cells.

  20. Recension: Mao - The Unknown Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Anmeldelse - kritisk! - til Sveriges førende Kinatidsskrift af Jung Chang & Jon Halliday's sensationelle "Mao - the Unknown Story".......Anmeldelse - kritisk! - til Sveriges førende Kinatidsskrift af Jung Chang & Jon Halliday's sensationelle "Mao - the Unknown Story"....

  1. Quantum circuits cannot control unknown operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, Mateus; Feix, Adrien; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Časlav

    2014-01-01

    One of the essential building blocks of classical computer programs is the ‘if’ clause, which executes a subroutine depending on the value of a control variable. Similarly, several quantum algorithms rely on applying a unitary operation conditioned on the state of a control system. Here we show that this control cannot be performed by a quantum circuit if the unitary is completely unknown. The task remains impossible even if we allow the control to be done modulo a global phase. However, this no-go theorem does not prevent implementing quantum control of unknown unitaries in practice, as any physical implementation of an unknown unitary provides additional information that makes the control possible. We then argue that one should extend the quantum circuit formalism to capture this possibility in a straightforward way. This is done by allowing unknown unitaries to be applied to subspaces and not only to subsystems. (paper)

  2. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  3. It Remains Unknown Whether Filaggrin Gene Mutations Evolved to Increase Cutaneous Synthesis of Vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Elias, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    encountered in Northern Europeans. Importantly, FLG mutation carriers have 10% increased serum vitamin D concentrations compared to controls. Based on these observations, we have proposed that this latitude-dependent gradient of FLG mutations across Europe, Asia and Africa could have provided an evolutionary...... would have provided an evolutionary advantage for modern humans, living in the far North of Europe, where little UV-B penetrates the atomosphere. In a recent article, it was concluded not only that the UVB-Vitamin D3 hypothesis is invalid, but also that FLG genetic variations, including loss...

  4. Prion protein gene variability in Spanish goats. Inference through susceptibility to classical scrapie strains and pathogenic distribution of peripheral PrP(sc..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Acín

    Full Text Available Classical scrapie is a neurological disorder of the central nervous system (CNS characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal, partially protease resistant prion protein (PrP(sc in the CNS and in some peripheral tissues in domestic small ruminants. Whereas the pathological changes and genetic susceptibility of ovine scrapie are well known, caprine scrapie has been less well studied. We report here a pathological study of 13 scrapie-affected goats diagnosed in Spain during the last 9 years. We used immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques to discriminate between classical and atypical scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. All the animals displayed PrP(sc distribution patterns and western blot characteristics compatible with classical scrapie. In addition, we determined the complete open reading frame sequence of the PRNP in these scrapie-affected animals. The polymorphisms observed were compared with those of the herd mates (n = 665 and with the frequencies of healthy herds (n = 581 of native Spanish goats (Retinta, Pirenaica and Moncaina and other worldwide breeds reared in Spain (Saanen, Alpine and crossbreed. In total, sixteen polymorphic sites were identified, including the known amino acid substitutions at codons G37V, G127S, M137I, I142M, H143R, R151H, R154H, R211Q, Q222K, G232W, and P240S, and new polymorphisms at codons G74D, M112T, R139S, L141F and Q215R. In addition, the known 42, 138 and 179 silent mutations were detected, and one new one is reported at codon 122. The genetic differences observed in the population studied have been attributed to breed and most of the novel polymorphic codons show frequencies lower than 5%. This work provides the first basis of polymorphic distribution of PRNP in native and worldwide goat breeds reared in Spain.

  5. Unknown foundation determination for scour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Unknown foundations affect about 9,000 bridges in Texas. For bridges over rivers, this creates a problem : regarding scour decisions as the calculated scour depth cannot be compared to the foundation depth, and a : very conservative costly approach m...

  6. Allocating monitoring effort in the face of unknown unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintle, B.A.; Runge, M.C.; Bekessy, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing view that to make efficient use of resources, ecological monitoring should be hypothesis-driven and targeted to address specific management questions. 'Targeted' monitoring has been contrasted with other approaches in which a range of quantities are monitored in case they exhibit an alarming trend or provide ad hoc ecological insights. The second form of monitoring, described as surveillance, has been criticized because it does not usually aim to discern between competing hypotheses, and its benefits are harder to identify a priori. The alternative view is that the existence of surveillance data may enable rapid corroboration of emerging hypotheses or help to detect important 'unknown unknowns' that, if undetected, could lead to catastrophic outcomes or missed opportunities. We derive a model to evaluate and compare the efficiency of investments in surveillance and targeted monitoring. We find that a decision to invest in surveillance monitoring may be defensible if: (1) the surveillance design is more likely to discover or corroborate previously unknown phenomena than a targeted design and (2) the expected benefits (or avoided costs) arising from discovery are substantially higher than those arising from a well-planned targeted design. Our examination highlights the importance of being explicit about the objectives, costs and expected benefits of monitoring in a decision analytic framework. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  7. Function analysis of unknown genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.

    2002-01-01

      This thesis entitled "Function analysis of unknown genes" presents the use of proteome analysis for the characterisation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) genes and their products (proteins especially those of unknown function). This study illustrates that proteome analysis can be used...... to describe different aspects of molecular biology of the cell, to study changes that occur in the cell due to overexpression or deletion of a gene and to identify various protein modifications. The biological questions and the results of the described studies show the diversity of the information that can...... genes and proteins. It reports the first global proteome database collecting 36 yeast single gene deletion mutants and selecting over 650 differences between analysed mutants and the wild type strain. The obtained results show that two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry based proteome...

  8. Financial Development and Economic Growth: Known Knowns, Known Unknowns, and Unknown Unknowns

    OpenAIRE

    Ugo Panizza

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main findings of the literature on the relationship between financial and economic development (the known knowns), points to directions for future research (the known unknowns), and then speculates on the third Rumsfeldian category. The known knowns section organizes the empirical literature on finance and growth into three strands: (i) the traditional literature which established the link between finance and growth; (ii) the new literature which qualified some of th...

  9. Carcinomatous Meningitis from Unknown Primary Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Favier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Carcinomatous meningitis (CM occurs in 3 to 8% of cancer patients. Patients present with a focal symptom, and multifocal signs are often found following neurological examination. The gold standard for diagnosis remains the demonstration of carcinomatous cells in the cerebrospinal fluid on cytopathological examination. Despite the poor prognosis, palliative treatment could improve quality of life and, in some cases, overall survival. We report on a patient who presented with vertigo, tinnitus and left-sided hearing loss followed by progressive diffuse facial nerve paralysis. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of CM. However, no primary tumor was discovered, even after multiple invasive investigations. This is the first reported case in the English-language medical literature of CM resulting from a carcinoma of unknown primary origin.

  10. PrP-C1 fragment in cattle brains reveals features of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy associated PrPsc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Fabienne; Müller, Joachim; Gray, John; Lüthi, Ramona; Dudas, Sandor; Czub, Stefanie; Seuberlich, Torsten

    2017-03-15

    Three different types of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are known and supposedly caused by distinct prion strains: the classical (C-) BSE type that was typically found during the BSE epidemic, and two relatively rare atypical BSE types, termed H-BSE and L-BSE. The three BSE types differ in the molecular phenotype of the disease associated prion protein, namely the N-terminally truncated proteinase K (PK) resistant prion protein fragment (PrP res ). In this study, we report and analyze yet another PrP res type (PrP res-2011 ), which was found in severely autolytic brain samples of two cows in the framework of disease surveillance in Switzerland in 2011. Analysis of brain tissues from these animals by PK titration and PK inhibitor assays ruled out the process of autolysis as the cause for the aberrant PrP res profile. Immunochemical characterization of the PrP fragments present in the 2011 cases by epitope mapping indicated that PrP res-2011 corresponds in its primary sequence to the physiologically occurring PrP-C1 fragment. However, high speed centrifugation, sucrose gradient assay and NaPTA precipitation revealed biochemical similarities between PrP res-2011 and the disease-associated prion protein found in BSE affected cattle in terms of detergent insolubility, PK resistance and PrP aggregation. Although it remains to be established whether PrP res-2011 is associated with a transmissible disease, our results point out the need of further research on the role the PrP-C1 aggregation and misfolding in health and disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  12. Red Assembly: the work remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Witz

    installed. What to do at this limit, at the transgressive encounter between saying yes and no to history, remains the challenge. It is the very challenge of what insistently remains.

  13. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  14. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  15. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  16. Lung Lesions During Fever of Unknown Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, Renata; Zielonka, Tadeusz M; Hadzik-Blaszczyk, Malgorzata; Wardyn, Kazimierz A; Zycinska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains one of the most difficult diagnostic challenges. The causes of FUO can be various diseases located in different organs. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and nature of pulmonary lesions during FUO. One hundred and sixty one patients with FUO participated in this prospective study. We performed a detailed comprehensive history, physical examination, and a wide spectrum of tests. The most common causes of FUO were infections (39%), autoimmune conditions (28%), and neoplasms (17%). Lung lesions were found in 30% of patients. In this group 35% were infections, 30% autoimmune diseases, and 4% cancer. Among patients with respiratory infections, there were cases of tuberculosis, atypical pneumonia, lung abscess, and bronchiectases. Autoimmune pulmonary lesions were observed during vasculitis and systemic lupus. The causes of FUO in the group of patients with lung lesions were also pulmonary embolism, sarcoidosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Chest CT played an important role in the diagnosis of the causes of FUO with pulmonary manifestations. Pulmonary lesions are a common cause of FUO. Most FUO with pulmonary lesions are recognized during infections and autoimmune diseases. An important part of diagnosing FUO is a detailed evaluation of the respiratory system.

  17. Unknown Risks: Parental Hesitation about Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, Laura L; Gutheil, Caitlin; Hootsmans, Norbert A M; Han, Paul K J

    2016-05-01

    This qualitative study of a select sample of vaccine-hesitant parents (VHPs) explores perceived and constructed personal judgments about the risks and uncertainties associated with vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) and how these subjective risk judgments influence parents' decisions about childhood vaccination. The study employed semistructured focus group interviews with 42 VHPs to elicit parents' perceptions and thought processes regarding the risks associated with vaccination and nonvaccination, the sources of these perceptions, and their approach to decision making about vaccination for their children. VHPs engage in various reasoning processes and tend to perceive risks of vaccination as greater than the risks of VPDs. At the same time, VHPs engage in other reasoning processes that lead them to perceive ambiguity in information about the harms of vaccination-citing concerns about the missing, conflicting, changing, or otherwise unreliable nature of information. VHPs' refusal of vaccination may reflect their aversion to both the risk and ambiguity they perceive to be associated with vaccination. Mitigating this vaccine hesitancy likely requires reconstructing the risks and ambiguities associated with vaccination-a challenging task that requires providing parents with meaningful evidence-based information on the known risks of vaccination versus VPDs and explicitly acknowledging the risks that remain truly unknown. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Diagnosis of the cancer of unknown primary origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurisova, S.; Poersoek, S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) is one of the ten most frequent cancers worldwide. It constitutes of 3-5% of all human malignancies. At time of diagnosis patients with CUP present with disseminated metastases without established primary origin. CUP manifests as heterogenous group of mainly epithelial cancers recognised by distinct clinico pathological entities. The diagnostic work-up includes extensive histopathology investigations and modern imaging technology. Nevertheless, the primary tumour remains undetected most of the time. (author)

  19. Multifocal, chronic osteomyelitis of unknown etiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Feltham, C.; James, M.; Nespoli, L.; Tamaela, L.; Pavia Univ.; Municipal Hospital, Nelson; Medical School, Jakarta

    1985-01-01

    Four cases of multifocal osteomyelitis of unknown origin in childhood are reported. The variable clinical and radiographic appearances of the disease are illustrated and the diagnostic difficulties in the early stages of the disease are stressed. (orig.) [de

  20. Known Unknowns in Judgment and Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how people make inferences about missing information. Whereas most prior literature focuses on how people process known information, I show that the extent to which people make inferences about missing information impacts judgments and choices. Specifically, I investigate how (1) awareness of known unknowns affects overconfidence in judgment in Chapter 1, (2) beliefs about the knowability of unknowns impacts investment strategies in Chapter 2, and (3) inferences...

  1. Mobile assistant for unknown caller identification

    OpenAIRE

    Hribernik, Andraž

    2012-01-01

    The main motivation of this diploma thesis is a development of Android application, which helps user of application to find out who is the owner of unknown phone number. Data source for finding unknown phone number are free available web sources. Through the development of prototype, data from different web sources were integrated. Result of this integration is shown in Android application. Data integration includes access to semi-structured data on web portal of Phone Directory of Slovenia, ...

  2. Designing towards the Unknown: Engaging with Material and Aesthetic Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Wilde

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New materials with new capabilities demand new ways of approaching design. Destabilising existing methods is crucial to develop new methods. Yet, radical destabilisation—where outcomes remain unknown long enough that new discoveries become possible—is not easy in technology design where complex interdisciplinary teams with time and resource constraints need to deliver concrete outcomes on schedule. The Poetic Kinaesthetic Interface project (PKI engages with this problematic directly. In PKI we use unfolding processes—informed by participatory, speculative and critical design—in emergent actions, to design towards unknown outcomes, using unknown materials. The impossibility of this task is proving as useful as it is disruptive. At its most potent, it is destabilising expectations, aesthetics and processes. Keeping the researchers, collaborators and participants in a state of unknowing, is opening the research potential to far-ranging possibilities. In this article we unpack the motivations driving the PKI project. We present our mixed-methodology, which entangles textile crafts, design interactions and materiality to shape an embodied enquiry. Our research outcomes are procedural and methodological. PKI brings together diverse human, non-human, known and unknown actors to discover where the emergent assemblages might lead. Our approach is re-invigorating—as it demands re-envisioning of—the design process.

  3. Protocol for counterfactually transporting an unknown qubit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim eSalih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, Alice and Bob. Here, by using our dual version of the chained quantum Zeno effect to achieve a counterfactual CNOT gate, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob—no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement.

  4. Multifocal chronic osteomyelitis of unknown etiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Masel, J.; Harbison, S.; Yu, J.; Royal Brisbane Children Hospital; Regional Hospital Bowral

    1983-01-01

    Five cases of chronic, inflammatory, multifocal bone lesions of unknown etiology are reported. Although bone biopsy confirmed osteomyelitis in each case in none of them were organisms found inspite of an extensive work up. Different clinical course of the disease reflects different aetiology in respective cases. These cases present changing aspects of osteomyelitis emerging since introduction of antibiotics. (orig.)

  5. Melanoma of unknown origin: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J

    2010-12-01

    The natural history of metastatic melanoma involving lymph nodes, in the absence of a known primary site (cutaneous, ocular or mucosal) has, to date, been poorly defined; and the optimal management of this rare subtype of disease is therefore unclear. Melanomas of unknown primary site (MUP) are estimated to comprise between 3.7 and 6% of all melanomas (Anbari et al. in Cancer 79:1861-1821, 1997).

  6. Autonomous Flight in Unknown Indoor Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Bachrach, Abraham Galton; He, Ruijie; Roy, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents our solution for enabling a quadrotor helicopter, equipped with a laser rangefinder sensor, to autonomously explore and map unstructured and unknown indoor environments. While these capabilities are already commodities on ground vehicles, air vehicles seeking the same performance face unique challenges. In this paper, we describe the difficulties in achieving fully autonomous helicopter flight, highlighting the differences between ground and helicopter robots that make it ...

  7. Multidimensional procurement auctions with unknown weights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Thomas

    This paper studies the consequences of holding a procurement auction when the principal chooses not to show its preferences. My paper extends the procurement auction model of Che (1993) to a situation where both the principal and the agents have private information. Thus, unknown parameters of bo...... gives rise to an analysis of a principal that can not fully commit to the outcome induced by the scoring rule. Therefore, my result apply to contract theory and it’s problems with imperfect commitment....

  8. TOURISM PROMOTION FOR UNKNOWN AREAS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotache Lacramioara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an effort to unknown areas identity affirmation, through collaborative development of advertising mix, with an emphasis on virtual platforms as admissible solution for increasing visibility. Based upon comparative effective analysis of categories of communication particularities, it is suggested a positioning strategic solution, via virtual advertising platform as unique, integrated, complex and very attractive tourism product promotion, fitted for the internal and international tourism circuit. The active promotion of the specified territorial identity will launch a brand with an impact among tourists by using marketing techniques and innovating technical means and prioritizing tourism as a principal vector of local and regional development.

  9. Metastasis to neck from unknown primary tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, B.; Bosch, A.; Caldwell, W.L.; Frias, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The records of 54 consecutive patients who were irradiated for metastatic disease in the neck from an unknown primary tumor were reviewed. The overall survival results are comparable to those of other reported series. Patients with high or posterior cervical lymph node involvement were irradiated with fields including the nasopharynx and oropharynx. Patients with high neck nodes had a better survival rate than those with low neck nodes. The size of the neck tumors and the local control after treatment also have prognostic significance. (Auth.)

  10. Bidirectional ventricular tachycardia of unknown etiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Khan, J.A.; Masood, T.; Shamsi, F.; Dero, M.H.; Khan, S.

    2013-01-01

    A 45 years old male presented to the emergency department with palpitations, headache and apprehension. His electrocardiogram revealed bidirectional ventricular tachycardia. He remained vitally stable and responded to intravenous beta-blocker. Initially digitalis toxicity was suspected but history was negative for digitalis intake. The cause remained unidentified in patient despite detailed investigations. During a short follow-up (of 6 months) he remained asymptomatic and no cause was further identified during this period. Some other unseen causes of bidirectional ventricular tachycardia need to be explored. (author)

  11. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  12. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  13. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  14. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  15. The Annuity Puzzle Remains a Puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, J.M.J.; Werker, Bas; Nijman, Theo

    We examine incomplete annuity menus and background risk as possible drivers of divergence from full annuitization. Contrary to what is often suggested in the literature, we find that full annuitization remains optimal if saving is possible after retirement. This holds irrespective of whether real or

  16. Adresse inconnue / Address unknown / Suchwiin Bulmyeong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Gruzinski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Tous les films asiatiques parlent de métissage, même ceux qui se présentent comme de vastes fresques historiques perdues dans le temps. Les emprunts aux traditions hollywoodiennes et européennes n'ont cessé d'enrichir une cinématographie aussi ancienne que celle du monde occidental. Dans Adresse inconnue (Address unknown le cinéaste coréen Kim Ki-duk explore l'expérience du métissage et le corps du métis à la frontière entre Corée du Nord et Corée du sud. Fils d'un GI américain et noir et d...

  17. Adresse inconnue / Address unknown / Suchwiin Bulmyeong

    OpenAIRE

    Serge Gruzinski

    2005-01-01

    Tous les films asiatiques parlent de métissage, même ceux qui se présentent comme de vastes fresques historiques perdues dans le temps. Les emprunts aux traditions hollywoodiennes et européennes n'ont cessé d'enrichir une cinématographie aussi ancienne que celle du monde occidental. Dans Adresse inconnue (Address unknown) le cinéaste coréen Kim Ki-duk explore l'expérience du métissage et le corps du métis à la frontière entre Corée du Nord et Corée du sud. Fils d'un GI américain et noir et d'...

  18. The Unknown Component Problem Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Tiziano; Brayton, Robert K; Mishchenko, Alan; Petrenko, Alexandre; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The Problem of the Unknown Component: Theory and Applications addresses the issue of designing a component that, combined with a known part of a system, conforms to an overall specification. The authors tackle this problem by solving abstract equations over a language. The most general solutions are studied when both synchronous and parallel composition operators are used. The abstract equations are specialized to languages associated with important classes of automata used for modeling systems. The book is a blend of theory and practice, which includes a description of a software package with applications to sequential synthesis of finite state machines. Specific topologies interconnecting the components, exact and heuristic techniques, and optimization scenarios are studied. Finally the scope is enlarged to domains like testing, supervisory control, game theory and synthesis for special omega languages. The authors present original results of the authors along with an overview of existing ones.

  19. Education Through Exploration: Evaluating the Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Mastery of the peculiar and powerful practices of science is increasingly important for the average citizen. With the rise of the Internet, most of human knowledge is at our fingertips. As content becomes a commodity, success and survival aren't about who knows the most, but who is better able to explore the unknown, actively applying and extending knowledge through critical thinking and hypothesis-driven problem-solving. This applies to the economic livelihoods of individuals and to society at large as we grapple with climate change and other science-infused challenges. Unfortunately, science is too often taught as an encyclopedic collection of settled facts to be mastered rather than as a process of exploration that embraces curiosity, inquiry, testing, and communication to reduce uncertainty about the unknown. This problem is exacerbated by the continued prevalence of teacher-centric pedagogy, which promotes learning-from-authority and passive learning. The initial wave of massively open online courses (MOOCs) generally mimic this teaching style in virtual form. It is hypothesized that emerging digital teaching technologies can help address this challenge at Internet scale in "next generation" MOOCs and flipped classroom experiences. Interactive simulations, immersive virtual field trips, gamified elements, rapid adaptive feedback, intelligent tutoring systems, and personalized pathways, should motivate and enhance learning. Through lab-like projects and tutorials, students should be able to construct knowledge from interactive experiences, modeling the authentic practice of science while mastering complex concepts. Freed from lecturing, teaching staff should be available for direct and intense student-teacher interactions. These claims are difficult to evaluate with traditional assessment instruments, but digital technologies provide powerful new ways to evaluate student learning and learn from student behaviors. We will describe ongoing experiences with such

  20. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-01-01

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  1. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  2. Fever of unknown origin (FUO): CMV infectious mononucleosis or lymphoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Chawla, Karishma

    2018-04-20

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) refers to fevers of > 101 °F that persist for > 3 weeks and remain undiagnosed after a focused inpatient or outpatient workup. FUO may be due to infectious, malignant/neoplastic, rheumatic/inflammatory, or miscellaneous disorders. The FUO category determines the focus of the diagnostic workup. In the case presented of an FUO in a young woman, there were clinical findings of both CMV infectious mononucleosis or a lymphoma, e.g., highly elevated ESR, elevated ferritin levels, and elevated ACE level, β-2 microglobulins. The indium scan showed intense splenic uptake. Lymph node biopsy, PET scan, and flow cytometry were negative for lymphoma. CMV infectious mononucleosis was the diagnosis, and she made a slow recovery.

  3. Keratosis of unknown significance and leukoplakia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sook-Bin; Grammer, Rebecca L; Lerman, Mark A

    2014-12-01

    The objectives were to (1) determine the frequency of specific diagnoses in a series of white lesions, and (2) describe the nature of keratotic lesions that are neither reactive nor dysplastic. White lesions were analyzed and diagnosed as reactive keratoses, dysplastic/malignant, or keratoses of unknown significance (KUS). Of the 1251 specimens that were evaluated, 703 met criteria for inclusion, and approximately 75% were reactive, 10% dysplastic/malignant, and 14% KUS. Excluding reactive keratoses, 43% were dysplastic/malignant and 57% were KUS. Reactive keratoses were the most common white lesions followed by lichen planus. Dysplastic/malignant lesions constituted almost 50% of all true leukoplakias. KUS constituted the remaining cases and do not show typical reactive histopathology as well as clear dysplasia. They may represent evolving or devolving reactive keratoses but may also represent the very earliest dysplasia phenotype. Clinical findings may be helpful in differentiating the two. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cancer of unknown primary origin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa De Carlo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP accounts for 2-10% of all malignancies. The apparent absence of the primary tumour, the development of early, uncommon systemic metastases and the resistance to therapy and poor prognosis are hallmarks of this heterogeneous clinical entity and are a challenge for physicians. The diagnostic workup of patients with CUP includes a large amount of histopathological examination, as well as the use of imaging techniques that often fail to identify the primary tumour. Therefore, the optimal workup and treatment for these patients remains to be determined. Molecular diagnostic tools, such as DNA microarray analysis, could help in the search for "lost" CUP origin and guide the further treatment approach. We report the case of a 66-year-old man, with mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis of carcinoma and neurological syndrome with diplopia and balance disorders, in which many exams have been performed without finding the primary tumour.

  5. The knowns and unknowns of chimpanzee culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Thibaud; Reynolds, Vernon; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Claims of culture in chimpanzees appeared soon after the launch of the first field studies in africa.1 The notion of chimpanzee ‘material cultures’ was coined,2 and this was followed by a first formal comparison, which revealed an astonishing degree of behavioural diversity between the different study communities, mainly in terms of tool use.3 Although this behavioural diversity is still undisputed, the question of chimpanzee cultures has remained controversial.4–6 The debate has less to do w...

  6. High Valence, Normal Valence and Unknown Valence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Thorbjørn Juul

    the serendipitous synthesis of the nitrido-bridged [Rh(en)3]2- [(CN)5MnNMn(CN)5]. The complex anion have previously been studied in the form of the mixed Rb4Na2-salt. In this earlier study, the nitrido-bridge was found to be asymmetrical with the axial ligands in an eclipsed formation. The complex was described...... the [Rh(en)3]2-salt is best described as Mn3.5/Mn3.5. This means that the [(CN)5MnNMn(CN)5]6􀀀 ion displays crystal packing induced oxidation state isomerism, a rare phenomenon. Chapter 4 details the synthesis and characterisation of group 9 dithiolene complexes with focus on the hitherto unknown...... homoleptic iridium dithiolene complexes. When the complexes [M(mnt)3]3􀀀, M = Rh and Co are chemically oxidized, they decompose to yield dinuclear complexes with the metal still in oxidation state III. This is not the case for the corresponding Ir complex which can be oxidized and the oxidation...

  7. The energy equation with three unknowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schifano, Fabio; Moriconi, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the alarming situation of energy in Italy as this country depends at 82 per cent on its imports (oil, natural gas and electricity), a dependence which could even increase. The authors first propose overviews of the situation regarding oil, natural gas and electric power (origins of imports, role of Italian companies, status of infrastructures), and also briefly of renewable energies. They recall the history of the use of nuclear energy: Italy has been one of the first country to use nuclear energy to produce electric power, but a referendum organised after Chernobyl resulted in phasing out nuclear. Then, the authors discuss perspectives associated with three main strategic unknowns: an increase of energy dependence with respect to hydrocarbons and to foreign nuclear power, a supply insecurity due to a dependence concentrated on a small number of countries (notably as far as natural gas is concerned), and an increasing interdependence between economic growth and sustainable development (the reduction of greenhouse emissions is a prevailing parameter for future energetic choices)

  8. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  10. Industry remains stuck in a transitional mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garb, F.A.

    1991-01-01

    The near future for industry remains foggy for several obvious reasons. The shake-up of the Soviet Union and how the pieces will reform remains unclear. How successful efforts are to privatize government oil company operations around the world has yet to be determined. A long sought peace in the Middle East seems to be inching closer, but will this continue? If it does continue, what impact will it have on world energy policy? Will American companies, which are now transferring their attention to foreign E and P, also maintain an interest in domestic activities? Is the U.S. economy really on the upswing? We are told that the worst of the recession is over, but try telling this to thousands of workers in the oil patch who are being released monthly by the big players in domestic operations. This paper reports that 1992 should be a better year than 1991, if measured in opportunity. There are more exploration and acquisition options available, both domestically and internationally, than there have been in years. Probably more opportunities exist than there are players-certainly more than can be funded with current financial resources

  11. Uric Acid: The Unknown Uremic Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-Becerra, Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    This review brings together concepts of uric acid metabolism affecting renal parenchyma and its function and the current therapies to reduce hyperuricemia (HyU) and avoid renal disease progression. High uric acid plays an important role in several chronic diseases including kidney diseases such as lithiasis, gout nephropathy, and preeclampsia. In the last 30 years, it has been shown that reducing HyU with low protein and low purine diets in addition to allopurinol creates physiopathological conditions that produce a slight increase in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In recent years, in a new era of research in clinical, genetics, pharmacological, and epidemiologic fields, they have been moving forward to support the idea that reduction in HyU could benefit the chronic renal failure (CRF) patients (stage III-IV), thereby avoiding the drop of GFR for undefined mechanisms. There are several clinical trials in progress that show the HyU reducing to very low values and an increased GFR. In a young population, when treating HyU there is a reduction in high blood pressure. There are some reports showing that HyU could play a role in the diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, there have been some speculations that HyU treatment could stop the progression of CRF modifying the natural history of the diseases. So there will be new clinical trials with old and new medication and metabolic procedure to maintain a very low blood levels in the unknown uremic toxin know as uric acid which seems to be the toxin to the damage kidney. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Adding control to arbitrary unknown quantum operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Ralph, Timothy C.; Kalasuwan, Pruet; Zhang, Mian; Peruzzo, Alberto; Lanyon, Benjamin P.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.

    2011-01-01

    Although quantum computers promise significant advantages, the complexity of quantum algorithms remains a major technological obstacle. We have developed and demonstrated an architecture-independent technique that simplifies adding control qubits to arbitrary quantum operations—a requirement in many quantum algorithms, simulations and metrology. The technique, which is independent of how the operation is done, does not require knowledge of what the operation is, and largely separates the problems of how to implement a quantum operation in the laboratory and how to add a control. Here, we demonstrate an entanglement-based version in a photonic system, realizing a range of different two-qubit gates with high fidelity. PMID:21811242

  13. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Jónsson, Hákon

    2014-01-01

    the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach...... to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial...... community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using...

  14. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed

  15. Political, energy events will remain interwoven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it is possible to discuss the significance of political and energy events separately, but, in truth, they are intricately interwoven. Furthermore, there are those who will argue that since the two are inseparable, the future is not predictable; so why bother in the endeavor. It is possible that the central point of the exercise may have been missed-yes, the future is unpredictable exclamation point However, the objective of prediction is secondary. The objective of understanding the dynamic forces of change is primary exclamation point With this view of recent history, it is perhaps appropriate to pause and think about the future of the petroleum industry. The future as shaped by political, energy, economic, environmental and technological forces will direct our lives and markets during this decade. Most importantly, what will be the direction that successful businesses take to remain competitive in a global environment? These are interesting issues worthy of provocative thoughts and innovative ideas

  16. Nuclear remains an economic and ecologic asset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The author herein outlines the several benefits of nuclear energy and nuclear industry for France. He first outlines that France possesses 97 per cent of de-carbonated electricity thanks to nuclear energy (77 pc) and renewable energies (20 pc, mainly hydraulic), and that renewable energies must be developed in the building and transport sectors to be able to get rid of the environmentally and financially costly fossil energies. He outlines that reactor maintenance and the nuclear fuel cycle industry are fields of technological leadership for the French nuclear industry which is, after motor industry and aircraft industry, the third industrial sector in France. He indicates that nuclear electricity is to remain the most competitive one, and that nuclear energy and renewable energies must not be opposed to it but considered as complementary in the struggle against climate change, i.e. to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to get rid of the prevalence of fossil energies

  17. Population cycles: generalities, exceptions and remaining mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Population cycles are one of nature's great mysteries. For almost a hundred years, innumerable studies have probed the causes of cyclic dynamics in snowshoe hares, voles and lemmings, forest Lepidoptera and grouse. Even though cyclic species have very different life histories, similarities in mechanisms related to their dynamics are apparent. In addition to high reproductive rates and density-related mortality from predators, pathogens or parasitoids, other characteristics include transgenerational reduced reproduction and dispersal with increasing-peak densities, and genetic similarity among populations. Experiments to stop cyclic dynamics and comparisons of cyclic and noncyclic populations provide some understanding but both reproduction and mortality must be considered. What determines variation in amplitude and periodicity of population outbreaks remains a mystery. PMID:29563267

  18. The knowns and unknowns of chimpanzee culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Reynolds, Vernon; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Claims of culture in chimpanzees appeared soon after the launch of the first field studies in africa.1 The notion of chimpanzee 'material cultures' was coined,2 and this was followed by a first formal comparison, which revealed an astonishing degree of behavioural diversity between the different study communities, mainly in terms of tool use.3 Although this behavioural diversity is still undisputed, the question of chimpanzee cultures has remained controversial.4-6 The debate has less to do with the definition of culture (most animal behaviour researchers accept the notion for behaviour that is 'transmitted repeatedly through social or observational learning to become a population-level characteristic' 3), but more with whether some key criteria are met.

  19. The three unknown data of climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noblet-Ducoudre, N.; Dupouey, J.L.; Levy, M.; Bopp, L.; Boucher, O.; Dahan Dalmedico, A.; Baruch, J.O.

    2007-01-01

    Even if the relation between global warming and the increase of greenhouse gases of anthropic origin in the atmosphere is now well established, several questions remain unanswered. The climate machine is so complex that the multiple actions and retroactions can hardly be modelled and the uncertainties of carbon and water cycles are numerous. This press-kit presents in five parts the complex problem of the understanding of climatic change: 1 - the ambiguous role of forests: making a status of the effects of forests on climate is a difficult task involving the biosphere, the leaf respiration, the migration of vegetable species and their reaction with respect to climate change. 2 - the turbulences in the ocean: according to measurements performed since 15 years, the ocean traps more than a quarter of anthropic carbon emissions. But, will the oceanic CO 2 pump be capable of following up the permanent increase of emissions? 3 - the double game of aerosols: some aerosols contribute to the cooling down of the Earth's surface while others influence the formation of clouds and contribute to the greenhouse effect. The role of aerosols remains a puzzling problem for climatologists. 4 - a world of uncertainties: according to the last estimates of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change, the average world temperature should rise from 1.1 to 6.4 deg. C from now to the end of the century. This wide range reflects the uncertainties in the modelling of the Earth system. 5 - the necessary blend of economics and climate or the impact of climate models and of their uncertainties on political-economical decisions and on international negotiations. (J.S.)

  20. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  1. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  2. What remains of the Arrow oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergy, G.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    In February 1970, the tanker Arrow became grounded 6.5 km off the north shore of Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia, and nearly 72,000 bbl of Bunker C fuel oil were released from the vessel during its subsequent breakup and sinking. The oil was washed ashore in various degrees over an estimated 305 km of the bay's 604-km shoreline, of which only 48 km were cleaned. In addition, the tanker Kurdistan broke in two in pack ice in March 1979 in the Cabot Strait area, spilling ca 54,000 bbl of Bunker C, some of which was later found at 16 locations along the northeast and east shorelines of Chedabucto Bay. In summer 1992, a systematic ground survey of the bay's shorelines was conducted using Environment Canada Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) procedures. Standard observations were made of oil distribution and width, thickness, and character of the oil residues in 419 coastal segments. Results from the survey are summarized. Oil was found to be present on 13.3 km of the shoreline, with heavy oiling restricted to 1.3 km primarily in the areas of Black Duck Cove and Lennox Passage. Some of this residual oil was identified as coming from the Arrow. Natural weathering processes account for removal of most of the spilled oil from the bay. Oil remaining on the shore was found in areas outside of the zone of physical wave action, in areas of nearshore mixing where fine sediments are not present to weather the oil through biophysical processes, or in crusts formed by oil weathered on the surface. The systematic description of oiled shorelines using the SCAT methodology proved very successful, even for such an old spill. 6 refs

  3. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  4. Neurological Autoantibody Prevalence in Epilepsy of Unknown Etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Alqallaf, Abdulradha; Hays, Ryan; Freeman, Matthew; Chen, Kevin; Ding, Kan; Agostini, Mark; Vernino, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Autoimmune epilepsy is an underrecognized condition, and its true incidence is unknown. Identifying patients with an underlying autoimmune origin is critical because these patients' condition may remain refractory to conventional antiseizure medications but may respond to immunotherapy. To determine the prevalence of neurological autoantibodies (Abs) among adult patients with epilepsy of unknown etiology. Consecutive patients presenting to neurology services with new-onset epilepsy or established epilepsy of unknown etiology were identified. Serum samples were tested for autoimmune encephalitis Abs as well as thyroperoxidase (TPO) and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) Abs. An antibody prevalence in epilepsy (APE) score based on clinical characteristics was assigned prospectively. Data were collected from June 1, 2015, to June 1, 2016. Presence of neurological Abs. A score based on clinical characteristics was assigned to estimate the probability of seropositivity prior to antibody test results. Good seizure outcome was estimated on the basis of significant reduction of seizure frequency at the first follow-up or seizure freedom. Of the 127 patients (68 males and 59 females) enrolled in the study, 15 were subsequently excluded after identification of an alternative diagnosis. Serum Abs suggesting a potential autoimmune etiology were detected in 39 (34.8%) cases. More than 1 Ab was detected in 7 patients (6.3%): 3 (2.7%) had TPO-Ab and voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKCc) Ab, 2 (1.8%) had GAD65-Ab and VGKCc-Ab, 1 had TPO-Ab and GAD65-Ab, and 1 had anti-Hu Ab and GAD65-Ab. Thirty-two patients (28.6%) had a single Ab marker. Among 112 patients included in the study, 15 (13.4%) had TPO-Ab, 14 (12.5%) had GAD65-Ab, 12 (10.7%) had VGKCc (4 of whom were positive for leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 [LGI1] Ab), and 4 (3.6%) had N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) Ab. Even after excluding TPO-Ab and low-titer GAD65-Ab, Abs strongly suggesting an

  5. Cetaceans and Marine Debris: The Great Unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Peter Simmonds

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastics and other marine debris have been found in the gastrointestinal tracts of cetaceans, including instances where large quantities of material have been found that are likely to cause impairment to digestive processes and other examples, where other morbidity and even death have resulted. In some instances, debris may have been ingested as a result of the stranding process and, in others, it may have been ingested when feeding. Those species that are suction or “ram” feeders may be most at risk. There is also evidence of entanglement of cetaceans in marine debris. However, it is usually difficult to distinguish entanglement in active fishing gear from that in lost or discarded gear. The overall significance of the threat from ingested plastics and other debris remains unclear for any population or species of cetaceans, although there are concerns for some taxa, including at the population level, and marine debris in the oceans continues to grow. Further research including the compilation of unpublished material and the investigation of important habitat areas is strongly recommended.

  6. Vaginal symptoms of unknown etiology - a study in dutch general-practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Janny H.; Boeke, A. Joan P.; Janssens, J; van Eijk, J.Th.M.

    Vaginal symptoms are frequently presented by women to general practitioners. In many cases, the aetiology of these symptoms remains unknown. This study focused on the factors associated with microbiologically unexplained vaginal symptoms, the course of symptoms and signs in these cases, and factors

  7. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Kuhn

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea. Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat. The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.

  8. Hyperprolactinemia after laparoscopic ovarian drilling: An unknown phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omrani Gholamhossein R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of ovarian drilling on the serum levels of gonadotropins and androgens have been studied previously. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ovarian drilling on the serum prolactin levels and its relation to ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods This is a prospective controlled study. Thirty-six women with PCOS underwent ovarian electrocauterization in university hospitals. Control group consisted of 35 ovulatory women with unexplained infertility. Hormonal assessment performed in early follicular phase of spontaneous or induced cycle before operation in the two groups and repeated one week after operation. Hormonal assay was also performed in the early follicular phase of the first post-operative menstruation, folliculometry and progesterone assay were also performed in the same cycle. Data were analyzed by "repeated measurement design, discriminant analysis, correlation coefficient, and Fisher exact test". Results Six to ten weeks after operation the serum mean +/- SD prolactin levels increased from 284.41 +/- 114.32 mIU/ml to 354.06 +/- 204.42 mIU/ml (P = 0.011. The same values for the control group were 277.73 +/- 114.65 to 277.4 +/- 111.4 (P = 0.981 respectively. Approximately 45% of subjects in PCOS group remained anovulatory in spite of decreased level of LH and testosterone. Prolactin level remained elevated in 73.2% of women who did not ovulate 6–10 weeks after the procedure. Conclusion Hyperprolactinemia after ovarian cauterization may be considered as a possible cause of anovulation in women with polycystic ovaries and improved gonadotropin and androgen levels. The cause of hyperprolactinemia is unknown. Hormonal assay particularly PRL in anovulatory patients after ovarian cauterization is recommended.

  9. Challenges of the Unknown: Clinical Application of Microbial Metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Rose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Availability of fast, high throughput and low cost whole genome sequencing holds great promise within public health microbiology, with applications ranging from outbreak detection and tracking transmission events to understanding the role played by microbial communities in health and disease. Within clinical metagenomics, identifying microorganisms from a complex and host enriched background remains a central computational challenge. As proof of principle, we sequenced two metagenomic samples, a known viral mixture of 25 human pathogens and an unknown complex biological model using benchtop technology. The datasets were then analysed using a bioinformatic pipeline developed around recent fast classification methods. A targeted approach was able to detect 20 of the viruses against a background of host contamination from multiple sources and bacterial contamination. An alternative untargeted identification method was highly correlated with these classifications, and over 1,600 species were identified when applied to the complex biological model, including several species captured at over 50% genome coverage. In summary, this study demonstrates the great potential of applying metagenomics within the clinical laboratory setting and that this can be achieved using infrastructure available to nondedicated sequencing centres.

  10. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan Chrishan; Selvarajah, Mathu

    2016-07-01

    In the last two decades, chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has emerged as a significant contributor to the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rural Sri Lanka. It is characterized by the absence of identified causes for CKD. The prevalence of CKDu is 15.1-22.9% in some Sri Lankan districts, and previous research has found an association with farming occupations. A systematic literature review in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and Lilacs databases identified 46 eligible peer-reviewed articles and one conference abstract. Geographical mapping indicates a relationship between CKDu and agricultural irrigation water sources. Health mapping studies, human biological studies, and environment-based studies have explored possible causative agents. Most studies focused on likely causative agents related to agricultural practices, geographical distribution based on the prevalence and incidence of CKDu, and contaminants identified in drinking water. Nonetheless, the link between agrochemicals or heavy metals and CKDu remains to be established. No definitive cause for CKDu has been identified. Evidence to date suggests that the disease is related to one or more environmental agents, however pinpointing a definite cause for CKDu is challenging. It is plausible that CKDu is multifactorial. No specific guidelines or recommendations exist for treatment of CKDu, and standard management protocols for CKD apply. Changes in agricultural practices, provision of safe drinking water, and occupational safety precautions are recommended by the World Health Organization.

  11. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  12. Determination of the origin of unknown irradiated nuclear fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, G

    2006-01-01

    An isotopic fingerprinting method is presented to determine the origin of unknown nuclear material with forensic importance. Spent nuclear fuel of known origin has been considered as the 'unknown' nuclear material in order to demonstrate the method and verify its prediction capabilities. The method compares, using factor analysis, the measured U, Pu isotopic compositions of the 'unknown' material with U, Pu isotopic compositions simulating well known spent fuels from a range of commercial nuclear power stations. Then, the 'unknown' fuel has the same origin as the commercial fuel with which it exhibits the highest similarity in U, Pu compositions.

  13. Determination of the origin of unknown irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolaou, G.

    2006-01-01

    An isotopic fingerprinting method is presented to determine the origin of unknown nuclear material with forensic importance. Spent nuclear fuel of known origin has been considered as the 'unknown' nuclear material in order to demonstrate the method and verify its prediction capabilities. The method compares, using factor analysis, the measured U, Pu isotopic compositions of the 'unknown' material with U, Pu isotopic compositions simulating well known spent fuels from a range of commercial nuclear power stations. Then, the 'unknown' fuel has the same origin as the commercial fuel with which it exhibits the highest similarity in U, Pu compositions

  14. The new right for all Colombians to retain their telephone numbers (a right which remains unknown if it is not demanded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Flórez Calderón

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Recognising rights and their evolution in terms of their varied classification and interpretation has followed a long and tortuous path throughout the ages. Body and soul originally belonged to the state; the middle ages saw mooring to the land for ever. The Petition of Right in 1628 (determining that no man could be arrested or detained without ludicial formality, the Habeas Corpus Act of 1679 (the corner-stone of English public freedom and the French Constituent Assembly’s rights of man and citizens rights in 1789 represent the most important milestones on the way. Contemporary rights would include the right to information, monetary stability and a user’s right to retain his/her telephone number (1995. The present article’s oblect is to broadcast this new users’ right, establish the state of the art, alert people to possible difficulties and propose some strategies for implementing such rights.

  15. Psychological profile: the problem of modeling the unknown criminal personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. М. Гетьман

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the problem of modeling an unknown person in the preparation of criminal psychological profile. Some approaches to the concept of "psychological profile" and "psychological portrait", in particular the proposed delineation of these terms. We consider the system steps in the development of the psychological profile of an unknown perpetrator.

  16. Treatment of Regional Metastatic Melanoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke J. A. H. van Beek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the recurrence and survival rates of metastatic melanoma of unknown primary origin (MUP, in order to further refine current recommendations for the surgical treatment; (2 Methods: Medical data of all MUP patients registered between 2000 and 2011, were analyzed. Seventy-eight patients were categorized in either lymph node (axilla, groin, head-and neck or subcutaneous MUP. Axillary node MUPs were generally treated with dissections of levels I-III, inguinal node MUPs with combined superficial and deep groin dissections, and head-and-neck node MUPs with neck dissections to various extents, based on lymph drainage patterns. Subcutaneous lesions were excised with 1–2 cm margins. The primary outcome was treatment outcomes in terms of (locoregional recurrence and survival rates; (3 Results: Lymph node MUP recurred regionally in 11% of patients, with an overall recurrence rate of 45%. In contrast, subcutaneous MUP recurred locally in 65% of patients with an overall recurrence rate of 78%. This latter group had a significantly shorter disease-free interval than patients with lymph node MUP (p = 0.000. In the entire study population, 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 56% and 47% respectively, with no differences observed between the various subgroups; (4 Conclusion: The relatively low regional recurrence rate after regional lymph node dissection (11% supports its current status as standard surgical treatment for lymph node MUP. Subcutaneous MUP, on the contrary, appears to recur both locally (65% and overall (78% at a significantly higher rate, suggesting a different biological behavior. However, wide local excision remains the best available option for this specific group.

  17. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2016-10-01

    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  18. Intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in patients with symptomatic epilepsy and epilepsy of unknown etiology ('cryptogenic').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, S; Soellner, C; Bien, C G; Tumani, H

    2017-09-01

    To compare the frequency of intrathecal immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis in patients with symptomatic epilepsy and epilepsy of unknown etiology ('cryptogenic'). Patients with epileptic (n = 301) and non-epileptic (n = 10) seizures were retrospectively screened for autochthonous intrathecal Ig synthesis and oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid. Intrathecal IgG/OCBs were detected in 8% of patients with epilepsies of unknown etiology, 5% of patients with first seizures of unknown cause and 0-4% of patients with epilepsy due to brain tumors, cerebrovascular disease or other etiologies. Intrathecal IgG/OCBs were not seen in patients with psychogenic seizures. Identical OCBs in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were more common in all patient groups (10-40% depending on underlying etiology). Intrathecal IgG synthesis/OCBs were observed slightly more frequently in patients with 'cryptogenic' epilepsy and with first seizures of unknown etiology than in other patient groups. However, this remained an infrequent finding and thus we could not confirm humoral immunity as a leading disease mechanism in patients with epilepsy in general or with unknown etiology in particular. © 2017 EAN.

  19. Effects of memory colour on colour constancy for unknown coloured objects

    OpenAIRE

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2012-01-01

    The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination—colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc) within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in...

  20. Robust Fault Detection for Switched Fuzzy Systems With Unknown Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Zhang, Huaguang; Wang, Yingchun; Sun, Xun

    2017-10-03

    This paper investigates the fault detection problem for a class of switched nonlinear systems in the T-S fuzzy framework. The unknown input is considered in the systems. A novel fault detection unknown input observer design method is proposed. Based on the proposed observer, the unknown input can be removed from the fault detection residual. The weighted H∞ performance level is considered to ensure the robustness. In addition, the weighted H₋ performance level is introduced, which can increase the sensibility of the proposed detection method. To verify the proposed scheme, a numerical simulation example and an electromechanical system simulation example are provided at the end of this paper.

  1. Iterative Selection of Unknown Weights in Direct Weight Optimization Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To the direct weight optimization identification of the nonlinear system, we add some linear terms about input sequences in the former linear affine function so as to approximate the nonlinear property. To choose the two classes of unknown weights in the more linear terms, this paper derives the detailed process on how to choose these unknown weights from theoretical analysis and engineering practice, respectively, and makes sure of their key roles between the unknown weights. From the theoretical analysis, the added unknown weights’ auxiliary role can be known in the whole process of approximating the nonlinear system. From the practical analysis, we learn how to transform one complex optimization problem to its corresponding common quadratic program problem. Then, the common quadratic program problem can be solved by the basic interior point method. Finally, the efficiency and possibility of the proposed strategies can be confirmed by the simulation results.

  2. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP), treatment can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy. Get detailed information about the diagnosis and treatment of CUP in this expert-reviewed summary.

  3. RBF neural network based H∞ synchronization for unknown chaotic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , 172 ... the effect of disturbance to an H∞ norm constraint. It is shown that ... unknown chaotic systems; linear matrix inequality (LMI); learning law. 1. Introduction .... (9) is RBFNN H∞ synchronized if the synchronization error e(t) satisfies. ∫ ∞.

  4. Classification of Unknown Thermocouple Types Using Similarity Factor Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshu K. DAMARLA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to classification using PCA method, a new methodology is proposed for type identification of unknown thermocouple. The new methodology is based on calculating the degree of similarity between two multivariate datasets using two types of similarity factors. One similarity factor is based on principle component analysis and the angles between the principle component subspaces while the other is based on the Mahalanobis distance between the datasets. Datasets containing thermo-emfs against given temperature ranges are formed for each type of thermocouple (e.g. J, K, S, T, R, E, B and N type by experimentation are considered as reference datasets. Datasets corresponding to unknown type are captured. Similarity factor between the datasets one of which being the unknown type and the other being each known type are compared. When maximum similarity factor occurs, then the class of unknown type is allocated to that of known type.

  5. Chinese Unknown Word Recognition for PCFG-LA Parsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the recognition of unknown words in Chinese parsing. Two methods are proposed to handle this problem. One is the modification of a character-based model. We model the emission probability of an unknown word using the first and last characters in the word. It aims to reduce the POS tag ambiguities of unknown words to improve the parsing performance. In addition, a novel method, using graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL, is proposed to improve the syntax parsing of unknown words. Its goal is to discover additional lexical knowledge from a large amount of unlabeled data to help the syntax parsing. The method is mainly to propagate lexical emission probabilities to unknown words by building the similarity graphs over the words of labeled and unlabeled data. The derived distributions are incorporated into the parsing process. The proposed methods are effective in dealing with the unknown words to improve the parsing. Empirical results for Penn Chinese Treebank and TCT Treebank revealed its effectiveness.

  6. MoCha: Molecular Characterization of Unknown Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Daniel; Hammelman, Jennifer; Levin, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Automated methods for the reverse-engineering of complex regulatory networks are paving the way for the inference of mechanistic comprehensive models directly from experimental data. These novel methods can infer not only the relations and parameters of the known molecules defined in their input datasets, but also unknown components and pathways identified as necessary by the automated algorithms. Identifying the molecular nature of these unknown components is a crucial step for making testable predictions and experimentally validating the models, yet no specific and efficient tools exist to aid in this process. To this end, we present here MoCha (Molecular Characterization), a tool optimized for the search of unknown proteins and their pathways from a given set of known interacting proteins. MoCha uses the comprehensive dataset of protein-protein interactions provided by the STRING database, which currently includes more than a billion interactions from over 2,000 organisms. MoCha is highly optimized, performing typical searches within seconds. We demonstrate the use of MoCha with the characterization of unknown components from reverse-engineered models from the literature. MoCha is useful for working on network models by hand or as a downstream step of a model inference engine workflow and represents a valuable and efficient tool for the characterization of unknown pathways using known data from thousands of organisms. MoCha and its source code are freely available online under the GPLv3 license.

  7. Grasping Unknown Objects in an Early Cognitive Vision System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, Mila

    2011-01-01

    Grasping of unknown objects presents an important and challenging part of robot manipulation. The growing area of service robotics depends upon the ability of robots to autonomously grasp and manipulate a wide range of objects in everyday environments. Simple, non task-specific grasps of unknown ...... and comparing vision-based grasping methods, and the creation of algorithms for bootstrapping a process of acquiring world understanding for artificial cognitive agents....... presents a system for robotic grasping of unknown objects us- ing stereo vision. Grasps are defined based on contour and surface information provided by the Early Cognitive Vision System, that organizes visual informa- tion into a biologically motivated hierarchical representation. The contributions...... of the thesis are: the extension of the Early Cognitive Vision representation with a new type of feature hierarchy in the texture domain, the definition and evaluation of contour based grasping methods, the definition and evaluation of surface based grasping methods, the definition of a benchmark for testing...

  8. Celiac Disease Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Cooney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is a common autoimmune enteropathy that occurs, in affected individuals, with exposure to gluten in the diet and improves with removal of dietary gluten. Although CD is readily considered in patients with classical presentations of the disease, atypical manifestations may be the only presenting symptoms. We present a case of CD in a 16-year-old female presenting as fever of unknown origin, which has not been reported previously. The postulated mechanism for fever in CD and the importance of clinicians having a low threshold for considering CD in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and other enigmatic clinical presentations is discussed.

  9. Adaptive Incentive Controls for Stackelberg Games with Unknown Cost Functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    APR EZT:: F I AN 73S e OsL:-: UNCLASSI?:-- Q4~.’~- .A.., 6, *~*i i~~*~~*.- U ADAPTIVE INCENTIVE CONTROLS FOR STACKELBERG GAMES WITH UNKNOWN COST...AD-A161 885 ADAPTIVE INCENTIVE CONTROLS FOR STACKELBERG GAMES WITH i/1 UNKNOWN COST FUNCTIONALSCU) ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA DECISION AND CONTROL LAB T...ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7.. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION CoriaeLcenef~pda~ Joint Services Electronics Program Laboratory, Univ. of Illinois N/A

  10. Scheme for teleportation of unknown states of trapped ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Mei-Feng; Ma Song-She

    2008-01-01

    A scheme is presented for teleporting an unknown state in a trapped ion system.The scheme only requires a single laser beam.It allows the trap to be in any state with a few phonons,e.g.a thermal motion.Furthermore,it works in the regime,where the Rabi frequency of the laser is on the order of the trap frequency.Thus,the teleportation speed is greatly increased,which is important for decreasing the decoherence effect.This idea can also be used to teleport an unknown ionic entangled state.

  11. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in a carcinoma with unknown primary: An autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Kirti

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Kidney disease frequently complicates malignancy and its treatment. Although many solid and hematologic cancers may involve the renal parenchyma, clinical sequelae are usually not prominent. Published reports cite membranous nephropathy as the most common malignancy-associated glomerulopathy, occurring with many carcinomas and occasionally with leukemia and lymphoma followed by minimal change disease. Rarely membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN has been reported in patients with malignancy. The mechanism by which malignancy induces disease remains unproved, but may involve deposition of tumor antigen in the subepithelial space with in situ immune complex formation and subsequent complement activation. Treatment of the underlying malignancy may lead to resolution of nephrotic syndrome, lending indirect support to this theory. We report a rare autopsy case of a patient with metastatic carcinoma (with unknown primary associated with MPGN. The association between MPGN and metastatic carcinoma with unknown primary is uncommon and has not been previously reported in the literature.

  12. Liability for Unknown Risks: A Law and Economics Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Faure (Michael); L.T. Visscher (Louis); F. Weber (Franziska)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn the law and economics literature liability is generally regarded as an instrument which provides potential tortfeasors with incentives for optimal care taking. The question, however, arises whether liability can still provide those incentives when risks are unknown. That is the

  13. Fault tolerant control of wind turbines using unknown input observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for accommodating faults in the rotor and generator speed sensors in a wind turbine. These measured values are important both for the wind turbine controller as well as the supervisory control of the wind turbine. The scheme is based on unknown input observers, which...

  14. Value of Bone marrow Examination in Pyrexia of unknown origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrexia of unknown origin is a common diagnostic dilemma. Series of diagnostic modalities are required to arrive at diagnosis. Bone marrow examination is one of the common tests implicated in the diagnosis in combination with other diagnostic modalities. Present study has attempted to explore the causes of pyrexia of unknown origin based on bone marrow morphological study. Materials and Methods: In a one year prospective study conducted at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal; bone marrow aspiration and biopsy was performed and evaluated morphologically, in 57 patients fulfilling the criteria of classic pyrexia of unknown origin. Results: In 42% cases; specific diagnosis could be made and hematological neoplasm was the most common finding followed by megaloblastic anemia, hypoplastic anemia and one case each of hemophagocytosis, malaria and tuberculosis. Acute leukemia was the most frequently encountered hematological malignancy followed by multiple myeloma, chronic myeloid leukemia, essential thrombocythemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Conclusion: Morphological examination of bone marrow has important role in diagnosis of pyrexia of unknown origin. However, yield of diagnosis can be increased if it is combined with other diagnostic modalities including radiological, microbiological and serological tests. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v3i6.8991 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2013 Vol. 3, 447-451

  15. Fast grasping of unknown objects using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qujiang; Chen, Guangming; Wisse, Martijn

    2017-09-01

    Fast grasping of unknown objects has crucial impact on the efficiency of robot manipulation especially subjected to unfamiliar environments. In order to accelerate grasping speed of unknown objects, principal component analysis is utilized to direct the grasping process. In particular, a single-view partial point cloud is constructed and grasp candidates are allocated along the principal axis. Force balance optimization is employed to analyze possible graspable areas. The obtained graspable area with the minimal resultant force is the best zone for the final grasping execution. It is shown that an unknown object can be more quickly grasped provided that the component analysis principle axis is determined using single-view partial point cloud. To cope with the grasp uncertainty, robot motion is assisted to obtain a new viewpoint. Virtual exploration and experimental tests are carried out to verify this fast gasping algorithm. Both simulation and experimental tests demonstrated excellent performances based on the results of grasping a series of unknown objects. To minimize the grasping uncertainty, the merits of the robot hardware with two 3D cameras can be utilized to suffice the partial point cloud. As a result of utilizing the robot hardware, the grasping reliance is highly enhanced. Therefore, this research demonstrates practical significance for increasing grasping speed and thus increasing robot efficiency under unpredictable environments.

  16. A Size Exclusion Chromatography Laboratory with Unknowns for Introductory Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntee, Edward J.; Graham, Kate J.; Colosky, Edward C.; Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2015-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography is an important technique in the separation of biological and polymeric samples by molecular weight. While a number of laboratory experiments have been published that use this technique for the purification of large molecules, this is the first report of an experiment that focuses on purifying an unknown small…

  17. Stochastic Online Learning in Dynamic Networks under Unknown Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-02

    The key is to develop online learning strategies at each individual node. Specifically, through local information exchange with its neighbors, each...infinitely repeated game with incomplete information and developed a dynamic pricing strategy referred to as Competitive and Cooperative Demand Learning...Stochastic Online Learning in Dynamic Networks under Unknown Models This research aims to develop fundamental theories and practical algorithms for

  18. Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolski, J.A.; Ho, F.C.; Waldorf, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results are given of the analysis at five different laboratories of an unknown optical multilayer coating. In all, eleven different analytical and laboratory techniques were applied to the problem. The multilayer nominally consisted of three dielectric and two metallic layers. It was demonstrated convincingly that with present day techniques it is possible to determine the basic structure of such a coating

  19. Inventory control in case of unknown demand and control parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with unknown demand and control parameters in inventory control. Inventory control involves decisions on what to order when and in what quantity. These decisions are based on information about the demand. Models are constructed using complete demand information; these models ensure

  20. Editoria: EBOLA: Fear of the unknown | Comoro | Tanzania Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editoria: EBOLA: Fear of the unknown. C. Comoro, J.

  1. Lod score curves for phase-unknown matings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert-Shearon, T; Boehnke, M; Lange, K

    1996-01-01

    For a phase-unknown nuclear family, we show that the likelihood and lod score are unimodal, and we describe conditions under which the maximum occurs at recombination fraction theta = 0, theta = 1/2, and 0 < theta < 1/2. These simply stated necessary and sufficient conditions seem to have escaped the notice of previous statistical geneticists.

  2. Teleportation of Unknown Superpositions of Collective Atomic Coherent States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG ShiBiao

    2001-01-01

    We propose a scheme to teleport an unknown superposition of two atomic coherent states with different phases. Our scheme is based on resonant and dispersive atom-field interaction. Our scheme provides a possibility of teleporting macroscopic superposition states of many atoms first time.``

  3. Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic State via Adiabatic Passage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state via adiabatic passage. Taking advantage of adiabatic passage, the atom has no probability of being excited and thus the atomic spontaneous emission is suppressed.We also show that the fidelity can reach 1 under certain condition.

  4. Clostridium difficile: A healthcare-associated infection of unknown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clostridium difficile: A healthcare-associated infection of unknown significance in adults in sub-Saharan Africa. ... Abstract. Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes a high burden of disease in high-resource healthcare systems, with significant morbidity, mortality, and financial implications. CDI is a ...

  5. Severe scratcher-reaction: an unknown health hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Sauer Mikkelsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink.

  6. Vision-based autonomous grasping of unknown piled objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Computer vision techniques have been used to develop a vision-based grasping capability for autonomously picking and placing unknown piled objects. This work is currently being applied to the problem of hazardous waste sorting in support of the Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Operations Program

  7. Metastatic Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Presenting as Jugular Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Cheriyan Modayil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Jugular venous thrombosis is unusual and is associated with central venous catheterisation, intravenous drug abuse and head and neck sepsis. It is rarely associated with malignancy. We report a case of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary in a forty year old female which presented with jugular venous thrombosis. The discussion includes investigation and treatment options for this condition.

  8. Cancer of unknown primitive metastatic. About two clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawen, L; Cordoba, A.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the two clinical cases about the unknown primitive metastatic cancer. The main techniques used for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of different s carcinomas are: Electronic microscope, molecular biology and genetics, especially histopathological study, topographic survey, ultrasound, radiography, chemotherapy, radiotherapy

  9. Bayesian source term determination with unknown covariance of measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Alkomiet; Tichý, Ondřej; Šmídl, Václav

    2017-04-01

    Determination of a source term of release of a hazardous material into the atmosphere is a very important task for emergency response. We are concerned with the problem of estimation of the source term in the conventional linear inverse problem, y = Mx, where the relationship between the vector of observations y is described using the source-receptor-sensitivity (SRS) matrix M and the unknown source term x. Since the system is typically ill-conditioned, the problem is recast as an optimization problem minR,B(y - Mx)TR-1(y - Mx) + xTB-1x. The first term minimizes the error of the measurements with covariance matrix R, and the second term is a regularization of the source term. There are different types of regularization arising for different choices of matrices R and B, for example, Tikhonov regularization assumes covariance matrix B as the identity matrix multiplied by scalar parameter. In this contribution, we adopt a Bayesian approach to make inference on the unknown source term x as well as unknown R and B. We assume prior on x to be a Gaussian with zero mean and unknown diagonal covariance matrix B. The covariance matrix of the likelihood R is also unknown. We consider two potential choices of the structure of the matrix R. First is the diagonal matrix and the second is a locally correlated structure using information on topology of the measuring network. Since the inference of the model is intractable, iterative variational Bayes algorithm is used for simultaneous estimation of all model parameters. The practical usefulness of our contribution is demonstrated on an application of the resulting algorithm to real data from the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX). This research is supported by EEA/Norwegian Financial Mechanism under project MSMT-28477/2014 Source-Term Determination of Radionuclide Releases by Inverse Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling (STRADI).

  10. [Assessment of the prognosis in patients who remain comatose after resuscitation from cardiac arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Emilie; Fedder, Anette Marianne; Dyrskog, Stig Eric; Degn, Niels Sanderhoff; Hassager, Christian; Jensen, Reinhold; Kirkegaard, Hans; Weber, Sven; Hoffmann-Petersen, Joachim Torp; Larsen, Niels Heden; Strange, Ditte Gry; Sonne, Morten; Lippert, Freddy K

    2014-06-30

    In Denmark there are around 3,500 unexpected cardiac arrests (CA) out of hospital each year. There is an unknown number of CA in hospitals. The survival rate after CA outside a hospital in Denmark is 10% after 30 days. There are varying data for the neurological outcome in this group of patients. The purpose of this work is to disseminate new knowledge and to help standardizing the treatment in the group of patients who remain comatose after being resuscitated from CA. Assessment of the prognosis for a patient in this group can be made after 72 hours and a multi-modal approach to the patient is required.

  11. Capecitabine and oxaliplatin as second-line treatment in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anne Kirstine Hundahl; Pedersen, Karen Damgaard; Abildgaard, Julie Rafn

    2010-01-01

    tumours may be overrepresented. These patients could be candidates for GI tract-directed therapy. We here report the results obtained with oxaliplatin and capecitabine as second-line therapy in 25 recurrent/refractory CUP patients following first-line treatment with paclitaxel, cisplatin and gemcitabine.......Treatment of patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP) remains a challenge, and no effective second-line treatment has been identified. In CUP patients who are non-responsive or relapse early after first-line platinum/taxane-based regimens, it is likely that gastrointestinal (GI) tract...

  12. Towards high-speed autonomous navigation of unknown environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Charles; Roy, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we summarize recent research enabling high-speed navigation in unknown environments for dynamic robots that perceive the world through onboard sensors. Many existing solutions to this problem guarantee safety by making the conservative assumption that any unknown portion of the map may contain an obstacle, and therefore constrain planned motions to lie entirely within known free space. In this work, we observe that safety constraints may significantly limit performance and that faster navigation is possible if the planner reasons about collision with unobserved obstacles probabilistically. Our overall approach is to use machine learning to approximate the expected costs of collision using the current state of the map and the planned trajectory. Our contribution is to demonstrate fast but safe planning using a learned function to predict future collision probabilities.

  13. Renal disease masquerading as pyrexia of unknown origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Korivi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrexia of unknown origin is a challenging clinical problem. Infections, malignancies, and connective tissue diseases form the major etiologies for this condition. We report a case of a 57-year-old diabetic male who presented with fever of unknown origin for several months. The course of investigations led to a kidney biopsy which clinched the cause of his fever as well as the underlying diagnosis. The light microscopy findings of expansile storiform fibrosis with a dense inflammatory infiltrate suggested the diagnosis which was confirmed by positive staining of Immunoglobulin G4, the dense lympho-plasmacytic infiltrate and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. A course of steroids followed by mycophenolate mofetil as maintenance immunosuppression rendered the patient afebrile with improvement of renal function.

  14. Learning Unknown Structure in CRFs via Adaptive Gradient Projection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of fitting probabilistic graphical models to the given data when the structure is not known. More specifically, we focus on learning unknown structure in conditional random fields, especially learning both the structure and parameters of a conditional random field model simultaneously. To do this, we first formulate the learning problem as a convex minimization problem by adding an l_2-regularization to the node parameters and a group l_1-regularization to the edge parameters, and then a gradient-based projection method is proposed to solve it which combines an adaptive stepsize selection strategy with a nonmonotone line search. Extensive simulation experiments are presented to show the performance of our approach in solving unknown structure learning problems.

  15. Quadrotor Control in the Presence of Unknown Mass Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duivenvoorden, Rikky Ricardo Petrus Rufino

    Quadrotor UAVs are popular due to their mechanical simplicity, as well as their capability to hover and vertically take-off and land. As applications diversify, quadrotors are increasingly required to operate under unknown mass properties, for example as a multirole sensor platform or for package delivery operations. The work presented here consists of the derivation of a generalized quadrotor dynamic model without the typical simplifying assumptions on the first and second moments of mass. The maximum payload capacity of a quadrotor in hover, and the observability of the unknown mass properties are discussed. A brief introduction of L1 adaptive control is provided, and three different L 1 adaptive controllers were designed for the Parrot AR.Drone quadrotor. Their tracking and disturbance rejection performance was compared to the baseline nonlinear controller in experiments. Finally, the results of the combination of L1 adaptive control with iterative learning control are presented, showing high performance trajectory tracking under uncertainty.

  16. Biomarkers for Ectopic Pregnancy and Pregnancy of Unknown Location

    OpenAIRE

    Senapati, Suneeta; Barnhart, Kurt T.

    2013-01-01

    Early pregnancy failure is the most common complication of pregnancy, and 1–2% of all pregnancies will be ectopic. As one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and determining the fate of a pregnancy of unknown location are of great clinical concern. Several serum and plasma biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy have been investigated independently and in combination. The following is a review of the state of biomarker discovery and development for...

  17. Metastatic meningioma presenting as cancer of unknown primary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of anaplastic meningioma presenting in an extracranial osseous location, initially diagnosed as cancer of unknown primary. Although anaplastic meningioma comprise 3% of all meningiomas, this subtype is more likely to be associated with metastases. The increased degree of dedifferentiation in anaplastic meningioma makes diagnosis difficult, especially if characteristic imaging findings of meningioma are not identified. Adequate tissue for diagnostic purposes and appropriate imaging studies may help in establishing a definitive diagnosis.

  18. Transfer of an unknown quantum state, quantum networks, and memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Asoka; Agarwal, G.S.

    2004-01-01

    We present a protocol for transfer of an unknown quantum state. The protocol is based on a two-mode cavity interacting dispersively in a sequential manner with three-level atoms in the Λ configuration. We propose a scheme for quantum networking using an atomic channel. We investigate the effect of cavity decoherence in the entire process. Further, we demonstrate the possibility of an efficient quantum memory for arbitrary superposition of two modes of a cavity containing one photon

  19. Remaining useful life prediction of degrading systems subjected to imperfect maintenance: Application to draught fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Qiang; Hu, Chang-Hua; Si, Xiao-Sheng; Zio, Enrico

    2018-02-01

    Current degradation modeling and remaining useful life prediction studies share a common assumption that the degrading systems are not maintained or maintained perfectly (i.e., to an as-good-as new state). This paper concerns the issues of how to model the degradation process and predict the remaining useful life of degrading systems subjected to imperfect maintenance activities, which can restore the health condition of a degrading system to any degradation level between as-good-as new and as-bad-as old. Toward this end, a nonlinear model driven by Wiener process is first proposed to characterize the degradation trajectory of the degrading system subjected to imperfect maintenance, where negative jumps are incorporated to quantify the influence of imperfect maintenance activities on the system's degradation. Then, the probability density function of the remaining useful life is derived analytically by a space-scale transformation, i.e., transforming the constructed degradation model with negative jumps crossing a constant threshold level to a Wiener process model crossing a random threshold level. To implement the proposed method, unknown parameters in the degradation model are estimated by the maximum likelihood estimation method. Finally, the proposed degradation modeling and remaining useful life prediction method are applied to a practical case of draught fans belonging to a kind of mechanical systems from steel mills. The results reveal that, for a degrading system subjected to imperfect maintenance, our proposed method can obtain more accurate remaining useful life predictions than those of the benchmark model in literature.

  20. Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Nishant; Ho, Shirley; Myers, Adam D.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Ross, Ashley J.; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Muna, Demitri; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe; Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; Schneider, Donald P.; Streblyanska, Alina; Weaver, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study

  1. Quantum key distribution with an unknown and untrusted source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2009-03-01

    The security of a standard bi-directional ``plug & play'' quantum key distribution (QKD) system has been an open question for a long time. This is mainly because its source is equivalently controlled by an eavesdropper, which means the source is unknown and untrusted. Qualitative discussion on this subject has been made previously. In this paper, we present the first quantitative security analysis on a general class of QKD protocols whose sources are unknown and untrusted. The securities of standard BB84 protocol, weak+vacuum decoy state protocol, and one-decoy decoy state protocol, with unknown and untrusted sources are rigorously proved. We derive rigorous lower bounds to the secure key generation rates of the above three protocols. Our numerical simulation results show that QKD with an untrusted source gives a key generation rate that is close to that with a trusted source. Our work is published in [1]. [4pt] [1] Y. Zhao, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, Phys. Rev. A, 77:052327 (2008).

  2. Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Nishant; Ho, Shirley [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ross, Ashley J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Bahcall, Neta [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Brinkmann, Jonathan [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Muna, Demitri [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pâris, Isabelle [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Petitjean, Patrick [Université Paris 6 et CNRS, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis blvd. Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Streblyanska, Alina [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: nishanta@andrew.cmu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study.

  3. Navigation through unknown and dynamic open spaces using topological notions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Tomé, Sergio

    2018-04-01

    Until now, most algorithms used for navigation have had the purpose of directing system towards one point in space. However, humans communicate tasks by specifying spatial relations among elements or places. In addition, the environments in which humans develop their activities are extremely dynamic. The only option that allows for successful navigation in dynamic and unknown environments is making real-time decisions. Therefore, robots capable of collaborating closely with human beings must be able to make decisions based on the local information registered by the sensors and interpret and express spatial relations. Furthermore, when one person is asked to perform a task in an environment, this task is communicated given a category of goals so the person does not need to be supervised. Thus, two problems appear when one wants to create multifunctional robots: how to navigate in dynamic and unknown environments using spatial relations and how to accomplish this without supervision. In this article, a new architecture to address the two cited problems is presented, called the topological qualitative navigation architecture. In previous works, a qualitative heuristic called the heuristic of topological qualitative semantics (HTQS) has been developed to establish and identify spatial relations. However, that heuristic only allows for establishing one spatial relation with a specific object. In contrast, navigation requires a temporal sequence of goals with different objects. The new architecture attains continuous generation of goals and resolves them using HTQS. Thus, the new architecture achieves autonomous navigation in dynamic or unknown open environments.

  4. Angiogenesis in cancer of unknown primary: clinicopathological study of CD34, VEGF and TSP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavasilis, Vasilis; Malamou-Mitsi, Vasiliki; Briasoulis, Evangelos; Tsanou, Elena; Kitsou, Evangelia; Kalofonos, Haralambos; Fountzilas, George; Fotsis, Theodore; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary remains a mallignancy of elusive biology and grim prognosis that lacks effective therapeutic options. We investigated angiogenesis in cancer of unknown primary to expand our knowledge on the biology of these tumors and identify potential therapeutic targets. Paraffin embedded archival material from 81 patients diagnosed with CUP was used. Tumor histology was adenocarcinoma (77%), undifferentiated carcinoma (18%) and squamous cell carcinoma (5%). The tissue expression of CD34, VEGF and TSP-1 was assessed immunohistochemically by use of specific monoclonal antibodies and was analyzed against clinicopathological data. VEGF expression was detected in all cases and was strong in 83%. Stromal expression of TSP-1 was seen in 80% of cases and was strong in 20%. The expression of both proteins was not associated with any clinical or pathological parameters. Tumor MVD was higher in tumors classified as unfavorable compared to more favorable and was positively associated with VEGF and negatively with TSP-1. Angiogenesis is very active and expression of VEGF is almost universal in cancers of unknown primary. These findings support the clinical investigation of VEGF targeted therapy in this clinical setting

  5. Prevalence and Impact of Unknown Diabetes in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, David L; Gregg, Sara R; Xu, Kejun; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2015-12-01

    Many patients with diabetes and their care providers are unaware of the presence of the disease. Dysglycemia encompassing hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glucose variability is common in the ICU in patients with and without diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of unknown diabetes on glycemic control in the ICU. Prospective observational study. Nine ICUs in an academic, tertiary hospital and a hybrid academic/community hospital. Hemoglobin A1c levels were ordered at all ICU admissions from March 1, 2011 to September 30, 2013. Electronic medical records were examined for a history of antihyperglycemic medications or International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition diagnosis of diabetes. Patients were categorized as having unknown diabetes (hemoglobin A1c > 6.5%, without history of diabetes), no diabetes (hemoglobin A1c 6.5%, with documented history of diabetes). None. A total of 15,737 patients had an hemoglobin A1c and medical record evaluable for the history of diabetes, and 5,635 patients had diabetes diagnosed by either medical history or an elevated hemoglobin A1c in the ICU. Of these, 1,460 patients had unknown diabetes, accounting for 26.0% of all patients with diabetes. This represented 41.0% of patients with an hemoglobin A1c > 6.5% and 9.3% of all ICU patients. Compared with patients without diabetes, patients with unknown diabetes had a higher likelihood of requiring an insulin infusion (44.3% vs 29.3%; p 180 mg/dL; p < 0.0001) and hypoglycemia (8.9% vs 2.5%; blood glucose < 70 mg/dL; p < 0.0001), higher glycemic variability (55.6 vs 28.8, average of patient SD of glucose; p < 0.0001), and increased mortality (13.8% vs 11.4%; p = 0.01). Patients with unknown diabetes represent a significant percentage of ICU admissions. Measurement of hemoglobin A1c at admission can prospectively identify a population that are not known to have diabetes but have significant challenges in glycemic control in the ICU.

  6. A Bayesian Framework for Remaining Useful Life Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) of a faulty component is at the center of system prognostics and health management. It gives operators a potent tool in...

  7. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effec...

  8. Estimation of the false discovery proportion with unknown dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Xu

    2017-09-01

    Large-scale multiple testing with correlated test statistics arises frequently in many scientific research. Incorporating correlation information in approximating false discovery proportion has attracted increasing attention in recent years. When the covariance matrix of test statistics is known, Fan, Han & Gu (2012) provided an accurate approximation of False Discovery Proportion (FDP) under arbitrary dependence structure and some sparsity assumption. However, the covariance matrix is often unknown in many applications and such dependence information has to be estimated before approximating FDP. The estimation accuracy can greatly affect FDP approximation. In the current paper, we aim to theoretically study the impact of unknown dependence on the testing procedure and establish a general framework such that FDP can be well approximated. The impacts of unknown dependence on approximating FDP are in the following two major aspects: through estimating eigenvalues/eigenvectors and through estimating marginal variances. To address the challenges in these two aspects, we firstly develop general requirements on estimates of eigenvalues and eigenvectors for a good approximation of FDP. We then give conditions on the structures of covariance matrices that satisfy such requirements. Such dependence structures include banded/sparse covariance matrices and (conditional) sparse precision matrices. Within this framework, we also consider a special example to illustrate our method where data are sampled from an approximate factor model, which encompasses most practical situations. We provide a good approximation of FDP via exploiting this specific dependence structure. The results are further generalized to the situation where the multivariate normality assumption is relaxed. Our results are demonstrated by simulation studies and some real data applications.

  9. Neurological autoantibodies in drug-resistant epilepsy of unknown cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecellioglu, Mehmet; Kamisli, Ozden; Kamisli, Suat; Yucel, Fatma Ebru; Ozcan, Cemal

    2018-03-09

    Autoimmune epilepsy is a rarely diagnosed condition. Recognition of the underlying autoimmune condition is important, as these patients can be resistant to antiepileptic drugs. To determine the autoimmune and oncological antibodies in adult drug-resistant epilepsy of unknown cause and identify the clinical, radiological, and EEG findings associated with these antibodies according to data in the literature. Eighty-two patients with drug-resistant epilepsy of unknown cause were prospectively identified. Clinical features were recorded. The levels of anti-voltage-gated potassium channel complex (anti-VGKCc), anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD), anti-phospholipid IgG and IgM, anti-cardiolipin IgG and IgM, and onconeural antibodies were determined. Serum antibody positivity suggesting the potential role of autoimmunity in the aetiology was present in 17 patients with resistant epilepsy (22.0%). Multiple antibodies were found in two patients (2.6%). One of these patients (1.3%) had anti-VGKCc and ANA, whereas another (1.3%) had anti-VGKCc and anti-TPO. A single antibody was present in 15 patients (19.5%). Of the 77 patients finally included in the study, 4 had anti-TPO (5.2%), 1 had anti-GAD (1.3%), 4 had anti-VGKCc (5.2%) 8 had ANA (10.3%), and 2 had onconeural antibodies (2.6%) (1 patient had anti-Yo and 1 had anti-MA2/TA). The other antibodies investigated were not detected. EEG abnormality (focal), focal seizure incidence, and frequent seizures were more common in antibody-positive patients. Autoimmune factors may be aetiologically relevant in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy of unknown cause, especially if focal seizures are present together with focal EEG abnormality and frequent seizures.

  10. Optimal unambiguous comparison of two unknown squeezed vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Sedlak, Michal; Rapsan, Peter; Busek, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme for the unambiguous state comparison (USC) of two unknown squeezed vacuum states of the electromagnetic field. Our setup is based on linear optical elements and photon-number detectors, and it achieves optimal USC in an ideal case of unit quantum efficiency. In realistic conditions, i.e., for nonunit quantum efficiency of photodetectors, we evaluate the probability of getting an ambiguous result as well as the reliability of the scheme, thus showing its robustness in comparison to previous proposals.

  11. Fast entanglement detection for unknown states of two spatial qutrits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, G.; Gomez, E. S.; Saavedra, C.; Vargas, A.; Vianna, R. O.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the practicality of the method proposed by Maciel et al. [Phys. Rev. A. 80, 032325 (2009).] for detecting the entanglement of two spatial qutrits (three-dimensional quantum systems), which are encoded in the discrete transverse momentum of single photons transmitted through a multislit aperture. The method is based on the acquisition of partial information of the quantum state through projective measurements, and a data processing analysis done with semidefinite programs. This analysis relies on generating gradually an optimal entanglement witness operator, and numerical investigations have shown that it allows for the entanglement detection of unknown states with a cost much lower than full state tomography.

  12. Algorithms for Rapidly Dispersing Robot Swarms in Unknown Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang, Tien-Ruey; Arkin, Esther M.; Bender, Michael; Fekete, Sandor P.; Mitchell, Joseph S. B.

    2002-01-01

    We develop and analyze algorithms for dispersing a swarm of primitive robots in an unknown environment, R. The primary objective is to minimize the makespan, that is, the time to fill the entire region. An environment is composed of pixels that form a connected subset of the integer grid. There is at most one robot per pixel and robots move horizontally or vertically at unit speed. Robots enter R by means of k>=1 door pixels Robots are primitive finite automata, only having local communicatio...

  13. Modal Parameter Identification from Responses of General Unknown Random Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, S. R.; Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    1996-01-01

    Modal parameter identification from ambient responses due to a general unknown random inputs is investigated. Existing identification techniques which are based on assumptions of white noise and or stationary random inputs are utilized even though the inputs conditions are not satisfied....... This is accomplished via adding. In cascade. A force cascade conversion to the structures system under consideration. The input to the force conversion system is white noise and the output of which is the actual force(s) applied to the structure. The white noise input(s) and the structures responses are then used...

  14. Group prioritisation with unknown expert weights in incomplete linguistic context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dong; Cheng, Faxin; Zhou, Zhili; Wang, Juan

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study a group prioritisation problem in situations when the expert weights are completely unknown and their judgement preferences are linguistic and incomplete. Starting from the theory of relative entropy (RE) and multiplicative consistency, an optimisation model is provided for deriving an individual priority vector without estimating the missing value(s) of an incomplete linguistic preference relation. In order to address the unknown expert weights in the group aggregating process, we define two new kinds of expert weight indicators based on RE: proximity entropy weight and similarity entropy weight. Furthermore, a dynamic-adjusting algorithm (DAA) is proposed to obtain an objective expert weight vector and capture the dynamic properties involved in it. Unlike the extant literature of group prioritisation, the proposed RE approach does not require pre-allocation of expert weights and can solve incomplete preference relations. An interesting finding is that once all the experts express their preference relations, the final expert weight vector derived from the DAA is fixed irrespective of the initial settings of expert weights. Finally, an application example is conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the RE approach.

  15. Unknown facets of Well-Known Scientists Series - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Dixit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 1st in the series of articles on “Unknown Facets of well-known Scientists” was about Sir Frederick Grant Banting, co-discoverer of Insulin, who also researched in Aviation and Diving Medicines, results of which brought extraordinary benefits for Flight crew during the World War II. The article was published in the previous issue of the Journal Unknown facets could be celebrated attributes, talents or otherwise, but it is necessary that we get to know fully about the “great mind". THIS ARTICLE IS ABOUT DR WERNER THEODOR OTTO FORSSMANN, A CARDIOLOGIST, WHO BECAME A UROLOGIST! Does the name Dr Forssmann ring a bell? He shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with “Andre Cournand and Dickinson Richards". The trio was awarded for their “discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system". Dr Forssmann was nominated for performing an experiment in which he introduced a catheter into a vein of his arm, further passing it onward into his heart It was risky. This was in the year 1929. Subject of this article is the self-experimentation he carried out and what happened later.

  16. Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaoming; Luo Haigeng; Yue Chaoyuan; Liao Xiaoxin

    2008-01-01

    Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer is discussed generally. Based on the work of Guan et al. [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26], the design of unknown parameter observer is improved. The application of the improved approach is extended greatly. The works in some literatures [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26; J.H. Lue, S.C. Zhang, Phys. Lett. A 286 (2001) 148; X.Q. Wu, J.A. Lu, Chaos Solitons Fractals 18 (2003) 721; J. Liu, S.H. Chen, J. Xie, Chaos Solitons Fractals 19 (2004) 533] are only the special cases of our Corollaries 1 and 2. Some observers for Lue system and a new chaos system are designed to test our improved method, and simulations results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the improved approach

  17. Unknown quantum states: The quantum de Finetti representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caves, Carlton M.; Fuchs, Christopher A.; Schack, Ruediger

    2002-01-01

    We present an elementary proof of the quantum de Finetti representation theorem, a quantum analog of de Finetti's classical theorem on exchangeable probability assignments. This contrasts with the original proof of Hudson and Moody [Z. Wahrschein. verw. Geb. 33, 343 (1976)], which relies on advanced mathematics and does not share the same potential for generalization. The classical de Finetti theorem provides an operational definition of the concept of an unknown probability in Bayesian probability theory, where probabilities are taken to be degrees of belief instead of objective states of nature. The quantum de Finetti theorem, in a closely analogous fashion, deals with exchangeable density-operator assignments and provides an operational definition of the concept of an ''unknown quantum state'' in quantum-state tomography. This result is especially important for information-based interpretations of quantum mechanics, where quantum states, like probabilities, are taken to be states of knowledge rather than states of nature. We further demonstrate that the theorem fails for real Hilbert spaces and discuss the significance of this point

  18. Atmospheric turbulence profiling with unknown power spectral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, Tapio; Kindermann, Stefan; Lehtonen, Jonatan; Ramlau, Ronny

    2018-04-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology in modern ground-based optical telescopes to compensate for the wavefront distortions caused by atmospheric turbulence. One method that allows to retrieve information about the atmosphere from telescope data is so-called SLODAR, where the atmospheric turbulence profile is estimated based on correlation data of Shack-Hartmann wavefront measurements. This approach relies on a layered Kolmogorov turbulence model. In this article, we propose a novel extension of the SLODAR concept by including a general non-Kolmogorov turbulence layer close to the ground with an unknown power spectral density. We prove that the joint estimation problem of the turbulence profile above ground simultaneously with the unknown power spectral density at the ground is ill-posed and propose three numerical reconstruction methods. We demonstrate by numerical simulations that our methods lead to substantial improvements in the turbulence profile reconstruction compared to the standard SLODAR-type approach. Also, our methods can accurately locate local perturbations in non-Kolmogorov power spectral densities.

  19. Three-dimensional cinematography with control object of unknown shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapena, J; Harman, E A; Miller, J A

    1982-01-01

    A technique for reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) motion which involves a simple filming procedure but allows the deduction of coordinates in large object volumes was developed. Internal camera parameters are calculated from measurements of the film images of two calibrated crosses while external camera parameters are calculated from the film images of points in a control object of unknown shape but at least one known length. The control object, which includes the volume in which the activity is to take place, is formed by a series of poles placed at unknown locations, each carrying two targets. From the internal and external camera parameters, and from locations of the images of point in the films of the two cameras, 3D coordinates of the point can be calculated. Root mean square errors of the three coordinates of points in a large object volume (5m x 5m x 1.5m) were 15 mm, 13 mm, 13 mm and 6 mm, and relative errors in lengths averaged 0.5%, 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively.

  20. Reactive Path Planning Approach for Docking Robots in Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous robots need to be recharged and exchange information with the host through docking in the long-distance tasks. Therefore, feasible path is required in the docking process to guide the robot and adjust its pose. However, when there are unknown obstacles in the work area, it becomes difficult to determine the feasible path for docking. This paper presents a reactive path planning approach named Dubins-APF (DAPF to solve the path planning problem for docking in unknown environment with obstacles. In this proposed approach the Dubins curves are combined with the designed obstacle avoidance potential field to plan the feasible path. Firstly, an initial path is planned and followed according to the configurations of the robot and the docking station. Then when the followed path is evaluated to be infeasible, the intermediate configuration is calculated as well as the replanned path based on the obstacle avoidance potential field. The robot will be navigated to the docking station with proper pose eventually via the DAPF approach. The proposed DAPF approach is efficient and does not require the prior knowledge about the environment. Simulation results are given to validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed approach.

  1. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a remaining lifetime management system for NPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, J.C.; Regano, M.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1994-01-01

    The interest evinced by Spain nuclear power plants in providing a tool to support remaining lifetime management led to UNESA's application to OCIDE in 1992, and the latter's approval, for financing the project to develop a Remaining Lifetime Evaluation System for LWR nuclear power plants. This project is currently being developed under UNESA leadership, and the collaboration of three Spanish engineering companies and a research centre. The paper will describe its objectives, activities, current status and prospects. The project is defined in two phases, the first consisting of the identification and analysis of the main ageing phenomena and their significant parameters and specification of the Remaining Lifetime Evaluation System (RLES), and the second implementation of a pilot application of the RLES to verify its effectiveness. (Author)

  3. Remaining life assessment of a high pressure turbine rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ninh; Little, Alfie

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes finite element and fracture mechanics based modelling work that provides a useful tool for evaluation of the remaining life of a high pressure (HP) steam turbine rotor that had experienced thermal fatigue cracking. An axis-symmetrical model of a HP rotor was constructed. Steam temperature, pressure and rotor speed data from start ups and shut downs were used for the thermal and stress analysis. Operating history and inspection records were used to benchmark the damage experienced by the rotor. Fracture mechanics crack growth analysis was carried out to evaluate the remaining life of the rotor under themal cyclic loading conditions. The work confirmed that the fracture mechanics approach in conjunction with finite element modelling provides a useful tool for assessing the remaining life of high temperature components in power plants.

  4. On random age and remaining lifetime for populations of items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkelstein, M.; Vaupel, J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider items that are incepted into operation having already a random (initial) age and define the corresponding remaining lifetime. We show that these lifetimes are identically distributed when the age distribution is equal to the equilibrium distribution of the renewal theory. Then we...... develop the population studies approach to the problem and generalize the setting in terms of stationary and stable populations of items. We obtain new stochastic comparisons for the corresponding population ages and remaining lifetimes that can be useful in applications. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley...

  5. Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Undersea Vehicle in Unknown Unstructured Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheping Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To avoid obstacle in the unknown environment for unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV, an obstacle avoiding system based on improved vector field histogram (VFH is designed. Forward looking sonar is used to detect the environment, and the divisional sonar modal is applied to deal with the measure uncertainty. To adapt to the VFH, rolling occupancy grids are used for the map building, and high accuracy details of local environment are obtained. The threshold is adaptively adjusted by the statistic of obstacles to solve the problem that VFH is sensitive to threshold. To improve the environment adaptability, the hybrid-behaviors strategy is proposed, which selects the optimal avoidance command according to the motion status and environment character. The simulation shows that UUV could avoid the obstacles fast and escape from the U shape obstacles.

  6. Impact of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhausen, J.; Stoeblen, F.; Mueller, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin. Material and Methods: Sixty-three consecutive intensive care patients with suspicion of an abscess and negative or inconclusive previous radiological examinations were included. CT was performed using the helical technique. A total of 45 abdominal and 38 chest examinations were evaluated. Results: 5/38 examinations of the chest revealed the source of sepsis (pleural empyema 2, lung abscess 1, mediastinitis 1, retrosternal abscess 1). 7/45 abdominal CT examinations showed the source of sepsis (intraabdominal abscess 2, hepatic abscess 3, intestinal perforation 1, gangrenous colitis 1). Conclusion: CT is useful for the evaluation of patients with fever or sepsis without a known source. Due to the detection of a spetic focus by CT, 19% of the patients in our study could be immediately referred to causal therapy as percutaneous drainage or surgery. (orig.)

  7. Impact of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhausen, J.; Stoeblen, F.; Mueller, R.D. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Dominguez-Fernandez, E. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of General Surgery; Henseke, P. [Nycomed-Amersham Arzneimittel GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin. Material and Methods: Sixty-three consecutive intensive care patients with suspicion of an abscess and negative or inconclusive previous radiological examinations were included. CT was performed using the helical technique. A total of 45 abdominal and 38 chest examinations were evaluated. Results: 5/38 examinations of the chest revealed the source of sepsis (pleural empyema 2, lung abscess 1, mediastinitis 1, retrosternal abscess 1). 7/45 abdominal CT examinations showed the source of sepsis (intraabdominal abscess 2, hepatic abscess 3, intestinal perforation 1, gangrenous colitis 1). Conclusion: CT is useful for the evaluation of patients with fever or sepsis without a known source. Due to the detection of a spetic focus by CT, 19% of the patients in our study could be immediately referred to causal therapy as percutaneous drainage or surgery. (orig.)

  8. Mobile robot navigation in unknown static environments using ANFIS controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Pandey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Navigation and obstacle avoidance are the most important task for any mobile robots. This article presents the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS controller for mobile robot navigation and obstacle avoidance in the unknown static environments. The different sensors such as ultrasonic range finder sensor and sharp infrared range sensor are used to detect the forward obstacles in the environments. The inputs of the ANFIS controller are obstacle distances obtained from the sensors, and the controller output is a robot steering angle. The primary objective of the present work is to use ANFIS controller to guide the mobile robot in the given environments. Computer simulations are conducted through MATLAB software and implemented in real time by using C/C++ language running Arduino microcontroller based mobile robot. Moreover, the successful experimental results on the actual mobile robot demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed controller.

  9. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Hernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV. To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  10. Metastatic cancer of unknown primary in 21 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, F; Aresu, L; Vignoli, M; Buracco, P; Bettini, G; Ferro, S; Gattino, F; Ghiani, F; Costantino, R; Ressel, L; Bellei, E; Marconato, L

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to describe clinical features, treatment and outcome of 21 dogs with metastatic cancer of unknown primary (MCUP), a biopsy-proven malignancy being diagnosed at a metastatic stage, in which the anatomical origin of the primary tumour cannot be detected. All dogs underwent total-body computed tomography. Signalment, type and duration of clinical signs, metastasis site, pathology results, treatment and outcome were recorded. Carcinoma was the most common diagnosis (57.1%), followed by sarcoma, melanoma and mast cell tumour. The median number of disease sites per dog was 2, with bones, lymph nodes, lungs and spleen being the most frequent metastatic locations. The median survival for all dogs was 30 days. Overall, a primary site was not identified in 20 (95.2%) dogs. MCUP encompasses a variety of different pathologic entities and harbours a poor prognosis. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Distributed Synchronization Control of Multiagent Systems With Unknown Nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shize; Lin, Zongli; Garcia, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits the distributed adaptive control problem for synchronization of multiagent systems where the dynamics of the agents are nonlinear, nonidentical, unknown, and subject to external disturbances. Two communication topologies, represented, respectively, by a fixed strongly-connected directed graph and by a switching connected undirected graph, are considered. Under both of these communication topologies, we use distributed neural networks to approximate the uncertain dynamics. Decentralized adaptive control protocols are then constructed to solve the cooperative tracker problem, the problem of synchronization of all follower agents to a leader agent. In particular, we show that, under the proposed decentralized control protocols, the synchronization errors are ultimately bounded, and their ultimate bounds can be reduced arbitrarily by choosing the control parameter appropriately. Simulation study verifies the effectiveness of our proposed protocols.

  12. Villitis of unknown aetiology: correlation of recurrence with clinical outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeley, L

    2010-01-01

    Villitis of unknown aetiology (VUA) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Consequently, an ability to predict recurrence could be clinically relevant. We examined placentas where villitis was diagnosed in a previous pregnancy to establish the risk of recurrence and outcome. A total of 304 cases of VUA were diagnosed in our laboratory over a 4-year period. Subsequently, 19 of this cohort had a second placenta examined histologically. Recurrence and clinical outcome were recorded. Villitis recurred in 7 of 19 cases (37%). There was a high level of adverse pregnancy outcome in this cohort overall, characterised by small for gestational age infants and stillbirth, particularly in cases with high-grade villitis. We identified recurrent villitis more frequently than previously reported. Our findings confirm an association between high-grade villitis and poor outcome. Adequately powered prospective studies are required to determine if enhanced surveillance of subsequent pregnancies is indicated following a diagnosis of villitis.

  13. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in agricultural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer, Miguel; Herrera, Raúl; Orantes, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, Central America, Egypt, India and Sri Lanka have reported a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. This essay examines the disease's case definitions, epidemiology (disease burden, demographics, associated risk factors) and causal hypotheses, by reviewing published findings from El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Sri Lanka, Egypt and India. The range of confirmed chronic kidney disease prevalence was 17.9%-21.1%. Prevalence of reduced glomerular filtration (homemade alcohol use and family history of chronic kidney disease. There is no strong evidence for a single cause, and multiple environmental, occupational and social factors are probably involved. Further etiological research is needed, plus interventions to reduce preventable risk factors.

  14. A Brief Introduction on Mystery, the Unknown, Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Scanlan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this age of globalization, this age of so many ways to know—and so many ways to know things so quickly—it is both satisfying and deeply unnerving to come upon things and events that are really hard to understand, things and events so shocking or strange or mysterious, that they seem Unknown. Perhaps even unknowable. The first note of NANO Issue 2 focuses on an unsolved murder and reveals a mystery that is confounding, creepy, and yet oddly compelling. In “Karr’s Kill Cult: Virtual Cults and Pseudo-Killing in the Digital Age,” Jeremy Biles and Brian Collins explore the edges of where cyber-crime threatens to turn real—and vice versa. In the second note, Jennifer Ballengee compares Oedipus at Colonus with Don DeLillo’s Falling Man.

  15. Searching for unknown transfusion-transmitted hepatitis viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, G.; Hjalgrim, H.; Rostgaard, K.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Both hepatitis B and C viruses were transmitted through blood transfusion before implementation of donor screening. The existence of additional, yet unknown transfusion transmittable agents causing liver disease could have important public health implications. Methods: Analyses were...... 1992 to account for the effect of screening for hepatitis C virus. Results: A total of 1 482 922 transfused patients were included in the analyses. Analyses showed evidence of transfusion transmission of liver diseases before, but not after the implementation of hepatitis C virus screening in 1992...... for transfusion transmission of agents causing liver disease after the implementation of screening for hepatitis B and C, and suggest that if such transmission does occur, it is rare....

  16. Analysing Trust Transitivity and The Effects of Unknown Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touhid Bhuiyan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Trust can be used to improve online automated recommendation within a given domain. Trust transitivity is used to make it successful. But trust transitivity has different interpretations. Trust and trust transitivity; both are the human mental phenomenon and for this reason, there is no such thing as objective transitivity. Trust transitivity and trust fusion both are important elements in computational trust. This paper analyses the parameter dependence problem in trust transitivity and proposes some definitions considering the effects of base rate. In addition, it also proposes belief functions based on subjective logic to analyse trust transitivity of three specified cases with sensitive and insensitive based rate. Then it presents a quantitative analysis of the effects of unknown dependence problem in an interconnected network environment; such Internet.

  17. Heuristic method for searching global maximum of multimodal unknown function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, K; Araki, Y; Inoue, K

    1983-06-01

    The method is composed of three kinds of searches. They are called g (grasping)-mode search, f (finding)-mode search and c (confirming)-mode search. In the g-mode search and the c-mode search, a heuristic method is used which was extracted from search behaviors of human subjects. In f-mode search, the simplex method is used which is well known as a search method for unimodal unknown function. Each mode search and its transitions are shown in the form of flowchart. The numerical results for one-dimensional through six-dimensional multimodal functions prove the proposed search method to be an effective one. 11 references.

  18. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  19. Predicting the Remaining Useful Life of Rolling Element Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooghoudt, Jan Otto; Jantunen, E; Yi, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Condition monitoring of rolling element bearings is of vital importance in order to keep the industrial wheels running. In wind industry this is especially important due to the challenges in practical maintenance. The paper presents an attempt to improve the capability of prediction of remaining...

  20. The experiences of remaining nurse tutors during the transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transformation of public services and education in South Africa is part of the political and socioeconomic transition to democracy. Changes are occurring in every fi eld, including that of the health services. A qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the experiences of the remaining nurse tutors at a school of ...

  1. Remaining childless : Causes and consequences from a life course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is know about childless individuals in the Netherlands, although currently one out of every five Dutch individuals remains childless. Who are they? How did they end up being childless? How and to what extent are their life outcomes influenced by their childlessness? By focusing on individual

  2. Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains of apartheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Truth and Reconciliation Commission made significant progress in examining abuses committed during the apartheid era in South Africa. Despite information revealed by the commission, a large number of individuals remained missing when the commission closed its proceedings. This provided the impetus for the ...

  3. Palmar, Patellar, and Pedal Human Remains from Pavlov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trinkaus, E.; Wojtal, P.; Wilczyński, J.; Sázelová, Sandra; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, June (2017), s. 73-101 ISSN 1545-0031 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Gravettian * human remains * isolated bones * anatomically modern humans * Upper Paleolithic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology http://paleoanthro.org/media/journal/content/PA20170073.pdf

  4. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Pearce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1 what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2 what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  5. Authentic leadership: becoming and remaining an authentic nurse leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lin G

    2012-11-01

    This article explores how chief nurse executives became and remained authentic leaders. Using narrative inquiry, this qualitative study focused on the life stories of participants. Results demonstrate the importance of reframing, reflection in alignment with values, and the courage needed as nurse leaders progress to authenticity.

  6. Robotics to enable older adults to remain living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alan J; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  7. Dinosaur remains from the type Maastrichtian: An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weishampel, David B.; Mulder, Eric W A; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W M; Jianu, Coralia Maria; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Peeters, Hans H G; Schulp, Anne S.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated cranial and post-cranial remains of hadrosaurid dinosaurs have been collected from various outcrops in the type area of the Maastrichtian stage during the last few years. In the present contribution, dentary and maxillary teeth are recorded from the area for the first time. Post-cranial

  8. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  9. Calculation of Unknown Preoperative K Readings in Postrefractive Surgery Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Rosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the unknown preoperative K readings (Kpre to be used in history-based methods, for intraocular lens (IOL power calculation in patients who have undergone myopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. Methods. A regression formula generated from the left eyes of 174 patients who had undergone PRK for myopia or for myopic astigmatism was compared with other methods in 168 right eyes. The Pearson index and paired t-test were utilized for statistical analysis. Results. The differences between Kpre and those obtained with the other methods were as follows: 0.61 ± 0.94 D (range: −3.94 to 2.05 D, p<0.01 subtracting the effective treatment, 0.01 ± 0.86 D (range: −2.61 to 2.34 D, p=0.82 with Rosa’s formula, −0.02 ± 1.31 D (range: −3.43 to 3.68 D, p=0.82 with the current study formula, and −0.43 ± 1.40 D (range: −3.98 to 3.12 D, p<0.01 utilizing a mean K (Km of 43.5 D. Conclusions. These formulas may permit the utilization of history-based methods, that is, the double-K method in calculating the IOL power following PRK when Kpre are unknown.

  10. Smooth extrapolation of unknown anatomy via statistical shape models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupp, R. B.; Chiang, H.; Otake, Y.; Murphy, R. J.; Gordon, C. R.; Armand, M.; Taylor, R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Several methods to perform extrapolation of unknown anatomy were evaluated. The primary application is to enhance surgical procedures that may use partial medical images or medical images of incomplete anatomy. Le Fort-based, face-jaw-teeth transplant is one such procedure. From CT data of 36 skulls and 21 mandibles separate Statistical Shape Models of the anatomical surfaces were created. Using the Statistical Shape Models, incomplete surfaces were projected to obtain complete surface estimates. The surface estimates exhibit non-zero error in regions where the true surface is known; it is desirable to keep the true surface and seamlessly merge the estimated unknown surface. Existing extrapolation techniques produce non-smooth transitions from the true surface to the estimated surface, resulting in additional error and a less aesthetically pleasing result. The three extrapolation techniques evaluated were: copying and pasting of the surface estimate (non-smooth baseline), a feathering between the patient surface and surface estimate, and an estimate generated via a Thin Plate Spline trained from displacements between the surface estimate and corresponding vertices of the known patient surface. Feathering and Thin Plate Spline approaches both yielded smooth transitions. However, feathering corrupted known vertex values. Leave-one-out analyses were conducted, with 5% to 50% of known anatomy removed from the left-out patient and estimated via the proposed approaches. The Thin Plate Spline approach yielded smaller errors than the other two approaches, with an average vertex error improvement of 1.46 mm and 1.38 mm for the skull and mandible respectively, over the baseline approach.

  11. A 'range test' for determining scatterers with unknown physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthast, Roland; Sylvester, John; Kusiak, Steven

    2003-06-01

    We describe a new scheme for determining the convex scattering support of an unknown scatterer when the physical properties of the scatterers are not known. The convex scattering support is a subset of the scatterer and provides information about its location and estimates for its shape. For convex polygonal scatterers the scattering support coincides with the scatterer and we obtain full shape reconstructions. The method will be formulated for the reconstruction of the scatterers from the far field pattern for one or a few incident waves. The method is non-iterative in nature and belongs to the type of recently derived generalized sampling schemes such as the 'no response test' of Luke-Potthast. The range test operates by testing whether it is possible to analytically continue a far field to the exterior of any test domain Omegatest. By intersecting the convex hulls of various test domains we can produce a minimal convex set, the convex scattering support of which must be contained in the convex hull of the support of any scatterer which produces that far field. The convex scattering support is calculated by testing the range of special integral operators for a sampling set of test domains. The numerical results can be used as an approximation for the support of the unknown scatterer. We prove convergence and regularity of the scheme and show numerical examples for sound-soft, sound-hard and medium scatterers. We can apply the range test to non-convex scatterers as well. We can conclude that an Omegatest which passes the range test has a non-empty intersection with the infinity-support (the complement of the unbounded component of the complement of the support) of the true scatterer, but cannot find a minimal set which must be contained therein.

  12. Identification of unknown sample using NAA, EDXRF, XRD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvi, Aditi A.; Swain, K.K.; Chavan, Trupti; Remya Devi, P.S.; Wagh, D.N.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry Division (ACD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) receives samples from law enforcement agencies such as Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, Customs for analysis. Five unknown grey powdered samples were received for identification and were suspected to be Iridium (Ir). Identification of unknown sample is always a challenging task and suitable analytical techniques have to be judiciously utilized for arriving at the conclusion. Qualitative analysis was carried out using Jordan Valley, EX-3600 M Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer at ACD, BARC. A SLP series LEO Si (Li) detector (active area: 30 mm 2 ; thickness: 3.5 mm; resolution: 140 eV at 5.9 keV of Mn K X-ray) was used during the measurement and only characteristic X-rays of Ir (Lα: 9.17 keV and Lβ: 10.70 keV) was seen in the X-ray spectrum. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement results indicated that the Ir was in the form of metal. To confirm the XRD data, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was carried out by irradiating samples and elemental standards (as comparator) in graphite reflector position of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor Critical Facility (AHWR CF) reactor, BARC, Mumbai. After suitable decay period, gamma activity measurements were carried out using 45% HPGe detector coupled to 8 k multi channel analyzer. Characteristic gamma line at 328.4 keV of the activation product 194 Ir was used for quantification of iridium and relative method of NAA was used for concentration calculations. NAA results confirmed that all the samples were Iridium metal. (author)

  13. Microbial Dark Matter Phase II: Stepping deeper into unknown territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarett, Jessica; Dunfield, Peter; Peura, Sari; Wielen, Paul van der; Hedlund, Brian; Elshahed, Mostafa; Kormas, Konstantinos; Stott, Andreas Teske8, Matt; Birkeland, Nils-Kare; Zhang, Chuanlun; Rengefors, Karin; Lindemann, Stephen; Ravin, Nikolai V.; Spear, John; Hallam, Steven; Crowe, Sean; Steele, Jillian; Goudeau, Danielle; Malmstrom, Rex; Kyrpides, Nikos; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-10-27

    Currently available microbial genomes are of limited phylogenetic breadth due to our historical inability to cultivate most microorganisms in the laboratory. The first phase of the Microbial Dark Matter project used single-cell genomics to sequence 201 single cells from uncultivated lineages, and was able to resolve new superphyla and reveal novel metabolic features in bacteria and archaea. However, many fundamental questions about the evolution and function of microbes remain unanswered, and many candidate phyla remain uncharacterized. Phase II of the Microbial Dark Matter project will target candidate phyla with no sequenced representatives at a variety of new sites using a combination of single-cell sequencing and shotgun metagenomics approaches.

  14. Treatment-related changes in serum lipids and inflammation: clinical relevance remains unclear. Analyses from the Women's Interagency HIV Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M; Landay, Alan L; Hodis, Howard N; Gange, Stephen J; Norris, Philip J; Young, Mary; Anastos, Kathryn; Tien, Phyllis C; Xue, Xiaonan; Lazar, Jason; Benning, Lorie; Tracy, Russell P; Kaplan, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Summary Among 127 HIV-infected women, the magnitude of HDLc increases after HAART initiation predicted the magnitude of concurrent decreases in inflammation biomarkers. After HAART initiation, changes in LDLc and inflammation were unrelated. In the same population, predicted risk of coronary heart disease based upon levels of standard clinical risk factors was similar before and after HAART treatment. Thus, it remains unknown whether short-term treatment-related changes in standard risk factors may appreciably change risk of CVD. PMID:23435295

  15. Current status and bioanalytical challenges in the detection of unknown anabolic androgenic steroids in doping control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Oscar J; De Brabanter, Nik; Fabregat, Andreu; Segura, Jordi; Ventura, Rosa; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2013-11-01

    Androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) are prohibited in sports due to their anabolic effects. Doping control laboratories usually face the screening of AAS misuse by target methods based on MS detection. Although these methods allow for the sensitive and specific detection of targeted compounds and metabolites, the rest remain undetectable. This fact opens a door for cheaters, since different AAS can be synthesized in order to evade doping control tests. This situation was evidenced in 2003 with the discovery of the designer steroid tetrahydrogestrinone. One decade after this discovery, the detection of unknown AAS still remains one of the main analytical challenges in the doping control field. In this manuscript, the current situation in the detection of unknown AAS is reviewed. Although important steps have been made in order to minimize this analytical problem and different analytical strategies have been proposed, there are still some drawbacks related to each approach.

  16. Unknown and abnormal accumulation in the chest in bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiaki; Takeuchi, Masashi; Tokunaga, Koji; Maeda, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Kazuhiko.

    1979-01-01

    In scintigraphies of forty patients with hemiplegia following appoplexia, focal abnormal accumulations in the chest region were seen in bone scintigraphies of four patients. These hot accumulations could be neither rib fracture, rib metastases, nor abnormal calcium accumulation. A mechanism of these accumulation remains to undicided. We believe that this phenomena is related to abnormal bone metabolism in hemiplegial condition. (author)

  17. Safety provision for nuclear power plants during remaining running time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, Alexander; Hentschel, Anja

    2012-01-01

    With the phasing-out of the industrial use of nuclear energy for the power generation, the risk of the nuclear power plants has not been eliminated in principle, but only for a limited period of time. Therefore, the remaining nine nuclear power plants must also be used for the remaining ten years according to the state of science and technology. Regulatory authorities must substantiate the safety requirements for each nuclear power plant and enforce these requirements by means of various regulatory measures. The consequences of Fukushima must be included in the assessment of the safety level of nuclear power plants in Germany. In this respect, the regulatory authorities have the important tasks to investigate and assess the security risks as well as to develop instructions and orders.

  18. Structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania, Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratati Sen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The fortifications of mediaeval India occupy an eminent position in the history of military architecture. The present paper deals with the preliminary study of the structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania in the district of Balasore in Orissa. The fort was built of stone very loosely kept together. The three-walled fortification interspersed by two consecutive moats, a feature evidenced at Raibania, which is unparallel in the history of ancient and mediaeval forts and fortifications in India. Several other structures like the Jay-Chandi Temple Complex, a huge well, numerous tanks and remains of an ancient bridge add to the uniqueness of the Fort in the entire eastern region.

  19. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  20. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOFARO, R.; SOO, P.; VILLARAN, M.; GROVE, E.

    2001-01-01

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed

  1. Study on remain actinides recovery in pyro reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharto, Bambang

    1996-01-01

    The spent fuel reprocessing by dry process called pyro reprocessing have been studied. Most of U, Pu and MA (minor actinides) from the spent fuel will be recovered and be fed back to the reactor as new fuel. Accumulation of remain actinides will be separated by extraction process with liquid cadmium solvent. The research was conducted by computer simulation to calculate the stage number required. The calculation's results showed on the 20 stages extractor more than 99% actinides can be separated. (author)

  2. US GAAP vs. IFRS – A COMPARISON OF REMAINING DIFFERENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Mihelčić, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the on-going harmonization process, there are still some differences between US GAAP and IFRS. Currently, companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange, which are reporting according to IFRS, must still prepare the reconciliation to US GAAP, to show the financial statements compliant with US GAAP as well. This article presents an overview of the remaining major differences between US GAAP and IFRS, descriptive as well as table-wise. First, the standards compared are shortly intr...

  3. Structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania, Orissa

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Bratati

    2013-01-01

    The fortifications of mediaeval India occupy an eminent position in the history of military architecture. The present paper deals with the preliminary study of the structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania in the district of Balasore in Orissa. The fort was built of stone very loosely kept together. The three-walled fortification interspersed by two consecutive moats, a feature evidenced at Raibania, w...

  4. Calibration of C-14 dates: some remaining uncertainties and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burleigh, R.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the interpretation of radiocarbon dates in terms of calendar years. An outline is given of the factors that make such correlations necessary and of the work that has so far been done to make them possible. The calibration of the C-14 timescale very largely depends at present on the bristlecone pine chronology, but it is clear that many detailed uncertainties still remain. These are discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Prognostic modelling options for remaining useful life estimation by industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, J. Z.; Hodkiewicz, M.; Ma, L.

    2011-07-01

    Over recent years a significant amount of research has been undertaken to develop prognostic models that can be used to predict the remaining useful life of engineering assets. Implementations by industry have only had limited success. By design, models are subject to specific assumptions and approximations, some of which are mathematical, while others relate to practical implementation issues such as the amount of data required to validate and verify a proposed model. Therefore, appropriate model selection for successful practical implementation requires not only a mathematical understanding of each model type, but also an appreciation of how a particular business intends to utilise a model and its outputs. This paper discusses business issues that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate modelling approach for trial. It also presents classification tables and process flow diagrams to assist industry and research personnel select appropriate prognostic models for predicting the remaining useful life of engineering assets within their specific business environment. The paper then explores the strengths and weaknesses of the main prognostics model classes to establish what makes them better suited to certain applications than to others and summarises how each have been applied to engineering prognostics. Consequently, this paper should provide a starting point for young researchers first considering options for remaining useful life prediction. The models described in this paper are Knowledge-based (expert and fuzzy), Life expectancy (stochastic and statistical), Artificial Neural Networks, and Physical models.

  6. Remaining useful life estimation based on discriminating shapelet extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Simon; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    In the Prognostics and Health Management domain, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of critical machinery is a challenging task. Various research topics including data acquisition, fusion, diagnostics and prognostics are involved in this domain. This paper presents an approach, based on shapelet extraction, to estimate the RUL of equipment. This approach extracts, in an offline step, discriminative rul-shapelets from an history of run-to-failure data. These rul-shapelets are patterns that are selected for their correlation with the remaining useful life of the equipment. In other words, every selected rul-shapelet conveys its own information about the RUL of the equipment. In an online step, these rul-shapelets are compared to testing units and the ones that match these units are used to estimate their RULs. Therefore, RUL estimation is based on patterns that have been selected for their high correlation with the RUL. This approach is different from classical similarity-based approaches that attempt to match complete testing units (or only late instants of testing units) with training ones to estimate the RUL. The performance of our approach is evaluated on a case study on the remaining useful life estimation of turbofan engines and performance is compared with other similarity-based approaches. - Highlights: • A data-driven RUL estimation technique based on pattern extraction is proposed. • Patterns are extracted for their correlation with the RUL. • The proposed method shows good performance compared to other techniques

  7. Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Eva M; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Kutschera, Walter; Steier, Peter; Trinkaus, Erik; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2005-05-19

    The human fossil assemblage from the Mladec Caves in Moravia (Czech Republic) has been considered to derive from a middle or later phase of the Central European Aurignacian period on the basis of archaeological remains (a few stone artefacts and organic items such as bone points, awls, perforated teeth), despite questions of association between the human fossils and the archaeological materials and concerning the chronological implications of the limited archaeological remains. The morphological variability in the human assemblage, the presence of apparently archaic features in some specimens, and the assumed early date of the remains have made this fossil assemblage pivotal in assessments of modern human emergence within Europe. We present here the first successful direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of five representative human fossils from the site. We selected sample materials from teeth and from one bone for 14C dating. The four tooth samples yielded uncalibrated ages of approximately 31,000 14C years before present, and the bone sample (an ulna) provided an uncertain more-recent age. These data are sufficient to confirm that the Mladec human assemblage is the oldest cranial, dental and postcranial assemblage of early modern humans in Europe and is therefore central to discussions of modern human emergence in the northwestern Old World and the fate of the Neanderthals.

  8. Remaining life diagnosis method and device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Michiyoshi.

    1996-01-01

    A neutron flux measuring means is inserted from the outside of a reactor pressure vessel during reactor operation to forecast neutron-degradation of materials of incore structural components in the vicinity of portions to be measured based on the measured values, and the remaining life of the reactor is diagnosed by the forecast degraded state. In this case, the neutron fluxes to be measured are desirably fast and/or medium neutron fluxes. As the positions where the measuring means is to be inserted, for example, the vicinity of the structural components at the periphery of the fuel assembly is selected. Aging degradation characteristics of the structural components are determined by using the aging degradation data for the structural materials. The remaining life is analyzed based on obtained aging degradation characteristics and stress evaluation data of the incore structural components at portions to be measured. Neutron irradiation amount of structural components at predetermined positions can be recognized accurately, and appropriate countermeasures can be taken depending on the forecast remaining life thereby enabling to improve the reliability of the reactor. (N.H.)

  9. Postmortem Scavenging of Human Remains by Domestic Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Suntirukpong, M.D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crime scene investigators, forensic medicine doctors and pathologists, and forensic anthropologists frequently encounter postmortem scavenging of human remains by household pets. Case presentation: The authors present a case report of a partially skeletonized adult male found dead after more than three months in his apartment in Thailand. The body was in an advanced stage of decomposition with nearly complete skeletonization of the head, neck, hands, and feet. The presence of maggots and necrophagous (flesh eating beetles on the body confirmed that insects had consumed much of the soft tissues. Examination of the hand and foot bones revealed canine tooth puncture marks. Evidence of chewing indicated that one or more of the decedent’s three house cats had fed on the body after death. Recognizing and identifying carnivore and rodent activity on the soft flesh and bones of human remains is important in interpreting and reconstructing postmortem damage. Thorough analysis may help explain why skeletal elements are missing, damaged, or out of anatomical position. Conclusion: This report presents a multi-disciplinary approach combining forensic anthropology and forensic medicine in examining and interpreting human remains.

  10. The unknown-unknowns: Revealing the hidden insights in massive biomedical data using combined artificial intelligence and knowledge networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Yoo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Genomic data is estimated to be doubling every seven months with over 2 trillion bases from whole genome sequence studies deposited in Genbank in just the last 15 years alone. Recent advances in compute and storage have enabled the use of artificial intelligence techniques in areas such as feature recognition in digital pathology and chemical synthesis for drug development. To apply A.I. productively to multidimensional data such as cellular processes and their dysregulation, the data must be transformed into a structured format, using prior knowledge to create contextual relationships and hierarchies upon which computational analysis can be performed. Here we present the organization of complex data into hypergraphs that facilitate the application of A.I. We provide an example use case of a hypergraph containing hundreds of biological data values and the results of several classes of A.I. algorithms applied in a popular compute cloud. While multiple, biologically insightful correlations between disease states, behavior, and molecular features were identified, the insights of scientific import were revealed only when exploration of the data included visualization of subgraphs of represented knowledge. The results suggest that while machine learning can identify known correlations and suggest testable ones, the greater probability of discovering unexpected relationships between seemingly independent variables (unknown-unknowns requires a context-aware system – hypergraphs that impart biological meaning in nodes and edges. We discuss the implications of a combined hypergraph-A.I. analysis approach to multidimensional data and the pre-processing requirements for such a system.

  11. Thin-layer chromatography of polyphosphoinositides from platelet extracts: interference by an unknown phospholipid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tysnes, O.B.; Aarbakke, G.M.; Verhoeven, A.J.; Holmsen, H.

    1985-01-01

    Different ratios of radioactive polyphosphoinositides in platelets pulse-labelled with 32p-orthophosphate have been reported by various laboratories. We studied whether these differences originate from differences in methodology. Extracts of 32p-Pi labelled human platelets were prepared at various times after gel-filtration and phosphatidylinositol (PI)-, mono (PIP)- and bisphosphate (PIP2) were separated by thin-layer chromatography using four different solvent systems. The 32p-levels in PIP and PIP2 remained constant during one hour after gel-filtration, whereas 32p-PI increased continuously and more than doubled within the first h. In two of the systems PIP co-chromatographed with a radioactive compound which separated well from PIP in the two other systems. This unknown compound was also labelled with 3H-glycerol, 3H-inositol and 3H-arachidonic acid, but it was metabolically and functionally different from the polyphosphoinositides. Both the co-chromatography of this unknown phospholipid and the increase in 32p-PI in gel-filtered platelets can explain the difference in 32p-labelling in phosphoinositides reported in the literature

  12. Effects of Memory Colour on Colour Constancy for Unknown Coloured Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J M Granzier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination—colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in the scene. Subjects matched one of four Munsell papers placed in a scene illuminated under either a reddish or a greenish lamp with the Munsell book of colour illuminated by a neutral lamp. The Munsell papers were embedded in four different scenes—one scene containing diagnostically coloured objects, one scene containing incongruent coloured objects, a third scene with geometrical objects of the same colour as the diagnostically coloured objects, and one scene containing non-diagnostically coloured objects (eg, a yellow coffee mug. All objects were placed against a black background. Colour constancy was on average significantly higher for the scene containing the diagnostically coloured objects compared with the other scenes tested. We conclude that the colours of familiar objects help in obtaining colour constancy for unknown objects.

  13. Effects of memory colour on colour constancy for unknown coloured objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2012-01-01

    The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination-colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc) within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in the scene. Subjects matched one of four Munsell papers placed in a scene illuminated under either a reddish or a greenish lamp with the Munsell book of colour illuminated by a neutral lamp. The Munsell papers were embedded in four different scenes-one scene containing diagnostically coloured objects, one scene containing incongruent coloured objects, a third scene with geometrical objects of the same colour as the diagnostically coloured objects, and one scene containing non-diagnostically coloured objects (eg, a yellow coffee mug). All objects were placed against a black background. Colour constancy was on average significantly higher for the scene containing the diagnostically coloured objects compared with the other scenes tested. We conclude that the colours of familiar objects help in obtaining colour constancy for unknown objects.

  14. Kriging with Unknown Variance Components for Regional Ionospheric Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric delay effect is a critical issue that limits the accuracy of precise Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS positioning and navigation for single-frequency users, especially in mid- and low-latitude regions where variations in the ionosphere are larger. Kriging spatial interpolation techniques have been recently introduced to model the spatial correlation and variability of ionosphere, which intrinsically assume that the ionosphere field is stochastically stationary but does not take the random observational errors into account. In this paper, by treating the spatial statistical information on ionosphere as prior knowledge and based on Total Electron Content (TEC semivariogram analysis, we use Kriging techniques to spatially interpolate TEC values. By assuming that the stochastic models of both the ionospheric signals and measurement errors are only known up to some unknown factors, we propose a new Kriging spatial interpolation method with unknown variance components for both the signals of ionosphere and TEC measurements. Variance component estimation has been integrated with Kriging to reconstruct regional ionospheric delays. The method has been applied to data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC and compared with the ordinary Kriging and polynomial interpolations with spherical cap harmonic functions, polynomial functions and low-degree spherical harmonic functions. The statistics of results indicate that the daily ionospheric variations during the experimental period characterized by the proposed approach have good agreement with the other methods, ranging from 10 to 80 TEC Unit (TECU, 1 TECU = 1 × 1016 electrons/m2 with an overall mean of 28.2 TECU. The proposed method can produce more appropriate estimations whose general TEC level is as smooth as the ordinary Kriging but with a smaller standard deviation around 3 TECU than others. The residual results show that the interpolation precision of the

  15. A significant abiotic pathway for the formation of unknown nitrogen in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokic, A.; Schulten, H.-R.; Cutler, J. N.; Schnitzer, M.; Huang, P. M.

    2004-03-01

    The global nitrogen cycle is of prime importance in natural ecosystems. However, the origin and nature of up to one-half of total soil N remains obscure despite all attempts at elucidation. Our data provide, for the first time, unequivocal evidence that the promoting action of Mn (IV) oxide on the Maillard reaction (sugar-amino acid condensation) under ambient conditions results in the abiotic formation of heterocyclic N compounds, which are often referred to as unknown nitrogen, and of amides which are apparently the dominant N moieties in nature. The information presented is of fundamental significance in understanding the role of mineral colloids in abiotic transformations of organic N moieties, the incorporation of N in the organic matrix of fossil fuels, and the global N cycle.

  16. How to know unknown fungi: the role of a herbarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Patrick M; Döring, Heidi; Bidartondo, Martin I

    2009-01-01

    The development of a universal approach to the identification of fungi from the environment is impeded by the limited number and narrow phylogenetic range of the named internal transcribed spacer DNA sequences available on GenBank. The goal here was to assess the potential impact of systematic DNA sequencing from a fungal herbarium collection. DNA sequences were generated from a diverse set of 279 specimens deposited at the fungal herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew (UK) and bioinformatic analyses were used to study their overlap with the public database. It is estimated that c. 70% of the herbarium taxonomic diversity is not yet represented in GenBank and that a further c. 10% of our sequences match solely to 'environmental samples' or fungi otherwise unidentified. Here it is shown that the unsampled diversity residing in fungal herbaria can substantially enlarge the coverage of GenBank's fully identified sequence pool to ameliorate the problem of environmental unknowns and to aid in the detection of truly novel fungi by molecular data.

  17. Developing Probabilistic Safety Performance Margins for Unknown and Underappreciated Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Allan; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Everett, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic safety requirements currently formulated or proposed for space systems, nuclear reactor systems, nuclear weapon systems, and other types of systems that have a low-probability potential for high-consequence accidents depend on showing that the probability of such accidents is below a specified safety threshold or goal. Verification of compliance depends heavily upon synthetic modeling techniques such as PRA. To determine whether or not a system meets its probabilistic requirements, it is necessary to consider whether there are significant risks that are not fully considered in the PRA either because they are not known at the time or because their importance is not fully understood. The ultimate objective is to establish a reasonable margin to account for the difference between known risks and actual risks in attempting to validate compliance with a probabilistic safety threshold or goal. In this paper, we examine data accumulated over the past 60 years from the space program, from nuclear reactor experience, from aircraft systems, and from human reliability experience to formulate guidelines for estimating probabilistic margins to account for risks that are initially unknown or underappreciated. The formulation includes a review of the safety literature to identify the principal causes of such risks.

  18. PMS2 monoallelic mutation carriers: the known unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenberger, McKinsey L; Thomas, Brittany C; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas; Boland, C Richard; Plon, Sharon E; Clendenning, Mark; Win, Aung Ko; Senter, Leigha; Lipkin, Steven M; Stadler, Zsofia K; Macrae, Finlay A; Lynch, Henry T; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; de la Chapelle, Albert; Syngal, Sapna; Lynch, Patrick; Parry, Susan; Jenkins, Mark A; Gallinger, Steven; Holter, Spring; Aronson, Melyssa; Newcomb, Polly A; Burnett, Terrilea; Le Marchand, Loïc; Pichurin, Pavel; Hampel, Heather; Terdiman, Jonathan P; Lu, Karen H; Thibodeau, Stephen; Lindor, Noralane M

    2016-01-01

    Germ-line mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 have been shown to cause Lynch syndrome. The penetrance of the cancer and tumor spectrum has been repeatedly studied, and multiple professional societies have proposed clinical management guidelines for affected individuals. Several studies have demonstrated a reduced penetrance for monoallelic carriers of PMS2 mutations compared with the other mismatch repair (MMR) genes, but clinical management guidelines have largely proposed the same screening recommendations for all MMR gene carriers. The authors considered whether enough evidence existed to propose new screening guidelines specific to PMS2 mutation carriers with regard to age at onset and frequency of colonic screening. Published reports of PMS2 germ-line mutations were combined with unpublished cases from the authors' research registries and clinical practices, and a discussion of potential modification of cancer screening guidelines was pursued. A total of 234 monoallelic PMS2 mutation carriers from 170 families were included. Approximately 8% of those with colorectal cancer (CRC) were diagnosed before age 30, and each of these tumors presented on the left side of the colon. As it is currently unknown what causes the early onset of CRC in some families with monoallelic PMS2 germline mutations, the authors recommend against reducing cancer surveillance guidelines in families found having monoallelic PMS2 mutations in spite of the reduced penetrance.Genet Med 18 1, 13-19.

  19. Systemic treatment of cancer of unknown primary origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) comprises a heterogenous group of cancers with distinct biology and prognosis. There is, however, a specific group of patients with curable diseases, or incurable diseases with good prognosis. The main aim of treatment in the group of patients with CUP is timely initiation of therapy in the cases of curable disease. There is no known standard of care in the cases of CUP with poor prognosis, but most frequently, platinum-based regimens are used. In the cases of specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) or molecular gene expression profile, there are used the treatment regimens similar to those used in the patients with known primary tumor and similar IHC or molecular profile. Currently, most of data in patients with CUP are from phase II clinical trials. Thus proficiently designed phase III randomized clinical trials with translation research is priority, with aim to improve our knowledge and personalize treatment of such heterogenous group of patients as is a group of patients with CUP. (author)

  20. Radiotherapeutic concepts in cancer of unknown primary site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, D.; Debus, J.; Sterzing, F.

    2014-01-01

    The term cancer of unknown primary (CUP) encompasses a group of entities which differ to a great extent regarding etiology, prognosis and therapeutic management. The aim of the study was an elaboration of the role of radiotherapy in CUP syndrome. Systematic literature search and specification of the available treatment options. Radiotherapy is an integral part of interdisciplinary management approaches for patients with CUP in both curative and palliative situations. Radio-oncological techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy and stereotactic body radiotherapy increase the therapeutic window. Modern diagnostic modalities from radiology and nuclear medicine are the cornerstone of radiotherapeutic interventions, especially in terms of target volume definition and pretherapeutic staging. In the interdisciplinary setting radiation oncology offers the possibility of curative and often organ preserving approaches in patients with axillary and cervical CUP. In addition, improvement and preservation of quality of life can be achieved in patients with metastatic disease. Radiation oncology is a crucial component of the interdisciplinary management of patients with CUP. Therapeutic decisions in patients with CUP should be made in an interdisciplinary setting. (orig.) [de

  1. Crowdsourcing the unknown: the satellite search for Genghis Khan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Y M Lin

    Full Text Available Massively parallel collaboration and emergent knowledge generation is described through a large scale survey for archaeological anomalies within ultra-high resolution earth-sensing satellite imagery. Over 10K online volunteers contributed 30K hours (3.4 years, examined 6,000 km², and generated 2.3 million feature categorizations. Motivated by the search for Genghis Khan's tomb, participants were tasked with finding an archaeological enigma that lacks any historical description of its potential visual appearance. Without a pre-existing reference for validation we turn towards consensus, defined by kernel density estimation, to pool human perception for "out of the ordinary" features across a vast landscape. This consensus served as the training mechanism within a self-evolving feedback loop between a participant and the crowd, essential driving a collective reasoning engine for anomaly detection. The resulting map led a National Geographic expedition to confirm 55 archaeological sites across a vast landscape. A increased ground-truthed accuracy was observed in those participants exposed to the peer feedback loop over those whom worked in isolation, suggesting collective reasoning can emerge within networked groups to outperform the aggregate independent ability of individuals to define the unknown.

  2. Dead or Alive? Dealing with Unknown Eligibility in Longitudinal Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Nicole

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal surveys follow people over time and some of these people will die during the life of the panel. Through fieldwork effort, some deaths will be reported or known, but others will be unobserved due to sample members no longer being issued to field or having inconclusive fieldwork outcomes (such as a noncontact that is not followed by a contact at a later wave. The coverage of deaths identified among sample members has flow-on implications to nonresponse correction. Using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA Survey, four methods are used to examine the extent of missing death reports. The first method matches the sample to the national death register. The second method uses life-expectancy tables to extrapolate the expected number of deaths among the sample with unknown eligibility. The third method is similar but models deaths from data internal to the survey. The fourth method models deaths as part of the attrition process of a longitudinal survey. The last three methods are compared to the first method and the implications for the construction of balanced panel weights and subsequent population inference are explored.

  3. Physics at 13 TeV: CMS - scanning the unknown

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    CMS is getting ready to use its accurate detector to scan the many ripples of the unknown physics that may lie beyond the Standard Model. Foremost in everyone’s mind is the search for signs of the production of dark matter at a man-made machine.   Interestingly, the observation of dark matter or new weakly interacting particles implies detecting that some energy has escaped, i.e. it’s missing from the upcoming proton collisions at the LHC. This is why measuring and understanding “missing energy” will be a very important step in that direction. “A large amount of missing energy is the signature for many processes of physics beyond the Standard Model. However, it’s not the only interesting signature that we will be able to exploit when the new collision energy is available,” explains Luca Malgeri, CMS Physics Coordinator. Among the interesting things not associated with missing energy are high-mass resonanc...

  4. Adaptively locating unknown steady states: Formalism and basin of attraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yu; Lin, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The adaptive technique, which includes both dynamical estimators and coupling gains, has been recently verified to be practical for locating the unknown steady states numerically. This Letter, in the light of the center manifold theory for dynamical systems and the matrix spectrum principle, establishes an analytical formalism of this adaptive technique and reveals a connection between this technique and the original adaptive controller which includes only the dynamical estimator. More interestingly, in study of the well-known Lorenz system, the selections of the estimator parameters and initial values are found to be crucial to the successful application of the adaptive technique. Some Milnor-like basins of attraction with fractal structures are found quantitatively. All the results obtained in the Letter can be further extended to more general dynamical systems of higher dimensions. -- Highlights: → Establishing a new and rigorous formalism for the adaptive stabilization technique. → Showing a close connection between the adaptive technique and the original controller. → Providing feasible algorithms for simultaneous stabilization of multiple steady states. → Finding Milnor-like basins of attraction with fractal structures in adaptive control.

  5. Investigation of cervical lymph node metastasis from primary unknown carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Kosuke; Terada, Tomonori; Saeki, Nobuo; Uwa, Nobuhiro; Mohri, Takeshi; Sakagami, Masafumi

    2012-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated 41 patients with metastatic cervical tumors from unknown primary sites at the Hyogo College of Medicine between 1997 and 2007. The N stage classification of cervical lymph nodes was: N1 in 3 cases, N2a in 10 cases, N2b in 10 cases, N2c in 4 cases, and N3 in 14 cases. The histopathological diagnoses of cervical lymph node were: squamous cell carcinoma in 33 cases, adenocarcinoma in 5 cases, undifferentiated carcinoma in 2 cases, and papillary carcinoma in 1 cases. Primary tumor sites were: tonsil in 5 cases, esophaguses in 2 cases, hypopharynxies in 2 cases, and thyroid, oral floor, submandibular gland, lung, gastric and colon in 1 case each. The useful tests were gastric endoscope, positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and blind biopsy of tonsil. We treated 24 of the 41 patients. Therapies were: neck dissection with postoperative radiation therapy in 11 cases, neck dissection alone in 1 case, only radiation or chemoradiation therapy alone in 8 cases, and chemotherapy alone in 4 cases. The 5-year survival rate was 40.1% in all cases and 81.5% in cases who underwent neck dissection. (author)

  6. Gravity, strings and particles a journey into the unknown

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    New fundamental forces of Nature? New forms of "dark'' energy? Signals from epochs preceding the Big Bang? Is our space-time unique? Only a joint study of the three topics examined in this book – gravity, strings and particles – may provide answers to these questions. Such a study may also provide the key to solving one of the most fascinating mysteries of modern science, namely: Besides time and the three spatial dimensions, how many other dimensions exist in our universe? The book is primarily addressed to readers who do not necessarily have a specific background in physics but are nevertheless interested in discovering the originality and the possible implications of some of the amazing ideas in modern theoretical physics. The emphasis is on conveying ideas rather than explaining formulas, focusing not on what is known but -- mainly -- on what is still unknown. Many parts of the book are devoted to fundamental theoretical models and results which are potentially highly relevant for a deeper understand...

  7. Security Measurement for Unknown Threats Based on Attack Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Security measurement matters to every stakeholder in network security. It provides security practitioners the exact security awareness. However, most of the works are not applicable to the unknown threat. What is more, existing efforts on security metric mainly focus on the ease of certain attack from a theoretical point of view, ignoring the “likelihood of exploitation.” To help administrator have a better understanding, we analyze the behavior of attackers who exploit the zero-day vulnerabilities and predict their attack timing. Based on the prediction, we propose a method of security measurement. In detail, we compute the optimal attack timing from the perspective of attacker, using a long-term game to estimate the risk of being found and then choose the optimal timing based on the risk and profit. We design a learning strategy to model the information sharing mechanism among multiattackers and use spatial structure to model the long-term process. After calculating the Nash equilibrium for each subgame, we consider the likelihood of being attacked for each node as the security metric result. The experiment results show the efficiency of our approach.

  8. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  9. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  10. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  11. The Artificial Leaf: Recent Progress and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Symes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of a device that uses solar energy to split water into H2 and O2 is highly attractive in terms of producing hydrogen as a carbon-neutral fuel. In this mini review, key research milestones that have been reached in this field over the last two decades will be discussed, with special focus on devices that use earth-abundant materials. Finally, the remaining challenges in the development of such “artificial leaves” will be highlighted.

  12. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing.

  13. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Frías

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future.

  14. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  15. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  16. Fossil human remains from Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Fernández Peris, Josep; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Quam, Rolf; Carretero, José Miguel; Barciela González, Virginia; Blasco, Ruth; Cuartero, Felipe; Sañudo, Pablo

    2012-05-01

    Systematic excavations carried out since 1989 at Bolomor Cave have led to the recovery of four Pleistocene human fossil remains, consisting of a fibular fragment, two isolated teeth, and a nearly complete adult parietal bone. All of these specimens date to the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene (MIS 7-5e). The fibular fragment shows thick cortical bone, an archaic feature found in non-modern (i.e. non-Homo sapiens) members of the genus Homo. Among the dental remains, the lack of a midtrigonid crest in the M(1) represents a departure from the morphology reported for the majority of Neandertal specimens, while the large dimensions and pronounced shoveling of the marginal ridges in the C(1) are similar to other European Middle and late Pleistocene fossils. The parietal bone is very thick, with dimensions that generally fall above Neandertal fossils and resemble more closely the Middle Pleistocene Atapuerca (SH) adult specimens. Based on the presence of archaic features, all the fossils from Bolomor are attributed to the Neandertal evolutionary lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  18. A method for defleshing human remains using household bleach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert W; Berryman, Hugh E

    2012-03-01

    Medical examiners and forensic anthropologists are often faced with the difficult task of removing soft tissue from the human skeleton without damaging the bones, teeth and, in some cases, cartilage. While there are a number of acceptable methods that can be used to remove soft tissue including macerating in water, simmering or boiling, soaking in ammonia, removing with scissors, knife, scalpel or stiff brush, and dermestid beetles, each has its drawback in time, safety, or potential to damage bone. This technical report using the chest plate of a stabbing victim presents a safe and effective alternative method for removing soft tissue from human remains, in particular the chest plate, following autopsy, without damaging or separating the ribs, sternum, and costal cartilage. This method can be used to reveal subtle blunt force trauma to bone, slicing and stabbing injuries, and other forms of trauma obscured by overlying soft tissue. Despite the published cautionary notes, when done properly household bleach (3-6% sodium hypochlorite) is a quick, safe, and effective method for examining cartilage and exposing skeletal trauma by removing soft tissue from human skeletal remains. 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  19. Duplex Alu Screening for Degraded DNA of Skeletal Human Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Haß

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The human-specific Alu elements, belonging to the class of Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs, have been shown to be a powerful tool for population genetic studies. An earlier study in this department showed that it was possible to analyze Alu presence/absence in 3000-year-old skeletal human remains from the Bronze Age Lichtenstein cave in Lower Saxony, Germany. We developed duplex Alu screening PCRs with flanking primers for two Alu elements, each combined with a single internal Alu primer. By adding an internal primer, the approximately 400–500 bp presence signals of Alu elements can be detected within a range of less than 200 bp. Thus, our PCR approach is suited for highly fragmented ancient DNA samples, whereas NGS analyses frequently are unable to handle repetitive elements. With this analysis system, we examined remains of 12 individuals from the Lichtenstein cave with different degrees of DNA degradation. The duplex PCRs showed fully informative amplification results for all of the chosen Alu loci in eight of the 12 samples. Our analysis system showed that Alu presence/absence analysis is possible in samples with different degrees of DNA degradation and it reduces the amount of valuable skeletal material needed by a factor of four, as compared with a singleplex approach.

  20. Glory on Venus and selection among the unknown UV absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena V.

    2018-05-01

    The comparison of the phase profiles of glories observed on the cloud top of Venus by the Venus Monitoring Camera (Venus Express) and the light-scattering characteristics of sulfuric acid droplets, containing admixtures with a high refractive index, makes it easier to choose between some candidates for the so-called unknown UV absorber in the Venus clouds. Since among the candidates there are materials wetted and not wetted by sulfuric acid, we analyze whether small submicron particles adhered to or embedded into the 1-μm H2SO4 droplets may actually change the glory pattern normally produced by homogeneous spherical particles and what the conditions are, under which the composite particles formed in heterogeneous nucleation may still produce a glory feature. We have found that one of the most frequently considered candidates, sulfur, can hardly be responsible for the contrasts observed at 0.365 μm on the upper clouds, since it is not wetted by sulfuric acid and submicron sulfur particles, serving as condensation nuclei for sulfuric acid, can only adhere to the H2SO4 droplets rather than be enveloped by them. Such droplets decorated by sulfur blobs substantially distort the glory feature characteristic of the scattering by spherical particles or even smooth it at all, while a glory pattern is practically always seen in the images of Venus taken at small phase angles. At the same time, the grains of the other UV absorbers that can be embedded in H2SO4 droplets, e.g., the widely discussed ferric chloride, pose no problem in terms of interpretation of the observations of glory.

  1. Data Series Subtraction with Unknown and Unmodeled Background Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Stefano; Congedo, Giuseppe; Dolesi, Rita; Ferroni, Valerio; Hueller, Mauro; Vetrugno, Daniele; Weber, William Joseph; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, Ingo; hide

    2014-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the precursor mission to a gravitational wave observatory of the European Space Agency, will measure the degree to which two test masses can be put into free fall, aiming to demonstrate a suppression of disturbance forces corresponding to a residual relative acceleration with a power spectral density (PSD) below (30 fm/sq s/Hz)(sup 2) around 1 mHz. In LPF data analysis, the disturbance forces are obtained as the difference between the acceleration data and a linear combination of other measured data series. In many circumstances, the coefficients for this linear combination are obtained by fitting these data series to the acceleration, and the disturbance forces appear then as the data series of the residuals of the fit. Thus the background noise or, more precisely, its PSD, whose knowledge is needed to build up the likelihood function in ordinary maximum likelihood fitting, is here unknown, and its estimate constitutes instead one of the goals of the fit. In this paper we present a fitting method that does not require the knowledge of the PSD of the background noise. The method is based on the analytical marginalization of the posterior parameter probability density with respect to the background noise PSD, and returns an estimate both for the fitting parameters and for the PSD. We show that both these estimates are unbiased, and that, when using averaged Welchs periodograms for the residuals, the estimate of the PSD is consistent, as its error tends to zero with the inverse square root of the number of averaged periodograms. Additionally, we find that the method is equivalent to some implementations of iteratively reweighted least-squares fitting. We have tested the method both on simulated data of known PSD and on data from several experiments performed with the LISA Pathfinder end-to-end mission simulator.

  2. CUP Syndrome-Metastatic Malignancy with Unknown Primary Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaun, Gregor; Schuler, Martin; Herrmann, Ken; Tannapfel, Andrea

    2018-03-09

    2-4% of newly diagnosed cases of malignant disease involve cancer of unknown primary (CUP). This mixed entity is one of the 6 most common types of malignant disease in Germany. Highly refined treatment strategies can now be offered to patients with CUP. This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed with an emphasis on articles from the past decade. The current guidelines and recommendations of specialty societies were also considered in the evaluation. CUP most commonly manifests itself as metastases to the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, or bones. With the aid of imaging studies, including functional hybrid imaging and further medical examination, a primary tumor can be discovered in up to 40% of patients initially diagnosed with CUP. Immunohistochemistry guided by histomorphology often enables precise characterization of the lesion and can be supplemented, in selected cases, by molecular-genetic diagnostic evaluation. The most commonly detected types of primary tumor are cancers of the lung, pancreas, liver, and biliary system. For patients with local metastases, surgical resection or radiotherapy with curative intent is usually indicated, sometimes in the framework of a multimodal treatment concept. The median 2-year survival of patients with disseminated CUP is only 20%. For such patients, specific types of systemic therapy are recommended on the basis of the diagnostic characterization of the disease. Immune-modulatory antibodies can be effective, particularly in the treatment of CUP that has been characterized with biomarkers, but should still be considered experimental at present. A combination of conventional and innovative diagnostic methods enables the provision of highly refined therapeutic strategies to patients with CUP who are undergoing treatment in interdisciplinary cancer centers.

  3. Popular Music in Jia Zhangke’s Unknown Pleasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With his documentary-style films reflecting upon China’s unprecedented transformation from a state-controlled to a market-driven economy, Jia Zhangke has risen from within the movement of independent Chinese cinema that began to flourish in the late 1990s to become one of the most recognized filmmakers of contemporary China. Born in 1970 and raised in the underdeveloped Shanxi Province, Jia studied film theory at Beijing Film Academy and was first noticed for his controversial “Hometown Trilogy”—'Pickpocket '('Xiao Wu', 1997, 'Platform '('Zhantai', 1999, and 'Unknown Pleasures '('Ren xiao yao', 2002. These three films, shot with handheld video camera on the streets of his hometown province, focus on the reckless changes that China’s aggressive economic growth and globalization have brought to socially marginalized groups. Like other independently made films—films that are produced with capital from outside the state-sponsored avenues and without the approval of film censorship, and that are not allowed to be shown in China’s public theaters—Jia’s first three films reach domestic audiences only through unofficial DVD copies and small-scaled screenings at universities, film bars, and art salons. His limited domestic influence sharply contrasts with the critical acclaim that he receives from international film festival audiences, who are searching for alternative film culture from China after the Fifth Generation directors. By the late 1990s, Jia had become a spokesperson for an ever-increasing group of aspiring Chinese independent filmmakers, particularly through writings and interviews that theorize independent Chinese cinema’s practice.

  4. Vestibular Function in Adults With Epilepsy of Unknown Etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Sherifa A; Tohamy, Amal M; Oseilly, Amira M

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate vestibular function in adults with chronic epilepsy of unknown etiology in the inter-ictal period. Epilepsy is a chronic medical disorder. Life-long therapy may be required in one-third of patients. Epilepsy is associated with comorbid somatic conditions which impairs patients' quality of life. This cross-sectional study included 28 with generalized tonic clonic (GTC) convulsions and 14 and 3 with temporal (TLE) and frontal lobe (FLE) epilepsies with secondary generalization (all were on regular carbamazepine therapy) and 40 healthy control subjects. The patients' mean age was 34.97 ± 7.35 years and the duration of illness was 18.75 ± 7.99 years. All underwent videonystagmography (VNG). Compared with controls, patients had frequent vestibular symptoms including dizziness (62.22%) (p = 0.0001) and sense of imbalance (44.44%) (p = 0.0001). Eleven patients (24.44%) had central vestibular dysfunction (p = 0.0001); 9 (20%) had mixed vestibular dysfunction and one (2.22%) had peripheral vestibular dysfunction (p = 0.0001). Abnormalities were observed in saccadic (44.4%) and pursuit (42.2%) eye movements, optokinetic nystagmus (42.2%) and positioning/positional (11.11%) and caloric (13.33%) testing. TLE and FLE were associated with more VNG abnormalities than GTC. No significant differences were observed in the demographic and clinical characteristics between patients with and without VNG abnormalities. Vestibular manifestations are frequent in patients with epilepsy. This may be a result of the permanent damaging effect of chronic epilepsy on the vestibular cortical areas and/or a toxic effect from prolonged carbamazepine therapy on the peripheral and central vestibular systems.

  5. On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.

    1995-10-01

    A fine modelling of the material' behaviour can be necessary to study the mechanical strength of nuclear power plant' components under cyclic loads. Ratchetting is one of the last phenomena for which numerical models have to be improved. We discuss in this paper on use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening to improve the description of ratchetting in biaxial loading tests. It's well known that Chaboche elastoplastic model with two non linear kinematic hardening variables initially proposed by Armstrong and Frederick, usually over-predicts accumulation of ratchetting strain. Burlet and Cailletaud proposed in 1987 a non linear kinematic rule with a radial evanescence remain term. The two models lead to identical formulation for proportional loadings. In the case of a biaxial loading test (primary+secondary loading), Burlet and Cailletaud model leads to accommodation, when Chaboche one's leads to ratchetting with a constant increment of strain. So we can have an under-estimate with the first model and an over-estimate with the second. An easy method to improve the description of ratchetting is to combine the two kinematic rules. Such an idea is already used by Delobelle in his model. With analytical results in the case of tension-torsion tests, we show in a first part of the paper, the interest of radial evanescence remain term in the non linear kinematic rule to describe ratchetting: we give the conditions to get adaptation, accommodation or ratchetting and the value of the strain increment in the last case. In the second part of the paper, we propose to modify the elastoplastic Chaboche model by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters which can be identified independently on biaxial loading tests. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. We use the experimental results on the austenitic steel 316L at room

  6. TMI in perspective: reactor containment stands up, difficult decisions remain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Commonwealth Edison Co. is increasing its commitment to nuclear energy after reviewing the performance of the Three Mile Island reactor containment systems. Both the reactor vessel and the secondary containment remained intact and no radiation was reported in the soil or water. The public discussion of energy options which followed the accident will benefit both the public and technical community even if there is a temporary slowdown in nuclear power development. The realities of energy supplies have become evident; i.e., that nuclear and coal are the only available options for the short-term. The discussion should also lead to better personnel training, regulatory reforms, risk-sharing insurance, and international standards. The public hysteria triggered by the accident stemmed partly from the combination of unfortunate incidents and the media coverage, which led to hasty conclusions

  7. On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the interest which lies in non-linear kinematic hardening rule with radial evanescence remain term as proposed for modelling multiaxial ratchetting. From analytical calculations in the case of the tension/torsion test, this ratchetting is compared with that proposed by Armstrong and Frederick. A modification is then proposed for Chaboche's elastoplastic model with two non-linear kinematic variables, by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. Using biaxial ratchetting tests on stainless steel 316 L specimens at ambient temperature, it is shown that satisfactory modelling of multiaxial ratchetting is obtained. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  8. Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Progress and Remaining Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Shah, Ravi; Eynan, Rahel

    2017-03-01

    The main purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the literature on psychotherapies for borderline personality disorder (BPD) published over the past 5 years to identify the progress with remaining challenges and to determine priority areas for future research. A systematic review of the literature over the last 5 years was undertaken. The review yielded 184 relevant abstracts, and after applying inclusion criteria, 16 articles were fully reviewed based on the articles' implications for future research and/or clinical practice. Our review indicated that patients with various severities benefited from psychotherapy; more intensive therapies were not significantly superior to less intensive therapies; enhancing emotion regulation processes and fostering more coherent self-identity were important mechanisms of change; therapies had been extended to patients with BPD and posttraumatic stress disorder; and more research was needed to be directed at functional outcomes.

  9. [Alcohol and work: remaining sober and return to work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittadini, G; Bandirali, M

    2007-01-01

    One of the most complex alcohol-driven problems is the job loss and the subsequent attempts to return to a professional activity. In order to better understand the issue, an epidemiologic investigation was carried out on a group of 162 alcoholics whilst hospitalised in a specialised clinic. The outcome shows the importance of remaining sober to keep or to be returned to one's own job. Unfortunately, local resources at hand, first of all joining an auto-mutual-help group, re still too little known and thus clearly underemployed. Therefore, an informative action within companies is highly desirable. Those alcoholics suffering from serious illnesses, especially mental ones represent a different issue. For these people a higher involvement of public authorities is desirable in creating protected job openings.

  10. Differential Decomposition Among Pig, Rabbit, and Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautartas, Angela; Kenyhercz, Michael W; Vidoli, Giovanna M; Meadows Jantz, Lee; Mundorff, Amy; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe

    2018-03-30

    While nonhuman animal remains are often utilized in forensic research to develop methods to estimate the postmortem interval, systematic studies that directly validate animals as proxies for human decomposition are lacking. The current project compared decomposition rates among pigs, rabbits, and humans at the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility across three seasonal trials that spanned nearly 2 years. The Total Body Score (TBS) method was applied to quantify decomposition changes and calculate the postmortem interval (PMI) in accumulated degree days (ADD). Decomposition trajectories were analyzed by comparing the estimated and actual ADD for each seasonal trial and by fuzzy cluster analysis. The cluster analysis demonstrated that the rabbits formed one group while pigs and humans, although more similar to each other than either to rabbits, still showed important differences in decomposition patterns. The decomposition trends show that neither nonhuman model captured the pattern, rate, and variability of human decomposition. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Premortal data in the process of skeletal remains identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Nadica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The basic task of a forensic examiner during the exhumation of mass graves or in mass accidents is to establish identity of a person. The results obtained through these procedures depend on the level of perceptibility of post mortal changes and they are compared with premortal data obtained from family members of those missing or killed. Experience with exhumations has shown significant differences between the results obtained through exhumation and the premortal data. The aim of the study was to suggest the existance of the difference between premortal data and the results obtained by exhumation regarding the some parameters, as well as to direct premortal data colection to the specific skeletal forms. Methods. We performed comparative analysis of the results of exhumation of skeletal remains in a mass grave and the premortal data concerning the identified persons. The least number of individuals in this mass grave was calculated according to the upper parts of the right femur and it helped in calculating the smallest number of individuals in mass graves to be 48. A total of 27 persons were identified. Sex was determined by metrics and morphology of the pelvis. Personal age in the moment of death was determined by morphology features of groin symphisis and morphology of sternal edge of ribs and other parts of scelets observations. The hight was calculated as average results of length of long bones and Rollet coefficients. Results. There was a complete match in terms of sex and age matched within an interval that could be established based on the skeletal remains. All the other parameters were different, however, which made identification significantly more difficult. Conclusion. The premortal data is an important element of identification process and it should be obtained by the forensic doctor and directed towards more detailed examination of the skeletal system.

  12. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchio, David J; Balanoff, Amy M; Norell, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  13. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Varricchio

    Full Text Available Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  14. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  15. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  16. Spot market activity remains weak as prices continue to fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market in November 1996 is provided. Price ranges for the restricted and unrestricted markets, conversion, and separative work are listed, and total market volume and new contracts are noted. Transactions made are briefly described. Deals made and pending in the spot concentrates, medium and long-term, conversion, and markets are listed for U.S. and non-U.S. buyers. Spot market activity increased in November with just over 1.0 million lbs of U3O8 equivalent being transacted compared to October's total of 530,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range slipped from $15.50-$15.70/lb U3O8 last month to $14.85/lb - $15.25/lb U3O8 this month. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range also slipped to $14.85/lb - $15.00/lb this month from $15.00/lb - $15.45/lb in October. Spot prices for conversion and separative work units remained at their October levels

  17. Briquettes of plant remains from the greenhouses of Almeria (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejon-Ferre, A. J.; Lopez-Martinez, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    Since ancient times, plant biomass has been used as a primary fuel, and today, with the impending depletion of fossil fuels, these vegetal sources constitute a cleaner alternative and furthermore have a multitude of uses. The aim of the present study is to design a method of recycling and reuse of plant wastes from intensive agriculture under plastic, by manufacturing briquettes in an environmentally friendly manner. In Almeria (SE Spain), agriculture generates 769,500 t year{sup -}1 of plant remains from greenhouse-grown horticultural crops, a resource currently used for composting and for producing electricity.With the machinery and procedures of the present study, another potential use has been developed by detoxifying and eliminating the plastic wastes of the original biomass for the fabrication of briquettes for fireplaces. The results were slightly inferior to the commercial briquette from other non-horticultural plant materials (no forestry material), specifically 2512 kJ kg{sup -}1, in the least favourable case. On the contrary, the heating value with respect to the two charcoals was significantly lower, with a difference of 12,142 kJ kg{sup -}1. In conclusion; a procedure, applicable in ecological cultivation without agrochemicals or plastic cords, has been developed and tested to reuse and transform plant materials from intensive cultivation into a stable non-toxic product similar to composite logs, applicable in commercial settings or in residential fireplaces. (Author) 48 refs.

  18. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  19. Factors influencing home care nurse intention to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Patterson, Erin; Rowe, Alissa; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; MacDonald, Geraldine; Cranley, Lisa; Squires, Mae

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting Canadian home care nurse intention to remain employed (ITR). In developed nations, healthcare continues to shift into community settings. Although considerable research exists on examining nurse ITR in hospitals, similar research related to nurses employed in home care is limited. In the face of a global nursing shortage, it is important to understand the factors influencing nurse ITR across healthcare sectors. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Focus groups were conducted with home care nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six categories of influencing factors were identified by home care nurses as affecting ITR: job characteristics; work structures; relationships/communication; work environment; nurse responses to work; and employment conditions. Findings suggest the following factors influence home care nurse ITR: having autonomy; flexible scheduling; reasonable and varied workloads; supportive work relationships; and receiving adequate pay and benefits. Home care nurses did not identify job satisfaction as a single concept influencing ITR. Home care nursing management should support nurse autonomy, allow flexible scheduling, promote reasonable workloads and create opportunities for team building that strengthen supportive relationships among home care nurses and other health team members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Using contractors to decommission while remaining as licensee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankine, A.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last few years the role of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has changed from one involved in research and development in the field of nuclear power and associated technology, to one of managing the liabilities left over from its previous mission. This period has also seen two significant portions of the organization move to the private sector with sale of the Facilities Services Division to PROCORD and the privatization of AEA Technology. The new UKAEA is therefore a focused liabilities management organization, making the best use of expertise in the private sector in carrying out its mission, but retaining adequate internal resource and expertise to fulful its role and responsibilities as the licensee. UKAEA continues to be committed to giving the highest priority to meeting high standards of safety and environmental protection required of the holder of the Nuclear Site Licence under the Nuclear Installations Act. This paper describes the safety management system within the UKAEA which ensures that UKAEA remains the proper and effective licensee and gives some examples of how this has worked in practice. (author)

  2. Organizational conditions for dealing with the unknown unknown : illustrated by how a Dutch water management authority is preparing for climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Brink, van den M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The central question of this article is the extent to which organizations, governmental authorities in particular, are able to deal with the unknown unknown. Drawing on Weick’s work on sensemaking, we introduce seven organizational conditions that can facilitate organizations to be reliable under

  3. Organizational Conditions for Dealing with The Unknown Unknown Illustrated by how a Dutch water management authority is preparing for climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, Catrien J. A. M.; van den Brink, Margo A.

    2013-01-01

    The central question of this article is the extent to which organizations, governmental authorities in particular, are able to deal with the unknown unknown. Drawing on Weick's work on sensemaking, we introduce seven organizational conditions that can facilitate organizations to be reliable under

  4. Two similar cases of elderly women with moderate abdominal pain and pneumoperitoneum of unknown origin: a surgeon's successful conservative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzens, Fabrizio; Zumstein, Valentin; Bieg, Christian; Ackermann, Christoph

    2016-05-26

    Patients presenting with abdominal pain and pneumoperitoneum in radiological examination usually require emergency explorative laparoscopy or laparotomy. Pneumoperitoneum mostly associates with gastrointestinal perforation. There are very few cases where surgery can be avoided. We present 2 cases of pneumoperitoneum with unknown origin and successful conservative treatment. Both patients were elderly women presenting to our emergency unit, with moderate abdominal pain. There was neither medical intervention nor trauma in their medical history. Physical examination revealed mild abdominal tenderness, but no clinical sign of peritonitis. Cardiopulmonary examination remained unremarkable. Blood studies showed only slight abnormalities, in particular, inflammation parameters were not significantly increased. Finally, obtained CTs showed free abdominal gas of unknown origin in both cases. We performed conservative management with nil per os, nasogastric tube, total parenteral nutrition and prophylactic antibiotics. After 2 weeks, both were discharged home. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    rocks, living, cryopreserved and fossilized extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection of mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria, mats and consortia in many carbonaceous meteorites. These well-preserved and embedded microfossils are consistent with the size, morphology and ultra-microstructure of filamentous trichomic prokaryotes and degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. EDAX elemental studies reveal that the forms in the meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes, and microbial cells. The eextensive protocols and methodologies that have been developed to protect the samples from contamination and to distinguish recent contaminants from indigenous microfossils are described recent bio-contaminants. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in the cells, filaments, trichomes, and hormogonia of recently living cyanobacteria. The results of comparative optical, ESEM and FESEM studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) of similar size, morphology and microstructure to microfossils found embedded in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are presented

  6. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  7. Clarifying some remaining questions in the anomaly puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xing; Parker, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    We discuss several points that may help to clarify some questions that remain about the anomaly puzzle in supersymmetric theories. In particular, we consider a general N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The anomaly puzzle concerns the question of whether there is a consistent way in the quantized theory to put the R-current and the stress tensor in a single supermultiplet called the supercurrent, even though in the classical theory they are in the same supermultiplet. It was proposed that the classically conserved supercurrent bifurcates into two supercurrents having different anomalies in the quantum regime. The most interesting result we obtain is an explicit expression for the lowest component of one of the two supercurrents in 4-dimensional spacetime, namely the supercurrent that has the energy-momentum tensor as one of its components. This expression for the lowest component is an energy-dependent linear combination of two chiral currents, which itself does not correspond to a classically conserved chiral current. The lowest component of the other supercurrent, namely, the R-current, satisfies the Adler-Bardeen theorem. The lowest component of the first supercurrent has an anomaly, which we show is consistent with the anomaly of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. Therefore, we conclude that there is no consistent way to construct a single supercurrent multiplet that contains the R-current and the stress tensor in the straightforward way originally proposed. We also discuss and try to clarify some technical points in the derivations of the two supercurrents in the literature. These latter points concern the significance of infrared contributions to the NSVZ β-function and the role of the equations of motion in deriving the two supercurrents. (orig.)

  8. Will southern California remain a premium market for natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, F.E.

    1991-01-01

    Average yearly demand for natural gas in southern California totalled just over 3 billion ft 3 /d in 1991 and is projected to increase to just over 3.2 billion ft 3 /d in 2000 and 3.4 billion ft 3 /d in 2010. In the core residential market, demand is being driven by population growth and offset by conservation measures. In the core commercial and industrial market, demand is driven by employment growth and offset by conservation. In the noncore market, natural gas use is expected to fall from 262 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 223 million ft 3 /d in 2010. Demand for natural gas for cogeneration is expected to either remain stagnant or decrease. The largest potential for market growth in southern California is for utility electric generation. Demand in this sector is expected to increase from 468 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 1 billion ft 3 in 2010. Air quality concerns furnish a market opportunity for natural gas vehicles, and a substantial increase in natural gas demand might be obtained from even a modest market share of the region's 10 million vehicles. Existing pipeline capacity is sufficient to supply current average year requirements, and the need for new capacity hinges on the issues of satisfying high-year demand, meeting market growth, and accessing more desirable supply regions. Planned capacity additions of 2,150 million ft 3 /d, if completed, will bring substantial excess capacity to southern California in the late 1990s. The competitive advantages of various producing regions will then be greatly influenced by the rate designs used on the pipelines connecting them to the market. 4 tabs

  9. Neutron activation analysis of the prehistoric and ancient bone remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Khatamov, Sh.; Rakhmanova, T.; Akhmadshaev, A.Sh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the work results of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of prehistoric bone remains of dinosaurs and ancient bones of bear, archantrop found out on the territory of Uzbekistan are presents. A bone of dinosaur from Mongolia, standard a bone of the person and soils taken from a surface and from of the femoral joint of a dinosaur were also subject to INAA. The INAA method determines of contents of about 30 elements in bones and soils in an interval 0.043-3600 mg / kg. Among found elements Ca (46 %), Sc, Cr, Fe (up to 2.2 g/kg), Ni, Zn, Sr (up to 3.6 g/kg), Sb, Ba, Sb and some others are mainly found in bones. The contents of some elements in bones of dinosaurs reach very high values 280-3200 mg / kg, and are mainly lanthanides La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu. In our opinion, lanthanides and some other elements, like As, Br, and Mo in bones were formed as a result of fission of uranium and transuranium elements. Because content of uranium in bones of dinosaurs is very high, up to 180 mg / kg, and those of thorium is 20 mg/ kg. However U and Th in soils are 4.8 mg/kg and 3.7 mg / kg, respectively. The content of uranium in bones of the archantrop is 1.53 mg / kg, while U in standard bone of the human is less than 0,016 mg/kg. (author)

  10. The broad spectrum revisited: evidence from plant remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ehud; Wetterstrom, Wilma; Nadel, Dani; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2004-06-29

    The beginning of agriculture is one of the most important developments in human history, with enormous consequences that paved the way for settled life and complex society. Much of the research on the origins of agriculture over the last 40 years has been guided by Flannery's [Flannery, K. V. (1969) in The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, eds. Ucko, P. J. & Dimbleby, G. W. (Duckworth, London), pp. 73-100] "broad spectrum revolution" (BSR) hypothesis, which posits that the transition to farming in southwest Asia entailed a period during which foragers broadened their resource base to encompass a wide array of foods that were previously ignored in an attempt to overcome food shortages. Although these resources undoubtedly included plants, nearly all BSR hypothesis-inspired research has focused on animals because of a dearth of Upper Paleolithic archaeobotanical assemblages. Now, however, a collection of >90,000 plant remains, recently recovered from the Stone Age site Ohalo II (23,000 B.P.), Israel, offers insights into the plant foods of the late Upper Paleolithic. The staple foods of this assemblage were wild grasses, pushing back the dietary shift to grains some 10,000 years earlier than previously recognized. Besides the cereals (wild wheat and barley), small-grained grasses made up a large component of the assemblage, indicating that the BSR in the Levant was even broader than originally conceived, encompassing what would have been low-ranked plant foods. Over the next 15,000 years small-grained grasses were gradually replaced by the cereals and ultimately disappeared from the Levantine diet.

  11. The clandestine multiple graves in Malaysia: The first mass identification operation of human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Noor, Mohd Suhani; Khoo, Lay See; Zamaliana Alias, Wan Zafirah; Hasmi, Ahmad Hafizam; Ibrahim, Mohamad Azaini; Mahmood, Mohd Shah

    2017-09-01

    The first ever mass identification operation of skeletal remains conducted for the clandestine graves in Malaysia consisted of 165 individuals unearthed from 28 human trafficking transit camps located in Wang Kelian, along the Thai-Malaysia border. A DVI response was triggered in which expert teams comprising of pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists, radiologists and DNA experts were gathered at the identified operation centre. The Department of Forensic Medicine, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Star, Kedah, located approximately 75km away from Wang Kelian, was temporarily converted into a victim identification centre (VIC) as it is the nearest available forensic facility to the mass grave site. The mortuary operation was conducted over a period of 3 months from June to September 2015, and was divided into two phases; phase 1 involving the postmortem examination of the remains of 116 suspected individuals and for phase 2 the remains of 49 suspected individuals. The fact that the graves were of unknown individuals afforded the mass identification operation a sufficient duration of 2 weeks as preparatory phase enabling procedurals and daily victim identification workflow to be established, and the setting up of a temporary body storage for the designated mortuary. The temporary body storage has proven to be a significant factor in enabling the successful conclusion of the VIC operation to the final phase of temporary controlled burials. Recognition from two international observers, Mr. Andréas Patiño Umaña, from the International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC) and Prof. Noel Woodford from Victoria Institute of Forensic Medicine (VIFM) had proven the mortuary operation was in compliance to the international quality and standards. The overall victim identification and mortuary operation identified a number of significant challenges, in particular the management of commingled human remains as well as the compilation of postmortem data in the absence of

  12. Arterial stiffness &Sri Lankan chronic kidney disease of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Fiona; Kimmitt, Robert; Herath, Chula; Webb, David J; Melville, Vanessa; Siribaddana, Sisira; Eddleston, Michael; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2016-09-02

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Arterial stiffness contributes to CVD risk in CKD. In many developing countries a considerable proportion of CKD remains unexplained, termed CKDu. We assessed arterial stiffness in subjects with Sri Lankan CKDu, in matched controls without CKD and in those with defined CKD. Aortic blood pressure (BP), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) were assessed in 130 subjects (50 with CKDu, 45 with CKD and 35 without CKD) using the validated TensioMed™ Arteriograph monitor. Brachial and aortic BP was lower in controls than in CKDu and CKD subjects but no different between CKDu and CKD. Controls had a lower PWV compared to subjects with CKDu and CKD. Despite equivalent BP and renal dysfunction, CKDu subjects had a lower PWV than those with CKD (8.7 ± 1.5 vs. 9.9 ± 2.2 m/s, p CKDu vs. CKD: 6.7 ± 0.9 vs. 8.7 ± 1.5 vs. 10.4 ± 1.5 m/s, p CKDu is associated with less arterial stiffening than defined causes of CKD. Whether this translates to lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality long term is unclear and should be the focus of future studies.

  13. Pancreatic islet regeneration: Therapeutic potential, unknowns and controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L. Cockburn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Glucose homeostasis in mammals is primarily maintained by the insulin-secreting β-cells contained within pancreas-resident islets of Langerhans. Gross disruption of this glucose regulation as a result of pancreatic dysfunction frequently results in diabetes, which is currently a major health concern in South Africa, as well as globally. For many years, researchers have realised that the pancreas, and specifically the islets of Langerhans, have a regenerative capacity, as islet mass has frequently been shown to increase following induced pancreatic injury. Given that gross β-cell loss contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, endogenous pancreatic islet regeneration has been investigated extensively as a potential β-cell replacement therapy for diabetes. From the extensive research conducted on pancreatic regeneration, opposing findings and opinions have arisen as to how, and more recently even if, pancreatic regeneration occurs following induced injury. In this review, we outline and discuss the three primary mechanisms by which pancreatic regeneration is proposed to occur: neogenesis, β-cell replication and transdifferentiation. We further explain some of the advanced techniques used in pancreatic regeneration research, and conclude that despite the technologically advanced research tools available to researchers today, the mechanisms governing pancreatic regeneration may remain elusive until more powerful techniques are developed to allow for real-time, live-cell assessment of morphology and gene expression within the pancreas.

  14. Knowns and unknowns of plasma membrane protein degradation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanliang; Shen, Wenjin; Yang, Chao; Zeng, Lizhang; Gao, Caiji

    2018-07-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) not only creates a physical barrier to enclose the intracellular compartments but also mediates the direct communication between plants and the ever-changing environment. A tight control of PM protein homeostasis by selective degradation is thus crucial for proper plant development and plant-environment interactions. Accumulated evidences have shown that a number of plant PM proteins undergo clathrin-dependent or membrane microdomain-associated endocytic routes to vacuole for degradation in a cargo-ubiquitination dependent or independent manner. Besides, several trans-acting determinants involved in the regulation of endocytosis, recycling and multivesicular body-mediated vacuolar sorting have been identified in plants. More interestingly, recent findings have uncovered the participation of selective autophagy in PM protein turnover in plants. Although great progresses have been made to identify the PM proteins that undergo dynamic changes in subcellular localizations and to explore the factors that control the membrane protein trafficking, several questions remain to be answered regarding the molecular mechanisms of PM protein degradation in plants. In this short review article, we briefly summarize recent progress in our understanding of the internalization, sorting and degradation of plant PM proteins. More specifically, we focus on discussing the elusive aspects underlying the pathways of PM protein degradation in plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. "Known Unknowns": Current Questions in Muscle Satellite Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelison, Ddw

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of satellite cells, now known to be the obligate stem cells of skeletal muscle, has increased dramatically in recent years due to the introduction of new molecular, genetic, and technical resources. In addition to their role in acute repair of damaged muscle, satellite cells are of interest in the fields of aging, exercise, neuromuscular disease, and stem cell therapy, and all of these applications have driven a dramatic increase in our understanding of the activity and potential of satellite cells. However, many fundamental questions of satellite cell biology remain to be answered, including their emergence as a specific lineage, the degree and significance of heterogeneity within the satellite cell population, the roles of their interactions with other resident and infiltrating cell types during homeostasis and regeneration, and the relative roles of intrinsic vs extrinsic factors that may contribute to satellite cell dysfunction in the context of aging or disease. This review will address the current state of these open questions in satellite cell biology. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Right to Remain Silent in Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Anemona Radu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A person's right not to incriminate oneself or to remain silent and not contribute to their own incrimination is a basic requirement of due process, although the right not to testify against oneself is not expressly guaranteed. This legal right is intended to protect the accused/ the defendant against the authorities’ abusive coercion. The scope of the right not to incriminate oneself is related to criminal matter under the Convention, and thus susceptible or applicable to criminal proceedings concerning all types of crimes as a guarantee to a fair trial. The European Court of Justice ruled that despite the fact that art. 6 paragraph 2 of the Convention does not expressly mention the right not to incriminate oneself and the right not to contribute to their own incrimination (nemo tenetur are ipsum accusare these are generally recognized international rules that are in consistence with the notion of “fair trial” stipulated in art. 6. By virtue of the right to silence, the person charged with a crime is free to answer the questions or not, as he/she believes it is in his/her interest. Therefore, the right to silence involves not only the right not to testify against oneself, but also the right of the accused/ defendant not to incriminate oneself. Thus, the accused/defendant cannot be compelled to assist in the production of evidence and cannot be sanctioned for failing to provide certain documents or other evidence. Obligation to testify against personal will, under the constraint of a fine or any other form of coercion constitutes an interference with the negative aspect of the right to freedom of expression which must be necessary in a democratic society. It is essential to clarify certain issues as far as this right is concerned. First of all, the statutory provision in question is specific to adversarial systems, which are found mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries and are totally different from that underlying the current Romanian Criminal

  17. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the rapid spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. This has had enormous implications for the international response to AIDS and has heavily influenced public health policy and strategy and the design of prevention and care interventions at national, community and individual level. It is argued that individual behaviour alone cannot possibly account for the enormous variation in HIV prevalence between population groups, countries and regions and that the unexplained remaining variation has been neglected by the international AIDS community. Biological vulnerability to HIV due to seriously deficient immune systems has been ignored as a determinant of the high levels of infection in certain populations. This is in sharp contrast to well proven public health approaches to other infectious diseases. In particular, it is argued that poor nutrition and co-infection with the myriad of other diseases of poverty including tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis and parasitic infections, have been neglected as root causes of susceptibility, infectiousness and high rates of transmission of HIV at the level of populations. Vulnerability in terms of non-biological factors such as labour migration, prostitution, exchange of sex for survival, population movements due to war and violence, has received some attention but the solutions proposed to these problems are also inappropriately focused on individual behaviour and suffer from the same neglect of economic and political root causes. As the foundation for the international community's response to the AIDS pandemic, explanations of HIV/AIDS epidemiology in terms of individual behaviour are not only grossly inadequate, they are highly stigmatising and may in some cases, be racist. They have diverted attention from

  18. Detection of unknown primary tumours in patients with cerebral metastases using whole-body 18F-flouorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klee, B; Law, I; Højgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    Identification of the unknown primary tumours in patients presenting with cerebral metastasis is a continued diagnostic challenge. Despite extensive and lengthy diagnostic work-up, the primary tumours will remain obscure in a significant proportion of the patients. The aim of this study was to ev...

  19. Linkage between the Biosphere and Geomagnetic field: Knowns and Unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Zhu, R.

    2017-12-01

    The geomagnetic field extends from Earth's interior into space, and protects our planets habitability by shielding the planet from solar winds and cosmic rays. Recently, single zircon paleomagnetic study provides evidence of the field to ages as old as 4.2 Ga. Many great questions remain, including whether the emergence of life on Earth was a consequence of the field's protection, how organisms utilize the field, and if field variations (polarity reversal, excursion and secular variation) impact the evolution of the biosphere. In the past decade, great efforts have been made to probe these very complex and great challenging questions through the inter-disciplinary subject of biogeomagnetism. Numerous birds, fish, sea turtles, bats and many other organisms utilize the geomagnetic field during orientation and long-distance navigation. We recently found that bats, the second most abundant order of mammals, can use the direction of magnetic field with a weak strength comparable to polarity transitions/excursions, which is indicative of advanced magnetoreception developed in bats co-evolving with the geomagnetic field since the Eocene. Magnetotactic bacteria swim along the geomagnetic field lines by synthesizing intracellular nano-sized and chain-arranged magnetic minerals (magnetosomes). Recent field surveys in China, Europe, America and Australia have shown that these microbes are ubiquitous in aqueous habitats. Both their biogeography distribution and magnetotactic swimming speed are field intensity dependent. On the other hand, it is increasingly accepted that the geomagnetic field influences life through several indirect pathways. For example, it has been discovered that solar wind erosion enhanced the atmospheric oxygen escape during periods of weak magnetic field and global mean ionospheric electron density profiles can be affected by geomagnetic field strength variation. In addition, depletion of the ozone layer during a weak magnetic field could result in

  20. [RECONSTRUCTING THE LIFE OF AN UNKNOWN MAN--INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincak, Z; Filipec, K; Iacumin, P; Cavalli, F; Mihelić, D; Jeleč, V; Korušić, A

    2016-09-01

    The remains of a tomb were discovered below the foundations of the Roman church of “Majka Bozja Gorska” in Lobor in 2002. It was a vaulted tomb carved from a single stone. The narthex of ancient Christian and pre-roman churches often served as the resting place of religious, secular and noble dignitaries, who were credited for founding the church at the time. By anthropological methods, the age, gender, height, pathological changes, tendon and ligament hinges and degree of development were able to be analysed. The stable isotopes of Carbon-13, Nitrogen-15 and Oxygen-18 were analysed and expressed as ��-values according to the PDB standard. Dental analysis showed a build-up of tartar on the buccal side, with 5 teeth missing from the dentition post-mortem and a partial lowering and accretion of the alveolar walls of the 2nd molar space secondary to tooth loss. The remains of the person from grave 107 show that the person was approximately 30-35 years of age, confirmed by microscopical analysis of the bone samples. Almost all of the cranial sutures were exposed with the exception of the saggital suture which was closed at the S3 position, while the transverse palatal suture was in the initial stages of closure on the lateral sides. Analysis of the iliac bone showed visible changes on the bone. The surface had retained its youthful appearance however with a microporous and pronounced granular structure and only a slight apical and marginal activity. The transverse striations are still apparent, but no longer along the entirety of the bone surface. Anthropometric analysis according to cranial cavity indexes, showed a cranium or relatively large volume (aristencephalic in type), long, narrow and medium in height. The index values were used in facial reconstruction. Analysis of the development of tendon and ligament hinges of the preserved anatomical elements, gave further information about the morphology and physical activity of the person. The hinge sites of the

  1. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park... Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains and associated funerary... the human remains was made by University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository...

  2. Huygens begins its final journey into the unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    “Today’s release is another successful milestone in the Cassini/Huygens odyssey”, said Dr David Southwood, ESA’s director of science programmes. “This was an amicable separation after seven years of living together. Our thanks to our partners at NASA for the lift. Each spacecraft will now continue on its own but we expect they’ll keep in touch to complete this amazing mission. Now all our hopes and expectations are focused on getting the first in-situ data from a new world we’ve been dreaming of exploring for decades”. Final stage of a 7-year odyssey The Cassini/Huygens mission, jointly developed by NASA, ESA and the Italian space agency (ASI), began on 15 October 1997, when the composite spacecraft were launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, atop a Titan 4B/Centaur vehicle. Together, the two probes weighed 5548 kg at launch and became the largest space mission ever sent to the outer planets. To gain sufficient velocity to reach Saturn, they had to conduct four gravity-assist manoeuvres by flying twice by Venus, once by the Earth and once by Jupiter. On 1 July Cassini/Huygens eventually became the first spacecraft to enter an orbit around Saturn. On 17 December, while on its third orbit around the ringed planet, the Cassini orbiter performed a manoeuvre to enter a controlled collision trajectory towards Titan. As planned, a fine tuning of the trajectory took place on 22 December to place Huygens on its nominal entry trajectrory. While Huygens will remain on this trajectory till it plunges into Titan’s atmosphere on 14 January, the orbiter will perform a deflection manoeuvre on 28 December to avoid crashing onto the moon. Today’s separation was achieved by the firing of pyrotechnic devices. Under the action of push-off springs, ramps and rollers, the probe was released at a relative velocity of about 0.3 m/s with a spin rate of 7 rpm. Telemetry data confirming the separation were collected by NASA’s Deep Space Network stations in Madrid, Spain

  3. Some Unknown Pages of the Living Organisms' First Orbital Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malashenkov, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    the "Object D", the Soviet Government set a new term of start in the end of 1956 - April, 1958. However, owing to the widely advertised program of launch of the first Earth's artificial satellite "Vanguard" in the USA, S. Korolev pressed in February 1957 for the Government regulation about anticipated launches of two light unrecoverable satellites in April-May, 1957 before the International geophysical year. But, according to this regulation, the launch of the satellite was permitted only after one or two successful test flights of a rocket -7. The first successful test of a rocket -7 was held only in August, 1957. The successful launch of the Earth's first artificial satellite in October 4, 1957 has made stunning influence on all the world. To continue this success, N. Khrushzev in October 10 1957 stated to launch the second satellite with an animal onboard till November 7 (40 years of October Revolution). The level of complexity of forthcoming tasks was much higher. Tightness of a cabin and the systems of life-support of the satellite should provide considerably large duration of flight under previous dimensions and power consumption. The research equipment should also ensure long uninterrupted registration of the scientific data and their transfer on ground stations. At last, the realization of additional training and special preparation of dogs was required. O. Gazenko, A. Genin, A. Seryapin, A. Gurdjian, . Petrova and other researchers carried out these works in laboratory of V. Yazdovsky. Less than one month remained for realization of this very difficult experiment with dog onboard. For preparation of experiments with dogs the experience of high-altitude rocket flights was taken. The cycles of step-by-step training of dogs for forthcoming flight have allowed to select the steadiest dogs and to receive the necessary initial data for design of the life-support systems. As a result of these works, a hermetic cabin with life-support systems and research equipment

  4. Biodiversity and global health—hubris, humility and the unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    biodiversity and well-being; and the links of biodiversity to the green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty alleviation. References [1] Schuiteman A et al 2011 Nocturne for an unknown pollinator: first description of a night-flowering orchid (Bulbophyllum nocturnum) Bot. J. Linean Soc. 167 344-50 [2] Kinver M and Gill V 2011 Botanists discover 'remarkable' night-flowering orchid BBC News Science and Environment (www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-15818662) [3] Rudd M A 2011 Scientists' opinions on the global status and management of biological diversity Conserv. Biol. 25 1165-75 [4] Bottrill M C et al 2008 Is conservation triage just smart decision making? Trends Ecol. Evol. 23 649-54 [5] Parr M J et al 2009 Why we should aim for zero extinction Trends Ecol. Evol. 24 181 Bottrill M C et al 2009 Finite conservation funds mean triage is unavoidable Trends Ecol. Evol. 24 183-4 [6] Pushpangadan P and Behl H M 2005 Environment & Biodiversity: Agenda for Future (Lucknow: International Society of Environmental Botanists) (http://isebindia.com/icpep-3/icpep3-s-2.html) [7] Alves R and Rosa I 2007 Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where do they meet? J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed. 3 14 [8] Center for Biodiversity and Conservation 1997 Biodiversity and Human Health: A Guide for Policymakers (New York: American Museum of Natural History) [9] Chivian E 1997 Global environmental degradation and biodiversity loss: implications for human health Biodiversity and Human Health ed F Grifo and J Rosenthal (Washington, DC: Island) pp 7-38 [10] UNEP-WCMC 2011 Health and Well Being of Communities Directly Dependent on Ecosystem Goods and Services: An Indicator for the Convention on Biological Diversity (Cambridge: UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre) [11] Nettleton C, Stephens C and Bristow F 2007 Utz Wachil: a study of indigenous perceptions of health and environment in five countries Ecohealth 4 461-772 [12] Jones G P et al 2004 Coral decline

  5. Previously unknown and highly divergent ssDNA viruses populate the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Jessica M; Suttle, Curtis A

    2013-11-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses are economically important pathogens of plants and animals, and are widespread in oceans; yet, the diversity and evolutionary relationships among marine ssDNA viruses remain largely unknown. Here we present the results from a metagenomic study of composite samples from temperate (Saanich Inlet, 11 samples; Strait of Georgia, 85 samples) and subtropical (46 samples, Gulf of Mexico) seawater. Most sequences (84%) had no evident similarity to sequenced viruses. In total, 608 putative complete genomes of ssDNA viruses were assembled, almost doubling the number of ssDNA viral genomes in databases. These comprised 129 genetically distinct groups, each represented by at least one complete genome that had no recognizable similarity to each other or to other virus sequences. Given that the seven recognized families of ssDNA viruses have considerable sequence homology within them, this suggests that many of these genetic groups may represent new viral families. Moreover, nearly 70% of the sequences were similar to one of these genomes, indicating that most of the sequences could be assigned to a genetically distinct group. Most sequences fell within 11 well-defined gene groups, each sharing a common gene. Some of these encoded putative replication and coat proteins that had similarity to sequences from viruses infecting eukaryotes, suggesting that these were likely from viruses infecting eukaryotic phytoplankton and zooplankton.

  6. Febrile rhabdomyolysis of unknown origin in refugees coming from West Africa through the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odolini, Silvia; Gobbi, Federico; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Migliore, Simona; Mencarini, Paola; Vecchia, Marco; di Lauria, Nicoletta; Schivazappa, Simona; Sabatini, Tony; Chianura, Leonardo; Vanino, Elisa; Piacentini, Daniela; Zanotti, Paola; Bussi, Anna; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Bisoffi, Zeno; Castelli, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Cases of undiagnosed severe febrile rhabdomyolysis in refugees coming from West Africa, mainly from Nigeria, has been observed since May 2014. The aim of this study was to describe this phenomenon. This was a multicentre retrospective observational study of cases of febrile rhabdomyolysis reported from May 2014 to December 2016 in 12 Italian centres. A total of 48 cases were observed, mainly in young males. The mean time interval between the day of departure from Libya and symptom onset was 26.2 days. An average 8.3 further days elapsed before medical care was sought. All patients were hospitalized with fever and very intense muscle aches. Creatine phosphokinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase values were abnormal in all cases. The rhabdomyolysis was ascribed to an infective agent in 16 (33.3%) cases. In the remaining cases, the aetiology was undefined. Four out of seven patients tested had sickle cell trait. No alcohol abuse or drug intake was reported, apart from a single reported case of khat ingestion. The long incubation period does not support a mechanical cause of rhabdomyolysis. Furthermore, viral infections such as those caused by coxsackievirus are rarely associated with such a severe clinical presentation. It is hypothesized that other predisposing conditions like genetic factors, unknown infections, or unreported non-conventional remedies may be involved. Targeted surveillance of rhabdomyolysis cases is warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Dose uncertainties associated with a set density override of unknown hip prosthetic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijken, James D; Colyer, Christopher J

    2017-09-01

    The dosimetric uncertainties associated with radiotherapy through hip prostheses while overriding the implant to a set density within the TPS has not yet been reported. In this study, the uncertainty in dose within a PTV resulting from this planning choice was investigated. A set of metallic hip prosthetics (stainless steel, titanium, and two different Co-Cr-Mo alloys) were CT scanned in a water bath. Within the TPS, the prosthetic pieces were overridden to densities between 3 and 10 g/cm 3 and irradiated on a linear accelerator. Measured dose maps were compared to the TPS to determine which density was most appropriate to override each metal. This was shown to be in disagreement with the reported literature values of density which was attributed to the TPS dose calculation algorithm and total mass attenuation coefficient differences in water and metal. The dose difference was then calculated for a set density override of 6 g/cm 3 in the TPS and used to estimate the dose uncertainty beyond the prosthesis. For beams passing through an implant, the dosimetric uncertainty in regions of the PTV may be as high as 10% if the implant composition remains unknown and a set density override is used. These results highlight limitations of such assumptions and the need for careful consideration by radiation oncologist, therapist, and physics staff. © 2017 Adelaide Radiotherapy Centre. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. FROM THE UNKNOWN STUDENT TO THE FAMOUS GRADUATE OF NOVOROSSIYSK UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. И. Бургеля

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the article is illumination of the biography of the graduate of Imperial Novorossiysk University Vasyl Petrovich Gutor. The main task of article – to expand and aggregate biographic information and highlight career of V. P. Gutor. On one concrete example to show how graduates of university proved and realized in various fields of activity, sometimes far from the education got at classical university. V. P. Gutor known as the musician-cellist, he has developed the basic principles of teaching music and has made the significant contribution to musical education of broad masses of the population, was the author methodical and critiques, one of the founders of classical music education. Gutor V. P. was a founder, the director of music schools in Chisinau and Elisavetgrad, and then the teacher and professor of the Odessa conservatory. In article is special attention paid to the Odessa period of his activity. However, unfortunately, it is not enough data on this period. The main finding of the work is that, having tracked a course of life of one specific person, it is possible to tell with confidence that else many destinies of the people carrying a  proud rank of graduates of Imperial Novorossiysk University remain unknown for modern scientists and researchers. The research findings have the practical value for all who are interested in music history, musical pedagogics and history of music in Odessa in the first half of the 20th century.

  9. Pedro Ferreira, um escultor baiano desconhecido Pedro Ferreira, an unknown sculptor from Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Ochi Flexor

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é o resultado do início de um estudo sobre o escultor Pedro Ferreira. Embora seja autor de obras importantes, passa quase desapercebido na historiografia da arte baiana. Trata-se de artista que pertence ao tempo em que o neoclassicismo se impunha à cultura Ocidental, porém, ainda restavam, na Bahia, as práticas do período barroco, em especial a cópia dos grandes mestres renascentistas. Pedro Ferreira foi um desses artistas e teve como principal inspirador Murillo, da escola espanhola.This work is the result of a beginning study about a sculptor Pedro Ferreira. Although he was author of important workmanships, he passes almost unknown in the bahian history of art. He was an artist who lives belongs a time when the neoclassicismo was imposed to the Occidental culture, but, still remained in Bahia, the practical ones of the baroque period, in special the copy of the great Renaissance masters. Pedro Ferreira was one of these artists and has inspired, as main artist, Murillo, of the Spanish school.

  10. Iterative MIMO Turbo Multiuser Detection and Equalization for STTrC-Coded Systems with Unknown Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinovic Nenad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Iterative multiuser detection in a single-carrier broadband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO system is studied in this paper. A minimum mean squared error (MMSE low-complexity multiuser receiver is derived for space-division multiple-access (SDMA space-time trellis-coded (STTrC systems in frequency-selective fading channels. The receiver uses MMSE filtering to jointly detect several transmit antennas of the user of interest, while the interference from the undetected transmit antennas, cochannel interference (CCI, and intersymbol interference (ISI are all cancelled by the soft cancellation. The performances of two extreme receiver cases are evaluated. In the first case, only one transmit antenna of the user of interest is detected at a time and the remaining ones are cancelled by soft cancellation. In the second case, all the transmit antennas are detected jointly. The comparison of the two cases shows improvement with the latter one, both in single-user and multiuser communications and in the presence of unknown cochannel interference (UCCI. It is further shown that in the multiuser case, the proposed receivers approach the corresponding single-user bounds. The number of receive antenna elements required to achieve single-user bound is thereby equal to the number of users and not to the total number of transmit antennas.

  11. Off-Policy Actor-Critic Structure for Optimal Control of Unknown Systems With Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank L; Wei, Qinglai; Zhang, Huaguang

    2016-05-01

    An optimal control method is developed for unknown continuous-time systems with unknown disturbances in this paper. The integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm is presented to obtain the iterative control. Off-policy learning is used to allow the dynamics to be completely unknown. Neural networks are used to construct critic and action networks. It is shown that if there are unknown disturbances, off-policy IRL may not converge or may be biased. For reducing the influence of unknown disturbances, a disturbances compensation controller is added. It is proven that the weight errors are uniformly ultimately bounded based on Lyapunov techniques. Convergence of the Hamiltonian function is also proven. The simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed optimal control method for unknown systems with disturbances.

  12. InSourcerer: a high-throughput method to search for unknown metabolite modifications by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrzic, Aida; Lermyte, Frederik; Vu, Trung Nghia; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris

    2017-09-15

    Using mass spectrometry, the analysis of known metabolite structures has become feasible in a systematic high-throughput fashion. Nevertheless, the identification of previously unknown structures remains challenging, partially because many unidentified variants originate from known molecules that underwent unexpected modifications. Here, we present a method for the discovery of unknown metabolite modifications and conjugate metabolite isoforms in a high-throughput fashion. The method is based on user-controlled in-source fragmentation which is used to induce loss of weakly bound modifications. This is followed by the comparison of product ions from in-source fragmentation and collision-induced dissociation (CID). Diagonal MS 2 -MS 3 matching allows the detection of unknown metabolite modifications, as well as substructure similarities. As the method relies heavily on the advantages of in-source fragmentation and its ability to 'magically' elucidate unknown modification, we have named it inSourcerer as a portmanteau of in-source and sorcerer. The method was evaluated using a set of 15 different cytokinin standards. Product ions from in-source fragmentation and CID were compared. Hierarchical clustering revealed that good matches are due to the presence of common substructures. Plant leaf extract, spiked with a mix of all 15 standards, was used to demonstrate the method's ability to detect these standards in a complex mixture, as well as confidently identify compounds already present in the plant material. Here we present a method that incorporates a classic liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) workflow with fragmentation models and computational algorithms. The assumptions upon which the concept of the method was built were shown to be valid and the method showed that in-source fragmentation can be used to pinpoint structural similarities and indicate the occurrence of a modification. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Time Remains

    OpenAIRE

    Gryb, Sean; Thebault, Karim

    2014-01-01

    On one popular view, the general covariance of gravity implies that change is relational in a strong sense, such that all it is for a physical degree of freedom to change is for it to vary with regard to a second physical degree of freedom. At a quantum level, this view of change as relative variation leads to a fundamentally timeless formalism for quantum gravity. Here, we will show how one may avoid this acute 'problem of time'. Under our view, duration is still regarded as relative, but te...

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of liver and brain in haematologic-organic patients with fever of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heussel, C.P.; Kauczor, H.U.; Poguntke, M.; Schadmand-Fischer, S.; Mildenberger, P.; Thelen, M.; Heussel, G.

    1998-01-01

    To examine the advantage of liver and brain MRI in clinically anomalous haematological patients with fever of unknown origin. Material and Methods: Twenty liver MRI (T 2 -TSE, T 2 -HASTE, T 1 -FLASH±Gd dynamic) and 16 brain MRI (T 2 -TSE, FLAIR, T 1 -TSE±Gd) were performed searching for a focus of fever with a suspected organ system. Comparison with clinical follow-up. Results: suspected organ system. Comparison with clinical follow-up. Results: A focus was detected in 11/20 liver MRI. Candidiasis (n=3), mycobacteriosis (n=2), relapse of haematological disease (n=3), graft versus host disease (n=1), non-clarified (n=2). The remaining 9 cases with normal MRI were not suspicious of infectious hepatic disease during follo-wup. In brain MRI, 3/16 showed a focus (toxoplasmosis, aspergillosis, mastoiditis). Clinical indication for an infectious involvement of the brain was found in 4/16 cases 2--5 months after initially normal brain MRI. No suspicion of an infectious involvement of brain was present in the remaining 9/16 cases. Conclusion: In case of fever of unknown origin and suspicion of liver involvement, MRI of the liver should be performed due to data given in literature and its sensitivity of 100%. Because of the delayed detectability of cerebral manifestations, in cases of persisting suspicion even a previously normal MRI of the brain should be repeated. (orig.) [de

  15. Deep-sea biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea: the known, the unknown, and the unknowable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Danovaro

    investigated (Prokaryotes excluded, most of the unknown species are within the phylum Nematoda, followed by Foraminifera, but an important fraction of macrofaunal and megafaunal species also remains unknown. Data reported here provide new insights into the patterns of biodiversity in the deep-sea Mediterranean and new clues for future investigations aimed at identifying the factors controlling and threatening deep-sea biodiversity.

  16. Radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to cervical lymph nodes from an unknown primary site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colletier, Philip J.; Garden, Adam S.; Morrison, William H.; Geara, Fady B.; Kian Ang, K.

    1996-01-01

    . The 5- and 10-year actuarial overall survival was 55% and 38%. For the S+XRT group, the 5- and 10- year actuarial survival was 59% and 40%, compared to 45% and 33%, respectively for the XRT group (p = .03). Failure in the neck occurred in 13 of 57 (23%) patients in the XRT group compared to 11 of 139 (8%) S+XRT patients (p = .004). Actuarial freedom from relapse (FFR) at 5 and 10 years was 65% and 59% for the entire population. In the S+XRT patients, FFR at 5 and 10 years was 72% and 67%, compared with 49% and 40%, respectively for the XRT group (p = .001). Nineteen patients developed a subsequent carcinoma in a head and neck mucosal site. Seven primary tumors occurred at intervals greater than five years after completion of radiation. Primary mucosal tumors developed in 15 of 173 patients (9%) who had mucosal sites treated and 4 of 23 patients (17%) treated to the neck only (p = .18). Seventeen patients had salvage treatment and 10 remained free of disease in the head and neck. CONCLUSIONS: Selected patients with carcinoma metastatic to cervical lymph nodes from an unknown primary treated with radiotherapy had excellent regional control. Patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiation had improved survival, FFR, and regional control rates compared to patients treated with radiation +/- salvage neck dissections; however, this latter group had significantly greater unfavorable neck disease. Our policy of delivering radiation to the putative mucosal sites along the pharyngeal axis resulted in a very low incidence (9%) of subsequent manifestation of primary tumors in the head and neck, and based on the time to develop these cancers, it is suspected that many were second primaries unrelated to the treated disease

  17. The Effect of Known-and-Unknown Word Combinations on Intentional Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Kiwamu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether learning a known-and-unknown word combination is superior in terms of retention and retrieval of meaning to learning a single unknown word. The term "combination" in this study means a two-word collocation of a familiar word and a word that is new to the participants. Following the results of…

  18. 48 CFR 52.222-49 - Service Contract Act-Place of Performance Unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service Contract Act-Place... Provisions and Clauses 52.222-49 Service Contract Act—Place of Performance Unknown. As prescribed in 22.1006(f), insert the following clause: Service Contract Act—Place of Performance Unknown (MAY 1989) (a...

  19. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  20. Numerical method of identification of an unknown source term in a heat equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatullayev Afet Golayo?lu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical procedure for an inverse problem of identification of an unknown source in a heat equation is presented. Approach of proposed method is to approximate unknown function by polygons linear pieces which are determined consecutively from the solution of minimization problem based on the overspecified data. Numerical examples are presented.

  1. Children with hypercholesterolemia of unknown cause: Value of genetic risk scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjouke, Barbara; Tanck, Michael W T; Fouchier, Sigrid W; Defesche, Joep C; Hutten, Barbara A; Wiegman, Albert; Kastelein, John J P; Hovingh, G Kees

    2016-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is caused by mutations in LDLR, APOB, or PCSK9, and in a previous study, we identified a causative mutation in these FH genes in 95% (255 of 269) of children with the FH phenotype. It has been hypothesized that a polygenic form of hypercholesterolemia is present in FH patients in whom no mutation is identified in the 3 FH genes. To address whether a polygenic form of hypercholesterolemia, defined as high-weighted effect of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) raising SNPs expressed as the genetic risk score (GRS), is present in the remaining 14 children. On reassessment of the molecular diagnosis and clinical phenotype, 8 FH kindreds met the criteria for hypercholesterolemia of unknown cause and were included in this study. We calculated a weighted GRS comprising 10 established LDL-C-associated SNPs and the APOE genotype in these index cases and evaluated whether the index cases were characterized by an increased GRS compared to 26 first-degree relatives. Phenotypically affected and unaffected individuals could not be distinguished based on any of the risk scores. In this and our previous study, we show that a causal mutation in LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9 can be identified in almost all children with a definite clinical diagnosis of FH. In the small group of patients without a mutation, we did not observe a higher GRS compared with unaffected relatives, which suggests that the FH phenotype is not caused by the aggregate of LDL-C increasing SNPs. Our data imply that application of the GRS is not instrumental as a diagnostic tool to individually define clinically diagnosed FH patients with polygenic hypercholesterolemia in our study population. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Occlusal management for a patient with aural symptoms of unknown etiology: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torii Kengo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the discrepancy between the habitual occlusal position (HOP and the flat bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP (regarded as the muscular physiological reference position has been recently reported to be related to symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs, it still remains unclear whether the occlusal equilibration in the reference position is effective to resolve TMD-related discrepancy and symptoms. Aural symptoms (otalgia, tinnitus, vertigo et cetera have been included under TMD symptoms. Methods To examine the effect of occlusal equilibration for the treatment of TMDs, occlusal equilibration was performed for a patient with aural symptoms (otalgia, tinnitus and vertigo of unknown etiology in the right ear. An occlusal analysis was performed on this patient with dental models mounted on an articulator after relieving painful symptoms by an appliance therapy and a discrepancy was identified (p Results At completion of treatment, the discrepancy was not significant (p > 0.25, and the patient's right condyle had shifted 2.8 mm posteromedially in the horizontal plane, and the left condyle had shifted 1.0 mm laterally in the voluntarily closed position from the previous HOP. The aural symptoms of the patient were resolved, and there has been no recurrence to date after a two-year follow-up period. Conclusion An occlusal analysis should be performed in patients exhibiting TMD symptoms to identify the presence or absence of any discrepancy between the HOP and the BPOP. If a discrepancy exists, occlusal equilibration should be attempted in the reference position.

  3. Neck lymph node metastases from an unknown primary tumor. Retrospective study and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, H.; Hermann, R.M.; Nitsche, M.; Schmidberger, H.; Pradier, O.; Martin, A.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: up to 10% of all neck lymph node metastases present without a known primary site. The optimal treatment strategy for these patients is still undefined. The purpose of this retrospective analysis is to assess the outcome in patients with neck metastases from an unknown primary tumor (CUP). Furthermore, prognostic factors and treatment modalities are discussed. Patients and methods: from 1984 to 2003, 28 patients with squamous cell neck metastases from a CUP were treated at the authors' institution. In 17 patients, neck dissection (twelve radical, five modified radical) was performed. In that case, adjuvant radiotherapy was carried out with a mean of 56.7 Gy. In eleven patients, only biopsies were done. These patients received definitive radiotherapy with a mean of 66.8 Gy. In summary, 25 patients received extended radiotherapy including both sides of the neck and potential mucosal primary sites. Additional chemotherapy was administered to five patients. Results: the duration of follow-up was 4.1-189.5 months (median 45.1 months). After this period of time, ten patients (36%) remained alive. 5-year overall survival was 40.1%, neck control rate 72.7%. No subsequent primary could be detected. Extracapsular extension and surgery had significant influence on prognosis. Grade 3 toxicity (mucositis or skin reactions) was seen in three patients; no hematologic toxicity > grade 2 was observed. 19 patients suffered from grade 2 xerostomia. Conclusion: with radical surgery followed by radiotherapy good survival rates in patients with neck metastases from a CUP can be obtained. Whether limited radiotherapy might be equal to extended irradiation and can reduce side effects, must be shown in ongoing clinical trials. (orig.)

  4. Biological characterization of two xenografts derived from human CUPs (carcinomas of unknown primary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernheim Alain

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinomas of unknown primary site (CUP are epithelial malignancies revealed by metastatic lesions in the absence of any detectable primary tumor. Although they often adopt an aggressive clinical pattern, their basic biology remains poorly understood. Laboratory research on their biology have been hampered so far by the absence of cell lines representative of CUPs. Methods We attempted xenografts of CUP clinical specimens in immunodeficient mice and subsequent in vitro culture of transplanted malignant cells. Whenever possible, malignant xenografted or cultured cells were characterized by microsatellite genotyping, immunohistology, electron microscopy, multifish chromosome analysis and search of TP 53 gene mutations. Results Successful xenografts were achieved in 2 cases out of 4. One of them (Capi1 was lost after 3 passages whereas the other one (Capi3 has been adapted to in vitro culture and is currently available to the scientific community with reliable identification based on microsatellite genotyping. Both Capi1 and Capi3 have histological characteristics of adenocarcinomas and display intense expression of EMA, CEA and cytokeratin 7. Multifish chromosome analysis demonstrated a translocation involving chromosomes 4 and 21 in both specimens. Distinct rare missense mutations of the TP53 gene were detected in Capi1 (codon 312 and Capi3 (codon 181; the codon 181 mutation is consistent with a previously reported similar finding in a small series of CUP specimens. Finally, intense membrane expression of c-kit was recorded in Capi3. Conclusion Our data suggest that xenografted tumors can be obtained from a substantial fraction of CUP clinical specimens. The hypothesis of a preferential association of CUPs with TP 53 mutations of codon 181 deserves further investigations. The Capi3 cell line will be a useful tool for assessment of novel c-kit inhibitors.

  5. Magnetic resonance appearance of monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. The GRI Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaïche, L; Laredo, J D; Lioté, F; Koeger, A C; Hamze, B; Ziza, J M; Pertuiset, E; Bardin, T; Tubiana, J M

    1997-11-01

    A prospective multicenter study. To evaluate the use of magnetic resonance imaging, in the differentiation between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. Although multiple myeloma has been studied extensively with magnetic resonance imaging, to the authors' knowledge, no study has evaluated the clinical interest of magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. The magnetic resonance examinations of the thoracolumbar spine in 24 patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance were compared with those performed in 44 patients with newly diagnosed nontreated multiple myeloma. All findings on magnetic resonance examination performed in patients with monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance were normal, whereas findings on 38 (86%) of the 44 magnetic resonance examinations performed in patients with multiple myeloma were abnormal. Magnetic resonance imaging can be considered as an additional diagnostic tool in differentiating between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma, which may be helpful when routine criteria are not sufficient. An abnormal finding on magnetic resonance examination in a patient with monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance should suggest the diagnosis of multiple myeloma after other causes of marrow signal abnormalities are excluded. Magnetic resonance imaging also may be proposed in the long-term follow-up of monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance when a new biologic or clinical event suggests the diagnosis of malignant monoclonal gammopathy.

  6. On reconstruction of an unknown polygonal cavity in a linearized elasticity with one measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehata, M; Itou, H

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a reconstruction problem of an unknown polygonal cavity in a linearized elastic body. For this problem, an extraction formula of the convex hull of the unknown polygonal cavity is established by means of the enclosure method introduced by Ikehata. The advantages of our method are that it needs only a single set of boundary data and we do not require any a priori assumptions for the unknown polygonal cavity and any constraints on boundary data. The theoretical formula may have possibility of application in nondestructive evaluation.

  7. Row Reduced Echelon Form for Solving Fully Fuzzy System with Unknown Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Malkawi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new method for finding a feasible fuzzy solution in positive Fully Fuzzy Linear System (FFLS, where the coefficients are unknown. The fully fuzzy system is transferred to linear system in order to obtain the solution using row reduced echelon form, thereafter; the crisp solution is restricted in obtaining the positive fuzzy solution. The fuzzy solution of FFLS is included crisp intervals, to assign alternative values of unknown entries of fuzzy numbers. To illustrate the proposed method, numerical examples are solved, where the entries of coefficients are unknown in right or left hand side, to demonstrate the contributions in this study.

  8. Clinical applications of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in carcinoma of unknown primary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Man; YU Jin-ming; ZHAO Wei; ZHANG Pin-liang; JU Gui-fang; FU Zheng; ZHANG Guo-li; KONG Li; YANG Yan-qin; MA Yi-dong

    2011-01-01

    Background Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) encompasses a heterogeneous group of tumors with varying clinical features. The management of patients of CUP remains a clinical challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical applications of integrated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) information in patients with CUP,including detecting the occult primary tumor and effecting on disease therapy.Methods One hundred and forty-nine patients with histologically-proven metastases of CUP were included. For all patients,the conventional diagnostic work-up was unsuccessful in localizing the primary site. Whole-body PET/CT images were obtained approximately 60 minutes after intravenous injection of 350-425 MBq of 18F-FDG.Results In 24.8% of patients,FDG PET/CT detected primary tumors that were not apparent after conventional workup.In this group of patients,the overall sensitivity,specificity,and accuracy rates of FDG PET/CT in detecting unknown primary tumors were 86.0%,87.7%,and 87.2%,respectively. FDG PET/CT imaging also led to the detection of previously unrecognized metastases in 29.5% of patients. Forty-seven (31.5%,47 of 149) patients underwent a change in therapeutic management.Conclusions FDG PET/CT is a valuable tool in patients with CUP,because it assisted in detecting unknown primary tumors and previously unrecognized distant metastases,and optimized the mangement of these patients.

  9. Cervical Lymph Node Metastases of Unknown Origin: Primary Tumor Detection with Whole-Body Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassenstein, K.; Veit-Haibach, P.; Stergar, H.; Gutzeit, A.; Freudenberg, L.; Kuehl, H.; Fischer, M.; Barkhausen, J.; Bockisch, A.; Antoch, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Identification of primary tumor in patients with cervical lymph node metastasis of unknown primary (MUO) has a great impact on therapy approach and potentially on patient prognosis. Purpose: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/computer tomography (CT) for primary tumor detection in cervical metastases of unknown origin compared to PET, CT, and PET+CT side-by-side evaluation. Material and Methods: 39 consecutive patients (eight women, 31 men; mean age 59.9±11.2 years) with MUO were enrolled in this study. PET/CT images were obtained 1 hour after injection of 350 MBq of fluorodeoxyglucose. Oral and intravenous contrast agents were administered in all patients to ensure diagnostic CT data. Fused PET/CT data were evaluated for primary tumor detection. Diagnostic accuracy was calculated and compared with CT alone, PET alone, and side-by-side PET+CT evaluation. Statistical analysis of differences in diagnostic performance between the different imaging procedures was based on the McNemar test. Results: Fused PET/CT depicted the primary tumor in 11 of 39 (28%) patients. In 28 (72%) patients, the primary tumor remained occult. CT revealed the primary in five (13%), PET alone in 10 (26%), and side-by-side evaluation of PET+CT in 10 (26%) of 39 patients. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences between the imaging modalities. Conclusion: PET, side-by-side PET+CT, and PET/CT revealed similar detection rates for primary tumors in cervical MUO patients. Therefore, cervical metastases of an unknown primary may be assessed with either of these imaging modalities. Detection rates with CT were substantially lower. Thus, inclusion of functional data for assessment of cervical MUO patients must be recommended

  10. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park... in the possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains... made by University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in...

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B1 Septic System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The 1607-B1 Septic System includes a septic tank, drain field, and associated connecting pipelines and influent sanitary sewer lines. This septic system serviced the former 1701-B Badgehouse, 1720-B Patrol Building/Change Room, and the 1709-B Fire Headquarters. The 1607-B1 waste site received unknown amounts of nonhazardous, nonradioactive sanitary sewage from these facilities during its operational history from 1944 to approximately 1970. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  12. Fever of unknown origin; Re-evaluation of sup 67 Ga scintigraphy in detecting causes of fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misaki, Takashi; Matsui, Akira; Tanaka, Fumiko; Okuno, Yoshishige; Mitsumori, Michihide; Torizuka, Tatsurou; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Shimbo, Shin-ichirou (Kyoto City Hospital (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    Gallium-67 scintigraphy is a commonly performed imaging modality in deteting pyrogenic lesions in cases of long-standing inexplainable fever. To re-evaluate the significance of gallium imaging in such cases, a retrospective review was made of 56 scans performed in febrile patients in whom sufficient clinical and laboratory findings were obtained. Gallium scans were true positive in 30 patients, false positive in 3, true negative in 19, and false negative in 4. In the group of true positive, local inflammatory lesions were detected in 23 patients with a final diagnosis of lung tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, and inflammatory joint disease. Abnormal gallium accumulation, as shown in the other 7 patients, provided clues to the diagnosis of generalized disorders, such as hematological malignancies (n=3), systemic autoimmune diseases (n=3), and severe infectious mononucleosis (n=one). In the group of false positive, gallium imaging revealed intestinal excretion of gallium in 2 patients and physiological pulmonary hilar accumulation in one. In the true negative group of 19 patients, fever of unknown origin was resolved spontaneously in 12 patients, and with antibiotics and corticosteroids in 2 and 5 patients, respectively. Four patients having false negative scans were finally diagnosed as having urinary tract infection (n=2), bacterial meningitis (n=one), and polyarteritis (n=one). Gallium imaging would remain the technique of choice in searching for origin of unknown fever. It may also be useful for early diagnosis of systemic disease, as well as focal inflammation. (N.K.).

  13. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from UNKNOWN from 19630301 to 19650331 (NODC Accession 9500033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The chorophyll data set was collected from unknown platforms. Data was collected over two year period spanning from March 1, 1963 to March 31, 1965. The data...

  14. Speeding up transmissions of unknown quantum information along Ising-type quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo W J; Wei L F

    2017-01-01

    Quantum teleportation with entanglement channels and a series of two-qubit SWAP gates between the nearest-neighbor qubits are usually utilized to achieve the transfers of unknown quantum state from the sender to the distant receiver. In this paper, by simplifying the usual SWAP gates we propose an approach to speed up the transmissions of unknown quantum information, specifically including the single-qubit unknown state and two-qubit unknown entangled ones, by a series of entangling and disentangling operations between the remote qubits with distant interactions. The generic proposal is demonstrated specifically with experimentally-existing Ising-type quantum channels without transverse interaction; liquid NMR-molecules driven by global radio frequency electromagnetic pulses and capacitively-coupled Josephson circuits driven by local microwave pulses. The proposal should be particularly useful to set up the connections between the distant qubits in a chip of quantum computing. (paper)

  15. Rendezvous with connectivity preservation for multi-robot systems with an unknown leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi

    2018-02-01

    This paper studies the leader-following rendezvous problem with connectivity preservation for multi-agent systems composed of uncertain multi-robot systems subject to external disturbances and an unknown leader, both of which are generated by a so-called exosystem with parametric uncertainty. By combining internal model design, potential function technique and adaptive control, two distributed control strategies are proposed to maintain the connectivity of the communication network, to achieve the asymptotic tracking of all the followers to the output of the unknown leader system, as well as to reject unknown external disturbances. It is also worth to mention that the uncertain parameters in the multi-robot systems and exosystem are further allowed to belong to unknown and unbounded sets when applying the second fully distributed control law containing a dynamic gain inspired by high-gain adaptive control or self-tuning regulator.

  16. Matrix- and tensor-based recommender systems for the discovery of currently unknown inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Atsuto; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Kashima, Hisashi; Tanaka, Isao

    2018-01-01

    Chemically relevant compositions (CRCs) and atomic arrangements of inorganic compounds have been collected as inorganic crystal structure databases. Machine learning is a unique approach to search for currently unknown CRCs from vast candidates. Herein we propose matrix- and tensor-based recommender system approaches to predict currently unknown CRCs from database entries of CRCs. Firstly, the performance of the recommender system approaches to discover currently unknown CRCs is examined. A Tucker decomposition recommender system shows the best discovery rate of CRCs as the majority of the top 100 recommended ternary and quaternary compositions correspond to CRCs. Secondly, systematic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to investigate the phase stability of the recommended compositions. The phase stability of the 27 compositions reveals that 23 currently unknown compounds are newly found to be stable. These results indicate that the recommender system has great potential to accelerate the discovery of new compounds.

  17. Robust adaptive fuzzy neural tracking control for a class of unknown ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy neural controller (AFNC) for a class of unknown chaotic systems is ... The robust controller is used to guarantee the stability and to control the per- ..... From the above analysis we have the following theorem:.

  18. Chaos Synchronization Based on Unknown Input Proportional Multiple-Integral Fuzzy Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Youssef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an unknown input Proportional Multiple-Integral Observer (PIO for synchronization of chaotic systems based on Takagi-Sugeno (TS fuzzy chaotic models subject to unmeasurable decision variables and unknown input. In a secure communication configuration, this unknown input is regarded as a message encoded in the chaotic system and recovered by the proposed PIO. Both states and outputs of the fuzzy chaotic models are subject to polynomial unknown input with kth derivative zero. Using Lyapunov stability theory, sufficient design conditions for synchronization are proposed. The PIO gains matrices are obtained by resolving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs constraints. Simulation results show through two TS fuzzy chaotic models the validity of the proposed method.

  19. Design of a DNA chip for detection of unknown genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvold, Håvard; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Berdal, Knut G

    2005-05-01

    Unknown genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have not undergone a risk evaluation, and hence might pose a danger to health and environment. There are, today, no methods for detecting unknown GMOs. In this paper we propose a novel method intended as a first step in an approach for detecting unknown genetically modified (GM) material in a single plant. A model is designed where biological and combinatorial reduction rules are applied to a set of DNA chip probes containing all possible sequences of uniform length n, creating probes capable of detecting unknown GMOs. The model is theoretically tested for Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia, and the probabilities for detecting inserts and receiving false positives are assessed for various parameters for this organism. From a theoretical standpoint, the model looks very promising but should be tested further in the laboratory. The model and algorithms will be available upon request to the corresponding author.

  20. Decentralised output feedback control of Markovian jump interconnected systems with unknown interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Wei; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2017-07-01

    The problem of decentralised output feedback control is addressed for Markovian jump interconnected systems with unknown interconnections and general transition rates (TRs) allowed to be unknown or known with uncertainties. A class of decentralised dynamic output feedback controllers are constructed, and a cyclic-small-gain condition is exploited to dispose the unknown interconnections so that the resultant closed-loop system is stochastically stable and satisfies an H∞ performance. With slack matrices to cope with the nonlinearities incurred by unknown and uncertain TRs in control synthesis, a novel controller design condition is developed in linear matrix inequality formalism. Compared with the existing works, the proposed approach leads to less conservatism. Finally, two examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the new results.

  1. Robust Control for the Segway with Unknown Control Coefficient and Model Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Woo Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Segway, which is a popular vehicle nowadays, is an uncertain nonlinear system and has an unknown time-varying control coefficient. Thus, we should consider the unknown time-varying control coefficient and model uncertainties to design the controller. Motivated by this observation, we propose a robust control for the Segway with unknown control coefficient and model uncertainties. To deal with the time-varying unknown control coefficient, we employ the Nussbaum gain technique. We introduce an auxiliary variable to solve the underactuated problem. Due to the prescribed performance control technique, the proposed controller does not require the adaptive technique, neural network, and fuzzy logic to compensate the uncertainties. Therefore, it can be simple. From the Lyapunov stability theory, we prove that all signals in the closed-loop system are bounded. Finally, we provide the simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  2. 18F-FDG whole body positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with unknown primary tumours (UPT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, U; Daugaard, G; Eigtved, A

    1999-01-01

    adenocarcinomas and 1 poorly differentiated carcinoma). The remaining patients had metastases located in bone (3), bone marrow (1), brain (1), pericardium (1), skin (1), pleura (1) and chest wall (1). All metastatic lesions were visible with PET. In 13 patients PET suggested the site for the primary tumour...... by the PET result. The rest received either radical radiotherapy to the head and neck region (7), palliative radiotherapy to the metastatic lesion (8), chemotherapy based on signet ring cell carcinoma in bone marrow (1) or no therapy (1). These results indicates that PET is useful in UPT preceding expensive......The management of patients with unknown primary tumours (UPT) often includes a large number of radiographical studies and invasive procedures, but the occult primary tumour is detected in less than 25%. In this prospective study we explored whether non-invasive whole body PET scans using FDG (18-F...

  3. Problems of determination of principle of psychological profile of unknown criminal person in investigational activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Getman

    2017-03-01

    By the author of the article of analysis different determinations of «psychological profile of unknown criminal person» were subjected. They are set positive lines and separate positions that in opinion of author are not expedient and important are subjected to criticism. That is why, the author points in conclusions the argued positions in relation to the necessity of the use of psychological profile of  unknown criminal person during investigation of criminal realizations in activity of investigator.

  4. High Precision Fast Projective Synchronization for Chaotic Systems with Unknown Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Fuzhong; Wang, Xingyuan; Lin, Da; Niu, Yujun

    2013-08-01

    A high precision fast projective synchronization method for chaotic systems with unknown parameters was proposed by introducing optimal matrix. Numerical simulations indicate that the precision be improved about three orders compared with other common methods under the same condition of software and hardware. Moreover, when average error is less than 10-3, the synchronization speed is 6500 times than common methods, the iteration needs only 4 times. The unknown parameters also were identified rapidly. The theoretical analysis and proof also were given.

  5. Extensive screening for primary tumor is redundant in melanoma of unknown primary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tos, Tina; Klyver, Helle; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T

    2011-01-01

    For decades, patients in our institution with metastastic melanoma of unknown primary have been subjected to extensive examinations in search of the primary tumor. This retrospective study questions the results, and thus the feasibility of these examinations. Of 103 patients diagnosed with unknow......, for patients referred with metastastic melanoma of unknown primary, we recommend that a detailed history is obtained, and a standard physical examination performed, in addition to a histopathological review and CT/PET for staging....

  6. Distributed Optimization Design of Continuous-Time Multiagent Systems With Unknown-Frequency Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinghu; Hong, Yiguang; Yi, Peng; Ji, Haibo; Kang, Yu

    2017-05-24

    In this paper, a distributed optimization problem is studied for continuous-time multiagent systems with unknown-frequency disturbances. A distributed gradient-based control is proposed for the agents to achieve the optimal consensus with estimating unknown frequencies and rejecting the bounded disturbance in the semi-global sense. Based on convex optimization analysis and adaptive internal model approach, the exact optimization solution can be obtained for the multiagent system disturbed by exogenous disturbances with uncertain parameters.

  7. Eddy current analysis by BEM utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    The surface integral equations whose unknowns are the surface electric and magnetic currents are widely used in eddy current analysis. However, when the skin depth is thick, computational error is increased especially in obtaining electromagnetic fields near the edge of the conductor. In order to obtain the electromagnetic field accurately, we propose an approach to solve surface integral equations utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns. (Author)

  8. M-MRAC Backstepping for Systems with Unknown Virtual Control Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an over-parametrization free certainty equivalence state feedback backstepping adaptive control design method for systems of any relative degree with unmatched uncertainties and unknown virtual control coefficients. It uses a fast prediction model to estimate the unknown parameters, which is independent of the control design. It is shown that the system's input and output tracking errors can be systematically decreased by the proper choice of the design parameters. The benefits of the approach are demonstrated in numerical simulations.

  9. Quantum jointly assisted cloning of an unknown three-dimensional equatorial state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Gui-Bin; Li, Xiao-Wei; Zhan, You-Bang

    2018-02-01

    We present two schemes for perfectly cloning an unknown single-qutrit equatorial state with assistance from two and N state preparers, respectively. In the first scheme, the sender wishes to teleport an unknown single-qutrit equatorial state from two state preparers to a remote receiver, and then to create a perfect copy of the unknown state at her location. The scheme consists of two stages. The first stage of the scheme requires the usual teleportation. In the second stage, to help the sender realize the quantum cloning, two state preparers perform single-qutrit projective measurements on their own qutrits from the sender, then the sender can acquire a perfect copy of the unknown state. It is shown that, only if the two state preparers collaborate with each other, the sender can create a copy of the unknown state by means of some appropriate unitary operations. In the second scheme, we generalized the jointly assisted cloning in the first scheme to the case of N state prepares. In the present schemes, the total probability of success for assisted cloning of a perfect copy of the unknown state can reach 1.

  10. A single footshock causes long-lasting hypoactivity in unknown environments that is dependent on the development of contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviu, Núria; Fuentes, Silvia; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Exposure to a single session of footshocks induces long-lasting inhibition of activity in unknown environments that markedly differ from the shock context. Interestingly, these effects are not necessarily associated to an enhanced anxiety and interpretation of this hypoactivity remains unclear. In the present experiment we further studied this phenomenon in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In a first experiment, a session of three shocks resulted in hypoactivity during exposure, 6-12days later, to three different unknown environments. This altered behaviour was not accompanied by a greater hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation, although greater HPA activation paralleling higher levels of freezing was observed in the shock context. In a second experiment we used a single shock and two procedures, one with pre-exposure to the context before the shock and another with immediate shock that did not induce contextual fear conditioning. Hypoactivity and a certain level of generalization of fear (freezing) to the unknown environments only appeared in the group that developed fear conditioning, but no evidence for enhanced anxiety in the elevated plus-maze was found in any group. The results suggest that if animals are able to associate an aversive experience with a distinct unknown environment, they would display more cautious behaviour in any unknown environment and such strategy persists despite repeated experience with different environments. This long-lasting cautious behaviour was not associated to greater HPA response to the unknown environment that was however observed in the shock context. The present findings raised some concerns about interpretation of long-lasting behavioural changes caused by brief stressors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Automated pathway and reaction prediction facilitates in silico identification of unknown metabolites in human cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quell, Jan D; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Colombo, Marco; Krumsiek, Jan; Evans, Anne M; Mohney, Robert; Salomaa, Veikko; de Faire, Ulf; Groop, Leif C; Agakov, Felix; Looker, Helen C; McKeigue, Paul; Colhoun, Helen M; Kastenmüller, Gabi

    2017-12-15

    Identification of metabolites in non-targeted metabolomics continues to be a bottleneck in metabolomics studies in large human cohorts. Unidentified metabolites frequently emerge in the results of association studies linking metabolite levels to, for example, clinical phenotypes. For further analyses these unknown metabolites must be identified. Current approaches utilize chemical information, such as spectral details and fragmentation characteristics to determine components of unknown metabolites. Here, we propose a systems biology model exploiting the internal correlation structure of metabolite levels in combination with existing biochemical and genetic information to characterize properties of unknown molecules. Levels of 758 metabolites (439 known, 319 unknown) in human blood samples of 2279 subjects were measured using a non-targeted metabolomics platform (LC-MS and GC-MS). We reconstructed the structure of biochemical pathways that are imprinted in these metabolomics data by building an empirical network model based on 1040 significant partial correlations between metabolites. We further added associations of these metabolites to 134 genes from genome-wide association studies as well as reactions and functional relations to genes from the public database Recon 2 to the network model. From the local neighborhood in the network, we were able to predict the pathway annotation of 180 unknown metabolites. Furthermore, we classified 100 pairs of known and unknown and 45 pairs of unknown metabolites to 21 types of reactions based on their mass differences. As a proof of concept, we then looked further into the special case of predicted dehydrogenation reactions leading us to the selection of 39 candidate molecules for 5 unknown metabolites. Finally, we could verify 2 of those candidates by applying LC-MS analyses of commercially available candidate substances. The formerly unknown metabolites X-13891 and X-13069 were shown to be 2-dodecendioic acid and 9

  12. Air monitoring data reveal previously unknown contamination at radioactive waste disposal area, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraig, D.H.; Conrad, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Air monitoring at Area G, the low-level radioactive waste disposal area at Los Alamos National Laboratory, revealed increased air concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am at one location along the north boundary. This air monitoring location is a couple of meters north of a dirt road used to access the easternmost part of Area G. Air concentrations of 238 Pu were essentially unaffected which was puzzling because both 238 Pu and 239 Pu are present in the local, slightly contaminated soils. Air concentrations of these radionuclides increased about a factor of ten in early 1995 and remained at those levels until the first quarter of 1996. During the spring of 1996 air concentrations again increased by a factor of about ten. No other radionuclides were elevated, and no other Area G stations showed elevations of these radionuclides. After several formal meetings did not provide an adequate explanation for the elevations, a gamma-survey was performed and showed a small area of significant contamination just south of the monitor location. We found that in February 1995, a trench for a water line had been dug within a meter or so of the air stations. Then, during early 1996, the dirt road was rerouted such that its new path was directly over the unknown contamination. It appears that the trenching brought contaminated material to the surface and caused the firs rise in air concentrations and then the rerouting of the road over the contamination caused the second rise, during 1996. We also found that during 1976 and 1977 contaminated soils from the clean-up of an old processing facility had been spread over the filled pits in the vicinity of the air monitors. These soils, which were probably the source of the air contamination, were very low in 238 Pu which explains why we saw very little 238 Pu in the increased air concentrations. A layer of gravel and sand was spread over the contaminated area. Although air concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am dropped considerably, they have

  13. Nuclear imaging of neuroendocrine tumors with unknown primary: why, when and how?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanam, Prasanna; Chandramahanti, Sangeeta [Marshall University, Section of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Kroiss, Alexander [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Yu, Run [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Division of Endocrinology and Carcinoid and Neuroendocrine Tumor Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ruszniewski, Philippe [Beaujon Hospital and Paris-Diderot University, Department of Gastroenterology-Pancreatology, Paris (France); Kumar, Rakesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Taieb, David [Aix-Marseille University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, La Timone University Hospital, Marseille (France); Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Inserm UMR1068 Marseille Cancerology Research Center, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille University, European Center for Research in Medical Imaging, Marseille (France)

    2015-03-13

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with unknown primary (CUP-NET) are associated with a poor prognosis (10-year survival 22 %), grade 1 and 2 NETs having a more favorable outcome than grade 3 (also called carcinoma). There is evidence that an effort should be made to localize the primary tumor even in the presence of metastasis because resection of the primary tumor(s) may improve disease-free and overall survival, and because the choice of chemotherapeutic agent depends on the location of the primary tumor. Localization of the tumors remains challenging and often relies on a combination of radiological, endoscopic and functional imaging. The functional imaging protocol for evaluation of these patients has historically relied on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS). However, the sensitivity and specificity of SRS may be unsatisfactory, especially for NETs of midgut origin. Newer PET radiotracers such as {sup 68}Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs ({sup 68}Ga-DOTA-SSTa) and {sup 18}F-DOPA have shown promise. In direct comparisons between {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-SSTa PET/CT and {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-octreotide/{sup 111}In-pentetreotide SPECT(/CT), {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-SSTa performed better than other techniques, giving a compelling reason for switching from SPECT/CT to PET/CT imaging. {sup 18}F-DOPA performs better than SRS and CT in well-differentiated NETs of the small intestine. For detecting pancreatic NETs, the high background uptake of {sup 18}F-DOPA by the normal exocrine pancreas can be somewhat overcome by pretreatment with carbidopa. We have suggested a protocol in which SRS is replaced by one of the two agents (preferably with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-SSTa, alternatively {sup 18}F-DOPA) as first-line nuclear tracer for detection of CUP-NET in patients with well-differentiated NETs and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT may be an additional diagnostic test for poorly differentiated tumors and for prognostication. In the near future, it is expected that patients with CUP-NET will benefit from newly

  14. Nuclear imaging of neuroendocrine tumors with unknown primary: why, when and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhanam, Prasanna; Chandramahanti, Sangeeta; Kroiss, Alexander; Yu, Run; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Kumar, Rakesh; Taieb, David

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with unknown primary (CUP-NET) are associated with a poor prognosis (10-year survival 22 %), grade 1 and 2 NETs having a more favorable outcome than grade 3 (also called carcinoma). There is evidence that an effort should be made to localize the primary tumor even in the presence of metastasis because resection of the primary tumor(s) may improve disease-free and overall survival, and because the choice of chemotherapeutic agent depends on the location of the primary tumor. Localization of the tumors remains challenging and often relies on a combination of radiological, endoscopic and functional imaging. The functional imaging protocol for evaluation of these patients has historically relied on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS). However, the sensitivity and specificity of SRS may be unsatisfactory, especially for NETs of midgut origin. Newer PET radiotracers such as 68 Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs ( 68 Ga-DOTA-SSTa) and 18 F-DOPA have shown promise. In direct comparisons between 68 Ga-DOTA-SSTa PET/CT and 99m Tc-HYNIC-octreotide/ 111 In-pentetreotide SPECT(/CT), 68 Ga-DOTA-SSTa performed better than other techniques, giving a compelling reason for switching from SPECT/CT to PET/CT imaging. 18 F-DOPA performs better than SRS and CT in well-differentiated NETs of the small intestine. For detecting pancreatic NETs, the high background uptake of 18 F-DOPA by the normal exocrine pancreas can be somewhat overcome by pretreatment with carbidopa. We have suggested a protocol in which SRS is replaced by one of the two agents (preferably with 68 Ga-DOTA-SSTa, alternatively 18 F-DOPA) as first-line nuclear tracer for detection of CUP-NET in patients with well-differentiated NETs and 18 F-FDG PET/CT may be an additional diagnostic test for poorly differentiated tumors and for prognostication. In the near future, it is expected that patients with CUP-NET will benefit from newly developed PET approaches (radiopharmaceuticals) and

  15. Detection of viral sequence fragments of HIV-1 subfamilies yet unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanke Mario

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods of determining whether or not any particular HIV-1 sequence stems - completely or in part - from some unknown HIV-1 subtype are important for the design of vaccines and molecular detection systems, as well as for epidemiological monitoring. Nevertheless, a single algorithm only, the Branching Index (BI, has been developed for this task so far. Moving along the genome of a query sequence in a sliding window, the BI computes a ratio quantifying how closely the query sequence clusters with a subtype clade. In its current version, however, the BI does not provide predicted boundaries of unknown fragments. Results We have developed Unknown Subtype Finder (USF, an algorithm based on a probabilistic model, which automatically determines which parts of an input sequence originate from a subtype yet unknown. The underlying model is based on a simple profile hidden Markov model (pHMM for each known subtype and an additional pHMM for an unknown subtype. The emission probabilities of the latter are estimated using the emission frequencies of the known subtypes by means of a (position-wise probabilistic model for the emergence of new subtypes. We have applied USF to SIV and HIV-1 sequences formerly classified as having emerged from an unknown subtype. Moreover, we have evaluated its performance on artificial HIV-1 recombinants and non-recombinant HIV-1 sequences. The results have been compared with the corresponding results of the BI. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that USF is suitable for detecting segments in HIV-1 sequences stemming from yet unknown subtypes. Comparing USF with the BI shows that our algorithm performs as good as the BI or better.

  16. Zero Distribution of System with Unknown Random Variables Case Study: Avoiding Collision Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parman Setyamartana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the stochastic analysis of finding the feasible trajectories of robotics arm motion at obstacle surrounding. Unknown variables are coefficients of polynomials joint angle so that the collision-free motion is achieved. ãk is matrix consisting of these unknown feasible polynomial coefficients. The pattern of feasible polynomial in the obstacle environment shows as random. This paper proposes to model the pattern of this randomness values using random polynomial with unknown variables as coefficients. The behavior of the system will be obtained from zero distribution as the characteristic of such random polynomial. Results show that the pattern of random polynomial of avoiding collision can be constructed from zero distribution. Zero distribution is like building block of the system with obstacles as uncertainty factor. By scale factor k, which has range, the random coefficient pattern can be predicted.

  17. High-order sliding mode observer for fractional commensurate linear systems with unknown input

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2017-05-20

    In this paper, a high-order sliding mode observer (HOSMO) is proposed for the joint estimation of the pseudo-state and the unknown input of fractional commensurate linear systems with single unknown input and a single output. The convergence of the proposed observer is proved using a Lyapunov-based approach. In addition, an enhanced variant of the proposed fractional-HOSMO is introduced to avoid the peaking phenomenon and thus to improve the estimation results in the transient phase. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed fractional observer in both noise-free and noisy cases. The effect of the observer’s gains on the estimated pseudo-state and unknown input is also discussed.

  18. Structure Elucidation of Unknown Metabolites in Metabolomics by Combined NMR and MS/MS Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Rene M; Hoyt, David W; Nicora, Carrie D; Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A; Ward, Joy K; Bingol, Kerem

    2018-01-17

    We introduce a cheminformatics approach that combines highly selective and orthogonal structure elucidation parameters; accurate mass, MS/MS (MS²), and NMR into a single analysis platform to accurately identify unknown metabolites in untargeted studies. The approach starts with an unknown LC-MS feature, and then combines the experimental MS/MS and NMR information of the unknown to effectively filter out the false positive candidate structures based on their predicted MS/MS and NMR spectra. We demonstrate the approach on a model mixture, and then we identify an uncatalogued secondary metabolite in Arabidopsis thaliana . The NMR/MS² approach is well suited to the discovery of new metabolites in plant extracts, microbes, soils, dissolved organic matter, food extracts, biofuels, and biomedical samples, facilitating the identification of metabolites that are not present in experimental NMR and MS metabolomics databases.

  19. Adaptive Tracking and Obstacle Avoidance Control for Mobile Robots with Unknown Sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Cui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive control approach is proposed for trajectory tracking and obstacle avoidance for mobile robots with consideration given to unknown sliding. A kinematic model of mobile robots is established in this paper, in which both longitudinal and lateral sliding are considered and processed as three time-varying parameters. A sliding model observer is introduced to estimate the sliding parameters online. A stable tracking control law for this nonholonomic system is proposed to compensate the unknown sliding effect. From Lyapunov-stability analysis, it is proved, regardless of unknown sliding, that tracking errors of the controlled closed-loop system are asymptotically stable, the tracking errors converge to zero outside the obstacle detection region and obstacle avoidance is guaranteed inside the obstacle detection region. The efficiency and robustness of the proposed control system are verified by simulation results.

  20. 18F-FDG-PET/CT in fever of unknown origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelbo Buch-Olsen, Karen; Andersen, Rikke V; Hess, Søren

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fever of unknown origin continues to be a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. The aim of this study was to confirm whether (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)-PET/computed tomography (CT) is a helpful tool in patients suffering from this condition. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty......-seven patients with fever of unknown origin were examined with (18)F-FDG-PET/CT as part of their diagnostic workup at the clinicians' discretion. The medical records were read retrospectively to establish the final diagnosis and evaluate the degree to which PET/CT contributed to the diagnosis. RESULTS......-FDG-PET/CT is a useful tool in the investigation of fever of unknown origin; it can reduce patient inconvenience and possibly costs to society if used earlier in the diagnostic process....

  1. High-order sliding mode observer for fractional commensurate linear systems with unknown input

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a high-order sliding mode observer (HOSMO) is proposed for the joint estimation of the pseudo-state and the unknown input of fractional commensurate linear systems with single unknown input and a single output. The convergence of the proposed observer is proved using a Lyapunov-based approach. In addition, an enhanced variant of the proposed fractional-HOSMO is introduced to avoid the peaking phenomenon and thus to improve the estimation results in the transient phase. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed fractional observer in both noise-free and noisy cases. The effect of the observer’s gains on the estimated pseudo-state and unknown input is also discussed.

  2. Circuit realization, chaos synchronization and estimation of parameters of a hyperchaotic system with unknown parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elsonbaty

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the adaptive chaos synchronization technique is implemented by an electronic circuit and applied to the hyperchaotic system proposed by Chen et al. We consider the more realistic and practical case where all the parameters of the master system are unknowns. We propose and implement an electronic circuit that performs the estimation of the unknown parameters and the updating of the parameters of the slave system automatically, and hence it achieves the synchronization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to implement a circuit that estimates the values of the unknown parameters of chaotic system and achieves synchronization. The proposed circuit has a variety of suitable real applications related to chaos encryption and cryptography. The outputs of the implemented circuits and numerical simulation results are shown to view the performance of the synchronized system and the proposed circuit.

  3. Adaptive control of Parkinson's state based on a nonlinear computational model with unknown parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Chen, Ying-Yuan; Liu, Chen; Li, Hui-Yan

    2015-02-01

    The objective here is to explore the use of adaptive input-output feedback linearization method to achieve an improved deep brain stimulation (DBS) algorithm for closed-loop control of Parkinson's state. The control law is based on a highly nonlinear computational model of Parkinson's disease (PD) with unknown parameters. The restoration of thalamic relay reliability is formulated as the desired outcome of the adaptive control methodology, and the DBS waveform is the control input. The control input is adjusted in real time according to estimates of unknown parameters as well as the feedback signal. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive control algorithm succeeds in restoring the relay reliability of the thalamus, and at the same time achieves accurate estimation of unknown parameters. Our findings point to the potential value of adaptive control approach that could be used to regulate DBS waveform in more effective treatment of PD.

  4. Building a RAPPOR with the Unknown: Privacy-Preserving Learning of Associations and Data Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanti Giulia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Techniques based on randomized response enable the collection of potentially sensitive data from clients in a privacy-preserving manner with strong local differential privacy guarantees. A recent such technology, RAPPOR [12], enables estimation of the marginal frequencies of a set of strings via privacy-preserving crowdsourcing. However, this original estimation process relies on a known dictionary of possible strings; in practice, this dictionary can be extremely large and/or unknown. In this paper, we propose a novel decoding algorithm for the RAPPOR mechanism that enables the estimation of “unknown unknowns,” i.e., strings we do not know we should be estimating. To enable learning without explicit dictionary knowledge, we develop methodology for estimating the joint distribution of multiple variables collected with RAPPOR. Our contributions are not RAPPOR-specific, and can be generalized to other local differential privacy mechanisms for learning distributions of string-valued random variables.

  5. Ratbot automatic navigation by electrical reward stimulation based on distance measurement in unknown environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liqiang; Sun, Chao; Zhang, Chen; Zheng, Nenggan; Chen, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2013-01-01

    Traditional automatic navigation methods for bio-robots are constrained to configured environments and thus can't be applied to tasks in unknown environments. With no consideration of bio-robot's own innate living ability and treating bio-robots in the same way as mechanical robots, those methods neglect the intelligence behavior of animals. This paper proposes a novel ratbot automatic navigation method in unknown environments using only reward stimulation and distance measurement. By utilizing rat's habit of thigmotaxis and its reward-seeking behavior, this method is able to incorporate rat's intrinsic intelligence of obstacle avoidance and path searching into navigation. Experiment results show that this method works robustly and can successfully navigate the ratbot to a target in the unknown environment. This work might put a solid base for application of ratbots and also has significant implication of automatic navigation for other bio-robots as well.

  6. Neuroendocrine Merkel cell nodal carcinoma of unknown primary site: management and outcomes of a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotteas, E A; Pavlidis, N

    2015-04-01

    Merkel cell nodal carcinoma of unknown primary (MCCUP) is a rare neuroendocrine tumour with distinct clinical and biological behaviour. We conducted a review of retrospective data extracted from 90 patients focusing on the management and outcome of this disease. We also compared life expectancy of these patients with the outcome of patients with known Merkel primaries and with neuroendocrine cancers of unidentifiable primary. There is a limited body of data for this type of malignancy, however, patients with Merkel cell nodal carcinoma of unknown primary site, seem to have better survival when treated aggressively than patients with cutaneous Merkel tumours of the same stage and equal survival with patients with low-grade neuroendocrine tumour of unknown origin. The lack of prospective trials, and the inadequate data, hamper the management of these tumours. Establishment of treatment guidelines is urgently needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Accessory papillary muscles and papillary muscle hypertrophy are associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jae-Sun; Youn, Jong-Chan; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Park, Junbeom; Park, Jin-Kyu; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Joung, Boyoung; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2015-10-15

    The present study was performed for elucidating the associations between the morphology of the papillary muscles (PMs) and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). We retrospectively reviewed history, laboratory data, electrocardiography, echocardiography, coronary angiography, and cardiac CT/MRI for 190 patients with SCA. The prevalence of accessory PMs and PM hypertrophy in patients with SCA of unknown cause was compared with that in patients with SCA of known causes and 98 age- and sex-matched patients without SCA. An accessory PM was defined as a PM with origins separated from the anterolateral and posteromedial PMs, or a PM that branched into two or three bellies at the base of the anterolateral or posteromedial PM. PM hypertrophy was defined as at least one of the two PMs having a diameter of ≥1.1cm. In 49 patients (age 49.9±15.9years; 38 men) the cause of SCA was unknown, whereas 141 (age 54.2±16.6years; 121 men) had a known cause. The prevalence of accessory PMs was significantly higher in the unknown-cause group than in the known-cause group (24.5% and 7.8%, respectively; p=0.002) or the no-SCA group (7.1%, p=0.003). The same was true for PM hypertrophy (unknown-cause 12.2%, known-cause 2.1%, p=0.010; no SCA group 1.0%, p=0.006). By logistic regression, accessory PM and PM hypertrophy were independently associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause. An accessory PM and PM hypertrophy are associated with SCA of unknown cause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A sensitivity analysis approach to control of manipulators with unknown load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzes, A.; Yurkovich, S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a straightforward control strategy applied to an N-link manipulator holding an unknown load and driving its end effector along a prespecified trajectory. The control is constituted into two primary components. The non-adaptive component is derived from the inverse problem technique while the adaptive component is computed via the application of sensitivity analysis applied to the complete, centralized dynamic model of the manipulator. The result is a robust adaptive controller which tunes its parameters at specified time instants and can withstand all expected variations of the payload. The control synthesis is illustrated by simulations in a 2-link planar manipulator holding an unknown load

  9. MUSIC-type imaging of small perfectly conducting cracks with an unknown frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) is a famous non-iterative detection algorithm in inverse scattering problems. However, when the applied frequency is unknown, inaccurate locations are identified via MUSIC. This fact has been confirmed through numerical simulations. However, the reason behind this phenomenon has not been investigated theoretically. Motivated by this fact, we identify the structure of MUSIC-type imaging functionals with unknown frequency, by establishing a relationship with Bessel functions of order zero of the first kind. Through this, we can explain why inaccurate results appear. (paper)

  10. A NEW METHOD OF CHANNEL FRICTION INVERSION BASED ON KALMAN FILTER WITH UNKNOWN PARAMETER VECTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wei-ping; MAO Gen-hai; LIU Guo-hua

    2005-01-01

    Channel friction is an important parameter in hydraulic analysis.A channel friction parameter inversion method based on Kalman Filter with unknown parameter vector is proposed.Numerical simulations indicate that when the number of monitoring stations exceeds a critical value, the solution is hardly affected.In addition, Kalman Filter with unknown parameter vector is effective only at unsteady state.For the nonlinear equations, computations of sensitivity matrices are time-costly.Two simplified measures can reduce computing time, but not influence the results.One is to reduce sensitivity matrix analysis time, the other is to substitute for sensitivity matrix.

  11. Optimal conclusive teleportation of a d-dimensional two-particle unknown quantum state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yu-Guang; Wen Qiao-Yan; Zhu Fu-Chen

    2006-01-01

    A conclusive teleportation protocol of a d-dimensional two-particle unknown quantum state using three ddimensional particles in an arbitrary pure state is proposed. A sender teleports the unknown state conclusively to a receiver by using the positive operator valued measure(POVM) and introducing an ancillary qudit to perform the generalized Bell basis measurement. We calculate the optimal teleportation fidelity. We also discuss and analyse the reason why the information on the teleported state is lost in the course of the protocol.

  12. Content-Based Multimedia Retrieval in the Presence of Unknown User Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beecks, Christian; Assent, Ira; Seidl, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Content-based multimedia retrieval requires an appropriate similarity model which reflects user preferences. When these preferences are unknown or when the structure of the data collection is unclear, retrieving the most preferable objects the user has in mind is challenging, as the notion...... address the problem of content-based multimedia retrieval in the presence of unknown user preferences. Our idea consists in performing content-based retrieval by considering all possibilities in a family of similarity models simultaneously. To this end, we propose a novel content-based retrieval approach...

  13. General methods for modified projective synchronization of hyperchaotic systems with known or unknown parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Fang, Jian-an

    2008-03-01

    This work is concerned with the general methods for modified projective synchronization of hyperchaotic systems. A systematic method of active control is developed to synchronize two hyperchaotic systems with known parameters. Moreover, by combining the adaptive control and linear feedback methods, general sufficient conditions for the modified projective synchronization of identical or different chaotic systems with fully unknown or partially unknown parameters are presented. Meanwhile, the speed of parameters identification can be regulated by adjusting adaptive gain matrix. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  14. Projective and hybrid projective synchronization for the Lorenz-Stenflo system with estimation of unknown parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Payel; Banerjee, Santo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, in the first phase, we study the phenomenon of projective synchronization in the Lorenz-Stenflo system. Synchronization is then investigated for the same system with unknown parameters. We show analytically that synchronization is possible for some proper choice of the nonlinear controller by using a suitable Lyapunov function. With the help of this result, it is also possible to estimate the values of the unknown system parameters. In the second phase as an extension of our analysis, we investigate the new hybrid projective synchronization for the same system. All our analyses are well supported with numerical evidence.

  15. MUSIC-type imaging of small perfectly conducting cracks with an unknown frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Kwang

    2015-09-01

    MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) is a famous non-iterative detection algorithm in inverse scattering problems. However, when the applied frequency is unknown, inaccurate locations are identified via MUSIC. This fact has been confirmed through numerical simulations. However, the reason behind this phenomenon has not been investigated theoretically. Motivated by this fact, we identify the structure of MUSIC-type imaging functionals with unknown frequency, by establishing a relationship with Bessel functions of order zero of the first kind. Through this, we can explain why inaccurate results appear.

  16. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park Service... funerary objects in the possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository professional staff in consultation with...

  17. Cellular cholesterol efflux to plasma from proteinuric patients is elevated and remains unaffected by antiproteinuric treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, L; Laverman, GD; van Tol, A; Groen, AK; Navis, G; Dullaart, RPF

    Background. Lipid derangements are assumed to contribute to the elevated cardiovascular risk in proteinuric patients. The impact of proteinuria on reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is unknown. The first step in RCT, cellular cholesterol efflux to plasma, may be altered in proteinuria, consequent

  18. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or until...

  19. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Gemcitabine and irinotecan as first-line therapy for carcinoma of unknown primary: results of a multicenter phase II trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shernan G Holtan

    Full Text Available Metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP has a very poor prognosis, and no standard first-line therapy currently exists. Here, we report the results of a phase II study utilizing a combination of gemcitabine and irinotecan as first-line therapy. Treatment was with gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2 and irinotecan 75 mg/m(2 weekly times four on a six week cycle (Cohort I. Due to excessive toxicity, the dose and schedule were modified as follows: gemcitabine 750 mg/m(2 and irinotecan 75 mg/m(2 given weekly times three on a four week cycle (Cohort II. The primary endpoint was the confirmed response rate (CR + PR. Secondary endpoints consisted of adverse events based upon the presence or absence of the UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1*28 (UGT1A1*28 polymorphism, time to progression, and overall survival. Thirty-one patients were enrolled with a median age of 63 (range: 38-94, and 26 patients were evaluable for efficacy. Significant toxicity was observed in Cohort 1, characterized by 50% (7/14 patients experiencing a grade 4+ adverse event, but not in cohort II. The confirmed response rate including patients from both cohorts was 12% (95% CI: 2-30%, which did not meet the criteria for continued enrollment. Overall median survival was 7.2 months (95% CI: 4.0 to 11.6 for the entire cohort but notably longer in cohort II than in cohort I (9.3 months (95% CI: 4.1 to 12.1 versus 4.0 months (95% CI: 2.2 to 15.6. Gemcitabine and irinotecan is not an active combination when used as first line therapy in patients with metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary. Efforts into developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches remain important for improving the outlook for this heterogeneous group of patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00066781.

  1. Detection of unknown primary neuroendocrine tumours (CUP-NET) using 68Ga-DOTA-NOC receptor PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Vikas; Baum, Richard P.; Ambrosini, Valentina; Fanti, Stefano; Hommann, Merten; Hoersch, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    This bi-centric study aimed to determine the role of receptor PET/CT using 68 Ga-DOTA-NOC in the detection of undiagnosed primary sites of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) and to understand the molecular behaviour of the primarily undiagnosed tumours. Overall 59 patients (33 men and 26 women, age: 65 ± 9 years) with documented NET and unknown primary were enrolled. PET/CT was performed after injection of approximately 100 MBq (46-260 MBq) of 68 Ga-DOTA-NOC. The maximum standardised uptake values (SUV max ) were calculated and compared with SUV max in known pancreatic NET (pNET) and ileum/jejunum/duodenum (SI-NET). The results of PET/CT were also correlated with CT alone. In 35 of 59 patients (59%), 68 Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT localised the site of the primary: ileum/jejunum (14), pancreas (16), rectum/colon (2), lungs (2) and paraganglioma (1). CT alone (on retrospective analyses) confirmed the findings in 12 of 59 patients (20%). The mean SUV max of identified previously unknown pNET and SI-NET were 18.6 ± 9.8 (range: 7.8-34.8) and 9.1 ± 6.0 (range: 4.2-27.8), respectively. SUV max in patients with previously known pNET and SI-NET were 26.1 ± 14.5 (range: 8.7-42.4) and 11.3 ± 3.7 (range: 5.6-17.9). The SUV max of the unknown pNET and SI-NET were significantly lower (p 68 Ga-DOTA-NOC receptor PET/CT, 6 of 59 patients were operated and the primary was removed (4 pancreatic, 1 ileal and 1 rectal tumour) resulting in a management change in approximately 10% of the patients. In the remaining 29 patients, because of the far advanced stage of the disease (due to distant metastases), the primary tumours were not operated. Additional histopathological sampling was available from one patient with bronchial carcinoid (through bronchoscopy). Our data indicate that 68 Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT is highly superior to 111 In-OctreoScan (39% detection rate for CUP according to the literature) and can play a major role in the management of patients with CUP-NET. (orig.)

  2. Detection of unknown primary neuroendocrine tumours (CUP-NET) using {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-NOC receptor PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Vikas; Baum, Richard P. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Centre for PET/CT, Bad Berka (Germany); Ambrosini, Valentina; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Hommann, Merten [Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Bad Berka (Germany); Hoersch, Dieter [Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Department of Internal Medicine/Gastroenterology, Oncology and Endocrinology, Bad Berka (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    This bi-centric study aimed to determine the role of receptor PET/CT using {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-NOC in the detection of undiagnosed primary sites of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) and to understand the molecular behaviour of the primarily undiagnosed tumours. Overall 59 patients (33 men and 26 women, age: 65 {+-} 9 years) with documented NET and unknown primary were enrolled. PET/CT was performed after injection of approximately 100 MBq (46-260 MBq) of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-NOC. The maximum standardised uptake values (SUV{sub max}) were calculated and compared with SUV{sub max} in known pancreatic NET (pNET) and ileum/jejunum/duodenum (SI-NET). The results of PET/CT were also correlated with CT alone. In 35 of 59 patients (59%), {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT localised the site of the primary: ileum/jejunum (14), pancreas (16), rectum/colon (2), lungs (2) and paraganglioma (1). CT alone (on retrospective analyses) confirmed the findings in 12 of 59 patients (20%). The mean SUV{sub max} of identified previously unknown pNET and SI-NET were 18.6 {+-} 9.8 (range: 7.8-34.8) and 9.1 {+-} 6.0 (range: 4.2-27.8), respectively. SUV{sub max} in patients with previously known pNET and SI-NET were 26.1 {+-} 14.5 (range: 8.7-42.4) and 11.3 {+-} 3.7 (range: 5.6-17.9). The SUV{sub max} of the unknown pNET and SI-NET were significantly lower (p < 0.05) as compared to the ones with known primary tumour sites; 19% of the patients had high-grade and 81% low-grade NET. Based on {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-NOC receptor PET/CT, 6 of 59 patients were operated and the primary was removed (4 pancreatic, 1 ileal and 1 rectal tumour) resulting in a management change in approximately 10% of the patients. In the remaining 29 patients, because of the far advanced stage of the disease (due to distant metastases), the primary tumours were not operated. Additional histopathological sampling was available from one patient with bronchial carcinoid (through bronchoscopy). Our data indicate that {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT is

  3. Review of the Dinosaur Remains from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. L. Clark

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs are rare from the Middle Jurassic worldwide. The Isle of Skye, is the only place in Scotland thus far to have produced dinosaur remains. These remains consist mainly of footprints, but also several bones and teeth. These Bajocian and Bathonian remains represent an important collection of a basal eusauropod, early examples of non-neosauropod and possible basal titanosauriform eusauropods, and theropod remains that may belong to an early coelurosaur and a possible megalosaurid, basal tyrannosauroid, or dromaeosaurid. The footprints from here also suggest a rich and diverse dinosaur fauna for which further better diagnosable remains are likely to be found.

  4. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) treatment depends on the best determination of the primary site, if possible. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic treatment. Get detailed information about diagnosis and treatment of CUP in this summary for clinicians.

  5. Identification of fractional-order systems with unknown initial values and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Wei, E-mail: duwei0203@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Advanced Control and Optimization for Chemical Processes, Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Miao, Qingying, E-mail: qymiao@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Continuing Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Tong, Le, E-mail: tongle0328@gmail.com [Faculty of Applied Science and Textiles, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Tang, Yang [Key Laboratory of Advanced Control and Optimization for Chemical Processes, Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2017-06-21

    In this paper, the identification problem of fractional-order chaotic systems is proposed and investigated via an evolutionary optimization approach. Different with other studies to date, this research focuses on the identification of fractional-order chaotic systems with not only unknown orders and parameters, but also unknown initial values and structure. A group of fractional-order chaotic systems, i.e., Lorenz, Lü, Chen, Rössler, Arneodo and Volta chaotic systems, are set as the system candidate pool. The identification problem of fractional-order chaotic systems in this research belongs to mixed integer nonlinear optimization in essence. A powerful evolutionary algorithm called composite differential evolution (CoDE) is introduced for the identification problem presented in this paper. Extensive experiments are carried out to show that the fractional-order chaotic systems with unknown initial values and structure can be successfully identified by means of CoDE. - Highlights: • Unknown initial values and structure are introduced in the identification of fractional-order chaotic systems; • Only a series of output is utilized in the identification of fractional-order chaotic systems; • CoDE is used for the identification problem and the results are satisfactory when compared with other DE variants.

  6. Venturing into unknown territory: the preparation and formulation of the Second Benelux Structural Outline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.

    2008-01-01

    Inherent in transnational planning are obstacles which cause spatial planners to venture into unknown territory. The scale, the issues and the institutional context are significantly different from planning at the national level or below. What does this mean for the role of spatial plan-making,

  7. Virtue-Epistemology and the Chagos Unknown: Questioning the Indictment of Knowledge Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastephanou, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Though concerned with knowledge, this article begins with unknown political events that are ignored by the culture and educational practices of the societies in whose name the events took place. The questions that these events raise indicate a relation of epistemology with ethics and education that complicates some theoretical and managerial…

  8. Identification of unknown apple cultivars demonstrates the impact of local breeding program on cultivar diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple trees, either abandoned or cared for, are common on the North American landscape. These trees can live for decades, and therefore represent a record of large- and small-scale agricultural practices through time. Here, we assessed the genetic diversity and identity of 330 unknown apple trees in...

  9. Fever of Unknown Origin: the Value of FDG-PET/CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouijzer, I.J.E.; Mulders-Manders, C.M.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2018-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is commonly defined as fever higher than 38.3 degrees C on several occasions during at least 3 weeks with uncertain diagnosis after a number of obligatory investigations. The differential diagnosis of FUO can be subdivided in four categories: infections, malignancies,

  10. Elimination of some unknown parameters and its effect on outlier detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serif Hekimoglu

    Full Text Available Outliers in observation set badly affect all the estimated unknown parameters and residuals, that is because outlier detection has a great importance for reliable estimation results. Tests for outliers (e.g. Baarda's and Pope's tests are frequently used to detect outliers in geodetic applications. In order to reduce the computational time, sometimes elimination of some unknown parameters, which are not of interest, is performed. In this case, although the estimated unknown parameters and residuals do not change, the cofactor matrix of the residuals and the redundancies of the observations change. In this study, the effects of the elimination of the unknown parameters on tests for outliers have been investigated. We have proved that the redundancies in initial functional model (IFM are smaller than the ones in reduced functional model (RFM where elimination is performed. To show this situation, a horizontal control network was simulated and then many experiences were performed. According to simulation results, tests for outlier in IFM are more reliable than the ones in RFM.

  11. Gene variants of unknown clinical significance in Lynch syndrome. An introduction for clinicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijmons, Rolf H.; Greenblatt, Marc S.; Genuardi, Maurizio

    Clinicians referring patients for genetic testing for Lynch syndrome will sooner or later receive results for DNA Mismatch Repair (MMR) genes reporting DNA changes that are unclear from a clinical point of view. These changes are referred to as variants of unknown, or unclear, clinical significance

  12. Disseminated hydatid disease presenting as fever of unknown origin: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human hydatid disease occurs due to infection with larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. The disseminated hydatid disease is a very rare finding. Disseminated hydatid disease presenting as a cause of fever of unknown origin is a rare phenomenon. We present to you such a rare case.

  13. Using Conductivity Measurements to Determine the Identities and Concentrations of Unknown Acids: An Inquiry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. Christopher; Garza, Ariana

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a student designed experiment using titrations involving conductivity measurements to identify unknown acids as being either HCl or H[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4], and to determine the concentrations of the acids, thereby improving the utility of standard acid-base titrations. Using an inquiry context, students gain experience…

  14. Organic Spectroscopy Laboratory: Utilizing IR and NMR in the Identification of an Unknown Substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glagovich, Neil M.; Shine, Timothy D.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that emphasizes the interpretation of both infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra in the elucidation of the structure of an unknown compound was developed. The method helps students determine [to the first power]H- and [to the thirteenth power]C-NMR spectra from the structures of compounds and to…

  15. "A Marriage on the Rocks": An Unknown Letter by William H. Kilpatrick about His Project Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Michael

    2010-01-01

    William H. Kilpatrick is worldwide known as "Mr. Project Method." But the origin of his celebrated paper of 1918 has never been explored. The discovery of a hitherto unknown letter reveals that Kilpatrick was an educational entrepreneur who, without regard for language and tradition, adopted the term "project" and used it in a provocative new way…

  16. [Reconstructive investigations and identification measures in unknown soldiers of the Second World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home.

  17. Robust adaptive fuzzy neural tracking control for a class of unknown ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy neural controller (AFNC) for a class of unknown chaotic systems is proposed. The proposed AFNC is comprised of a fuzzy neural controller and a robust controller. The fuzzy neural controller including a fuzzy neural network identifier (FNNI) is the principal controller. The FNNI is used for ...

  18. Putting Two and Two Together: Middle School Students' Morphological Problem-Solving Strategies for Unknown Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Mark B.; Goodwin, Amanda P.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents often use root word and affix knowledge to figure out unknown words. Anglin (1993) found that younger readers favor the Part-to-Whole strategy, and Tyler and Nagy (1989) confirmed the importance of root-word knowledge for middle school students. This study seeks to understand the different strategies middle school readers use so that…

  19. Unknown loads affect force production capacity in early phases of bench press throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Davó, J L; Sabido Solana, R; Sarabia Marínm, J M; Sánchez Martos, Á; Moya Ramón, M

    2015-10-01

    Explosive strength training aims to improve force generation in early phases of movement due to its importance in sport performance. The present study examined the influence of lack of knowledge about the load lifted in explosive parameters during bench press throws. Thirteen healthy young men (22.8±2.0 years) participated in the study. Participants performed bench press throws with three different loads (30, 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum) in two different conditions (known and unknown loads). In unknown condition, loads were changed within sets in each repetition and participants did not know the load, whereas in known condition the load did not change within sets and participants had knowledge about the load lifted. Results of repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that unknown conditions involves higher power in the first 30, 50, 100 and 150 ms with the three loads, higher values of ratio of force development in those first instants, and differences in time to reach maximal rate of force development with 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum. This study showed that unknown conditions elicit higher values of explosive parameters in early phases of bench press throws, thereby this kind of methodology could be considered in explosive strength training.

  20. Approximate and Conditional Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic-Entangled State Without Bell-State Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang-Yong; LI Shao-Hua

    2007-01-01

    A scheme for approximately and conditionally teleporting an unknown atomic-entangled state in cavity QED is proposed.It is the novel extension of the scheme of [Phys.Rev.A 69 (2004) 064302],where the state to be teleported is an unknown atomic state and where only a time point of system evolution and the corresponding fidelity implementing the teleportation are given.In fact,there exists multi-time points and the corresponding fidclities,which are shown in this paper and then are used to realize the approximate and conditional teleportation of the unknown atomic-entangled state.Naturally,our scheme does not involve the Bell-state measurement or an additional atom,which is required in the Bell-state measurement,only requiring one single-mode cavity.The scheme may be generalized to not only the teleportation of the cavity-mode-entangled-state by means of a single atom but also the teleportation of the unknown trapped-ion-entangled-state in a linear ion trap and the teleportation of the multi-atomic entangled states included in generalized GHZ states.

  1. Unknown grapevine genetic resources in Asturias (Spain on the edge of extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Moreno-Sanz

    2013-12-01

    Significance and impact of the study: Considering the limited number of accessions of the unknown cultivars and the replanting of old vineyards with vines approved by Cangas Quality Wine regulations, their conservation and study is vital to provide genetic resources for potential breeding or technological purposes in the future.

  2. A unified framework for testing in the linear regression model under unknown order of fractional integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Kruse, Robinson; Sibbertsen, Philipp

    We consider hypothesis testing in a general linear time series regression framework when the possibly fractional order of integration of the error term is unknown. We show that the approach suggested by Vogelsang (1998a) for the case of integer integration does not apply to the case of fractional...

  3. Exploration of Unknown Spaces by People Who Are Blind Using a Multi-sensory Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orly; Mioduser, David

    2004-01-01

    The ability to explore unknown spaces independently, safely and efficiently is a combined product of motor, sensory, and cognitive skills. Normal exercise of this ability directly affects an individual?s quality of life. Mental mapping of spaces and of the possible paths for navigating these spaces is essential for the development of efficient…

  4. Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…

  5. A novel algorithm for fast grasping of unknown objects using C-shape configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qujiang; Chen, Guangming; Meijer, Jonathan; Wisse, Martijn

    2018-02-01

    Increasing grasping efficiency is very important for the robots to grasp unknown objects especially subjected to unfamiliar environments. To achieve this, a new algorithm is proposed based on the C-shape configuration. Specifically, the geometric model of the used under-actuated gripper is approximated as a C-shape. To obtain an appropriate graspable position, this C-shape configuration is applied to fit geometric model of an unknown object. The geometric model of unknown object is constructed by using a single-view partial point cloud. To examine the algorithm using simulations, a comparison of the commonly used motion planners is made. The motion planner with the highest number of solved runs, lowest computing time and the shortest path length is chosen to execute grasps found by this grasping algorithm. The simulation results demonstrate that excellent grasping efficiency is achieved by adopting our algorithm. To validate this algorithm, experiment tests are carried out using a UR5 robot arm and an under-actuated gripper. The experimental results show that steady grasping actions are obtained. Hence, this research provides a novel algorithm for fast grasping of unknown objects.

  6. The role of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of cancer of unknown origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demir, H; Berk, F; Raderer, M

    2004-01-01

    Cancer of unknown origin (CUO) is defined by the absence of any primary tumour in biopsy-proved metastatic cancer. CUO accounts for a 5-10% of all malignancies. These tumors have a specific biology with clinical characteristics of rapid progression and atypical metastases. Diagnostic evaluation i...

  7. Comparative study of methods for recognition of an unknown person's action from a video sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Takayuki; Ohya, Jun; Kurumisawa, Jun

    2009-02-01

    This paper proposes a Tensor Decomposition Based method that can recognize an unknown person's action from a video sequence, where the unknown person is not included in the database (tensor) used for the recognition. The tensor consists of persons, actions and time-series image features. For the observed unknown person's action, one of the actions stored in the tensor is assumed. Using the motion signature obtained from the assumption, the unknown person's actions are synthesized. The actions of one of the persons in the tensor are replaced by the synthesized actions. Then, the core tensor for the replaced tensor is computed. This process is repeated for the actions and persons. For each iteration, the difference between the replaced and original core tensors is computed. The assumption that gives the minimal difference is the action recognition result. For the time-series image features to be stored in the tensor and to be extracted from the observed video sequence, the human body silhouette's contour shape based feature is used. To show the validity of our proposed method, our proposed method is experimentally compared with Nearest Neighbor rule and Principal Component analysis based method. Experiments using 33 persons' seven kinds of action show that our proposed method achieves better recognition accuracies for the seven actions than the other methods.

  8. A dynamical approach in exploring the unknown mass in the Solar system using pulsar timing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y. J.; Lee, K. J.; Caballero, R. N.

    2018-04-01

    The error in the Solar system ephemeris will lead to dipolar correlations in the residuals of pulsar timing array for widely separated pulsars. In this paper, we utilize such correlated signals, and construct a Bayesian data-analysis framework to detect the unknown mass in the Solar system and to measure the orbital parameters. The algorithm is designed to calculate the waveform of the induced pulsar-timing residuals due to the unmodelled objects following the Keplerian orbits in the Solar system. The algorithm incorporates a Bayesian-analysis suit used to simultaneously analyse the pulsar-timing data of multiple pulsars to search for coherent waveforms, evaluate the detection significance of unknown objects, and to measure their parameters. When the object is not detectable, our algorithm can be used to place upper limits on the mass. The algorithm is verified using simulated data sets, and cross-checked with analytical calculations. We also investigate the capability of future pulsar-timing-array experiments in detecting the unknown objects. We expect that the future pulsar-timing data can limit the unknown massive objects in the Solar system to be lighter than 10-11-10-12 M⊙, or measure the mass of Jovian system to a fractional precision of 10-8-10-9.

  9. Performance and Difficulties of Students in Formulating and Solving Quadratic Equations with One Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didis, Makbule Gozde; Erbas, Ayhan Kursat

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the performance of tenth-grade students in solving quadratic equations with one unknown, using symbolic equation and word-problem representations. The participants were 217 tenth-grade students, from three different public high schools. Data was collected through an open-ended questionnaire comprising eight…

  10. A highly abundant bacteriophage discovered in the unknown sequences of human faecal metagenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, Bas E; Cassman, Noriko; McNair, Katelyn; Sanchez, Savannah E; Silva, Genivaldo G Z; Boling, Lance; Barr, Jeremy J; Speth, Daan R; Seguritan, Victor; Aziz, Ramy K; Felts, Ben; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Mokili, John L; Edwards, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics, or sequencing of the genetic material from a complete microbial community, is a promising tool to discover novel microbes and viruses. Viral metagenomes typically contain many unknown sequences. Here we describe the discovery of a previously unidentified bacteriophage present in the

  11. Testing the Granger noncausality hypothesis in stationary nonlinear models of unknown functional form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Péguin-Feissolle, Anne; Strikholm, Birgit; Teräsvirta, Timo

    In this paper we propose a general method for testing the Granger noncausality hypothesis in stationary nonlinear models of unknown functional form. These tests are based on a Taylor expansion of the nonlinear model around a given point in the sample space. We study the performance of our tests b...

  12. Comparison of various structural damage tracking techniques with unknown excitations based on experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongwei; Yang, Jann N.; Zhou, Li

    2009-03-01

    An early detection of structural damages is critical for the decision making of repair and replacement maintenance in order to guarantee a specified structural reliability. Consequently, the structural damage detection, based on vibration data measured from the structural health monitoring (SHM) system, has received considerable attention recently. The traditional time-domain analysis techniques, such as the least square estimation (LSE) method and the extended Kalman filter (EKF) approach, require that all the external excitations (inputs) be available, which may not be the case for some SHM systems. Recently, these two approaches have been extended to cover the general case where some of the external excitations (inputs) are not measured, referred to as the LSE with unknown inputs (LSE-UI) and the EKF with unknown inputs (EKF-UI). Also, new analysis methods, referred to as the sequential non-linear least-square estimation with unknown inputs and unknown outputs (SNLSE-UI-UO) and the quadratic sum-square error with unknown inputs (QSSE-UI), have been proposed for the damage tracking of structures when some of the acceleration responses are not measured and the external excitations are not available. In this paper, these newly proposed analysis methods will be compared in terms of accuracy, convergence and efficiency, for damage identification of structures based on experimental data obtained through a series of experimental tests using a small-scale 3-story building model with white noise excitation. The capability of the LSE-UI, EKF-UI, SNLSE-UI-UO and QSSE-UI approaches in tracking the structural damages will be demonstrated.

  13. Accounting for unknown foster dams in the genetic evaluation of embryo transfer progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, M J; Munilla, S; Cantet, R J C

    2015-02-01

    Animals born by embryo transfer (ET) are usually not included in the genetic evaluation of beef cattle for preweaning growth if the recipient dam is unknown. This is primarily to avoid potential bias in the estimation of the unknown age of dam. We present a method that allows including records of calves with unknown age of dam. Assumptions are as follows: (i) foster cows belong to the same breed being evaluated, (ii) there is no correlation between the breeding value (BV) of the calf and the maternal BV of the recipient cow, and (iii) cows of all ages are used as recipients. We examine the issue of bias for the fixed level of unknown age of dam (AOD) and propose an estimator of the effect based on classical measurement error theory (MEM) and a Bayesian approach. Using stochastic simulation under random mating or selection, the MEM estimating equations were compared with BLUP in two situations as follows: (i) full information (FI); (ii) missing AOD information on some dams. Predictions of breeding value (PBV) from the FI situation had the smallest empirical average bias followed by PBV obtained without taking measurement error into account. In turn, MEM displayed the highest bias, although the differences were small. On the other hand, MEM showed the smallest MSEP, for either random mating or selection, followed by FI, whereas ignoring measurement error produced the largest MSEP. As a consequence from the smallest MSEP with a relatively small bias, empirical accuracies of PBV were larger for MEM than those for full information, which in turn showed larger accuracies than the situation ignoring measurement error. It is concluded that MEM equations are a useful alternative for analysing weaning weight data when recipient cows are unknown, as it mitigates the effects of bias in AOD by decreasing MSEP. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 600-233 Waste Site, Vertical Pipe Near 100-B Electrical Laydown Area. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-041

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The 600-233 waste site consisted of three small-diameter pipelines within the 600-232 waste site, including previously unknown diesel fuel supply lines discovered during site remediation. The 600-233 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  15. Data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques stochastic models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Si, Xiao-Sheng; Hu, Chang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, and shows how to utilize the condition monitoring data to predict the remaining useful life of stochastic degrading systems and to schedule maintenance and logistics plans. It is also the first book that describes the basic data-driven remaining useful life prognosis theory systematically and in detail. The emphasis of the book is on the stochastic models, methods and applications employed in remaining useful life prognosis. It includes a wealth of degradation monitoring experiment data, practical prognosis methods for remaining useful life in various cases, and a series of applications incorporated into prognostic information in decision-making, such as maintenance-related decisions and ordering spare parts. It also highlights the latest advances in data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, especially in the contexts of adaptive prognosis for linear stochastic degrading systems, nonlinear degradation modeling based pro...

  16. Adaptive Synchronization for Two Different Stochastic Chaotic Systems with Unknown Parameters via a Sliding Mode Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengyun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of synchronization for two different stochastic chaotic systems with unknown parameters and uncertain terms. The main work of this paper consists of the following aspects. Firstly, based on the Lyapunov theory in stochastic differential equations and the theory of sliding mode control, we propose a simple sliding surface and discuss the occurrence of the sliding motion. Secondly, we design an adaptive sliding mode controller to realize the asymptotical synchronization in mean squares. Thirdly, we design an adaptive sliding mode controller to realize the almost surely synchronization. Finally, the designed adaptive sliding mode controllers are used to achieve synchronization between two pairs of different stochastic chaos systems (Lorenz-Chen and Chen-Lu in the presence of the uncertainties and unknown parameters. Numerical simulations are given to demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed robust adaptive sliding mode controller.

  17. Adaptive fuzzy wavelet network control of second order multi-agent systems with unknown nonlinear dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mehdi; Sheikholeslam, Farid; Najafi, Majddedin; Zekri, Maryam

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, consensus problem is considered for second order multi-agent systems with unknown nonlinear dynamics under undirected graphs. A novel distributed control strategy is suggested for leaderless systems based on adaptive fuzzy wavelet networks. Adaptive fuzzy wavelet networks are employed to compensate for the effect of unknown nonlinear dynamics. Moreover, the proposed method is developed for leader following systems and leader following systems with state time delays. Lyapunov functions are applied to prove uniformly ultimately bounded stability of closed loop systems and to obtain adaptive laws. Three simulation examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuroendocrine Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Arising in Long Standing History of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergios Boussios

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic autoimmune disease that targets myelinated axons in the central nervous system (CNS. Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP is a well-recognised clinical disorder, accounting for 3–5% of all malignant epithelial tumors. CUP is clinically characterised as an aggressive disease with early dissemination. Studies of cancer risk in MS patients have shown inconsistent findings. An increased risk of malignancy in patients with MS has been suggested, but recently serious questions have been raised regarding this association. Use of disease-modifying therapies might contribute to an increased cancer risk in selected MS patients. The concurrence of MS and CUP is exceptionally rare. Here we describe the case of a neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown primary diagnosed in a male patient with a nine-year history of MS. The discussion includes data from all available population-based register studies with estimates of certain malignancies in patients with MS.

  19. Pretreatment costs of care and time to initial treatment for patients with cancer of unknown primary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark S; Weinstein, Laura; Luo, Roger; Marino, Ingrid

    2018-06-01

    Time to treatment and pretreatment costs may be affected by unknown primary tumor site. This retrospective study used electronic medical record data from patients in ten US community oncology practices. Eligible patients were ≥18 years, diagnosed with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) or known metastatic solid tumor, and presented between 1 January 2012 and 30 June 2014. Patients with CUP (n = 294) had a longer interval than non-CUP patients (n = 92) from presentation to treatment initiation (1.18 vs 0.49 months, p < 0.0001), and had higher pretreatment costs (US$27,882 vs US$20,449, p = 0.0075). When analyzed as monthly cost, the difference between groups in log-cost per month was nonsignificant. Higher pretreatment costs in CUP patients appeared attributable to significantly longer time to initiation of therapy.

  20. Self-guided method to search maximal Bell violations for unknown quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Kai; Chen, Geng; Zhang, Wen-Hao; Peng, Xing-Xiang; Yu, Shang; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-11-01

    In recent decades, a great variety of research and applications concerning Bell nonlocality have been developed with the advent of quantum information science. Providing that Bell nonlocality can be revealed by the violation of a family of Bell inequalities, finding maximal Bell violation (MBV) for unknown quantum states becomes an important and inevitable task during Bell experiments. In this paper we introduce a self-guided method to find MBVs for unknown states using a stochastic gradient ascent algorithm (SGA), by parametrizing the corresponding Bell operators. For three investigated systems (two qubit, three qubit, and two qutrit), this method can ascertain the MBV of general two-setting inequalities within 100 iterations. Furthermore, we prove SGA is also feasible when facing more complex Bell scenarios, e.g., d -setting d -outcome Bell inequality. Moreover, compared to other possible methods, SGA exhibits significant superiority in efficiency, robustness, and versatility.

  1. Saliency-Guided Detection of Unknown Objects in RGB-D Indoor Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jiatong; Jia, Yunyi; Cheng, Yu; Xi, Ning

    2015-08-27

    This paper studies the problem of detecting unknown objects within indoor environments in an active and natural manner. The visual saliency scheme utilizing both color and depth cues is proposed to arouse the interests of the machine system for detecting unknown objects at salient positions in a 3D scene. The 3D points at the salient positions are selected as seed points for generating object hypotheses using the 3D shape. We perform multi-class labeling on a Markov random field (MRF) over the voxels of the 3D scene, combining cues from object hypotheses and 3D shape. The results from MRF are further refined by merging the labeled objects, which are spatially connected and have high correlation between color histograms. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations on two benchmark RGB-D datasets illustrate the advantages of the proposed method. The experiments of object detection and manipulation performed on a mobile manipulator validate its effectiveness and practicability in robotic applications.

  2. Residual generation with unknown input observer for linear systems in the presence of unmatched uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagherpour, Esmaeel A.; HairiTazdi, Mohammad Reza; Mahjoob, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with residual vector generation for fault detection problems in linear systems via unknown input observer (UIO) when the so-called observer matching condition is not satisfied. Based on the relative degree between unknown input and output, a vector of the auxiliary output is introduced so that the observer matching condition is satisfied with respect to the vector. Auxiliary outputs are related to the derivatives of measured signals. However, differentiation leads to excessive amplification of measurement noise. A dynamically equivalent configuration of linear systems is developed using successive integrations to avoid differentiation. As such, auxiliary outputs are constructed without differentiation. Then, the equivalent dynamic system and its corresponding auxiliary outputs are used to generate the residual vector via an exponentially converging UIO. Fault detection in the generated residual vector is also investigated. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown via numerical simulation.

  3. A Real-Time Reaction Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in Unknown Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheping; Li, Jiyun; Zhang, Gengshi; Wu, Yi

    2018-02-02

    A novel real-time reaction obstacle avoidance algorithm (RRA) is proposed for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) that must adapt to unknown complex terrains, based on forward looking sonar (FLS). To accomplish this algorithm, obstacle avoidance rules are planned, and the RRA processes are split into five steps Introduction only lists 4 so AUVs can rapidly respond to various environment obstacles. The largest polar angle algorithm (LPAA) is designed to change detected obstacle's irregular outline into a convex polygon, which simplifies the obstacle avoidance process. A solution is designed to solve the trapping problem existing in U-shape obstacle avoidance by an outline memory algorithm. Finally, simulations in three unknown obstacle scenes are carried out to demonstrate the performance of this algorithm, where the obtained obstacle avoidance trajectories are safety, smooth and near-optimal.

  4. The value of digital subtraction angiography in diagnosing small intestinal hemorrhage with unknown reasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Guanghua; Xiao Wenlian; Tang Deqiu; Chan Hong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the diagnostic value of DSA for unknown reason hemorrhage of small intestine. Methods: 25 patients with hemorrhage of small intestine were performed angiography with Seldinger's technique through superior mesenteric artery. Results: Eleven cases demonstrated direct signs of hemorrhage, 12 cases of indirect signs of hemorrhage and 5 with both of the signs. The positive rate of hemorrhage was 72% including 10 cases of tumor (6 leiomyomas, 2 leiomyosarcomas, 1 interstitial tumor, 1 small intestinal cancer), 4 cases of Meckel's diverticulum, 3 cases of vascular malformation and 1 case of inflammation. The coincidence rate of positive cases with pathology was 75% and the diagnostic accuracy of localization was 100%. Conclusions: DSA angiography is very helpful for determining the location and character of unknown reason hemorrhage of small intestine. (authors)

  5. Modeling of load lifting process with unknown center of gravity position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanin, Y. N.; Zhukov, M. I.; Panichkin, A. V.; Redelin, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    The article proposes a new type of lifting beams that allows one to lift loads where the position of the center of gravity is unknown beforehand. The benefit of implementing this type of traverse is confirmed by the high demand for this product from the industrial enterprises and lack of their availability on the market. In conducted studies, the main kinematic and dynamic dependencies of the load lifting process with an unknown position of the center of gravity were described allowing for design and verification calculations of the traverse with flexible slings and an adjustable bail to be carried out. The obtained results can be useful to engineers and employees of enterprises engaged in the design and manufacturing of the lifting equipment and scientists doing research in “Carrying and lifting machines”.

  6. Performance study of LMS based adaptive algorithms for unknown system identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, Shazia; Ahmad, Noor Atinah

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive filtering techniques have gained much popularity in the modeling of unknown system identification problem. These techniques can be classified as either iterative or direct. Iterative techniques include stochastic descent method and its improved versions in affine space. In this paper we present a comparative study of the least mean square (LMS) algorithm and some improved versions of LMS, more precisely the normalized LMS (NLMS), LMS-Newton, transform domain LMS (TDLMS) and affine projection algorithm (APA). The performance evaluation of these algorithms is carried out using adaptive system identification (ASI) model with random input signals, in which the unknown (measured) signal is assumed to be contaminated by output noise. Simulation results are recorded to compare the performance in terms of convergence speed, robustness, misalignment, and their sensitivity to the spectral properties of input signals. Main objective of this comparative study is to observe the effects of fast convergence rate of improved versions of LMS algorithms on their robustness and misalignment

  7. Solving differential equations with unknown constitutive relations as recurrent neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagge, Tobias J.; Stinis, Panagiotis; Yeung, Enoch H.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2017-12-08

    We solve a system of ordinary differential equations with an unknown functional form of a sink (reaction rate) term. We assume that the measurements (time series) of state variables are partially available, and use a recurrent neural network to “learn” the reaction rate from this data. This is achieved by including discretized ordinary differential equations as part of a recurrent neural network training problem. We extend TensorFlow’s recurrent neural network architecture to create a simple but scalable and effective solver for the unknown functions, and apply it to a fedbatch bioreactor simulation problem. Use of techniques from recent deep learning literature enables training of functions with behavior manifesting over thousands of time steps. Our networks are structurally similar to recurrent neural networks, but differ in purpose, and require modified training strategies.

  8. Compensating Unknown Time-Varying Delay in Opto-Electronic Platform Tracking Servo System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihong Xie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of compensating miss-distance delay in opto-electronic platform tracking servo system. According to the characteristic of LOS (light-of-sight motion, we setup the Markovian process model and compensate this unknown time-varying delay by feed-forward forecasting controller based on robust H∞ control. Finally, simulation based on double closed-loop PI (Proportion Integration control system indicates that the proposed method is effective for compensating unknown time-varying delay. Tracking experiments on the opto-electronic platform indicate that RMS (root-mean-square error is 1.253 mrad when tracking 10° 0.2 Hz signal.

  9. Performance study of LMS based adaptive algorithms for unknown system identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Shazia; Ahmad, Noor Atinah [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    Adaptive filtering techniques have gained much popularity in the modeling of unknown system identification problem. These techniques can be classified as either iterative or direct. Iterative techniques include stochastic descent method and its improved versions in affine space. In this paper we present a comparative study of the least mean square (LMS) algorithm and some improved versions of LMS, more precisely the normalized LMS (NLMS), LMS-Newton, transform domain LMS (TDLMS) and affine projection algorithm (APA). The performance evaluation of these algorithms is carried out using adaptive system identification (ASI) model with random input signals, in which the unknown (measured) signal is assumed to be contaminated by output noise. Simulation results are recorded to compare the performance in terms of convergence speed, robustness, misalignment, and their sensitivity to the spectral properties of input signals. Main objective of this comparative study is to observe the effects of fast convergence rate of improved versions of LMS algorithms on their robustness and misalignment.

  10. Analysis of Milk Production Traits in Early Lactation Using a Reaction Norm Model with Unknown Covariates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdi Shariati, Mohammad; Su, Guosheng; Madsen, Per

    2007-01-01

    The reaction norm model is becoming a popular approach to study genotype x environment interaction (GxE), especially when there is a continuum of environmental effects. These effects are typically unknown, and an approximation that is used in the literature is to replace them by the phenotypic...... means of each environment. It has been shown that this method results in poor inferences and that a more satisfactory alternative is to infer environmental effects jointly with the other parameters of the model. Such a reaction norm model with unknown covariates and heterogeneous residual variances...... across herds was fitted to milk, protein, and fat yield of first-lactation Danish Holstein cows to investigate the presence of GxE. Data included 188,502 first test-day records from 299 herds and 3,775 herd-years in a time period ranging from 1991 to 2003. Variance components and breeding values were...

  11. Taming the unknown a history of algebra from antiquity to the early twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Victor J

    2014-01-01

    What is algebra? For some, it is an abstract language of x's and y's. For mathematics majors and professional mathematicians, it is a world of axiomatically defined constructs like groups, rings, and fields. Taming the Unknown considers how these two seemingly different types of algebra evolved and how they relate. Victor Katz and Karen Parshall explore the history of algebra, from its roots in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, China, and India, through its development in the medieval Islamic world and medieval and early modern Europe, to its modern form in the early twentieth century. Defining algebra originally as a collection of techniques for determining unknowns, the authors trace the development of these techniques from geometric beginnings in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and classical Greece. They show how similar problems were tackled in Alexandrian Greece, in China, and in India, then look at how medieval Islamic scholars shifted to an algorithmic stage, which was further dev...

  12. Reinforcement learning for adaptive optimal control of unknown continuous-time nonlinear systems with input constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiong; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, an adaptive reinforcement learning-based solution is developed for the infinite-horizon optimal control problem of constrained-input continuous-time nonlinear systems in the presence of nonlinearities with unknown structures. Two different types of neural networks (NNs) are employed to approximate the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. That is, an recurrent NN is constructed to identify the unknown dynamical system, and two feedforward NNs are used as the actor and the critic to approximate the optimal control and the optimal cost, respectively. Based on this framework, the action NN and the critic NN are tuned simultaneously, without the requirement for the knowledge of system drift dynamics. Moreover, by using Lyapunov's direct method, the weights of the action NN and the critic NN are guaranteed to be uniformly ultimately bounded, while keeping the closed-loop system stable. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the present approach, simulation results are illustrated.

  13. Estimating unknown input parameters when implementing the NGA ground-motion prediction equations in engineering practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaklamanos, James; Baise, Laurie G.; Boore, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) developed as part of the Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA-West) project in 2008 are becoming widely used in seismic hazard analyses. However, these new models are considerably more complicated than previous GMPEs, and they require several more input parameters. When employing the NGA models, users routinely face situations in which some of the required input parameters are unknown. In this paper, we present a framework for estimating the unknown source, path, and site parameters when implementing the NGA models in engineering practice, and we derive geometrically-based equations relating the three distance measures found in the NGA models. Our intent is for the content of this paper not only to make the NGA models more accessible, but also to help with the implementation of other present or future GMPEs.

  14. Mysteries and unknowns of single bubble sonoluminescence from viewpoint of plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrov, B.P.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the present work is to propose and consider electronically excited H 2 * (a 3 Σ g + ) molecules (and possibly hydrides of rare gases like ArH*(A 2 Σ)) as light emitters responsible for continua observed in both MBSL and SBSL experiments with hydrogen-containing liquids. This provides new sight on the well known ''mysteries and unknowns'' of the SBSL phenomenon

  15. Long Valley Caldera-Mammoth Mountain unrest: The knowns and unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.

    2017-01-01

    This perspective is based largely on my study of the Long Valley Caldera (California, USA) over the past 40 years. Here, I’ll examine the “knowns” and the “known unknowns” of the complex tectonic–magmatic system of the Long Valley Caldera volcanic complex. I will also offer a few brief thoughts on the “unknown unknowns” of this system.

  16. Morgellons disease: Analysis of a population with clinically confirmed microscopic subcutaneous fibers of unknown etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Savely, Virginia R; Stricker, Raphael B

    2010-01-01

    Virginia R Savely1, Raphael B Stricker21TBD Medical Associates, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USABackground: Morgellons disease is a controversial illness in which patients complain of stinging, burning, and biting sensations under the skin. Unusual subcutaneous fibers are the unique objective finding. The etiology of Morgellons disease is unknown, and diagnostic criteria have yet to be established. Our goal was to identify prevalen...

  17. Diagnostic and prognostic yield of tumor markers in cancer of unknown primary site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.; Ibraheim, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    A case of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary is reported that had widely disseminated disease from the very outset. Every effort was made to find out the primary by integrating all results and specially tumor markers. It was assumed that lung was the most possible site for primary. Tumor markers did not show their diagnostic value even in combined panel, they only showed their prognostic value. (author)

  18. Marginalized adaptive particle filtering for nonlinear models with unknown time-varying noise parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ökzan, E.; Šmídl, Václav; Saha, S.; Lundquist, C.; Gustafsson, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 6 (2013), s. 1566-1575 ISSN 0005-1098 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0437 Keywords : Unknown Noise Statistics * Adaptive Filtering * Marginalized Particle Filter * Bayesian Conjugate prior Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 3.132, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/AS/smidl-0393047.pdf

  19. Pragmatic application of the precautionary principle to deal with unknown safety challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappier, G.; Viktorov, A.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power technology has matured over a number of decades to the point where our understanding of the technology under a wide variety of circumstances is quite high. Despite this high degree of maturity, discoveries of new challenges occasionally surface. These may arise from either unusual or unexpected operational conditions or new experimental findings from ongoing research. With the early realization that such discoveries could occur, a conscious effort was made to take precautions against their negative impacts. Principles such as defence-in-depth, designing for high reliability, incorporation of robust safety margins and use of justified conservatisms are key examples of established practices that are embedded in national regulatory regimes of most, if not all countries with nuclear programs. Because of these provisions the safety cases of the current generation of reactors proved to be quite resilient to discoveries of earlier unrecognized challenges. A fundamentally important element in the management of “unknown unknowns” is a healthy research programme. Such a programme is especially necessary as a precondition for understanding potential impacts from changes in operating conditions or implementation of novel design features. A research programme helps minimizing chances of stumbling on “unknown unknowns”, and allows resolution of emerging issues to by virtue of the accumulated understanding and capability to predict challenges to safety. In the few instances when discoveries occurred with recognized negative effects on safety, these spurred changes in operating conditions, maintenance or testing practices, design modifications, as well as required targeted research projects. This paper outlines several CANDU-specific “discoveries” in the field of thermalhydraulics, illustrating past “unknown unknowns” and the actions taken to address those. The main message, however, is to point out that both the industry and the regulator should

  20. A Nonlinear Unit Root Test in the Presence of an Unknown Break

    OpenAIRE

    Popp, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    The Perron test is the most commonly applied procedure to test for a unit root in the presence of a structural break of unknown timing in the trend function. Deriving the Perron-type test regression from an unobserved component model, it is shown that the test regression in fact is nonlinear in coefficient. Taking account of the nonlinearity leads to a test with properties that are exclusively assigned to Schmidt-Phillips LM-type unit root tests.

  1. Testing of dogs with meningitis and meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology for vector-transmitted microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzerini, Kali

    2016-01-01

    In many cases of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system in dogs, no aetiological infectious agent can be found. These inflammatory conditions are thus named inflammations of unknown aetiology. Results of immunpathological studies imply that an antigen may trigger an autoimmune response (Hit-and-Run-Hypothesis). Serum was analyzed for antibodies against vector-transmitted pathogens and blood and cerebrospinal fluid for DNA of such infectious agents in order to further define th...

  2. Pragmatic application of the precautionary principle to deal with unknown safety challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frappier, G.; Viktorov, A., E-mail: gerry.frappier@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca, E-mail: alex.viktorov@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear power technology has matured over a number of decades to the point where our understanding of the technology under a wide variety of circumstances is quite high. Despite this high degree of maturity, discoveries of new challenges occasionally surface. These may arise from either unusual or unexpected operational conditions or new experimental findings from ongoing research. With the early realization that such discoveries could occur, a conscious effort was made to take precautions against their negative impacts. Principles such as defence-in-depth, designing for high reliability, incorporation of robust safety margins and use of justified conservatisms are key examples of established practices that are embedded in national regulatory regimes of most, if not all countries with nuclear programs. Because of these provisions the safety cases of the current generation of reactors proved to be quite resilient to discoveries of earlier unrecognized challenges. A fundamentally important element in the management of “unknown unknowns” is a healthy research programme. Such a programme is especially necessary as a precondition for understanding potential impacts from changes in operating conditions or implementation of novel design features. A research programme helps minimizing chances of stumbling on “unknown unknowns”, and allows resolution of emerging issues to by virtue of the accumulated understanding and capability to predict challenges to safety. In the few instances when discoveries occurred with recognized negative effects on safety, these spurred changes in operating conditions, maintenance or testing practices, design modifications, as well as required targeted research projects. This paper outlines several CANDU-specific “discoveries” in the field of thermalhydraulics, illustrating past “unknown unknowns” and the actions taken to address those. The main message, however, is to point out that both the industry and the regulator should

  3. AN ADAPTIVE OPTIMAL KALMAN FILTER FOR STOCHASTIC VIBRATION CONTROL SYSTEM WITH UNKNOWN NOISE VARIANCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shu; Zhuo Jiashou; Ren Qingwen

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal criterion is presented for adaptive Kalman filter in a control sys tem with unknown variances of stochastic vibration by constructing a function of noise variances and minimizing the function. We solve the model and measure variances by using DFP optimal method to guarantee the results of Kalman filter to be optimized. Finally, the control of vibration can be implemented by LQG method.

  4. Can healthy, young adults uncover personal details of unknown target individuals in their dreams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carlyle

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the possibility that undergraduate college students could incubate dreams containing information about unknown target individuals with significant life problems. In Experiment 1, students provided two baseline dreams. They were then exposed to a photo of an individual and invited to dream about a health problem (unknown to them and the experimenter) of that individual and asked to provide two more dreams. From a class of 65 students, 12 dreamers volunteered dreams about the unknown target. In Experiment 2, 66 students were asked to dream about the life problems of a second individual, simply by looking at the photo (experimental group). Another 56 students were exposed to this same paradigm, but the photo that they examined was computer generated and the target individual was fictitious (control group). The dream elements were objectively scored with categories devised using the Hall-Van de Castle system as a model. Data were ordinal, and the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to examine preincubation (baseline) versus postincubation (photo examination and incubation) dream content in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a Z score for proportions was used to compare differences in frequency of devised categories between experimental and control groups. In Experiment 1, the comparison of postincubation dreams (all categories combined) was significant compared with the preincubation dreams (Z = 2.09, P = .036). The postincubation dreams reflected the health problem of the target. In Experiment 2, the proportion of scored categories in experimental and control groups were compared at the preincubation and postincubation conditions. The proportions of "Combined" (all categories) was very significantly larger at the postincubation condition (Z = 6.27, P dreams of the experimental group were related to the problems of the target individual. Young, healthy adults are capable of dreaming details about the personal problems of an unknown individual

  5. Marked improvement of vulvovaginitis of unknown origin in a pediatric patient--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Cohen, R

    2014-01-01

    To present a novel therapy for pediatric vulvovaginitis. An eight-year-old girl with persistent severe vulvovaginitis of unknown origin also complained of unexplained weight gain and sudden academic difficulties. She was treated with dextroamphetamine sulfate. She not only showed very quick and excellent relief from her vulvovaginitis but she also lost weight and improved her mentality. Sympathomimetic amine therapy may benefit pediatric vulvovaginitis when an infectious cause cannot be ascertained.

  6. Scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state to any node in a quantum communication network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋克慧; 张为俊; 郭光灿

    2002-01-01

    We propose a scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state. In order to realize the teleportation to any node ina quantum communication network, an n-atom Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is needed, which is utilizedas the quantum channel. From this n-atom GHZ state, two-node entanglement of processing and receiving teleportedstates can be obtained through the quantum logic gate manipulation. Finally, for the unequally weighted GHZ state,probabilistic teleportation is shown.

  7. Quantum Logic Networks for Probabilistic and Controlled Teleportation of Unknown Quantum States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ting

    2004-01-01

    We present simplification schemes for probabilistic and controlled teleportation of the unknown quantum states of both one particle and two particles and construct efficient quantum logic networks for implementing the new schemes by means of the primitive operations consisting of single-qubit gates, two-qubit controlled-not gates, Von Neumann measurement, and classically controlled operations. In these schemes the teleportation are not always successful but with certain probability.

  8. Robust exponential stabilization of nonholonomic wheeled mobile robots with unknown visual parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The visual servoing stabilization of nonholonomic mobile robot with unknown camera parameters is investigated.A new kind of uncertain chained model of nonholonomic kinemetic system is obtained based on the visual feedback and the standard chained form of type (1,2) mobile robot.Then,a novel time-varying feedback controller is proposed for exponentially stabilizing the position and orientation of the robot using visual feedback and switching strategy when the camera parameters are not known.The exponential s...

  9. Four Unknown Prison Poems by H. C. Bosman | MacKenzie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four Unknown Prison Poems by H. C. Bosman. C MacKenzie. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eia.v40i2.1 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  10. Scheme for Entanglement Concentration of Unknown Multiparticle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger or W Class States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wei

    2007-01-01

    We present two schemes for concentrating unknown nonmaximally entangled Greenberger-Horme-Zeilinger (GHZ) or W class states. The first scheme for concentrating the nonmaximally entangled GHZ state is based on linear optical devices. The second scheme for concentrating the W class states can be applied to a wide variety of atomic state. Both of our schemes are not postselection ones and are within the current technologies.

  11. Mean--variance portfolio optimization when means and covariances are unknown

    OpenAIRE

    Tze Leung Lai; Haipeng Xing; Zehao Chen

    2011-01-01

    Markowitz's celebrated mean--variance portfolio optimization theory assumes that the means and covariances of the underlying asset returns are known. In practice, they are unknown and have to be estimated from historical data. Plugging the estimates into the efficient frontier that assumes known parameters has led to portfolios that may perform poorly and have counter-intuitive asset allocation weights; this has been referred to as the "Markowitz optimization enigma." After reviewing differen...

  12. Drosophila Transposon Insertions as Unknowns for Structured Inquiry Recombination Mapping Exercises in an Undergraduate Genetics Course

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Jeffrey M.; Hughes, Tia M.

    2009-01-01

    Structured inquiry approaches, in which students receive a Drosophila strain of unknown genotype to analyze and map the constituent mutations, are a common feature of many genetics teaching laboratories. The required crosses frustrate many students because they are aware that they are participating in a fundamentally trivial exercise, as the map locations of the genes are already established and have been recalculated thousands of times by generations of students. We modified the traditional ...

  13. An Evidence-Based Review Literature About Risk Indicators and Management of Unknown-Origin Xerostomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Agha-hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This evidence-based article reviews risk indicators and management of unknown-origin xerostomia. Xerostomia and hyposalivation refer to different aspects of dry mouth. Xerostomia is a subjective sensation of dry mouth, whilst hyposalivation is defined as an objective assessment of reduced salivary flow rate. About 30% of the elderly (65 years and older experience xerostomia and hyposalivation. Structural and functional factors, or both may lead to salivary gland dysfunction.Study Selection: The EBM literature search was conducted by using the medical literature database MEDLINE via PubMed and OvidMedline search engines. Results were limited to English language articles (1965 to present including clinical trials (CT, randomized controlled trials (RCT, systematic reviews and review articles. Case control or cohort studies were included for the etiology.Results: Neuropathic etiology such as localized oral alteration of thermal sensations, saliva composition change (for example higher levels of K, Cl, Ca, IgA, amylase, calcium, PTH and cortisol, lower levels of estrogen and progesterone, smaller salivary gland size, and illnesses such as lichen planus, are risk indicators for unknown-origin xerostomia. The management is palliative and preventative. Management of symptoms includes drug administration (systemic secretogogues, saliva substitutes and bile secretion-stimulator, night guard, diet and habit modifications. Other managements may be indicated to treat adverse effects.Conclusion: Neuropathic etiology, saliva composition change, smaller salivary gland size, and illnesses such as oral lichen planus can be suggestive causes for unknown-origin xerostomia. However, longitudinal studies will be important to elucidate the causes of unknown-origin xerostomia.

  14. Estimation of unknown nuclear masses by means of the generalized mass relations. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the estimations of the unknown nuclear masses by means of the generalized mass relations is presented. One discusses the new hypotheses supplementing the original general Garvey-Kelson scheme, reviewing the generalized mass relations and formulae, according to the present status of this new formalism. A critical discussions is given of the reliability of these new Garvey-Kelson type extrapolation procedures. (author)

  15. <<Unknown>> earthquakes: a growing contribution to the Catalogue of Strong Italian Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guidoboni

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The particular structure of the research into historical seismology found in this catalogue has allowed a lot of information about unknown seismic events to be traced. This new contribution to seismologic knowledge mainly consists in: i the retrieval and organisation within a coherent framework of documentary evidence of earthquakes that took place between the Middle Ages and the sixteenth century; ii the improved knowledge of seismic events, even destructive events, which in the past had been "obscured" by large earthquakes; iii the identification of earthquakes in "silent" seismic areas. The complex elements to be taken into account when dealing with unknown seismic events have been outlined; much "new" information often falls into one of the following categories: simple chronological errors relative to other well-known events; descriptions of other natural phenomena, though defined in texts as "earthquakes" (landslides, hurricanes, tornadoes, etc.; unknown tremors belonging to known seismic periods; tremors that may be connected with events which have been catalogued under incorrect dates and with very approximate estimates of location and intensity. This proves that this was not a real seismic "silence" but a research vacuum.

  16. Running over unknown rough terrain with a one-legged planar robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, Ben; Miller, Bruce; Clark, Jonathan E; Schmitt, John

    2011-01-01

    The ability to traverse unknown, rough terrain is an advantage that legged locomoters have over their wheeled counterparts. However, due to the complexity of multi-legged systems, research in legged robotics has not yet been able to reproduce the agility found in the animal kingdom. In an effort to reduce the complexity of the problem, researchers have developed single-legged models to gain insight into the fundamental dynamics of legged running. Inspired by studies of animal locomotion, researchers have proposed numerous control strategies to achieve stable, one-legged running over unknown, rough terrain. One such control strategy incorporates energy variations into the system during the stance phase by changing the force-free leg length as a sinusoidal function of time. In this research, a one-legged planar robot capable of implementing this and other state-of-the-art control strategies was designed and built. Both simulated and experimental results were used to determine and compare the stability of the proposed controllers as the robot was subjected to unknown drop and raised step perturbations equal to 25% of the nominal leg length. This study illustrates the relative advantages of utilizing a minimal-sensing, active energy removal control scheme to stabilize running over rough terrain.

  17. Study on search of unknown materials. 1; Michi busshitsu no tansaku ni kansuru kenkyu. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-28

    This is No.92 report of National Institute for Research in Inorganic Materials, concerning search of unknown materials. Purposes of this study are to construct new chemical bond and reaction theory, to systematize the existing compounds, and to search and create the unknown materials, systematically. Structure prediction of electronic state was investigated by means of molecular dynamic method, to determine the electronic state and structure of multi-systems. For the magnetic semiconductors, interactions were investigated between the magnetic spin and electron or hole which is a carrier. The in-solid bond theory aims at clarifying the bond state of materials in which transition metal compounds and inter-electronic interactions are significant. Prediction of the electronic structure of unknown materials can suggest the design of new materials. In the fields of synthesis, design and synthesis of new inorganic ion exchanger and ionic conductor are investigated using Bi oxides and its related materials. There are a lot of compounds having various crystal forms for rare earth element oxides and transition metal oxides. To establish the system of material design, thermodynamics, phase equilibrium diagram, crystal structure, and physical properties of new materials were discussed. 168 refs., 127 figs., 44 tabs.

  18. Fault diagnosis of an intelligent hydraulic pump based on a nonlinear unknown input observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghai MA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic piston pumps are commonly used in aircraft. In order to improve the viability of aircraft and energy efficiency, intelligent variable pressure pump systems have been used in aircraft hydraulic systems more and more widely. Efficient fault diagnosis plays an important role in improving the reliability and performance of hydraulic systems. In this paper, a fault diagnosis method of an intelligent hydraulic pump system (IHPS based on a nonlinear unknown input observer (NUIO is proposed. Different from factors of a full-order Luenberger-type unknown input observer, nonlinear factors of the IHPS are considered in the NUIO. Firstly, a new type of intelligent pump is presented, the mathematical model of which is established to describe the IHPS. Taking into account the real-time requirements of the IHPS and the special structure of the pump, the mechanism of the intelligent pump and failure modes are analyzed and two typical failure modes are obtained. Furthermore, a NUIO of the IHPS is performed based on the output pressure and swashplate angle signals. With the residual error signals produced by the NUIO, online intelligent pump failure occurring in real-time can be detected. Lastly, through analysis and simulation, it is confirmed that this diagnostic method could accurately diagnose and isolate those typical failure modes of the nonlinear IHPS. The method proposed in this paper is of great significance in improving the reliability of the IHPS. Keywords: Fault diagnosis, Hydraulic piston pump, Model-based, Nonlinear unknown input observer (NUIO, Residual error

  19. From Intensity Profile to Surface Normal: Photometric Stereo for Unknown Light Sources and Isotropic Reflectances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Sato, Imari; Okabe, Takahiro; Sato, Yoichi

    2015-10-01

    We propose an uncalibrated photometric stereo method that works with general and unknown isotropic reflectances. Our method uses a pixel intensity profile, which is a sequence of radiance intensities recorded at a pixel under unknown varying directional illumination. We show that for general isotropic materials and uniformly distributed light directions, the geodesic distance between intensity profiles is linearly related to the angular difference of their corresponding surface normals, and that the intensity distribution of the intensity profile reveals reflectance properties. Based on these observations, we develop two methods for surface normal estimation; one for a general setting that uses only the recorded intensity profiles, the other for the case where a BRDF database is available while the exact BRDF of the target scene is still unknown. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations are conducted using both synthetic and real-world scenes, which show the state-of-the-art accuracy of smaller than 10 degree without using reference data and 5 degree with reference data for all 100 materials in MERL database.

  20. Blind Identification of FIR Channels in the Presence of Unknown Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kon Max Wong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Blind channel identification techniques based on second-order statistics (SOS of the received data have been a topic of active research in recent years. Among the most popular is the subspace method (SS proposed by Moulines et al. (1995. It has good performance when the channel output is corrupted by white noise. However, when the channel noise is correlated and unknown as is often encountered in practice, the performance of the SS method degrades severely. In this paper, we address the problem of estimating FIR channels in the presence of arbitrarily correlated noise whose covariance matrix is unknown. We propose several algorithms according to the different available system resources: (1 when only one receiving antenna is available, by upsampling the output, we develop the maximum a posteriori (MAP algorithm for which a simple criterion is obtained and an efficient implementation algorithm is developed; (2 when two receiving antennae are available, by upsampling both the outputs and utilizing canonical correlation decomposition (CCD to obtain the subspaces, we present two algorithms (CCD-SS and CCD-ML to blindly estimate the channels. Our algorithms perform well in unknown noise environment and outperform existing methods proposed for similar scenarios.

  1. Iterative Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Solving Unknown Nonlinear Zero-Sum Game Based on Online Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanheng; Zhao, Dongbin; Li, Xiangjun

    2017-03-01

    H ∞ control is a powerful method to solve the disturbance attenuation problems that occur in some control systems. The design of such controllers relies on solving the zero-sum game (ZSG). But in practical applications, the exact dynamics is mostly unknown. Identification of dynamics also produces errors that are detrimental to the control performance. To overcome this problem, an iterative adaptive dynamic programming algorithm is proposed in this paper to solve the continuous-time, unknown nonlinear ZSG with only online data. A model-free approach to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs equation is developed based on the policy iteration method. Control and disturbance policies and value are approximated by neural networks (NNs) under the critic-actor-disturber structure. The NN weights are solved by the least-squares method. According to the theoretical analysis, our algorithm is equivalent to a Gauss-Newton method solving an optimization problem, and it converges uniformly to the optimal solution. The online data can also be used repeatedly, which is highly efficient. Simulation results demonstrate its feasibility to solve the unknown nonlinear ZSG. When compared with other algorithms, it saves a significant amount of online measurement time.

  2. RSS-based localization of isotropically decaying source with unknown power and pathloss factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shunyuan; Sun, Li; Ding, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the localization of an isotropically decaying source based on the received signal strength (RSS) measurements that are collected from nearby active sensors that are position-known and wirelessly connected, and it propose a novel iterative algorithm for RSS-based source localization in order to improve the location accuracy and realize real-time location and automatic monitoring for hospital patients and medical equipment in the smart hospital. In particular, we consider the general case where the source power and pathloss factor are both unknown. For such a source localization problem, we propose an iterative algorithm, in which the unknown source position and two other unknown parameters (i.e. the source power and pathloss factor) are estimated in an alternating way based on each other, with our proposed sub-optimum initial estimate on source position obtained based on the RSS measurements that are collected from a few (closest) active sensors with largest RSS values. Analysis and simulation study show that our proposed iterative algorithm guarantees globally convergence to the least-squares (LS) solution, where for our suitably assumed independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) zero-mean Gaussian RSS measurement errors the converged localization performance achieves the optimum that corresponds to the Cramer–Rao lower bound (CRLB).

  3. Iron overload patients with unknown etiology from national survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Katsuya; Hatayama, Mayumi; Addo, Lynda; Toki, Yasumichi; Sasaki, Katsunori; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Hattori, Ai; Kato, Ayako; Kato, Koichi; Hayashi, Hisao; Suzuki, Takahiro; Kobune, Masayoshi; Tsutsui, Miyuki; Gotoh, Akihiko; Aota, Yasuo; Matsuura, Motoo; Hamada, Yuzuru; Tokuda, Takahiro; Komatsu, Norio; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2017-03-01

    Transfusion is believed to be the main cause of iron overload in Japan. A nationwide survey on post-transfusional iron overload subsequently led to the establishment of guidelines for iron chelation therapy in this country. To date, however, detailed clinical information on the entire iron overload population in Japan has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we obtained and studied detailed clinical information on the iron overload patient population in Japan. Of 1109 iron overload cases, 93.1% were considered to have occurred post-transfusion. There were, however, 76 cases of iron overload of unknown origin, which suggest that many clinicians in Japan may encounter some difficulty in correctly diagnosing and treating iron overload. Further clinical data were obtained for 32 cases of iron overload of unknown origin; median of serum ferritin was 1860.5 ng/mL. As occurs in post-transfusional iron overload, liver dysfunction was found to be as high as 95.7% when serum ferritin levels exceeded 1000 ng/mL in these patients. Gene mutation analysis of the iron metabolism-related genes in 27 cases of iron overload with unknown etiology revealed mutations in the gene coding hemojuvelin, transferrin receptor 2, and ferroportin; this indicates that although rare, hereditary hemochromatosis does occur in Japan.

  4. Career Motivation in Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: What Makes Them Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…

  5. Stable isotopes, niche partitioning and the paucity of elasmosaur remains in the Maastrichtian type area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Janssen, Renée; Van Baal, Remy R.; Jagt, John W M; Mulder, Eric W A; Vonhof, Hubert B.

    2017-01-01

    Remains of elasmosaurid plesiosaurs are exceedingly rare in the type-Maastrichtian strata (Late Cretaceous, southeast Netherlands and northeast Belgium), in stark contrast to relatively common skeletal remains of mosasaurs. Here, we present an analysis of δ13C stable isotope values for tooth enamel

  6. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will your application remain in effect? Your application for SVB will remain in effect from the date it is filed until...

  7. Regulating the unknown: Managing the occupational health risks of nanomedical technologies and nanopharmaceuticals in the research laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersin, Ozlem Hacer

    Novel technologies and their resultant products demand fresh ways of thinking about pre-market risk analysis and post-market surveillance. A regulatory framework that is responsive to emerging knowledge about the hazards of novel technologies offers repeatable and transparent processes and remains economically and socially feasible. Workers are an especially vulnerable population who are exposed to unknown hazards of novel technologies and serve often as unwitting sentinels of impending risks. This Grounded Theory-based case study identifies gaps in our current ability to regulate novel technologies so as to minimize occupational health risks and offers necessary modifications for an environment that is conducive to proper regulation. Nanopharmaceuticals and the nano-based technologies at their base are used by way of exemplar technologies that are currently taxing the ability of the regulatory system to provide adequate oversight. Ambiguities of definition, absence of a tracking system (of who is doing nanotechnology research), and the paucity of scientific evidence to support risk management efforts are among the findings of the study and need to be addressed as ameliorative steps toward an effective regulatory structure.

  8. Severe Unresponsive Hypoglycemia Associated with Neuroendocrine Tumor of Unknown Primary Site - 18 Years after Rectal Cancer Surgery. Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Octavia Cristina; Costea, Radu Virgil; Popa, Cristian Constantin; Iliesiu, Andreea; Dumitru, Adrian; Becheanu, Gabriel; Neagu, Stefan Ilie

    2015-09-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are derived from cells that have the unique ability to synthesize, store and secrete a variety of metabolically active substances, peptides and amines, characteristic of the tissue of origin, which can cause distinct clinical syndromes. We present the case of a 58-year-old patient diagnosed and surgically treated in January 1996 for stage III inferior rectal cancer, who was readmitted after 18 years presenting persistent diarrheic syndrome and asthenia. Investigations performed (abdominal CT) showed multiple liver metastases, initially suspected as being related to the rectal cancer. Biopsy of liver metastases and pathological and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the neuroendocrine origin (moderately differentiated neuroendocrine tumor). Seven months after the identification of liver metastases and after initiation of oncological therapy with Interferon and Somatostatin, the patient presented severe hypoglycemia (serum glucose 13-70 mg/dl) proved to be due to insulin-like factors (serum insulin level 64.9 ìU/ml) secreted by metastases. Due to the aggressive evolution of neuroendocrine tumor, with multiple episodes of severe hypoglycemia, resistant to treatment, the patient died approximately one month after the occurrence of hypoglycemic episodes. Despite comprehensive tests (abdominal CT scan, colonoscopy, bone scintigraphy and PET/CT), the primary site of the neuroendocrine tumors remained unknown.

  9. An Approach to Function Annotation for Proteins of Unknown Function (PUFs in the Transcriptome of Indian Mulberry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K H Dhanyalakshmi

    Full Text Available The modern sequencing technologies are generating large volumes of information at the transcriptome and genome level. Translation of this information into a biological meaning is far behind the race due to which a significant portion of proteins discovered remain as proteins of unknown function (PUFs. Attempts to uncover the functional significance of PUFs are limited due to lack of easy and high throughput functional annotation tools. Here, we report an approach to assign putative functions to PUFs, identified in the transcriptome of mulberry, a perennial tree commonly cultivated as host of silkworm. We utilized the mulberry PUFs generated from leaf tissues exposed to drought stress at whole plant level. A sequence and structure based computational analysis predicted the probable function of the PUFs. For rapid and easy annotation of PUFs, we developed an automated pipeline by integrating diverse bioinformatics tools, designated as PUFs Annotation Server (PUFAS, which also provides a web service API (Application Programming Interface for a large-scale analysis up to a genome. The expression analysis of three selected PUFs annotated by the pipeline revealed abiotic stress responsiveness of the genes, and hence their potential role in stress acclimation pathways. The automated pipeline developed here could be extended to assign functions to PUFs from any organism in general. PUFAS web server is available at http://caps.ncbs.res.in/pufas/ and the web service is accessible at http://capservices.ncbs.res.in/help/pufas.

  10. Screw Remaining Life Prediction Based on Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To predict the remaining life of ball screw, a screw remaining life prediction method based on quantum genetic algorithm (QGA and support vector machine (SVM is proposed. A screw accelerated test bench is introduced. Accelerometers are installed to monitor the performance degradation of ball screw. Combined with wavelet packet decomposition and isometric mapping (Isomap, the sensitive feature vectors are obtained and stored in database. Meanwhile, the sensitive feature vectors are randomly chosen from the database and constitute training samples and testing samples. Then the optimal kernel function parameter and penalty factor of SVM are searched with the method of QGA. Finally, the training samples are used to train optimized SVM while testing samples are adopted to test the prediction accuracy of the trained SVM so the screw remaining life prediction model can be got. The experiment results show that the screw remaining life prediction model could effectively predict screw remaining life.

  11. "SINCE I MUST PLEASE THOSE BELOW": HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS RESEARCH AND THE LAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    The ethics of non-invasive scientific research on human skeletal remains are poorly articulated and lack a single, definitive analogue in western law. Laws governing invasive research on human fleshed remains, as well as bio-ethical principles established for research on living subjects, provide effective models for the establishment of ethical guidelines for non-invasive research on human skeletal remains. Specifically, non-invasive analysis of human remains is permissible provided that the analysis and collection of resulting data (1) are accomplished with respect for the dignity of the individual, (2) do not violate the last-known desire of the deceased, (3) do not adversely impact the right of the next of kin to perform a ceremonious and decent disposal of the remains, and (4) do not unduly or maliciously violate the privacy interests of the next of kin.

  12. State, Parameter, and Unknown Input Estimation Problems in Active Automotive Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanomchoeng, Gridsada

    A variety of driver assistance systems such as traction control, electronic stability control (ESC), rollover prevention and lane departure avoidance systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers to reduce driver burden, partially automate normal driving operations, and reduce accidents. The effectiveness of these driver assistance systems can be significant enhanced if the real-time values of several vehicle parameters and state variables, namely tire-road friction coefficient, slip angle, roll angle, and rollover index, can be known. Since there are no inexpensive sensors available to measure these variables, it is necessary to estimate them. However, due to the significant nonlinear dynamics in a vehicle, due to unknown and changing plant parameters, and due to the presence of unknown input disturbances, the design of estimation algorithms for this application is challenging. This dissertation develops a new approach to observer design for nonlinear systems in which the nonlinearity has a globally (or locally) bounded Jacobian. The developed approach utilizes a modified version of the mean value theorem to express the nonlinearity in the estimation error dynamics as a convex combination of known matrices with time varying coefficients. The observer gains are then obtained by solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A number of illustrative examples are presented to show that the developed approach is less conservative and more useful than the standard Lipschitz assumption based nonlinear observer. The developed nonlinear observer is utilized for estimation of slip angle, longitudinal vehicle velocity, and vehicle roll angle. In order to predict and prevent vehicle rollovers in tripped situations, it is necessary to estimate the vertical tire forces in the presence of unknown road disturbance inputs. An approach to estimate unknown disturbance inputs in nonlinear systems using dynamic model inversion and a modified version of the mean value theorem is

  13. Decontamination and management of human remains following incidents of hazardous chemical release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Watson, Annetta; Bock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To provide specific guidance and resources for systematic and orderly decontamination of human remains resulting from a chemical terrorist attack or accidental chemical release. A detailed review and health-based decision criteria protocol is summarized. Protocol basis and logic are derived from analyses of compound-specific toxicological data and chemical/physical characteristics. Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present, such as sites of transportation accidents, terrorist operations, or medical examiner processing points. Guidance is developed from data-characterizing controlled experiments with laboratory animals, fabrics, and materiel. Logic and specific procedures for decontamination and management of remains, protection of mortuary affairs personnel, and decision criteria to determine when remains are sufficiently decontaminated are presented. Established procedures as well as existing materiel and available equipment for decontamination and verification provide reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from chemically exposed remains. Unique scenarios such as those involving supralethal concentrations of certain liquid chemical warfare agents may prove difficult to decontaminate but can be resolved in a timely manner by application of the characterized systematic approaches. Decision criteria and protocols to "clear" decontaminated remains for transport and processing are also provided. Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for management of remains and release can be followed.

  14. Outpatient endometrial aspiration: an alternative to methotrexate for pregnancy of unknown location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insogna, Iris G; Farland, Leslie V; Missmer, Stacey A; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S; Brady, Paula C

    2017-08-01

    Pregnancies of unknown location with abnormal beta-human chorionic gonadotropin trends are frequently treated as presumed ectopic pregnancies with methotrexate. Preliminary data suggest that outpatient endometrial aspiration may be an effective tool to diagnose pregnancy location, while also sparing women exposure to methotrexate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of an endometrial sampling protocol for the diagnosis of pregnancies of unknown location after in vitro fertilization. A retrospective cohort study of 14,505 autologous fresh and frozen in vitro fertilization cycles from October 2007 to September 2015 was performed; 110 patients were diagnosed with pregnancy of unknown location, defined as a positive beta-human chorionic gonadotropin without ultrasound evidence of intrauterine or ectopic pregnancy and an abnormal beta-human chorionic gonadotropin trend (location, failed intrauterine pregnancy was diagnosed in 46 patients (42%), and ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed in 64 patients (58%). Clinical variables that included fresh or frozen embryo transfer, day of embryo transfer, serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin at the time of sampling, endometrial thickness, and presence of an adnexal mass were not significantly different between patients with failed intrauterine pregnancy or ectopic pregnancy. In patients with failed intrauterine pregnancy, 100% demonstrated adequate postsampling beta-human chorionic gonadotropin declines; villi were identified in just 46% (n=21 patients). Patients with failed intrauterine pregnancy had significantly shorter time to resolution (negative serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin) after sampling compared with patients with ectopic pregnancy (12.6 vs 26.3 days; Plocation are spared methotrexate, with a shorter time to pregnancy resolution than those who receive methotrexate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Global Learning Spectral Archive- A new Way to deal with Unknown Urban Spectra -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilge, M.; Heiden, U.; Habermeyer, M.; Jürgens, C.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid urbanization processes and the need of identifying urban materials demand urban planners and the remote sensing community since years. Urban planners cannot overcome the issue of up-to-date information of urban materials due to time-intensive fieldwork. Hyperspectral remote sensing can facilitate this issue by interpreting spectral signals to provide information of occurring materials. However, the complexity of urban areas and the occurrence of diverse urban materials vary due to regional and cultural aspects as well as the size of a city, which makes identification of surface materials a challenging analysis task. For the various surface material identification approaches, spectral libraries containing pure material spectra are commonly used, which are derived from field, laboratory or the hyperspectral image itself. One of the requirements for successful image analysis is that all spectrally different surface materials are represented by the library. Currently, a universal library, applicable in every urban area worldwide and taking each spectral variability into account, is and will not be existent. In this study, the issue of unknown surface material spectra and the demand of an urban site-specific spectral library is tackled by the development of a learning spectral archive tool. Starting with an incomplete library of labelled image spectra from several German cities, surface materials of pure image pixels will be identified in a hyperspectral image based on a similarity measure (e.g. SID-SAM). Additionally, unknown image spectra of urban objects are identified based on an object- and spectral-based-rule set. The detected unknown surface material spectra are entered with additional metadata, such as regional occurrence into the existing spectral library and thus, are reusable for further studies. Our approach is suitable for pure surface material detection of urban hyperspectral images that is globally applicable by taking incompleteness into account

  16. Stability of Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Time-varying Feedback Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunodkar, Apurva A.; Akella, Maruthi R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper considers the problem of stabilizing a class of nonlinear systems with unknown bounded delayed feedback wherein the time-varying delay is 1) piecewise constant 2) continuous with a bounded rate. We also consider application of these results to the stabilization of rigid-body attitude dynamics. In the first case, the time-delay in feedback is modeled specifically as a switch among an arbitrarily large set of unknown constant values with a known strict upper bound. The feedback is a linear function of the delayed states. In the case of linear systems with switched delay feedback, a new sufficiency condition for average dwell time result is presented using a complete type Lyapunov-Krasovskii (L-K) functional approach. Further, the corresponding switched system with nonlinear perturbations is proven to be exponentially stable inside a well characterized region of attraction for an appropriately chosen average dwell time. In the second case, the concept of the complete type L-K functional is extended to a class of nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown time-varying time-delay. This extension ensures stability robustness to time-delay in the control design for all values of time-delay less than the known upper bound. Model-transformation is used in order to partition the nonlinear system into a nominal linear part that is exponentially stable with a bounded perturbation. We obtain sufficient conditions which ensure exponential stability inside a region of attraction estimate. A constructive method to evaluate the sufficient conditions is presented together with comparison with the corresponding constant and piecewise constant delay. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the theoretical results of this paper.

  17. Splenectomy as a treatment for adults with relapsed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis of unknown cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing-Shi, Wang; Yi-Ni, Wang; Lin, Wu; Zhao, Wang

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the clinical value of splenectomy as a treatment for relapsed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) of unknown cause in adults. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data from medical records of 19 adults with relapsed HLH of unknown cause treated with splenectomy in our institution from June 2007 to March 2014. To rule out possible underlying diseases, including infection, autoimmune disease, neoplasms, and primary HLH, the patients had undergone examinations including F18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, HLH-associated gene defects, and lymph node biopsies. Twelve patients (63.2%) achieved partial responses (PR), whereas seven patients (36.8%) had no response (NR) prior to splenectomy. Infection and hemorrhage were the main complications of splenectomy. Eighteen cases were evaluable after follow-up. Seven cases with histopathologic diagnoses of lymphoma had received chemotherapy, four of whom had achieved complete responses (CR), one PR, and two NR. Maintenance treatment was ceased 2 or 3 months after splenectomy in the other 11 cases, five of whom had CR, four PR, and two NR. Eleven of 18 cases (61.1%) survived with a median follow-up of 25 months (range 3-79 months) for survivors. Twelve- and 36-month progression-free survival rates were 48 and 24%, respectively; 12- and 36-month overall survival rates were 57 and 25%, respectively. Median survival time was 22 months. Our results indicate splenectomy may be an effective means of diagnosis and treatment of relapsed HLH of unknown cause. Further study is required to establish the mechanism and value of splenectomy in this disease.

  18. A novel KFCM based fault diagnosis method for unknown faults in satellite reaction wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Di; Sarosh, Ali; Dong, Yun-Feng

    2012-03-01

    Reaction wheels are one of the most critical components of the satellite attitude control system, therefore correct diagnosis of their faults is quintessential for efficient operation of these spacecraft. The known faults in any of the subsystems are often diagnosed by supervised learning algorithms, however, this method fails to work correctly when a new or unknown fault occurs. In such cases an unsupervised learning algorithm becomes essential for obtaining the correct diagnosis. Kernel Fuzzy C-Means (KFCM) is one of the unsupervised algorithms, although it has its own limitations; however in this paper a novel method has been proposed for conditioning of KFCM method (C-KFCM) so that it can be effectively used for fault diagnosis of both known and unknown faults as in satellite reaction wheels. The C-KFCM approach involves determination of exact class centers from the data of known faults, in this way discrete number of fault classes are determined at the start. Similarity parameters are derived and determined for each of the fault data point. Thereafter depending on the similarity threshold each data point is issued with a class label. The high similarity points fall into one of the 'known-fault' classes while the low similarity points are labeled as 'unknown-faults'. Simulation results show that as compared to the supervised algorithm such as neural network, the C-KFCM method can effectively cluster historical fault data (as in reaction wheels) and diagnose the faults to an accuracy of more than 91%. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reconstruction of signals with unknown spectra in information field theory with parameter uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, Torsten A.; Frommert, Mona

    2011-01-01

    The optimal reconstruction of cosmic metric perturbations and other signals requires knowledge of their power spectra and other parameters. If these are not known a priori, they have to be measured simultaneously from the same data used for the signal reconstruction. We formulate the general problem of signal inference in the presence of unknown parameters within the framework of information field theory. To solve this, we develop a generic parameter-uncertainty renormalized estimation (PURE) technique. As a concrete application, we address the problem of reconstructing Gaussian signals with unknown power-spectrum with five different approaches: (i) separate maximum-a-posteriori power-spectrum measurement and subsequent reconstruction, (ii) maximum-a-posteriori reconstruction with marginalized power-spectrum, (iii) maximizing the joint posterior of signal and spectrum, (iv) guessing the spectrum from the variance in the Wiener-filter map, and (v) renormalization flow analysis of the field-theoretical problem providing the PURE filter. In all cases, the reconstruction can be described or approximated as Wiener-filter operations with assumed signal spectra derived from the data according to the same recipe, but with differing coefficients. All of these filters, except the renormalized one, exhibit a perception threshold in case of a Jeffreys prior for the unknown spectrum. Data modes with variance below this threshold do not affect the signal reconstruction at all. Filter (iv) seems to be similar to the so-called Karhune-Loeve and Feldman-Kaiser-Peacock estimators for galaxy power spectra used in cosmology, which therefore should also exhibit a marginal perception threshold if correctly implemented. We present statistical performance tests and show that the PURE filter is superior to the others, especially if the post-Wiener-filter corrections are included or in case an additional scale-independent spectral smoothness prior can be adopted.

  20. Predictors of patients remaining anovulatory during clomiphene citrate induction of ovulation in normogonadotropic oligoamenorrheic infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Imani (Babak); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); E.R. te Velde (Egbert); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe diagnostic criteria used to identify patients suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome remain controversial. The present prospective longitudinal follow-up study was designed to identify whether certain criteria assessed during standardized initial

  1. BTC method for evaluation of remaining strength and service life of bridge cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "This report presents the BTC method; a comprehensive state-of-the-art methodology for evaluation of remaining : strength and residual life of bridge cables. The BTC method is a probability-based, proprietary, patented, and peerreviewed : methodology...

  2. Cognitive bias in forensic anthropology: visual assessment of skeletal remains is susceptible to confirmation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Dror, Itiel E; Morgan, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    An experimental study was designed to examine cognitive biases within forensic anthropological non-metric methods in assessing sex, ancestry and age at death. To investigate examiner interpretation, forty-one non-novice participants were semi randomly divided into three groups. Prior to conducting the assessment of the skeletal remains, two of the groups were given different extraneous contextual information regarding the sex, ancestry and age at death of the individual. The third group acted as a control group with no extraneous contextual information. The experiment was designed to investigate if the interpretation and conclusions of the skeletal remains would differ amongst participants within the three groups, and to assess whether the examiners would confirm or disagree with the given extraneous context when establishing a biological profile. The results revealed a significant biasing effect within the three groups, demonstrating a strong confirmation bias in the assessment of sex, ancestry and age at death. In assessment of sex, 31% of the participants in the control group concluded that the skeleton remains were male. In contrast, in the group that received contextual information that the remains were male, 72% concluded that the remains were male, and in the participant group where the context was that the remains were of a female, 0% of the participants concluded that the remains were male. Comparable results showing bias were found in assessing ancestry and age at death. These data demonstrate that cognitive bias can impact forensic anthropological non-metric methods on skeletal remains and affects the interpretation and conclusions of the forensic scientists. This empirical study is a step in establishing an evidence base approach for dealing with cognitive issues in forensic anthropological assessments, so as to enhance this valuable forensic science discipline. Copyright © 2013 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  3. Multiple aneurysm of unknown aetiology in childhood: Complications and diagnostic possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanfermann, H.; Benz-Bohm, G.; Schaper, J.; Gross-Fengels, W.

    1990-01-01

    A 6,5-year old boy with already known multiple aneurysm of all major arteries presented with acute abdominal pain. As demonstrated by ultrasound a big aneurysm of the left renal artery thrombosed in the course of three days. As a result, the left kidney developed severe ischaemia. Although computed tomography and scintigraphy were applied, a plan for a definitive therapeutic procedere could be established only by arterial angiography. Both Ehlers-Danlos' syndrome and Kawasaki's syndrome were excluded. There were no facts suggesting an infective aetiology. Four other cases with multiple aneurysms of unknown aetiology in childhood have so far been described in literature. (orig.) [de

  4. Bio-media Citizenship and Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, M W Amarasiri

    2018-04-01

    In this article, I examine the crucial role of the biomedical industry, epidemiological and biomedical research, and the media in forming attitudes to and the understanding of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka. Local conceptions of CKDu have been shaped by the circulation in the media of epidemiological research findings pertaining to the disease, biomedical interventions in the management of the disease in hospitals and clinics, community programs involving mass blood surveys and the testing of well water, and local food and health education programs carried out through village health committees. This process of circulation I identify as bio-media citizenship.

  5. [Standard of care of carcinomas on cancer of unknown primary site in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benderra, Marc-Antoine; Ilié, Marius; Hofman, Paul; Massard, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Cancer of unknown primary (cup) represent 2-10%, and have disseminated cancers for which we cannot find the primary site despite the clinical, pathological and radiological exams at our disposal. Diagnosis is based on a thorough clinical and histopathologic examination as well as new imaging techniques. Several clinicopathologic entities requiring specific treatment can be identified. Genome sequencing and liquid biopsy (circulating tumor cells and tumor free DNA) could allow further advances in the diagnosis. Therapeutically, in addition to surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, precision medicine provides new therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A Multidisciplinary Investigation of a Polycythemia Vera Cancer Cluster of Unknown Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Vincent; Dearwent, Steve M; Gable, Debra; Lewis, Brian; Metcalf, Susan; Orloff, Ken; Tierney, Bruce; Zhu, Jane; Logue, James; Marchetto, David; Ostroff, Stephen; Hoffman, Ronald; Xu, Mingjiang; Carey, David; Erlich, Porat; Gerhard, Glenn; Roda, Paul; Iannuzzo, Joseph; Lewis, Robert; Mellow, John; Mulvihill, Linda; Myles, Zachary; Wu, Manxia; Frank, Arthur; Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; Klotz, Judith; Lynch, Adam; Weissfeld, Joel; Weinberg, Rona; Cole, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Cancer cluster investigations rarely receive significant public health resource allocations due to numerous inherent challenges and the limited success of past efforts. In 2008, a cluster of polycythemia vera, a rare blood cancer with unknown etiology, was identified in northeast Pennsylvania. A multidisciplinary group of federal and state agencies, academic institutions, and local healthcare providers subsequently developed a multifaceted research portfolio designed to better understand the cause of the cluster. This research agenda represents a unique and important opportunity to demonstrate that cancer cluster investigations can produce desirable public health and scientific outcomes when necessary resources are available. PMID:20617023

  7. Diagnostic value of (111)In-granulocyte scintigraphy in patients with fever of unknown origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2002-01-01

    111In-granulocyte scintigraphy is often used as a diagnostic tool in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). However, its diagnostic performance has been studied in only a limited number of investigations, with most having been published more than 10 y ago; in addition, a broad range...... and specificity in cases of FUO, when one takes into account that (111)In-granulocyte scintigraphy is not a first-line test. The high predictive value of a scintigram showing negative findings may be especially valuable for ruling out an infectious cause of FUO. Neither peripheral leukocyte count nor CRP levels...

  8. Non-alcoholic beverages, unknown influence on cell proliferation - an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Maciej; Adamowicz, Jan; Olkowska, Joanna; Pietkun, Katarzyna; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Bajek, Anna; Drewa, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was to check differences between 'Diet' and 'non-Diet' soft drinks on cell proliferation. Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola of different origin and their dietetic versions were examined at concentrations of 2% and 4%. Fructose and glucose as well as medium alone (control) were examined. Cell number was higher in media supplemented with soft drinks, compared to control. Proliferation depended on the soft drink concentration and its origin, but not on sugar and calorific content. An unknown factor is responsible for the increase in proliferation.

  9. Knowns and unknowns in metabolomics identified by multidimensional NMR and hybrid MS/NMR methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingol, Kerem; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2017-02-01

    Metabolomics continues to make rapid progress through the development of new and better methods and their applications to gain insight into the metabolism of a wide range of different biological systems from a systems biology perspective. Customization of NMR databases and search tools allows the faster and more accurate identification of known metabolites, whereas the identification of unknowns, without a need for extensive purification, requires new strategies to integrate NMR with mass spectrometry, cheminformatics, and computational methods. For some applications, the use of covalent and non-covalent attachments in the form of labeled tags or nanoparticles can significantly reduce the complexity of these tasks.

  10. Identifying an unknown function in a parabolic equation with overspecified data via He's variational iteration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan, Mehdi; Tatari, Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    In this research, the He's variational iteration technique is used for computing an unknown time-dependent parameter in an inverse quasilinear parabolic partial differential equation. Parabolic partial differential equations with overspecified data play a crucial role in applied mathematics and physics, as they appear in various engineering models. The He's variational iteration method is an analytical procedure for finding solutions of differential equations, is based on the use of Lagrange multipliers for identification of an optimal value of a parameter in a functional. To show the efficiency of the new approach, several test problems are presented for one-, two- and three-dimensional cases

  11. Unknown input observer based detection of sensor faults in a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an unknown input observer is designed to detect three different sensor fault scenarios in a specified bench mark model for fault detection and accommodation of wind turbines. In this paper a subset of faults is dealt with, it are faults in the rotor and generator speed sensors as well...... as a converter sensor fault. The proposed scheme detects the speed sensor faults in question within the specified requirements given in the bench mark model, while the converter fault is detected but not within the required time to detect....

  12. First all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources in binary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of an all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown spinning neutron stars in binary systems using LIGO and Virgo data. Using a specially developed analysis program, the TwoSpect algorithm, the search was carried out on data from the sixth LIGO Science Run and the second and third Virgo Science Runs. The search covers a range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 520 Hz, a range of orbital periods from 2 to ~2,254 h and a frequency- and period-dependent ra...

  13. Economical and feasible controlled teleportation of an arbitrary unknown N-qubit entangled state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man Zhongxiao; Xia Yunjie; Nguyen Ba An

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new quantum protocol to teleport an arbitrary unknown N-qubit entangled state from a sender to a fixed receiver under the control of M (M < N) controllers. In comparison with other existing protocols, ours is more economical and more feasible. The quantum resource required is just M Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger trios plus (N - M) Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs. The techniques required are only N Bell measurements by the sender, a von Neumann measurement by a controller and N single-qubit transformations by the receiver. The rule for the receiver to reconstruct the desired state is derived explicitly in the most general case

  14. Nonexistence of a universal quantum machine to examine the precision of unknown quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Shengshi; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Zeng-Bing

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we reveal a type of impossibility discovered in our recent research which forbids comparing the closeness of multiple unknown quantum states with any nontrivial threshold in a perfect or unambiguous way. This impossibility is distinct from the existing impossibilities in that it is a ''collective'' impossibility on multiple quantum states; most other ''no-go'' theorems are concerned with only one single state each time, i.e., it is an impossibility on a nonlocal quantum operation. This impossibility may provide new insight into the nature of quantum mechanics, and it implies more limitations on quantum information tasks than the existing no-go theorems.

  15. Unknown Regulations in Ladino from Salonika (ca. 1740: Ethos, Ideal, Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaron Ben-Naeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the mid-1930s, Viennese bookseller David Fränkel described a booklet containing regulations in Ladino. Its whereabouts were unknown until it recently appeared in a public auction in Jerusalem. Though Fränkel attributed it to Istanbul, his description leaves no room for doubt that this is the same text, but internal evidence points to Salonika. The four-page booklet is unsigned and undated; one can only conjecture that it was printed in the mid-1740s upon the initiative of the rabbinical and communal leadership in Salonika. It contains two groups of regulations…

  16. Schemes for Probabilistic Teleportation of an Unknown Three-Particle Three-Level Entangled State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, two schemes for teleporting an unknown three-particle three-level entangled state are proposed. In the first scheme, two partial three-particle three-level entangled states are used as the quantum channels, while in the second scheme, three two-particle three-level non-maximally entangled states are employed as quantum channels.It is shown that the teleportation can be successfully realized with certain probability, for both two schemes, if a receiver adopts some appropriate unitary transformations. It is shown also that the successful probabilities of these two schemes are different.

  17. Teleportation of an unknown bipartite state via non-maximally entangled two-particle state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Hai-Jing; Guo Yan-Qing; Song He-Shan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a new scheme for teleporting an unknown entangled state of two particles is proposed. To weaken the requirement for the quantum channel, without loss of generality, two communicators only share a non-maximally entangled two-particle state. Teleportation can be probabilistically realized if sender performs Bell-state measurements and Hadamard transformation and receiver introduces two auxiliary particles, operates G-not operation, single-qubit measurements and appropriate unitary transformations. The probability of successful teleportation is determined by the smaller one among the coefficients' absolute values of the quantum channel.

  18. Isolation and Structural Elucidation of an Unknown compound from Murraya alternans (Kurz)Swingle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mya Aye; Hla Myoe Min; Sein Htun

    2002-02-01

    A new taxon of a species, Murraya alternans (Kurz) Swingle (Myanmar name, Naganaing) the series of Murraya belonging to the family Rutaceae had been recognized by Peter G. Waterman in 1986. However, this species has not been undertaken in botanical, medical, and chemical aspects. In this paper, scientific study on this taxon was chemically carried out for the first time. One of the unknown compounds was isolated from this species by column and high performance liquid chromatographic methods. It's partial structure could also be elucidated by spectral analysis such as IR, MS, H NMR(400MHz), C NMR (100MHz) spectrometry respectively. (author)

  19. “Speaking in the Unknown Tongue, Holiness Church, Jackson, 1939”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Almeida

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available “Speaking in the Unknown Tongue, Holiness Church, Jackson, 1939, ” Photographs, p. 104, with the gracious permission of the Eudora Welty FoundationDear Welty,Writing by the fireplace, I see you standing with the camerathe eye of the eye of the eyein awe and wonder,a guest in Holiness Churchwatching: the painted horse “The Lord on the Cloud” in the centera white mass moving through mountainslines upon valleys, there goes the Lord ridingoh yes, rise your heart to God in praise, sisterspeaking i...

  20. The determination of an unknown boundary condition in a fractional diffusion equation

    KAUST Repository

    Rundell, William

    2013-07-01

    In this article we consider an inverse boundary problem, in which the unknown boundary function ∂u/∂v = f(u) is to be determined from overposed data in a time-fractional diffusion equation. Based upon the free space fundamental solution, we derive a representation for the solution f as a nonlinear Volterra integral equation of second kind with a weakly singular kernel. Uniqueness and reconstructibility by iteration is an immediate result of a priori assumption on f and applying the fixed point theorem. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.