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Sample records for prp 129m readily

  1. Leu138 in bovine prion peptide fibrils is involved in seeding discrimination related to codon 129 M/V polymorphism in the prion peptide seeding experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Tai-Yan; Lee, Lily Y-L; Chen, Rita P-Y

    2011-11-01

    The risk of acquiring variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is closely related to polymorphism at codon 129 of the human prion gene, because almost all variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients are Met/Met homozygotes. Although animal transmission experiments corroborated this seeding discrimination, the origin of the differential seeding efficiency of the bovine prion seed for human codon 129 polymorphism remained elusive. Here, we used a short prion protein (PrP) peptide as a model system to test whether seeding discrimination can be found in this simple system. We used a previously developed 'seed-titration method' and time-resolved CD spectroscopy to compare sequence-dependent seeding efficiency regarding codon 129 polymorphism. Our results showed that the Met→Val substitution on the human PrP (huPrP) peptide decreased seeding efficiency by 10 times when fibrils formed from bovine PrP (bPrP) peptide were used as the seed. To explore whether the different seeding barrier is due to the chemical and structural properties of Met and Val or whether another residue is involved in this peptide model, we constructed three bPrP mutants, V112M, L138I and N143S, in each of which one residue was replaced by the corresponding human residue. Our data showed that Leu138 in the bPrP seed might be the key residue causing the different seeding efficiencies related to 129M/V polymorphism and the interference effect of huPrP129V in the huPrP129M/V mixture. We propose a 'surface competition hypothesis' to explain the big seeding barrier caused by 129V in the PrP peptide seeding experiment. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  2. Hyperuricemic PRP in Tendon Cells

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    I. Andia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is injected within tendons to stimulate healing. Metabolic alterations such as the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, or hyperuricemia could hinder the therapeutic effect of PRP. We hypothesise that tendon cells sense high levels of uric acid and this could modify their response to PRP. Tendon cells were treated with allogeneic PRPs for 96 hours. Hyperuricemic PRP did not hinder the proliferative actions of PRP. The gene expression pattern of inflammatory molecules in response to PRP showed absence of IL-1b and COX1 and modest expression of IL6, IL8, COX2, and TGF-b1. IL8 and IL6 proteins were secreted by tendon cells treated with PRP. The synthesis of IL6 and IL8 proteins induced by PRP is decreased significantly in the presence of hyperuricemia (P = 0.017 and P = 0.012, resp.. Concerning extracellular matrix, PRP-treated tendon cells displayed high type-1 collagen, moderate type-3 collagen, decorin, and hyaluronan synthase-2 expression and modest expression of scleraxis. Hyperuricemia modified the expression pattern of extracellular matrix proteins, upregulating COL1 (P = 0.036 and COMP (P = 0.012 and downregulating HAS2 (P = 0.012. Positive correlations between TGF-b1 and type-1 collagen (R = 0.905, P = 0.002 and aggrecan (R = 0.833, P = 0.010 and negative correlations between TGF-b1 and IL6 synthesis (R = −0.857, P = 0.007 and COX2 (R = −0.810, P = 0.015 were found.

  3. Can PRP effectively treat injured tendons?

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    Wang, James H-C

    2014-01-01

    PRP is widely used to treat tendon and other tissue injuries in orthopaedics and sports medicine; however, the efficacy of PRP treatment on injured tendons is highly controversial. In this commentary, I reason that there are many PRP- and patient-related factors that influence the outcomes of PRP treatment on injured tendons. Therefore, more basic science studies are needed to understand the mechanism of PRP on injured tendons. Finally, I suggest that better understanding of the PRP action mechanism will lead to better use of PRP for the effective treatment of tendon injuries in clinics.

  4. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

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    Antonio Marmotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory.

  5. Portable Radiation Package (PRP) Instrument Handbook

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    Reynolds, R Michael [Remote Measurements and Research Company, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-08-03

    The Portable Radiation Package (PRP) was developed to provide basic radiation information in locations such as ships at sea where proper exposure is remote and difficult, the platform is in motion, and azimuth alignment is not fixed. Development of the PRP began at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1990s and versions of it were deployed on ships in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Nauru-99 project. The PRP was deployed on ships in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sensor Intercomparison for Marine Biological and Interdisciplinary Ocean Studies (SIMBIOS) program. Over the years the measurements have remained the same while the post-processing data analysis, especially for the FRSR, has evolved. This document describes the next-generation Portable Radiation Package (PRP2) that was developed for the DOE ARM Facility, under contract no. 9F-31462 from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The PRP2 has the same scientific principles that were well validated in prior studies, but has upgraded electronic hardware. The PRP2 approach is completely modular, both in hardware and software. Each sensor input is treated as a separate serial stream into the data collection computer. In this way the operator has complete access to each component of the system for purposes of error checking, calibration, and maintenance. The resulting system is more reliable, easier to install in complex situations, and more amenable to upgrade.

  6. Human prion protein (PrP) 219K is converted to PrPSc but shows heterozygous inhibition in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease infection.

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    Hizume, Masaki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Teruya, Kenta; Ohashi, Hiroaki; Ironside, James W; Mohri, Shirou; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    2009-02-06

    Prion protein gene (PRNP) E219K is a human polymorphism commonly occurring in Asian populations but is rarely found in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Thus the polymorphism E219K has been considered protective against sporadic CJD. The corresponding mouse prion protein (PrP) polymorphism variant (mouse PrP 218K) is not converted to the abnormal isoform (PrP(Sc)) and shows a dominant negative effect on wild-type PrP conversion. To define the conversion activity of this human molecule, we herein established knock-in mice with human PrP 219K and performed a series of transmission experiments with human prions. Surprisingly, the human PrP 219K molecule was converted to PrP(Sc) in variant CJD infection, and the conversion occurred more efficiently than PrP 219E molecule. Notably the knock-in mice with PRNP codon 219E/K showed the least efficient conversion compared with their hemizygotes with PRNP codon 219E/0 or codon 219K/0, or homozygotes with PRNP codon 219E/E or codon 219K/K. This phenomenon indicated heterozygous inhibition. This heterozygous inhibition was observed also in knock-in mice with PRNP codon 129M/V genotype. In addition to variant CJD infection, the human PrP 219K molecule is conversion-competent in transmission experiments with sporadic CJD prions. Therefore, the protective effect of PRNP E219K against sporadic CJD might be due to heterozygous inhibition.

  7. A readily retrievable pool of synaptic vesicles

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    Hua, Y; Sinha, R.; Thiel, C.; Schmidt, R.; Hueve, J.; Martens, H.; Hell, S.; Egner, A.; Klingauf, J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Although clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is thought to be the predominant mechanism of synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling, it seems to be too slow for fast recycling. Therefore, it was suggested that a pre-sorted and pre-assembled pool of SV proteins on the presynaptic membrane might support a first wave of fast CME. In this study we monitored the temporal dynamics of such a 'readily retrievable pool' of SV proteins in rat hippocampal neurons using a novel probe. Applying...

  8. The readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles.

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    Kaeser, Pascal S; Regehr, Wade G

    2017-04-01

    Each presynaptic bouton is densely packed with many vesicles, only a small fraction of which are available for immediate release. These vesicles constitute the readily releasable pool (RRP). The RRP size, and the probability of release of each vesicle within the RRP, together determine synaptic strength. Here, we discuss complications and recent advances in determining the size of the physiologically relevant RRP. We consider molecular mechanisms to generate and regulate the RRP, and discuss the relationship between vesicle docking and the RRP. We conclude that many RRP vesicles are docked, that some docked vesicles may not be part of the RRP, and that undocked vesicles can contribute to the RRP by rapid recruitment to unoccupied, molecularly activated ready-to-release sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Periodontal tissue regeneration with PRP incorporated gelatin hydrogel sponges.

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    Nakajima, Dai; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sato, Soh

    2015-10-20

    Gelatin hydrogels have been designed and prepared for the controlled release of the transforming growth factor (TGF-b1) and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). PRP (Platelet rich plasma) contains many growth factors including the PDGF and TGF-b1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of periodontal tissue following the controlled release of growth factors in PRP. For the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, PRP of different concentrations was added. The assessment of DNA, mitochondrial activity and ALP activity were measured. To evaluate the TGF-β1 release from PRP incorporated gelatin sponge, amounts of TGF-β1 in each supernatant sample were determined by the ELISA. Transplantation experiments to prepare a bone defect in a rat alveolar bone were an implanted gelatin sponge incorporated with different concentration PRP. In DNA assay and MTT assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, the cell count and mitochondrial activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 5  ×  PRP. In the ALP assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells, the cell activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 3  ×  PRP. In the transplantation, the size of the bone regenerated in the defect with 3  ×  PRP incorporated gelatin sponge was larger than that of the other group.

  10. Nuclear Weapon Personnel Reliability Program (PRP)

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    1993-05-25

    amphetamines, barbiturates, or other narcotic drugs not prescribed by proper medical authorities, and anabolic steroids shall render an individual...Hallucinogens e. Cannabis f Anabolic Steroids Total C.3. Serious offense decertifications by type (continued) PRP Position Category Crit Cont Crit Cont Crit...States Code (c) DoD Directive 1010.4, "Alcohol and Drug Abuse by C TE. DoD Personnel," August 25, 1980 NO02 1 9 9 3 (d) DoD Directive 5210.56, "Use of

  11. Platlet Rich Plasma (PRP) Improves Fat Grafting Outcomes.

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    Modarressi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Autologous fat transfer offers many qualities of a ideal soft tissue filler. Main advantages of fat grafting ensue from the fact that the lipoaspirate tissue is an abundant source of regenerative pluripotential cells. However, the reported rates of fat cell survival vary greatly in the medical literature (10-90%). Different techniques of harvesting, processing, and reinjecting the fat cells are so claimed to be responsible for these differences, without any agreement concerning the best way to process. To address this important disadvantage, we propose the addition of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) which is known as a natural reservoir of growth factors stimulating tissue repair and regeneration. This approach is completely autologous and immediately employed without any type of preconditioning. Platelets rich plasma (PRP) preparation included bleeding of 8 ml of blood from patient's peripheral vein in Regen Lab© tubes containing sodium citrate anticoagulant. The whole blood was centrifugated at 1500 g during 3 min. As Regen-tubes contained a special gel separator, 99 % of red blood cells were discarded from the plasma at the bottom of the gel, and >90% of platelets were harvested in 4 ml of plasma on the top of the gel, called the platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The purified fat prepared by Coleman technique was mixed with different amount of PRP for in vitro, in vivo (mice) and clinical experiments: >50% of PRP for skin rejuvenation, superficial scars correction, infraorbital region, ..., and for 20% of PRP with 80% of purified fat for deep filler indication (nasolabial folds, lips, or soft tissue defect). In vitro studies demonstrated that PRP increased fat cells survival rate and stem cells differentiation. Animal models showed that fat graft survival rate was significantly increased by addition of PRP. Several clinical cases confirmed the improvement of wound healing and fat grafting survival in facial reconstruction and aesthetic cases by association of

  12. Propionate catabolism in Salmonella typhimurium LT2: two divergently transcribed units comprise the prp locus at 8.5 centisomes, prpR encodes a member of the sigma-54 family of activators, and the prpBCDE genes constitute an operon.

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    Horswill, A R; Escalante-Semerena, J C

    1997-02-01

    We present the initial genetic and biochemical characterization of the propionate (prp) locus at 8.5 centisomes of the Salmonella typhimurium LT2 chromosome (T. A. Hammelman et al., FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 137: 233-239, 1996). In this paper, we report the nucleotide sequences of two divergently transcribed transcriptional units. One unit is comprised of the prpR gene (1,626 bp) encoding a member of the sigma-54 family of transcriptional activators; the second unit contains an operon of four genes designated prpB (888 bp), prpC (1,170 bp), prpD (1,452 bp), and prpE (1,923 bp). The heme biosynthetic gene hemB was shown by DNA sequencing to be located immediately downstream of the prpBCDE operon; hemB is divergently transcribed from prpBCDE and is separated from prpE by a 66-bp gap. In addition, we demonstrate the involvement of PrpB, PrpC, and PrpD in propionate catabolism by complementation analysis of mutants using plasmids carrying a single prp gene under the control of the arabinose-responsive P(BAD) promoter. Expression of prpB to high levels was deleterious to the growth of a prp+ strain on minimal medium supplemented with propionate as a carbon and energy source. We also report the cloning and overexpression of prpB, prpC, prpD, and prpE in the T7 system. PrpB, PrpC, PrpD, and PrpE had molecular masses of ca. 32, ca. 44, ca. 53, and ca. 70 kDa, respectively. PrpB showed homology to carboxyphosphonoenolpyruvate phosphonomutase of Streptomyces hygroscopicus and to its homolog in the carnation Dianthus caryophyllus; PrpC was homologous to both archaeal and bacterial citrate synthases; PrpD showed homology to yeast and Bacillus subtilis proteins of unknown function; PrpE showed homology to acetyl coenzyme A synthetases. We identified a sigma-54 (RpoN)-dependent promoter with a consensus RpoN binding site upstream of the initiating methionine codon of prpB, the promoter-proximal gene of the prp operon. Consistent with this finding, an rpoN prp+ mutant failed to use

  13. PRP: The Proven Solution for Cleaning Up Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The basic technology behind PRP is thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers. Water cannot penetrate the microcapsule s cell, but oil is absorbed right into the beeswax spheres as they float on the water s surface. This way, the contaminants, chemical compounds that originally come from crude oil such as fuels, motor oils, or petroleum hydrocarbons, are caught before they settle. PRP works well as a loose powder for cleaning up contaminants in lakes and other ecologically fragile areas. The powder can be spread over a contaminated body of water or soil, and it will absorb contaminants, contain them in isolation, and dispose of them safely. In water, it is important that PRP floats and keeps the oil on the surface, because, even if oil exposure is not immediately lethal, it can cause long-term harm if allowed to settle. Bottom-dwelling fish exposed to compounds released after oil spills may develop liver disease, in addition to reproductive and growth problems. This use of PRP is especially effective for environmental cleanup in sensitive areas like coral reefs and mangroves.

  14. The Prp19 complex directly functions in mitotic spindle assembly.

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    Hofmann, Jennifer C; Tegha-Dunghu, Justus; Dräger, Stefanie; Will, Cindy L; Lührmann, Reinhard; Gruss, Oliver J

    2013-01-01

    The conserved Prp19 (pre-RNA processing 19) complex is required for pre-mRNA splicing in eukaryotic nuclei. Recent RNAi screens indicated that knockdown of Prp19 complex subunits strongly delays cell proliferation. Here we show that knockdown of the smallest subunit, BCAS2/Spf27, destabilizes the entire complex and leads to specific mitotic defects in human cells. These could result from splicing failures in interphase or reflect a direct function of the complex in open mitosis. Using Xenopus extracts, in which cell cycle progression and spindle formation can be reconstituted in vitro, we tested Prp19 complex functions during a complete cell cycle and directly in open mitosis. Strikingly, immunodepletion of the complex either before or after interphase significantly reduces the number of intact spindles, and increases the percentage of spindles with lower microtubule density and impaired metaphase alignment of chromosomes. Our data identify the Prp19 complex as the first spliceosome subcomplex that directly contributes to mitosis in vertebrates independently of its function in interphase.

  15. The Prp19 complex directly functions in mitotic spindle assembly.

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    Jennifer C Hofmann

    Full Text Available The conserved Prp19 (pre-RNA processing 19 complex is required for pre-mRNA splicing in eukaryotic nuclei. Recent RNAi screens indicated that knockdown of Prp19 complex subunits strongly delays cell proliferation. Here we show that knockdown of the smallest subunit, BCAS2/Spf27, destabilizes the entire complex and leads to specific mitotic defects in human cells. These could result from splicing failures in interphase or reflect a direct function of the complex in open mitosis. Using Xenopus extracts, in which cell cycle progression and spindle formation can be reconstituted in vitro, we tested Prp19 complex functions during a complete cell cycle and directly in open mitosis. Strikingly, immunodepletion of the complex either before or after interphase significantly reduces the number of intact spindles, and increases the percentage of spindles with lower microtubule density and impaired metaphase alignment of chromosomes. Our data identify the Prp19 complex as the first spliceosome subcomplex that directly contributes to mitosis in vertebrates independently of its function in interphase.

  16. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for knee disorders

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    Shahid, Mohammad; Kundra, Rik

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous blood product with platelet concentrations above baseline values. The process involves the extraction of blood from the patient which is then centrifuged to obtain a concentrated suspension of platelets by plasmapheresis. It then undergoes a two-stage centrifugation process to separate the solid and liquid components of the anticoagulated blood. PRP owes its therapeutic use to the growth factors released by the platelets which are claimed to possess multiple regenerative properties. In the knee, PRP has been used in patients with articular cartilage pathology, ligamentous and meniscal injuries. There is a growing body of evidence to support its use in selected indications and this review looks at the most recent evidence. We also look at the current UK National Institute of Health & Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines with respect to osteoarthritis and the use of PRP in the knee. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:28–34. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160004. PMID:28607768

  17. Do autologous blood and PRP injections effectively treat tennis elbow?

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    Widstrom, Luke; Slattengren, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Both approaches reduce pain, but the improvement with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is not clinically meaningful. Autologous blood injections (ABIs) are more effective than corticosteroid injections for reducing pain and disability in patients with tennis elbow in both the short and long term.

  18. Early embryonic gene expression profiling of zebrafish prion protein (Prp2 morphants.

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    Rasoul Nourizadeh-Lillabadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Prion protein (PRNP/Prp plays a crucial role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs like Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, scrapie and mad cow disease. Notwithstanding the importance in human and animal disease, fundamental aspects of PRNP/Prp function and transmission remains unaccounted for. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The zebrafish (Danio rerio genome contains three Prp encoding genes assigned prp1, prp2 and prp3. Currently, the second paralogue is believed to be the most similar to the mammalian PRNP gene in structure and function. Functional studies of the PRNP gene ortholog was addressed by prp2 morpholino (MO knockdown experiments. Investigation of Prp2 depleted embryos revealed high mortality and apoptosis at 24 hours post fertilization (hpf as well as impaired brain and neuronal development. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, a genome-wide transcriptome analysis was carried out in viable 24 hpf morphants. The resulting changes in gene expression profiles revealed 249 differently expressed genes linked to biological processes like cell death, neurogenesis and embryonic development. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current study contributes to the understanding of basic Prp functions and demonstrates that the zebrafish is an excellent model to address the role of Prp in vertebrates. The gene knockdown of prp2 indicates an essential biological function for the zebrafish ortholog with a morphant phenotype that suggests a neurodegenerative action and gene expression effects which are apoptosis related and effects gene networks controlling neurogenesis and embryo development.

  19. Repository of not readily available documents for project W-320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.C.

    1997-04-18

    The purpose of this document is to provide a readily available source of the technical reports needed for the development of the safety documentation provided for the waste retrieval sluicing system (WRSS), designed to remove the radioactive and chemical sludge from tank 241-C-106, and transport that material to double-shell tank 241-AY-102 via a new, temporary, shielded, encased transfer line.

  20. Two New PRP Conjugate Gradient Algorithms for Minimization Optimization Models.

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    Yuan, Gonglin; Duan, Xiabin; Liu, Wenjie; Wang, Xiaoliang; Cui, Zengru; Sheng, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Two new PRP conjugate Algorithms are proposed in this paper based on two modified PRP conjugate gradient methods: the first algorithm is proposed for solving unconstrained optimization problems, and the second algorithm is proposed for solving nonlinear equations. The first method contains two aspects of information: function value and gradient value. The two methods both possess some good properties, as follows: 1) βk ≥ 0 2) the search direction has the trust region property without the use of any line search method 3) the search direction has sufficient descent property without the use of any line search method. Under some suitable conditions, we establish the global convergence of the two algorithms. We conduct numerical experiments to evaluate our algorithms. The numerical results indicate that the first algorithm is effective and competitive for solving unconstrained optimization problems and that the second algorithm is effective for solving large-scale nonlinear equations.

  1. Two New PRP Conjugate Gradient Algorithms for Minimization Optimization Models.

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    Gonglin Yuan

    Full Text Available Two new PRP conjugate Algorithms are proposed in this paper based on two modified PRP conjugate gradient methods: the first algorithm is proposed for solving unconstrained optimization problems, and the second algorithm is proposed for solving nonlinear equations. The first method contains two aspects of information: function value and gradient value. The two methods both possess some good properties, as follows: 1 βk ≥ 0 2 the search direction has the trust region property without the use of any line search method 3 the search direction has sufficient descent property without the use of any line search method. Under some suitable conditions, we establish the global convergence of the two algorithms. We conduct numerical experiments to evaluate our algorithms. The numerical results indicate that the first algorithm is effective and competitive for solving unconstrained optimization problems and that the second algorithm is effective for solving large-scale nonlinear equations.

  2. Ubiquitin ligase gp78 targets unglycosylated prion protein PrP for ubiquitylation and degradation.

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    Jia Shao

    Full Text Available Prion protein PrP is a central player in several devastating neurodegenerative disorders, including mad cow disease and Creutzfeltd-Jacob disease. Conformational alteration of PrP into an aggregation-prone infectious form PrPSc can trigger pathogenic events. How levels of PrP are regulated is poorly understood. Human PrP is known to be degraded by the proteasome, but the specific proteolytic pathway responsible for PrP destruction remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase gp78, known for its role in protein quality control, is critical for unglycosylated PrP ubiquitylation and degradation. Furthermore, C-terminal sequences of PrP protein are crucial for its ubiquitylation and degradation. Our study reveals the first ubiquitin ligase specifically involved in prion protein PrP degradation and PrP sequences crucial for its turnover. Our data may lead to a new avenue to control PrP level and pathogenesis.

  3. Prp19 Arrests Cell Cycle via Cdc5L in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

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    Huang, Renzheng; Xue, Ruyi; Qu, Di; Yin, Jie; Shen, Xi-Zhong

    2017-04-07

    Pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (Prp19) is involved in many cellular events including pre-mRNA processing and DNA damage response. Recently, it has been identified as a candidate oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of Prp19 in tumor biology is still elusive. Here, we reported that Prp19 arrested cell cycle in HCC cells via regulating G2/M transition. Mechanistic insights revealed that silencing Prp19 inhibited the expression of cell division cycle 5-like (Cdc5L) via repressing the translation of Cdc5L mRNA and facilitating lysosome-mediated degradation of Cdc5L in HCC cells. Furthermore, we found that silencing Prp19 induced cell cycle arrest could be partially resumed by overexpressing Cdc5L. This work implied that Prp19 participated in mitotic progression and thus could be a promising therapeutic target of HCC.

  4. Intraarticular Injections of Platelet-rich Plasma (PRP) in the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis

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    E. Carlos RODRIGUEZ-MERCHAN

    2013-01-01

      The clinical use of PRP therapy in the practical setting of orthopaedic fields is increasing partly because of the accessibility of devices that are used in outpatient preparation and delivery. Another reason is the strong advertisement of PRP procedures as the ultimate treatment and novel technology for knee problems by a few orthopaedic surgeons based on claims of abundant scientific evidence. Hence, PubMed articles related to the clinical use of PRP in knee osteoarthritis were searched u...

  5. The Splicing Factor Prp43p, a DEAH Box ATPase, Functions in Ribosome Biogenesis

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    Leeds, Nina B.; Small, Eliza C.; Hiley, Shawna L.; Hughes, Timothy R.; Staley, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    Biogenesis of the small and large ribosomal subunits requires modification, processing, and folding of pre-rRNA to yield mature rRNA. Here, we report that efficient biogenesis of both small- and large-subunit rRNAs requires the DEAH box ATPase Prp43p, a pre-mRNA splicing factor. By steady-state analysis, a cold-sensitive prp43 mutant accumulates 35S pre-rRNA and depletes 20S, 27S, and 7S pre-rRNAs, precursors to the small- and large-subunit rRNAs. By pulse-chase analysis, the prp43 mutant is defective in the formation of 20S and 27S pre-rRNAs and in the accumulation of 18S and 25S mature rRNAs. Wild-type Prp43p immunoprecipitates pre-rRNAs and mature rRNAs, indicating a direct role in ribosome biogenesis. The Prp43p-Q423N mutant immunoprecipitates 27SA2 pre-rRNA threefold more efficiently than the wild type, suggesting a critical role for Prp43p at the earliest stages of large-subunit biogenesis. Consistent with an early role for Prp43p in ribosome biogenesis, Prp43p immunoprecipitates the majority of snoRNAs; further, compared to the wild type, the prp43 mutant generally immunoprecipitates the snoRNAs more efficiently. In the prp43 mutant, the snoRNA snR64 fails to methylate residue C2337 in 27S pre-rRNA, suggesting a role in snoRNA function. We propose that Prp43p promotes recycling of snoRNAs and biogenesis factors during pre-rRNA processing, similar to its recycling role in pre-mRNA splicing. The dual function for Prp43p in the cell raises the possibility that ribosome biogenesis and pre-mRNA splicing may be coordinately regulated. PMID:16382143

  6. HGF mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of PRP on injured tendons.

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    Jianying Zhang

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF and other growth factors are widely used in orthopaedic/sports medicine to repair injured tendons. While PRP treatment is reported to decrease pain in patients with tendon injury, the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Tendon pain is often associated with tendon inflammation, and HGF is known to protect tissues from inflammatory damages. Therefore, we hypothesized that HGF in PRP causes the anti-inflammatory effects. To test this hypothesis, we performed in vitro experiments on rabbit tendon cells and in vivo experiments on a mouse Achilles tendon injury model. We found that addition of PRP or HGF decreased gene expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1, induced by the treatment of tendon cells in vitro with IL-1β. Further, the treatment of tendon cell cultures with HGF antibodies reduced the suppressive effects of PRP or HGF on IL-1β-induced COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1 gene expressions. Treatment with PRP or HGF almost completely blocked the cellular production of PGE2 and the expression of COX proteins. Finally, injection of PRP or HGF into wounded mouse Achilles tendons in vivo decreased PGE2 production in the tendinous tissues. Injection of platelet-poor plasma (PPP however, did not reduce PGE2 levels in the wounded tendons, but the injection of HGF antibody inhibited the effects of PRP and HGF. Further, injection of PRP or HGF also decreased COX-1 and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that PRP exerts anti-inflammatory effects on injured tendons through HGF. This study provides basic scientific evidence to support the use of PRP to treat injured tendons because PRP can reduce inflammation and thereby reduce the associated pain caused by high levels of PGE2.

  7. Reconstrucción mamaria mediante lipoinfiltrado enriquecido con PRP

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    A. Jarrah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una serie de pacientes con mastectomía a las que hemos realizado reconstrucción mamaria con infiltraciones de grasa (lipoinfiltrado enriquecida con plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP como único procedimiento, o como paso previo a la colocación de un implante mamario. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una alternativa a la reconstrucción mamaria con colgajos libres o pediculados en mamas sometidas a radioterapia; también, una revisión detallada de los pasos a seguir para la realización de este procedimiento, que van desde la extracción de sangre para la posterior obtención del PRP, hasta la técnica de infiltración de grasa enriquecida con dichos factores en la mama intervenida. Con esta técnica de enriquecimiento de la grasa hemos logrado mejores resultados y mayor permanencia de los injertos grasos. Evaluando los postoperatorios de las pacientes sometidas a este procedimiento, hemos observado que se necesitan de 2 a 3 tiempos de lipoinfiltrado para obtener buena cobertura y mejoría de la calidad de piel como paso previo a la colocación del implante en este tipo de pacientes.

  8. Podiatry Ankle Duplex Scan: Readily Learned and Accurate in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normahani, Pasha; Powezka, Katarzyna; Aslam, Mohammed; Standfield, Nigel J; Jaffer, Usman

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to train podiatrists to perform a focused duplex ultrasound scan (DUS) of the tibial vessels at the ankle in diabetic patients; podiatry ankle (PodAnk) duplex scan. Thirteen podiatrists underwent an intensive 3-hour long simulation training session. Participants were then assessed performing bilateral PodAnk duplex scans of 3 diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease. Participants were assessed using the duplex ultrasound objective structured assessment of technical skills (DUOSATS) tool and an "Imaging Score". A total of 156 vessel assessments were performed. All patients had abnormal waveforms with a loss of triphasic flow. Loss of triphasic flow was accurately detected in 145 (92.9%) vessels; the correct waveform was identified in 139 (89.1%) cases. Participants achieved excellent DUOSATS scores (median 24 [interquartile range: 23-25], max attainable score of 26) as well as "Imaging Scores" (8 [8-8], max attainable score of 8) indicating proficiency in technical skills. The mean time taken for each bilateral ankle assessment was 20.4 minutes (standard deviation ±6.7). We have demonstrated that a focused DUS for the purpose of vascular assessment of the diabetic foot is readily learned using intensive simulation training.

  9. Prp43p Is a DEAH-Box Spliceosome Disassembly Factor Essential for Ribosome Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, D. Joshua; Nagel, Roland J.; Ares, Manuel; Stevens, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    The known function of the DEXH/D-box protein Prp43p is the removal of the U2, U5, and U6 snRNPs from the postsplicing lariat-intron ribonucleoprotein complex. We demonstrate that affinity-purified Prp43p-associated material includes the expected spliceosomal components; however, we also identify several preribosomal complexes that are specifically purified with Prp43p. Conditional prp43 mutant alleles confer a 35S pre-rRNA processing defect, with subsequent depletion of 27S and 20S precursors. Upon a shift to a nonpermissive temperature, both large and small-ribosomal-subunit proteins accumulate in the nucleolus of prp43 mutants. Pulse-chase analysis demonstrates delayed kinetics of 35S, 27S, and 20S pre-rRNA processing with turnover of these intermediates. Microarray analysis of pre-mRNA splicing defects in prp43 mutants shows a very mild effect, similar to that of nonessential pre-mRNA splicing factors. Prp43p is the first DEXH/D-box protein shown to function in both RNA polymerase I and polymerase II transcript metabolism. Its essential function is in its newly characterized role in ribosome biogenesis of both ribosomal subunits, positioning Prp43p to regulate both pre-mRNA splicing and ribosome biogenesis. PMID:16382144

  10. Recommendations for the Involvement of Patient Research Partners (PRP) in OMERACT Working Groups. A Report from the OMERACT 2014 Working Group on PRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Peter P; de Wit, Maarten; Bingham, Clifton O; Kirwan, John R; Leong, Amye; March, Lyn M; Montie, Pam; Scholte-Voshaar, Marieke; Gossec, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Patient participation in research is increasing; however, practical guidelines to enhance this participation are lacking. Specifically within the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) organization, although patients have participated in OMERACT meetings since 2002, consensus about the procedures for involving patients in working groups has not been formalized. The objective is to develop a set of recommendations regarding patient research partner (PRP) involvement in research working groups. We conducted a systematic literature review on recommendations/guidelines of PRP involvement in research; elaborated a structured consensus process involving multiple participants to develop a set of recommendations; and sought endorsement of recommendations by OMERACT. In the 18 articles included in the literature review, there was general agreement on the broad concepts for recommendations covering PRP involvement in research although they were heterogeneous in detail. Most considered PRP involvement in all phases of research with early engagement, training, and support important, but details on the content were scarce. This review informed a larger consensus-building process regarding PRP inclusion in OMERACT research. Three overarching principles and 8 recommendations were developed, discussed, and refined at OMERACT 2014. The guiding principles were endorsed during the OMERACT plenary session. These recommendations for PRP involvement in OMERACT research reinforce the importance of patient participation throughout the research process as integral members. Although the applicability of the recommendations in other research contexts should be assessed, the generalizability is expected to be high. Future research should evaluate their implementation and their effect on outcome development.

  11. The composite of bone marrow concentrate and PRP as an alternative to autologous bone grafting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohssen Hakimi

    Full Text Available One possible alternative to the application of autologous bone grafts represents the use of autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the potency of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP in combination with BMC. In 32 mini-pigs a metaphyseal critical-size defect was surgically created at the proximal tibia. The animals were allocated to four treatment groups of eight animals each (1. BMC+CPG group, 2. BMC+CPG+PRP group, 3. autograft group, 4. CPG group. In the BMC+CPG group the defect was filled with autologous BMC in combination with calcium phosphate granules (CPG, whereas in the BMC+CPG+PRP group the defect was filled with the composite of autologous BMC, CPG and autologous PRP. In the autograft group the defect was filled with autologous cancellous graft, whereas in the CPG group the defect was filled with CPG solely. After 6 weeks radiological and histomorphometrical analysis showed significantly more new bone formation in the BMC+CPG+PRP group compared to the BMC+CPG group and the CPG group. There were no significant differences between the BMC+CPG+PRP group and the autograft group. In the PRP platelets were enriched significantly about 4.7-fold compared to native blood. In BMC the count of mononuclear cells increased significantly (3.5-fold compared to the bone marrow aspirate. This study demonstrates that the composite of BMC+CPG+PRP leads to a significantly higher bone regeneration of critical-size defects at the proximal tibia in mini-pigs than the use of BMC+CPG without PRP. Furthermore, within the limits of the present study the composite BMC+CPG+PRP represents a comparable alternative to autologous bone grafting.

  12. Structural and functional analysis of the human spliceosomal DEAD-box helicase Prp28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Möhlmann, Sina [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Mathew, Rebecca [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Neumann, Piotr; Schmitt, Andreas [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Lührmann, Reinhard [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ficner, Ralf, E-mail: rficner@uni-goettingen.de [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    The crystal structure of the helicase domain of the human spliceosomal DEAD-box protein Prp28 was solved by SAD. The binding of ADP and ATP by Prp28 was studied biochemically and analysed with regard to the crystal structure. The DEAD-box protein Prp28 is essential for pre-mRNA splicing as it plays a key role in the formation of an active spliceosome. Prp28 participates in the release of the U1 snRNP from the 5′-splice site during association of the U5·U4/U6 tri-snRNP, which is a crucial step in the transition from a pre-catalytic spliceosome to an activated spliceosome. Here, it is demonstrated that the purified helicase domain of human Prp28 (hPrp28ΔN) binds ADP, whereas binding of ATP and ATPase activity could not be detected. ATP binding could not be observed for purified full-length hPrp28 either, but within an assembled spliceosomal complex hPrp28 gains ATP-binding activity. In order to understand the structural basis for the ATP-binding deficiency of isolated hPrp28, the crystal structure of hPrp28ΔN was determined at 2.0 Å resolution. In the crystal the helicase domain adopts a wide-open conformation, as the two RecA-like domains are extraordinarily displaced from the productive ATPase conformation. Binding of ATP is hindered by a closed conformation of the P-loop, which occupies the space required for the γ-phosphate of ATP.

  13. Intraarticular Injections of Platelet-rich Plasma (PRP) in the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos

    2013-09-01

    The clinical use of PRP therapy in the practical setting of orthopaedic fields is increasing partly because of the accessibility of devices that are used in outpatient preparation and delivery. Another reason is the strong advertisement of PRP procedures as the ultimate treatment and novel technology for knee problems by a few orthopaedic surgeons based on claims of abundant scientific evidence. Hence, PubMed articles related to the clinical use of PRP in knee osteoarthritis were searched using the key words: PRP, knee and osteoarthritis in order to study these claims. A total of 20 reports were found directly related to the topic. The aforementioned clinical studies suggest that intraarticular injections of PRP could have preventive effects against osteoarthritis progression. However, presently there is no clear evidence from well-designed clinical trials that intraarticular injections of PRP are efficacious in osteoarthritis. Therefore, at this time the efficacy of PRP requires more investigation, wherein better scientific studies should be performed that include high powered randomized controlled trials.

  14. Augmenting tendon and ligament repair with platelet-rich plasma (PRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ting; Zhang, Chang-Qing; Wang, James H-C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Tendon and ligament injuries (TLI) commonly occur in athletes and non-athletes alike, and remarkably debilitate patients’ athletic and personal abilities. Current clinical treatments, such as reconstruction surgeries, do not adequately heal these injuries and often result in the formation of scar tissue that is prone to re-injury. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a widely used alternative option that is also safe because of its autologous nature. PRP contains a number of growth factors that are responsible for its potential to heal TLIs effectively. In this review, we provide a comprehensive report on PRP. While basic science studies in general indicate the potential of PRP to treat TLIs effectively, a review of existing literature on the clinical use of PRP for the treatment of TLIs indicates a lack of consensus due to varied treatment outcomes. This suggests that current PRP treatment protocols for TLIs may not be optimal, and that not all TLIs may be effectively treated with PRP. Certainly, additional basic science studies are needed to develop optimal treatment protocols and determine those TLI conditions that can be treated effectively. PMID:24367773

  15. Myc-oncogene inactivating effect by proline rich polypeptide (PRP-1) in chondrosarcoma JJ012 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galoian, Karina; Scully, Sean; Galoyan, Armen

    2009-02-01

    Proline rich polypeptide (PRP-1) produced by NPV and NSO cells is released into the general circulation and exerts its effect on the activity of immunocompetent and neuronal cells. PRP-1 is a unique regulator of hematopoiesis, stimulator of bone-marrow hematogenesis. Taking into consideration our preliminary data on antitumor and unique diverse biological properties of PRP-1 previously described by Galoyan et al., we proceeded with investigation of the PRP-1 effect on chondrosarcoma, the second most common malignancy in bone, which tends to be locally invasive and then metastatic. Currently it does not have any effective treatment and does not respond either to radiation or chemotherapy, leaving surgical resection as the only option. Our experimental results of PRP-1 action on human chondrosarcoma JJ012 cells demonstrated inactivation, abolishment of Myc oncogene activity usually upregulated in chondrosarcoma cells and other malignancies. The fact that addition of PRP-1 caused drastic inactivation of Myc-luc response element to the control level in human chondrosarcoma JJ012 cell line prompts to investigate further this neuropeptides powerful antioncogenic potential, opening up possibilities to consider PRP-1 as a potential therapeutic tool for chondrosarcoma treatment.

  16. The use of monoclonal antibody epitopes for tagging PrP in conversion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorberg, I; Pfaff, E; Groschup, M H

    2000-01-01

    The key event in the pathogenesis of spongiform encephalopathies is a conformational transition of a normal cellular protein, PrPsen, to its pathological isoform, PrPres. The mechanism of PrPres formation is unknown but is likely to involve a direct interaction between PrPsen and PrPres. The molecular basis of PrPres formation has been studied extensively using transgenic mice and scrapie-infected tissue cultures that express heterologous PrP molecules. However, these experiments are dependant on the discrimination of endogenous host PrP and exogenous PrP molecules. Here we give a short review on the PrP-specific epitopes that have been used for tagging exogenous PrP molecules and present a novel PrP-specific epitope that is well suitable for in vivo and in vitro conversion experiments.

  17. Role of Ultrasound Guided Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP Injection in Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enass M. Khattab

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that US-guided platelet-rich plasma (PRP injection for treatment of lateral epicondylitis was a safe, minimally invasive and effective procedure in improving the sonographic and pathological changes of common extensor tendon (CET.

  18. An improved freeze-dried PRP-coated biodegradable material suitable for connective tissue regenerative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimizu, Makoto; Kawase, Tomoyuki; Nakajima, Yu; Okuda, Kazuhiro; Nagata, Masaki; Wolff, Larry F; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2013-06-01

    We previously published an investigation indicating freeze-dried platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-coated polyglactin mesh was a promising wound-dressing material. However, one of its disadvantages was the inflammatory nature due to degradation of the polyglactin. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the use of a collagen sponge as the carrier for PRP. When implanted subcutaneously in nude mice, the PRP-coated sponge alone rapidly induced angiogenesis and infiltration of surrounding connective tissue without inducing appreciable inflammation. Moreover, addition of periosteal fibroblastic cells substantially augmented the angiogenic response. With in vitro studies, the PRP-coated sponge provided various major growth factors at high levels to stimulate the proliferation of cells cultured on plastic dishes, but did not stimulate the proliferation of cells inoculated into the PRP-coated sponge. Cells were embedded in the fibrin mesh and maintained their spherical shape without stretching. The atomic force microscopic analysis demonstrated that the fibrin gel formed on the PRP-coated sponge was much softer (approx. 22 kPa) than the cross-linked collagen that formed the sponge base (appox. 1.9 MPa). Because insoluble matrices have recently and increasingly been considered important regulatory factors of cellular behavior, as are soluble growth factors, it is suggested that this soft fibrin mesh possibly suppresses cell survival. Overall, our investigation has successfully demonstrated improved wound-healing and regenerative potential of the PRP-coated mesh by combining it with the collagen sponge. In the clinical setting, this PRP-coated collagen sponge is a promising material for connective tissue regenerative therapy, such as periodontal therapy, burn victim treatment and in cosmetic or plastic surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effects of Platelet-Rich-Plasma (PRP Injection on Ligament Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhistira Pradnyan Kloping

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soft tissue injuries are becoming a problem especially among active people and athletes, thus doctors are focusing on PRP injection however variety of study results are making the beneficial effects of PRP towards soft tissue healing unclear. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of PRP injection on the healing aspect of a ligament injury. Methods: The experimental study used European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, which was divided into the control and treated group. The 22 samples, ankle ligaments were injured. The treated group was injected with 4 ml PRP taken autologously. On the 2nd day the samples were examined for hematoma. 4 samples from each group were also examined histopathologically. On the 2nd week, the ligament thickness of the remaining samples from each group was examined ultrasonographically. Results: The clinical result showed lower presence of hematoma on the group injected with PRP compared to the control group. The Capillary dilation was less on the treated group compared to the control group. The Inflammatory cells were less on the treated group compared to the control group. The Fibroblasts Cells was less on the treated group compared to the control group. The fibrocytes was more abundant on the treated group compared to the control group. The average of Ligament Thickness was thicker on the treated group compared to the control group. Conclusion: The Injection of PRP is beneficial to a ligament injury based on its effect on enhancing healing on the inflammation, regeneration, and remodeling phases.

  20. Polymorphisms at Amino Acid Residues 141 and 154 Influence Conformational Variation in Ovine PrP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in ovine PrP at amino acid residues 141 and 154 are associated with susceptibility to ovine prion disease: Leu141Arg154 with classical scrapie and Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 with atypical scrapie. Classical scrapie is naturally transmissible between sheep, whereas this may not be the case with atypical scrapie. Critical amino acid residues will determine the range or stability of structural changes within the ovine prion protein or its functional interaction with potential cofactors, during conversion of PrPC to PrPSc in these different forms of scrapie disease. Here we computationally identified that regions of ovine PrP, including those near amino acid residues 141 and 154, displayed more conservation than expected based on local structural environment. Molecular dynamics simulations showed these conserved regions of ovine PrP displayed genotypic differences in conformational repertoire and amino acid side-chain interactions. Significantly, Leu141Arg154 PrP adopted an extended beta sheet arrangement in the N-terminal palindromic region more frequently than the Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 variants. We supported these computational observations experimentally using circular dichroism spectroscopy and immunobiochemical studies on ovine recombinant PrP. Collectively, our observations show amino acid residues 141 and 154 influence secondary structure and conformational change in ovine PrP that may correlate with different forms of scrapie.

  1. Cotton PRP5 gene encoding a proline-rich protein is involved in fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Liang; Zhang, De-Jing; Wu, Yan-Feng; Qin, Li-Xia; Huang, Geng-Qing; Li, Juan; Li, Long; Li, Xue-Bao

    2013-07-01

    Proline-rich proteins contribute to cell wall structure of specific cell types and are involved in plant growth and development. In this study, a fiber-specific gene, GhPRP5, encoding a proline-rich protein was functionally characterized in cotton. GhPRP5 promoter directed GUS expression only in trichomes of both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants with overexpressing GhPRP5 displayed reduced cell growth, resulting in smaller cell size and consequently plant dwarfs, in comparison with wild type plants. In contrast, knock-down of GhPRP5 expression by RNA interference in cotton enhanced fiber development. The fiber length of transgenic cotton plants was longer than that of wild type. In addition, some genes involved in fiber elongation and wall biosynthesis of cotton were up-regulated or down-regulated in the transgenic cotton plants owing to suppression of GhPRP5. Collectively, these data suggested that GhPRP5 protein as a negative regulator participates in modulating fiber development of cotton.

  2. No associations between PrP genotypes and reproduction traits in INRA 401 sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitezica, Z G; Moreno, C R; Bodin, L; François, D; Barillet, F; Brunel, J C; Elsen, J M

    2006-06-01

    In this study, the potential association of PrP genotypes with ewe reproductive traits and lamb growth traits was investigated. Data were included on ewes and lambs of the INRA 401 breed from the Bourges-La Sapinière INRA experimental farm. This breed was chosen because of good breeding (prolificacy and maternal abilities) and carcass qualities, and the large number of available animals with performance records and PrP genotypes. Ewes were categorized into 3 PrP genotype classes: ARR homozygous, ARR heterozygous, and animals without any ARR haplotype. Two analyses differing in the traits considered were carried out. Firstly, the potential association of the PrP genotype of ewes with their reproduction traits (fertility, litter size, and ovulation rate) was studied. The data included 801, 779, and 587 genotyped ewes for fertility, litter size, and ovulation rate, respectively. Secondly, the association of the PrP genotype of the ewes with growth traits of their lambs (birth weight, ADG between 10 and 30 d of age) was investigated. The data included 3,749 and 3,512 lambs for birth weight and ADG, respectively. The different traits were analyzed using an animal model, where the PrP genotype effect was included as a fixed effect. The reproductive traits were modeled under a probit or a threshold approach. The results of this study indicate no evidence of an association between PrP genotypes and reproductive and growth traits. It is unlikely that selection for scrapie resistance will have an effect on the reproductive or performance traits studied in the INRA 401 breed.

  3. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Domain of Splicing Factor Prp8 Carrying Retinitis Pigmentosa Mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang,L.; Shen, J.; Guarnieri, M.; Heroux, A.; Yang, K.; Zhao, R.

    2007-01-01

    Prp8 is a critical pre-mRNA splicing factor. Prp8 is proposed to help form and stabilize the spliceosome catalytic core and to be an important regulator of spliceosome activation. Mutations in human Prp8 (hPrp8) cause a severe form of the genetic disorder retinitis pigmentosa, RP13. Understanding the molecular mechanism of Prp8's function in pre-mRNA splicing and RP13 has been hindered by its large size (over 2000 amino acids) and remarkably low-sequence similarity with other proteins. Here we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain (the last 273 residues) of Caenorhabditis elegans Prp8 (cPrp8). The core of the C-terminal domain is an / structure that forms the MPN (Mpr1, Pad1 N-terminal) fold but without Zn{sup 2+} coordination. We propose that the C-terminal domain is a protein interaction domain instead of a Zn{sup 2+}-dependent metalloenzyme as proposed for some MPN proteins. Mapping of RP13 mutants on the Prp8 structure suggests that these residues constitute a binding surface between Prp8 and other partner(s), and the disruption of this interaction provides a plausible molecular mechanism for RP13.

  4. The influence of using anticoagulants (EDTA and citrate acid 3.8% toward the quantity of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilies Anggarwati Astuti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP is a blood concentrate that has a thrombocytes concentration several time higher than normal concentration of thrombocytes in normal human blood. PRP is a promising alternative to surgery with a safe and natural healing. The standard protocol for PRP preparation must be determined to get the right quantity and quality of the matrix of fibrin, leukocytes, platelets and growth factors. It could not be separated from the number of PRP produced. The use of PRP in the success of periodontal treatment would not be separated from methods to obtain it. To detect the influence of using anticoagulants (EDTA and citrate acid 3.8% toward the quantity of PRP. There are 41 subjects studied by taking 21 ml of venous blood in each of the seven tubes. Centrifugation performed twice with different speed, duration, use of anticoagulants then analyzed. This quantity between the two groups differed significantly between the PRP in EDTA group is higher 322.2 ml rather than citrate acid 3.8% group, then control group is higher 329.5 ml rather than citrate acid 3.8% group, while there is no difference between EDTA and control group. There is effect of the use of anticoagulants EDTA compared with citrate acid 3.8% in the quantity of PRP, and there was no effect using citrate acid 3.8% as anticoagulants in quantity of PRP.

  5. Dodecylphosphocholine Micelles Induce Amyloid Formation of the PrP(110-136 Peptide via an α-Helical Metastable Conformation.

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    Simon Sauvé

    Full Text Available A peptide encompassing the conserved hydrophobic region and the first β-strand of the prion protein (PrP(110-136 shown to interact with the surface of dodecylphosphocholine micelles adopts an α-helical conformation that is localized below the head-group layer. This surface-bound peptide has a half-life of one day, and readily initiates the formation of amyloid fibrils. The presence of the latter was confirmed using birefringence microscopy upon Congo red binding and thioflavin T-binding induced fluorescence. The observation of this metastable α-helical conformer provides a unique snapshot of the early steps of the inter-conversion pathway. These findings together with the body of evidence from the prion literature allowed us to propose a mechanism for the conversion of PrPC to amyloid material.

  6. Brucella alters the immune response in a prpA-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Juan M.; Comerci, Diego J.; Ugalde, Juan E.

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis, a disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Brucella sp, is a widespread zoonosis that inflicts important animal and human health problems, especially in developing countries. One of the hallmarks of Brucella infection is its capacity to establish a chronic infection, characteristic that depends on a wide repertoire of virulence factors among which are immunomodulatory proteins such as PrpA (encoding the proline racemase protein A or hydroxyproline-2-epimerase), involved in the establishment of the chronic phase of the infectious process that we have previously identified and characterized. We report here that, in vivo, B. abortus prpA is responsible for an increment in the B-cell number and in the specific antibody response and that these antibodies promote cell infection. We additionally found that Brucella alters the cytokine levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, TGFβ1 and TNFα during the acute phase of the infectious process in a prpA dependent manner. PMID:24508400

  7. 16 CFR 1101.13 - Public ability to ascertain readily identity of manufacturer or private labeler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public ability to ascertain readily identity... SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF...)(1) § 1101.13 Public ability to ascertain readily identity of manufacturer or private labeler. The...

  8. PRP8 inteins in species of the genus Botrytis and other ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, Annika A M; Kohn, Linda M; Poulter, Russell T M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2012-03-01

    The mobile elements termed inteins have a sporadic distribution in microorganisms. It is unclear how these elements are maintained. Inteins are intervening protein sequences that autocatalytically excise themselves from a precursor. Excision is a post-translational process referred to as 'protein splicing' in which the sequences flanking the intein are ligated, reforming the mature host protein. Some inteins contain a homing endonuclease domain (HEG) that is proposed to facilitate propagation of the intein element within a gene pool. We have previously demonstrated that the HEG of the PRP8 intein is highly active during meiosis in Botrytis cinerea. Here we analysed the Prp8 gene status in 21 additional Botrytis species to obtain insight into the mode of intein inheritance within the Botrytis lineage. Of the 21 species, 15 contained a PRP8 intein whereas six did not. The analysis was extended to closely related (Sclerotiniaceae) and distantly related (Ascomycota) taxa, focussing on evolutionary diversification of the PRP8 intein, including their possible acquisition by horizontal transfer and loss by deletion. Evidence was obtained for the occurrence of genetic footprints of previous intein occupation. There is no compelling evidence of horizontal transfer among species. Three distinct states of the Prp8 allele were identified, distributed over different orders within the Ascomycota: an occupied allele; an empty allele that was never occupied; an empty allele that was presumably previously occupied, from which the intein was precisely deleted. The presence of the genetic footprint identifies 20 species (including Neurospora crassa, Magnaporthe oryzae and Fusarium oxysporum) that previously contained the intein but have lost it entirely, while only 18 species (including Podospora anserina and Fusarium graminearum) appear never to have contained a PRP8 intein. The analysis indicates that inteins may be maintained in an equilibrium state. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  9. Anaesthetics, steroids and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marra, Alice; Arrigoni, Francesco; Mariani, Silvia; Zugaro, Luigi; Splendiani, Alessandra; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Reginelli, Alfonso; Zappia, Marcello; Brunese, Luca; Duka, Ejona; Carrafiello, Giampaolo; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to evaluate the role of anaesthetics, steroids and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) employed with ultrasound-guided injection in the management of musculoskeletal pathology of the extremities. Ultrasound-guided injection represents an interesting and minimally invasive solution for the treatment of tendon and joint inflammatory or degenerative diseases. The availability of a variety of new drugs such as hyaluronic acid and PRP provides expansion of the indications and therapeutic possibilities. The clinical results obtained in terms of pain reduction and functional recovery suggest that the use of infiltrative procedures can be a good therapeutic alternative in degenerative and inflammatory joint diseases. PMID:27302491

  10. IMPACT OF NATURAL FERTILIZATION USING PRP FIX ON SOME SOIL FERTILITY INDICATORS

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Możdżer; Justyna Chudeka

    2017-01-01

    The field experiment was carried out at The Experimental Station of Plant Varieties Protection in Szczecin Dąbie. The experiment aimed at evaluating the influence of slurry with and without increasing doses of PRP FIX preparation on some soil fertility indicators after test plants harvest. Contents of determined macronutrients in the soil were higher in objects where slurry was applied with addition of 8 kg or 12 kg of PRP FIX per 1 m3 as compared to those with exclusively mineral fertiliz...

  11. The telomerase inhibitor Gno1p/PINX1 activates the helicase Prp43p during ribosome biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Ling; Capeyrou, Régine; Humbert, Odile; Mouffok, Saïda; Kadri, Yasmine Al; Lebaron, Simon; Henras, Anthony K; Henry, Yves

    2014-06-01

    We provide evidence that a central player in ribosome synthesis, the ribonucleic acid helicase Prp43p, can be activated by yeast Gno1p and its human ortholog, the telomerase inhibitor PINX1. Gno1p and PINX1 expressed in yeast interact with Prp43p and the integrity of their G-patch domain is required for this interaction. Moreover, PINX1 interacts with human PRP43 (DHX15) in HeLa cells. PINX1 directly binds to yeast Prp43p and stimulates its adenosine triphosphatase activity, while alterations of the G patch abolish formation of the PINX1/Prp43p complex and the stimulation of Prp43p. In yeast, lack of Gno1p leads to a decrease in the levels of pre-40S and intermediate pre-60S pre-ribosomal particles, defects that can be corrected by PINX1 expression. We show that Gno1p associates with 90S and early pre-60S pre-ribosomal particles and is released from intermediate pre-60S particles. G-patch alterations in Gno1p or PINX1 that inhibit their interactions with Prp43p completely abolish their function in yeast ribosome biogenesis. Altogether, our results suggest that activation of Prp43p by Gno1p/PINX1 within early pre-ribosomal particles is crucial for their subsequent maturation. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. The DExD/H-box ATPase Prp2p destabilizes and proofreads the catalytic RNA core of the spliceosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodaver, Alissa M; Staley, Jonathan P

    2014-03-01

    After undergoing massive RNA and protein rearrangements during assembly, the spliceosome undergoes a final, more subtle, ATP-dependent rearrangement that is essential for catalysis. This rearrangement requires the DEAH-box protein Prp2p, an RNA-dependent ATPase. Prp2p has been implicated in destabilizing interactions between the spliceosome and the protein complexes SF3 and RES, but a role for Prp2p in destabilizing RNA-RNA interactions has not been explored. Using directed molecular genetics in budding yeast, we have found that a cold-sensitive prp2 mutation is suppressed not only by mutations in SF3 and RES components but also by a range of mutations that disrupt the spliceosomal catalytic core element U2/U6 helix I, which is implicated in juxtaposing the 5' splice site and branch site and in positioning metal ions for catalysis within the context of a putative catalytic triplex; indeed, mutations in this putative catalytic triplex also suppressed a prp2 mutation. Remarkably, we also found that prp2 mutations rescue lethal mutations in U2/U6 helix I. These data provide evidence that RNA elements that comprise the catalytic core are already formed at the Prp2p stage and that Prp2p destabilizes these elements, directly or indirectly, both to proofread spliceosome activation and to promote reconfiguration of the spliceosome to a fully competent, catalytic conformation.

  13. A comparison between platelet-rich plasma (PRP and hyaluronate acid on the healing of cartilage defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Liu

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has offered great promise for the treatment of cartilage degradation, and has been proved to have positive effects on the restoration of cartilage lesions. But no comparative work has been done between PRP and hyaluronate acid (HA concerning their restoring effect on cartilage defect, especially by means of animal experiments and histologic assessments. The purpose of the study was to compare the therapeutic effects of P-PRP and HA on osteoarthritis in rabbit knees. Thirty rabbits were used to establish the animal models by creating a cartilage defect of 5 mm in diameter on the condyles of the femurs, and were randomly divided into three groups: the P-PRP group, HA group and the control group. Then each group was treated with P-PRP, HA or saline solution, respectively. Six and twelve weeks later the rabbits were sacrificed and the samples were collected. The platelet number, the concentrations of growth factors of P-PRP and whole blood, and the IL-1β concentration in the joint fluid were investigated, and the histological assessment of the cartilage were performed according to Mankin's scoring system. Micro-CT was also used to evaluate the restoration of subchondral bone. The platelet concentration in P-PRP is 6.8 fold of that in the whole blood. The IL-1β level in the P-PRP group was lower than in the HA group (p<0.01 and in the control group (p<0.01. The restoration of the defected cartilage as well as the subchondral bone was better in the P-PRP group than in the HA group or the control group (P<0.05. Our data showed that P-PRP is better than HA in promoting the restoration of the cartilage and alleviating the arthritis caused by cartilage damage.

  14. Clinical effect of PRP combined with calcium dobesilate in treatment of patients with DR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Bo Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the clinical effect of panretinal photocoagulation(PRPcombined with calcium dobesilate in treatment of diabetic retinopathy(DR. METHODS: Selected 120 cases(240 eyesof DR diagnosed in our hospital from January 2011 to January 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. According to whether calcium dobesilate was used, the treatment group was divided into two groups. Sixty cases were treated with PRP combined with calcium dobesilate, and 60 cases in the control group were treated with PRP only. The BCVA, CMT and clinical efficacy of the two groups were compared. RESULTS: Before treatment, there was no significant difference on BCVA between combined group and control group(P>0.05. After treatment, BCVA of combined group was higher than that of the control group(PP>0.05; after treatment, the combination group on CMT, neovascularization and fluorescein leakage area value were less than the control group(PPCONCLUSION:PRP combined with calcium dobesilate in treatment of DR has a more significant clinical effect than PRP alone.

  15. The use of autologous PRP gel as an aid in the management of acute trauma wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakos, K; Lyras, D N; Verettas, D; Tilkeridis, K; Tryfonidis, M

    2009-08-01

    Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gel is increasingly used in the treatment of a variety of soft and bony tissue defects, such as accelerating bone formation and in the management of chronic non-healing wounds. We performed this study to assess the benefits of using autologous PRP gel in the treatment of acute limb soft tissue wounds. 59 patients with acute wounds (open fractures, closed fractures with skin necrosis and friction burns) were randomised into two groups. Group A (32 patients) were treated with conventional dressings and Group B (27 patients) were managed with local application of PRP gel. Gustillo grade IIIb or IIIc open fractures were not included in this study, as these injuries required coverage with flap. The clinical endpoints were the healing rate and/or the time required to bring about adequate tissue regeneration in order to undergo reconstructive plastic surgery. The rate of wound healing rate was significantly faster in Group B at week 1, 2 and 3 (p=0.003, p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). The mean time to plastic reconstruction in Group B was 21.26 days, S.D.=1.35 vs 40.6 days in Group A, S.D.=5.27 (p<0.001). This study has shown that PRP gel treatment can be a valuable and effective aid in the management of acute trauma wounds.

  16. Quantitating PrP polymorphisms present in prions from heterozygous scrapie-infected sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrapie is a prion (PrPSc) disease of sheep. The incubation period of sheep scrapie is strongly influenced by polymorphisms at positions 136, 154, and 171 of a sheep’s normal cellular prion protein (PrPC). Chymotrypsin was used to digest sheep recombinant PrP to identify a set of characteristic pept...

  17. Immunological mimicry of PrPC-PrPSc interactions: antibody-induced PrP misfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Guest, Will; Huang, Alan; Plotkin, Steven S; Cashman, Neil R

    2009-08-01

    Prion diseases are associated with the conversion of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to an abnormal protease-resistant conformational isoform (PrP(Sc)) by template-directed conversion. The interaction between PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) is mediated by specific sites which have been mapped to six putative 'binding and conversion domains' (PrP-BCD) through peptide and antibody competition studies. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the bityrosine motif Tyr-Tyr-Arg (YYR) specifically recognize PrP(Sc) and other misfolded PrP species. Here, we report that select bead-bound PrP-BCD mAbs induce exposure of bityrosine epitopes on mouse brain PrP. By competition immunoprecipitation, we show that PrP-BCD mAb-induced bityrosine exposure occurs at alpha-helices 1 and 3. However, PrP-BCD mAb-induced PrP(C) misfolding is not accompanied by beta-sheet dissociation, a key event in PrP(C) conversion to PrP(Sc), and is not associated with acquisition of protease resistance, or the capacity to recruit additional molecules of PrP. Our data suggest that mAb mimics of the physical interaction of PrP(C) with PrP(Sc) can induce unfolding of specific PrP domains, but that subsequent processes (including the energetically unfavorable beta-sheet dissociation) effect isoform conversion in prion disease.

  18. Exceptions to the PRP Effect? A Comparison of Prepared and Unconditioned Reflexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczyk, Markus; Pfister, Roland; Wallmeier, Gloria; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Psychological research has documented again and again marked performance decrements whenever humans perform 2 or more tasks at the same time. In fact, the available evidence seems to suggest that any type of behavior is subject to such limitations. The present experiments employed the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm to identify a…

  19. No associations between PrP genotypes and reproduction traits in INRA 401 sheep

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vitezica, Z. G; Moreno, C. R; Bodin, L; Francois, D; Barillet, F; Brunel, J. C; Elsen, J. M

    2006-01-01

    ...; and and INRA, Domaine de la Sapinière, 18390 Osmoy, France 2 Corresponding author: vitezica{at}germinal.toulouse.inra.fr In this study, the potential association of PrP genotypes with ewe reproductive traits and lamb growth traits was investigated...

  20. In vitro study of the role of thrombin in platelet rich plasma (PRP) preparation: utility for gel formation and impact in growth factors release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stephany Cares; Cunha Júnior, José Luiz Rosenberis; Montalvão, Silmara; da Silva, Letícia Queiroz; Paffaro, Aline Urban; da Silva, Francesca Aparecida Ramos; Rodrigues, Bruno Lima; Lana, José Fabio Santos Duarte; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The use of PRP has been studied for different fields, with promising results in regenerative medicine. Until now, there is no study in the literature evaluating thrombin levels in serum, used as autologous thrombin preparation. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the role played by different thrombin concentrations in PRP and the impact in the release of growth factors. Also, different activators for PRP gel formation were evaluated. Methods: Thrombin levels were measured in different autologous preparations: serum, L-PRP (PRP rich in leukocytes) and T-PRP (thrombin produced through PRP added calcium gluconate). L-PRP was prepared according to the literature, with platelets and leukocytes being quantified. The effect of autologous thrombin associated or not with calcium in PRP gel was determined by measuring the time of gel formation. The relationship between thrombin concentration and release of growth factors was determined by growth factors (PDGF-AA, VEGF and EGF) multiplex analysis. Results: A similar concentration of thrombin was observed in serum, L-PRP and T-PRP (8.13 nM, 8.63 nM and 7.56 nM, respectively) with a high variation between individuals (CV%: 35.07, 43 and 58.42, respectively). T-PRP and serum with calcium chloride showed similar results in time to promote gel formation. The increase of thrombin concentrations (2.66, 8 and 24 nM) did not promote an increase in growth factor release. Conclusions: The technique of using serum as a thrombin source proved to be the most efficient and reproducible for promoting PRP gel formation, with some advantages when compared to other activation methods, as this technique is easier and quicker with no need of consuming part of PRP. Noteworthy, PRP activation using different thrombin concentrations did not promote a higher release of growth factors, appearing not to be necessary when PRP is used as a suspension. PMID:27397996

  1. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eStrobach

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Psychological Refractory Period (PRP paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and 2 are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e. decreasing SOAs do not increase RTs and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/ or error rates in Task 1. This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.

  2. [Immunogenicity and safety of DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine in infants in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-ping; Li, Feng-xiang; Hou, Qi-ming; Li, Chang-gui; Li, Ya-nan; Chen, Fu-sheng; Hu, Xue-zhong; Su, Wen-bin; Zhang, Shu-min; Fang, Han-hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian-de; Liu, Tao-xuan; Li, Xiu-bi; Huang, Yun-neng; Deng, Man-ling; Li, Rong-cheng; Zhang, Yan-ping; Esteban, Ortiz

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular, component), poliomyelitis (inactivated) vaccine (adsorbed) and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTaP-IPV//PRP-T) combined vaccine compared with commercially available DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), tetanus conjugate and IPV monovalent vaccine. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups, Group A and Group B were DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine (PENTAXIM(TM)) vaccinated at 2, 3, 4 months of age or 3, 4, 5 months of age respectively; Group C was commercially available DTaP. Hib tetanus conjugate (Act-HIB(TM)) and IPV (IMOVAX PolioTM(TM)) vaccines vaccinated at 3, 4, 5 months of age. All groups received booster dose at 18 to 20 months of age, with antibody titers tested. Non-inferiority analysis was demonstrated in terms of seroprotection/seroconversion rates between Group A, Group B respectively and Group C. Safety information was collected after each vaccination to assess the safety of investigational vaccines. The non-inferiority of DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine vaccinated at 2, 3, 4 or 3, 4, 5 months of age versus DTaP, Hib tetanus conjugate and IPV vaccine was demonstrated for all vaccine antigens in both primary and booster phases in terms of seroprotection/seroconversion rates. DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine was well tolerated. The rate of solicited/unsolicited severe adverse reactions was very low and similar to the control vaccines. DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine was highly immunogenic with good safety profile in Chinese infants, which was comparable to the commercially available control vaccines.

  3. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.

  4. The R/V Discoverer cruise to Manus Island. The BNL Portable Radiometer Package (PRP) evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R.M.; Smith, S.

    1996-05-24

    Brookhaven National Laboratory installed and operated a Portable Radiation Package (PRP) on the NOAA ship R/V DISCOVERER as part of the Combined Sensor Program cruise in the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean. The DISCOVERER transported a collection of radiation and atmospheric instrumentation to positions offshore of manus Island to compare cloud and radiation fields to like instruments measured from a station on the island. The ship sailed NW from Pago Pago, American Samoa, on 14 March 1996 to a latitude of 1{degree}S then due West until it approached manus Island (2{degree}S and 148{degree}E) on approximately 7 April. The ship then turned SW and approached Manus Island in three steps. This route was reversed during the ship`s return to Hawaii. The PRP package is a compact low-power integration of simple sensors that measure long- and short-wave irradiance from moving platforms. A rapid rotating shadowband radiometer that is designed to provide good estimates of diffuse (sky) radiation even from moving buoys or ships was being evaluated. The PRP provided the only means of making diffuse (sky) radiation measurements from the ship. The CSP cruise provided an excellent opportunity to intercompare the PRP with other like instruments in the TWP locale. The unit was located on the starboard flying bridge which was fully exposed to direct sunlight during the ship`s westward transit. When the ship was at its closest approach to manus, the PRP was moved to the island where careful intercomparison with the Manus instrumentation was conducted.

  5. Accumulation of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP) is restricted by the expression level of normal PrP in mice inoculated with a mouse-adapted strain of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, S; Katamine, S.; Shigematsu, K.; Nakatani, A; Moriuchi, R.; Nishida, N.; Kurokawa, K; Nakaoke, R; Sato, H; Jishage, K

    1995-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a transmissible neurodegenerative disease of humans caused by an unidentified infectious agent, the prion. To determine whether there was an involvement of the host-encoded prion protein (PrPc) in CJD development and prion propagation, mice heterozygous (PrP+/-) or homozygous (PrP-/-) for a disrupted PrP gene were established and inoculated with the mouse-adapted CJD agent. In keeping with findings of previous studies using other lines of PrP-less mice inocu...

  6. Pigeonpea Hybrid-Proline-Rich Protein (CcHyPRP) Confers Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellacheruvu, Sunitha; Tamirisa, Srinath; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the overexpression of Cajanus cajan hybrid-proline-rich protein encoding gene (CcHyPRP) in rice which resulted in increased tolerance to both abiotic and biotic stresses. Compared to the control plants, the transgenic rice lines, expressing CcHyPRP, exhibited high-level tolerance against major abiotic stresses, viz., drought, salinity, and heat, as evidenced by increased biomass, chlorophyll content, survival rate, root, and shoot growth. Further, transgenic rice lines showed increased panicle size and grain number compared to the control plants under different stress conditions. The CcHyPRP transgenics, as compared to the control, revealed enhanced activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Expression pattern of CcHyPRP::GFP fusion-protein confirmed its predominant localization in cell walls. Moreover, the CcHyPRP transgenics, as compared to the control, exhibited increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea which causes blast disease in rice. Higher levels of bZIP and endochitinase transcripts as well as endochitinase activity were observed in transgenic rice compared to the control plants. The overall results demonstrate the intrinsic role of CcHyPRP in conferring multiple stress tolerance at the whole-plant level. The multipotent CcHyPRP seems promising as a prime candidate gene to fortify crop plants for enhanced tolerance/resistance to different stress factors. PMID:26834756

  7. Na+/K+-ATPase is present in scrapie-associated fibrils, modulates PrP misfolding in vitro and links PrP function and dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Graham

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are characterised by widespread deposition of fibrillar and/or plaque-like forms of the prion protein. These aggregated forms are produced by misfolding of the normal prion protein, PrP(C, to the disease-associated form, PrP(Sc, through mechanisms that remain elusive but which require either direct or indirect interaction between PrP(C and PrP(Sc isoforms. A wealth of evidence implicates other non-PrP molecules as active participants in the misfolding process, to catalyse and direct the conformational conversion of PrP(C or to provide a scaffold ensuring correct alignment of PrP(C and PrP(Sc during conversion. Such molecules may be specific to different scrapie strains to facilitate differential prion protein misfolding. Since molecular cofactors may become integrated into the growing protein fibril during prion conversion, we have investigated the proteins contained in prion disease-specific deposits by shotgun proteomics of scrapie-associated fibrils (SAF from mice infected with 3 different strains of mouse-passaged scrapie. Concomitant use of negative control preparations allowed us to identify and discount proteins that are enriched non-specifically by the SAF isolation protocol. We found several proteins that co-purified specifically with SAF from infected brains but none of these were reproducibly and demonstrably specific for particular scrapie strains. The α-chain of Na(+/K(+-ATPase was common to SAF from all 3 strains and we tested the ability of this protein to modulate in vitro misfolding of recombinant PrP. Na(+/K(+-ATPase enhanced the efficiency of disease-specific conversion of recombinant PrP suggesting that it may act as a molecular cofactor. Consistent with previous results, the same protein inhibited fibrillisation kinetics of recombinant PrP. Since functional interactions between PrP(C and Na(+/K(+-ATPase have previously been reported in astrocytes, our data highlight this molecule as

  8. Is PRP useful in alveolar cleft reconstruction? Platelet-rich plasma in secondary alveoloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luaces-Rey, Ramon; Arenaz-Búa, Jorge; Lopez-Cedrún-Cembranos, José-Luis; Herrero-Patiño, Susana; Sironvalle-Soliva, Sheyla; Iglesias-Candal, Emma; Pombo-Castro, María

    2010-07-01

    Cleft lip and palate is a congenital facial malformation with an established treatment protocol. Mixed dentition period is the best moment for correct maxillary bone defect with an alveoloplasty. The aim of this surgical procedure is to facilitate dental eruption, re-establish maxillary arch, close any oro-nasal communication, give support to nasal ala, and in some cases allow dental rehabilitation with osteointegrated implants. Twenty cleft patients who underwent secondary alveoloplasty were included. In 10 of them autogenous bone graft were used and in other 10 autogenous bone and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) obtained from autogenous blood. Bone formation was compared by digital orthopantomography made on immediate post-operatory and 3 and 6 months after the surgery. No significant differences were found between both therapeutic groups on bone regeneration. We do not find justified the use of PRP for alveoloplasty in cleft patients' treatment protocol.

  9. Tendinopathies and platelet-rich plasma (PRP): from pre-clinical experiments to therapeutic use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaux, Jean-François; Drion, Pierre; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The restorative properties of platelets, through the local release of growth factors, are used in various medical areas. This article reviews fundamental and clinical research relating to platelet-rich plasma applied to tendinous lesions. Materials and method: Articles in French and English, published between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014. dealing with PRP and tendons were searched for using the Medline and Scopus data bases. Results: Forty-seven articles were identified which addressed pre-clinical and clinical studies: 27 relating to in vitro and in vivo animal studies and 20 relating to human studies. Of these, five addressed lateral epicondylitis, two addressed rotator cuff tendinopathies, ten dealt with patellar tendinopathies and three looked at Achilles tendinopathies. Conclusions: The majority of pre-clinical studies show that PRP stimulates the tendon’s healing process. However, clinical series remain more controversial and level 1, controlled, randomised studies are still needed. PMID:26195890

  10. Tendinopathies and platelet-rich plasma (PRP: from pre-clinical experiments to therapeutic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaux JF

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The restorative properties of platelets, through the local release of growth factors, are used in various medical areas. This article reviews fundamental and clinical research relating to platelet-rich plasma applied to tendinous lesions. Materials and method: Articles in French and English, published between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014. dealing with PRP and tendons were searched for using the Medline and Scopus data bases. Results: Forty-seven articles were identified which addressed pre-clinical and clinical studies: 27 relating to in vitro and in vivo animal studies and 20 relating to human studies. Of these, five addressed lateral epicondylitis, two addressed rotator cuff tendinopathies, ten dealt with patellar tendinopathies and three looked at Achilles tendinopathies. Conclusions: The majority of pre-clinical studies show that PRP stimulates the tendon's healing process. However, clinical series remain more controversial and level 1, controlled, randomised studies are still needed.

  11. IMPACT OF NATURAL FERTILIZATION USING PRP FIX ON SOME SOIL FERTILITY INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Możdżer

    2017-07-01

    Contents of determined macronutrients in the soil were higher in objects where slurry was applied with addition of 8 kg or 12 kg of PRP FIX per 1 m3 as compared to those with exclusively mineral fertilization or slurry. The soil after test plants harvest contained more N, Corg., P, K, Mg, Ca, S, and available forms of P, K, Mg and SO3 in relation to levels before experiment establishment. In general, more soil fertility indicators were recorded in objects treated with the slurry along with PRP FIX preparation and additional PK nutrition (series II as compared to series I. Differences in macronutrients in the soil due to the fertilization system applied were diverse, however they not always were significant.

  12. Using PRP and human amniotic fluid combination for osteogenesis in rabbit socket preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is used as an adjunct treatment during periodontal grafting surgery because of its capability of enhancing healing process. Amniotic fluid is a rich source of growth factors and hyaluronic acid (HA and a good point to study its properties of wound healing and bone formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic properties of a combination of amniotic fluid and PRP in rabbit′s dental socket preservation. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 24 healthy male laboratory rabbits (average weight 3,125 ± 185 gr that were randomly allocated into four groups. PRP for the first group, human amniotic fluid (HAF for the second group, a combination of PRP and HAF (PRHA for the third group was used. In the fourth (control group, no biomaterial was used. In each group, half of the rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks following surgery and the rest were sacrificed after 8 weeks. Histological analysis of biopsies of the sockets was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software (version 16 and P-value <0.05 was considered significance. Results: All three experimental groups showed positive effect on bone formation in terms of area of trabecular bone and number of osteocytes and also vessel formation. Socket preservation using HAF and PRHA showed the highest impact on bone formation. Socket preservation using HAF also had the highest impact on vessel formation. Conclusion: PRHA and HAF appear to be useful for enhancing bone formation. Since there was no difference between HAF and PRHA, it seems beneficial to use HAF due to its simplicity of application.

  13. Efectividad del PRP en el tratamiento de la artrosis de rodilla: Estudio de casos

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Valverde, Noelia; Fidalgo González, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    La artrosis es una enfermedad degenerativa de elevada prevalencia para la cual, en la actualidad, no hay tratamiento curativo. Una de las localizaciones más frecuentes es la rodilla. La utilización de infiltraciones de plasma rico en plaquetas constituye una alternativa en el tratamiento de esta patología. Objetivo: demostrar la efectividad y la seguridad de las infiltraciones con PRP en el tratamiento de pacientes con artrosis de rodilla. Resultado: este trabajo muestra una...

  14. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in dental and oral surgery: from the wound healing to bone regeneration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albanese, Antonino; Licata, Maria E; Polizzi, Bianca; Campisi, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a new approach to tissue regeneration and it is becoming a valuable adjunct to promote healing in many procedures in dental and oral surgery, especially in aging patients...

  15. Efficacy of leukocyte‐ and platelet‐rich plasma gel (L‐PRP gel) in treating osteomyelitis in a rabbit model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Guang‐Yi; Yin, Ji‐Min; Ding, Hao; Jia, Wei‐Tao; Zhang, Chang‐Qing

    2013-01-01

    Leukocyte‐ and platelet‐rich plasma gel (L‐PRP gel), a new autologous product which was previously utilized in several surgical procedures to enhance tissue healing, is now increasingly used as a promising treatment method for infections...

  16. Split face comparative study of microneedling with prp versus microneedling with vitamin c in treating atrophic post acne scars: Erratum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2015-01-01

      The article, "Split Face Comparative Study of Microneedling with PRP Versus Microneedling with Vitamin C in Treating Atrophic Post Acne Scars", which appeared in the pages 209-212 Issue 4, Vol 7...

  17. Comparing hybrid hyaluronic acid with PRP in end career athletes with degenerative cartilage lesions of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, R; Zampogna, B; Russo, F; Vasta, S; Tirindelli, M C; Nobile, C; Di Martino, A C; Vadalà, G; Denaro, V

    2016-01-01

    Cartilage lesions are very common causes of chronic knee pain in athletes. Current treatment options consist in conservative strategies, such as viscosupplementation and platelet-rich plasma injections. This randomized controlled trial aims to investigate the effect of intra-articular Hybrid Hyaluronic Acid injections compared to PRP for the treatment of cartilage lesions among athletes at the end of their career. Since March 2015, 48 professional soccer players were randomized into two groups: 24 patients received 3 injections of HHA and 23 patients received 3 intra-articular injections of PRP. All patients achieved a statistically significant clinical improvement from preoperative to postoperative time in both groups. Patients in the HHA group showed a significant superiority compared to PRP group at 3 and 6 months. Intergroup differences decrease gradually until loss of significance at 12 months follow-up. Athletes with chronic degenerative cartilage lesions of the knee responded positively both to HHA and PRP until last follow up.

  18. Sequence polymorphism of PrP exon 3 gene in Istrian and crossbred sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ino Curik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in sheep PrP (prion protein gene are known for scrapie susceptibility. We sequenced part of PrP exon 3 gene in 92 autochthonous Istrian (IS and 38 crossbred sheep (CBS. ARQ, ARR and AHQ alleles were predominant with frequency of 0.674 (0.526, 0.228 (0.132 and 0.082 (0.263 in IS (CBS, respectively, while VRQ (0.011 in IS and ARH (0.005 in IS and 0.079 in CBS alleles were rare. We also found non-synonymous mutations at codons 112 (M→T, 127 (G→S and 143 (H→R, and synonymous mutations at codons 231 (R and 237 (L. Additional mutations were associated only with AHQ, ARH and ARQ alleles. The polymorphism of PrP gene in IS was not critical with respect to scrapie susceptibility and with some efforts number of “favourable” genotypes can be increased.

  19. NMR structure of the mouse prion protein domain PrP(121-231).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riek, R; Hornemann, S; Wider, G; Billeter, M; Glockshuber, R; Wüthrich, K

    1996-07-11

    The 'protein only' hypothesis states that a modified form of normal prion protein triggers infectious neurodegenerative diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. Prion proteins are thought to exist in two different conformations: the 'benign' PrPcform, and the infectious 'scrapie form', PrPsc. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of PrPc is essential for understanding the transition to PrPsc. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of the autonomously folding PrP domain comprising residues 121-231 (ref. 6) contains a two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and three alpha-helices. This domain contains most of the point-mutation sites that have been linked, in human PrP, to the occurrence of familial prion diseases. The NMR structure shows that these mutations occur within, or directly adjacent to, regular secondary structures. The presence of a beta-sheet in PrP(121-231) is in contrast with model predictions of an all-helical structure of PrPc (ref. 8), and may be important for the initiation of the transition from PrPc to PrPsc.

  20. Rapid Production of a Porous Cellulose Acetate Membrane for Water Filtration Using Readily Available Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Adrian; Stark, Wendelin J.; Grass, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    A chemistry laboratory experiment using everyday items and readily available chemicals is described to introduce advanced high school students and undergraduate college students to porous polymer membranes. In a three-step manufacturing process, a membrane is produced at room temperature. The filtration principle of the membrane is then…

  1. GmPRP2 promoter drives root-preferential expression in transgenic Arabidopsis and soybean hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Sun, Shi; Hou, Wensheng; Han, Tianfu

    2014-09-16

    Promoters play important roles in gene expression and function. There are three basic types of promoters: constitutive, specific, and inducible. Constitutive promoters are widely used in genetic engineering, but these promoters have limitations. Inducible promoters are activated by specific inducers. Tissue-specific promoters are a type of specific promoters that drive gene expression in specific tissues or organs. Here, we cloned and characterized the GmPRP2 promoter from soybean. The expression pattern indicated that this promoter is root-preferential in transgenic Arabidopsis and the hairy roots of soybean. It can be used to improve the root resistance or tolerance to pathogens, pests, malnutrition and other abiotic stresses which cause extensive annual losses in soybean production. The GmPRP2 promoter (GmPRP2p-1062) was isolated from soybean cv. Williams 82. Sequence analysis revealed that this promoter contains many cis-acting elements, including root-specific motifs. The GmPRP2p-1062 and its 5'-deletion fragments were fused with the GUS reporter gene and introduced into Arabidopsis and the hairy roots of soybean to further determine promoter activity. Histochemical analysis in transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GUS activity was mainly detected in roots and hypocotyls in all deletion fragments except GmPRP2p-471 (a 5'-deletion fragment of GmPRP2p-1062 with 471 bp length). GUS activity was higher in transgenic Arabidopsis and hairy roots with GmPRP2p-1062 and GmPRP2p-852 (a 5'-deletion fragment of GmPRP2p-1062 with 852 bp length) constructs than the other two constructs. GUS activity was enhanced by NaCl, PEG, IAA and JM treatments and decreased by SA, ABA and GA treatments in transgenic Arabidopsis. GmPRP2p-1062 is a root-preferential promoter, and its core fragment for root-preferential expression might lie between -369 and +1. GmPRP2p-852 may be useful in the genetic engineering of novel soybean cultivars in the future.

  2. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in dental and oral surgery: from the wound healing to bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Antonino; Licata, Maria E; Polizzi, Bianca; Campisi, Giuseppina

    2013-06-13

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a new approach to tissue regeneration and it is becoming a valuable adjunct to promote healing in many procedures in dental and oral surgery, especially in aging patients. PRP derives from the centrifugation of the patient's own blood and it contains growth factors that influence wound healing, thereby playing an important role in tissue repairing mechanisms. The use of PRP in surgical practice could have beneficial outcomes, reducing bleeding and enhancing soft tissue healing and bone regeneration. Studies conducted on humans have yielded promising results regarding the application of PRP to many dental and oral surgical procedures (i.e. tooth extractions, periodontal surgery, implant surgery). The use of PRP has also been proposed in the management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) with the aim of enhancing wound healing and bone maturation. The aims of this narrative review are: i) to describe the different uses of PRP in dental surgery (tooth extractions and periodontal surgery) and oral surgery (soft tissues and bone tissue surgery, implant surgery and BRONJ surgery); and ii) to discuss its efficacy, efficiency and risk/benefit ratio. This review suggests that the use of PRP in the alveolar socket after tooth extractions is certainly capable of improving soft tissue healing and positively influencing bone regeneration but the latter effect seems to decrease a few days after the extraction. PRP has produced better results in periodontal therapy in association with other materials than when it is used alone. Promising results have also been obtained in implant surgery, when PRP was used in isolation as a coating material. The combination of necrotic bone curettage and PRP application seem to be encouraging for the treatment of refractory BRONJ, as it has proven successful outcomes with minimal invasivity. Since PRP is free from potential risks for patients, not difficult to obtain and use, it can be employed

  3. In Vitro Studies on the Degradability, Bioactivity, and Cell Differentiation of PRP/AZ31B Mg Alloys Composite Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more and more methods have been developed to improve the bioactivity of the biodegradable materials in bone tissue regeneration. In present study, we used rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs to evaluate the outcomes of Mg alloys (AZ31B, Magnesium, and Aluminum and Platelet-rich plasma (PRP/Mg alloys on rMSCs biocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation. Water absorption experiments indicated that both bare AZ31B and PRP/AZ31B were capable of absorbing large amounts of water. But the water absorption ratio for PRP/AZ31B was significantly higher than that for bare AZ31B. The degradability experiments implied that both samples degraded at same speed. rMSCs on the surface of AZ31B distributed more and better than those on the AZ31B scaffold. In ALP activity experiment, the activity of rMSCs on the PRP/AZ31B was markedly higher than that on the AZ31B scaffolds on the 7th day and 14th day. qRT-PCR also showed that OPN and OCN were expressed in both samples. OPN and OCN expression in PRP/AZ31B sample were higher than those in bare AZ31B samples. In summary, the in vitro study implied that AZ31B combined with PRP could remarkably improve cell seeding, attachment, proliferation, and differentiation.

  4. Tratamiento de quemaduras mediante plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP: parte I

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    G. Rossani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar la eficacia clínica del plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP en las quemaduras de segundo grado. Estudiamos el tiempo requerido en la reepitelización del tejido dañado, la estancia hospitalaria asociada a la curación de las lesiones y la satisfacción del paciente. Realizamos un estudio prospectivo, observacional y longitudinal, en una muestra de 115 pacientes con quemaduras de segundo grado según la clasificación de Converse-Smith. Las lesiones fueron de menos de 48 horas de evolución, en diferentes zonas de cara y cuerpo. A todos los pacientes se les aplicó de forma ambulatoria PRP por goteo, completándose el tratamiento con la aplicación de gasas parafinadas. El estudio se realizó entre marzo de 2011 y agosto de 2013. Las quemaduras que evolucionaron mejor y de forma más rápida fueron las de cara, seguidas por las de abdomen y, por último, las de extremidades inferiores. En todas, el tiempo de epitelización fue un 30 % inferior que en quemaduras de similar extensión, profundidad y localización, en pacientes anteriormente tratados sin PRP. Los pacientes fueron atendidos ambulatoriamente cuando las lesiones lo permitieron, y si presentaban lesiones más extensas fueron hospitalizados. El tiempo de internamiento en estos casos se redujo como promedio 18 días con respecto al grupo no tratado con PRP. El tiempo de reepitelización, estancia hospitalaria y la satisfacción de los pacientes, alcanzaron significación estadística p< 0,05. En conclusión, creemos que el uso de PRP acorta el tiempo de recuperación en quemaduras de segundo grado, reduce el tiempo de hospitalización y conlleva un alto grado de satisfacción de los pacientes por los resultados obtenidos.

  5. Mechanically robust, readily repairable polymers via tailored noncovalent cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Yu; Nan, Yiling; Okuro, Kou; Aida, Takuzo

    2017-12-14

    Expanding the range of healable materials is an important challenge for sustainable societies. Noncrystalline, high molecular weight polymers generally form mechanically robust materials, which, however, are difficult to repair once they are fractured. This is because their polymer chains are heavily entangled and diffuse too sluggishly to unite fractured surfaces within reasonable timescales. Here, we report that low molecular weight polymers, when cross-linked by dense hydrogen bonds, give mechanically robust yet readily repairable materials, despite their extremely slow diffusion dynamics. A key was to utilize thiourea, which anomalously forms a zigzag hydrogen-bonded array that does not induce unfavorable crystallization. Another key was to incorporate a structural element for activating the exchange of hydrogen-bonded pairs, which enables the fractured portions to rejoin readily upon compression. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Split face comparative study of microneedling with PRP versus microneedling with vitamin C in treating atrophic post acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Chawla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne scars are largely preventable complications of acne. 95% of the scars occur over the face thus impacting the quality of life. Correction of scars is the priority for acne patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with post acne atrophic facial scars attending the OPD during the period from April to October 2013 were offered four sittings of microneedling with PRP on one side and microneedling with vitamin C on other side of the face at an interval of 1 month. Results: Twenty-seven out of the total 30 patients completed the treatment schedule. Two patients were lost to follow up and one dropped out of the study due to severe PIH. Mean age of the patients was 27.5 years. Out of 30 patients, 23 achieved reduction in scarring by one or two grades. Excellent response was seen in five (18.5% patients with platelet-rich plasma (PRP as compared to two (7% patients who received treatment with vitamin C according to physician′s assessment. As far as up gradation by 1 score is considered, i.e., good response, it was similar in both cases. Vitamin C did not prove to be as efficacious as PRP since 10 (37% patients had poor response in vitamin C-treated area compared to only 6 (22.2% patients who underwent PRP therapy, but vitamin C proved to be efficacious in dealing with post inflammatory hyper-pigmentation secondary to acne. Patients were more satisfied with PRP as compared to vitamin C. The results were evaluated and statistical analysis was done using SPSS 16.0.2. Conclusions: Overall results were better with microneedling and PRP. Vitamin C combined with microneedling also showed improvement with respect to firmness and smoothness of skin; as well as post inflammatory hyper-pigmentation. Microneedling combined with PRP proved to be good in treating boxcar and rolling scars but had limited efficacy in dealing with ice pick scars.

  7. Tratamiento de quemaduras mediante plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP): parte I

    OpenAIRE

    G. Rossani; I. Hernández; J.M. Alcolea; R. Castro-Sierra; W. Pérez-Soto; M.A. Trelles

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar la eficacia clínica del plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP) en las quemaduras de segundo grado. Estudiamos el tiempo requerido en la reepitelización del tejido dañado, la estancia hospitalaria asociada a la curación de las lesiones y la satisfacción del paciente. Realizamos un estudio prospectivo, observacional y longitudinal, en una muestra de 115 pacientes con quemaduras de segundo grado según la clasificación de Converse-Smith. Las lesiones fueron ...

  8. Beneficios del adhesivo autólogo de fibrina y PRP en ritidectomía

    OpenAIRE

    I. Hernández; G. Rossani; R. Castro-Sierra

    2015-01-01

    Determinamos la eficacia clínica del adhesivo autólogo de fibrina y la fracción de sangre rica en plaquetas (PRP) en la disminución de complicaciones en ritidectomía. Se intervino con igual técnica ambas hemicaras, pero solo una, aleatoriamente, recibió tratamiento con hemoderivados. Estudiamos comparativamente la evolución postquirúrgica de una hemicara frente a otra: tiempo de recuperación a corto, medio y largo plazo; incidencia de hematomas, seromas, epidermolisis, necrosis y equimosis; y...

  9. Necessity to adapt land use and land cover classification systems to readily accept radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, B.

    1977-01-01

    A hierarchial, four level, standardized system for classifying land use/land cover primarily from remote-sensor data (USGS system) is described. The USGS system was developed for nonmicrowave imaging sensors such as camera systems and line scanners. The USGS system is not compatible with the land use/land cover classifications at different levels that can be made from radar imagery, and particularly from synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery. The use of radar imagery for classifying land use/land cover at different levels is discussed, and a possible revision of the USGS system to more readily accept land use/land cover classifications from radar imagery is proposed.

  10. Truncated forms of the prion protein PrP demonstrate the need for complexity in prion structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, William; Stöhr, Jan; Kendall, Amy; Stubbs, Gerald

    2015-09-01

    Self-propagation of aberrant protein folds is the defining characteristic of prions. Knowing the structural basis of self-propagation is essential to understanding prions and their related diseases. Prion rods are amyloid fibrils, but not all amyloids are prions. Prions have been remarkably intractable to structural studies, so many investigators have preferred to work with peptide fragments, particularly in the case of the mammalian prion protein PrP. We compared the structures of a number of fragments of PrP by X-ray fiber diffraction, and found that although all of the peptides adopted amyloid conformations, only the larger fragments adopted conformations that modeled the complexity of self-propagating prions, and even these fragments did not always adopt the PrP structure. It appears that the relatively complex structure of the prion form of PrP is not accessible to short model peptides, and that self-propagation may be tied to a level of structural complexity unobtainable in simple model systems. The larger fragments of PrP, however, are useful to illustrate the phenomenon of deformed templating (heterogeneous seeding), which has important biological consequences.

  11. The fate of PrP GPI-anchor signal peptide is modulated by P238S pathogenic mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizzunti, Gianni; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are localized to the plasma membrane via a C-terminally linked GPI anchor. The GPI anchor is added concomitantly to the cleavage of the carboxy-terminal GPI-anchor signal sequence, thereby causing the release of a C-terminal hydrophobic peptide, whose fate has not yet been investigated. Here we followed the fate of the GPI-attachment signal of the prion protein (PrP), a protein implicated in various types of transmissible neurodegenerative spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). The PrP GPI-anchor signal sequence shows a remarkable and unusual degree of conservation across the species and contains two point mutations (M232R/T and P238S) that are responsible for genetic forms of prion disorders. We show that the PrP GPI-anchor signal peptide (SP), but not the one from an unrelated GPI-anchored protein (folate receptor), undergoes degradation via the proteasome. Moreover, the P238S point mutation partially protects the PrP GPI-anchor SP from degradation. Our data provide the first attempt to address the fate of a GPI-anchor SP and identify a role for the P238S mutation, suggesting the possibility that the PrP GPI-anchor SP could play a role in neurodegenerative prion diseases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Truncated forms of the prion protein PrP demonstrate the need for complexity in prion structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, William; Stöhr, Jan; Kendall, Amy; Stubbs, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Self-propagation of aberrant protein folds is the defining characteristic of prions. Knowing the structural basis of self-propagation is essential to understanding prions and their related diseases. Prion rods are amyloid fibrils, but not all amyloids are prions. Prions have been remarkably intractable to structural studies, so many investigators have preferred to work with peptide fragments, particularly in the case of the mammalian prion protein PrP. We compared the structures of a number of fragments of PrP by X-ray fiber diffraction, and found that although all of the peptides adopted amyloid conformations, only the larger fragments adopted conformations that modeled the complexity of self-propagating prions, and even these fragments did not always adopt the PrP structure. It appears that the relatively complex structure of the prion form of PrP is not accessible to short model peptides, and that self-propagation may be tied to a level of structural complexity unobtainable in simple model systems. The larger fragments of PrP, however, are useful to illustrate the phenomenon of deformed templating (heterogeneous seeding), which has important biological consequences.

  13. Long-term culture of astrocytes attenuates the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kawano

    Full Text Available The astrocyte is a major glial cell type of the brain, and plays key roles in the formation, maturation, stabilization and elimination of synapses. Thus, changes in astrocyte condition and age can influence information processing at synapses. However, whether and how aging astrocytes affect synaptic function and maturation have not yet been thoroughly investigated. Here, we show the effects of prolonged culture on the ability of astrocytes to induce synapse formation and to modify synaptic transmission, using cultured autaptic neurons. By 9 weeks in culture, astrocytes derived from the mouse cerebral cortex demonstrated increases in β-galactosidase activity and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP expression, both of which are characteristic of aging and glial activation in vitro. Autaptic hippocampal neurons plated on these aging astrocytes showed a smaller amount of evoked release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, and a lower frequency of miniature release of glutamate, both of which were attributable to a reduction in the pool of readily releasable synaptic vesicles. Other features of synaptogenesis and synaptic transmission were retained, for example the ability to induce structural synapses, the presynaptic release probability, the fraction of functional presynaptic nerve terminals, and the ability to recruit functional AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors to synapses. Thus the presence of aging astrocytes affects the efficiency of synaptic transmission. Given that the pool of readily releasable vesicles is also small at immature synapses, our results are consistent with astrocytic aging leading to retarded synapse maturation.

  14. Amphetamine elicits opposing actions on readily releasable and reserve pools for dopamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan P Covey

    Full Text Available Amphetamine, a highly addictive drug with therapeutic efficacy, exerts paradoxical effects on the fundamental communication modes employed by dopamine neurons in modulating behavior. While amphetamine elevates tonic dopamine signaling by depleting vesicular stores and driving non-exocytotic release through reverse transport, this psychostimulant also activates phasic dopamine signaling by up-regulating vesicular dopamine release. We hypothesized that these seemingly incongruent effects arise from amphetamine depleting the reserve pool and enhancing the readily releasable pool. This novel hypothesis was tested using in vivo voltammetry and stimulus trains of varying duration to access different vesicular stores. We show that amphetamine actions are stimulus dependent in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, amphetamine up-regulated vesicular dopamine release elicited by a short-duration train, which interrogates the readily releasable pool, but depleted release elicited by a long-duration train, which interrogates the reserve pool. These opposing actions of vesicular dopamine release were associated with concurrent increases in tonic and phasic dopamine responses. A link between vesicular depletion and tonic signaling was supported by results obtained for amphetamine in the ventral striatum and cocaine in both striatal sub-regions, which demonstrated augmented vesicular release and phasic signals only. We submit that amphetamine differentially targeting dopamine stores reconciles the paradoxical activation of tonic and phasic dopamine signaling. Overall, these results further highlight the unique and region-distinct cellular mechanisms of amphetamine and may have important implications for its addictive and therapeutic properties.

  15. Amphetamine Elicits Opposing Actions on Readily Releasable and Reserve Pools for Dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P.; Juliano, Steven A.; Garris, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Amphetamine, a highly addictive drug with therapeutic efficacy, exerts paradoxical effects on the fundamental communication modes employed by dopamine neurons in modulating behavior. While amphetamine elevates tonic dopamine signaling by depleting vesicular stores and driving non-exocytotic release through reverse transport, this psychostimulant also activates phasic dopamine signaling by up-regulating vesicular dopamine release. We hypothesized that these seemingly incongruent effects arise from amphetamine depleting the reserve pool and enhancing the readily releasable pool. This novel hypothesis was tested using in vivo voltammetry and stimulus trains of varying duration to access different vesicular stores. We show that amphetamine actions are stimulus dependent in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, amphetamine up-regulated vesicular dopamine release elicited by a short-duration train, which interrogates the readily releasable pool, but depleted release elicited by a long-duration train, which interrogates the reserve pool. These opposing actions of vesicular dopamine release were associated with concurrent increases in tonic and phasic dopamine responses. A link between vesicular depletion and tonic signaling was supported by results obtained for amphetamine in the ventral striatum and cocaine in both striatal sub-regions, which demonstrated augmented vesicular release and phasic signals only. We submit that amphetamine differentially targeting dopamine stores reconciles the paradoxical activation of tonic and phasic dopamine signaling. Overall, these results further highlight the unique and region-distinct cellular mechanisms of amphetamine and may have important implications for its addictive and therapeutic properties. PMID:23671560

  16. Quantification of birefringence readily measures the level of muscle damage in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Joachim, E-mail: Joachim.Berger@Monash.edu [Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, EMBL Australia, Monash University, Clayton (Australia); Sztal, Tamar; Currie, Peter D. [Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, EMBL Australia, Monash University, Clayton (Australia)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Report of an unbiased quantification of the birefringence of muscle of fish larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantification method readily identifies level of overall muscle damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compare zebrafish muscle mutants for level of phenotype severity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposed tool to survey treatments that aim to ameliorate muscular dystrophy. -- Abstract: Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that progressively weaken and degenerate muscle. Many zebrafish models for human muscular dystrophies have been generated and analysed, including dystrophin-deficient zebrafish mutants dmd that model Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Under polarised light the zebrafish muscle can be detected as a bright area in an otherwise dark background. This light effect, called birefringence, results from the diffraction of polarised light through the pseudo-crystalline array of the muscle sarcomeres. Muscle damage, as seen in zebrafish models for muscular dystrophies, can readily be detected by a reduction in the birefringence. Therefore, birefringence is a very sensitive indicator of overall muscle integrity within larval zebrafish. Unbiased documentation of the birefringence followed by densitometric measurement enables the quantification of the birefringence of zebrafish larvae. Thereby, the overall level of muscle integrity can be detected, allowing the identification and categorisation of zebrafish muscle mutants. In addition, we propose that the establish protocol can be used to analyse treatments aimed at ameliorating dystrophic zebrafish models.

  17. Antibody persistence after a primary series of a new DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T combined vaccine or separate DTaP-IPV//PRP-T and hepatitis B vaccines at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and the effect of a subsequent DTaP-IPV//PRP-T booster vaccination at 18 months of age in healthy Argentinean infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregnaghi, Marcelo; Zambrano, Betzana; Santos-Lima, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    To assess antibody persistence after vaccination with a new, fully liquid, hexavalent DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine at 18 months of age versus licensed DTaP-IPV//PRP-T and hepatitis B (Hep B) vaccines, and to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a subsequent DTaP-IPV//PRP-T booster. A phase III, open-label, single-center study was conducted. Infants previously primed with 3 doses of DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T (Hexaxim: N = 232 [group 1]) or DTaP-IPV//PRP-T and hepatitis B vaccine (Pentaxim + Engerix B Pediatrico: N = 226 [group 2]) at 2, 4, and 6 months of age received a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T booster at 18 months of age. Antibodies were measured before and 1 month after booster vaccination. Safety was evaluated from parental reports. Analyses were descriptive. Antibody persistence was high and similar in each group for each antigen except for Hep B, for which the percentage (95% confidence interval) of participants with a titer of ≥ 10 mIU/mL was higher in group 2 (99.5% [97.5%, 100.0%]) than in group 1 (85.5% [80.3%, 89.8%]). Postbooster seroprotection (diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus, polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate) and serconversion (pertussis toxoid, filamentous hemagglutinin) rates were high and similar in each group, and geometric mean antibody concentrations increased markedly in both groups. Safety after the booster vaccination was good and independent of the primary-series vaccine, although one serious adverse event of convulsions was considered to be vaccine related. The DTaP-IPV/PRP-T booster vaccination at 18 months of age was similarly immunogenic and well tolerated after primary-series vaccination with either the investigational hexavalent vaccine or the reference pentavalent vaccine. This confirms the suitability of a booster vaccination of DTaP-IPV//PRP-T after a primary series of the new DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine.

  18. Prp22 and spliceosome components regulate chromatin dynamics in germ-line polyploid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Klusza

    Full Text Available During Drosophila oogenesis, the endopolyploid nuclei of germ-line nurse cells undergo a dramatic shift in morphology as oogenesis progresses; the easily-visible chromosomes are initially polytenic during the early stages of oogenesis before they transiently condense into a distinct '5-blob' configuration, with subsequent dispersal into a diffuse state. Mutations in many genes, with diverse cellular functions, can affect the ability of nurse cells to fully decondense their chromatin, resulting in a '5-blob arrest' phenotype that is maintained throughout the later stages of oogenesis. However, the mechanisms and significance of nurse-cell (NC chromatin dispersal remain poorly understood. Here, we report that a screen for modifiers of the 5-blob phenotype in the germ line isolated the spliceosomal gene peanuts, the Drosophila Prp22. We demonstrate that reduction of spliceosomal activity through loss of peanuts promotes decondensation defects in NC nuclei during mid-oogenesis. We also show that the Prp38 spliceosomal protein accumulates in the nucleoplasm of nurse cells with impaired peanuts function, suggesting that spliceosomal recycling is impaired. Finally, we reveal that loss of additional spliceosomal proteins impairs the full decondensation of NC chromatin during later stages of oogenesis, suggesting that individual spliceosomal subcomplexes modulate expression of the distinct subset of genes that are required for correct morphology in endopolyploid nurse cells.

  19. Prp22 and Spliceosome Components Regulate Chromatin Dynamics in Germ-Line Polyploid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusza, Stephen; Novak, Amanda; Figueroa, Shirelle; Palmer, William; Deng, Wu-Min

    2013-01-01

    During Drosophila oogenesis, the endopolyploid nuclei of germ-line nurse cells undergo a dramatic shift in morphology as oogenesis progresses; the easily-visible chromosomes are initially polytenic during the early stages of oogenesis before they transiently condense into a distinct ‘5-blob’ configuration, with subsequent dispersal into a diffuse state. Mutations in many genes, with diverse cellular functions, can affect the ability of nurse cells to fully decondense their chromatin, resulting in a ‘5-blob arrest’ phenotype that is maintained throughout the later stages of oogenesis. However, the mechanisms and significance of nurse-cell (NC) chromatin dispersal remain poorly understood. Here, we report that a screen for modifiers of the 5-blob phenotype in the germ line isolated the spliceosomal gene peanuts, the Drosophila Prp22. We demonstrate that reduction of spliceosomal activity through loss of peanuts promotes decondensation defects in NC nuclei during mid-oogenesis. We also show that the Prp38 spliceosomal protein accumulates in the nucleoplasm of nurse cells with impaired peanuts function, suggesting that spliceosomal recycling is impaired. Finally, we reveal that loss of additional spliceosomal proteins impairs the full decondensation of NC chromatin during later stages of oogenesis, suggesting that individual spliceosomal subcomplexes modulate expression of the distinct subset of genes that are required for correct morphology in endopolyploid nurse cells. PMID:24244416

  20. PRP Comments for ICF Q1/Q2 FY17 Experiments 3/10/16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-14

    The PRP generally endorsed the Program plan during the short time for discussions. We agree that the strategy to develop a hohlraum that is symmetric and has low laser-plasma instabilities and to develop an alternative method for supporting the capsule is the best path forward for making progress in understanding ignition performance. The Program is oriented toward a milestone in 2020 for “determining the efficacy of NIF for ignition and credible physics-scaling to multi-megajoule yields for all ICF approaches.” We are concerned that the time and resources are not sufficient to vet all of the various approaches that are being pursued to make an informed decision by this date. For NIF to meet this goal, a process will be needed to to select the most promising paths forward. We recommend that the Program develop this process for selecting the path forward to optimize resources. We were glad to see that the direct drive program took our comments under consideration. We think that the proposed experiments have the program headed in a better direction. The PRP had only a short time to discuss the detailed experimental proposals. The following are comments on the detailed proposals. We did not have time to discuss them as a group. They represent individual opinions and provided to you as feedback to your proposals.

  1. A modified three-term PRP conjugate gradient algorithm for optimization models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanlin

    2017-01-01

    The nonlinear conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm is a very effective method for optimization, especially for large-scale problems, because of its low memory requirement and simplicity. Zhang et al. (IMA J. Numer. Anal. 26:629-649, 2006) firstly propose a three-term CG algorithm based on the well known Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP) formula for unconstrained optimization, where their method has the sufficient descent property without any line search technique. They proved the global convergence of the Armijo line search but this fails for the Wolfe line search technique. Inspired by their method, we will make a further study and give a modified three-term PRP CG algorithm. The presented method possesses the following features: (1) The sufficient descent property also holds without any line search technique; (2) the trust region property of the search direction is automatically satisfied; (3) the steplengh is bounded from below; (4) the global convergence will be established under the Wolfe line search. Numerical results show that the new algorithm is more effective than that of the normal method.

  2. A DTAP–IPV//PRP~T VACCINE: A REVIEW OF 16 YEARS’ CLINICAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley A. Plotkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their low reactogenicity, confirmed efficacy and availability in combination vaccines, acellular pertussis (aP-inactivated poliovirus (IPV combined vaccines are now included in various national immunization programs worldwide. We provide an overview of 16 years of clinical experience with a diphtheria (D, tetanus (T, aP, IPV and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus protein (PRP~T combined vaccine (DTaP–IPV//PRP~T — Pentaxim, Sanofi Pasteur, France. Good immunogenicity has been demonstrated after primary vaccination with Pentaxim, regardless of the population ethnicity and primary vaccination schedule. A booster vaccination in the second year of life also resulted in a high immune response for each antigen. Furthermore, 10 years of national surveillance in Sweden has demonstrated the effectiveness of Pentaxim in controlling pertussis. As is the case for other aP-containing combined vaccines, Pentaxim is well tolerated, with the safety profile being better than for whole-cell pertussiscontaining combination vaccines for primary and booster vaccinations.

  3. Prediction and optimization of the recovery rate in centrifugal separation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Linfeng; Park, Hyungmin; Jo, Chris

    2016-11-01

    We present a theoretical model of the recovery rate of platelet and white blood cell in the process of centrifugal separation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). For the practically used conditions in the field, the separation process is modeled as a one-dimensional particle sedimentation; a quasi-linear partial differential equation is derived based on the kinematic-wave theory. This is solved to determine the interface positions between supernatant-suspension and suspension-sediment, used to estimate the recovery rate of the plasma. While correcting the Brown's hypothesis (1989) claiming that the platelet recovery is linearly proportional to that of plasma, we propose a new correlation model for prediction of the platelet recovery, which is a function of the volume of whole blood, centrifugal acceleration and time. For a range of practical parameters, such as hematocrit, volume of whole blood and centrifugation (time and acceleration), the predicted recovery rate shows a good agreement with available clinical data. We propose that this model is further used to optimize the preparation method of PRP that satisfies the customized case. Supported by a Grant (MPSS-CG-2016-02) through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.

  4. CLINICAL RESULTS FROM THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC SKIN WOUNDS WITH PLATELET RICH PLASMA (PRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencho Kossev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To show platelet rich plasma (PRP application of chronic skin wounds and to evaluate the results from the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 14 patients with problematic skin wounds had been treated at the clinic for a period of five years (from May 2009 to December 2014 with the following patient sex ratio: male patients - 5 and female patients - 9. Average age - 48,5 (30-76. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - 4, with decubitus ulcers - 6, traumatic - 8, with infection - 5. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 - 6 months (4,5 on average. RESULTS: The results have been evaluated based on the following functional scoring systems - Total wound score, Total anatomic score and Total score (20. The baseline values at the very beginning of the follow-up period were as follows: Total wound score - 12 p.; Total anatomic score - 10 p., Total score - 17 p. By the end of the treatment period the score was 0 p., which means excellent results, i.e. complete healing of the wounds. CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of difficult to heal wounds around joints, bone, subject tendons, plantar surface of the foot, etc., as it opens new perspectives in the field of human tissue regeneration.

  5. Knee Osteoarthritis Injection Choices: Platelet- Rich Plasma (PRP versus Hyaluronic Acid (A one-year randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Knee osteoarthritis (OA is the most common articular disease. Different methods are used to alleviate the symptoms of patients with knee OA, including analgesics, physical therapy, exercise prescription, and intra-articular injections (glucocorticoids, hyaluronic acid [HA], etc. New studies have focused on modern therapeutic methods that stimulate cartilage healing process and improve the damage, including the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP as a complex of growth factors. Due to the high incidence of OA and its consequences, we decided to study the long-term effect of intraarticular injection of PRP and HA on clinical outcome and quality of life of patients with knee OA. Method This non-placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial involved 160 patients affected by knee OA, grade 1–4 of Kellgren–Lawrence scale. In the PRP group ( n = 87, two intra-articular injections at 4-week interval were applied, and in the HA group ( n = 73, three doses of intra-articular injection at 1-week interval were applied. All patients were prospectively evaluated before and at 12 months after the treatment by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC and SF-36 questionnaires. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16.1 software (RCT code: IRCT2014012113442N5. Results At the 12-month follow-up, WOMAC pain score and bodily pain significantly improved in both groups; however, better results were determined in the PRP group compared to the HA group ( P < 0.001. Other WOMAC and SF-36 parameters improved only in the PRP group. More improvement (but not statistically significant was achieved in patients with grade 2 OA in both the groups. Conclusion This study suggests that PRP injection is more efficacious than HA injection in reducing symptoms and improving quality of life and is a therapeutic option in select patients with knee OA who have not responded to conventional treatment.

  6. Oxidation reduces the fibrillation but not the neurotoxicity of the prion peptide PrP106-126

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm, Linda Alice; Chabry, J.; Bastholm, L.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that soluble oligomers of misfolded protein may play a role in the pathogenesis of protein misfolding diseases including the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) where the protein involved is the prion protein, PrP. The effect of oxidation on fibrillation...... tendency and neurotoxicity of different molecular variants of the prion peptide PrP106-126 was investigated. It was found that methionine oxidation significantly reduced amyloid fibril formation and proteinase K resistance, but it did not reduce (but rather increase slightly) the neurotoxicity...

  7. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) induces chondroprotection via increasing autophagy, anti-inflammatory markers, and decreasing apoptosis in human osteoarthritic cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, Mayssam, E-mail: Moussa-mayssam@hotmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Lajeunesse, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.lajeunesse@umontreal.ca [Research Centre in Osteoarthritis, Research Centre in Monteral University (Canada); Hilal, George, E-mail: George2266@gmail.com [Cancer and metabolism Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); El Atat, Oula, E-mail: oulaatat@hotmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Haykal, Gaby, E-mail: Gaby.haykal@hdf.usj.edu.lb [Hotel Dieu de France, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Serhal, Rim, E-mail: rim.basbous@gmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Chalhoub, Antonio, E-mail: Mava.o@hotmail.com [Carantina Hospital, Beirut (Lebanon); Khalil, Charbel, E-mail: charbelk3@hotmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Alaaeddine, Nada, E-mail: Nada.aladdin@gmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2017-03-01

    Objectives: Autophagy constitutes a defense mechanism to overcome aging and apoptosis in osteoarthritic cartilage. Several cytokines and transcription factors are linked to autophagy and play an important role in the degradative cascade in osteoarthritis (OA). Cell therapy such as platelet rich plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic tool for many diseases including OA. However, its mechanism of action on improving cartilage repair remains to be determined. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on osteoarthritic chondrocytes and to elucidate the mechanism by which PRP contributes to cartilage regeneration. Methods: Osteoarthritic chondrocytes were co-cultured with an increasing concentration of PRP obtained from healthy donors. The effect of PRP on the proliferation of chondrocytes was performed using cell counting and WST8 proliferation assays. Autophagy, apoptosis and intracellular level of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were determined using flow cytometry analyses. Autophagy markers BECLIN and LC3II were also determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR and ELISA were used to measure the expression of ADAMDTS-5, MMP3, MMP13, TIMP-1–2–3, aggregan, Collagen type 2, TGF-β, Cox-2, Il-6, FOXO1, FOXO3, and HIF-1 in tissues and co-cultured media. Results: PRP increased significantly the proliferation of chondrocytes, decreased apoptosis and increased autophagy and its markers along with its regulators FOXO1, FOXO3 and HIF-1 in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Furthermore, PRP caused a dose-dependent significant decrease in MMP3, MMP13, and ADAMTS-5, IL-6 and COX-2 while increasing TGF-β, aggregan, and collagen type 2, TIMPs and intracellular IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. Conclusion: These results suggest that PRP could be a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of OA. - Highlights: • Platelet Rich Plasma is suggested as a new treatment for osteoarthritis. • The proposed therapeutic effect is

  8. Readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles measured at single synaptic contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Federico F; Sakaba, Takeshi; Ogden, David; Marty, Alain

    2012-10-30

    To distinguish between different models of vesicular release in brain synapses, it is necessary to know the number of vesicles of transmitter that can be released immediately at individual synapses by a high-calcium stimulus, the readily releasable pool (RRP). We used direct stimulation by calcium uncaging at identified, single-site inhibitory synapses to investigate the statistics of vesicular release and the size of the RRP. Vesicular release, detected as quantal responses in the postsynaptic neuron, showed an unexpected stochastic variation in the number of quanta from stimulus to stimulus at high intracellular calcium, with a mean of 1.9 per stimulus and a maximum of three or four. The results provide direct measurement of the RRP at single synaptic sites. They are consistent with models in which release proceeds from a small number of vesicle docking sites with an average occupancy around 0.7.

  9. Low-Cost and Readily Available Tissue Carriers for the Boston Keratoprosthesis: A Review of Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cruzat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Boston keratoprosthesis (B-KPro, currently the most commonly used artificial cornea worldwide, can provide rapid visual rehabilitation for eyes with severe corneal opacities not suitable for standard corneal transplantation. However, the B-KPro presently needs a corneal graft as a tissue carrier. Although corneal allograft tissue is readily available in the United States and other developed countries with established eye banks, the worldwide need vastly exceeds supply. Therefore, a simple, safe, and inexpensive alternative to corneal allografts is desirable for the developing world. We are currently exploring reasonable alternative options such as corneal autografts, xenografts, noncorneal autologous tissues, and laboratory-made tissue constructs, as well as modifications to corneal allografts, such as deep-freezing, glycerol-dehydration, gamma irradiation, and cross-linking. These alternative tissue carriers for the B-KPro are discussed with special regard to safety, practicality, and cost for the developing world.

  10. Low-Cost and Readily Available Tissue Carriers for the Boston Keratoprosthesis: A Review of Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzat, Andrea; Paschalis, Eleftherios I.; Pineda, Roberto; Dohlman, Claes H.

    2013-01-01

    The Boston keratoprosthesis (B-KPro), currently the most commonly used artificial cornea worldwide, can provide rapid visual rehabilitation for eyes with severe corneal opacities not suitable for standard corneal transplantation. However, the B-KPro presently needs a corneal graft as a tissue carrier. Although corneal allograft tissue is readily available in the United States and other developed countries with established eye banks, the worldwide need vastly exceeds supply. Therefore, a simple, safe, and inexpensive alternative to corneal allografts is desirable for the developing world. We are currently exploring reasonable alternative options such as corneal autografts, xenografts, noncorneal autologous tissues, and laboratory-made tissue constructs, as well as modifications to corneal allografts, such as deep-freezing, glycerol-dehydration, gamma irradiation, and cross-linking. These alternative tissue carriers for the B-KPro are discussed with special regard to safety, practicality, and cost for the developing world. PMID:24371522

  11. [Dentistry and healthcare legislation 10. The law governing complaints: readily accessible filing procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ven, J M; Eijkman, M A J; Brands, W G

    2014-03-01

    The law promises patients a readily accessible means of filing complaints. Healthcare providers are therefore required to adopt regulations governing complaints which satisfy a number of conditions. Most dentists choose to adopt the regulations which have been established by their professional organization. In addition to handling complaints, there is also a provision for mediation, which is often used by patients. Mediation appears, then, to be a successful provision. Many complaints have their origin in insufficient knowledge of healthcare legislation and patients' rights legislation. This demonstrates that more attention should be given to these subjects in educational programmes and programmes in continuing education. The present law governing complaints is expected to be replaced this year by a new, more comprehensive law in which considerable attention will be devoted to the quality of care as well as to complaints. It seems likely, however, that the new law governing complaints will damage the effective manner in which patients' complaints are dealt with in dentistry today.

  12. Immunogenicity and safety study of a new DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T combined vaccine compared to a licensed DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T comparator, both concomitantly administered with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months of age in Thai infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosalaraksa, Pope; Thisyakorn, Usa; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Santos-Lima, Eduardo

    2011-04-01

    To assess a new, fully-liquid, hexavalent DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine (diphtheria toxoid (D), tetanus toxoid (T), acellular pertussis (aP), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), hepatitis B (Hep B), and Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus protein (PRP-T) antigens) compared to a licensed DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T vaccine following primary series co-administration with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). This was a randomized, phase III, observer-blind study in Thai infants (N=412), who received DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T or DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, co-administered with PCV7. All received Hep B at birth. Non-inferiority for Hep B ≥ 10 mIU/ml and PRP ≥0.15μg/ml was analyzed (DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T relative to DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T) at 1 month post-primary. Seroprotection/seroconversion and geometric mean titers (GMTs) were analyzed descriptively for all hexavalent components. Safety was evaluated from parental reports. Anti-Hep B and anti-PRP antibody seroprotection rates were high for DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T (n=189) and DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T (n=190), and non-inferiority was demonstrated. Anti-D and anti-T ≥ 0.01 IU/ml, anti-polio types 1, 2, and 3 ≥ 8 (1/dil), and anti-PT and anti-FHA seroconversion were high and similar in each group. For DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T and DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T, anti-Hep B ≥ 100 mIU/ml was 98.4% and 99.5% (GMTs 2477 and 2442 mIU/ml), respectively; anti-PRP ≥ 1.0 μg/ml was 85.2% and 71.1% (GMTs 5.07 and 2.41 μg/ml), respectively. Safety profiles were comparable. There were no vaccine-related serious adverse events. Following co-administration with PCV7 the investigational DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Non-inferiority to DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T was shown for Hep B and PRP. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of modified platelet-rich plasma (mPRP) in promoting the proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J; Li, H T; Li, S H; Li, X; Duan, J M

    2016-09-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) have great potential to treat various dental-related diseases in regenerative medicine. They are usually maintained with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in vitro. Modified platelet-rich plasma (mPRP) would be a safe alternative to 10% FBS during SHEDs culture. Therefore, our study aimed to compare the proliferation and differentiation of SHEDs cultured in mPRP and FBS medium to explore an optimal concentration of mPRP for SHEDs maintenance. Platelets were harvested by automatic blood cell analyzer and activated by repeated liquid nitrogen freezing and thawing. The platelet-related cytokines were examined and analyzed by ELISA. SHEDs were extracted and cultured with different concentrations of mPRP or 10% FBS medium. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured. Mineralization factors, RUNX2 and OCN, were measured by real-time PCR. SHEDs were characterized with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) markers including vimentin, CD44, and CD105. mPRP at different concentrations (2, 5, 10, and 20%) enhanced the growth of SHEDs. Moreover, mPRP significantly stimulated ALP activity and promoted expression of RUNX2 and OCN compared with 10% FBS. mPRP could efficiently facilitate proliferation and differentiation of SHEDs, and 2% mPRP would be an optimal substitute for 10% FBS during SHEDs expansion and differentiation in clinical scale manufacturing.

  14. Investigation of modified platelet-rich plasma (mPRP in promoting the proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs have great potential to treat various dental-related diseases in regenerative medicine. They are usually maintained with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS in vitro. Modified platelet-rich plasma (mPRP would be a safe alternative to 10% FBS during SHEDs culture. Therefore, our study aimed to compare the proliferation and differentiation of SHEDs cultured in mPRP and FBS medium to explore an optimal concentration of mPRP for SHEDs maintenance. Platelets were harvested by automatic blood cell analyzer and activated by repeated liquid nitrogen freezing and thawing. The platelet-related cytokines were examined and analyzed by ELISA. SHEDs were extracted and cultured with different concentrations of mPRP or 10% FBS medium. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was measured. Mineralization factors, RUNX2 and OCN, were measured by real-time PCR. SHEDs were characterized with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs markers including vimentin, CD44, and CD105. mPRP at different concentrations (2, 5, 10, and 20% enhanced the growth of SHEDs. Moreover, mPRP significantly stimulated ALP activity and promoted expression of RUNX2 and OCN compared with 10% FBS. mPRP could efficiently facilitate proliferation and differentiation of SHEDs, and 2% mPRP would be an optimal substitute for 10% FBS during SHEDs expansion and differentiation in clinical scale manufacturing.

  15. Beneficios del adhesivo autólogo de fibrina y PRP en ritidectomía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Determinamos la eficacia clínica del adhesivo autólogo de fibrina y la fracción de sangre rica en plaquetas (PRP en la disminución de complicaciones en ritidectomía. Se intervino con igual técnica ambas hemicaras, pero solo una, aleatoriamente, recibió tratamiento con hemoderivados. Estudiamos comparativamente la evolución postquirúrgica de una hemicara frente a otra: tiempo de recuperación a corto, medio y largo plazo; incidencia de hematomas, seromas, epidermolisis, necrosis y equimosis; y satisfacción con los resultados. Todos los datos recogidos fueron analizados estadísticamente. Realizamos un estudio clínico prospectivo en fase I, randomizado y a doble ciego, en una muestra de 19 pacientes, mayores de 50 años, sometidos a ritidectomía. A todos se les aplicó por goteo las fracciones de fibrina y PRP en la hemicara seleccionada hasta cubrir toda el área quirúrgica antes del cierre con suturas: sienes, mejillas y cuello. El tratamiento se completó en ambas hemicaras con drenaje laminar durante 24 horas y vendaje oclusivo durante 72 horas. Las hemicaras que presentaron menos complicaciones, evolucionaron mejor y de forma más rápida fueron las tratadas con la composición de hemoderivados. En todas, el tiempo de recuperación promedio fue un 48% menor respecto a las no tratadas. Las equimosis fueron más evidentes en las hemicaras no tratadas y solo en ellas se desarrollaron hematomas. La cicatrización con epidermolisis de los bordes de los colgajos se observó en 10 casos: 2 en hemicara tratadas con hemoderivados y 8 en las hemicaras control. Las hemicaras tratadas evolucionaron más rápidamente, sin secuelas cicatriciales y con notable satisfacción por parte de los pacientes. Concluimos que el efecto del adhesivo autólogo de fibrina combinado con PRP en las ritidectomías reduce la incidencia de seromas, equimosis, epidermólisis y el tiempo de recuperación, y favorece una evidente supervivencia de la cicatrizaci

  16. Multisensor on-the-go mapping of readily dispersible clay, particle size and soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaene, Guillaume; Niedźwiecki, Jacek; Papierowska, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    Particle size fractions affect strongly the physical and chemical properties of soil. Readily dispersible clay (RDC) is the part of the clay fraction in soils that is easily or potentially dispersible in water when small amounts of mechanical energy are applied to soil. The amount of RDC in the soil is of significant importance for agriculture and environment because clay dispersion is a cause of poor soil stability in water which in turn contributes to soil erodibility, mud flows, and cementation. To obtain a detailed map of soil texture, many samples are needed. Moreover, RDC determination is time consuming. The use of a mobile visible and near-infrared (VIS-NIR) platform is proposed here to map those soil properties and obtain the first detailed map of RDC at field level. Soil properties prediction was based on calibration model developed with 10 representative samples selected by a fuzzy logic algorithm. Calibration samples were analysed for soil texture (clay, silt and sand), RDC and soil organic carbon (SOC) using conventional wet chemistry analysis. Moreover, the Veris mobile sensor platform is also collecting electrical conductivity (EC) data (deep and shallow), and soil temperature. These auxiliary data were combined with VIS-NIR measurement (data fusion) to improve prediction results. EC maps were also produced to help understanding RDC data. The resulting maps were visually compared with an orthophotography of the field taken at the beginning of the plant growing season. Models were developed with partial least square regression (PLSR) and support vector machine regression (SVMR). There were no significant differences between calibration using PLSR or SVMR. Nevertheless, the best models were obtained with PLSR and standard normal variate (SNV) pretreatment and the fusion with deep EC data (e.g. for RDC and clay content: RMSECV = 0,35% and R2 = 0,71; RMSECV = 0,32% and R2 = 0,73 respectively). The best models were used to predict soil properties from the

  17. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Cole, John P; Cole, Megan A; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Insalaco, Chiara; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-02-14

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants) received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP) produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy) and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group) received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP) produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System). For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs) and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2), whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs) and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2) were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex). Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  18. A Randomized, Controlled Study of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T, a Fully Liquid Hexavalent Vaccine, Administered in a 3-, 5- and 11- to 12-month Schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Silfverdal, Sven-Arne; Jordanov, Emilia; Feroldi, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    To assess the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid, ready-to-use hexavalent DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine when administered in a 2 + 1 schedule at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age. Phase III, randomized, active-controlled, observer-blind, multicenter study. Infants were randomized to receive DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (N = 275) or a licensed control hexavalent vaccine (DTaP-IPV-HB//PRP~T: N = 275), both given in coadministration with Prevenar 13. Serum was analyzed for immune responses to all vaccine antigens. Noninferiority of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T to the control vaccine was tested at completion of the primary series using predefined seroprotection (SP) rate and vaccine response (VR) rates. Safety was assessed using parental reports. Noninferiority of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T to the control vaccine was demonstrated postdose 3 for each antigen, and the SP (for D, T, poliovirus 1, 2 and 3, hepatitis B and polyribosylribitol phosphate) and VR rates (for pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin) were high in each group. SP rates for D, T, polio 1, 2, 3 and VR rates for pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin were similar in each group. For hepatitis B, SP rate was slightly higher for DTaP-IPV-HB//PRP~T (99.6%) than DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (96.4%), and for PRP, SP rate was higher for DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (93.5%) than DTaP-IPV-HB//PRP~T (85.2%). For Prevenar 13, the SP rate was high for each serotype and similar for both groups. All vaccines were well tolerated. These study findings confirm the safety and immunogenicity and thus the suitability of this fully liquid hexavalent vaccine for administration in a 2 + 1 schedule.

  19. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Gentile

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelet rich plasma (PRP was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System. For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2, whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2 were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex. Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  20. Microbicidal properties of Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma/Fibrin (L-PRP/L-PRF): new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslik-Bielecka, A; Dohan Ehrenfest, D M; Lubkowska, A; Bielecki, T

    2012-01-01

    Platelets, as main actors of the first stage of the healing process, play an important role in tissue repair. Their granules contain many active substances, particularly over 30 growth factors with significant effects on the resident cells at the site of injury, such as mesenchymal stem cells, chondrocytes, fibroblasts, osteoblasts. This potential may be increased by the concentration of the platelets, using platelet-rich plasma/fibrin products. In the four families of platelet concentrates, 2 families contain also significant concentrations of leukocytes: L-PRP (Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma) and L-PRF (Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin). Inductive properties of platelet concentrates were widely described. However, they present also antimicrobial effects. The antibacterial effects of L-PRP were highlighted in only a few in vitro studies. Strong activity comparable to gentamicin and oxacillin for L-PRP against methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was already demonstrated. L-PRP also inhibited the growth of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli. Some authors also reported clinical observations about the reduction of infections and the induction of healing processes after the use of platelet concentrates in cardiac, orthopaedic, oral and maxillofacial surgery. However, very little is yet known about the antibacterial effects of these concentrates. In this manuscript, the current data about the antimicrobial agents and cells present in the platelet-rich plasma/fibrin are highlighted and discussed, in order to introduce this new key chapter of the platelet concentrate technology history.

  1. Recombinant PrP and Its Contribution to Research on Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Charco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The misfolding of the cellular prion protein (PrPC into the disease-associated isoform (PrPSc and its accumulation as amyloid fibrils in the central nervous system is one of the central events in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. Due to the proteinaceous nature of the causal agent the molecular mechanisms of misfolding, interspecies transmission, neurotoxicity and strain phenomenon remain mostly ill-defined or unknown. Significant advances were made using in vivo and in cellula models, but the limitations of these, primarily due to their inherent complexity and the small amounts of PrPSc that can be obtained, gave rise to the necessity of new model systems. The production of recombinant PrP using E. coli and subsequent induction of misfolding to the aberrant isoform using different techniques paved the way for the development of cell-free systems that complement the previous models. The generation of the first infectious recombinant prion proteins with identical properties of brain-derived PrPSc increased the value of cell-free systems for research on TSEs. The versatility and ease of implementation of these models have made them invaluable for the study of the molecular mechanisms of prion formation and propagation, and have enabled improvements in diagnosis, high-throughput screening of putative anti-prion compounds and the design of novel therapeutic strategies. Here, we provide an overview of the resultant advances in the prion field due to the development of recombinant PrP and its use in cell-free systems.

  2. PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP FOR THE TREATMENT OF PROBLEMATIC SKIN WOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To show platelet-rich plasma (PRP application of problematic skin wounds and to evaluate the results from the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 31 patients with problematic skin wounds had been treated at the clinic for a period of five years (from May 2010 to September 2015 with the following patient sex ratio: male patients– 13 and female patients– 18. Average age– 46,5 (22-82. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes– 10, with decubitus ulcers– 2, traumatic– 29, with infection– 12, acute– 15, chronic– 16. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 – 6 months (4,5 on average. We used platelet rich plasma derived by PRGF Endoret system, applied on the wound bed on a weekly basis. RESULTS: The results have been evaluated based on the following functional scoring systems - Total wound score, Total anatomic score and Total score (20. The baseline values at the very beginning of the follow-up period were as follows: Total wound score – 10 p.; Total anatomic score – 8 p., Total score – 15 p. By the end of the treatment period the score was 0 p., which means excellent results, i.e. complete healing of the wounds. CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of difficult to heal wounds around joints, bone, subject tendons, plantar surface of the foot, etc., as it opens new perspectives in the field of human tissue regeneration.

  3. Is the lower atmosphere a readily accessible reservoir of culturable, antimicrobial compound-producing Actinomycetales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn F. Weber

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent metagenomic studies have revealed that microbial diversity in the atmosphere rivals that of surface environments. This indicates that the atmosphere may be worth bioprospecting in for novel microorganisms, especially those selected for by harsh atmospheric conditions. This is interesting in light of the antibiotic resistance crisis and renewed interests in bioprospecting for members of the Actinomycetales, which harbor novel secondary metabolite-producing pathways and produce spores that make them well suited for atmospheric travel. The latter leads to the hypothesis that the atmosphere may be a promising environment in which to search for novel Actinomycetales. Although ubiquitous in soils, where bioprospecting efforts for Actinomycetales have been and are largely still focused, we present novel data indicating that culturable members of this taxonomic order are 3 to 5.6 times more abundant in air samples collected at 1.5, 4.5, 7.5 and 18 m above the ground, than in the underlying soil. These results support the hypothesis that mining the vast and readily accessible lower atmosphere for novel Actinomycetales in the search for undescribed secondary metabolites, could prove fruitful.

  4. Counting pollen grains using readily available, free image processing and analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Clayton M; Yang, Suann

    2009-10-01

    Although many methods exist for quantifying the number of pollen grains in a sample, there are few standard methods that are user-friendly, inexpensive and reliable. The present contribution describes a new method of counting pollen using readily available, free image processing and analysis software. Pollen was collected from anthers of two species, Carduus acanthoides and C. nutans (Asteraceae), then illuminated on slides and digitally photographed through a stereomicroscope. Using ImageJ (NIH), these digital images were processed to remove noise and sharpen individual pollen grains, then analysed to obtain a reliable total count of the number of grains present in the image. A macro was developed to analyse multiple images together. To assess the accuracy and consistency of pollen counting by ImageJ analysis, counts were compared with those made by the human eye. Image analysis produced pollen counts in 60 s or less per image, considerably faster than counting with the human eye (5-68 min). In addition, counts produced with the ImageJ procedure were similar to those obtained by eye. Because count parameters are adjustable, this image analysis protocol may be used for many other plant species. Thus, the method provides a quick, inexpensive and reliable solution to counting pollen from digital images, not only reducing the chance of error but also substantially lowering labour requirements.

  5. Incisional Hernia in Women: Predisposing Factors and Management Where Mesh is Not Readily Available

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Agbakwuru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background / Aim: Incisional hernia is still relatively common in our practice. The aim of the studywas to identify risk factors associated with incisional hernia in our region. The setting is the ObafemiAwolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria during a period when prostheticmesh was not readily available. Patients and Methods: All the women who presented with incisionalhernia between 1996 and 2005 were prospectively studied using a standard form to obtaininformation on pre-hernia (index operations and possible predisposing factors. They all had opensurgical repair and were followed up for 18-60 months. Results: Forty-four women were treatedduring study period. The index surgeries leading to the hernias were emergency caesarian section26/44 (59.1%, emergency exploratory laparotomy 6/44 (13.6%, and elective surgeries 12/44(27.3%. Major associated risk factors were the use of wrong suture materials for fascia repair, midlineincisions, wound sepsis, and overweight. Conclusion: For elective surgeries, reduction of weightshould be encouraged when appropriate, and transverse incisions are preferred. Absorbable sutures,especially chromic catgut, should be avoided in fascia closure. Antibiotics should be used forcomplicated obstetric cases.

  6. Model of Tryptophan Metabolism, Readily Scalable Using Tissue-specific Gene Expression Data*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrum, Anne-Kristin; Heiland, Ines; Schuster, Stefan; Puntervoll, Pål; Ziegler, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Tryptophan is utilized in various metabolic routes including protein synthesis, serotonin, and melatonin synthesis and the kynurenine pathway. Perturbations in these pathways have been associated with neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Here we present a comprehensive kinetic model of the complex network of human tryptophan metabolism based upon existing kinetic data for all enzymatic conversions and transporters. By integrating tissue-specific expression data, modeling tryptophan metabolism in liver and brain returned intermediate metabolite concentrations in the physiological range. Sensitivity and metabolic control analyses identified expected key enzymes to govern fluxes in the branches of the network. Combining tissue-specific models revealed a considerable impact of the kynurenine pathway in liver on the concentrations of neuroactive derivatives in the brain. Moreover, using expression data from a cancer study predicted metabolite changes that resembled the experimental observations. We conclude that the combination of the kinetic model with expression data represents a powerful diagnostic tool to predict alterations in tryptophan metabolism. The model is readily scalable to include more tissues, thereby enabling assessment of organismal tryptophan metabolism in health and disease. PMID:24129579

  7. A natural and readily available crowding agent: NMR studies of proteins in hen egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Gabriel; Adrover, Miquel; Kelly, Geoff; Temussi, Piero Andrea; Pastore, Annalisa

    2011-05-01

    In vitro studies of biological macromolecules are usually performed in dilute, buffered solutions containing one or just a few different biological macromolecules. Under these conditions, the interactions among molecules are diffusion limited. On the contrary, in living systems, macromolecules of a given type are surrounded by many others, at very high total concentrations. In the last few years, there has been an increasing effort to study biological macromolecules directly in natural crowded environments, as in intact bacterial cells or by mimicking natural crowding by adding proteins, polysaccharides, or even synthetic polymers. Here, we propose the use of hen egg white (HEW) as a simple natural medium, with all features of the media of crowded cells, that could be used by any researcher without difficulty and inexpensively. We present a study of the stability and dynamics behavior of model proteins in HEW, chosen as a prototypical, readily accessible natural medium that can mimic cytosol. We show that two typical globular proteins, dissolved in HEW, give NMR spectra very similar to those obtained in dilute buffers, although dynamic parameters are clearly affected by the crowded medium. The thermal stability of one of these proteins, measured in a range comprising both heat and cold denaturation, is also similar to that in buffer. Our data open new possibilities to the study of proteins in natural crowded media. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Motif-grafted antibodies containing the replicative interface of cellular PrP are specific for PrPSc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroncini, Gianluca; Kanu, Nnennaya; Solforosi, Laura; Abalos, Gil; Telling, Glenn C; Head, Mark; Ironside, James; Brockes, Jeremy P; Burton, Dennis R; Williamson, R Anthony

    2004-07-13

    Prion diseases are closely associated with the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) to an abnormal conformer (PrPSc) [Prusiner, S. B. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 13363-13383]. Monoclonal antibodies that bind epitopes comprising residues 96-104 and 133-158 of PrPC potently inhibit this process, presumably by preventing heterodimeric association of PrPC and PrPSc, and suggest that these regions of PrPC may be critical components of the PrPC-PrPSc replicative interface. We reasoned that transplanting PrP sequence corresponding to these regions into a suitable carrier molecule, such as an antibody, could impart specific recognition of disease-associated forms of PrP. To test this hypothesis, polypeptides containing PrP sequence between residues 89-112 or 136-158 were used to replace the extended heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 of an IgG antibody specific for the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1. Herein the resulting engineered PrP-IgGs are shown to bind specifically to infective fractions of PrP in mouse, human, and hamster prion-infected tissues, but not to PrPC, other cellular components, or the HIV-1 envelope. PrPSc reactivity was abolished when the sequence of the PrP 89-112 and 136-158 grafts was mutated, scrambled, or N-terminally truncated. Our findings suggest that residues within the 89-112 and 136-158 segments of PrPC are key components of one face of the PrPC-PrPSc complex. PrPSc-specific antibodies produced by the approach described may find widespread application in the study of prion biology and replication and in the detection of infectious prions in human and animal materials.

  9. CONTAMINATED PROBLEMATIC SKIN WOUNDS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS TREATED WITH AUTOLOGOUS PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP: A case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP on contaminated problematic skin ulcers in patients with diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 6 patients had been treated within the period from 2012 to 2014; they had various types of problematic wounds and diabetes type 2. Patients’ distribution by sex was as follows: 1 man and 5 women; mean age- 68 years. Ulcer types: acute (2 patients, hard-to-heal (2 patients and chronic (2 patients ulcers. The mean size of the skin and soft tissue defect was 9,5 cm2. Pathogenic microflora was isolated in 4 patients - S. aureus in three and Е. Coli in one. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 – 6 months (4,5 on average. We used platelet rich plasma derived by PRGF Endoret system, applied on the wound bed on a weekly basis. RESULTS: Application of PRP allowed successful closure of all wounds. There were no complications associated with treatment of PRP. Epithelialization of the wound took 15 weeks on average for all patients. One patient presented with hyperkeratosis. Initial score of followed wounds, based on the scales are as follows: Total wound score – 10 p. Total anatomic score – 8 p. Total score – 15 p. at the initial stage. At the end of the treatment period scores were as follows - 0 p., which means excellent results CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of contaminated problematic wounds in diabetic patients. PRP not only stimulates wound healing, but also has antimicrobial properties, which may contribute to the prevention of infections.

  10. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

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    Ratna Ghosal

    Full Text Available Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups and shoal (form tight social groups, this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate strongly (P0.05 on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed.

  11. Small kinetochore associated protein (SKAP promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis through negatively regulating pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (Prp19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lu

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a regulated cellular suicide program that is critical for the development and maintenance of healthy tissues. Previous studies have shown that small kinetochore associated protein (SKAP cooperates with kinetochore and mitotic spindle proteins to regulate mitosis. However, the role of SKAP in apoptosis has not been investigated. We have identified a new interaction involving SKAP, and we propose a mechanism through which SKAP regulates cell apoptosis. Our experiments demonstrate that both overexpression and knockdown of SKAP sensitize cells to UV-induced apoptosis. Further study has revealed that SKAP interacts with Pre-mRNA processing Factor 19 (Prp19. We find that UV-induced apoptosis can be inhibited by ectopic expression of Prp19, whereas silencing Prp19 has the opposite effect. Additionally, SKAP negatively regulates the protein levels of Prp19, whereas Prp19 does not alter SKAP expression. Finally, rescue experiments demonstrate that the pro-apoptotic role of SKAP is executed through Prp19. Taken together, these findings suggest that SKAP promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis by negatively regulating the anti-apoptotic protein Prp19.

  12. A fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T hexavalent vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of healthy Turkish infants and toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Mehmet; Yıldırım, İnci; Tezer, Hasan; Devrim, İlker; Feroldi, Emmanuel

    2017-08-23

    Background/aim: Immunogenicity and safety of a primary series of a fully liquid, hexavalent DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine given at 2, 3, and 4 months of age compared to licensed comparators and a DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T booster at 15?18 months were evaluated. Materials and methods: This was a Phase III, randomized, open-label trial. Primary series (no hepatitis B [HB] at birth) of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (N = 155) (group 1) or licensed control vaccines (DTaP-IPV//PRP-T and standalone HB: N = 155) (group 2) and DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T booster were administered. Noninferiority was evaluated 1 month postprimary series for anti-HB seroprotection (SP). All other analyses were descriptive. Safety was assessed from parental reports. Results: Postprimary series noninferiority of anti-HB ≥ 10 mIU/mL was demonstrated for the DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine (94.0%) compared to the licensed control (96.1%). Postprimary series primary SP and seroconversion (SC) rates were high and similar for both groups. Antibody persistence (prebooster) was high for each antigen and similar between groups except for HB, which was lower for DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T than for standalone HB. For each antigen except HB, DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T booster responses were high and similar in each group. Safety was good for primary and booster series and similar between groups. Conclusion: The DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine is immunogenic and safe when administered in a challenging primary series schedule without HB vaccination at birth.

  13. Process antecedents of challenging, under-cover and readily-adopted innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard; Tranfield, David; Denyer, David

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to test the utility of a taxonomy of innovation based on perceived characteristics in the context of healthcare by exploring the extent to which discrete innovation types could be distinguished from each other in terms of process antecedents. A qualitative approach was adopted to explore the process antecedents of nine exemplar cases of "challenging", "under-cover" and "readily-adopted" healthcare innovations. Data were collected by semi-structured interview and from secondary sources, and content analysed according to a theoretically informed framework of innovation process. Cluster analysis was applied to determine whether innovation types could be distinguished on the basis of process characteristics. The findings provide moderate support for the proposition that innovations differentiated on the basis of the way they are perceived by potential users exhibit different process characteristics. Innovations exhibiting characteristics previously believed negatively to impact adoption may be successfully adopted but by a different configuration of processes than by innovations exhibiting a different set of characteristics. The findings must be treated with caution because the sample consists of self-selected cases of successful innovation and is limited by sample size. Nevertheless, the study sheds new light on important process differences in healthcare innovation. The paper offers a heuristic device to aid clinicians and managers to better understand the relatively novel task of promoting and managing innovation in healthcare. The paper advances the argument that there is under-exploited opportunity for cross-disciplinary organisational learning for innovation management in the NHS. If efficiency and quality improvement targets are to be met through a strategy of encouraging innovation, it may be advantageous for clinicians and managers to reflect on what this study found mostly to be absent from the processes of the innovations studied

  14. Investigation of modified platelet-rich plasma (mPRP) in promoting the proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, J.; Li, H T; Li, S H; LI, X.; Duan, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) have great potential to treat various dental-related diseases in regenerative medicine. They are usually maintained with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in vitro. Modified platelet-rich plasma (mPRP) would be a safe alternative to 10% FBS during SHEDs culture. Therefore, our study aimed to compare the proliferation and differentiation of SHEDs cultured in mPRP and FBS medium to explore an optimal concentration of mPRP for SHEDs maintenance...

  15. Amidation and structure relaxation abolish the neurotoxicity of the prion peptide PrP106-126 in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm, Linda Alice; Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Zsurger, N.

    2005-01-01

    One of the major pathological hallmarks of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is the accumulation of a pathogenic (scrapie) isoform (PrPSc) of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) primarily in the central nervous system. The synthetic prion peptide PrP106-126 shares many characteristics...... with PrPSc in that it shows PrPC-dependent neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, PrP106-126 in vitro neurotoxicity has been closely associated with the ability to form fibrils. Here, we studied the in vivo neurotoxicity of molecular variants of PrP106-126 toward retinal neurons using...

  16. Rôle du domaine N-terminal de la PrP dans la pathogenèse des maladies à prions

    OpenAIRE

    Erlich, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The role of the N-terminal (N-ter) domain of PrP protein in the conversion of PrPc into an infectious isoform PrPSc is poorly understood. The objective of my thesis was to create a synthetic prion composed of the N-ter domain of PrP and the Doppel protein to get an insight in the involvement of this PrP domain in the aggregation mechanisms and the pathogenesis of prion diseases. Three PrP/Dpl chimeric recombinant proteins were expressed, purified and aggregated in vitro into oligomers. These ...

  17. Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) versus Autologous Whole Blood on Pain and Function Improvement in Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Sedighipour, Leyla; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Bahrami, Mohammad Hasan; Bayat, Masume; Rahimi, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Background. Autologous whole blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) have been both suggested to treat chronic tennis elbow. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of PRP versus autologous whole blood local injection in chronic tennis elbow. Methods. Forty patients with tennis elbow were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was treated with a single injection of 2 mL of autologous PRP and group 2 with 2 mL of autologous blood. Tennis elbow strap, stretching, and strengthening...

  18. Decreased hernia recurrence using autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with Strattice™ mesh in a rodent ventral hernia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eps, Jeffrey; Fernandez-Moure, Joseph; Cabrera, Fernando; Wang, Xin; Karim, Azim; Corradetti, Bruna; Chan, Paige; Dunkin, Brian; Tasciotti, Ennio; Weiner, Bradley; Ellsworth, Warren

    2016-08-01

    Recurrence after ventral hernia repair (VHR) remains a multifactorial problem still plaguing surgeons today. Some of the many contributing factors include mechanical strain, poor tissue-mesh integration, and degradation of matrices. The high recurrence rate witnessed with the use of acellular dermal matrices (ADM) for definitive hernia repair has reduced their use largely to bridging repair and breast reconstruction. Modalities that improve classic cellular metrics of successful VHR could theoretically result in improved rates of hernia recurrence; autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may represent one such tool, but has been underinvestigated for this purpose. Lewis rats (32) had chronic ventral hernias created surgically and then repaired with Strattice™ mesh alone (control) or mesh + autologous PRP. Samples were harvested at 3 and 6 months postoperatively and compared for gross, histologic, and molecular outcomes of: neovascularization, tissue incorporation, peritoneal adhesions, hernia recurrence, and residual mesh thickness. Compared to control at 3 months postoperatively, PRP-treated rats displayed significantly more neovascularization of implanted mesh and considerable upregulation of both angiogenic genes (vEGF 2.73-fold, vWF 2.21-fold) and myofibroblastic genes (αSMA 9.68-fold, FSP-1 3.61-fold, Col1a1 3.32-fold, Col31a1 3.29-fold). Histologically, they also showed enhanced tissue deposition/ingrowth and diminished chronic immune cell infiltration. Peritoneal adhesions were less severe at both 3 (1.88 vs. 2.94) and 6 months (1.63 vs. 2.75) by Modified Hopkins Adhesion Scoring. PRP-treated rats experienced decreased hernia recurrence at 6 months (0/10 vs. 7/10) and had significantly improved ADM preservation as evidenced by quantification of residual mesh thickness. PRP is an autologous source of pro-regenerative growth factors and chemokines uniquely suited to soft tissue wound healing. When applied to a model of chronic VHR, it incites enhanced

  19. Dynamic Contacts of U2, RES, Cwc25, Prp8 and Prp45 Proteins with the Pre-mRNA Branch-Site and 3' Splice Site during Catalytic Activation and Step 1 Catalysis in Yeast Spliceosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Schneider

    Full Text Available Little is known about contacts in the spliceosome between proteins and intron nucleotides surrounding the pre-mRNA branch-site and their dynamics during splicing. We investigated protein-pre-mRNA interactions by UV-induced crosslinking of purified yeast B(act spliceosomes formed on site-specifically labeled pre-mRNA, and analyzed their changes after conversion to catalytically-activated B* and step 1 C complexes, using a purified splicing system. Contacts between nucleotides upstream and downstream of the branch-site and the U2 SF3a/b proteins Prp9, Prp11, Hsh49, Cus1 and Hsh155 were detected, demonstrating that these interactions are evolutionarily conserved. The RES proteins Pml1 and Bud13 were shown to contact the intron downstream of the branch-site. A comparison of the B(act crosslinking pattern versus that of B* and C complexes revealed that U2 and RES protein interactions with the intron are dynamic. Upon step 1 catalysis, Cwc25 contacts with the branch-site region, and enhanced crosslinks of Prp8 and Prp45 with nucleotides surrounding the branch-site were observed. Cwc25's step 1 promoting activity was not dependent on its interaction with pre-mRNA, indicating it acts via protein-protein interactions. These studies provide important insights into the spliceosome's protein-pre-mRNA network and reveal novel RNP remodeling events during the catalytic activation of the spliceosome and step 1 of splicing.

  20. WET MARS: Plentiful, Readily-Available Martian Water and its Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.; Ishikawa, M.; Nuckolls, J.; Whitehead, J.; Wood, L.

    1999-09-14

    /oxygen/fuel plant exploiting Martian atmospheric water. All of the oxygen, water and propellants necessary for life-support, extensive exploration and Earth-return can be provided readily by the host planet. Crewed exploration of Mars launched from LEO with on1.V 2 Shuttle-loads of equipment and consumables--a commercial total cost-equivalent of {approx}$650 M--thereby becomes feasible. The most challenging current problem with respect to human expeditions to Mars is escape from Earth's deep, 11.2 km/s gravity well, and is largely an economic issue. Living on Mars, exploring it extensively and returning to Earth, each hitherto major technical issues, are actually much less difficult, thanks in no small part to the effective ''wetness'' of Mars. Similar considerations apply to other water-rich locations in the Solar system, e.g. Europa.

  1. Substitutions of PrP N-terminal histidine residues modulate scrapie disease pathogenesis and incubation time in transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Eigenbrod

    Full Text Available Prion diseases have been linked to impaired copper homeostasis and copper induced-oxidative damage to the brain. Divalent metal ions, such as Cu2+ and Zn2+, bind to cellular prion protein (PrPC at octapeptide repeat (OR and non-OR sites within the N-terminal half of the protein but information on the impact of such binding on conversion to the misfolded isoform often derives from studies using either OR and non-OR peptides or bacterially-expressed recombinant PrP. Here we created new transgenic mouse lines expressing PrP with disrupted copper binding sites within all four histidine-containing OR's (sites 1-4, H60G, H68G, H76G, H84G, "TetraH>G" allele or at site 5 (composed of residues His-95 and His-110; "H95G" allele and monitored the formation of misfolded PrP in vivo. Novel transgenic mice expressing PrP(TetraH>G at levels comparable to wild-type (wt controls were susceptible to mouse-adapted scrapie strain RML but showed significantly prolonged incubation times. In contrast, amino acid replacement at residue 95 accelerated disease progression in corresponding PrP(H95G mice. Neuropathological lesions in terminally ill transgenic mice were similar to scrapie-infected wt controls, but less severe. The pattern of PrPSc deposition, however, was not synaptic as seen in wt animals, but instead dense globular plaque-like accumulations of PrPSc in TgPrP(TetraH>G mice and diffuse PrPSc deposition in (TgPrP(H95G mice, were observed throughout all brain sections. We conclude that OR and site 5 histidine substitutions have divergent phenotypic impacts and that cis interactions between the OR region and the site 5 region modulate pathogenic outcomes by affecting the PrP globular domain.

  2. Classification of platelet concentrates: from pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) to leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Rasmusson, Lars; Albrektsson, Tomas

    2009-03-01

    The topical use of platelet concentrates is recent and its efficiency remains controversial. Several techniques for platelet concentrates are available; however, their applications have been confusing because each method leads to a different product with different biology and potential uses. Here, we present classification of the different platelet concentrates into four categories, depending on their leucocyte and fibrin content: pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP), such as cell separator PRP, Vivostat PRF or Anitua's PRGF; leucocyte- and platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP), such as Curasan, Regen, Plateltex, SmartPReP, PCCS, Magellan or GPS PRP; pure plaletet-rich fibrin (P-PRF), such as Fibrinet; and leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF), such as Choukroun's PRF. This classification should help to elucidate successes and failures that have occurred so far, as well as providing an objective approach for the further development of these techniques.

  3. In vitro immunological and biological evaluations of the angiogenic potential of platelet-rich fibrin preparations: a standardized comparison with PRP preparations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kobayashi, Mito; Kawase, Tomoyuki; Okuda, Kazuhiro; Wolff, Larry F; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) derivative mainly composed of fibrin networks, has been increasingly demonstrated to be effective in wound healing in clinical and pre-clinical animal studies...

  4. The Effect of Autologous Activated Platelet Rich Plasma (AA-PRP Injection on Pattern Hair Loss: Clinical and Histomorphometric Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cervelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of AA-PRP injections for pattern hair loss. AA-PRP, prepared from a small volume of blood, was injected on half of the selected patients’ scalps with pattern hair loss. The other half was treated with placebo. Three treatments were given for each patient, with intervals of 1 month. The endpoints were hair re-growth, hair dystrophy as measured by dermoscopy, burning or itching sensation, and cell proliferation as measured by Ki-67 evaluation. At the end of the 3 cycles of treatment, the patients presented clinical improvement in the mean number of hairs, with a mean increase of 18.0 hairs in the target area, and a mean increase in total hair density of 27.7 ( number of hairs/cm2 compared with baseline values. Microscopic evaluation showed the increase of epidermis thickness and of the number of hair follicles two weeks after the last AA-PRP treatment compared to baseline value (P<0.05. We also observed an increase of Ki67+ keratinocytes of epidermis and of hair follicular bulge cells and a slight increase of small blood vessels around hair follicles in the treated skin compared to baseline (P<0.05.

  5. Behavior of Gingival Fibroblasts on Titanium Implant Surfaces in Combination with either Injectable-PRF or PRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuzhu Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Various strategies have been employed to speed tissue regeneration using bioactive molecules. Interestingly, platelet concentrates derived from a patient’s own blood have been utilized as a regenerative strategy in recent years. In the present study, a novel liquid platelet formulation prepared without the use of anti-coagulants (injectable-platelet-rich fibrin, i-PRF was compared to standard platelet-rich plasma (PRP with gingival fibroblasts cultured on smooth and roughened titanium implant surfaces. Standard PRP and i-PRF (centrifuged at 700 rpm (60× g for 3 min were compared by assays for fibroblast biocompatibility, migration, adhesion, proliferation, as well as expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, collagen1 (COL1 and fibronectin (FN. The results demonstrate that i-PRF induced significantly higher cell migration, as well as higher messenger RNA (mRNA levels of PDGF, TGF-β, collagen1 and fibronectin when compared to PRP. Furthermore, collagen1 synthesis was highest in the i-PRF group. These findings demonstrate that liquid platelet concentrates can be formulated without the use of anticoagulants and present much translational potential for future research. Future animal and clinical trials are now necessary to further investigate the potential of utilizing i-PRF for soft tissue regenerative protocols in combination with various biomaterials.

  6. A fully liquid DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T hexavalent vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of healthy Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Amalia Guadalupe Becerra; Brito, Maricruz Gutiérrez; Doniz, Carlos E Aranza; Herrera, Juan Francisco Galán; Macias, Mercedes; Zambrano, Betzana; Plennevaux, Eric; Santos-Lima, Eduardo

    2012-10-05

    To evaluate an investigational, fully liquid hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T: Hexaxim™) vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of healthy children in Mexico. Infants (N=1189) were randomized to receive one of three lots of the DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine or a licensed hexavalent control vaccine (Infanrix™ hexa) for primary vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months. All participants who completed the primary series and agreed to participate in the booster part of the study received a dose of the investigational vaccine at 15-18 months of age. Validated serological assays and parental reports were used to assess immunogenicity and safety, respectively. Post-primary vaccination, ≥95.8% of participants in both the DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T and control groups were seroprotected (SP) against diphtheria, tetanus, poliovirus, hepatitis B and PRP, or had seroconverted (SC) to the pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) pertussis antigens. The SP/SC rates induced by the three DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T lots were equivalent. No differences in SP/SC rates were observed between the pooled lots of investigational vaccine and the control vaccine. Antibody persistence at 15-18 months was comparable between groups, with strong increases in all antibody concentrations post-DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T booster. Both vaccines were well tolerated for primary vaccination, as was the booster dose of DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T. These study findings confirm the suitability of the combined, fully liquid DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine for inclusion in routine childhood vaccination schedules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression of the promoter of HyPRP, an embryo-specific gene from Zea mays in maize and tobacco transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José-Estanyol, Matilde; Pérez, Pascual; Puigdomènech, Pere

    2005-08-15

    zmHyPRP is a gene specifically expressed in maize immature embryos where its transcripts are mainly observed in the scutellum. It has been shown that zmHyPRP expression in the embryo is arrested when ABA levels increase at the beginning of the maturation stage. Here we report the ability of 2 Kb zmHyPRP promoter to reproduce the zmHyPRP gene specific expression pattern in the maize embryo and its repression by ABA at the end of the morphogenetic process. Three different approaches have been used, transient particle bombardment of maize immature excised embryos and stable transformation of maize and tobacco plants with a construct containing 2 Kb of zmHyPRP promoter fused to the GUS gene. This construct has shown to confer specific expression to maize and tobacco embryos but in tobacco expression in the embryo was very low. The same construct was also negatively regulated by ABA in embryos of both species. This suggests that 2 Kb of the zmHyPRP promoter contain all regulatory elements sufficient to confer the developmental expression patterns of the gene characterized to date.

  8. Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP versus Autologous Whole Blood on Pain and Function Improvement in Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autologous whole blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP have been both suggested to treat chronic tennis elbow. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of PRP versus autologous whole blood local injection in chronic tennis elbow. Methods. Forty patients with tennis elbow were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was treated with a single injection of 2 mL of autologous PRP and group 2 with 2 mL of autologous blood. Tennis elbow strap, stretching, and strengthening exercises were administered for both groups during a 2-month followup. Pain and functional improvements were assessed using visual analog scale (VAS, modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow, and pressure pain threshold (PPT at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Results. All pain and functional variables including VAS, PPT, and Mayo scores improved significantly in both groups 4 weeks after injection. No statistically significant difference was noted between groups regarding pain scores in 4-week follow-up examination (P>0.05. At 8-week reevaluations, VAS and Mayo scores improved only in PRP group (P<0.05. Conclusion. PRP and autologous whole blood injections are both effective to treat chronic lateral epicondylitis. PRP might be slightly superior in 8-week followup. However, further studies are suggested to get definite conclusion.

  9. Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) versus Autologous Whole Blood on Pain and Function Improvement in Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Sedighipour, Leyla; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Bahrami, Mohammad Hasan; Bayat, Masume; Rahimi, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Background. Autologous whole blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) have been both suggested to treat chronic tennis elbow. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of PRP versus autologous whole blood local injection in chronic tennis elbow. Methods. Forty patients with tennis elbow were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was treated with a single injection of 2 mL of autologous PRP and group 2 with 2 mL of autologous blood. Tennis elbow strap, stretching, and strengthening exercises were administered for both groups during a 2-month followup. Pain and functional improvements were assessed using visual analog scale (VAS), modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow, and pressure pain threshold (PPT) at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Results. All pain and functional variables including VAS, PPT, and Mayo scores improved significantly in both groups 4 weeks after injection. No statistically significant difference was noted between groups regarding pain scores in 4-week follow-up examination (P > 0.05). At 8-week reevaluations, VAS and Mayo scores improved only in PRP group (P PRP and autologous whole blood injections are both effective to treat chronic lateral epicondylitis. PRP might be slightly superior in 8-week followup. However, further studies are suggested to get definite conclusion.

  10. Immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid aluminum phosphate adjuvanted Haemophilus influenzae type b PRP-CRM197-conjugate vaccine in healthy Japanese children: A phase III, randomized, observer-blind, multicenter, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Takehiro; Mitsuya, Nodoka; Kogawara, Osamu; Sumino, Shuji; Takanami, Yohei; Sugizaki, Kayoko

    2016-08-31

    Broad use of monovalent Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines based on the capsular polysaccharide polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate (PRP), has significantly reduced invasive Hib disease burden in children worldwide, particularly in children aged vaccine has been widely used since the initiation of public funding programs followed by a routine vaccination designation in 2013. We compared the immunogenicity and safety of PRP conjugated to a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant (PRP-CRM197) vaccine with the PRP-T vaccine when administered subcutaneously to healthy Japanese children in a phase III study. Additionally, we evaluated the immunogenicity and safety profiles of a diphtheria-tetanus acellular pertussis (DTaP) combination vaccine when concomitantly administered with either PRP-CRM197 or PRP-T vaccines. The primary endpoint was the "long-term seroprotection rate", defined as the group proportion with anti-PRP antibody titers ⩾1.0μg/mL, after the primary series. Long-term seroprotection rates were 99.3% in the PRP-CRM197 group and 95.6% in the PRP-T group. The intergroup difference (PRP-CRM197 group - PRP-T group) was 3.7% (95% confidence interval: 0.099-7.336), demonstrating that PRP-CRM197 vaccine was non-inferior to PRP-T vaccine (pvaccination was higher in the PRP-CRM197 group than in PRP-T. Concomitant administration of PRP-CRM197 vaccine with DTaP vaccine showed no differences in terms of immunogenicity compared with concomitant vaccination with PRP-T vaccine and DTaP vaccine. Although CRM197 vaccine had higher local reactogenicity, overall, both Hib vaccines had acceptable safety and tolerability profiles. The immunogenicity of PRP-CRM197 vaccine administered subcutaneously as a three-dose primary series in children followed by a booster vaccination 1year after the primary series induced protective levels of Hib antibodies with no safety or tolerability concerns. Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01379846. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  11. 26 CFR 31.3406(d)-4 - Special rules for readily tradable instruments acquired through a broker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) In general. A payor of an instrument acquired by a payee through a broker may rely on the information...'s customary method of making payment on an instrument or instruments owned by a payee. If it is the... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special rules for readily tradable instruments...

  12. Physicochemical and morphological analysis of ten tomato varieties identifies quality traits more readily manipulated through breeding and traditional selection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are an important source of nutrients in contemporary diets due to readily available fresh fruit and processed products, their popularity, and the sheer volume consumed. This study is part of a larger project undertaken by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) to...

  13. Transgenic Rabbits Expressing Ovine PrP Are Susceptible to Scrapie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarradin, Pierre; Viglietta, Céline; Limouzin, Claude; Andréoletti, Olivier; Daniel-Carlier, Nathalie; Barc, Céline; Leroux-Coyau, Mathieu; Berthon, Patricia; Chapuis, Jérôme; Rossignol, Christelle; Gatti, Jean-Luc; Belghazi, Maya; Labas, Valérie; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Béringue, Vincent; Lantier, Frédéric; Laude, Hubert; Houdebine, Louis-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases affecting a wide range of mammalian species. They are caused by prions, a proteinaceous pathogen essentially composed of PrPSc, an abnormal isoform of the host encoded cellular prion protein PrPC. Constrained steric interactions between PrPSc and PrPC are thought to provide prions with species specificity, and to control cross-species transmission into other host populations, including humans. Transgenetic expression of foreign PrP genes has been successfully and widely used to overcome the recognized resistance of mouse to foreign TSE sources. Rabbit is one of the species that exhibit a pronounced resistance to TSEs. Most attempts to infect experimentally rabbit have failed, except after inoculation with cell-free generated rabbit prions. To gain insights on the molecular determinants of the relative resistance of rabbits to prions, we generated transgenic rabbits expressing the susceptible V136R154Q171 allele of the ovine PRNP gene on a rabbit wild type PRNP New Zealand background and assessed their experimental susceptibility to scrapie prions. All transgenic animals developed a typical TSE 6–8 months after intracerebral inoculation, whereas wild type rabbits remained healthy more than 700 days after inoculation. Despite the endogenous presence of rabbit PrPC, only ovine PrPSc was detectable in the brains of diseased animals. Collectively these data indicate that the low susceptibility of rabbits to prion infection is not enciphered within their non-PrP genetic background. PMID:26248157

  14. Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in chronic penile lichen sclerosus: the impact on tissue repair and patient quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabona, Francesco; Gambelli, Ilaria; Casabona, Federica; Santi, Pierluigi; Santori, Gregorio; Baldelli, Ilaria

    2017-04-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that frequently involves the anogenital region. Ongoing research is focused on finding more effective treatments for tissue repair and reducing symptoms. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) local injections in penile LS. Forty-five male patients affected by penile LS underwent injections of autologous PRP in the affected skin areas. Age at diagnosis and at first treatment, number of treatments, clinical conditions (phimosis, splitting, inflammation, synechiae, meatus stenosis), symptoms (pain, burning, itching), and functional impairment were considered. Treatment efficacy was also evaluated through the Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) on a six-point Likert scale and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). The patient age at LS diagnosis was 36.20 ± 9.19 years, while the mean age at the first PRP treatment was 42.96 ± 11.32 years (p < 0.001). The number of treatments/patient ranged from 2 to 10. The follow-up was 17.60 ± 5.63 months. After PRP injections, it was observed in all patients a significant improvement in clinical conditions, with reduction/disappearance of symptoms. Topical steroid therapy, interrupted before PRP treatment, was not restarted by any patient. Only one patient underwent a later circumcision procedure. Both IGA scale and DLQI score showed a significant difference (p < 0.001) before and after PRP treatment. PRP treatment in penile LS seems to be helpful to regenerate scarring, reduce symptoms, and improve patient quality of life. Further studies are necessary to evaluate long-term results.

  15. Are some gestalt principles deployed more readily than others during early development? The case of lightness versus form similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul C; Bhatt, Ramesh S

    2006-10-01

    Four experiments investigated how readily infants achieve perceptual organization by lightness and form similarity. Infants were (a) familiarized with elements that could be organized into rows or columns on the basis of lightness or form similarity and tested with vertical versus horizontal bars depicting the familiar versus novel organization or (b) familiarized with bars and tested with elements. For lightness similarity, generalization occurred in both tasks; however, for form similarity, generalization occurred only in the elements --> bars task. The findings indicate that lightness similarity is more readily deployed than form similarity and are discussed in the context of (a) whether the difference reflects speed of application or experience-based learning, (b) evidence from visual agnosic patients and the time course of application of the principles in healthy adults, and (c) development of dorsal and ventral visual processing streams. Copyright 2006 APA.

  16. A Structural and Functional Comparison Between Infectious and Non-Infectious Autocatalytic Recombinant PrP Conformers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey P Noble

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious prions contain a self-propagating, misfolded conformer of the prion protein termed PrPSc. A critical prediction of the protein-only hypothesis is that autocatalytic PrPSc molecules should be infectious. However, some autocatalytic recombinant PrPSc molecules have low or undetectable levels of specific infectivity in bioassays, and the essential determinants of recombinant prion infectivity remain obscure. To identify structural and functional features specifically associated with infectivity, we compared the properties of two autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers derived from the same original template, which differ by >105-fold in specific infectivity for wild-type mice. Structurally, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS studies revealed that solvent accessibility profiles of infectious and non-infectious autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers are remarkably similar throughout their protease-resistant cores, except for two domains encompassing residues 91-115 and 144-163. Raman spectroscopy and immunoprecipitation studies confirm that these domains adopt distinct conformations within infectious versus non-infectious autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers. Functionally, in vitro prion propagation experiments show that the non-infectious conformer is unable to seed mouse PrPC substrates containing a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor, including native PrPC. Taken together, these results indicate that having a conformation that can be specifically adopted by post-translationally modified PrPC molecules is an essential determinant of biological infectivity for recombinant prions, and suggest that this ability is associated with discrete features of PrPSc structure.

  17. A Structural and Functional Comparison Between Infectious and Non-Infectious Autocatalytic Recombinant PrP Conformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Geoffrey P.; Wang, Daphne W.; Walsh, Daniel J.; Barone, Justin R.; Miller, Michael B.; Nishina, Koren A.; Li, Sheng; Supattapone, Surachai

    2015-01-01

    Infectious prions contain a self-propagating, misfolded conformer of the prion protein termed PrPSc. A critical prediction of the protein-only hypothesis is that autocatalytic PrPSc molecules should be infectious. However, some autocatalytic recombinant PrPSc molecules have low or undetectable levels of specific infectivity in bioassays, and the essential determinants of recombinant prion infectivity remain obscure. To identify structural and functional features specifically associated with infectivity, we compared the properties of two autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers derived from the same original template, which differ by >105-fold in specific infectivity for wild-type mice. Structurally, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS) studies revealed that solvent accessibility profiles of infectious and non-infectious autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers are remarkably similar throughout their protease-resistant cores, except for two domains encompassing residues 91-115 and 144-163. Raman spectroscopy and immunoprecipitation studies confirm that these domains adopt distinct conformations within infectious versus non-infectious autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers. Functionally, in vitro prion propagation experiments show that the non-infectious conformer is unable to seed mouse PrPC substrates containing a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, including native PrPC. Taken together, these results indicate that having a conformation that can be specifically adopted by post-translationally modified PrPC molecules is an essential determinant of biological infectivity for recombinant prions, and suggest that this ability is associated with discrete features of PrPSc structure. PMID:26125623

  18. Readily Made Solvated Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Jorge G.; Guerra-Millan, Francisco J.; Hugerat, Muhamad; Vazquez-Olavarrieta, Jorge L.; Basheer, Ahmad; Abu-Much, Riam

    2011-01-01

    The existence of solvated electrons has been known for a long time. Key methods for their production (i.e., photoionization of reducing ions, water radiolysis, and the reaction between H[middle dot] and OH[superscript -]) are unsuitable for most school laboratories. We describe a simple experiment to produce liquid ammonia and solvated electrons…

  19. PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC AND HARD-TO-HEAL SKIN WOUNDS. A Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years various methods are being applied in the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP during treatment in different orthopedic disease. They allow improvement of local biological condition and regeneration of different types of tissues. PRP is a modern treatment strategy with worldwide recognition. There is a high concentration of platelet growth factors in small amounts of plasma. PRP and its various forms have become one of the best methods to support the healing process of various tissues. PRP is used in regenerative medicine, because it provides two of three components (growth factors and scaffolds necessary for complete tissue regeneration. The particular reason for the appearance of lesions is important in order to select an appropriate treatment method and technical application. PRP may be used for treatment of various chronic and hard-to-heal cutaneous wounds, especially when standard conventional therapy is not good enough and surgical treatment is not possible. It reduces the duration, cost of treatment and the hospital stay. There is reduction of wound pain after starting the treatment, reduced risk of blood-borne disease transmission, wound healing is restored, and local immunity is activated.

  20. PrP glycoforms are associated in a strain-specific ratio in native PrPSc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili-Shirazi, Azadeh; Summers, Linda; Linehan, Jacqueline; Mallinson, Gary; Anstee, David; Hawke, Simon; Jackson, Graham S; Collinge, John

    2005-09-01

    Prion diseases involve conversion of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC) to a disease-related isoform (PrPSc). Using recombinant human beta-PrP, a panel of monoclonal antibodies was produced that efficiently immunoprecipitated native PrPSc and recognized epitopes between residues 93-105, indicating for the first time that this region is exposed in both human vCJD and mouse RML prions. In contrast, monoclonal antibodies raised to human alpha-PrP were more efficient in immunoprecipitating PrPC than PrPSc, and some of them could also distinguish between different PrP glycoforms. Using these monoclonal antibodies, the physical association of PrP glycoforms was studied in normal brain and in the brains of humans and mice with prion disease. It was shown that while PrPC glycoforms can be selectively immunoprecipitated, the differentially glycosylated molecules of native PrPSc are closely associated and always immunoprecipitate together. Furthermore, the ratio of glycoforms comprising immunoprecipitated native PrPSc from diverse prion strains was similar to those observed on denaturing Western blots. These studies are consistent with the view that the proportion of each glycoform incorporated into PrPSc is probably controlled in a strain-specific manner and that each PrPSc particle contains a mixture of glycoforms.

  1. L-PRP/L-PRF in esthetic plastic surgery, regenerative medicine of the skin and chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslik-Bielecka, Agata; Choukroun, Joseph; Odin, Guillaume; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M

    2012-06-01

    The use of platelet concentrates for topical use is of particular interest for the promotion of skin wound healing. Fibrin-based surgical adjuvants are indeed widely used in plastic surgery since many years in order to improve scar healing and wound closure. However, the addition of platelets and their associated growth factors opened a new range of possibilities, particularly for the treatment of chronic skin ulcers and other applications of regenerative medicine on the covering tissues. In the 4 families of platelet concentrates available, 2 families were particularly used and tested in this clinical field: L-PRP (Leukocyte- and Platelet-rich Plasma) and L-PRF (Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin). These 2 families have in common the presence of significant concentrations of leukocytes, and these cells are important in the local cleaning and immune regulation of the wound healing process. The main difference between them is the fibrin architecture, and this parameter considerably influences the healing potential and the therapeutical protocol associated to each platelet concentrate technology. In this article, we describe the historical evolutions of these techniques from the fibrin glues to the current L-PRP and L-PRF, and discuss the important functions of the platelet growth factors, the leukocyte content and the fibrin architecture in order to optimize the numerous potential applications of these products in regenerative medicine of the skin. Many outstanding perspectives are appearing in this field and require further research.

  2. Assessment of efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on infraorbital dark circles and crow's feet wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehryan, Pedram; Zartab, Hamed; Rajabi, Ali; Pazhoohi, Neda; Firooz, Alireza

    2014-03-01

    Infraorbital skin hyperpigmentation, commonly called dark circles, and crow's feet wrinkles are common cosmetic concerns. Various methods of treatment have been evaluated with variable outcomes. This study was performed to assess the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection for treating periorbital dark circles and crow's feet. Ten participants with a mean age of 41.2 years were treated in a single session with intradermal injections of 1.5 mL PRP into tear trough area and crow's feet wrinkles on each side. The effects on melanin content, color homogeneity of the treated area, epidermal stratum corneum hydration, and wrinkle volume and visibility index were compared 3 months after treatment with baseline. Physician's global assessment and participants' satisfaction and any potential side effects were also assessed. The improvement in infraorbital color homogeneity was statistically significant (P = 0.010), but no statistically significant changes were observed in melanin content, stratum corneum hydration, wrinkle volume, and visibility index. Participant's satisfaction score and physician's global assessment score were 2.2 and 1.7, respectively, on a 0-3 scale. Platelet-rich plasma may have the potential to improve infraorbital dark circle in terms of color homogeneity of the region, though this remains to be proven using larger, controlled studies using multiple injections. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A simple set for ıntrauterine fetal blood transfusion constructed by readily available materials in every clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Uğur; Karasahin, Kazim Emre; Ulubay, Mustafa; Fidan, Ulaş; Gungor, Sadettin; Ergun, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Intrauterine fetal transfusion needs extensive experience and requires excellent eye-hand coordination, good equipment and experienced team workers to achieve success. While the needle is in the umbilical vein, an assistant withdraws and/or transfuses blood. The needle point should be kept still to prevent lacerations and dislodging. We propose a simple set for Intrauterine Fetal blood transfusion is constructed by readily available materials in every clinic to minimize needle tip movement and movements during syringe attachments and withdrawals during the intrauterine fetal transfusion. This makes possible to withdraw fetal blood sample, and to transfuse blood with minimal intervention.

  4. PrP(ST, a soluble, protease resistant and truncated PrP form features in the pathogenesis of a genetic prion disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Friedman-Levi

    Full Text Available While the conversion of PrP(C into PrP(Sc in the transmissible form of prion disease requires a preexisting PrP(Sc seed, in genetic prion disease accumulation of disease related PrP could be associated with biochemical and metabolic modifications resulting from the designated PrP mutation. To investigate this possibility, we looked into the time related changes of PrP proteins in the brains of TgMHu2ME199K/wt mice, a line modeling for heterozygous genetic prion disease linked to the E200K PrP mutation. We found that while oligomeric entities of mutant E199KPrP exist at all ages, aggregates of wt PrP in the same brains presented only in advanced disease, indicating a late onset conversion process. We also show that most PK resistant PrP in TgMHu2ME199K mice is soluble and truncated (PrP(ST, a pathogenic form never before associated with prion disease. We next looked into brain samples from E200K patients and found that both PK resistant PrPs, PrP(ST as in TgMHu2ME199K mice, and "classical" PrP(Sc as in infectious prion diseases, coincide in the patient's post mortem brains. We hypothesize that aberrant metabolism of mutant PrPs may result in the formation of previously unknown forms of the prion protein and that these may be central for the fatal outcome of the genetic prion condition.

  5. Synaptotagmin-1 and -7 Are Redundantly Essential for Maintaining the Capacity of the Readily-Releasable Pool of Synaptic Vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taulant Bacaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In forebrain neurons, Ca(2+ triggers exocytosis of readily releasable vesicles by binding to synaptotagmin-1 and -7, thereby inducing fast and slow vesicle exocytosis, respectively. Loss-of-function of synaptotagmin-1 or -7 selectively impairs the fast and slow phase of release, respectively, but does not change the size of the readily-releasable pool (RRP of vesicles as measured by stimulation of release with hypertonic sucrose, or alter the rate of vesicle priming into the RRP. Here we show, however, that simultaneous loss-of-function of both synaptotagmin-1 and -7 dramatically decreased the capacity of the RRP, again without altering the rate of vesicle priming into the RRP. Either synaptotagmin-1 or -7 was sufficient to rescue the RRP size in neurons lacking both synaptotagmin-1 and -7. Although maintenance of RRP size was Ca(2+-independent, mutations in Ca(2+-binding sequences of synaptotagmin-1 or synaptotagmin-7--which are contained in flexible top-loop sequences of their C2 domains--blocked the ability of these synaptotagmins to maintain the RRP size. Both synaptotagmins bound to SNARE complexes; SNARE complex binding was reduced by the top-loop mutations that impaired RRP maintenance. Thus, synaptotagmin-1 and -7 perform redundant functions in maintaining the capacity of the RRP in addition to nonredundant functions in the Ca(2+ triggering of different phases of release.

  6. ELKS controls the pool of readily releasable vesicles at excitatory synapses through its N-terminal coiled-coil domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Richard G; Liu, Changliang; Kaeser, Pascal S

    2016-06-02

    In a presynaptic nerve terminal, synaptic strength is determined by the pool of readily releasable vesicles (RRP) and the probability of release (P) of each RRP vesicle. These parameters are controlled at the active zone and vary across synapses, but how such synapse specific control is achieved is not understood. ELKS proteins are enriched at vertebrate active zones and enhance P at inhibitory hippocampal synapses, but ELKS functions at excitatory synapses are not known. Studying conditional knockout mice for ELKS, we find that ELKS enhances the RRP at excitatory synapses without affecting P. Surprisingly, ELKS C-terminal sequences, which interact with RIM, are dispensable for RRP enhancement. Instead, the N-terminal ELKS coiled-coil domains that bind to Liprin-α and Bassoon are necessary to control RRP. Thus, ELKS removal has differential, synapse-specific effects on RRP and P, and our findings establish important roles for ELKS N-terminal domains in synaptic vesicle priming.

  7. Affordable self-regulating irrigation device for microsurgery using readily available malleable wire and a Silastic tube: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeongu; Lee, Sung Ho; Ryu, Jiwook; Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Seok Keun

    2017-12-01

    A relevant irrigating and flushing maneuver during cerebral microsurgical procedures allows for a neat and optimal operative field. However, when operating on the deep region of the brain, a delicately created slim surgical corridor could unintentionally hinder the assisting surgeon from properly performing this routine maneuver. To address this problem, the authors devised a useful and convenient irrigation system that can be used during cerebral microsurgery. This system only necessitates a readily available silastic feeding tube and a malleable wire. The advantages of our devised system include the convenience of free molding, good endurance of the molded contour, and easy control over the amount of irrigation. In this report, the authors demonstrated technical tips for using this newly devised system.

  8. Protecting effect of PrP codons M142 and K222 in goats orally challenged with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fast, C.; Goldmann, W.; Berthon, P.; Tauscher, Kerstin; Andréoletti, O.; Lantier, I.; Rossignol, C.; Bossers, A.; Jacobs, J.G.; Hunter, N.; Groschup, Martin H.; Lantier, F.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Breeding towards genetic resistance to prion disease is effective in eliminating scrapie. In sheep, classical forms of scrapie have been eradicated almost completely in several countries by breeding programs using a prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP) amino acid polymorphism. For goats, field and

  9. The Healing Effects of Aquatic Activities and Allogenic Injection of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) on Injuries of Achilles Tendon in Experimental Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Hamid; Sheikhani Shahin, Homa; Norouzian, Manijeh; Mehrabani, Davood; Dehghani Nazhvani, Seifollah

    2015-01-01

    Clinical tendon injuries represent serious and unresolved issues of the case on how the injured tendons could be improved based on natural structure and mechanical strength. The aim of this studies the effect of aquatic activities and alogenic platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection in healing Achilles tendons of rats. Forty rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups. Seventy two hours after a crush lesion on Achilles tendon, group 1 underwent aquatic activity for 8 weeks (five sessions per week), group 2 received intra-articular PRP (1 ml), group 3 had aquatic activity together with injection PRP injection after an experimental tendon injury, group 4 did not receive any treatment after tendon injury and the control group with no tendon injuries. of 32 rats. After 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the tendons were transferred in 10% formalin for histological evaluation. There was a significant increase in number of fibroblast and cellular density, and collagen deposition in group 3 comparing to other groups denoting to an effective healing in injured tendons. However, there was no significant difference among the studied groups based on their tendons diameter. Based on our findings on the number of fibroblast, cellular density, collagen deposition, and tendon diameter, it was shown that aquatic activity together with PRP injection was the therapeutic measure of choice enhance healing in tendon injuries that can open a window in treatment of damages to tendons.

  10. PrP0\\0 mice show behavioral abnormalities that suggest PrPC has a role in maintaining the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Introduction. PrPC is highly conserved among mammals, but its natural function is unclear. Prnp ablated mice (PrP0/0) appear to develop normally and are able to reproduce. These observations seem to indicate that the gene is not essential for viability, in spite of it being highly conse...

  11. Multi-center study on the simultaneous administration of DPT-IPV and Hib PRP-T vaccines. Part 1. Immunogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labadie J; Sundermann LC; Rumke HC; the DPT-IPV Hib vaccine study group; LVO; LVM; LCB; LBA; LPO

    1996-01-01

    Results are presented of a multi-center clinical study into the antibody formation following two vaccination regimens with simultaneous and combined administration of DPT-IPV and Hib PRP-T vaccines. 543 infants were recruited from 42 baby clinics in Apeldoorn, Capelle and Rotterdam. The antibody

  12. Effectiveness of polyene antibiotics in treatment of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in transgenic mice expressing Syrian hamster PrP only in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaimay, R; Race, R; Chesebro, B

    1999-04-01

    To date very few drugs have favorably influenced the course of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. In previous studies, the polyene antibiotics amphotericin B (AmB) and MS-8209 prolonged the incubation time in Syrian hamsters of the 263K strain of scrapie, but AmB had no effect against other scrapie strains in Syrian hamsters. In the present experiments using transgenic mice expressing Syrian hamster PrP in neurons only, MS-8209 extended the life spans of animals infected with the 263K strain but not the DY strain. AmB was effective against both 263K and DY and prevented death in 18% of DY-infected animals. The AmB effect against strain 263K was more prominent in mice whose endogenous PrP gene had been inactivated by homologous recombination. It was unclear whether this difference was due to a change in the duration of the disease or to possible interactive effects between the mouse PrP gene and the drugs themselves. The effectiveness of treatment after intracerebral scrapie infection in transgenic mice expressing PrP only in neurons suggested that neurons are important sites of action for these drugs.

  13. Arcabouço de PRP-gel associado a células tronco mesenquimais: uso em lesões condrais em modelo experimental equino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia M. Yamada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP é conhecido por apresentar propriedades anabólicas, anti-inflamatórias e capacidade de gelificação. Atualmente o PRP é considerado eficaz na reparação da cartilagem, sendo sua capacidade de formação de gel indicada para o preenchimento de defeitos condrais. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar o uso do PRP ativado, no formato de arcabouço, como suporte para o implante de células tronco mesenquimais (CTM, no preenchimento e tratamento de lesões condrais induzidas em equinos. Doze equinos foram submetidos a uma cirurgia artroscópica no tempo zero do experimento (T0, onde foi induzida uma lesão condral de 15 mm de diâmetro na tróclea medial femoral dos membros pélvicos direito. As 12 articulações foram divididas em dois grupos distintos com seis articulações cada (GA e GB. As articulações do GA foram submetidas ao tratamento com o implante de CTM em gel de PRP. As articulações de GB foram o grupo controle do experimento. As CTMs foram extraídas do tecido adiposo e o PRP em gel foi obtido por protocolo de dupla centrifugação seguido da adição de trombina liofilizada. Após cinco meses (T150 foi realizada nova artroscopia para avaliação macroscópica do local, coleta de amostras do tecido de reparação para análises de microscopia eletrônica, sendo realizadas imagens ressonância magnética e tomografia computadorizada no local do implante no GA. Observamos que o gel de PRP associado às CTM demonstrou ser adequado no tratamento de defeitos condrais experimentais dos equinos. GA evidenciou um melhor aspecto macroscópico e microscópico do tecido de reparação, sendo que GB mostrou maior desorganização das fibras colágenas. Nas imagens de ressonância magnética e tomografia computadorizada apenas foi relevante o local da lesão condral. O arcabouço de gel de PRP demonstrou ser apropriado no suporte do tratamento com as CTMs, sendo de fácil aplicação e efetivo

  14. The MsPRP2 promoter enables strong heterologous gene expression in a root-specific manner and is enhanced by overexpression of Alfin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winicov, Ilga; Valliyodan, Babu; Xue, Lingru; Hoober, J Kenneth

    2004-10-01

    Promoter specificity and efficiency of utilization are essential for endogenous and transgene expression. Selective root expression remains to be defined in terms of both promoter elements and transcription factors that provide high levels of ubiquitous expression. We characterized expression from the MsPRP2 promoter with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter transgene in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and found that a promoter fragment (+1 to -652 bp) retained the root and callus specificity of the endogenous MsPRP2 gene and hence this promoter fragment contains elements necessary for root-specific expression. The strong ubiquitous expression obtained from this promoter was comparable to that of the CaMV 35S promoter in roots and was enhanced by transgenic overexpression of Alfin 1, a root- and callus-specific transcription factor in alfalfa. No transgenic expression was obtained in leaves with this promoter in the presence or absence of Alfin 1. The increased expression of GFP in alfalfa containing the Alfin 1 transgene confirms the function of Alfin 1 binding sites in the MsPRP2 promoter fragment and also indicates that Alfin 1 concentrations are limiting for maximal expression in calli and roots. These findings characterize the MsPRP2 promoter as a novel root- and callus-specific promoter of plant origin that can be used as an effective tool for strong root-directed gene expression. In addition, we have demonstrated that the signal sequence of MsPRP2 can be used for efficient secretion of transgene products from callus and roots.

  15. Familial CJD associated PrP mutants within transmembrane region induced Ctm-PrP retention in ER and triggered apoptosis by ER stress in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic prion diseases are linked to point and inserted mutations in the prion protein (PrP gene that are presumed to favor conversion of the cellular isoform of PrP (PrP(C to the pathogenic one (PrP(Sc. The pathogenic mechanisms and the subcellular sites of the conversion are not completely understood. Here we introduce several PRNP gene mutations (such as, PrP-KDEL, PrP-3AV, PrP-A117V, PrP-G114V, PrP-P102L and PrP-E200K into the cultured cells in order to explore the pathogenic mechanism of familial prion disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the roles of aberrant retention of PrP in endoplasmic reticulum (ER, the recombinant plasmids expressing full-length human PrP tailed with an ER signal peptide at the COOH-terminal (PrP-KDEL and PrP with three amino acids exchange in transmembrane region (PrP-3AV were constructed. In the preparations of transient transfections, 18-kD COOH-terminal proteolytic resistant fragments (Ctm-PrP were detected in the cells expressing PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV. Analyses of the cell viabilities in the presences of tunicamycin and brefeldin A revealed that expressions of PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV sensitized the transfected cells to ER stress stimuli. Western blots and RT-PCR identified the clear alternations of ER stress associated events in the cells expressing PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV that induced ER mediated apoptosis by CHOP and caspase-12 apoptosis pathway. Moreover, several familial CJD related PrP mutants were transiently introduced into the cultured cells. Only the mutants within the transmembrane region (G114V and A117V induced the formation of Ctm-PrP and caused the ER stress, while the mutants outside the transmembrane region (P102L and E200K failed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data indicate that the retention of PrP in ER through formation of Ctm-PrP results in ER stress and cell apoptosis. The cytopathic activities caused by different familial CJD associated PrP mutants may vary, among them

  16. Comparative Analysis of the Index of Success of Implantations with Osteointegrations with and without the Use of PRP, in the Protocol of Setting Análise Comparativa do Índice de Sucesso dos Implantes Osteointegrados com e sem a Utilização de PRP, no Protocolo de Fixação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Passanezi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the data gathering of 1267 dental records from CID – Center of Dental Implants in Londrina, evaluating the success and loss results of osteo-integrated implants and separating them by trademark of the implant FOB – USP and ACTIVE (this one with two types of surface: smooth and sandblasted and whether the PRP was used or not in the protocol of setting. One thousand five hundred and seventy-two implants were analyzed. In 642 of them the PRP was used in the protocol of setting and there were 16 losses which represent a success percentage of 97,51%. In 930 implants the PRP was not used and there were 66 losses, showing a success index of 92,90%. The results were discussed based on the current literature, and it was concluded that the PRP used in the protocol of implant setting leads to a loss reduction of the osteo-integrated implants, increasing the success index; the influence of the PRP in the success index of osteo-integrated implants is more significant in the maxilla than in the mandible; the PRP represents a promising material in the processes of bone reconstruction in a general sense, being its use recommended in certain situations of implant settings.   O presente trabalho refere-se ao levantamento de dados de 1267 prontuários do CID – Centro de Implantes Dentários de Londrina. Os resultados de sucessos e perdas de implantes ósseo-integrados foram anotados e, a seguir, separados por marca do implante FOB-USP e ACTIVE, este com dois tipos de superfície (lisa ou jateada. Também se verificou se houve ou não utilização de PRP no protocolo de fixação.Foi analisado o total de 1572 implantes, em 642 dos quais foi utilizado o PRP no protocolo de fixação. Ocorreram 16 perdas,representando um percentual de sucesso de 97,51%. Em 930 implantes, não foi utilizado o PRP e houve 66 perdas, demonstrando um índice de sucesso de 92,90%. Os resultados foram discutidos à luz da literatura atual, e pode-se concluir que

  17. A Readily Available, Inexpensive, and Reusable Simulation Model for Teaching Ultrasound-Guided Abscess Identification and Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augenstein, Julie A; Yoshida, Hiromi; Lo, Mark D; Solari, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The use of point-of-care ultrasonography as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for soft tissue infections has been shown to be superior to clinical judgment alone in determining the presence or absence of an occult abscess. As ultrasound-guided procedures become standard of care, there is an increasing demand to develop better and inexpensive simulation models to educate trainees. To date, there are no low-cost models for abscess simulation that can be constructed with minimal preparation time, be reused, and withstand multiple procedural attempts. To create an inexpensive, readily available, and reusable homemade ultrasound phantom that simulates a superficial soft tissue abscess and can be easily constructed. We experimented with precooked polenta to create a model that would appear similar to human soft tissue under ultrasound examination. Paintballs were embedded in the polenta and evaluated at different depths until a sonographically satisfactory phantom abscess model was obtained. The use of a precooked commercial polenta phantom and commercial paintballs required minimal preparation and closely replicated a superficial soft tissue abscess on ultrasonographic examination. Various paintball brands and sizes were evaluated to confirm ease of reproducibility. The polenta can be reshaped easily and the model may be punctured or incised multiple times. A homemade high-fidelity simulation phantom that simulates an abscess in superficial soft tissue can be made inexpensively in <5 min and reused for numerous trainees. This model allows for training for procedures such as ultrasound-guided abscess drainage. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. MicroRNA-guided processing impairs Plum pox virus replication, but the virus readily evolves to escape this silencing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón-Mateo, Carmen; García, Juan Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Since the discovery of microRNA (miRNA)-guided processing, a new type of RNA silencing, the possibility that such a mechanism could play a role in virus defense has been proposed. In this work, we have analyzed whether Plum pox virus (PPV) chimeras bearing miRNA target sequences (miR171, miR167, and miR159), which have been reported to be functional in Arabidopsis, were affected by miRNA function in three different host plants. Some of these PPV chimeras had clearly impaired infectivity compared with those carrying nonfunctional miRNA target sequences. The behaviors of PPV chimeras were similar but not identical in all the plants tested, and the deleterious effect on virus infectivity depended on the miRNA sequence cloned and on the site of insertion in the viral genome. The effect of the miRNA target sequence was drastically alleviated in transgenic plants expressing the silencing suppressor P1/HCPro. Furthermore, we show that virus chimeras readily escape RNA silencing interference through mutations within the miRNA target sequence, which mainly affected nucleotides matching the 5'-terminal region of the miRNA.

  19. A novel approach for reduction of total acidity in kerosene based on alkaline rich materials readily available in tropical and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Donkor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The inability of refineries in some nations globally to produce kerosene locally as an aviation fuel is due to its acidity. In this study the viability of selected alkaline rich ash materials (e.g. cocoa husk, cassava peels, etc. readily obtainable in tropical nations were examined for their ability to remove the acids. Fresh acidic kerosene samples were equilibrated with different ashes in predetermined ratios, filtered and characterized alongside with non-treated reference samples. Results revealed that the physicochemical properties of non-treated and treated kerosene remained the same except for conductivity, total acidity and micro-separation. The total acidity was reduced to a lowest limit than 0.015 mg KOH/g required. Treatment studies with specific masses of ashes and kerosene reduced acidity to approximately 0.00 mg KOH/g. Overall these alkaline source materials should be seen as a promising and alternative option in the systematic reduction of acidity in kerosene for aviation use.

  20. Prediction of diuretic response to tolvaptan by a simple, readily available spot urine Na/K ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Yasuyuki; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yuka; Itakura, Jun; Yasui, Yutaka; Tamaki, Nobuharu; Takada, Hitomi; Higuchi, Mayu; Gotou, Tomoyuki; Kubota, Youhei; Takaura, Kenta; Hayashi, Tsuguru; Oh, Wann; Okada, Mao; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Izumi, Namiki

    2017-01-01

    Tolvaptan is vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist that inhibits water reabsorption. It is used in combination with standard diuretics to treat ascites unresponsive to standard diuretic therapy or hyponatremia because of liver cirrhosis. This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of tolvaptan in clinical practice and aimed to determine the factors related to its effectiveness. Tolvaptan was administered to 88 consecutive cirrhotic patients with ascites unresponsive to standard diuretic therapy. An effective treatment response was a ≥2% reduction in body weight on day 7. The association of patient pretreatment characteristics with therapeutic effects was analyzed. Mean weight reduction on day 7 of tolvaptan therapy was -2.9% ± 3.2%, and treatment was effective in 52% of patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that spot urine Na/K ratio ≥2.5 at baseline was the only factor independently related to therapeutic effect, with an odds ratio of 7.85 (95% confidence interval 2.64-23.40, p = 0.0002). Weight reduction percentage on day 7 was -4.0% ± 2.8% in patients with spot urine Na/K ≥2.5, which was significantly greater than the 0.7% ± 2.7% loss in those with urine Na/K tolvaptan therapy. It is simple to perform and readily available and might serve as an indicator of optimal timing of tolvaptan administration in patients with inadequate response to conventional Na diuretic therapy.

  1. The cathepsin B inhibitor, z-FA-CMK is toxic and readily induced cell death in human T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liow, K.Y.; Chow, S.C., E-mail: chow.sek.chuen@monash.edu

    2013-11-01

    The cathepsin B inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethylketone (z-FA-CMK) was found to be toxic and readily induced cell death in the human T cell line, Jurkat, whereas two other analogs benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-fluoromethylketone (z-FA-FMK) and benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-diazomethylketone (z-FA-DMK) were not toxic. The toxicity of z-FA-CMK requires not only the CMK group, but also the presence of alanine in the P1 position and the benzyloxycarbonyl group at the N-terminal. Dose–response studies showed that lower concentrations of z-FA-CMK induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells whereas higher concentrations induced necrosis. In z-FA-CMK-induced apoptosis, both initiator caspases (-8 and -9) and effector caspases (-3, -6 and -7) were processed to their respective subunits in Jurkat T cells. However, only the pro-form of the initiator caspases were reduced in z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis and no respective subunits were apparent. The caspase inihibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-valine-alanine-aspartic acid-(O-methyl)-fluoromehylketone (z-VAD-FMK) inhibits apoptosis and caspase processing in Jurkat T cells treated with low concentration of z-FA-CMK but has no effect on z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis and the loss of initiator caspases. This suggests that the loss of initiator caspases in Jurkat T cells during z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis is not a caspase-dependent process. Taken together, we have demonstrated that z-FA-CMK is toxic to Jurkat T cells and induces apoptosis at low concentrations, while at higher concentrations the cells die of necrosis. - Highlights: • z-FA-CMK is toxic and induce cell death in the human T cells. • z-FA-CMK toxicity requires the CMK group, alanine and the benzyloxycarbonyl group. • z-FA-CMK induced apoptosis at low concentration and necrosis at high concentration.

  2. Separating direct and indirect effects of global change: a population dynamic modeling approach using readily available field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrer, Emily C; Ashton, Isabel W; Knape, Jonas; Suding, Katharine N

    2014-04-01

    Two sources of complexity make predicting plant community response to global change particularly challenging. First, realistic global change scenarios involve multiple drivers of environmental change that can interact with one another to produce non-additive effects. Second, in addition to these direct effects, global change drivers can indirectly affect plants by modifying species interactions. In order to tackle both of these challenges, we propose a novel population modeling approach, requiring only measurements of abundance and climate over time. To demonstrate the applicability of this approach, we model population dynamics of eight abundant plant species in a multifactorial global change experiment in alpine tundra where we manipulated nitrogen, precipitation, and temperature over 7 years. We test whether indirect and interactive effects are important to population dynamics and whether explicitly incorporating species interactions can change predictions when models are forecast under future climate change scenarios. For three of the eight species, population dynamics were best explained by direct effect models, for one species neither direct nor indirect effects were important, and for the other four species indirect effects mattered. Overall, global change had negative effects on species population growth, although species responded to different global change drivers, and single-factor effects were slightly more common than interactive direct effects. When the fitted population dynamic models were extrapolated under changing climatic conditions to the end of the century, forecasts of community dynamics and diversity loss were largely similar using direct effect models that do not explicitly incorporate species interactions or best-fit models; however, inclusion of species interactions was important in refining the predictions for two of the species. The modeling approach proposed here is a powerful way of analyzing readily available datasets which should be

  3. Crystallographic Studies of Prion Protein (PrP) Segments Suggest How Structural Changes Encoded by Polymorphism at Residue 129 Modulate Susceptibility to Human Prion Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostol, Marcin I.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Cascio, Duilio; Eisenberg, David (UCLA)

    2010-09-23

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in codon 129 of the human prion gene, leading to a change from methionine to valine at residue 129 of prion protein (PrP), has been shown to be a determinant in the susceptibility to prion disease. However, the molecular basis of this effect remains unexplained. In the current study, we determined crystal structures of prion segments having either Met or Val at residue 129. These 6-residue segments of PrP centered on residue 129 are 'steric zippers,' pairs of interacting {beta}-sheets. Both structures of these 'homozygous steric zippers' reveal direct intermolecular interactions between Met or Val in one sheet and the identical residue in the mating sheet. These two structures, plus a structure-based model of the heterozygous Met-Val steric zipper, suggest an explanation for the previously observed effects of this locus on prion disease susceptibility and progression.

  4. Immunohistochemistry for PrPSc in natural scrapie reveals patterns which are associated with the PrP genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiropoulos, J; Casalone, C; Caramelli, M; Simmons, M M

    2007-08-01

    Immunohistochemistry for PrPSc is used widely in scrapie diagnosis. In natural scrapie cases the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) has revealed the existence of up to 12 different morphological types of immunostained deposits. The significance of this pattern variability in relation to genotype has not been studied extensively in natural disease. In this study we recorded in detail PrPSc patterns at the obex level of the medulla oblongata from 163 animals derived from 55 flocks which presented through passive surveillance in the UK and Italy. A strong association was seen between PrPSc patterns and PrP genotype, particularly in relation to codon 136. In a blind assessment of this association we were able to predict, with over 80% accuracy, the genotype of 151 scrapie cases which were presented through passive surveillance from 13 farms. The genotype of these cases was ARQ/ARQ or VRQ/VRQ. The association of PrPsc patterns with genotype was generally stronger in those farms where all the affected animals belonged to a single genotype compared with farms where both genotypes were identified, with the exception of one farm in which the genotype of all affected sheep was ARQ/ARQ and the PrPSc patterns were of the VRQ/VRQ type. Our observations support the hypothesis that the observed association between specific IHC patterns and genotypes may in fact be strain driven but in natural disease individual scrapie strains may demonstrate a genotypic tropism.

  5. Peroxiredoxin 6 promotes upregulation of the prion protein (PrP in neuronal cells of prion-infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Wibke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been widely established that the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC into its abnormal isoform (PrPSc is responsible for the development of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. However, the knowledge of the detailed molecular mechanisms and direct functional consequences within the cell is rare. In this study, we aimed at the identification of deregulated proteins which might be involved in prion pathogenesis. Findings Apolipoprotein E and peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6 were identified as upregulated proteins in brains of scrapie-infected mice and cultured neuronal cell lines. Downregulation of PrP gene expression using specific siRNA did not result in a decrease of PRDX6 amounts. Interestingly, selective siRNA targeting PRDX6 or overexpression of PRDX6 controlled PrPC and PrPSc protein amounts in neuronal cells. Conclusions Besides its possible function as a novel marker protein in the diagnosis of TSEs, PDRX6 represents an attractive target molecule in putative pharmacological intervention strategies in the future.

  6. Immediately loaded dental implants bioactivated with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) placed in maxillary and mandibular region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchingolo, F; Ballini, A; Cagiano, R; Inchingolo, A D; Serafini, M; De Benedittis, M; Cortelazzi, R; Tatullo, M; Marrelli, M; Inchingolo, A M; Vermesan, D; Del Corso, M; Malcangi, G; Diteodoro, S; Mura, S A; Cantore, S; Cortelazzi, A; Paduanelli, G; Resta, G; Muollo, F; Cirulli, N; Pettini, F; Farronato, D; De Vito, D; Caprio, M; Haragus, H; Dipalma, G

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants have today deeply changed the dental field. In fact, after almost 50 years, the permanent placement of a titanium screw with an attached tooth have, step by step, changed the society's standard toward a permanently replacement of missed or severely damaged teeth. In fact, the host of benefits born from dental implants have affected both patients and dental professionals. The aim of the present study is to report the outcomes of an implant therapy protocol supporting fixed prostheses implanted soon after extractions and loaded with flapless guided surgery by a 3D software planning. 37 patients, requiring rehabilitation of booth dental arches with a one-to-one technique, were enrolled in a follow-up study plan which established clinical and radiological examinations on the day after surgery, seven months and one year later. Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP), in combination with autogenous bone, organic bone material and organic bone substitutes, was used before implant-prosthetic rehabilitation with an its prompt loading just before the implant insertion phase. Definitive restorations were delivered at 6-12 months after surgical procedure. One year after loading there were no dropouts and no failure of the definitive prosthesis. Furthermore, the feedback from patients resulted positive. Patients resulted satisfied both aesthetically and functionally regarding these types of prosthetic reconstructions made at the time.

  7. The AGAAAAGA palindrome in PrP is required to generate a productive PrPSc-PrPC complex that leads to prion propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, Eric M; Mastrianni, James A

    2005-07-22

    The molecular hallmark of prion disease is the conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) to an insoluble, proteinase K-resistant, pathogenic isoform (PrPSc). Once generated, PrPSc propagates by complexing with, and transferring its pathogenic conformation onto, PrPC. Defining the specific nature of this PrPSc-PrPC interaction is critical to understanding prion genesis. To begin to approach this question, we employed a prion-infected neuroblastoma cell line (ScN2a) combined with a heterologous yeast expression system to independently model PrPSc generation and propagation. We additionally applied fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis to the latter to specifically study PrP-PrP interactions. In this report we focus on an N-terminal hydrophobic palindrome of PrP (112-AGAAAAGA-119) thought to feature intimately in prion generation via an unclear mechanism. We found that, in contrast to wild type (wt) PrP, PrP lacking the palindrome (PrPDelta112-119) neither converted to PrPSc when expressed in ScN2a cells nor generated proteinase K-resistant PrP when expressed in yeast. Furthermore, PrPDelta112-119 was a dominant-negative inhibitor of wtPrP in ScN2a cells. Both wtPrP and PrPDelta112-119 were highly insoluble when expressed in yeast and produced distinct cytosolic aggregates when expressed as fluorescent fusion proteins (PrP::YFP). Although self-aggregation was evident, fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies in live yeast co-expressing PrPSc-like protein and PrPDelta112-119 indicated altered interaction properties. These results suggest that the palindrome is required, not only for the attainment of the PrPSc conformation but also to facilitate the proper association of PrPSc with PrPC to effect prion propagation.

  8. The N-terminal domain of the thermo-regulated surface protein PrpA of Enterococcus faecium binds to fibrinogen, fibronectin and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán Prieto, Ana M; Urbanus, Rolf T; Zhang, Xinglin; Bierschenk, Damien; Koekman, C Arnold; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Ouwerkerk, Janneke P; Pape, Marieke; Paganelli, Fernanda L; Wobser, Dominique; Huebner, Johannes; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; van Schaik, Willem

    2015-12-17

    Enterococcus faecium is a commensal of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, but is also found in non-enteric environments where it can grow between 10 °C and 45 °C. E. faecium has recently emerged as a multi-drug resistant nosocomial pathogen. We hypothesized that genes involved in the colonization and infection of mammals exhibit temperature-regulated expression control and we therefore performed a transcriptome analysis of the clinical isolate E. faecium E1162, during mid-exponential growth at 25 °C and 37 °C. One of the genes that exhibited differential expression between 25 °C and 37 °C, was predicted to encode a peptidoglycan-anchored surface protein. The N-terminal domain of this protein is unique to E. faecium and closely related enterococci, while the C-terminal domain is homologous to the Streptococcus agalactiae surface protein BibA. This region of the protein contains proline-rich repeats, leading us to name the protein PrpA for proline-rich protein A. We found that PrpA is a surface-exposed protein which is most abundant during exponential growth at 37 °C in E. faecium E1162. The heterologously expressed and purified N-terminal domain of PrpA was able to bind to the extracellular matrix proteins fibrinogen and fibronectin. In addition, the N-terminal domain of PrpA interacted with both non-activated and activated platelets.

  9. THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILISATION OF LIQUID MANURE AND THE PRP FIX PREPARATION ON THE YIELD AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WINTER RAPE SEEDS AND SPRING WHEAT GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Możdżer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011–2013, a field experiment was carried out at the Experimental Station of Cultivar Evaluation in Szczecin-Dąbie. The experiment aimed at determining the effect of slurry without and with addition of increasing PRP Fix preparation doses on the crop yields and some of their qualitative traits. The soil where the experiment was set up was slightly acidic (pHKCL 5.95; nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents were 0.86, 1.55 and 2.70 g·kg-1 d.m., respectively. The total content of macro-elements for this type of soil was average. The content of bioavailable forms of phosphorus, magnesium and sulphur was average, while that of potassium was high. The content of organic carbon in soil was low, while the C:N ratio was 10.2:1 and was average for that type of soils. The obtained results show that the applied fertilisation with slurry combined with PRP Fix preparation and PK fertilisation increased the yield of winter rape seeds and spring wheat grain and the content of macro-elements being examined in them. The yields of the test plants were larger in the fertilisation objects where fertilisation with slurry with addition of 8 kg PRP Fix preparation per 1 m3 slurry was applied, when compared to those where only mineral fertilisation or slurry was used. Winter rape seeds and spring wheat grain usually contained more nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and sulphur in the fertilisation objects being fertilised with slurry with PRP Fix preparation in the amount of 8 or 12 kg per 1 m3 slurry with additional PK fertilisation (experimental series II compared to experimental series I without additional PK fertilisation. Differences in the content of macro-elements in test plants after application of the fertilisation scheme being used varied. These differences were not always significant.

  10. Intraoperative application Platelet rich fibrin, postoperative injections OF PRP or microfracture only for osteochondral lesions of the knee: a five-year retrospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, R; Diaz Balzani, L; Torre, G; Tirindelli, M C; Nobile, C; Maffulli, N; Denaro, V

    2016-01-01

    Cartilage lesions are the most common cause of chronic knee pain. Micro-fracturing is reliable, effective, easy to perform and inexpensive. We propose a novel approach to cartilage lesions where microfractures are performed contextually to intra-operative or post-operative administration of platelet concentrates. We retrospectively evaluate 48 patients divided in 3 groups. Group 1: 15 patients underwent microfractures and intraoperative administration of PRF (PRF group); group 2: 16 microfractures and postoperative injections of PRP (PRP group); group 3: 17 patients with isolated microfractures (Microfractures group). Clinical scores (IKDC, VAS pain) were administered at 2 and 5 years postoperative and MRI was performed to evaluate the lesions of patients according to the MOCART criteria (2006). Patients treated with platelet concentrates achieved better clinical results compared to patients treated with microfracture only. The PRF group showed better results than the PRP group at 2 years, with loss of significance at 5 years. At MOCART score, PRF group obtained better results earlier than the other two groups.

  11. A Randomized Controlled Study of a Fully Liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T Hexavalent Vaccine for Primary and Booster Vaccinations of Healthy Infants and Toddlers in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pío; Arguedas Mohs, Adriano; Abdelnour Vásquez, Arturo; Consuelo-Miranda, Maria; Feroldi, Emmanuel; Noriega, Fernando; Jordanov, Emilia; B Chir, Siham; Zambrano, Betzana

    2017-11-01

    Hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T)-containing vaccines are increasingly the standard of care. This study evaluated the primary series (NCT01177722) and booster (NCT01444781) of a fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine in Latin America. Infants (N = 1375) received hepatitis B vaccine at birth and were randomized to one of 3 batches of the investigational DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or licensed control vaccine (DTaP-HB-IPV//PRP-T) at 2-4 to 6 months of age, coadministered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2-4-6 months) and rotavirus vaccine (2-4 months). A booster of either DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or control was given at 12-24 months, coadministered with PCV7. Immunogenicity was assessed by validated assays and safety from parental reports. Primary series seroprotection and vaccine response rates were equivalent for DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T batches. For pooled batches, noninferiority to the control vaccine was demonstrated for each antigen. There were no descriptive differences in antibody persistence or booster response between DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T and the control. The booster responses to either vaccine following DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T primary series or to DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T following a control vaccine primary series were similar. The anti-aP component (filamentous hemagglutinin [FHA] and pertussis toxin [PT]) vaccine response and anti-Haemophilus influenzae type b (PRP) series seroprotection (≥0.15 µg/mL) rates were ≥73.0% after 2 primary series doses. Antipyretics had no effect on the immune response, and an extra (oral) polio vaccination had no effect on the antipolio booster response. Responses to PCV7 and rotavirus vaccine were similar for each coadministration. There were no safety concerns observed with any vaccine. These results confirm the suitability of the fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of infants.

  12. Emergence of two prion subtypes in ovine PrP transgenic mice infected with human MM2-cortical Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Jérôme; Moudjou, Mohammed; Reine, Fabienne; Herzog, Laetitia; Jaumain, Emilie; Chapuis, Céline; Quadrio, Isabelle; Boulliat, Jacques; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Dron, Michel; Laude, Hubert; Rezaei, Human; Béringue, Vincent

    2016-02-05

    Mammalian prions are proteinaceous pathogens responsible for a broad range of fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals. These diseases can occur spontaneously, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, or be acquired or inherited. Prions are primarily formed of macromolecular assemblies of the disease-associated prion protein PrP(Sc), a misfolded isoform of the host-encoded prion protein PrP(C). Within defined host-species, prions can exist as conformational variants or strains. Based on both the M/V polymorphism at codon 129 of PrP and the electrophoretic signature of PrP(Sc) in the brain, sporadic CJD is classified in different subtypes, which may encode different strains. A transmission barrier, the mechanism of which remains unknown, limits prion cross-species propagation. To adapt to the new host, prions have the capacity to 'mutate' conformationally, leading to the emergence of a variant with new biological properties. Here, we transmitted experimentally one rare subtype of human CJD, designated cortical MM2 (129 MM with type 2 PrP(Sc)), to transgenic mice overexpressing either human or the VRQ allele of ovine PrP(C). In marked contrast with the reported absence of transmission to knock-in mice expressing physiological levels of human PrP, this subtype transmitted faithfully to mice overexpressing human PrP, and exhibited unique strain features. Onto the ovine PrP sequence, the cortical MM2 subtype abruptly evolved on second passage, thereby allowing emergence of a pair of strain variants with distinct PrP(Sc) biochemical characteristics and differing tropism for the central and lymphoid tissues. These two strain components exhibited remarkably distinct replicative properties in cell-free amplification assay, allowing the 'physical' cloning of the minor, lymphotropic component, and subsequent isolation in ovine PrP mice and RK13 cells. Here, we provide in-depth assessment of the transmissibility and evolution of one rare subtype of

  13. Use of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in stopping massive hemoptysis at the Lung Center of the Philippines: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Armand Gregorio C; Danguilan, Jose Luis J; Mariano, Zenaida M; Barzaga, Maria Teresa A

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of using autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in patients having massive hemoptysis within a period of one week. This is a prospective cohort study involving 20 consecutive patients admitted who met the criteria for massive hemoptysis from July to October 2011. After stabilizing the patient, fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) was performed for localization of bleeding within 6 hours from diagnosis. A 50mL of blood was extracted from the patient whom was to be used for autologous PRP concentrate. After identifying the anatomic site of bleeding, autologous PRP concentrate was instilled on the affected bronchus and was allowed to stay for 5 minutes after instillation. Patients were then monitored from the time the bleeding stopped in the first 24 hours, 2 days and 7 days respectively. Mean age of the study population with massive hemoptysis was 47 years old (SD 17.3). Majority of cases were male 18 out of 20 (90%) and smokers 14 (70%) with a normal BMI (75%). Identification of bleeding site was more commonly seen on the right upper lobe 9 out of 20 (45%). Overall, 14 out of 20 patients (70%) were reported to have stopped bleeding immediately. Subsequent hospital days showed that 8 out of 20 patients (40%) had no hemoptysis. However, one [1] post-tuberculosis (TB) bronchiectatic patient had recurrence of massive hemoptysis, approximately 250 mL per expectorate, expired within the 7 days observation and one patient had lobectomy on the 2nd day. The rest had non-massive hemoptysis wherein their expectorations were only streaks of blood. Moreover, there was one [1] patient who had recurrence of massive hemoptysis 1 week after autologous PRP infusion and was eventually intubated. Majority of the subjects, eleven [11] were diagnosed to have post-TB bronchiectasis. The rest of the patients were worked-up prior to operation. Overall, it was observed that the use of autologous PRP was able to stop bleeding in 40% of the study

  14. Functions for fission yeast splicing factors SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 in alternative splice-site choice and stress-specific regulated splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Melangath

    Full Text Available Budding yeast spliceosomal factors ScSlu7 and ScPrp18 interact and mediate intron 3'ss choice during second step pre-mRNA splicing. The fission yeast genome with abundant multi-intronic transcripts, degenerate splice signals and SR proteins is an apt unicellular fungal model to deduce roles for core spliceosomal factors in alternative splice-site choice, intron retention and to study the cellular implications of regulated splicing. From our custom microarray data we deduce a stringent reproducible subset of S. pombe alternative events. We examined the role of factors SpSlu7 or SpPrp18 for these splice events and investigated the relationship to growth phase and stress. Wild-type log and stationary phase cells showed ats1+ exon 3 skipped and intron 3 retained transcripts. Interestingly the non-consensus 5'ss in ats1+ intron 3 caused SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 dependent intron retention. We validated the use of an alternative 5'ss in dtd1+ intron 1 and of an upstream alternative 3'ss in DUF3074 intron 1. The dtd1+ intron 1 non-canonical 5'ss yielded an alternative mRNA whose levels increased in stationary phase. Utilization of dtd1+ intron 1 sub-optimal 5' ss required functional SpPrp18 and SpSlu7 while compromise in SpSlu7 function alone hampered the selection of the DUF3074 intron 1 non canonical 3'ss. We analysed the relative abundance of these splice isoforms during mild thermal, oxidative and heavy metal stress and found stress-specific splice patterns for ats1+ and DUF3074 intron 1 some of which were SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 dependent. By studying ats1+ splice isoforms during compromised transcription elongation rates in wild-type, spslu7-2 and spprp18-5 mutant cells we found dynamic and intron context-specific effects in splice-site choice. Our work thus shows the combinatorial effects of splice site strength, core splicing factor functions and transcription elongation kinetics to dictate alternative splice patterns which in turn serve as an additional

  15. Autologous US-guided PRP injection versus US-guided focal extracorporeal shock wave therapy for chronic lateral epicondylitis: A minimum of 2-year follow-up retrospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio-Mazzola, Mattia; Repetto, Ilaria; Biti, Besmir; Trentini, Roberto; Formica, Matteo; Felli, Lamberto

    2018-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two independent groups of patients treated with ultrasound (US)-guided extracorporeal shock wave (ESW) therapy and with US-guided injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for chronic lateral epicondylitis (LE) with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. We retrospectively evaluated 63 patients treated for chronic LE (31 patients with autologous US-guided PRP injection and 32 patients with US-guided focal ESW therapy) from 2009 to 2014. All the patients were evaluated by means of Roles-Maudsley (RM) score, quick Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) score, visual analogic scale (VAS) and patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE) to retrospectively assess the pain relief, level of activity, the self-reported function and subjective satisfaction at minimum of 2-year follow-up. Both US-guided autologous PRP injection and US-guided focal ESW administration proved effective in chronic LE with significant improvement in the QuickDASH, VAS, RM and PRTEE scores ( p 0.05). The mean time between treatment and symptom resolution was significantly shorter for the PRP treatment ( p = 0.0212); furthermore, the mean time to return to the normal activities was quicker for PRP group ( p = 0.0119). Both PRP injection and ESW therapy are feasible and safe options for the treatment of chronic LE with low risk of complications and with good long-term follow-up results. US-guided PRP injection has quick efficacy when compared with US-guided focal ESW therapy.

  16. Selection Role on Configuration of Resistance / Susceptibility Degree to Scrapie and on Genetic Diversity at PrP Locus in the Botosani Karakul Sheep Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hrinca

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The molecular-genetic profiles from the determinant locus of scrapie have been described in the Botosani Karakul breed. Sheep belonged to two farm types: elite farm from Research and Development Station for Sheep and Goat Breeding, Popauti-Botosani and several production farms of some private farmers. The two farm types differ between them by selective specificities; in the farm elite the selection pressure is stronger and the selection criteria applied to sheep have been more accuracy than in the production farms. Sheep genotyping at the PrP locus was achieved by the Real-Time PCR method. By framing the individuals in risk classes concerning the prion disease, there were identified significant differences between the two farm types in terms of resistance / susceptibility to scrapie of sheep. The elite farm population is significantly advantaged as regards the molecular-genetic endowment at the PrP locus and low probability converting of the PrPc normal protein in the PrPSc pathogenic isomorph compared to the population of production farms. The reasons for the different associations of prion genotypes with morbid phenomenon intensity in the two farm types must be sought exclusively in the characteristics of selection systems applied to the animals in each farm type. From the standpoint of informational statistics, there is a high degree of genetic similarity at the PrP locus between the two populations. Contrary to expectations, the genetic diversity of prion structures is more developed in the elite farm than in the production farms. The knowing importance of prion profiles was revealed  in pursuit of genetic and veterinary prophylaxis of the sheep populations.

  17. Association of laser phototherapy with PRP improves healing of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws in cancer patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marco Antonio T; Martins, Manoela D; Lascala, Cesar A; Curi, Marcos M; Migliorati, César A; Tenis, Carlos A; Marques, Márcia M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the effect of three different treatments on the healing outcome of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) in cancer patients. Twenty-two cancer patients were treated for BRONJ with one of the following protocols: clinical (pharmacological therapy), surgical (pharmacological plus surgical therapy), or PRP plus LPT (pharmacological plus surgical plus platelet rich plasma (PRP) plus laser phototherapy (LPT). The laser treatment was applied with a continuous diode laser (InGaAlP, 660 nm) using punctual and contact mode, 40 mW, spot size 0.042 cm(2), 6 J/cm(2) (6 s) and total energy of 0.24 J per point. The irradiations were performed on the exposed bone and surrounding soft tissue. The analysis of demographic data and risk factors was performed by gathering the following information: age, gender, primary tumor, bisphosphonate (BP) used, duration of BP intake, history of chemotherapy, use of steroids, and medical history of diabetes. The association between the current state of BRONJ (with or without bone exposure) and other qualitative variables was determined using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test. In all tests, the significance level adopted was 5%. Most BRONJ lesions occurred in the mandible (77%) after tooth extraction (55%) and in women (72%). A significantly higher percentage of patients reached the current state of BRONJ without bone exposure (86%) in the PPR plus LPT group than in the pharmacological (0%) and surgical (40%) groups after 1-month follow-up assessment. These results suggest that the association of pharmacological therapy and surgical therapy with PRP plus LPT significantly improves BRONJ healing in oncologic patients. Although prospective studies with larger sample sizes are still needed, this preliminary study may be used to inform a better-designed future study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Regenerative endodontic treatment of an immature tooth with a necrotic pulp and apical periodontitis using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, G S; Sachdeva, L T; Goel, M; Bala, S

    2015-09-01

    To report the successful clinical and radiographic outcome of a regenerative endodontic treatment. A 16-year-old male patient presented with a discoloured, maxillary left lateral incisor with a necrotic pulp. Radiographic examination revealed an incompletely developed root with an open apex. Under local anaesthesia and rubber dam isolation, an access cavity was prepared and the necrotic pulpal remnants were removed. The canal was disinfected without mechanical instrumentation with 5.25% NaOCl solution and dried with sterile paper points. A triple antibiotic (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline) mixed with distilled water was packed in the canal and left for 28 days. Ten millimetres of whole blood was drawn by venipuncture from the patients antecubital vein for preparation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). After removal of the antibiotic mixture, the PRP was injected into the canal space up to the cementoenamel junction level. Three millimetres of white MTA was placed directly over the PRP clot. Two days later, the tooth was restored with permanent filling materials. The patient was recalled for 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months clinical/radiographic follow-up. A 3-year follow-up radiograph revealed resolution of the periapical lesion, increased thickening of the root walls, further root development and continued apical closure of the root apex. The tooth was not responsive to cold tests; however, sensitivity tests with an electric pulp tester (EPT) elicited a delayed positive response. Regeneration is a viable treatment modality that allows continued root development of immature teeth with open apices and necrotic pulps. Platelet-rich plasma appears to be a suitable scaffold for regeneration of vital tissues in teeth with a necrotic pulps and an associated periapical lesion. Regenerative endodontic procedures may offer an effective treatment option to save teeth with compromised structural integrity. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley

  19. Inside-out and standard vein grafts associated with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in sciatic nerve repair. A histomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, José Sidney; Pomini, Karina Torres; Buchaim, Rogério Leone; Buchaim, Daniela Vieira; Andreo, Jesus Carlos; Roque, Domingos Donizeti; Rodrigues, Antonio de Castro; Rosa, Geraldo Marco; Moraes, Luis Henrique Rapucci; Viterbo, Fausto

    2017-08-01

    To evaluated the tubulization technique with standard and inside-out vein, filled or not with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), in sciatic nerve repair. Seventy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: IOVNF (Inside-Out Vein with No Filling); IOVPRP (Inside-Out Vein filled with PRP); SVNF (Standard Vein with No Filling); SVPRP (Standard Vein filled with PRP); Sham (Control). The left external jugular vein was used as graft in a 10 mm nervous gap. In the morphological analysis of all groups, myelinated nerve fibers with evident myelin sheath, neoformation of the epineurium and perineurium, organization of intraneural fascicles and blood vessels were observed. In the morphometry of the distal stump fibers, SVPRP group had the highest means regarding fiber diameter (3.63±0.42 μm), axon diameter (2.37±0.31 μm) and myelin sheath area (11.70±0.84 μm2). IOVPRP group had the highest means regarding axon area (4.39±1.16 μm2) and myelin sheath thickness (0.80±0.19 μm). As for values of the fiber area, IOVNF group shows highest means (15.54±0.67 μm2), but are still lower than the values of the Sham group. The graft filled with platelet-rich plasma, with use standard (SVPRP) or inside-out vein (IOVPRP), promoted the improvement in axonal regeneration on sciatic nerve injury.

  20. Efficacy of Platelet-Rich-Plasma (PRP and Highly Purified Bovine Xenograft (Laddec® Combination in Bone Regeneration after Cyst Enucleation: Radiological and Histological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Pappalardo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding platelet-rich plasma (PRP to a new highly purified bovine allograft (Laddec® in the bone regeneration of cystic bony defects augmented following cystectomy.Material and Methods: Study sample included 20 patients undergoing cystectomy in which the bone defect was filled with PRP and Laddec®. All patients were examined with periapical radiographs before operation and at follow-up. After 3 months, at re-entry surgery for implant placement, bone core was taken for histological and histomorphometric analysis.Results: The postoperative successive radiographs showed a good regeneration of bone in the height of bony defects with application of PRP to bone graft. By the first postoperative month, about 48% of the defect was filled, which gradually increased in each month and showed about 90% of defect-fill by 6 months. Histological and histomorphometric analysis, showed a significant presence of bone tissue and vessels, with newly formed bone in contact with anorganic bone particles. The mean volume of vital bone was 68 ± 1.6% and the mean percentage of vital bone was 48 ± 2.4%. The mean percentage of inorganic particles in tissues was 20 ± 1.2% of the total volume. All the samples analyzed did not evidence the presence of inflammatory cells.Conclusions: The results of this study showed how the use of Laddec® in association with platelet-rich plasma allows bone regeneration and has a potential for routine clinical use for regeneration of cystic bony defects.

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF APPLYING THE METHOD PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP FOR THE TREATMENT OF PROBLEMATIC SKIN WOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To show analysis of the results of applying the method platelet-rich plasma (PRP for the treatment of problematic skin wounds. The paper’s objective is to prove its reliability and relevance, to evaluate its efficiency and applicability to Bulgarian patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Out of a total of 154 hospitalized patients with problematic skin wounds 83 have been treated with platelet-rich plasma, comprising the Experimental group (EG, and 71 patients with similar wounds have been treated by using traditional methods for the respective pathology at the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Vessel and Plastic Surgery Department, comprising the Control Group (CG. Data on the condition of monitored symptoms of researched cases was collected for the research. A variable is defined for every symptom and its value and weight is correspondingly introduced. Scores introduced by Cancela AM are used for the assessment of the respective wound. Each of these scores is used for assessing specific wound parameters: Total Wound Score (TWS; total anatomic score (TAS of wound and Total Score of Wound data (TSWD. RESULTS: Analysis of variance was performed to achieve the objectives and solve the research tasks; variables containing information on initial and final data from each series of experiments have been analyzed in order to determine basic numerical characteristics of variables, and by comparative analysis to check how they tend to vary in experimental (EG and control (CG group. Statistical survey shows that the platelet-rich plasma method gives significant results when treating problematic skin wounds leading to full recovery as compared to traditional methods typical for the pathology. The graphical interpretation allows to identify forecast relations between assessed aspects of problematic wounds and weeks of treatment. CONCLUSION: By analyzing the results of our study we can conclude that the use of platelet-rich plasma to treat

  2. Mouse Prion Protein (PrP) Segment 100 to 104 Regulates Conversion of PrPC to PrPSc in Prion-Infected Neuroblastoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hideyuki; Okemoto-Nakamura, Yuko; Shinkai-Ouchi, Fumiko; Hanada, Kentaro; Yamakawa, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by the replicative propagation of disease-associated forms of prion protein (PrPSc; PrP refers to prion protein). The propagation is believed to proceed via two steps; the initial binding of the normal form of PrP (PrPC) to PrPSc and the subsequent conversion of PrPC to PrPSc. We have explored the two-step model in prion-infected mouse neuroblastoma (ScN2a) cells by focusing on the mouse PrP (MoPrP) segment 92-GGTHNQWNKPSKPKTN-107, which is within a region previously suggested to be part of the binding interface or shown to differ in its accessibility to anti-PrP antibodies between PrPC and PrPSc. Exchanging the MoPrP segment with the corresponding chicken PrP segment (106-GGSYHNQKPWKPPKTN-121) revealed the necessity of MoPrP residues 99 to 104 for the chimeras to achieve the PrPSc state, while segment 95 to 98 was replaceable with the chicken sequence. An alanine substitution at position 100, 102, 103, or 104 of MoPrP gave rise to nonconvertible mutants that associated with MoPrPSc and interfered with the conversion of endogenous MoPrPC. The interference was not evoked by a chimera (designated MCM2) in which MoPrP segment 95 to 104 was changed to the chicken sequence, though MCM2 associated with MoPrPSc. Incubation of the cells with a synthetic peptide composed of MoPrP residues 93 to 107 or alanine-substituted cognates did not inhibit the conversion, whereas an anti-P8 antibody recognizing the above sequence in PrPC reduced the accumulation of PrPSc after 10 days of incubation of the cells. These results suggest the segment 100 to 104 of MoPrPC plays a key role in conversion after binding to MoPrPSc. PMID:22398286

  3. Uso de matrices biodegradables enriquecidas con PRP, para restitución inmediata de volumen y regeneración tisular

    OpenAIRE

    Peluffo, Eugenio José

    2012-01-01

    Se plantea un ensayo clínico a fin de determinar la utilidad de una matriz estructural biodegradable (ME, en trámite de licencia de patente) enriquecida con fibrina y/o plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP) para restitución de volumen y regeneración tisular. Consta de dos fases. La primera in vitro, donde se definen las características físicas y químicas de la matriz estructural. La segunda, in vivo, que consiste en el análisis de la matriz enriquecida implantada en el tejido subcutáneo abdominal de...

  4. Effectiveness of Polyene Antibiotics in Treatment of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in Transgenic Mice Expressing Syrian Hamster PrP Only in Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Demaimay, Remi; Race, Richard; Chesebro, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    To date very few drugs have favorably influenced the course of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. In previous studies, the polyene antibiotics amphotericin B (AmB) and MS-8209 prolonged the incubation time in Syrian hamsters of the 263K strain of scrapie, but AmB had no effect against other scrapie strains in Syrian hamsters. In the present experiments using transgenic mice expressing Syrian hamster PrP in neurons only, MS-8209 extended the life spans of animals infected with the 263K...

  5. A naturally occurring C-terminal fragment of the prion protein (PrP) delays disease and acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of PrPSc formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergard, Laura; Turnbaugh, Jessie A; Harris, David A

    2011-12-23

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) undergoes constitutive proteolytic cleavage between residues 111/112 to yield a soluble N-terminal fragment (N1) and a membrane-anchored C-terminal fragment (C1). The C1 fragment represents the major proteolytic fragment of PrPC in brain and several cell types. To explore the role of C1 in prion disease, we generated Tg(C1) transgenic mice expressing this fragment (PrP(Δ23-111)) in the presence and absence of endogenous PrP. In contrast to several other N-terminally deleted forms of PrP, the C1 fragment does not cause a spontaneous neurological disease in the absence of endogenous PrP. Tg(C1) mice inoculated with scrapie prions remain healthy and do not accumulate protease-resistant PrP, demonstrating that C1 is not a substrate for conversion to PrPSc (the disease-associated isoform). Interestingly, Tg(C1) mice co-expressing C1 along with wild-type PrP (either endogenous or encoded by a second transgene) become ill after scrapie inoculation, but with a dramatically delayed time course compared with mice lacking C1. In addition, accumulation of PrPSc was markedly slowed in these animals. Similar effects were produced by a shorter C-terminal fragment of PrP(Δ23-134). These results demonstrate that C1 acts as dominant-negative inhibitor of PrPSc formation and accumulation of neurotoxic forms of PrP. Thus, C1, a naturally occurring fragment of PrPC, might play a modulatory role during the course of prion diseases. In addition, enhancing production of C1, or exogenously administering this fragment, represents a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of prion diseases.

  6. The composition of readily available carbon sources produced by fermentation of fish faeces is affected by dietary protein:energy ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Letelier-Gordo, Carlos Octavio; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    , 17, 19, 21 and 23 g/MJ) to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ethanol during 7 days fermentation of the produced fish faeces. The total yields of VFAs and ethanol obtained (expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD)) ranged between 0.21–0.24 g...... of acetic and valeric acid. Changing the diet composition thus affects the composition of readily available carbon that can be derived from the faeces. This can be applied to enhance on-farm single sludge denitrification and reduce the need for adding external carbon sources such as e.g. methanol....

  7. X Chromosome Inactivation and Differentiation Occur Readily in ES Cells Doubly-Deficient for MacroH2A1 and MacroH2A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasijevic, Borko; Rasmussen, Theodore P.

    2011-01-01

    Macrohistones (mH2As) are unusual histone variants found exclusively in vertebrate chromatin. In mice, the H2afy gene encodes two splice variants, mH2A1.1 and mH2A1.2 and a second gene, H2afy2, encodes an additional mH2A2 protein. Both mH2A isoforms have been found enriched on the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in differentiated mammalian female cells, and are incorporated into the chromatin of developmentally-regulated genes. To investigate the functional significance of mH2A isoforms for X chromosome inactivation (XCI), we produced male and female embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines with stably-integrated shRNA constructs that simultaneously target both mH2A1 and mH2A2. Surprisingly, we find that female ESCs deficient for both mH2A1 and mH2A2 readily execute and maintain XCI upon differentiation. Furthermore, male and female mH2A-deficient ESCs proliferate normally under pluripotency culture conditions, and respond to several standard differentiation procedures efficiently. Our results show that XCI can readily proceed with substantially reduced total mH2A content. PMID:21738686

  8. Highly integrated flow assembly for automated dynamic extraction and determination of readily bioaccessible chromium(VI) in soils exploiting carbon nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosende, Maria; Miro, Manuel; Cerda, Victor [University of the Balearic Islands, Department of Chemistry, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Segundo, Marcela A.; Lima, Jose L.F.C. [University of Porto, REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    An automated dynamic leaching test integrated in a portable flow-based setup is herein proposed for reliable determination of readily bioaccessible Cr(VI) under worst-case scenarios in soils containing varying levels of contamination. The manifold is devised to accommodate bi-directional flow extraction followed by processing of extracts via either in-line clean-up/preconcentration using multi-walled carbon nanotubes or automatic dilution at will, along with Cr(VI) derivatization and flow-through spectrophotometric detection. The magnitude of readily mobilizable Cr(VI) pools was ascertained by resorting to water extraction as promulgated by current standard leaching tests. The role of carbon nanomaterials for the uptake of Cr(VI) in soil leachates and the configuration of the packed column integrated in the flow manifold were investigated in detail. The analytical performance of the proposed system for in vitro bioaccessibility tests was evaluated in chromium-enriched soils at environmentally relevant levels and in a standard reference soil material (SRM 2701) with a certified value of total hexavalent chromium. The automated method was proven to afford unbiased assessment of water-soluble Cr(VI) in soils as a result of the minimization of the chromium species transformation. By combination of the kinetic leaching profile and a first-order leaching model, the water-soluble Cr(VI) fraction in soils was determined in merely 6 h against >24 h taken in batchwise steady-state standard methods. (orig.)

  9. Facile Access to Twisted Intramolecular Charge-Transfer Fluorogens Bearing Highly Pretwisted Donor-Acceptor Systems Together with Readily Fine-Tuned Charge-Transfer Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanju; Wang, Yan; Chen, Shiqi; Wang, Ning; Qi, Yige; Zhang, Xiaogen; Yang, Minghui; Huang, Yan; Li, Ming; Yu, Junsheng; Luo, Daibing; Lu, Zhiyun

    2017-05-01

    Twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) fluorogens bearing highly pretwisted geometries and readily-fine-tuned charge-transfer characters are quite promising sensor and electroluminescence (EL) materials. In this study, by using 4-aryloxy-1,8-naphthalimide derivatives as the molecular framework, it is demonstrated for the first time that a CO bond could serve as the central bond to construct new TICT D-A systems. Photophysical and quantum chemical studies confirm that rotation around central CO bonds is responsible for the formation of a stable TICT state in these compounds. More importantly, owing to the structural adjustability of the aryl moiety and the strong steric interactions between the naphthalimide and the aryl ring systems, these compounds can display readily-fine-tuned TICT characters, hence exhibiting an adjustable solvent polarity threshold for aggregation-induced emission (AIE) activity, and could be AIE-active even in less-polar toluene and nonpolar cyclohexane. Furthermore, these compounds could possess highly-pretwisted ground-state geometries, hence could show good EL performance. The findings reveal a facile but effective molecular constructive strategy for versatile, high-performance optoelectronic TICT compounds. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Comparison of the Effect of PRP, PRF and Induced Bleeding in the Revascularization of Teeth with Necrotic Pulp and Open Apex: A Triple Blind Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankar, Vasundara Yayathi; Johns, Dexton Antony; Maroli, Ramesh Kumar; Sekar, Mahalaxmi; Chandrasekaran, Rathinavel; Karthikeyan, Shanmugavel; Renganathan, Senthil Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Treatment of a tooth with necrotic pulp and open apex is a special challenge to the clinicians. Apexification with calcium hydroxide and MTA barrier technique fails to induce continued root maturation which makes the tooth susceptible to root fracture. Hence, an ideal outcome for such a tooth should be regeneration of pulp like tissue into the root canal capable of continuing normal root maturation. This study aims to compare the effect of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF), induced bleeding technique and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in the revascularization of tooth with necrotic pulp and open apex. The main objectives of the study were to: (a) Radiographically evaluate the continuation of root development, increase in the dentin wall thickness and narrowing of canal space, apical closure and resolution of the periapical lesion; and to (b) To clinically evaluate the response to pulp sensibility testing and response to percussion and palpation tests. Sixty patients (6 to 28 years) with necrotic immature permanent tooth were randomly categorised into three groups after the root canal disinfection procedure. PRF as scaffolding material (Group A: n=20), revascularization with conventional induced bleeding technique (Group B: n=20), and PRP as the biomaterial (Group C: n=20). The primary outcome variable was measured using Periapical Index (PAI) (for periapical healing), Chen and Chen index (for apical responses), Schei's ruler (for root lengthening and root thickening) and other clinical parameters. The Chi-square test was used to interpret the data among the three groups at the end of 12 months for the variables root lengthening and lateral wall thickness. ANOVA test was performed to compare the mean of the PAI scores of the three groups at preoperative stage and 12 months. If statistically significant, Bonferroni test was done to compare the outcome among the three groups. The significant level was set at prevascularization of a non vital immature permanent tooth.

  11. Polymorphism of the PrP prion protein gene in Polish Merino and old-type Polish Merino from Brylewo flock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niżnikowski Roman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on Polish Merino (143♀ and 39♂ and old-type Polish Merino sheep (176♀ and 61♂ in Brylewo flock (Wielkopolskie Province. The examined sheep were at the age of one year. Prion protein (PrP genotype was determined in all animals. In both breeds four alleles (ARR, ARQ, AHQ, VRQ were found. Highly significant effect of breed and insignificant impact of gender within breed was observed in regard to the frequency of occurrence of alleles and genotypes susceptible to classical scrapie in the sheep. Eight different PrP genotypes in Polish Merino and nine genotypes in old-type Polish Merino were identified. Very high frequency of ARR/ARR genotype in old-type Polish Merino and high frequency of ARR/ARQ genotype in Polish Merino were found, with relatively significant frequency of occurrence of the genotypes containing VRQ allele. In old-type Polish Merino, three animals (of both genders had VRQ/VRQ genotype. Breeding work involving elimination of animals encoding valine at codon 136, and introduction of rams with ARR allele to the population increased the frequency of occurrence of ARR/ARR genotype and ARR allele in the population of old-type Polish Merino. To improve the distribution of the genotypes genetically resistant to scrapie in the flock of Polish Merino only rams with ARR/ARR genotype were left. This guarantees an increase in the frequency of occurrence of genotypes genetically resistant to scrapie in the offspring.

  12. Reliable and accurate point-based prediction of cumulative infiltration using soil readily available characteristics: A comparison between GMDH, ANN, and MLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    Developing accurate and reliable pedo-transfer functions (PTFs) to predict soil non-readily available characteristics is one of the most concerned topic in soil science and selecting more appropriate predictors is a crucial factor in PTFs' development. Group method of data handling (GMDH), which finds an approximate relationship between a set of input and output variables, not only provide an explicit procedure to select the most essential PTF input variables, but also results in more accurate and reliable estimates than other mostly applied methodologies. Therefore, the current research was aimed to apply GMDH in comparison with multivariate linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) to develop several PTFs to predict soil cumulative infiltration point-basely at specific time intervals (0.5-45 min) using soil readily available characteristics (RACs). In this regard, soil infiltration curves as well as several soil RACs including soil primary particles (clay (CC), silt (Si), and sand (Sa)), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), bulk (Db) and particle (Dp) densities, organic carbon (OC), wet-aggregate stability (WAS), electrical conductivity (EC), and soil antecedent (θi) and field saturated (θfs) water contents were measured at 134 different points in Lighvan watershed, northwest of Iran. Then, applying GMDH, MLR, and ANN methodologies, several PTFs have been developed to predict cumulative infiltrations using two sets of selected soil RACs including and excluding Ks. According to the test data, results showed that developed PTFs by GMDH and MLR procedures using all soil RACs including Ks resulted in more accurate (with E values of 0.673-0.963) and reliable (with CV values lower than 11 percent) predictions of cumulative infiltrations at different specific time steps. In contrast, ANN procedure had lower accuracy (with E values of 0.356-0.890) and reliability (with CV values up to 50 percent) compared to GMDH and MLR. The results also revealed

  13. Differentiating between difficult-to-remediate and readily remediated poor readers: more evidence against the IQ-achievement discrepancy definition of reading disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellutino, F R; Scanlon, D M; Lyon, G R

    2000-01-01

    In this article we discuss research bearing on the traditional use of the IQ-achievement discrepancy to define specific reading disability. We initially review the evidence presented by Rutter and Yule (1975) in support of this practice, and then discuss results from subsequent studies that have questioned the reliability of their findings. We also discuss results from more recent studies demonstrating that the IQ-achievement discrepancy does not reliably distinguish poor from normal readers, whereas language-based measures do reliably distinguish these groups. We highlight results from a study we recently completed, in which it was found that IQ scores did not differentiate between poor readers who were found to be readily remediated and poor readers who were difficult to remediate. In view of the convergent evidence against the use of IQ scores to define specific reading disability, we suggest that the IQ-achievement discrepancy definition of this disorder be discarded.

  14. Syntaxin 1B, but not syntaxin 1A, is necessary for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis and of the readily releasable pool at central synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Mishima

    Full Text Available Two syntaxin 1 (STX1 isoforms, HPC-1/STX1A and STX1B, are coexpressed in neurons and function as neuronal target membrane (t-SNAREs. However, little is known about their functional differences in synaptic transmission. STX1A null mutant mice develop normally and do not show abnormalities in fast synaptic transmission, but monoaminergic transmissions are impaired. In the present study, we found that STX1B null mutant mice died within 2 weeks of birth. To examine functional differences between STX1A and 1B, we analyzed the presynaptic properties of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses in STX1B null mutant and STX1A/1B double null mutant mice. We found that the frequency of spontaneous quantal release was lower and the paired-pulse ratio of evoked postsynaptic currents was significantly greater in glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses of STX1B null neurons. Deletion of STX1B also accelerated synaptic vesicle turnover in glutamatergic synapses and decreased the size of the readily releasable pool in glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. Moreover, STX1A/1B double null neurons showed reduced and asynchronous evoked synaptic vesicle release in glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. Our results suggest that although STX1A and 1B share a basic function as neuronal t-SNAREs, STX1B but not STX1A is necessary for the regulation of spontaneous and evoked synaptic vesicle exocytosis in fast transmission.

  15. Nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento de úlceras crónicas mediante PRF-Vivostat®: Serie de 10 casos Our experience in the treatment of chronic ulcers by PRP-Vivostat®: Series of 10 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Monclús Fuertes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pretendemos mostrar nuestra experiencia clínica en el manejo de úlceras crónicas de distinta etiología, mediante tratamiento conservador con gel rico en fibrina autóloga más factores de crecimiento plaquetarios o PRP, experiencia que reafirma los buenos resultados obtenidos en estudios anteriores referentes a Cirugía Plástica, Estética y Reparadora El hecho diferencial de nuestro estudio es el trato de las lesiones única y exclusivamente con PRP, sin otros tratamientos adyuvantes como es habitual en otros estudios acerca de este tema Entre los años 2002 y 2007 tratamos con PRP 10 pacientes con historia de fallo en los tratamientos convencionales, con una edad media de 65.6 años. Se realizaron entre 3 y 5 sesiones por paciente, espaciadas por una semana. El método de obtención elegido fue el sistema VIVOSTAT® (MBA Group. Se realizó un control fotográfico en cada sesión. Realizamos un seguimiento visual de las lesiones (pretratamiento- postratamiento, valorándolas según una modificación de la escala de Valbonesi et al a la que llamamos "Escala de Zaragoza", siendo el resultado pobre en 1 paciente, regular en 2, bueno en 5 y excelente en 2. El uso de PRP para úlceras crónicas en pacientes refractarios a otro tipo de tratamientos, tanto conservadores como quirúrgicos, es actualmente una alternativa real para conseguir una mejoría evidente e incluso la curación completa de las lesiones.The aim of this study is to evaluate our clinical experience in the management of chronic ulcers by conservative treatment with autologous fibrin-rich gel further platelet growth factors or PRP. This experience reaffirms the good results obtained in earlier studies relating to Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery; moreover, the strength of our study is the use of PRP as the only treatment of such injuries, without other adjuvant treatments as usual in other works on this topic. From 2002 to 2007, we treated with PRP 10 patients with a

  16. Faithful mRNA splicing depends on the Prp19 complex subunit faint sausage and is required for tracheal branching morphogenesis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwald, Julia; Soneson, Charlotte; Robinson, Mark D; Luschnig, Stefan

    2017-02-15

    Morphogenesis requires the dynamic regulation of gene expression, including transcription, mRNA maturation and translation. Dysfunction of the general mRNA splicing machinery can cause surprisingly specific cellular phenotypes, but the basis for these effects is not clear. Here, we show that the Drosophila faint sausage (fas) locus, which is implicated in epithelial morphogenesis and has previously been reported to encode a secreted immunoglobulin domain protein, in fact encodes a subunit of the spliceosome-activating Prp19 complex, which is essential for efficient pre-mRNA splicing. Loss of zygotic fas function globally impairs the efficiency of splicing, and is associated with widespread retention of introns in mRNAs and dramatic changes in gene expression. Surprisingly, despite these general effects, zygotic fas mutants show specific defects in tracheal cell migration during mid-embryogenesis when maternally supplied splicing factors have declined. We propose that tracheal branching, which relies on dynamic changes in gene expression, is particularly sensitive for efficient spliceosome function. Our results reveal an entry point to study requirements of the splicing machinery during organogenesis and provide a better understanding of disease phenotypes associated with mutations in general splicing factors. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Changes in allele and genotype frequencies of PrP gene in breeds of sheep in Slovakia between 2004 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Margetín

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to analyze the changes in allele and genotype frequencies of PrP gene in auction purebred rams of various breeds in Slovakia between 2004 and 2015. Male genotyping was done within the National Scrapie Eradication Programme by the certified laboratories. Positive changes in all breeds were found during the analyzed period. As a result of strict positive selection for ARR allele and strict negative selection for VRQ and ARQ alleles in most numerous Improved Valachian (IV and Tsigai (TS breeds, 94.7 % (IV and 95.7 % (TS of animals were included in the first and second risk (R1 and R2 groups in 2015. Frequencies of ARR allele were above 0.9 in specialized meat breeds. In Lacaune breed, frequencies of ARR, ARQ and VRQ alleles were 0.896, 0.117 and 0.003 in 2015. All purebred East Friesian males were included in R1 and R2 groups in 2015.

  18. GHRH, PRP-PACAP and GHRHR Target Sequencing via an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine Reveals an Association with Growth in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH and the receptor, GHRHR, constitute important components of the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis and act on the downstream growth hormone (GH. PACAP-related peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PRP-PACAP is a paralog of GHRH. These genes all play key roles in development and growth patterns. To improve the quality of cultured fish strains, natural genetic variation must be examined and understood. A mixed linear model has been widely used in association mapping, taking the population structures and pairwise kinship patterns into consideration. In this study, a mass cross population of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides was examined. These candidate genes were found to harbor low nucleotide diversity (θw from 0.00154 to 0.00388 and linkage disequilibrium levels (delay of 50% within 2 kbp. Association mapping was employed, and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (KR269823.1:g.475A>C and KR269823.1:g.2143T>C were found to be associated with growth (false discovery rate Q < 0.05, explaining 9.0%–17.0% of the phenotypic variance. The association of KR269823.1:g.2143T>C was also found via haplotype-based association (p < 0.05. The identified associations offer new insights into gene functions, and the associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may be used for breeding purposes.

  19. The Immunogenicity and Safety of a Combined DTaP-IPV//Hib Vaccine Compared with Individual DTaP-IPV and Hib (PRP~T) Vaccines: a Randomized Clinical Trial in South Korean Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Han; Lee, Hoan Jong; Kim, Kyung Hyo; Oh, Sung Hee; Cha, Sung Ho; Lee, Jin; Kim, Nam Hee; Eun, Byung Wook; Kim, Chang Hwi; Hong, Young Jin; Kim, Hyun Hee; Lee, Kyung Yil; Kim, Yae Jean; Cho, Eun Young; Kim, Hee Soo; Guitton, Fabrice; Ortiz, Esteban

    2016-09-01

    Recommended infant vaccination in Korea includes DTaP-IPV and Hib vaccines administered as separate injections. In this randomized, open, controlled study we assessed the non-inferiority of immunogenicity of DTaP-IPV//Hib pentavalent combination vaccine (Pentaxim™) compared with licensed DTaP-IPV and Hib (PRP~T) vaccines. We enrolled 418 healthy Korean infants to receive either separate DTaP-IPV and Hib vaccines (n = 206) or the pentavalent DTaP-IPV//Hib (n = 208) vaccine at 2, 4, 6 months of age. Antibodies to all components were measured before the first vaccination and one month after the third, and safety was assessed after each vaccination including recording of reactions by parents. We confirmed the non-inferiority of DTaP-IPV//Hib compared with DTaP-IPV and Hib vaccines; 100% of both groups achieved seroprotection against D, T, IPV and PRP~T, and 97.5%-99.0% demonstrated seroresponses to pertussis antigens. Antibody levels were similar in both groups, except for those to the Hib component, PRP~T. In separate and combined groups geometric mean concentrations of anti-PRP~T antibodies were 23.9 and 11.0 μg/mL, respectively, but 98.3% and 97.4% had titers ≥ 1 μg/mL, indicative of long-term protection. All vaccines were well tolerated, with no vaccine-related serious adverse event. Both groups had similar safety profiles, but the combined vaccine group had fewer injection site reactions. The immunological non-inferiority and similar safety profile of DTaP-IPV//Hib vaccine to separate DTaP-IPV and Hib vaccines, with the advantage of fewer injections and injection site reactions, supports the licensure and incorporation of DTaP-IPV//Hib into the Korean national vaccination schedule (Clinical trial registry, NCT01214889).

  20. Current knowledge and perspectives for the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in oral and maxillofacial surgery part 1: Periodontal and dentoalveolar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Corso, Marco; Vervelle, Alain; Simonpieri, Alain; Jimbo, Ryo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Sammartino, Gilberto; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M

    2012-06-01

    Platelet concentrates for surgical use are innovative tools of regenerative medicine, and were widely tested in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Unfortunately, the literature on the topic is contradictory and the published data are difficult to sort and interpret. In periodontology and dentoalveolar surgery, the literature is particularly dense about the use of the various forms of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) - Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP) or Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma (L-PRP) - but still limited about Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) subfamilies. In this first article, we describe and discuss the current published knowledge about the use of PRP and PRF during tooth avulsion or extraction, mucogingival surgery, Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) or bone filling of periodontal intrabony defects, and regeneration of alveolar ridges using Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR), in a comprehensive way and in order to avoid the traps of a confusing literature and to highlight the underlying universal mechanisms of these products. Finally, we particularly insist on the perspectives in this field, through the description and illustration of the systematic use of L-PRF (Leukocyte- and Platelet- Rich Fibrin) clots and membranes during tooth avulsion, cyst exeresis or the treatment of gingival recessions by root coverage. The use of L-PRF also allowed to define new therapeutic principles: NTR (Natural Tissue Regeneration) for the treatment of periodontal intrabony lesions and Natural Bone Regeneration (NBR) for the reconstruction of the alveolar ridges. In periodontology, this field of research will soon find his golden age by the development of user-friendly platelet concentrate procedures, and the definition of new efficient concepts and clinical protocols.

  1. Cobalt(III) Werner Complexes with 1,2-Diphenylethylenediamine Ligands: Readily Available, Inexpensive, and Modular Chiral Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalysts for Enantioselective Organic Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kyle G; Ghosh, Subrata K; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai; Gladysz, John A

    2015-03-25

    In the quest for new catalysts that can deliver single enantiomer pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals, chemists have extensively mined the "chiral pool", with little in the way of inexpensive, readily available building blocks now remaining. It is found that Werner complexes based upon the D3 symmetric chiral trication [Co(en)3](3+) (en = 1,2-ethylenediamine), which features an earth abundant metal and cheap ligand type, and was among the first inorganic compounds resolved into enantiomers 103 years ago, catalyze a valuable carbon-carbon bond forming reaction, the Michael addition of malonate esters to nitroalkenes, in high enantioselectivities and without requiring inert atmosphere conditions. The title catalysts, [Co((S,S)-dpen)3](3+) ((S,S)-3 (3+)) 3X(-), employ a commercially available chiral ligand, (S,S)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine. The rates and ee values are functions of the configuration of the cobalt center (Λ/Δ) and the counteranions, which must be lipophilic to solubilize the trication in nonaqueous media. The highest enantioselectivities are obtained with Λ and 2Cl(-)BArf (-), 2BF4 (-)BArf (-), or 3BF4 (-) salts (BArf (-) = B(3,5-C6H3(CF3)2)4 (-)). The substrates are not activated by metal coordination, but rather by second coordination sphere hydrogen bonding involving the ligating NH2 groups. Crystal structures and NMR data indicate enthalpically stronger interactions with the NH moieties related by the C3 symmetry axis, as opposed to those related by the C2 symmetry axes; rate trends and other observations suggest this to be the catalytically active site. Both Λ- and Δ-(S,S)-3 (3+) 2Cl(-)BArf (-) are effective catalysts for additions of β-ketoesters to RO2CN=NCO2R species (99-86% yields, 81-76% ee), which provide carbon-nitrogen bonds and valuable precursors to α-amino acids.

  2. RIM1 and RIM2 redundantly determine Ca2+ channel density and readily releasable pool size at a large hindbrain synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yunyun; Babai, Norbert; Kaeser, Pascal; Südhof, Thomas C; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The localization and density of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels at active zones are essential for the amount and kinetics of transmitter release at synapses. RIM proteins are scaffolding proteins at the active zone that bind to several other presynaptic proteins, including voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel α-subunits. The long isoforms of RIM proteins, which contain NH2-terminal Rab3- and Munc13-interacting domains, as well as a central PDZ domain and two COOH-terminal C2 domains, are encoded by two genes, Rim1 and Rim2. Here, we used the ideal accessibility of the large calyx of Held synapse for direct presynaptic electrophysiology to investigate whether the two Rim genes have redundant, or separate, functions in determining the presynaptic Ca(2+) channel density, and the size of a readily releasable vesicle pool (RRP). Quantitative PCR showed that cochlear nucleus neurons, which include calyx of Held generating neurons, express both RIM1 and RIM2. Conditional genetic inactivation of RIM2 at the calyx of Held led to a subtle reduction in presynaptic Ca(2+) current density, whereas deletion of RIM1 was ineffective. The release efficiency of brief presynaptic Ca(2+) "tail" currents and the RRP were unaffected in conditional single RIM1 and RIM2 knockout (KO) mice, whereas both parameters were strongly reduced in RIM1/2 double KO mice. Thus, despite a somewhat more decisive role for RIM2 in determining presynaptic Ca(2+) channel density, RIM1 and RIM2 can overall replace each other's presynaptic functions at a large relay synapse in the hindbrain, the calyx of Held. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. MicroRNA-224 is Readily Detectable in Urine of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus and is a Potential Indicator of Beta-Cell Demise

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    Siobhán Bacon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA are a class of non-coding, 19–25 nucleotide RNA critical for network-level regulation of gene expression. miRNA serve as paracrine signaling molecules. Using an unbiased array approach, we previously identified elevated levels of miR-224 and miR-103 to be associated with a monogenic form of diabetes; HNF1A-MODY. miR-224 is a novel miRNA in the field of diabetes. We sought to explore the role of miR-224 as a potential biomarker in diabetes, and whether such diabetes-associated-miRNA can also be detected in the urine of patients. Absolute levels of miR-224 and miR-103 were determined in the urine of n = 144 individuals including carriers of a HNF1A mutation, participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and normal controls. Expression levels were correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters. miR-224 was significantly elevated in the urine of carriers of a HNF1A mutation and participants with T1DM. miR-103 was highly expressed in urine across all diabetes cohorts when compared to controls. For both miR-224 and-103, we found a significant correlation between serum and urine levels (p < 0.01. We demonstrate that miRNA can be readily detected in the urine independent of clinical indices of renal dysfunction. We surmise that the differential expression levels of miR-224 in both HNF1A-MODY mutation carriers and T1DM may be an attempt to compensate for beta-cell demise.

  4. MicroRNA-224 is Readily Detectable in Urine of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus and is a Potential Indicator of Beta-Cell Demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Siobhán; Engelbrecht, Britta; Schmid, Jasmin; Pfeiffer, Shona; Gallagher, Ross; McCarthy, Ailbhe; Burke, Marie; Concannon, Caoimhín; Prehn, Jochen H M; Byrne, Maria M

    2015-06-23

    MicroRNA (miRNA) are a class of non-coding, 19-25 nucleotide RNA critical for network-level regulation of gene expression. miRNA serve as paracrine signaling molecules. Using an unbiased array approach, we previously identified elevated levels of miR-224 and miR-103 to be associated with a monogenic form of diabetes; HNF1A-MODY. miR-224 is a novel miRNA in the field of diabetes. We sought to explore the role of miR-224 as a potential biomarker in diabetes, and whether such diabetes-associated-miRNA can also be detected in the urine of patients. Absolute levels of miR-224 and miR-103 were determined in the urine of n = 144 individuals including carriers of a HNF1A mutation, participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and normal controls. Expression levels were correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters. miR-224 was significantly elevated in the urine of carriers of a HNF1A mutation and participants with T1DM. miR-103 was highly expressed in urine across all diabetes cohorts when compared to controls. For both miR-224 and-103, we found a significant correlation between serum and urine levels (p < 0.01). We demonstrate that miRNA can be readily detected in the urine independent of clinical indices of renal dysfunction. We surmise that the differential expression levels of miR-224 in both HNF1A-MODY mutation carriers and T1DM may be an attempt to compensate for beta-cell demise.

  5. Experimental Infection of Sheep at 45 and 60 Days of Gestation with Schmallenberg Virus Readily Led to Placental Colonization without Causing Congenital Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; De Regge, Nick; Cay, Brigitte; Saegerman, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background Main impact of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) on livestock consists in reproductive disorders, with teratogenic effects, abortions and stillbirths. SBV pathogenesis and viral placental crossing remain currently poorly understood. Therefore, we implemented an experimental infection of ewes, inoculated with SBV at 45 or 60 days of gestation (dg). Methodology “Mourerous” breed ewes were randomly separated in three groups: eight and nine ewes were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 ml of SBV infectious serum at 45 and 60 dg, respectively (G45 and G60). Six other ewes were inoculated subcutaneously with sterile phosphate buffer saline as control group. All SBV inoculated ewes showed RNAemia consistent with previously published studies, they seroconverted and no clinical sign was reported. Lambs were born at term via caesarian-section, and right after birth they were blood sampled and clinically examined. Then both lambs and ewes were euthanatized and necropsied. Principal Findings/Significance No lambs showed any malformation suggestive of SBV infection and none of them had RNAemia or anti-SBV antibodies prior to colostrum uptake. Positive SBV RNA detection in organs was rare in both G45 and G60 lambs (2/11 and 1/10, respectively). Nevertheless most of the lambs in G45 (9/11) and G60 (9/10) had at least one extraembryonic structure SBV positive by RTqPCR. The number of positive extraembryonic structures was significantly higher in G60 lambs. Time of inoculation (45 or 60 dg) had no impact on the placental colonization success rate but affected the frequency of detecting the virus in the offspring extraembryonic structures by the time of lambing. SBV readily colonized the placenta when ewes were infected at 45 or 60 dg but infection of the fetuses was limited and did not lead to congenital malformations. PMID:26418420

  6. Effects of in vivo applications of peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (PB-MSCs) and platlet-rich plasma (PRP) on experimentally injured deep digital flexor tendons of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinello, Tiziana; Bronzini, Ilaria; Perazzi, Anna; Testoni, Stefania; De Benedictis, Gulia Maria; Negro, Alessandro; Caporale, Giovanni; Mascarello, Francesco; Iacopetti, Ilaria; Patruno, Marco

    2013-02-01

    Tendon injuries, degenerative tendinopathies, and overuse tendinitis are common in races horses. Novel therapies aim to restore tendon functionality by means of cell-based therapy, growth factor delivery, and tissue engineering approaches. This study examined the use of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells derived from peripheral blood (PB-MSCs), platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and a combination of both for ameliorating experimental lesions on deep digital flexor tendons (DDFT) of Bergamasca sheep. In particular, testing the combination of blood-derived MSCs and PRP in an experimental animal model represents one of the few studies exploring a putative synergistic action of these treatments. Effectiveness of treatments was evaluated at 30 and 120 days comparing clinical, ultrasonographic, and histological features together with immunohistochemical expression of collagen types 1 and 3, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Significant differences were found between treated groups and their corresponding controls (placebo) regarding tendon morphology and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. However, our results indicate that the combined use of PRP and MSCs did not produce an additive or synergistic regenerative response and highlighted the predominant effect of MSCs on tendon healing, enhanced tissue remodeling and improved structural organization. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  7. Remote Forensics May Bring the Next Sea Change in E-discovery: Are All Networked Computers Now Readily Accessible Under the Revised Federal Rules of Civil Procedure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AleJoseph J. Schwerha

    2008-09-01

    on geographically dispersed computers remotely.  That process, in general, is often defined as remote forensics. The question is now whether newly available remote forensic solution indicate that all networked computers are readily accessible under the current state of the law.  This article attempts to define remote forensics, examines a selection of applicable court decisions, and then analyzes the currently available commercial software packages that allow remote forensics.

  8. Dendritic cell-mediated-immunization with xenogenic PrP and adenoviral vectors breaks tolerance and prolongs mice survival against experimental scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Bruley Rosset

    Full Text Available In prion diseases, PrP(c, a widely expressed protein, is transformed into a pathogenic form called PrP(Sc, which is in itself infectious. Antibodies directed against PrP(c have been shown to inhibit PrP(c to PrP(Sc conversion in vitro and protect in vivo from disease. Other effectors with potential to eliminate PrPSc-producing cells are cytotoxic T cells directed against PrP-derived peptides but their ability to protect or to induce deleterious autoimmune reactions is not known. The natural tolerance to PrP(c makes difficult to raise efficient adaptive responses. To break tolerance, adenovirus (Ad encoding human PrP (hPrP or control Ad were administered to wild-type mice by direct injection or by transfer of Ad-transduced dendritic cells (DCs. Control Ad-transduced DCs from Tg650 mice overexpressing hPrP were also used for immunization. DC-mediated but not direct administration of AdhPrP elicited antibodies that bound to murine native PrP(c. Frequencies of PrP-specific IFNgamma-secreting T cells were low and in vivo lytic activity only targeted cells strongly expressing hPrP. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CD3(+ T cell infiltration was similar in the brain of vaccinated and unvaccinated 139A-infected mice suggesting the absence of autoimmune reactions. Early splenic PrP(Sc replication was strongly inhibited ten weeks post infection and mean survival time prolonged from 209 days in untreated 139A-infected mice to 246 days in mice vaccinated with DCs expressing the hPrP. The efficacy appeared to be associated with antibody but not with cytotoxic cell-mediated PrP-specific responses.

  9. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF): surgical adjuvants, preparations for in situ regenerative medicine and tools for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Tomasz; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M

    2012-06-01

    The recent developement of platelet concentrate for surgical use is an evolution of the fibrin glue technologies used since many years. The initial concept of these autologous preparations was to concentrate platelets and their growth factors in a plasma solution, and to activate it into a fibrin gel on a surgical site, in order to improve local healing. These platelet suspensions were often called Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) like the platelet concentrate used in transfusion medicine, but many different technologies have in fact been developed; some of them are even no more platelet suspensions, but solid fibrin-based biomaterials called Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF). These various technologies were tested in many different clinical fields, particularly oral and maxillofacial surgery, Ear-Nose-Throat surgery, plastic surgery, orthopaedic surgery, sports medicine, gynecologic and cardiovascular surgery and ophthalmology. This field of research unfortunately suffers from the lack of a proper accurate terminology and the associated misunderstandings, and the literature on the topic is quite contradictory. Indeed, the effects of these preparations cannot be limited to their growth factor content: these products associate many actors of healing in synergy, such as leukocytes, fibrin matrix, and circulating progenitor cells, and are in fact as complex as blood itself. If platelet concentrates were first used as surgical adjuvants for the stimulation of healing (as fibrin glues enriched with growth factors), many applications for in situ regenerative medicine and tissue engineering were developed and offer a great potential. However, the future of this field is first dependent on his coherence and scientific clarity. The objectives of this article is to introduce the main definitions, problematics and perspectives that are described in this special issue of Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology about platelet concentrates.

  10. Current knowledge and perspectives for the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in oral and maxillofacial surgery part 2: Bone graft, implant and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonpieri, Alain; Del Corso, Marco; Vervelle, Alain; Jimbo, Ryo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Sammartino, Gilberto; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M

    2012-06-01

    Platelet concentrates for surgical use are innovative tools of regenerative medicine, and were widely tested in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Unfortunately, the literature on the topic is contradictory and the published data are difficult to sort and interpret. In bone graft, implant and reconstructive surgery, the literature is particularly dense about the use of the various forms of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) - Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP) or Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma (L-PRP) - but still limited about Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) subfamilies. In this second article, we describe and discuss the current published knowledge about the use of PRP and PRF during implant placement (particularly as surface treatment for the stimulation of osseointegration), the treatment of peri-implant bone defects (after peri-implantitis, during implantation in an insufficient bone volume or during immediate post-extraction or post-avulsion implantation), the sinuslift procedures and various complex implant-supported treatments. Other potential applications of the platelet concentrates are also highlighted in maxillofacial reconstructive surgery, for the treatment of patients using bisphosphonates, anticoagulants or with post-tumoral irradiated maxilla. Finally, we particularly insist on the perspectives in this field, through the description and illustration of the use of L-PRF (Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin) clots and membranes during the regeneration of peri-implant bone defects, during the sinus-lift procedure and during complex implant-supported rehabilitations. The use of L-PRF allowed to define a new therapeutic concept called the Natural Bone Regeneration (NBR) for the reconstruction of the alveolar ridges at the gingival and bone levels. As it is illustrated in this article, the NBR principles allow to push away some technical limits of global implant-supported rehabilitations, particularly when combined with other powerful biotechnological tools

  11. Interaction of the human prion PrP(106-126) sequence with copper(II), manganese(II), and zinc(II): NMR and EPR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggelli, Elena; Bernardi, Francesca; Molteni, Elena; Pogni, Rebecca; Valensin, Daniela; Valensin, Gianni; Remelli, Maurizio; Luczkowski, Marek; Kozlowski, Henryk

    2005-01-26

    The synthetic peptide encompassing residues 106-126 (PrP106-126, KTNMKHMAGAAAAGAVVGGLG) of the human prion protein was considered for its binding properties toward copper(II), manganese(II) and zinc(II) at pH 5.7. 1H and 13C 1D spectra, 1H spin-lattice relaxation rates, and 1H-15N and 1H-13C HSQC 2D experiments were obtained in the absence and in the presence of metal ions. While Zn(II) was found to yield negligible effects upon any NMR parameter, metal-peptide association was demonstrated by the paramagnetic effects of Cu(II) and Mn(II) upon 1D and 2D spectra. Delineation of structures of metal complexes was sought by interpreting the paramagnetic effect on 1H spin-lattice relaxation rates. Exchange of peptide molecules from the metal coordination sphere was shown to provide sizable contribution to the observed relaxation rates. Such contribution was calculated in the case of Cu(II); whereas the faster paramagnetic rates of peptide molecules bound to Mn(II) were determining spin-lattice relaxation rates almost exclusively dominated by exchange. Proton-metal distances were therefore evaluated in the case of the Cu(II) complex only and used as restraints in molecular dynamics calculations where from the structure of the complex was obtained. The peptide was shown to bind copper through the imidazole nitrogen and the ionized amide nitrogen of His-111 and the amino-terminal group with the terminal carboxyl stabilizing the coordination sphere through ionic interactions. The data were interpreted as to demonstrate that the hydrophobic C-terminal region was not affecting the copper-binding properties of the peptide and that this hydrophobic tail is left free to interact with other target molecules. As for the complex with Mn(II), qualitative information was obtained on carbonyl oxygens of Gly-124 and Leu-125, beyond the terminal Gly-126 carboxyl, being at close distance from the metal ion, that also interacts, most likely, through a hydrogen bond of metal-bound water

  12. The effect of a gelatin β-tricalcium phosphate sponge loaded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), bone morphogenic protein-2, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on equine articular cartilage defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Nao; Seo, Jong-pil; Yamada, Kazutaka; Haneda, Shingo; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the curative efficacy of a gelatin β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) sponge loaded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) by insertion into an experimentally induced osteochondral defect. A hole of 10 mm diameter and depth was drilled in the bilateral medial femoral condyles of 7 thoroughbred horses, and into each either a loaded sponge (treatment) or a saline-infused β-TCP sponge (control) was inserted. After 16 weeks, defects were examined by computed tomography, macroscopic analyses, and histological analyses. The median subchondral bone density and macroscopic subscores for joint healing were significantly higher in the treatment legs (P < 0.05). Although there was no significant difference in total histological scores between groups, hyaline cartilaginous tissue was observed across a wider area in the treatment group. Equine joint healing can be enhanced by inserting a BMP-2-, MSC-, and PRP-impregnated β-TCP sponge at the lesion site. PMID:24155448

  13. Classification of platelet concentrates (Platelet-Rich Plasma-PRP, Platelet-Rich Fibrin-PRF) for topical and infiltrative use in orthopedic and sports medicine: current consensus, clinical implications and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Andia, Isabel; Zumstein, Matthias A; Zhang, Chang-Qing; Pinto, Nelson R; Bielecki, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Platelet concentrates for topical and infiltrative use - commonly termed Platetet-Rich Plasma (PRP) or Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) - are used or tested as surgical adjuvants or regenerative medicine preparations in most medical fields, particularly in sports medicine and orthopaedic surgery. Even if these products offer interesting therapeutic perspectives, their clinical relevance is largely debated, as the literature on the topic is often confused and contradictory. The long history of these products was always associated with confusions, mostly related to the lack of consensual terminology, characterization and classification of the many products that were tested in the last 40 years. The current consensus is based on a simple classification system dividing the many products in 4 main families, based on their fibrin architecture and cell content: Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP), such as the PRGF-Endoret technique; Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma (LPRP), such as Biomet GPS system; Pure Platelet-Rich Fibrin (P-PRF), such as Fibrinet; Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (L-PRF), such as Intra-Spin L-PRF. The 4 main families of products present different biological signatures and mechanisms, and obvious differences for clinical applications. This classification serves as a basis for further investigations of the effects of these products. Perspectives of evolutions of this classification and terminology are also discussed, particularly concerning the impact of the cell content, preservation and activation on these products in sports medicine and orthopaedics.

  14. Combined immunogenicity data for a new DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine (Hexaxim) following primary series administration at 2, 4, 6 months of age in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Lima, Eduardo; B'Chir, Siham; Lane, Andrew

    2013-02-18

    The immunogenicity of a primary series of a new, fully liquid DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine (Hexaxim), administered at 2, 4, 6 months of age in four clinical studies is reviewed. Immunogenicity data at 1 month after the third vaccination were assessed and pooled from a total of 1270 participants (per-protocol population) in four randomized clinical trials in Argentina, Mexico, and Peru. Hepatitis B vaccine was not administered at birth. All seroprotection (D, T, polio-1, -2, -3, Hep B, PRP-T [Hib]), seroconversion (PT and FHA), and vaccine response (PT and FHA) data were high, and were similar to licensed comparators (pooled SP, SC, and VR rates were 97.1-100%, 96.0-97.0%, and 99.7-99.9%, respectively). These data show the good immunogenicity of this new hexavalent vaccine that can provide the opportunity to increase global compliance to complex pediatric vaccination schedules. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Plasma (L-PRP) Versus Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) For Articular Cartilage Repair of the Knee: A Comparative Evaluation in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Davoud; Fakhrjou, Ashraf

    2015-10-01

    Articular cartilage injuries of the knee are among the most debilitating injuries leading to osteoarthritis due to limited regenerative capability of cartilaginous tissue. The use of platelet concentrates containing necessary growth factors for cartilage healing has recently emerged as a new treatment method. The efficacy of two types of different platelet concentrates were compared in the treatment of acute articular cartilage injuries of the knee in an animal model. Eighteen adult Iranian mixed breed male dogs were used to conduct this experimental study. Full thickness articular cartilage defects (diameter 6 mm, depth 5 mm) were created in the weight bearing area of femoral condyles of both hind limbs in all dogs (n = 72). Twelve dogs were randomly selected to receive treatment and their right and left hind limb defects were treated by L-PRP and L-PRF implantation respectively, while no treatment was undertaken in six other dogs as controls. The animals were euthanized at 4, 16 and 24 weeks following surgery and the resultant repair tissue was investigated macroscopically and microscopically. At each sampling time, 4 treated dogs and 2 control dogs were euthanized, therefore 8 defects per group were evaluated. Mean macroscopic scores of the treated defects were higher than the controls at all sampling times with significant differences (P L-PRF treated and control defects (10.13 vs. 8.37) and L-PRP treated and control defects (10 vs. 8.5) at 4 and 16 weeks, respectively. A similar trend in mean total microscopic scores was observed with a significant difference (P L-PRF could be used to effectively promote the healing of articular cartilage defects of the knee.

  16. Safety and immunogenicity of an investigational fully liquid hexavalent DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine at two, four and six months of age compared with licensed vaccines in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Mercedes; Lanata, Claudio F; Zambrano, Betzana; Gil, Ana I; Amemiya, Isabel; Mispireta, Monica; Ecker, Lucie; Santos-Lima, Eduardo

    2012-08-01

    This trial assessed the safety of a fully liquid investigational hexavalent DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine containing 10 μg Hansenula polymorpha-derived recombinant hepatitis B (hep B) antigen for primary vaccination of infants at 2, 4 and 6 months of age compared with licensed comparators. Participants received the DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine (group 1, N = 1422) or licensed DTwP-Hep B//Hib (Tritanrix-Hep B/Hib) and oral poliovirus vaccines (group 2, N = 711). The incidence of severe fever (≥ 39.6°C rectal equivalent) in the 2 groups was compared statistically; reactogenicity was evaluated from parental reports. Anti-Hep B antibody titers were measured in a subset of participants (no hepatitis B vaccination at birth) 1 month after dose 3. The investigational vaccine was well tolerated. After any dose, fever (rectal equivalent temperature ≥ 38°C) was observed in 74.8% and 92.7% of participants in groups 1 and 2; severe fever was observed in 4.0% and 5.5% of participants. Solicited injection site and systemic reactions were numerically less frequent in group 1 than group 2, although this difference was not assessed statistically. In both groups, all participants included in the immunogenicity analysis achieved anti-Hep B ≥ 10 mIU/mL and ≥ 96.2% of participants achieved anti-Hep B ≥ 100 mIU/mL, although geometric mean titer was approximately 3-fold lower for the investigational vaccine. This new, fully liquid acellular pertussis hexavalent vaccine demonstrated less reactogenicity than the licensed comparator whole cell pertussis vaccine and was highly immunogenic for the new Hep B valence.

  17. Rapid estimation of readily leachable triazine residues in soils using automatic kinetic bioaccessibility assays followed by on-line sorptive clean-up as a front-end to liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Ana C F; Cocovi-Solberg, David J; Zagatto, Elias A G; Miró, Manuel

    2016-08-15

    An automatic batchwise bioaccessibility test was proposed for on-line monitoring of readily mobile pools of ametryn and atrazine residues in agricultural soils with different physicochemical properties. A 0.01molL(-1) CaCl2 solution mimicking rainwater percolation through the soil profiles was used for the herbicide extractions. The extract aliquots were successively sampled at regular time intervals in order to investigate the extraction kinetics. For extract clean-up and retention of freely dissolved target species, 30mg of restricted-access like copolymer were used as in-line sorptive material followed by elution with methanol and on-line heart-cut injection towards a C18 silica reversed-phase monolithic column (100×4.6mm) in a liquid chromatographic system. A mathematical model emphasized that the readily available pools vs time can be in most instances described by a first-order exponential equation, thus an asymptotical value is approached. Consequently, the leaching assays can be performed without attaining chemical equilibrium. Enhancement factors and detection limits were 10.2 and 18.8, and 0.40 and 0.37mgkg(-1) for ametryn and atrazine, respectively. The automatic method features good repeatability for leaching tests (r.s.d.: 11.8-10.2% for sandy and 3.7-6.2% for clayey soil). Reliable data, demonstrated with relative recoveries in the soil leachates ranging from 86 to 104%, were achieved in less than 35min, thus avoiding the need for up to 24h as recommended by standard leaching methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of a Web-Based Guided Recommendation Service for a Curated List of Readily Available Mental Health and Well-Being Mobile Apps for Young People: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidargaddi, Niranjan; Musiat, Peter; Winsall, Megan; Vogl, Gillian; Blake, Victoria; Quinn, Stephen; Orlowski, Simone; Antezana, Gaston; Schrader, Geoffrey

    2017-05-12

    Mental disorders are highly prevalent for the people who are aged between 16 and 25 years and can permanently disrupt the development of these individuals. Easily available mobile health (mHealth) apps for mobile phones have great potential for the prevention and early intervention of mental disorders in young adults, but interventions are required that can help individuals to both identify high-quality mobile apps and use them to change health and lifestyle behavior. The study aimed to assess the efficacy of a Web-based self-guided app recommendation service ("The Toolbox") in improving the well-being of young Australians aged between 16 and 25 years. The intervention was developed in collaboration with young adults and consists of a curated list of 46 readily available health and well-being apps, assessed and rated by professionals and young people. Participants are guided by an interactive quiz and subsequently receive recommendations for particular apps to download and use based on their personal goals. The study was a waitlist, parallel-arm, randomized controlled trial. Our primary outcome measure was change in well-being as measured by the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF). We also employed ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) to track mood, energy, rest, and sleep. Participants were recruited from the general Australian population, via several Web-based and community strategies. The study was conducted through a Web-based platform consisting of a landing Web page and capabilities to administer study measures at different time points. Web-based measurements were self-assessed at baseline and 4 weeks, and EMAs were collected repeatedly at regular weekly intervals or ad hoc when participants interacted with the study platform. Primary outcomes were analyzed using linear mixed-models and intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. A total of 387 participants completed baseline scores and were randomized into the trial. Results demonstrated no significant

  19. Efficacy of a Web-Based Guided Recommendation Service for a Curated List of Readily Available Mental Health and Well-Being Mobile Apps for Young People: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiat, Peter; Winsall, Megan; Vogl, Gillian; Blake, Victoria; Quinn, Stephen; Orlowski, Simone; Antezana, Gaston; Schrader, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Background Mental disorders are highly prevalent for the people who are aged between 16 and 25 years and can permanently disrupt the development of these individuals. Easily available mobile health (mHealth) apps for mobile phones have great potential for the prevention and early intervention of mental disorders in young adults, but interventions are required that can help individuals to both identify high-quality mobile apps and use them to change health and lifestyle behavior. Objectives The study aimed to assess the efficacy of a Web-based self-guided app recommendation service (“The Toolbox”) in improving the well-being of young Australians aged between 16 and 25 years. The intervention was developed in collaboration with young adults and consists of a curated list of 46 readily available health and well-being apps, assessed and rated by professionals and young people. Participants are guided by an interactive quiz and subsequently receive recommendations for particular apps to download and use based on their personal goals. Methods The study was a waitlist, parallel-arm, randomized controlled trial. Our primary outcome measure was change in well-being as measured by the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF). We also employed ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) to track mood, energy, rest, and sleep. Participants were recruited from the general Australian population, via several Web-based and community strategies. The study was conducted through a Web-based platform consisting of a landing Web page and capabilities to administer study measures at different time points. Web-based measurements were self-assessed at baseline and 4 weeks, and EMAs were collected repeatedly at regular weekly intervals or ad hoc when participants interacted with the study platform. Primary outcomes were analyzed using linear mixed-models and intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Results A total of 387 participants completed baseline scores and were randomized into the

  20. Simple and commercial readily-available approach for the direct use of ionic liquid-based single-drop microextraction prior to gas chromatography determination of chlorobenzenes in real water samples as model analytical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisvert, Alberto; Román, Iván P; Vidal, Lorena; Canals, Antonio

    2009-02-27

    A simple and commercial readily-available approach that enables the direct use of ionic liquid (IL)-based single-drop microextraction (SDME) prior to gas chromatography (GC) is presented. The approach is based on thermal desorption (TD) of the analytes from the IL droplet to the GC system, by using a robust and commercially-available thermodesorption system. For this purpose, a two-glass-tube concentrically disposed system was designed. The inner tube is a laboratory-cut Pyrex tube (20mm length) that houses the ionic liquid droplet from the SDME process, and the outer tube is a commercially-available TD glass tube (187 mm length) commonly employed for stir-bar sorptive extractions (SBSE). In this way, the proposed device prevents IL from entering the GC system, as this could dirty the inlet or even block the column. The determination of 10 chlorobenzenes in water samples by GC coupled with mass spectrometric (MS) detection has been chosen as model analytical application, showing the feasibility of the proposed approach. The SDME process consists of a 5 microL droplet of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C6MIM][PF6]) suspended in the headspace (HS) of a 10 mL stirred sample. After extracting for 37 min at room temperature, the IL droplet is directly placed into the small inner tube, which is placed into the TD tube. The whole device is placed inside the TD unit, where desorption of the analytes is performed at 240 degrees C for 5 min with a helium flow rate of 100 mL min(-1). The analytical figures of merit of the proposed IL-(HS)-SDME-TD-GC-MS approach are very suitable for the determination of chlorobenzenes at ultratrace levels, with relative standard deviation values ranging between 2% and 17%, and limits of detection ranging between 1 and 4 ng L(-1), showing the potential offered by the IL-based SDME process with GC.

  1. Feasibility study of the immunogenicity and safety of a novel DTPw/Hib (PRP-T Brazilian combination compared to a licensed vaccine in healthy children at 2, 4, and 6 months of age Estudo de viabilidade de imunogenicidade e segurança de uma nova vacina brasileira combinada DTPw/Hib (PRP-T, comparada com uma vacina registrada, em crianças de 2, 4 e 6 meses de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SueAnn Costa Clemens

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination of infants with conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines has been proven to reduce Hib meningitis by 95% and pneumoniae by 20%. The routine use of Hib vaccine is facilitated by the introduction of combination vaccines into the EPI (Expanded Plan of Immunization. The objective of this study was to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of an extemporaneously mixed DTPw/Hib (diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis combination, using the technology of two Brazilian manufacturers, against a licensed DTPw/Hib European combination in 108 infants vaccinated at 2, 4 and 6 months according to the local national schedule. The Brazilian combination was highly immunogenic with Hib seroprotection rates (anti-PRP > 0.15 mg /ml of 98% after 2 doses and 100% after 3. Also for tetanus and pertussis the new Brazilian combination was as immunogenic as the European counterpart, except the diphtheria seroprotection rates and titers were lower. There was also no clinically relevant difference in reactogenicity. If these feasibility results are confirmed, the Brazilian DTPw/Hib combination should help to boost the uptake of Hib vaccination in Brazil.A vacinação contra (Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib, utilizando vacinas conjugadas, provou reduzir em 95% os casos de meningite e em 20% as pneumonias por Hib. O uso rotineiro da vacina Hib foi facilitado pela introdução das vacinas combinadas no Programa Ampliado de Imunização (PAI. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a imunogenicidade e reatogenicidade da mistura extemporânea da vacina combinada contra difteria-tétano-pertussis de células inteiras/Haemophilus influenzae (DTPw/Hib, de tecnologia e produção de 2 fabricantes brasileiros, à vacina européia registrada DTPw/Hib. Estudo realizado em 108 crianças em idade de 2, 4 e 6 meses, seguindo o esquema nacional de imunização. A vacina combinada brasileira foi altamente imunogênica, apresentando taxas de soroprote

  2. Characterization of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease prions in prion protein-humanized mice carrying distinct codon 129 genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Atsuko; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ironside, James W; Mohri, Shirou; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    2013-07-26

    To date, all clinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) patients are homozygous for methionine at polymorphic codon 129 (129M/M) of the prion protein (PrP) gene. However, the appearance of asymptomatic secondary vCJD infection in individuals with a PRNP codon 129 genotype other than M/M and transmission studies using animal models have raised the concern that all humans might be susceptible to vCJD prions, especially via secondary infection. To reevaluate this possibility and to analyze in detail the transmission properties of vCJD prions to transgenic animals carrying distinct codon 129 genotype, we performed intracerebral inoculation of vCJD prions to humanized knock-in mice carrying all possible codon 129 genotypes (129M/M, 129M/V, or 129V/V). All humanized knock-in mouse lines were susceptible to vCJD infection, although the attack rate gradually decreased from 129M/M to 129M/V and to 129V/V. The amount of PrP deposition including florid/amyloid plaques in the brain also gradually decreased from 129M/M to 129M/V and to 129V/V. The biochemical properties of protease-resistant abnormal PrP in the brain and transmissibility of these humanized mouse-passaged vCJD prions upon subpassage into knock-in mice expressing bovine PrP were not affected by the codon 129 genotype. These results indicate that individuals with the 129V/V genotype may be more susceptible to secondary vCJD infection than expected and may lack the neuropathological characteristics observed in vCJD patients with the 129M/M genotype. Besides the molecular typing of protease-resistant PrP in the brain, transmission studies using knock-in mice carrying bovine PrP may aid the differential diagnosis of secondary vCJD infection, especially in individuals with the 129V/V genotype.

  3. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marmotti, Antonio; Rossi, Roberto; Castoldi, Filippo; Roveda, Eliana; Michielon, Gianni; Peretti, Giuseppe M

    2015-01-01

      The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis...

  4. Mouse-hamster chimeric prion protein (PrP) devoid of N-terminal residues 23-88 restores susceptibility to 22L prions, but not to RML prions in PrP-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Keiji; Miyata, Hironori; Yano, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Imamura, Morikazu; Muramatsu, Naomi; Das, Nandita Rani; Chida, Junji; Hara, Hideyuki; Sakaguchi, Suehiro

    2014-01-01

    Prion infection induces conformational conversion of the normal prion protein PrPC, into the pathogenic isoform PrPSc, in prion diseases. It has been shown that PrP-knockout (Prnp0/0) mice transgenically reconstituted with a mouse-hamster chimeric PrP lacking N-terminal residues 23-88, or Tg(MHM2Δ23-88)/Prnp 0/0 mice, neither developed the disease nor accumulated MHM2ScΔ23-88 in their brains after inoculation with RML prions. In contrast, RML-inoculated Tg(MHM2Δ23-88)/Prnp 0/+ mice developed the disease with abundant accumulation of MHM2ScΔ23-88 in their brains. These results indicate that MHM2Δ23-88 itself might either lose or greatly reduce the converting capacity to MHM2ScΔ23-88, and that the co-expressing wild-type PrPC can stimulate the conversion of MHM2Δ23-88 to MHM2ScΔ23-88 in trans. In the present study, we confirmed that Tg(MHM2Δ23-88)/Prnp 0/0 mice remained resistant to RML prions for up to 730 days after inoculation. However, we found that Tg(MHM2Δ23-88)/Prnp 0/0 mice were susceptible to 22L prions, developing the disease with prolonged incubation times and accumulating MHM2ScΔ23-88 in their brains. We also found accelerated conversion of MHM2Δ23-88 into MHM2ScΔ23-88 in the brains of RML- and 22L-inoculated Tg(MHM2Δ23-88)/Prnp 0/+ mice. However, wild-type PrPSc accumulated less in the brains of these inoculated Tg(MHM2Δ23-88)/Prnp 0/+ mice, compared with RML- and 22L-inoculated Prnp 0/+ mice. These results show that MHM2Δ23-88 itself can convert into MHM2ScΔ23-88 without the help of the trans-acting PrPC, and that, irrespective of prion strains inoculated, the co-expressing wild-type PrPC stimulates the conversion of MHM2Δ23-88 into MHM2ScΔ23-88, but to the contrary, the co-expressing MHM2Δ23-88 disturbs the conversion of wild-type PrPC into PrPSc.

  5. Do the fibrin architecture and leukocyte content influence the growth factor release of platelet concentrates? An evidence-based answer comparing a pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) gel and a leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Bielecki, Tomasz; Jimbo, Ryo; Barbé, Giovanni; Del Corso, Marco; Inchingolo, Francesco; Sammartino, Gilberto

    2012-06-01

    Platelet concentrates for surgical use are tools of regenerative medicine designed for the local release of platelet growth factors into a surgical or wounded site, in order to stimulate tissue healing or regeneration. Leukocyte content and fibrin architecture are 2 key characteristics of all platelet concentrates and allow to classify these technologies in 4 families, but very little is known about the impact of these 2 parameters on the intrinsic biology of these products. In this demonstration, we highlight some outstanding differences in the growth factor and matrix protein release between 2 families of platelet concentrate: Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP, here the Anitua's PRGF - Preparation Rich in Growth Factors - technique) and Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (L-PRF, here the Choukroun's method). These 2 families are the extreme opposites in terms of fibrin architecture and leukocyte content. The slow release of 3 key growth factors (Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1), Platelet-Derived Growth Factor AB (PDGF-AB) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)) and matrix proteins (fibronectin, vitronectin and thrombospondin-1) from the L-PRF and P-PRP gel membranes in culture medium is described and discussed. During 7 days, the L-PRF membranes slowly release significantly larger amounts of all these molecules than the P-PRP gel membranes, and the 2 products display different release patterns. In both platelet concentrates, vitronectin is the sole molecule to be released almost completely after only 4 hours, suggesting that this molecule is not trapped in the fibrin matrix and not produced by the leukocytes. Moreover the P-PRP gel membranes completely dissolve in the culture medium after less than 5 days only, while the L-PRF membranes are still intact after 7 days. This simple demonstration shows that the polymerization and final architecture of the fibrin matrix considerably influence the strength and the growth factor trapping/release potential

  6. Readily fiberizable glasses having a high modulus of elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, J. F.

    1970-01-01

    New glass compositions yield composites having higher moduli of elasticity and specific moduli of elasticity than commercially available glasses. Over a reasonable temperature range the glasses have a viscosity of about 20,000 poises. They consist of silica, alumina, magnesia, and beryllia, plus at least one uncommon oxide.

  7. System events: readily accessible features for surgical phase detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpani, Anand; Lea, Colin; Chen, Chi Chiung Grace; Hager, Gregory D

    2016-06-01

    Surgical phase recognition using sensor data is challenging due to high variation in patient anatomy and surgeon-specific operating styles. Segmenting surgical procedures into constituent phases is of significant utility for resident training, education, self-review, and context-aware operating room technologies. Phase annotation is a highly labor-intensive task and would benefit greatly from automated solutions. We propose a novel approach using system events-for example, activation of cautery tools-that are easily captured in most surgical procedures. Our method involves extracting event-based features over 90-s intervals and assigning a phase label to each interval. We explore three classification techniques: support vector machines, random forests, and temporal convolution neural networks. Each of these models independently predicts a label for each time interval. We also examine segmental inference using an approach based on the semi-Markov conditional random field, which jointly performs phase segmentation and classification. Our method is evaluated on a data set of 24 robot-assisted hysterectomy procedures. Our framework is able to detect surgical phases with an accuracy of 74 % using event-based features over a set of five different phases-ligation, dissection, colpotomy, cuff closure, and background. Precision and recall values for the cuff closure (Precision: 83 %, Recall: 98 %) and dissection (Precision: 75 %, Recall: 88 %) classes were higher than other classes. The normalized Levenshtein distance between predicted and ground truth phase sequence was 25 %. Our findings demonstrate that system events features are useful for automatically detecting surgical phase. Events contain phase information that cannot be obtained from motion data and that would require advanced computer vision algorithms to extract from a video. Many of these events are not specific to robotic surgery and can easily be recorded in non-robotic surgical modalities. In future work, we plan to combine information from system events, tool motion, and videos to automate phase detection in surgical procedures.

  8. Making geospatial data in ASF archive readily accessible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, R.; Hogenson, K.; Wolf, V. G.; Drew, L.; Stern, T.; Stoner, M.; Shapran, M.

    2015-12-01

    The way geospatial data is searched, managed, processed and used has changed significantly in recent years. A data archive such as the one at the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF), one of NASA's twelve interlinked Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), used to be searched solely via user interfaces that were specifically developed for its particular archive and data sets. ASF then moved to using an application programming interface (API) that defined a set of routines, protocols, and tools for distributing the geospatial information stored in the database in real time. This provided a more flexible access to the geospatial data. Yet, it was up to user to develop the tools to get a more tailored access to the data they needed. We present two new approaches for serving data to users. In response to the recent Nepal earthquake we developed a data feed for distributing ESA's Sentinel data. Users can subscribe to the data feed and are provided with the relevant metadata the moment a new data set is available for download. The second approach was an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) web feature service (WFS). The WFS hosts the metadata along with a direct link from which the data can be downloaded. It uses the open-source GeoServer software (Youngblood and Iacovella, 2013) and provides an interface to include the geospatial information in the archive directly into the user's geographic information system (GIS) as an additional data layer. Both services are run on top of a geospatial PostGIS database, an open-source geographic extension for the PostgreSQL object-relational database (Marquez, 2015). Marquez, A., 2015. PostGIS essentials. Packt Publishing, 198 p. Youngblood, B. and Iacovella, S., 2013. GeoServer Beginner's Guide, Packt Publishing, 350 p.

  9. Genetic spatial autocorrelation can readily detect sex-biased dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sam C; Peakall, Rod

    2012-05-01

    Sex-biased dispersal is expected to generate differences in the fine-scale genetic structure of males and females. Therefore, spatial analyses of multilocus genotypes may offer a powerful approach for detecting sex-biased dispersal in natural populations. However, the effects of sex-biased dispersal on fine-scale genetic structure have not been explored. We used simulations and multilocus spatial autocorrelation analysis to investigate how sex-biased dispersal influences fine-scale genetic structure. We evaluated three statistical tests for detecting sex-biased dispersal: bootstrap confidence intervals about autocorrelation r values and recently developed heterogeneity tests at the distance class and whole correlogram levels. Even modest sex bias in dispersal resulted in significantly different fine-scale spatial autocorrelation patterns between the sexes. This was particularly evident when dispersal was strongly restricted in the less-dispersing sex (mean distance autocorrelation analyses to test for sex-biased dispersal are: (i) maximize sample size, not locus number; (ii) concentrate sampling within the scale of positive structure; (iii) evaluate several distance class sizes; (iv) use appropriate methods when combining data from multiple populations; (v) compare the appropriate groups of individuals. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Urban Adolescents Readily Comply with a Complicated Asthma Research Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lovinsky-Desir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Adolescents are often cited as having poor rates of compliance with medical regimens and research protocols. We quantified compliance in a cohort of urban adolescents participating in a complex research protocol in which measures were obtained without direct supervision by research personnel. Methods A total of 54 early adolescents ages 10-13 were asked to wear a vest containing a personal air pollutant exposure monitor for two 24-hour periods and to perform daily peak expiratory flow (PEF for six consecutive days. Compliance with wearing the vest was measured by comparing accelerometer data from a device within the vest to one worn continuously on the child's wrist. Daily PEF data were recorded using an electronic meter. Results A priori definition of compliance was met by 85% of the adolescents by wearing the exposure monitoring vest and 72% by performing PEF. Conclusions These findings suggest that early adolescents can be compliant with complex research protocols that are needed to help bridge gaps in pediatric asthma research.

  11. Platlet Rich Plasma (PRP) Improves Fat Grafting Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Modarressi Ghavami, Seyed Ali

    2013-01-01

    Autologous fat transfer offers many qualities of a ideal soft tissue filler. Main advantages of fat grafting ensue from the fact that the lipoaspirate tissue is an abundant source of regenerative pluripotential cells. However, the reported rates of fat cell survival vary greatly in the medical literature (10-90%). Different techniques of harvesting, processing, and reinjecting the fat cells are so claimed to be responsible for these differences, without any agreement concerning the best way t...

  12. Modularity beyond Perception: Evidence from the PRP Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Hagit; Cohen, Asher

    2010-01-01

    The Dimension Action (DA) model asserts that the visual system is modular, and that each task involves multiple-response mechanisms rather than a unitary-response selection mechanism. The model has been supported by evidence from single-task interference paradigms. We use the psychological refractory period paradigm and show that dual-task…

  13. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP applied during total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Fernandes Guerreiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma regarding healing, pain and hemostasis after total knee arthroplasty, by means of a blinded randomized controlled and blinded clinical study.METHODS: Forty patients who were going to undergo implantation of a total knee prosthesis were selected and randomized. In 20 of these patients, platelet-rich plasma was applied before the joint capsule was closed. The hemoglobin (mg/dL and hematocrit (% levels were assayed before the operation and 24 and 48 h afterwards. The Womac questionnaire and a verbal pain scale were applied and knee range of motion measurements were made up to the second postoperative month. The statistical analysis compared the results with the aim of determining whether there were any differences between the groups at each of the evaluation times.RESULTS: The hemoglobin (mg/dL and hematocrit (% measurements made before the operation and 24 and 48 h afterwards did not show any significant differences between the groups (p > 0.05. The Womac questionnaire and the range of motion measured before the operation and up to the first two months also did not show any statistical differences between the groups (p > 0.05. The pain evaluation using the verbal scale showed that there was an advantage for the group that received platelet-rich plasma, 24 h, 48 h, one week, three weeks and two months after the operation (p < 0.05.CONCLUSIONS: In the manner in which the platelet-rich plasma was used, it was not shown to be effective for reducing bleeding or improving knee function after arthroplasty, in comparison with the controls. There was an advantage on the postoperative verbal pain scale.

  14. Infiltrative treatment with Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in gonarthrosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mangone, Giuseppe; Orioli, Annalisa; Pinna, Angela; Pasquetti, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate and to quantify the effects on the quality of life and the decrease of pain in short and middle term in patients affected of gonarthrosis and treated with a series...

  15. Artificial Neural Network Prediction of Chemical-Disease Relationships using Readily Available Chemical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    solubility and permeability in drug discovery and development settings. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 64, Supplement(0), 4-17. doi:10.1016/j.addr...2013). EPA/NSF Networks for Characterizing Chemical Lifecycle. Arlington, Virginia, U.S.A. Nguyen, T., Malley, R., Inkelis , S., & Kuppermann, N

  16. Long-wavelength, photostable, two-photon excitable BODIPY fluorophores readily modifiable for molecular probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinfu; Xiao, Yi; Qi, Jing; Qu, Junle; Kim, Bosung; Yue, Xiling; Belfield, Kevin D

    2013-09-20

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes are increasingly popular in biological imaging and sensing, as long-wavelength (650-900 nm) excitation and emission have the advantages of minimum photodamage, deep tissue penetration, and minimum interference from autofluorescence in living systems. Here, a series of long-wavelength BODIPY dyes SPC, DC-SPC, DPC, and DC-DPC are synthesized conveniently and efficiently. They exhibit excellent photophysical properties in far red to near-infrared region, including large extinction coefficients, high fluorescence quantum yields, good photostability, and reasonable two-photon absorption cross section. Comparison of single-molecular imaging confirms that DPC is a much more efficient and more photostable NIR fluorophore than the commonly used Cy5. Also importantly, two kinds of convenient functionalization sites have been reserved: the aryl iodide for organometallic couplings and the terminal alkyne groups for click reactions. Further derivatives DC-SPC-PPh3 exhibit specificity to localize in mitochondria. The introduction of triphenylphosphonium (TPP) moieties mediates its hydrophilic-lipophilic balance and makes DC-SPC-PPh3 appropriate for cell labeling. Their long-wavelength emission at ∼650 nm can efficiently avoid the spectral crosstalk with other probes emitting in the visible light region. Superior photostability, low cytotoxicity, and two-photon excitable properties demonstrate its utility as a standard colocalizing agent to estimate the other probes' local distribution.

  17. 26 CFR 1.453-3 - Purchaser evidences of indebtedness payable on demand or readily tradable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Y's registered bonds (which are traded in an over-the-counter bond market) each with a principal... in an established securities market. Since the bonds are not in registered form, do not have coupons...) In general. A bond or other evidence of indebtedness (hereinafter in this section referred to as an...

  18. Persistent or not persistent? Polychlorinated biphenyls are readily depurated by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; Letcher, Robert J; Ross, Peter S

    2009-10-01

    Major pharmacokinetic processes influencing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in mammals include uptake, biotransformation, respiration, and excretion. We characterized some of the factors underlying PCB accumulation/loss by evaluating PCB concentrations and patterns in pre- and posthibernation grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and their prey. The PCB congeners with vicinal meta- and para-chlorine unsubstituted hydrogen positions consistently showed loss both before and during hibernation, supporting the idea of a dominant role for biotransformation. Retention of all other studied congeners relative to that of PCB 194 varied widely (from bears do not eat or excrete. We estimate that grizzly bears retain less than 10% of total PCBs taken up from their diet. Our results suggest that for grizzly bears, depuration of PCBs via biotransformation is important (explaining approximately 40% of loss), but that nonbiotransformation processes, such as excretion, may be more important (explaining approximately 60% of loss). These findings, together with the approximately 91% loss of the persistent PCB 153 congener relative to PCB 194 in grizzly bears, raise important questions about how one defines persistence of PCBs in wildlife and may have bearing on the interpretation of food-web biomagnification studies.

  19. Easily Regenerated Readily Deployable Absorbent for Heavy Metal Removal from Contaminated Water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perry N Alagappan; Jessica Heimann; Lauren Morrow; Enrico Andreoli; Andrew R Barron

    2017-01-01

    ...) via the growth of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) onto a quartz substrate. Subsequent epoxidation provides sufficient functionality to enable adsorbent of heavy metals (Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, and Pb2...

  20. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers Readily Distinguish Cryptic Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae: Anopheles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    DNA isolation. Individual larvae or adults were ground with a strong diagnostic bands and simple patterns. Primers pro- plastic pestle in...V. (1988) Com- peninsular Malaysia and Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq parison of DNA probe and cytogenic methods for identifying field Syst 20

  1. Using a Readily Available Commercial Spreadsheet to Teach a Graduate Course on Chemical Process Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Matthew A.; Giraldo, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Chemical process simulation is one of the most fundamental skills that is expected from chemical engineers, yet relatively few graduates have the opportunity to learn, in depth, how a process simulator works, from programming the unit operations to the sequencing. The University of Calgary offers a "hands-on" postgraduate course in…

  2. Do Verbal Children with Autism Comprehend Gesture as Readily as Typically Developing Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Nevena; Özçaliskan, Seyda; Adamson, Lauren B.

    2017-01-01

    Gesture comprehension remains understudied, particularly in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have difficulties in gesture production. Using a novel gesture comprehension task, Study 1 examined how 2- to 4-year-old typically-developing (TD) children comprehend types of gestures and gesture-speech combinations, and showed better…

  3. Readily Accessible Bulky Iron Catalysts exhibiting Site Selectivity in the Oxidation of Steroidal Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font, David; Canta, Mercè; Milan, Michela; Cussó, Olaf; Ribas, Xavi; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/166032646; Costas, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    Bulky iron complexes are described that catalyze the site-selective oxidation of alkyl C-H bonds with hydrogen peroxide under mild conditions. Steric bulk at the iron center is introduced by appending trialkylsilyl groups at the meta-position of the pyridines in tetradentate aminopyridine ligands,

  4. In vitro activity of readily available household materials against HIV-1: is bleach enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, N; Jain, S; Keddie, E M; Carlson, J R; Jennings, M B; Haverkos, H W; Nassar, N; Anderson, R; Cohen, S; Goldberg, D

    1994-07-01

    This report describes experiments assessing the effectiveness against HIV of potential disinfecting agents that are commonly available to IDU when they are sharing syringes. We exposed cell-free HIV, HIV-infected cells, and HIV-infected blood containing known quantities of HIV to household cleaning agents, alcohols, peroxide, and highly acidic materials for 1 min, in order to examine the effects of these materials on the infectivity of the HIV. Undiluted liquid laundry bleach and dilute liquid dish detergent reduced the number of culturable HIV to an undetectable level under the experimental conditions used. Diluted bleach was not completely effective. Other potential disinfecting agents, including ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, and hydrogen peroxide, were unable to disinfect high numbers of HIV-infected cells or infected blood. Liquid dish detergent warrants further study as a possible acceptable alternative to bleach. Our data provide support for recommendations to IDU that they disinfect shared syringes every time between users with full-strength liquid laundry bleach to reduce their risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV. When bleach is not available, liquid dish detergent or other available disinfecting agents such as rubbing alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, or high alcohol content beverages are more effective than water at disinfecting HIV, recognizing that these materials are less effective than bleach. Although these materials are effective, they should not be viewed as a substitute for decreased sharing of injection equipment by IDU, or increased availability of sterile needles and syringes.

  5. Striga Biocontrol on a Toothpick: A Readily Deployable and Inexpensive Method for Smallholder Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzioki, Henry S; Oyosi, Florence; Morris, Cindy E; Kaya, Eylul; Pilgeram, Alice L; Baker, Claire S; Sands, David C

    2016-01-01

    Striga hermonthica (witchweed) is a parasitic weed that attacks and significantly reduces the yields of maize, sorghum, millet, and sugarcane throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Low cost management methods such as hand weeding, short crop rotations, trap cropping, or conventional biocontrol have not been effective. Likewise, Striga-tolerant or herbicide-resistant maize cultivars are higher yielding, but are often beyond the economic means of sustenance farmers. The fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae, has been the object of numerous studies to develop Striga biocontrol. Under experimental conditions this pathogen can reduce the incidence of Striga infestation but field use is not extensive, perhaps because it has not been sufficiently effective in restoring crop yield and reducing the soil Striga seed bank. Here we brought together Kenyan and US crop scientists with smallholder farmers to develop and validate an effective biocontrol strategy for management of Striga on smallholder farms. Key components of this research project were the following: (1) Development of a two-step method of fungal delivery, including laboratory coating of primary inoculum on toothpicks, followed by on-farm production of secondary field inoculum in boiled rice enabling delivery of vigorous, fresh inoculum directly to the seedbed; (2) Training of smallholder farmers (85% women), to produce the biocontrol agent and incorporate it into their maize plantings in Striga-infested soils and collect agronomic data. The field tests expanded from 30 smallholder farmers to a two-season, 500-farmer plot trial including paired plus and minus biocontrol plots with fertilizer and hybrid seed in both plots and; (3) Concerted selection of variants of the pathogen identified for enhanced virulence, as has been demonstrated in other host parasite systems were employed here on Striga via pathogen excretion of the amino acids L-leucine and L-tyrosine that are toxic to Striga but innocuous to maize. This overall strategy resulted in an average of >50% increased maize yield in the March to June rains season and >40% in the September to December rains season. Integration of this enhanced plant pathogen to Striga management in maize can significantly increase the maize yield of smallholder farmers in Kenya.

  6. A Bi-centre Study of the Pattern and Evolution of readily detectable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern and evolution of obvious post-meningitic sequelae were determined in 187 post-neonatal children followed up at two tertiary centres. The pattern of sequelae was classified using previously described schemes, as well as by the number of deficits per child. One hundred and eighty-seven children were assessed ...

  7. [Posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents after sexual abuse is readily treated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, G.J.; Minnen, A. van

    2006-01-01

    Two patients, a boy aged 19 years and a girl aged 16 years, were diagnosed to be suffering from a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 7 and 2 years after sexual abuse, respectively. There was thus a serious delay in the correct diagnosis and the start of cognitive behavioural therapy, which was

  8. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Sorghum Bagasse to Readily Fermentable Sugar for Bioethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Soeprijanto,; Indriawati, Katherin; Abdulgani, Nurlita

    2014-01-01

    Produksi gula dari bagase sorghum menggunakan enzim selulase dan selobiase dilakukan dalam kultur batch. Tujuan percobaan adalah mempelajari pengaruh beban bagase sorghum dan waktu pretreatment kapur terhadap produksi gula dan yield gula. Pretreatment kapur dilakukan dalam 1000 ml labu leher tiga dengan beban kapur 0,1 g Ca(OH)2 /g sorghum bagasse dan ditambah dengan 500 ml air distilasi. Pengaruh waktu pretreatment (1, 2, 3, dan 4 jam) pada suhu 100°C dan pengaruh beban biomassa (5, 10, 15 %...

  9. Production of Fungal Amylases Using Cheap, Readily Available Agriresidues, for Potential Application in Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at isolation and screening of fungal amylase producer, optimization of solid state fermentation conditions for maximum amylase production by the best amylase producer, and characterization of the crude amylases, so produced. Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222 showed the highest amylase activity (164.1 U/mL in secondary screening under SSF conditions and was selected for further studies. The test strain showed maximum amylase production (341.7 U/mL and supernatant protein concentration (9.7 mg/mL for incubation period (6 days, temperature (35°C, initial pH (6.0, nutrient salt solution as moistening agent, and beef extract as nitrogen source. Pomegranate peel produced maximum amylase activity, but wheat bran (only slightly lesser amylase activity as compared to that of pomegranate peel was chosen for further studies, keeping in mind the seasonal availability of pomegranate peel. TLC confirmed the amylase produced to be α-type and 60 kDa was the molecular weight of the partially purified amylase. The enzyme showed maximum enzyme activity at pH 6.0, temperature of 55°C, and incubation time of 60 minutes. UV (616.0 U/mL and chemical (814.2 U/mL mutation enhanced amylase activity as compared to wild test strain. The study indicates that Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222 can be an important source of amylase and the crude enzyme, hence obtained, can be cost effectively applied in multiple sections of textile wet processing.

  10. Striga Biocontrol on a Toothpick: A Readily Deployable and Inexpensive Method for Smallholder Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chandler Sands

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Striga hermonthica (witchweed is a parasitic weed that attacks and significantly reduces the yields of maize, sorghum, millet and sugarcane throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Low cost management methods such as hand weeding, short crop rotations, trap cropping, or conventional biocontrol have not been effective. Likewise, Striga-tolerant or herbicide-resistant maize cultivars are higher yielding, but are often beyond the economic means of sustenance farmers. The fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae, has been the object of numerous studies to develop Striga biocontrol. Under experimental conditions this pathogen can reduce the incidence of Striga infestation but field use is not extensive, perhaps because it has not been sufficiently effective in restoring crop yield and reducing the soil Striga seed bank. Here we brought together Kenyan and US crop scientists with smallholder farmers to develop and validate an effective biocontrol strategy for management of Striga on smallholder farms. Key components of this research project were the following: 1. Development of a two-step method of fungal delivery, including laboratory coating of primary inoculum on toothpicks, followed by on-farm production of secondary field inoculum in boiled rice enabling delivery of vigorous, fresh inoculum directly to the seedbed; 2. Training of smallholder farmers (85% women, to produce the biocontrol agent and incorporate it into their maize plantings in Striga-infested soils and collect agronomic data. The field tests expanded from 30 smallholder farmers to a two-season, 500-farmer plot trial including paired plus and minus biocontrol plots with fertilizer and hybrid seed in both plots and; 3. Concerted selection of variants of the pathogen identified for enhanced virulence, as has been demonstrated in other host parasite systems were employed here on Striga via pathogen excretion of the amino acids L-leucine and L-tyrosine that are toxic to Striga but innocuous to maize. This overall strategy resulted in an average of >50% increased maize yield in the March to June rains season and >40% in the September to December rains season. Integration of this enhanced plant pathogen to Striga management in maize can significantly increase the maize yield of smallholder farmers in Kenya.

  11. An innovative statistical approach to constructing a readily comprehensible food web for a demersal fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Ben; Clarke, K. Robert; Platell, Margaret E.; Potter, Ian C.

    2013-07-01

    Many food webs are so complex that it is difficult to distinguish the relationships between predators and their prey. We have therefore developed an approach that produces a food web which clearly demonstrates the strengths of the relationships between the predator guilds of demersal fish and their prey guilds in a coastal ecosystem. Subjecting volumetric dietary data for 35 abundant predators along the lower western Australia coast to cluster analysis and the SIMPROF routine separated the various species × length class combinations into 14 discrete predator guilds. Following nMDS ordination, the sequence of points for these predator guilds represented a 'trophic' hierarchy. This demonstrated that, with increasing body size, several species progressed upwards through this hierarchy, reflecting a marked change in diet, whereas others remained within the same guild. A novel use of cluster analysis and SIMPROF then identified each group of prey that was ingested in a common pattern across the full suite of predator guilds. This produced 12 discrete groups of taxa (prey guilds) that each typically comprised similar ecological/functional prey, which were then also aligned in a hierarchy. The hierarchical arrangements of the predator and prey guilds were plotted against each other to show the percentage contribution of each prey guild to the diet of each predator guild. The resultant shade plot demonstrates quantitatively how food resources are spread among the fish species and revealed that two prey guilds, one containing cephalopods and teleosts and the other small benthic/epibenthic crustaceans and polychaetes, were consumed by all predator guilds.

  12. Models for prediction of soil precompression stress from readily available soil properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2018-01-01

    Compaction of the subsoil is an almost irreversible damage to the soil resource. Modern machinery exerts high mechanical stresses to the subsoil, and a range of studies report significant effects on soil functions. There is an urgent need for quantitative knowledge of soil strength in order...... to evaluate sustainability of current field traffic. The aim of this study was to identify the most important drivers of soil precompression stress, σpc, and to develop pedotransfer functions for prediction of σpc. We revisited previously published data on σpc for a silty clay loam soil at a range of soil...... was strongly significant with R2=0.90. The same trend was found for three subsoil layers from 0.35–0.95m depth, but the model accounted for only 16% of the variation in σpc. A model involving samples from all soil layers and including BD, pF and soil clay content accounted for 38% of the variation. This model...

  13. Angiogenic effect of platelet-rich plasma combined with gelatin hydrogel granules injected into murine subcutis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Morimoto, Naoki; Ogawa, Takeshi; Hihara, Masakatsu; Notodihardjo, Priscilla Valentin; Matsui, Makoto; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2017-07-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which contains highly concentrated platelets, is produced by centrifuging whole blood. It is a safe and readily available source of a wide range of growth factors necessary for angiogenesis. Gelatin hydrogel granules have been designed and prepared for the controlled release of many growth factors. The angiogenic effect of human PRP was examined in vitro, and the effect of its subcutaneous injection with gelatin hydrogel granules into murine subcutis was evaluated. Human PRP was prepared using a double-spin method. The concentration of growth factors and the platelet count were examined in PRP and in vitro, and the angiogenic activity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in co-culture with human dermal fibroblast cells (NHDFs) in the presence and absence of PRP was evaluated. Then, in vivo, PRP, either free or with gelatin hydrogel granules, was injected subcutaneously into tiebacks on mice. Using a microscope and Kurabo angiogenesis image analyser software, the area containing newly formed capillaries was evaluated histologically and the microvascular network score was calculated. PRP was shown to contain high concentrations of PDGF, VEGF and TGFβ and had an angiogenic effect on the co-culture system. PRP with gelatin hydrogel granules significantly enlarged the area containing newly formed capillaries and promoted the microvascular network in murine subcutaneous tissue. PRP encapsulated in gelatin hydrogel microspheres shows promise for enhancing angiogenic effects in murine subcutis and could represent a potential therapeutic combination for the treatment of ischaemic disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Transmissibility of H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Hamster PrP Transgenic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Okada

    Full Text Available Two distinct forms of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (H-BSE and L-BSE can be distinguished from classical (C- BSE found in cattle based on biochemical signatures of disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc. H-BSE is transmissible to wild-type mice-with infected mice showing a long survival period that is close to their normal lifespan-but not to hamsters. Therefore, rodent-adapted H-BSE with a short survival period would be useful for analyzing H-BSE characteristics. In this study, we investigated the transmissibility of H-BSE to hamster prion protein transgenic (TgHaNSE mice with long survival periods. Although none of the TgHaNSE mice manifested the disease during their lifespan, PrPSc accumulation was observed in some areas of the brain after the first passage. With subsequent passages, TgHaNSE mice developed the disease with a mean survival period of 220 days. The molecular characteristics of proteinase K-resistant PrPSc (PrPres in the brain were identical to those observed in first-passage mice. The distribution of immunolabeled PrPSc in the brains of TgHaNSE mice differed between those infected with H-BSE as compared to C-BSE or L-BSE, and the molecular properties of PrPres in TgHaNSE mice infected with H-BSE differed from those of the original isolate. The strain-specific electromobility, glycoform profiles, and proteolytic cleavage sites of H-BSE in TgHaNSE mice were indistinguishable from those of C-BSE, in which the diglycosylated form was predominant. These findings indicate that strain-specific pathogenic characteristics and molecular features of PrPres in the brain are altered during cross-species transmission. Typical H-BSE features were restored after back passage from TgHaNSE to bovinized transgenic mice, indicating that the H-BSE strain was propagated in TgHaNSE mice. This could result from the overexpression of the hamster prion protein.

  15. Evidence that bank vole PrP is a universal acceptor for prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Watts

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bank voles are uniquely susceptible to a wide range of prion strains isolated from many different species. To determine if this enhanced susceptibility to interspecies prion transmission is encoded within the sequence of the bank vole prion protein (BVPrP, we inoculated Tg(M109 and Tg(I109 mice, which express BVPrP containing either methionine or isoleucine at polymorphic codon 109, with 16 prion isolates from 8 different species: humans, cattle, elk, sheep, guinea pigs, hamsters, mice, and meadow voles. Efficient disease transmission was observed in both Tg(M109 and Tg(I109 mice. For instance, inoculation of the most common human prion strain, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD subtype MM1, into Tg(M109 mice gave incubation periods of ∼200 days that were shortened slightly on second passage. Chronic wasting disease prions exhibited an incubation time of ∼250 days, which shortened to ∼150 days upon second passage in Tg(M109 mice. Unexpectedly, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant CJD prions caused rapid neurological dysfunction in Tg(M109 mice upon second passage, with incubation periods of 64 and 40 days, respectively. Despite the rapid incubation periods, other strain-specified properties of many prion isolates--including the size of proteinase K-resistant PrPSc, the pattern of cerebral PrPSc deposition, and the conformational stability--were remarkably conserved upon serial passage in Tg(M109 mice. Our results demonstrate that expression of BVPrP is sufficient to engender enhanced susceptibility to a diverse range of prion isolates, suggesting that BVPrP may be a universal acceptor for prions.

  16. Performance of PRP Associated with Porous Chitosan as a Composite Scaffold for Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Arruda Martins Shimojo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro performance of activated platelet-rich plasma associated with porous sponges of chitosan as a composite scaffold for proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The sponges were prepared by controlled freezing (−20, −80, or −196°C and lyophilization of chitosan solutions (1, 2, or 3% w/v. The platelet-rich plasma was obtained from controlled centrifugation of whole blood and activated with calcium and autologous serum. The composite scaffolds were prepared by embedding the sponges with the activated platelet-rich plasma. The results showed the performance of the scaffolds was superior to that of activated platelet-rich plasma alone, in terms of delaying the release of growth factors and increased proliferation of the stem cells. The best preparation conditions of chitosan composite scaffolds that coordinated the physicochemical and mechanical properties and cell proliferation were 3% (w/v chitosan and a −20°C freezing temperature, while −196°C favored osteogenic differentiation. Although the composite scaffolds are promising for regenerative medicine, the structures require stabilization to prevent the collapse observed after five days.

  17. Djelovanje biofiziološkog aktivatora tla PRP SOL na najvažnija svojstva tla

    OpenAIRE

    Grgić, Antun

    2015-01-01

    Tlo je osnovni supstrat za proizvodnju hrane o kojemu se mora voditi računa te se mora njegovati i čuvati za sljedeće generacije. Suvremena poljoprivredna proizvodnja, koja traži visoke prinose i kvalitetu poljoprivrednih proizvoda, trebala bi se orijentirati na očuvanje tla od devastacije koju donosi nekontrolirana uporaba mineralnih gnojiva i zaštitnih sredstava. Srećom, postoje proizvodi koji, iako se radi o visoko profitabilnoj proizvodnji, čuvaju tlo, plodnost tla i biološku raznolikost ...

  18. Synthetic Scrapie Infectivity: Interaction between Recombinant PrP and Scrapie Brain-Derived RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, Steve; Thomzig, Achim; Ruchoux, Marie-Madeleine; Vignier, Nicolas; Daus, Martin L; Poleggi, Anna; Lebon, Pierre; Freire, Sophie; Durand, Valerie; Graziano, Silvia; Galeno, Roberta; Cardone, Franco; Comoy, Emmanuel; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Beekes, Michael; Deslys, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Jean-Guy

    2015-01-01

    The key molecular event in human cerebral proteinopathies, which include Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, is the structural conversion of a specific host protein into a β-sheet-rich conformer. With regards to this common mechanism, it appears difficult to explain the outstanding infectious properties attributed to PrPSc, the hallmark of another intriguing family of cerebral proteinopathies known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) or prion diseases. The infectious PrPSc or "prion" is thought to be composed solely of a misfolded form of the otherwise harmless cellular prion protein (PrPc). To gain insight into this unique situation, we used the 263K scrapie hamster model to search for a putative PrPSc-associated factor that contributes to the infectivity of PrPSc amyloid. In a rigorously controlled set of experiments that included several bioassays, we showed that originally innocuous recombinant prion protein (recPrP) equivalent to PrPc is capable of initiating prion disease in hamsters when it is converted to a prion-like conformation (β-sheet-rich) in the presence of RNA purified from scrapie-associated fibril (SAF) preparations. Analysis of the recPrP-RNA infectious mixture reveals the presence of 2 populations of small RNAs of approximately 27 and 55 nucleotides. These unprecedented findings are discussed in light of the distinct relationship that may exist between this RNA material and the 2 biological properties, infectivity and strain features, attributed to prion amyloid. PMID:25585171

  19. Synthetic Scrapie Infectivity: Interaction between Recombinant PrP and Scrapie Brain-Derived RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Simoneau, Steve; Thomzig, Achim; Ruchoux, Marie-Madeleine; Vignier, Nicolas; Daus, Martin L; Poleggi, Anna; Lebon, Pierre; Freire, Sophie; Durand, Valerie; Graziano, Silvia; Galeno, Roberta; Cardone, Franco; Comoy, Emmanuel; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Beekes, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The key molecular event in human cerebral proteinopathies, which include Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, is the structural conversion of a specific host protein into a β-sheet-rich conformer. With regards to this common mechanism, it appears difficult to explain the outstanding infectious properties attributed to PrPSc, the hallmark of another intriguing family of cerebral proteinopathies known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) or prion diseases. The infec...

  20. A common BACE1 polymorphism is a risk factor for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Calero

    Full Text Available The β site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 is the rate-limiting β-secretase enzyme in the amyloidogenic processing of APP and Aβ formation, and therefore it has a prominent role in Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology. Recent evidence suggests that the prion protein (PrP interacts directly with BACE1 regulating its β-secretase activity. Moreover, PrP has been proposed as the cellular receptor involved in the impairment of synaptic plasticity and toxicity caused by Aβ oligomers. Provided that common pathophysiologic mechanisms are shared by Alzheimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD diseases, we investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge a possible association of a common synonymous BACE1 polymorphism (rs638405 with sporadic CJD (sCJD. Our results indicate that BACE1 C-allele is associated with an increased risk for developing sCJD, mainly in PRNP M129M homozygous subjects with early onset. These results extend the very short list of genes (other than PRNP involved in the development of human prion diseases; and support the notion that similar to AD, in sCJD several loci may contribute with modest overall effects to disease risk. These findings underscore the interplay in both pathologies of APP, Aβ oligomers, ApoE, PrP and BACE1, and suggest that aging and perhaps vascular risk factors may modulate disease pathologies in part through these key players.

  1. Slot-die Coating of a High Performance Copolymer in a Readily Scalable Roll Process for Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, Martin; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    Copolymers based on dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]silole (DTS) and dithienylthiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole (TTz) are synthesized and tested in an all-solution roll process for polymer solar cells (PSCs). Fabrication of polymer:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) solar cells is done on a previously...... above 200 nm. Power conversion efficiencies of up to 3.5% can be reached with the roll-coated PDTSTTz-4:PCBM solar cells that, together with good process control and high device yield, designate PDTSTTz-4 as a convincing candidate for high-throughput roll-to-roll production of PSCs....

  2. A prognostic model to predict the success of artificial insemination in dairy cows based on readily available data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, C.J.; Steeneveld, W.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Huijps, K.; Nielen, M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2016-01-01

    A prognosis of the likelihood of insemination success is valuable information for the decision to start inseminating a cow. This decision is important for the reproduction management of dairy farms. The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic model for the likelihood of successful first

  3. A prognostic model to predict the success of artificial insemination in dairy cows based on readily available data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, C J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/353551031; Steeneveld, W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833169; Vernooij, J C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/340304596; Huijps, K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837881; Nielen, M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123535298; Hogeveen, H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126322864

    2016-01-01

    A prognosis of the likelihood of insemination success is valuable information for the decision to start inseminating a cow. This decision is important for the reproduction management of dairy farms. The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic model for the likelihood of successful first

  4. Emergency Department Visit Forecasting and Dynamic Nursing Staff Allocation Using Machine Learning Techniques With Readily Available Open-Source Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Alexander; Gallardo-Antolín, Ascensión; Cuchí Alfaro, Miguel; Pérez Pérez, María Carmen; Montero Martínez, Juan Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Although emergency department visit forecasting can be of use for nurse staff planning, previous research has focused on models that lacked sufficient resolution and realistic error metrics for these predictions to be applied in practice. Using data from a 1100-bed specialized care hospital with 553,000 patients assigned to its healthcare area, forecasts with different prediction horizons, from 2 to 24 weeks ahead, with an 8-hour granularity, using support vector regression, M5P, and stratified average time-series models were generated with an open-source software package. As overstaffing and understaffing errors have different implications, error metrics and potential personnel monetary savings were calculated with a custom validation scheme, which simulated subsequent generation of predictions during a 4-year period. Results were then compared with a generalized estimating equation regression. Support vector regression and M5P models were found to be superior to the stratified average model with a 95% confidence interval. Our findings suggest that medium and severe understaffing situations could be reduced in more than an order of magnitude and average yearly savings of up to €683,500 could be achieved if dynamic nursing staff allocation was performed with support vector regression instead of the static staffing levels currently in use.

  5. Estimating evaporative fraction from readily obtainable variables in mangrove forests of the Everglades, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagci, Ali Levent; Santanello, Joseph A.; Jones, John W.; Barr, Jordan G.

    2017-01-01

    A remote-sensing-based model to estimate evaporative fraction (EF) – the ratio of latent heat (LE; energy equivalent of evapotranspiration –ET–) to total available energy – from easily obtainable remotely-sensed and meteorological parameters is presented. This research specifically addresses the shortcomings of existing ET retrieval methods such as calibration requirements of extensive accurate in situ micrometeorological and flux tower observations or of a large set of coarse-resolution or model-derived input datasets. The trapezoid model is capable of generating spatially varying EF maps from standard products such as land surface temperature (Ts) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and daily maximum air temperature (Ta). The 2009 model results were validated at an eddy-covariance tower (Fluxnet ID: US-Skr) in the Everglades using Ts and NDVI products from Landsat as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. Results indicate that the model accuracy is within the range of instrument uncertainty, and is dependent on the spatial resolution and selection of end-members (i.e. wet/dry edge). The most accurate results were achieved with the Ts from Landsat relative to the Ts from the MODIS flown on the Terra and Aqua platforms due to the fine spatial resolution of Landsat (30 m). The bias, mean absolute percentage error and root mean square percentage error were as low as 2.9% (3.0%), 9.8% (13.3%), and 12.1% (16.1%) for Landsat-based (MODIS-based) EF estimates, respectively. Overall, this methodology shows promise for bridging the gap between temporally limited ET estimates at Landsat scales and more complex and difficult to constrain global ET remote-sensing models.

  6. Unlike PAHs from Exxon Valdez crude oil, PAHs from Gulf of Alaska coals are not readily bioavailable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthike, Halambage Upul; Tecon, Robin; Van Kooten, Gerry; Van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Harms, Hauke; Wells, Mona; Short, Jeffrey

    2009-08-01

    In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, spatially and temporally spill-correlated biological effects consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure were observed. Some works have proposed that confounding sources from local source rocks, prominently coals, are the provenance of the PAHs. Representative coal deposits along the southeast Alaskan coast (Kulthieth Formation) were sampled and fully characterized chemically and geologically. The coals have variable but high total organic carbon content technically classifying as coals and coaly shale, and highly varying PAH contents. Even for coals with high PAH content (approximately 4000 ppm total PAHs), a PAH-sensitive bacterial biosensor demonstrates nondetectable bioavailability as quantified, based on naphthalene as a test calibrant. These results are consistent with studies indicating that materials such as coals strongly diminish the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds and support previous work suggesting that hydrocarbons associated with the regional background in northern Gulf of Alaska marine sediments are not appreciably bioavailable.

  7. Blood Products and the Commodification Debate: The Blurry Concept of Altruism and the 'Implicit Price' of Readily Available Body Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufner, Annette

    2015-12-01

    There is a widespread consensus that a commodification of body parts is to be prevented. Numerous policy papers by international organizations extend this view to the blood supply and recommend a system of uncompensated volunteers in this area--often, however, without making the arguments for this view explicit. This situation seems to indicate that a relevant source of justified worry or unease about the blood supply system has to do with the issue of commodification. As a result, the current health minister of Ontario is proposing a ban on compensation even for blood plasma--despite the fact that Canada can only generate 30 % of the plasma needed for fractionation into important plasma protein products and has to purchase the rest abroad. In the following, I am going to suggest a number of alternative perspectives on the debate in order to facilitate a less dogmatic and more differentiated debate about the matter. Especially in light of the often over-simplified notions of altruism and commodification, I conclude that the debate has not conclusively established that it would be morally objectionable to provide blood plasma donors with monetary compensation or with other forms of explicit social recognition as an incentive. This is especially true of donations for fractionation into medicinal products by profit-oriented pharmaceutical companies.

  8. Are simple empirical crop coefficient approaches for determining pecan water use readily transferrable across a wide range of conditions?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, NJ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available to easier parameterization and the requirements for fewer, more easily measured input parameters, they may not always be transferable across a wide range of conditions. As a result these models may not always give acceptably accurate ET values outside...

  9. The magnetic evolution of AR 6555 which lead to two impulsive, readily compact, X-type flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambastha, A.; Fontenla, J. M.; Kalman, B.; Csepura, GY.

    1995-01-01

    We study the evolution of the vector magnetic field and the sunspot motions observed in AR 6555 during 23-26 Mar. 1991. This region displays two locations of large magnetic shear that were also sites of flare activity. The first location produced two large (X-class) flares during the period covered by our observations. The second location had larger magnetic shear than the first, but produced only small (M- and C-class) flares during our observations. We study the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field in relation to the large flares in the first location. These flares occurred around the same included polarity, and have very similar characteristics (soft X-ray light curves, energies, etc.). However, the whole active region has changed substantially in the period between them. We found several characteristics of the region that appear related to the occurrence of these flares. (1) The flares occurred near regions of large magnetic 'shear,' but not at the locations of maximum shear or maximum field. (2) Potential field extrapolations of the observed field suggest that the topology changed, prior to the first of the two flares, in such a way that a null appeared in the coarse magnetic field. (3) This null was located close to both X-class flares, and remained in that location for a few days while the two flares were observed. (4) The flaring region has a pattern of vector field and sunspot motions in which material is 'squeezed' along the polarity inversion line. This pattern is very different from that usually associated with shearing arcades, but it is similar to that suggested previously by Fontenla and Davis. The vertical electric currents, inferred from the transverse field, are consistent with this pattern. (5) A major reconfiguration of the longitudinal field and the vertical electric currents occurred just prior to the first of the two flares. Both changes imply substantial variations of the magnetic structure of the region. On the basis of the available data we suggest that these changes made the flaring possible, and we develop a scenario that can explain the origin of the magnetic free energy that was released in these flares.

  10. o-Fluoroazobenzenes as readily synthesized photoswitches offering nearly quantitative two-way isomerization with visible light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bléger, D.; Schwarz, J.; Brouwer, A.M.; Hecht, S.

    2012-01-01

    Azobenzene functionalized with ortho-fluorine atoms has a lower energy of the n-orbital of the Z-isomer, resulting in a sepn. of the E and Z isomers' n→π* absorption bands. Introducing para-substituents allows for further tuning of the absorption spectra of o-fluoroazobenzenes. In particular,

  11. Lexical distributional cues, but not situational cues, are readily used to learn abstract locative verb-structure associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Katherine E; Chang, Franklin; Ambridge, Ben

    2016-08-01

    Children must learn the structural biases of locative verbs in order to avoid making overgeneralisation errors (e.g., (∗)I filled water into the glass). It is thought that they use linguistic and situational information to learn verb classes that encode structural biases. In addition to situational cues, we examined whether children and adults could use the lexical distribution of nouns in the post-verbal noun phrase of transitive utterances to assign novel verbs to locative classes. In Experiment 1, children and adults used lexical distributional cues to assign verb classes, but were unable to use situational cues appropriately. In Experiment 2, adults generalised distributionally-learned classes to novel verb arguments, demonstrating that distributional information can cue abstract verb classes. Taken together, these studies show that human language learners can use a lexical distributional mechanism that is similar to that used by computational linguistic systems that use large unlabelled corpora to learn verb meaning. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating Evaporative Fraction From Readily Obtainable Variables in Mangrove Forests of the Everglades, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagci, Ali Levent; Santanello, Joseph A.; Jones, John; Barr, Jordan

    2017-01-01

    A remote-sensing-based model to estimate evaporative fraction (EF) the ratio of latent heat (LE; energy equivalent of evapotranspiration -ET-) to total available energy from easily obtainable remotely-sensed and meteorological parameters is presented. This research specifically addresses the shortcomings of existing ET retrieval methods such as calibration requirements of extensive accurate in situ micro-meteorological and flux tower observations, or of a large set of coarse-resolution or model-derived input datasets. The trapezoid model is capable of generating spatially varying EF maps from standard products such as land surface temperature [T(sub s)] normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)and daily maximum air temperature [T(sub a)]. The 2009 model results were validated at an eddy-covariance tower (Fluxnet ID: US-Skr) in the Everglades using T(sub s) and NDVI products from Landsat as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. Results indicate that the model accuracy is within the range of instrument uncertainty, and is dependent on the spatial resolution and selection of end-members (i.e. wet/dry edge). The most accurate results were achieved with the T(sub s) from Landsat relative to the T(sub s) from the MODIS flown on the Terra and Aqua platforms due to the fine spatial resolution of Landsat (30 m). The bias, mean absolute percentage error and root mean square percentage error were as low as 2.9% (3.0%), 9.8% (13.3%), and 12.1% (16.1%) for Landsat-based (MODIS-based) EF estimates, respectively. Overall, this methodology shows promise for bridging the gap between temporally limited ET estimates at Landsat scales and more complex and difficult to constrain global ET remote-sensing models.

  13. Unlike PAHs from Exxon Valdez crude oil, PAHs from Gulf of Alaska coals are not readily bioavailable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halambage Upul Deepthike; Robin Tecon; Gerry van Kooten; Jan Roelof van der Meer; Hauke Harms; Mona Wells; Jeffrey Short [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN (United States). Department of Chemistry

    2009-08-15

    In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, spatially and temporally spill-correlated biological effects consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure were observed. Some works have proposed that confounding sources from local source rocks, prominently coals, are the provenance of the PAHs. Representative coal deposits along the southeast Alaskan coast (Kulthieth Formation) were sampled and fully characterized chemically and geologically. The coals have variable but high total organic carbon content, technically classifying as coals and coaly shale, and highly varying PAH contents. Even for coals with high PAH content (4000 ppm total PAHs), a PAH-sensitive bacterial biosensor demonstrates nondetectable bioavailability as quantified, based on naphthalene as a test calibrant. These results are consistent with studies indicating that materials such as coals strongly diminish the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds and support previous work suggesting that hydrocarbons associated with the regional background in northern Gulf of Alaska marine sediments are not appreciably bioavailable. 44 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Zero-valent iron doped carbons readily developed from sewage sludge for lead removal from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yiming; Sun, Xiaoya; Zhou, Xuefei; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhang, Yalei

    2015-10-01

    Low-cost but high-efficiency composites of iron-containing porous carbons were prepared using sewage sludge and ferric salts as raw materials. Unlike previous time- and energy-consuming manufacturing procedures, this study shows that pyrolyzing a mixture of sludge and ferric salt can produce suitable composites for lead adsorption. The specific surface area, the total pore volume and the average pore width of the optimal composite were 321m(2)/g, 0.25cm(3)/g, and 3.17nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that ferric salt favored the formation of metallic iron, while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the formation of hydroxyl and carboxylic groups. The result of batch tests indicated that the adsorption capacity of carbons activated with ferric salt could be as high as 128.9mg/g, while that of carbons without activation was 79.1mg/g. The new manufacturing procedure used in this study could save at least 19.5kJ of energy per gram of activated carbon. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. How does domain replacement affect fibril formation of the rabbit/human prion proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yan

    Full Text Available It is known that in vivo human prion protein (PrP have the tendency to form fibril deposits and are associated with infectious fatal prion diseases, while the rabbit PrP does not readily form fibrils and is unlikely to cause prion diseases. Although we have previously demonstrated that amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary structures and macromolecular crowding has different effects on fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs, we do not know which domains of PrPs cause such differences. In this study, we have constructed two PrP chimeras, rabbit chimera and human chimera, and investigated how domain replacement affects fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs.As revealed by thioflavin T binding assays and Sarkosyl-soluble SDS-PAGE, the presence of a strong crowding agent dramatically promotes fibril formation of both chimeras. As evidenced by circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and proteinase K digestion assays, amyloid fibrils formed by human chimera have secondary structures and proteinase K-resistant features similar to those formed by the human PrP. However, amyloid fibrils formed by rabbit chimera have proteinase K-resistant features and secondary structures in crowded physiological environments different from those formed by the rabbit PrP, and secondary structures in dilute solutions similar to the rabbit PrP. The results from transmission electron microscopy show that macromolecular crowding caused human chimera but not rabbit chimera to form short fibrils and non-fibrillar particles.We demonstrate for the first time that the domains beyond PrP-H2H3 (β-strand 1, α-helix 1, and β-strand 2 have a remarkable effect on fibrillization of the rabbit PrP but almost no effect on the human PrP. Our findings can help to explain why amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary structures and why macromolecular crowding has different

  16. Treatment of knee joint osteoarthritis with autologous platelet-rich plasma in comparison with hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaková, Tímea; Rosocha, Ján; Lacko, Marek; Harvanová, Denisa; Gharaibeh, Ahmed

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to find a simple, cost-effective, and time-efficient method for the preparation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), so the acquired benefits will be readily available for multiple procedures in smaller outpatient clinics and to explore the safety and efficacy of the application of PRP in the treatment of degenerative lesions of articular cartilage of the knee. The study was designed as a prospective, cohort study with a control group. A total of 120 patients with Grade 1, 2, or 3 osteoarthritis according to the Kellgren and Lawrence grading scale were enrolled in the study. One group of patients was treated using three intra-articular applications of PRP, and the second group of patients was given three injections of hyaluronic acid. Outcome measures included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and the 11-point pain intensity Numeric Rating Scale. On average, a 4.5-fold increase in platelet concentration was obtained in the PRP group. No severe adverse events were observed. Statistically significantly better results in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and Numeric Rating Scale scores were recorded in a group of patients who received PRP injections after a 3- and 6-mo follow-up. Our preliminary findings support the application of autologous PRP as an effective and safe method in the treatment of the initial stages of knee osteoarthritis. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to investigate the persistence of the beneficial effects observed.

  17. National Ignition Facility, High-Energy-Density and Inertial Confinement Fusion, Peer-Review Panel (PRP) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keane, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-01-28

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is operated as a National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) user facility in accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) best practices, including peer-reviewed experiments, regular external reviews of performance, and the use of a management structure that facilitates user and stakeholder feedback. NIF facility time is managed using processes similar to those in other DOE science facilities and is tailored to meet the mix of missions and customers that NIF supports. The NIF Governance Plan describes the process for allocating facility time on NIF and for creating the shot schedule. It also includes the flow of responsibility from entity to entity. The plan works to ensure that NIF meets its mission goals using the principles of scientific peer review, including transparency and cooperation among the sponsor, the NIF staff, and the various user communities. The NIF Governance Plan, dated September 28, 2012, was accepted and signed by LLNL Director Parney Albright, NIF Director Ed Moses, and Don Cook and Thomas D’Agostino of NNSA. Figure 1 shows the organizational structure for NIF Governance.

  18. Localization of disease-related PrP in Danish patients with different subtypes of prion disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrom, A.L.; Heegaard, P.M.; Dyrbye, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are characterized by vacuolization, neuronal loss, gliosis and deposition of a misfolded and Proteinase K resistant isoform of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the central nervous system. METHODS MATERIALS AND PATIENTS: Paraffin-embedded tissue...

  19. Localization of disease-related PrP in Danish patients with different subtypes of prion disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, A. L.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Dyrbye, H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The transmissible spongiform encephalopaties are characterized by vacuolization, neuronal loss, gliosis and deposition of a misfilded and Proteinase K resistant isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) in the central nervous system. Methods, materials and patients: Paraffin-embedded tissue...

  20. Quantifying the relative amounts of PrP polymorphisms present in prions isolated from heterozygous prion-infected animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prions cause protein misfolding diseases, such as transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. They propagate infections by converting a normal cellular prion protein into a prion (PrPSc). PrPC and PrPSc are isosequential and differ only in their respective conformations. PrPC is monomeric and sensit...

  1. Le PRP (Platelet-Rich Plasma) peut-il favoriser la régénération tendineuse ?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaux, Jean-François; Drion, Pierre; Pascon, Frédéric; Libertiaux, Vincent; Le Goff, Caroline; Gothot, André; CESCOTTO, Serge; Rickert, Markus; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Introduction : Certaines tendinopathies (l’épicondylite, la tendinopathie rotulienne supérieure ou encore la tendinopathie d’Achille) demeurent rebelles malgré un traitement « classique » bien conduit : repos, orthèse, AINS, électrothérapie, kinésithérapie, infiltrations de corticoïdes, ondes de choc... Certains travaux, essentiellement in vitro, soulignent les potentialités réparatrices des plaquettes qui présentent la capacité d’accélérer la cicatrisation de différents tissus : os, muscles ...

  2. Djelovanje biofiziološkog aktivatora tla PRP SOL na najvažnija svojstva tla u vinogradima

    OpenAIRE

    Grgić, Antun; Macenić, Tomislav; Lombarović, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Tlo je osnovni supstrat za proizvodnju hrane o kojem je potrebno brinuti i čuvati ga za slijedeće generacije. Budući da suvremena poljoprivredna proizvodnja traži visoke prinose i kvalitetu poljoprivrednih proizvoda, trebala bi se orijentirati i na očuvanje tla od devastacije koju donosi nekontrolirana uporaba mineralnih gnojiva i zaštitnih sredstava. Na sreću, postoje proizvodi koji, iako se radi o visoko profitabilnoj proizvodnji, čuvaju tlo, plodnost tla i biološku raznolikost u njemu. Vel...

  3. Rapid detection of CWD PrP: comparison of tests designed for the detection of BSE or scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasche, T; Schenck, E V; Balachandran, A; Miller, M W; Langenberg, J; Frölich, K; Steinbach, F

    2012-10-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) mainly affecting cervids in North America. The accumulation of an abnormal form of host-encoded prion protein (PrP(CWD) ) in the CNS and lymphoid tissues is characteristic of the disease and known to be caused by pathogenic prion proteins (PrP(res) ), which are thought to be transmitted mainly by contact with body fluids, such like saliva. Species known to be naturally infected by CWD include Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Recently, large-scale disease eradication or control programs have been attempted to curtail the spread of disease. But reports of diseased free-ranging and farmed cervids in many locations in the USA and Canada are still continuing. The goal of this study was to find sensitive rapid test systems that are reliably able to detect CWD-associated PrP(CWD) in cervids, thereby reviewing an important control tool in case the disease spreads further and reaches Europe. Seven tests, originally developed for the detection of other TSE diseases such as Scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, including two Western blots, four enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and one lateral flow device, were included in this study. All seven tests evaluated were able to detect pathogenic prion proteins (PrP(CWD) ) in Northern American infected animals and distinguish physiologic prion protein (PrP(c) ) in brainstem (obex region) and lymph node samples from North American and European cervids, respectively. However, the specificity and sensitivity of the tests differed significantly. Highly sensitive tests for the detection of prion proteins are an important tool both for the design of effective disease surveillance and control strategies and the safety of the food chain. Thus, this study contributes to the emergency preparedness against CWD. © 2011 Crown Copyright. Reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office/Queen’s Printer for Scotland and Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency.

  4. Purification of human platelet-derived growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes a method for purification of human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from outdated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) using commonly available laboratory reagents and yielding a mitogen purified 800,000-fold over the starting material. (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into DNA of cultured cells responsive to PDGF represents the most readily available method to follow its purification and define the biological activity of a purified preparation. Other assays to quantitate PDGF include radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay.

  5. The Effects of Both Recent and Long-Term Selection and Genetic Drift Are Readily Evident in North American Barley Breeding Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Poets

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Barley was introduced to North America ∼400 yr ago but adaptation to modern production environments is more recent. Comparisons of allele frequencies among growth habits and spike (inflorescence types in North America indicate that significant genetic differentiation has accumulated in a relatively short evolutionary time span. Allele frequency differentiation is greatest among barley with two-row vs. six-row spikes, followed by spring vs. winter growth habit. Large changes in allele frequency among breeding programs suggest a major contribution of genetic drift and linked selection on genetic variation. Despite this, comparisons of 3613 modern North American cultivated barley breeding lines that differ for spike-type and growth habit permit the discovery of 142 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP outliers putatively linked to targets of selection. For example, SNPs within the Cbf4, Ppd-H1, and Vrn-H1 loci, which have previously been associated with agronomically adaptive phenotypes, are identified as outliers. Analysis of extended haplotype sharing identifies genomic regions shared within and among breeding populations, suggestive of a number of genomic regions subject to recent selection. Finally, we are able to identify recent bouts of gene flow between breeding populations that could point to the sharing of agronomically adaptive variation. These results are supported by pedigrees and breeders’ understanding of germplasm sharing.

  6. A High Performance, Cost-Effective, Open-Source Microscope for Scanning Two-Photon Microscopy that Is Modular and Readily Adaptable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenegger, David G.; Tran, Cam Ha T.; LeDue, Jeffery; Zhou, Ning; Gordon, Grant R.

    2014-01-01

    Two-photon laser scanning microscopy has revolutionized the ability to delineate cellular and physiological function in acutely isolated tissue and in vivo. However, there exist barriers for many laboratories to acquire two-photon microscopes. Additionally, if owned, typical systems are difficult to modify to rapidly evolving methodologies. A potential solution to these problems is to enable scientists to build their own high-performance and adaptable system by overcoming a resource insufficiency. Here we present a detailed hardware resource and protocol for building an upright, highly modular and adaptable two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope that can be used for in vitro or in vivo applications. The microscope is comprised of high-end componentry on a skeleton of off-the-shelf compatible opto-mechanical parts. The dedicated design enabled imaging depths close to 1 mm into mouse brain tissue and a signal-to-noise ratio that exceeded all commercial two-photon systems tested. In addition to a detailed parts list, instructions for assembly, testing and troubleshooting, our plan includes complete three dimensional computer models that greatly reduce the knowledge base required for the non-expert user. This open-source resource lowers barriers in order to equip more laboratories with high-performance two-photon imaging and to help progress our understanding of the cellular and physiological function of living systems. PMID:25333934

  7. Evaluation of Readily Accessible Azoles as Mimics of the Aromatic Ring of D-Phenylalanine in the Turn Region of Gramicidin S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Knaap, Matthijs; Lageveen, Lianne T.; Busscher, Henk J.; Mars-Groenendijk, Roos; Noort, Daan; Otero, Jose M.; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; van Raaij, Mark J.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Overhand, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The influence of replacing the D-phenylalanine residue with substituted and unsubstituted azoles on the structure and biological activity of the antibiotic gramicidin S was investigated against a representative panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. Substituted triazole

  8. Evaluation of readily accessible azoles as mimics of the aromatic ring of D-phenylalanine in the turn region of gramicidin S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, M. van der; Lageveen, L.T.; Busscher, H.J.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.; Noort, D.; Otero, J.M.; Llamas-Saiz, A.L.; Raaij, M.J. van; Marel, G.A. van der; Overkleeft, H.S.; Overhand, M.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of replacing the d-phenylalanine residue with substituted and unsubstituted azoles on the structure and biological activity of the antibiotic gramicidinS was investigated against a representative panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. Substituted triazole

  9. A high performance, cost-effective, open-source microscope for scanning two-photon microscopy that is modular and readily adaptable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Rosenegger

    Full Text Available Two-photon laser scanning microscopy has revolutionized the ability to delineate cellular and physiological function in acutely isolated tissue and in vivo. However, there exist barriers for many laboratories to acquire two-photon microscopes. Additionally, if owned, typical systems are difficult to modify to rapidly evolving methodologies. A potential solution to these problems is to enable scientists to build their own high-performance and adaptable system by overcoming a resource insufficiency. Here we present a detailed hardware resource and protocol for building an upright, highly modular and adaptable two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope that can be used for in vitro or in vivo applications. The microscope is comprised of high-end componentry on a skeleton of off-the-shelf compatible opto-mechanical parts. The dedicated design enabled imaging depths close to 1 mm into mouse brain tissue and a signal-to-noise ratio that exceeded all commercial two-photon systems tested. In addition to a detailed parts list, instructions for assembly, testing and troubleshooting, our plan includes complete three dimensional computer models that greatly reduce the knowledge base required for the non-expert user. This open-source resource lowers barriers in order to equip more laboratories with high-performance two-photon imaging and to help progress our understanding of the cellular and physiological function of living systems.

  10. Modelling actual and potential wind erosion risk by using readily available data on weather elements and GIS : "a pilot study from Denmark and Switzerland"

    OpenAIRE

    Saremi Naeini, Mohammadali

    2015-01-01

    Wind erosion is a complex process which is affected generally by the combined impact of wind erosivity and soil erodibility. According to the complexity of the wind erosion process, the main aim of this research was to design a practical model to predict potential and actual wind erosion risk based on spatial distribution of wind erosivity and soil erodibility. For representation of the potential and actual wind erosion risk in this study, two pilot countries with very different environmental...

  11. Nanostructured Co3O4grown on nickel foam: An efficient and readily recyclable 3D catalyst for heterogeneous peroxymonosulfate activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ruixia; Hu, Lin; Yu, Peng; Wang, Huaiyuan; Wang, Zhaohui; Fang, Jingyun

    2018-05-01

    Cobalt-based heterogeneous catalyst has been recognized as one of most efficient activators for peroxymonosulfate (PMS) decomposition, but usually suffers from the poor stability and difficulty to recover and reuse. Here easily recyclable cobalt oxide (Co 3 O 4 ) nanowires and nanoflowers grown on nickel foam (NF) are fabricated by a hydrothermal and calcination method. The prepared 3D Co 3 O 4 /NF catalyst is characterized and applied as a heterogeneous catalyst for PMS activation to generate sulfate radicals for decomposition of Acid Orange 7 (AO7). The results show that the AO7 degradation rate increases with cobalt loading and PMS dosage, but decreases with the increase of solution pH. The Co 3 O 4 /NF catalyst using 2 mM Co(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O as cobalt source exhibits highest activity, and almost complete decolorization could be achieved within 30 min. The diverse effects of coexisting anions (SO 4 2- , HCO 3 - , NO 3 - and Cl - ) on AO7 degradation are observed and explained. After 10 consecutive runs, excellent catalytic reactivity of the catalyst remains while the level of leached cobalt during the catalyst usage is much lower than the maximum allowable concentration in drinking and natural water. More importantly, the macroscopic Co 3 O 4 /NF catalyst shows advantage of easy recycling after application compared to traditional catalysts. It is believed that the as-prepared Co 3 O 4 /NF is promising to be an effective and green heterogeneous catalyst for PMS activation to degrade organic pollutants for environmental application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A convenient synthesis of tetrabenzo[de,hi,mn,qr]naphthacene from readily available 1,2-di(phenanthren-4-yl)ethyne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anupam; Pati, Kamalkishore; Liu, Rai-Shung

    2009-08-21

    We report here a convenient synthesis of tetrabenzo[de,hi,mn,qr]naphthacenes from 1,2-di(phenanthren-4-yl)ethynes through initial Brønsted acid-catalyzed hydroarylation, followed by FeCl(3)-oxidative coupling reactions. This new method is applicable to tetrabenzo[de,hi,mn,qr]naphthacenes bearing various alkyl substituents.

  13. Hepatic B cells are readily activated by Toll‐like receptor‐4 ligation and secrete less interleukin‐10 than lymphoid tissue B cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, H; Stolz, D. B; Chalasani, G; Thomson, A. W

    2013-01-01

    ... their secretion of interleukin ( IL )‐10. While the liver is regarded both as an important immune organ and a tolerogenic environment, little is known about the functional biology of hepatic B cells...

  14. Model-driven discovery of synergistic inhibitors against E. coli and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium targeting a novel synthetic lethal pair, aldA and prpC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, Ramy K.; Khaw, Valerie L.; Monk, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models of biochemical networks form a cornerstone of bacterial systems biology. Inconsistencies between simulation output and experimental data point to gaps in knowledge about the fundamental biology of the organism. One such inconsistency centers on the gene aldA in Escherichia col...... discovery and their potential use to discover new combination antibiotics....

  15. A medicinal herb Scutellaria lateriflora inhibits PrP replication in vitro and delays the onset of prion disease in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eEiden

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE are characterized by the misfolding of the host encoded prion protein (PrPC into a pathogenic isoform (PrPSc which leads to the accumulation of -sheet-rich fibrils and subsequent loss of neurons and synaptic functions. Although many compounds have been identified which inhibit accumulation or dissolve fibrils and aggregates in vitro there is no therapeutic treatment to stop these progressive neurodegenerative diseases. Here we describe the effects of the traditional medicinal herb Scutellaria lateriflora (S. lateriflora and its natural compounds, the flavonoids Baicalein and Baicalin, on the development of prion disease using in vitro and in vivo models. S. lateriflora extract as well as both constituents reduced the PrPres accumulation in scrapie-infected cell cultures and cell-free conversion assays and lead to the destabilization of preexisting PrPSc fibrils. Moreover, tea prepared from S. lateriflora, prolonged significantly the incubation time of scrapie infected mice upon oral treatment. Therefore Scutellaria extracts as well as the individual compounds can be considered as promising candidates for the development of new therapeutic drugs against TSEs and other neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.

  16. [Short-term curative effect of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) combined with platelet rich plasma (PRP) for the treatment of the refractory wounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Hui-Zeng

    2014-03-01

    To observe the efficacy of the treatment of refractory wound by VSD combined with platelet-rich plasma. From April 2010 to June 2012,15 patients with refractory wound were treated including 11 males and 4 females with an average age of 35.2 years old ranging from 18 to 45 years old. The formation time of wound was from 6 to 24 months, which was unhealed after long-term medication or repeated treatment. The VSD combined with autologous platelet-rich plasma was applied to treat the wound. The wound healing was an indicator and treatment and clinical features were summarized. All the patients were followed up for 3 to 8 months (means 5 months). The wound of all patients were healed without recurrence. The curative effect of VSD combined with platelet rich plasma for treatment of refractory wounds is obvious. It could reduce the treatment course and the treatment cost.

  17. N-terminal Prion Protein Peptides (PrP(120-144)) Form Parallel In-register β-Sheets via Multiple Nucleation-dependent Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiming; Shao, Qing; Hall, Carol K

    2016-10-14

    The prion diseases are a family of fatal neurodegenerative diseases associated with the misfolding and accumulation of normal prion protein (PrP(C)) into its pathogenic scrapie form (PrP(Sc)). Understanding the fundamentals of prion protein aggregation and the molecular architecture of PrP(Sc) is key to unraveling the pathology of prion diseases. Our work investigates the early-stage aggregation of three prion protein peptides, corresponding to residues 120-144 of human (Hu), bank vole (BV), and Syrian hamster (SHa) prion protein, from disordered monomers to β-sheet-rich fibrillar structures. Using 12 μs discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations combined with the PRIME20 force field, we find that the Hu-, BV-, and SHaPrP(120-144) aggregate via multiple nucleation-dependent pathways to form U-shaped, S-shaped, and Ω-shaped protofilaments. The S-shaped HuPrP(120-144) protofilament is similar to the amyloid core structure of HuPrP(112-141) predicted by Zweckstetter. HuPrP(120-144) has a shorter aggregation lag phase than BVPrP(120-144) followed by SHaPrP(120-144), consistent with experimental findings. Two amino acid substitutions I138M and I139M retard the formation of parallel in-register β-sheet dimers during the nucleation stage by increasing side chain-side chain association and reducing side chain interaction specificity. On average, HuPrP(120-144) aggregates contain more parallel β-sheet content than those formed by BV- and SHaPrP(120-144). Deletion of the C-terminal residues 138-144 prevents formation of fibrillar structures in agreement with the experiment. This work sheds light on the amyloid core structures underlying prion strains and how I138M, I139M, and S143N affect prion protein aggregation kinetics. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Human Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and sheep scrapie PrP (res) detection using seeded conversion of recombinant prion protein.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orrú, C.D.; Wilham, J.M.; Hughson, A.G.; Raymond, L.D.; McNally, K.L.; Bossers, A.; Ligios, C.; Caughey, B.

    2009-01-01

    The pathological isoform of the prion protein (PrPres) can serve as a marker for prion diseases, but more practical tests are needed for preclinical diagnosis and sensitive detection of many prion infections. Previously we showed that the quaking-induced conversion (QuIC) assay can detect

  19. Destabilizing polymorphism in cervid prion protein hydrophobic core determines prion conformation and conversion efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Hannaoui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders of humans and animals caused by misfolded forms of the cellular prion protein PrPC. Prions cause disease by converting PrPC into aggregation-prone PrPSc. Chronic wasting disease (CWD is the most contagious prion disease with substantial lateral transmission, affecting free-ranging and farmed cervids. Although the PrP primary structure is highly conserved among cervids, the disease phenotype can be modulated by species-specific polymorphisms in the prion protein gene. How the resulting amino-acid substitutions impact PrPC and PrPSc structure and propagation is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of the cervid 116A>G substitution, located in the most conserved PrP domain, on PrPC structure and conversion and on 116AG-prion conformation and infectivity. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed structural de-stabilization of 116G-PrP, which enhanced its in vitro conversion efficiency when used as recombinant PrP substrate in real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC. We demonstrate that 116AG-prions are conformationally less stable, show lower activity as a seed in RT-QuIC and exhibit reduced infectivity in vitro and in vivo. Infectivity of 116AG-prions was significantly enhanced upon secondary passage in mice, yet conformational features were retained. These findings indicate that structurally de-stabilized PrPC is readily convertible by cervid prions of different genetic background and results in a prion conformation adaptable to cervid wild-type PrP. Conformation is an important criterion when assessing transmission barrier, and conformational variants can target a different host range. Therefore, a thorough analysis of CWD isolates and re-assessment of species-barriers is important in order to fully exclude a zoonotic potential of CWD.

  20. Destabilizing polymorphism in cervid prion protein hydrophobic core determines prion conformation and conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaoui, Samia; Amidian, Sara; Cheng, Yo Ching; Duque Velásquez, Camilo; Law, Sampson; Telling, Glenn; Stepanova, Maria; McKenzie, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders of humans and animals caused by misfolded forms of the cellular prion protein PrPC. Prions cause disease by converting PrPC into aggregation-prone PrPSc. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the most contagious prion disease with substantial lateral transmission, affecting free-ranging and farmed cervids. Although the PrP primary structure is highly conserved among cervids, the disease phenotype can be modulated by species-specific polymorphisms in the prion protein gene. How the resulting amino-acid substitutions impact PrPC and PrPSc structure and propagation is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of the cervid 116A>G substitution, located in the most conserved PrP domain, on PrPC structure and conversion and on 116AG-prion conformation and infectivity. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed structural de-stabilization of 116G-PrP, which enhanced its in vitro conversion efficiency when used as recombinant PrP substrate in real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC). We demonstrate that 116AG-prions are conformationally less stable, show lower activity as a seed in RT-QuIC and exhibit reduced infectivity in vitro and in vivo. Infectivity of 116AG-prions was significantly enhanced upon secondary passage in mice, yet conformational features were retained. These findings indicate that structurally de-stabilized PrPC is readily convertible by cervid prions of different genetic background and results in a prion conformation adaptable to cervid wild-type PrP. Conformation is an important criterion when assessing transmission barrier, and conformational variants can target a different host range. Therefore, a thorough analysis of CWD isolates and re-assessment of species-barriers is important in order to fully exclude a zoonotic potential of CWD. PMID:28800624

  1. Sequence Classification: 890604 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available scriptional coactivator SKIP, can activate transcription of a reporter gene; interacts with splicing factors Prp22p and Prp46p; Prp45p || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/6319287 ...

  2. Efficacy of a Web-Based Guided Recommendation Service for a Curated List of Readily Available Mental Health and Well-Being Mobile Apps for Young People: Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bidargaddi, Niranjan; Musiat, Peter; Winsall, Megan; Vogl, Gillian; Blake, Victoria; Quinn, Stephen; Orlowski, Simone; Antezana, Gaston; Schrader, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Background Mental disorders are highly prevalent for the people who are aged between 16 and 25 years and can permanently disrupt the development of these individuals. Easily available mobile health (mHealth) apps for mobile phones have great potential for the prevention and early intervention of mental disorders in young adults, but interventions are required that can help individuals to both identify high-quality mobile apps and use them to change health and lifestyle behavior. Objectives Th...

  3. (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline(4-nitrobenzoate): strong induction of stereoelectronic effects via a readily synthesized proline derivative. Crystallographic observation of a correlation between torsion angle and bond length in a hyperconjugative interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anil K; Yap, Glenn P A; Zondlo, Neal J

    2014-05-02

    (2S,4R)-4-Hydroxyproline(4-nitrobenzoate) was synthesized. The crystal structure revealed an exo ring pucker, with the nitrobenzoate pseudoaxial on the pyrrolidine envelope and antiperiplanar to C(β) and C(δ) C-H bonds. The unit cell exhibited variation in C(δ)-H/C(γ)-O and C(β)-H/C(γ)-O torsion angles, with a 15° increase in torsion angle (148° to 163°) observed to result in a 0.018 Å decrease in C(δ)-H/C(γ)-O bond length, consistent with favorable σC-H → σ*C-O hyperconjugative interactions increasing with greater orbital overlap.

  4. Improving the Prediction of Prostate Cancer Overall Survival by Supplementing Readily Available Clinical Data with Gene Expression Levels of IGFBP3 and F3 in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded Core Needle Biopsy Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhuochun; Andersson, Karl; Lindholm, Johan; Dethlefsen, Olga; Pramana, Setia; Pawitan, Yudi; Nistér, Monica; Nilsson, Sten; Li, Chunde

    2016-01-01

    A previously reported expression signature of three genes (IGFBP3, F3 and VGLL3) was shown to have potential prognostic value in estimating overall and cancer-specific survivals at diagnosis of prostate cancer in a pilot cohort study using freshly frozen Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) samples. We carried out a new cohort study with 241 prostate cancer patients diagnosed from 2004-2007 with a follow-up exceeding 6 years in order to verify the prognostic value of gene expression signature in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) prostate core needle biopsy tissue samples. The cohort consisted of four patient groups with different survival times and death causes. A four multiplex one-step RT-qPCR test kit, designed and optimized for measuring the expression signature in FFPE core needle biopsy samples, was used. In archive FFPE biopsy samples the expression differences of two genes (IGFBP3 and F3) were measured. The survival time predictions using the current clinical parameters only, such as age at diagnosis, Gleason score, PSA value and tumor stage, and clinical parameters supplemented with the expression levels of IGFBP3 and F3, were compared. When combined with currently used clinical parameters, the gene expression levels of IGFBP3 and F3 are improving the prediction of survival time as compared to using clinical parameters alone. The assessment of IGFBP3 and F3 gene expression levels in FFPE prostate cancer tissue would provide an improved survival prediction for prostate cancer patients at the time of diagnosis.

  5. Hendra Virus Infection Dynamics in the Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) at the Southern-Most Extent of Its Range: Further Evidence This Species Does Not Readily Transmit the Virus to Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, A L; Durr, P A; Boyd, V; Graham, K; White, J R; Todd, S; Barr, J; Smith, I; Baverstock, G; Meers, J; Crameri, G; Wang, L-F

    2016-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is an important emergent virus in Australia known to infect horses and humans in certain regions of the east coast. Whilst pteropid bats ("flying foxes") are considered the natural reservoir of HeV, which of the four mainland species is the principal reservoir has been a source of ongoing debate, particularly as shared roosting is common. To help resolve this, we sampled a colony consisting of just one of these species, the grey-headed flying fox, (Pteropus poliocephalus), at the southernmost extent of its range. Using the pooled urine sampling technique at approximately weekly intervals over a two year period, we determined the prevalence of HeV and related paramyxoviruses using a novel multiplex (Luminex) platform. Whilst all the pooled urine samples were negative for HeV nucleic acid, we successfully identified four other paramyxoviruses, including Cedar virus; a henipavirus closely related to HeV. Collection of serum from individually caught bats from the colony showed that antibodies to HeV, as estimated by a serological Luminex assay, were present in between 14.6% and 44.5% of animals. The wide range of the estimate reflects uncertainties in interpreting intermediate results. Interpreting the study in the context of HeV studies from states to the north, we add support for an arising consensus that it is the black flying fox and not the grey-headed flying fox that is the principal source of HeV in spillover events to horses.

  6. Hendra Virus Infection Dynamics in the Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus at the Southern-Most Extent of Its Range: Further Evidence This Species Does Not Readily Transmit the Virus to Horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A L Burroughs

    Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV is an important emergent virus in Australia known to infect horses and humans in certain regions of the east coast. Whilst pteropid bats ("flying foxes" are considered the natural reservoir of HeV, which of the four mainland species is the principal reservoir has been a source of ongoing debate, particularly as shared roosting is common. To help resolve this, we sampled a colony consisting of just one of these species, the grey-headed flying fox, (Pteropus poliocephalus, at the southernmost extent of its range. Using the pooled urine sampling technique at approximately weekly intervals over a two year period, we determined the prevalence of HeV and related paramyxoviruses using a novel multiplex (Luminex platform. Whilst all the pooled urine samples were negative for HeV nucleic acid, we successfully identified four other paramyxoviruses, including Cedar virus; a henipavirus closely related to HeV. Collection of serum from individually caught bats from the colony showed that antibodies to HeV, as estimated by a serological Luminex assay, were present in between 14.6% and 44.5% of animals. The wide range of the estimate reflects uncertainties in interpreting intermediate results. Interpreting the study in the context of HeV studies from states to the north, we add support for an arising consensus that it is the black flying fox and not the grey-headed flying fox that is the principal source of HeV in spillover events to horses.

  7. Fossil melanosomes or bacteria? A wealth of findings favours melanosomes: Melanin fossilises relatively readily, bacteria rarely, hence the need for clarification in the debate over the identity of microbodies in fossil animal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Jakob

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of fossil melanosomes has resulted in a wealth of research over the last 7 years, notably the reconstruction of colour in dinosaurs and fossil mammals. In spite of these discoveries some authors persist in arguing that the observed microbodies could represent preserved bacteria. They contend that bacteria fossilise easily and everywhere, which means that one can never be certain that a microbody is a melanosome without an extraordinary burden of evidence. However, this critique mischaracterises the morphological and structural evidence for interpreting microbodies as fossil melanosomes, and hence the basis for using them in reconstructing prehistoric colours. The claims for bacterial omnipresence in the fossil record are themselves not supported, thus tipping the scales strongly towards melanosomes in the bacteria-versus-melanosome controversy. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  8. On-line dynamic extraction and automated determination of readily bioavailable hexavalent chromium in solid substrates using micro-sequential injection bead-injection lab-on-valve hyphenated with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2006-01-01

    environments at the sub-low parts-per-million level. The flow system integrates dynamic leaching of hexavalent chromium using deionized water as recommended by the German Standard DIN 38414-S4 method; on-line pH adjustment of the extract by a 0.01 mol L-1 Tris-HNO3 buffer solution; isolation of the chromate...

  9. Assessing Greater Sage-Grouse Selection of Brood-Rearing Habitat Using Remotely-Sensed Imagery: Can Readily Available High-Resolution Imagery Be Used to Identify Brood-Rearing Habitat Across a Broad Landscape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, Matthew; Baxter, Jared; Baxter, Rick; Day, Casey; Jensen, Ryan; Petersen, Steve; Larsen, Randy

    2016-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse populations have decreased steadily since European settlement in western North America. Reduced availability of brood-rearing habitat has been identified as a limiting factor for many populations. We used radio-telemetry to acquire locations of sage-grouse broods from 1998 to 2012 in Strawberry Valley, Utah. Using these locations and remotely-sensed NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) imagery, we 1) determined which characteristics of brood-rearing habitat could be used in widely available, high resolution imagery 2) assessed the spatial extent at which sage-grouse selected brood-rearing habitat, and 3) created a predictive habitat model to identify areas of preferred brood-rearing habitat. We used AIC model selection to evaluate support for a list of variables derived from remotely-sensed imagery. We examined the relationship of these explanatory variables at three spatial extents (45, 200, and 795 meter radii). Our top model included 10 variables (percent shrub, percent grass, percent tree, percent paved road, percent riparian, meters of sage/tree edge, meters of riparian/tree edge, distance to tree, distance to transmission lines, and distance to permanent structures). Variables from each spatial extent were represented in our top model with the majority being associated with the larger (795 meter) spatial extent. When applied to our study area, our top model predicted 75% of naïve brood locations suggesting reasonable success using this method and widely available NAIP imagery. We encourage application of our methodology to other sage-grouse populations and species of conservation concern.

  10. Efficacy of freeze-dried platelet-rich plasma in bone engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Yuya; Agata, Hideki; Sumita, Yoshinori; Koga, Takamitsu; Asahina, Izumi

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is typically isolated and applied immediately after preparation, making it both a time- and labor-intensive addition to the operative procedure. Thus, it would be convenient if PRP could be preserved. We evaluated the efficacy of freeze-dried PRP (FD-PRP), as compared with freshly isolated PRP (f-PRP) for bone engineering. FD-PRP was prepared by lyophilization of f-PRP and was subsequently preserved at -20°C for one month. It was then rehydrated with an equal or 1/3 amount of distilled water (×1FD-PRP, ×3FD-PRP, respectively), and we assessed its gelation properties and the release of growth factors (PDGF-BB, TGF-β1, and VEGF). We also examined the bone forming ability with onlay-grafting on mice calvaria using β-TCP granules as a scaffold. FD-PRP showed comparable gelation as f-PRP. In terms of growth factor release,×1FD-PRP released identical concentrations of PDGF-BB and TGF-β1 to f-PRP, while ×3FD-PRP released approximately 3-fold concentrations when compared with f-PRP. In vivo, ×1FD-PRP promoted identical levels of the bone formation as f-PRP, and ×3FD-PRP induced more abundant bone formation. These results suggest that f-PRP can be stored without functional loss by freeze-drying and the concentration of PRP may improve its efficacy in bone engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Strategies to Address Infection Prevention and Treatment in the Reduced Inflammatory Milieu of Irrigated Open Wound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    potential foreign bodies, contaminants, and infectious agents. While this strategy reduces the potential for infection and granuloma formation , it also...PRP (1) (n=12) PRP (2) PRP (2) PRP (1) (n=12) Control (n=12) (n=12) Xray (n=8) Mechanical (torsion) and MicroCT ( callus ...the formation of clots during PRP preparation and two data points were identified as statistical outliers). RESULTS: Table 1: Mean Values

  12. Growth Factor Release from Lyophilized Porcine Platelet-Rich Plasma: Quantitative Analysis and Implications for Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Yong, Zhang; Yuk, Kim Sun; Hoon, Kim Young; Yuedong, Shi; Xu, Jianwei

    2016-02-01

    Freeze-dried platelet-rich plasma (FD PRP) is of potential value for clinical applications. However, growth factors released from FD PRP have not been well studied. Our study investigates growth factor release from FD PRP preparations, compared with other PRP samples, to further facilitate such clinical use. We used four experimental groups: (1) Fresh porcine PRP (PRP), (2) PRP activated by calcium chloride (CaCl2) (Ca PRP), (3) PRP activated by CaCl2, followed by freeze drying (Ca-FD PRP), and (4) PRP freeze-dried first, then activated by CaCl2 (FD-Ca PRP). All FD PRP samples were kept for up to 4 weeks at room temperature (22 °C) and reconstituted prior to analysis. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), platelet-derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were quantitated by ELISA at 15 min and 1 h incubation times. The concentrations of all growth factors in Ca PRP, measured at 1 h, were significantly higher than those in PRP (p 0.05). Levels of VEGF in Ca-FD PRP were not significantly different than in Ca PRP (p > 0.05). However, TGF-β1 concentrations in Ca-FD PRP, measured at 15 min, were higher than those in Ca PRP (p factors after storage for 4 weeks at room temperature, indicating its ease of use and wider possibilities for clinical applications. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  13. Implicit hype? Representations of platelet rich plasma in the news media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) has gained popularity in recent years for treating sports-related injuries and the news media frequently reports on elite athletes’ and celebrities’ use of PRP. We conducted a content analysis of newspaper coverage of PRP in Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the United States. Findings show that news media coverage of PRP appears most frequently in sports-related stories, and in relation to elite athletes use of PRP. PRP injections are largely portrayed as a routine treatment for sports-related injuries and newspaper articles rarely discuss the limitations or efficacy of PRP. We argue that while news media coverage of PRP exhibits very few common hallmarks of hype, its portrayal as a routine treatment used by elite athletes and celebrities creates an implicit hype. This implicit hype can contribute to public misunderstandings of the efficacy of PRP. PMID:28792974

  14. Implicit hype? Representations of platelet rich plasma in the news media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen Rachul

    Full Text Available Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP has gained popularity in recent years for treating sports-related injuries and the news media frequently reports on elite athletes' and celebrities' use of PRP. We conducted a content analysis of newspaper coverage of PRP in Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the United States. Findings show that news media coverage of PRP appears most frequently in sports-related stories, and in relation to elite athletes use of PRP. PRP injections are largely portrayed as a routine treatment for sports-related injuries and newspaper articles rarely discuss the limitations or efficacy of PRP. We argue that while news media coverage of PRP exhibits very few common hallmarks of hype, its portrayal as a routine treatment used by elite athletes and celebrities creates an implicit hype. This implicit hype can contribute to public misunderstandings of the efficacy of PRP.

  15. Implicit hype? Representations of platelet rich plasma in the news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachul, Christen; Rasko, John E J; Caulfield, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) has gained popularity in recent years for treating sports-related injuries and the news media frequently reports on elite athletes' and celebrities' use of PRP. We conducted a content analysis of newspaper coverage of PRP in Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the United States. Findings show that news media coverage of PRP appears most frequently in sports-related stories, and in relation to elite athletes use of PRP. PRP injections are largely portrayed as a routine treatment for sports-related injuries and newspaper articles rarely discuss the limitations or efficacy of PRP. We argue that while news media coverage of PRP exhibits very few common hallmarks of hype, its portrayal as a routine treatment used by elite athletes and celebrities creates an implicit hype. This implicit hype can contribute to public misunderstandings of the efficacy of PRP.

  16. Harmful Effects of Leukocyte-Rich Platelet-Rich Plasma on Rabbit Tendon Stem Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Chen, Shuo; Chang, Peng; Bao, Nirong; Yang, Chao; Ti, Yufan; Zhou, Liwu; Zhao, Jianning

    2016-08-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is now widely used as a promising treatment for patients with tendinopathy. However, the efficacy of PRP treatment for tendinopathy is controversial mainly because of inconsistent results from human clinical trials and particularly because the concentration and effect of leukocytes in PRP remain largely unknown. Leukocyte-rich PRP (L-PRP) inhibits growth factor release, decreases proliferation, and induces nontenocyte differentiation of tendon stem cells (TSCs); increases catabolic cytokine concentrations; and causes inflammation and apoptosis. Thus, L-PRP has a detrimental effect on tendon stem/progenitor cells, which impairs injured tendon healing. Controlled laboratory study. Pure PRP (P-PRP) and L-PRP were prepared from the same individual rabbit blood, and platelet numbers in each PRP product were adjusted to reach the same level. The leukocyte level in L-PRP was 4 and 8 times higher than those in whole blood and P-PRP, respectively. The growth factors in both P-PRP and L-PRP were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The morphology, stemness, proliferation, and differentiation of TSCs grown in L-PRP and P-PRP were examined by microscopy, immunocytochemistry, population doubling time, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and histological analysis. L-PRP produced lower levels of growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), than did P-PRP. TSC proliferation was significantly decreased in L-PRP in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, TSCs cultured in P-PRP produced more collagen and formed tendon-like tissue; however, TSCs grown in L-PRP differentiated into nontenocytes and produced more inflammatory factors such as membrane-associated prostaglandin synthase (mPGES) and interleukin (IL)-1β. Moreover, L-PRP was associated with increased apoptosis. L-PRP has harmful

  17. Intratendon Delivery of Leukocyte-Poor Platelet-Rich Plasma Improves Healing Compared With Leukocyte-Rich Platelet-Rich Plasma in a Rabbit Achilles Tendinopathy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ruijian; Gu, Yanjia; Ran, Jisheng; Hu, Yejun; Zheng, Zefeng; Zeng, Mengfeng; Heng, Boon Chin; Chen, Xiao; Yin, Zi; Chen, Weishan; Shen, Weiliang; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2017-07-01

    Chronic tendinopathy is a commonly occurring clinical problem that affects both athletes and inactive middle-aged patients. Although some studies have shown that different platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparations could exert various therapeutic effects in vitro, the role of leukocytes in PRP has not yet been defined under tendinopathy conditions in vivo. This study compared the effects of the intratendon delivery of leukocyte-poor PRP (Lp-PRP) versus leukocyte-rich PRP (Lr-PRP) in a rabbit chronic tendinopathy model in vivo. Controlled laboratory study. Four weeks after a local injection of collagenase in the Achilles tendon, the following treatments were randomly administered on the lesions: injections of (1) 200 μL of Lp-PRP (n = 8), (2) 200 μL of Lr-PRP (n = 8), or (3) 200 μL of saline (n = 8). Healing outcomes were assessed at 4 weeks after therapy with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cytokine quantification, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of gene expression, histology, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). MRI revealed that the Lr-PRP and saline groups displayed higher signal intensities compared with the Lp-PRP group with T2 mapping. Histologically, the Lp-PRP group displayed significantly better general scores compared with the Lr-PRP ( P = .001) and saline ( P < .001) groups. Additionally, TEM showed that the Lp-PRP group had larger collagen fibril diameters than the Lr-PRP group ( P < .001). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed a significantly lower level of catabolic cytokine IL-6 in the Lp-PRP group compared with the Lr-PRP ( P = .001) and saline ( P = .021) groups. The Lp-PRP group displayed significantly increased expression of collagen I compared with the saline group ( P = .004) but not the Lr-PRP group. Both the Lp-PRP and Lr-PRP groups exhibited significantly lower matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 expression levels compared with the saline group. However, only the Lp-PRP group displayed significantly higher

  18. Platelet-Rich Plasma Increases the Levels of Catabolic Molecules and Cellular Dedifferentiation in the Meniscus of a Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Rim Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the susceptibility to frequent intrinsic and extrinsic injuries, especially in the inner zone, the meniscus does not heal spontaneously owing to its poor vascularity. In this study, the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP, containing various growth factors, on meniscal mechanisms was examined under normal and post-traumatic inflammatory conditions. Isolated primary meniscal cells of New Zealand white (NZW rabbits were incubated for 3, 10, 14 and 21 days with PRP(−, 10% PRP (PRP(+, IL(+ or IL(+PRP(+. The meniscal cells were collected and examined using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Culture media were examined by immunoblot analyses for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP catabolic molecules. PRP containing growth factors improved the cellular viability of meniscal cells in a concentration-dependent manner at Days 1, 4 and 7. However, based on RT-PCR, meniscal cells demonstrated dedifferentiation, along with an increase in type I collagen in the PRP(+ and in IL(+PRP(+. In PRP(+, the aggrecan expression levels were lower than in the PRP(− until Day 21. The protein levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3 were higher in each PRP group, i.e., PRP(+ and IL(+PRP(+, at each culture time. A reproducible 2-mm circular defect on the meniscus of NZW rabbit was used to implant fibrin glue (control or PRP in vivo. After eight weeks, the lesions in the control and PRP groups were occupied with fibrous tissue, but not with meniscal cells. This study shows that PRP treatment of the meniscus results in an increase of catabolic molecules, especially those related to IL-1α-induced inflammation, and that PRP treatment for an in vivo meniscus injury accelerates fibrosis, instead of meniscal cartilage.

  19. Low agreement between fresh and frozen-thawed platelet-rich plasma in the calibrated automated thrombogram assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungkvist, M; Lövdahl, S; Zetterberg, E; Berntorp, E

    2017-05-01

    Thrombin generation tests (TGTs) are considered to give more detailed information of the overall coagulation capability of a patient than clotting-based routine assays. The TGT thrombin generation assay-calibrated automated thrombogram (TGA-CAT) uses both platelet-poor plasma (PPP) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Assessing PRP gives more physiological test conditions and is of great interest considering the important role platelets play in haemostasis. However, PRP needs to be assessed close after blood draw/preparation as freezing fragments the platelets. In several previous publications, the utility of frozen-thawed PRP (ft-PRP) has been promoted, and in one article, no significant difference between fresh PRP (f-PRP) and ft-PRP was reported. The aim of our study was to investigate the level of agreement between f-PRP and ft-PRP to further validate these results. Our test population contained 41 persons with haemophilia and 45 healthy subjects. We used the TGA-CAT method with a set-up according to the manufacturer of the method. The measurements showed a poor level of agreement between f-PRP and ft-PRP and differences were not systematic. Fresh and ft-PRP cannot be assumed to show equal results in the TGA-CAT assay. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Differential effect of platelet-rich plasma fractions on β1-integrin signaling, collagen biosynthesis, and prolidase activity in human skin fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guszczyn, Tomasz; Surażyński, Arkadiusz; Zaręba, Ilona; Rysiak, Edyta; Popko, Janusz; Pałka, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), supernatant of PRP (SPRP) obtained by centrifugation, and supernatant of activated PRP (SActi-PRP) obtained by Ca2+ solution-treated PRP on collagen biosynthesis, prolidase activity, and β1-integrin signaling in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Incubation of fibroblasts with 5% PRP for 24 h contributed to ~5-fold increase in collagen biosynthesis compared to the control. In the cells treated with 5% of SPRP or SActi-PRP, collagen biosynthesis showed a 3-fold increase of the control. PRP, SPRP, and SActi-PRP stimulated prolidase activity similar to collagen biosynthesis. Collagen biosynthesis and prolidase activity are regulated by β1-integrin receptor signaling. Incubation of fibroblasts with PRP for 24 h contributed to a dose-dependent increase in the expression of β1-integrin receptor, while SActi-PRP increased the process to a much lower extent. SPRP had no effect on the β1-integrin receptor expression. All the studied fractions of blood increased the expression of FAK as well as the expression of phosphorylated MAP-kinases. However, PRP was found to be the most effective stimulator of expression of these particular kinases. These studies suggest that a complex of factors, including growth factors, adhesion molecules, and prolidase contained in PRP, all evoke growth and collagen-promoting activities in human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:28694685

  1. Pityriasis rubra pilaris following exposure to dolomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraji, Fariba; Siadat, Amir H

    2013-07-01

    In this case report, we present a 30-year-old man who developed pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) following exposure to Dolomite. The diagnosis of PRP was confirmed histologically and the patient was successfully treated with acitretin and cyclosporine.

  2. Performance Related Pay and Labor Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.; Kerkhofs, M.J.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labor productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP).We find that PRP increases labor productivity at the firm level with about 9%.

  3. Performance Related Pay and Labor Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Gielen, A. C.; Kerkhofs, M.J.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labor productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP). We find that PRP increases labor productivity at the firm level with about 9% and employment with about 5%.

  4. The Effect of Platelet Rich Plasma on Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells in Transwell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mardani

    2013-11-01

    : Our findings indicate that autologous PRP at an optimum concentration had beneficial effects on differentiation of hADSCs in Transwell culture. Further, in vivo studies are necessary to fully define the clinical implications of PRP.

  5. Wound Healing Activity of a New Formulation from Platelet Lysate

    OpenAIRE

    Akram Jamshidzadeh; Omid Koohi Hosseinabadi; Reza Heidari; Soliman Mohammadi-Samani; Sara Rajabzadeh; Seyed Mojtaba Seyed Raoufi; Alireza Ahmadi Vadeghani

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an attractive preparation in regenerative medicine due to its potential role in the healing process in different experimental models. This study was designed to investigate the wound healing activity of a new formulation of PRP. Different gel-based formulations of PRP were prepared. Open excision wounds were made on the back of male Sprague-Dawley rats, and PRP gel was administered topically once daily until the wounds healed completely (12 days). The results rev...

  6. Synovial fluid growth factor and cytokine concentrations after intra-articular injection of a platelet-rich product in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Textor, Jamie A; Willits, Neil H; Tablin, Fern

    2013-10-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) products may be useful for treatment of joint disease in horses, but may contain undesirable pro-inflammatory cytokines in addition to growth factors. This study investigated whether autologous PRP increases synovial fluid growth factor and cytokine concentrations when injected into normal equine metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal (fetlock) joints. Fetlock joints of seven healthy horses received one of four treatments: saline, resting PRP, CaCl2-activated PRP or thrombin-activated PRP. Synovial fluid was sampled prior to injection and at 6, 24, 48 and 96 h post-injection. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB), transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) concentrations in synovial fluid and PRP were measured by ELISA. Synovial fluid PDGF-BB, TGFβ1, IL-6, TNFα and IL-1 concentrations were also measured in vitro after incubation for 6h with resting PRP only. Growth factor concentrations, but not cytokine concentrations, were significantly higher in activated PRP than in resting PRP samples. After intra-articular injection with resting or thrombin-activated PRP, synovial TGFβ1 increased significantly compared to baseline levels. TNFα and IL-6 were significantly increased in synovial fluid after thrombin-activated PRP injection. In vitro, growth factor concentrations increased significantly in synovial fluid after mixing with PRP, indicating that exogenous activation of PRP for intra-articular injection may be unnecessary, whereas cytokine levels did not. In conclusion, thrombin-activated PRP induced an inflammatory cytokine response in joints, whereas resting or CaCl2-activated PRP did not. Synovial growth factor levels were low overall; the reported benefits of intra-articular PRP may not be attributable to changes in local PDGF or TGFβ1 concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of platelet-rich plasma in a model of bovine endometrial inflammation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Marini, M G; C.; Perrini; Esposti, P.; Corradetti, B.; Bizzaro, D.; Riccaboni, P.; Fantinato, E.; Urbani, G.; Gelati, G.; Cremonesi, F.; Lange-Consiglio, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Endometritis reduces fertility and is responsible for major economic losses in beef and dairy industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate an alternative therapy using platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP was tested in vivo, after bovine intrauterine administration, and in vitro on endometrial cells. Methods Bovine endometrial cells were cultured until passage (P) 10 with 5?% or 10?% PRP. Effect of PRP on endometrial cell proliferation and on the expression of genes [prostaglandin-...

  8. A feasibility of useful cell-based therapy by bone regeneration with deciduous tooth stem cells, dental pulp stem cells, or bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for clinical study using tissue engineering technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoichi; Nakamura, Sayaka; Ito, Kenji; Sugito, Takayuki; Yoshimi, Ryoko; Nagasaka, Tetsuro; Ueda, Minoru

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of bone regeneration with dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), deciduous tooth stem cells (DTSCs), or bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) for clinical study on hydroxyapatite-coated osseointegrated dental implants, using tissue engineering technology. In vitro, human DPSCs and DTSCs expressed STRO-1, CD13, CD29, CD 44, CD73, and osteogenic marker genes such as alkaline phosphatase, Runx2, and osteocalcin. In vivo, prepared bone defect model was implanted using graft materials as follows: platelet-rich plasma (PRP), PRP and canine BMMSCs (cBMMSCs), PRP and canine DPSCs (cDPSCs), PRP and puppy DTSCs (pDTSCs), and control (defect only). After 8 weeks, the dental implants were installed, and 16 weeks later the sections were evaluated histologically and histometrically. The cBMMSCs/PRP, cDPSCs/PRP, and pDTSCs/PRP groups had well-formed mature bone and neovascularization. Histometrically, the bone-implant contact was significantly different between the cBMMSCs/PRP, cDPSCs/PRP, pDTSCs/PRP groups, and the control and PRP groups (p < 0.01). These results demonstrated that these stem cells with PRP have the ability to form bone, and this bone formation activity might be useful for osseointegrated hydroxyapatite-coated dental implants with good levels of bone-implant contact.

  9. Pityriasis rubra pilaris as the initial manifestation of leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, L A; Rosen, T

    1983-01-01

    The association of pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) with an underlying disease is unusual. A case of a PRP-like eruption presenting as the initial manifestation of acute stem cell leukemia is reported. Other noncutaneous diseases previously reported in association with PRP are reviewed. Other cutaneous lesions associated with leukemia are also briefly described.

  10. Platelet rich plasma in dermatology and aesthetic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Platelet rich plasma is a promising therapy in dermatology and aesthetic medicine. In this article we will discuss the pros and cons of platelet rich plasma (PRP and the usage of PRP in aesthetics. PRP is especially used for conditions like facial and neck rejuvenation, fine lines and wrinkles, abdominal striae and facial scarring.

  11. Gclust Server: 56797 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) containing Prp19p involved in mRNA splicing, interacts physically and genetically with Prp19p 2 1.00e-90 0... annotation component of NineTeen complex (NTC) containing Prp19p involved in mRNA splicing, interacts physically and genetically

  12. The effects of platelet-rich plasma derived from human umbilical cord blood on the osteogenic differentiation of human dental stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yeon; Nam, Hyun; Park, Yoon-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Jin; Chung, Chong-Pyoung; Han, Soo-Boo; Lee, Gene

    2011-02-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an emerging therapeutic application because PRP contains various growth factors that have beneficial effects on tissue regeneration and engineering. Mesenchymal stem cells and PRP derived from peripheral blood have been well studied. In this study, we investigated the effects of PRP derived from human umbilical cord blood (UCB-PRP) on proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Three types of dental stem cells were primarily isolated and characterized by flow cytometric analysis. Dental stem cells were exposed to various concentrations of UCB-PRP, which resulted in the proliferation of dental stem cells. Treatment with 2% UCB-PRP resulted in the highest level of proliferation. The ALP activity of DPSCs and PDLSCs increased following treatment with UCB-PRP in a dose-dependent manner up to a concentration of 2%. ALP activity decreased with higher concentration of UCB-PRP. The effects of UCB-PRP on calcium deposition were similar to those on proliferation and ALP activity. Treatment with 2% UCB-PRP resulted in the highest calcium depositions in DPSCs and PDLSCs; however, treatment with 1% UCB-PRP resulted in the highest calcium deposition in SHEDs. The concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor-AB and transforming growth factor-β1 in UCB-PRP were investigated and found to be comparable to the amounts in peripheral blood. Overall, UCB-PRP had beneficial effects on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of dental stem cells. Determination of the optimal concentration of UCB-PRP requires further investigation for clinical applications.

  13. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen concentration of whole blood influences the cellular composition of platelet-rich plasma obtained from centrifugation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenjing; Xu, Zhengliang; Sheng, Jiagen; Xie, Xuetao; Zhang, Changqing

    2017-09-01

    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), which reflects the sedimentation rate of platelets, leukocytes and erythrocytes in response to centrifugal force, may influence the cellular composition of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) obtained via centrifugation methods. However, no relevant studies have substantiated this. In the present study, blood was collected from 40 healthy volunteers and used to prepare PRP with two plasma-based preparation systems [YinPRP and Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (PRGF) systems] and two buffy coat-based systems (RegenPRP and WEGOPRP systems) in a single-donor model. Volumes of PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) that were removed in the preparation process were recorded. Analyses of ESR, haematocrit, C-reaction protein, coagulation, serum glucose and serum lipid of the whole blood used for PRP preparation were performed to evaluate the levels of ESR and the factors known to influence it. Whole blood analysis was performed to evaluate the cellular composition of PRP. Results demonstrated that there were marked positive correlations between the ESR of the whole blood used for PRP preparation and PPP removal efficiencies, platelet concentrations, platelet capture efficiencies and platelet enrichment factors of PRP formulations obtained from plasma-based systems, and PRP yield efficiency of RegenPRP and PPP removal efficiency of WEGOPRP. Furthermore, there were marked negative correlations between ESR and concentrations and enrichment factors of platelets, leukocytes and erythrocytes of RegenPRP. Fibrinogen concentration of the whole blood, which had a marked positive correlation with ESR, also influenced the cellular composition of PRP. These findings may increase the understanding of PRP preparation and provide substantial evidence for the individualised optimisation of PRP preparation systems used in clinical practice.

  14. Does leukocyte-poor or leukocyte-rich platelet-rich plasma applied with biopolymers have superiority to conventional platelet-rich plasma applications on chondrocyte proliferation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşar Şirin, Duygu; Yılmaz, İbrahim; İsyar, Mehmet; Öznam, Kadir; Mahiroğulları, Mahir

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the possible effects of leukocyte concentration in the content of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and the administration of PRP using a drug delivery system on chondrocyte proliferation in vitro conditions. Blood from nine male patients (mean age 65 years; range 49 to 81 years) with advanced stage osteoarthritis who had not responded to medical or conservative treatments and underwent total knee arthroplasty was used to prepare two formulations: PRP with low concentration leukocytes (2000-4000 leukocytes/µL) was designated as pure PRP (P-PRP), whereas PRP with high concentration leukocytes (9000-11000 leukocytes/µL) as leukocyte-rich PRP (L-PRP). Samples were divided into five groups as control group (group 1), chondrocyte cultures with P-PRP applied directly (group 2), chondrocyte cultures with L-PRP applied directly (group 3), chondrocytes co-cultured with P-PRP applied hydrogel (group 4), and chondrocytes co-cultured with L-PRP applied hydrogel (group 5). In all groups; cell morphology, viability and proliferation were compared with the expression of stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1), a precondrocyte marker. Maximum cell proliferation and SSEA-1 expression occurred in group 4, with a statistically significant correlation between SSEA-1 expression and cell proliferation. Our study showed the importance of leukocyte concentration of PRP and efficiency of delivery systems such as hydrogel and that L-PRP administered with a delivery system is more efficient than conventional applications of PRP in the treatment of cartilage damage.

  15. Platelet-rich plasma in regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guhta Ra Hara and Thaha Basu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP contains at least seven growth factors including epidermal, plateletderived, transforming, vascular endothelial, fibroblast, insulin-like and keratinocyte growth factor. The therapeutic effect of PRP occurs because of the high concentration of these growth factors compared with those found in normal plasma. In recent years, PRP is widely used across many clinical fields, especially in regenerative medicine. This review aimed at presenting an overview of the applications of PRP in regenerative medicine. The mechanisms of PRP effects on healing are also stated in this review. [Biomed Res Ther 2014; 1(1.000: 25-31

  16. Does Platelet-Rich Plasma Freeze-Thawing Influence Growth Factor Release and Their Effects on Chondrocytes and Synoviocytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Roffi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PRP cryopreservation remains a controversial point. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of freezing/thawing on PRP molecule release, and its effects on the metabolism of chondrocytes and synoviocytes. PRP was prepared from 10 volunteers, and a half volume underwent one freezing/thawing cycle. IL-1β, HGF, PDGF AB/BB, TGF-β1, and VEGF were assayed 1 hour and 7 days after activation. Culture media of chondrocytes and synoviocytes were supplemented with fresh or frozen PRP, and, at 7 days, proliferation, gene expression, and secreted proteins levels were evaluated. Results showed that in the freeze-thawed PRP the immediate and delayed molecule releases were similar or slightly lower than those in fresh PRP. TGF-β1 and PDGF AB/BB concentrations were significantly reduced after freezing both at 1 hour and at 7 days, whereas HGF concentration was significantly lower in frozen PRP at 7 days. In fresh PRP IL-1β and HGF concentrations underwent a significant further increase after 7 days. Similar gene expression was found in chondrocytes cultured with both PRPs, whereas in synoviocytes HGF gene expression was higher in frozen PRP. PRP cryopreservation is a safe procedure, which sufficiently preserves PRP quality and its ability to induce proliferation and the production of ECM components in chondrocytes and synoviocytes.

  17. Platelet concentrates for topical use: bedside device and blood transfusion technology. Quality and versatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzini, Piero; Balbo, Valeria; Mazzucco, Laura

    2012-06-01

    More or less after a decade of experimental and pioneering manual procedures to prepare platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for topical use, several portable and bedside devices were made available to prepare the PRP at the point-of-care. This technical opportunity increased the number of patients who got access to the treatment with autologous PRP and PRP-gel. Since topical treatment of tissue with PRP and PRP-gel was restricted to autologous preparation, blood transfusion centers that professionally prepare donor-derived platelet concentrates were not able to cover the overwhelming request for autologous PRP supply. Principally for logistic and organization reasons blood transfusion centers usually fail the challenge of prompt delivery of PRP to the physician over large territory. Nevertheless the blood bank production of platelet concentrates is associated with high standardization and quality controls not achievable from bedside and portable devices. Furthermore it easy to demonstrate that high-volume blood bank-produced platelet concentrates are less expensive than low-volume PRP produced by portable and bedside devices. Taking also in consideration the ever-increasing safety of the blood components, the relationship between bedside device-produced and blood-bank-produced PRP might be reconsidered. Here we discuss this topic concluding that the variety of sources of PRP production is an opportunity for versatility and that, ultimately, versatility is an opportunity for the patient's care.

  18. The Structure of PrPScPrions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Holger; Requena, Jesús R

    2018-02-07

    PrP Sc (scrapie isoform of the prion protein) prions are the infectious agent behind diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, chronic wasting disease in cervids (deer, elk, moose, and reindeer), as well as goat and sheep scrapie. PrP Sc is an alternatively folded variant of the cellular prion protein, PrP C , which is a regular, GPI-anchored protein that is present on the cell surface of neurons and other cell types. While the structure of PrP C is well studied, the structure of PrP Sc resisted high-resolution determination due to its general insolubility and propensity to aggregate. Cryo-electron microscopy, X-ray fiber diffraction, and a variety of other approaches defined the structure of PrP Sc as a four-rung β-solenoid. A high-resolution structure of PrP Sc still remains to be solved, but the four-rung β-solenoid architecture provides a molecular framework for the autocatalytic propagation mechanism that gives rise to the alternative conformation of PrP Sc . Here, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the structure of PrP Sc and speculate about the molecular conversion mechanisms that leads from PrP C to PrP Sc .

  19. Activated platelet-rich plasma improves adipose-derived stem cell transplantation efficiency in injured articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been isolated, expanded, and applied in the treatment of many diseases. ADSCs have also been used to treat injured articular cartilage. However, there is controversy regarding the treatment efficiency. We considered that ADSC transplantation with activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may improve injured articular cartilage compared with that of ADSC transplantation alone. In this study, we determined the role of PRP in ADSC transplantation to improve the treatment efficiency. Methods ADSCs were isolated and expanded from human adipose tissue. PRP was collected and activated from human peripheral blood. The effects of PRP were evaluated in vitro and in ADSC transplantation in vivo. In vitro, the effects of PRP on ADSC proliferation, differentiation into chondrogenic cells, and inhibition of angiogenic factors were investigated at three concentrations of PRP (10%, 15% and 20%). In vivo, ADSCs pretreated with or without PRP were transplanted into murine models of injured articular cartilage. Results PRP promoted ADSC proliferation and differentiation into chondrogenic cells that strongly expressed collagen II, Sox9 and aggrecan. Moreover, PRP inhibited expression of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor. As a result, PRP-pretreated ADSCs improved healing of injured articular cartilage in murine models compared with that of untreated ADSCs. Conclusion Pretreatment of ADSCs with PRP is a simple method to efficiently apply ADSCs in cartilage regeneration. This study provides an important step toward the use of autologous ADSCs in the treatment of injured articular cartilage. PMID:23915433

  20. Tissue augmentation by white blood cell-containing platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Takeshi; Kim, Hak Hee

    2012-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a matrix of fibrin and platelets that releases cytokines that are important in wound healing. PRP is produced from the patient's blood and therefore has less risk of allergic reaction and infection. We have obtained PRP with an enhanced white blood cell component (W-PRP) by optimizing the centrifugal separation of PRP from plasma. Here we show that injection of W-PRP into the auricle of nude mice gave greater tissue augmentation compared to PRP. Further augmentation occurred when bFGF was added to W-PRP, and there was a significant increase in the number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in mice treated with W-PRP+bFGF. Our results suggest that W-PRP may have value in cosmetic surgery aimed at rejuvenation of wrinkled and sagging skin. W-PRP injection constitutes a new concept in cell transplantation, in which cells required for tissue regeneration are induced by cytokines released from the transplanted cells.

  1. Distribution of Platelet-rich Plasma after Ultrasound-Guided Injection for Chronic Elbow Tendinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi-Young; Kwon, Dong Rak; Cho, Hee Kyung; Park, Jinyoung; Park, Jung Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Characteristics of the spreads of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are not widely known despite commonly use. This study aims to evaluate whether PRP stays within the injected area by using ultrasonography, to improve understanding of the spreads of intratendinous injected PRP. Thirty-nine patients (15 males, 24 females; mean age, 49.3 years), who had symptoms on their elbows (> 6 months) and diagnosed as lateral (25 elbows) or medial (14 elbows) tendinopathies of elbow, were included. The severity of tendon pathology was assessed by ultrasonography as tear or no tear. Immediately after ultrasound-guided PRP injection, ultrasound images were evaluated to assess the area of PRP distribution, which was defined as the presence of fluid or microbubbles. Ultrasound revealed that 13 elbows had tendon tear and 26 had no tear, respectively. Post-injection ultrasound confirmed the injected PRP was within the tendon in all cases. The mean distance of distribution from the injection site was 12.6 mm (5.0-26.0 mm). There was no difference in the distance of PRP distribution between tendon tear and no tear. Injected PRP spread to soft tissue outside the tendon in 20 of 39 cases. Intra-articular extension of PRP was observed in 5 cases. Although PRP remained intratendinous after the injection in all cases, some portion tended to spread outside from the injection site in a short space of time. Postinjection ultrasonographic imaging has a value for observing the spreading patterns of intratendinous PRP injection.

  2. A novel expression system for production of soluble prion proteins in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abskharon Romany NN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Expression of eukaryotic proteins in Escherichia coli is challenging, especially when they contain disulfide bonds. Since the discovery of the prion protein (PrP and its role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the need to obtain large quantities of the recombinant protein for research purposes has been essential. Currently, production of recombinant PrP is achieved by refolding protocols. Here, we show that the co-expression of two different PrP with the human Quiescin Sulfhydryl OXidase (QSOX, a human chaperone with thiol/disulfide oxidase activity, in the cytoplasm of E. coli produces soluble recombinant PrP. The structural integrity of the soluble PrP has been confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, demonstrating that properly folded PrP can be easily expressed in bacteria. Furthermore, the soluble recombinant PrP produced with this method can be used for functional and structural studies.

  3. Use of platelet-rich plasma in orthopaedics and traumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Niewczas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Platelet rich plasma (PRP is a concentration of blood platelets suspended in a small volume of plasma, and it can be obtained by centrifuging the patient’s whole blood. It is used in many fields of medicine, including orthopaedics and traumatology. The range of indications for PRP therapy has been extended. The mechanism of action of PRP is based on function of growth factors. The application of PRP can be considered for tendinopathy and enthesopathy treatment, osteoarthritis treatment, muscle and ligament injuries, bone lesion treatment, bone infections and many other diseases. There are no standardised guidelines concerning PRP therapy, and the most efficient and optimal method of PRP preparation is yet to be determined. This article aims to present the opportunities of PRP therapy in orthopaedics and traumatology and evaluate its effectiveness.

  4. Platelet-Rich Plasma in Androgenic Alopecia: Indications, Technique, and Potential Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneini, Elie M; Beauvais, Daniel; Castiglione, Concetta; Ferneini, Moniek V

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injected into the scalp for the management of androgenic alopecia. A literature review was performed to evaluate the benefits of PRP in androgenic alopecia. Hair restoration has been increasing. PRP's main components of platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor have the potential to stimulate hard and soft tissue wound healing. In general, PRP showed a benefit on patients with androgenic alopecia, including increased hair density and quality. Currently, different PRP preparations are being used with no standard technique. This review found beneficial effects of PRP on androgenic alopecia. However, more rigorous study designs, including larger samples, quantitative measurements of effect, and longer follow-up periods, are needed to solidify the utility of PRP for treating patients with androgenic alopecia. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adult and umbilical cord blood-derived platelet-rich plasma for mesenchymal stem cell proliferation, chemotaxis, and cryo-preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Matthew B; Blashki, Daniel; Buchanan, Rachel M; Yazdi, Iman K; Ferrari, Mauro; Simmons, Paul J; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2012-07-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared from human adult peripheral blood and from human umbilical cord (uc) blood and the properties were compared in a series of in vitro bioassays. Quantification of growth factors in PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) fractions revealed increased levels of mitogenic growth factors PDGF-AB, PDGF-BB, and FGF-2, the angiogenic agent VEGF and the chemokine RANTES in ucPRP compared to adult PRP (aPRP) and PPP. To compare the ability of the various PRP products to stimulate proliferation of human bone marrow (BM), rat BM and compact bone (CB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), cells were cultured in serum-free media for 4 and 7 days with varying concentrations of PRP, PPP, or combinations of recombinant mitogens. It was found that while all forms of PRP and PPP were more mitogenic than fetal bovine serum, ucPRP resulted in significantly higher proliferation by 7 days than adult PRP and PPP. We observed that addition of as little as 0.1% ucPRP caused greater proliferation of MSC effects than the most potent combination of recombinant growth factors tested, namely PDGF-AB + PDGF-BB + FGF-2, each at 10 ng/mL. Similarly, in chemotaxis assays, ucPRP showed greater potency than adult PRP, PPP from either source, or indeed than combinations of either recombinant growth factors (PDGF, FGF, and TGF-β1) or chemokines previously shown to stimulate chemotactic migration of MSC. Lastly, we successfully demonstrated that PRP and PPP represented a viable alternative to FBS containing media for the cryo-preservation of MSC from human and rat BM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Platelet-Rich Plasma Activates Proinflammatory Signaling Pathways and Induces Oxidative Stress in Tendon Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgens, Joshua L; Sugg, Kristoffer B; Grekin, Jeremy A; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2016-08-01

    Tendon injuries are one of the most common musculoskeletal conditions in active patients. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has shown some promise in the treatment of tendon disorders, but little is known as to the mechanisms by which PRP can improve tendon regeneration. PRP contains numerous different growth factors and cytokines that activate various cellular signaling cascades, but it has been difficult to determine precisely which signaling pathways and cellular responses are activated after PRP treatment. Additionally, macrophages play an important role in modulating tendon regeneration, but the influence of PRP on determining whether macrophages assume a proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory phenotype remains unknown. To use genome-wide expression profiling, bioinformatics, and protein analysis to determine the cellular pathways activated in fibroblasts treated with PRP. The effect of PRP on macrophage polarization was also evaluated. Controlled laboratory study. Tendon fibroblasts or macrophages from rats were cultured and treated with either platelet-poor plasma (PPP) or PRP. RNA or protein was isolated from cells and analyzed using microarrays, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, or bioinformatics techniques. Pathway analysis determined that the most highly induced signaling pathways in PRP-treated tendon fibroblasts were TNFα and NFκB pathways. PRP also downregulated the expression of extracellular matrix genes and induced the expression of autophagy-related genes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) genes and protein markers in tendon fibroblasts. PRP failed to have a major effect on markers of macrophage polarization. PRP induces an inflammatory response in tendon fibroblasts, which leads to the formation of ROS and the activation of oxidative stress pathways. PRP does not appear to significantly modulate macrophage polarization. PRP might act by inducing a transient inflammatory event, which could then trigger a tissue regeneration response

  7. Prognostic significance of double product and inadequate double product response to maximal symptom-limited exercise stress testing after myocardial infarction in 6296 patients treated with thrombolytic agents. GISSI-2 Investigators. Grupo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell-Infarto Miocardico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villella, M; Villella, A; Barlera, S; Franzosi, M G; Maggioni, A P

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the pressure-rate product (PRP) obtained during exercise stress testing and of its change from rest to maximal exercise (dPRP) in a population of survivors of acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic agents. Survivors of acute myocardial infarction (n = 6251) from the GISSI-2 database, who underwent a maximal symptom-limited exercise test with either bicycle ergometer or treadmill, were followed up for 6 months. PRP and dPRP values were dichotomized (21,700, 11,600, respectively) and analyzed in a multivariate Cox model individually and simultaneously with other ergometric variables. Six-month mortality rate was 0.8% in the high PRP group and 2.0% in the low PRP group. Low PRP was an independent predictor of 6-month mortality rate (relative risk [RR] 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24 to 3.13). Patients with low dPRP had mortality rates higher than patients with high dPRP (2.1% vs 0.8%). At the multivariate analysis, low dPRP showed negative predictive value (RR 1.97, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.16). A further multivariate analysis was performed with PRP and dPRP, also adjusting for low work capacity, abnormal systolic blood pressure response to exercise, and symptomatic-induced ischemia. The results showed that low work capacity, low PRP, and symptomatic exercise-induced ischemia were still significantly associated with higher 6-month mortality rate (P =.04,.02, and.05; RR = 1.68, 1.71, and 1.78 respectively). PRP is a predictive index to assess prognosis in survivors of acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic agents able to perform an exercise test after acute myocardial infarction, but its usefulness appears to be limited, considering that these patients were at low risk.

  8. The Use of Platelet-Rich and Platelet-Poor Plasma to Enhance Differentiation of Skeletal Myoblasts: Implications for the Use of Autologous Blood Products for Muscle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnychenko, Olga; Chang, Wen-Teh; Dragoo, Jason L

    2017-03-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used to augment tissue repair and regeneration after musculoskeletal injury. However, there is increasing clinical evidence that PRP does not show a consistent clinical effect. Purpose/Hypothesis: This study aimed to compare the effects of the following non-neutrophil-containing (leukocyte-poor) plasma fractions on human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) differentiation: (1) PRP, (2) modified PRP (Mod-PRP), in which transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and myostatin (MSTN) were depleted, and (3) platelet-poor plasma (PPP). The hypothesis was that leukocyte-poor PRP would lead to myoblast proliferation (not differentiation), whereas certain modifications of PRP preparations would increase myoblast differentiation, which is necessary for skeletal muscle regeneration. Controlled laboratory study. Blood from 7 human donors was individually processed to simultaneously create leukocyte-poor fractions: PRP, Mod-PRP, PPP, and secondarily spun PRP and Mod-PRP (PRPss and Mod-PRPss, respectively). Mod-PRP was produced by removing TGF-β1 and MSTN from PRP using antibodies attached to sterile beads, while a second-stage centrifugal spin of PRP was performed to remove platelets. The biologics were individually added to cell culture groups. Analysis for induction into myoblast differentiation pathways included Western blot analysis, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry, as well as confocal microscopy to assess polynucleated myotubule formation. HSMMs cultured with PRP showed an increase in proliferation but no evidence of differentiation. Western blot analysis confirmed that MSTN and TGF-β1 could be decreased in Mod-PRP using antibody-coated beads, but this modification mildly improved myoblast differentiation. However, cell culture with PPP, PRPss, and Mod-PRPss led to a decreased proliferation rate but a significant induction of myoblast differentiation verified by increased multinucleated myotubule

  9. Major Ion Concentrations in WDC05Q and WDC06A Ice Cores (WAIS Divide), Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains major ion concentrations from the chemical analysis of two WAIS Divide ice cores (WDC05Q, 0-114 m; WDC06A, 0-129 m). The analytical technique...

  10. Angiogenic properties of sustained release platelet-rich plasma: characterization in-vitro and in the ischemic hind limb of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Shyamal Chandra; Esaki, Jiro; Marui, Akira; Yamahara, Kenichi; Tsubota, Hideki; Ikeda, Tadashi; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2009-10-01

    While single growth factor has limitation to induce optimal neovascularization, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous reserver of various growth factors. However, little is known about the mechanism of PRP-related neovascularization.The objective of this investigation was to characterize the angiogenic and growth factor content of PRP and to determine, in vitro, its effect on endothelial cell proliferation. Additionally, this experiment sought to determine the effectiveness of different compositions of PRP (solution versus sustained release) on perfusion and neovascularization in a murine model of hind limb ischemia. Different growth factors were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In vivo study, we used gelatin hydrogel as a sustained release carrier for growth factors in PRP. We induced hind limb ischemia by excising right femoral artery in wild type C57BL6 mice. After surgery, mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups; control (C), 100 muL of sustained release form of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), 100 muL of solution form of PRP (PRP-sol), 100 muL of sustained release form of PRP (PRP-sr); each formulation was administered via an intramuscular injection to the ischemic hind limb. Endpoint evaluations were blood perfusion by laser Doppler perfusion image, vascular density by anti Von Willebrand factor (vWF), and mature vessel density by anti smooth muscle actin (SMA) antibody. Green fluorescent protein (GFP+) transgenic mice were generated by transplantation of bone marrow derived mononuclear cells to wild type C57BL6 mice, and finally CD34+ cell in the ischemic site of transgenic mice was detected by staining with anti-CD34 antibody. In vitro study showed that PRP containing different growth factors induces endothelial cell proliferation and capillary tube formation. In vivo study demonstrated that sustained release of PRP increased perfusion of ischemic tissue as measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) (57 +/- 12

  11. The Lipid Portion of Activated Platelet-Rich Plasma Significantly Contributes to Its Wound Healing Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeferlin, Lauren Alexis; Huynh, Quoc K; Mietla, Jennifer A; Sell, Scott A; Tucker, Jason; Chalfant, Charles Edward; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan Shanaka

    2015-02-01

    Objective: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a popular choice for the treatment of chronic wounds. Current dogma attributes these healing properties to the peptide growth factors of PRP. However, PRP is also rich in bioactive lipids whose contribution to healing has not been characterized and warrants investigation due to the protease-rich environment of chronic wounds. Approach: The lipid fraction of PRP was tested with respect to proliferation and migration of primary adult human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa)±exposure to chronic wound fluid (CWF). This fraction was also characterized via LC-MS/MS for bioactive lipids. A synthetic formulation of the bioactive lipid composition was developed and tested for the ability to overcome proliferative growth arrest induced by CWF. Results: The data demonstrate the ability of the lipid fraction of PRP to significantly enhance the migration and proliferation of HDFa, and to overcome the proliferative growth arrest induced by CWF. Furthermore, the synthetic lipid formulation generated following characterization of the PRP lipidome demonstrated a similar ability to overcome proliferative arrest of HDFa in the presence of CWF. Innovation: For the first time, we demonstrate the relevance of the lipid fraction of PRP toward the biology of wound healing. These studies open the possibility of altering the lipid profile of PRP via diet or exogenous pathway manipulation to obtain a better healing outcome. Conclusion: The lipid fraction of PRP is under investigated and yet relevant component in wound healing. The current study demonstrates the relevance of this fraction in wound healing by PRP.

  12. Efficacy of Early Fusion With Local Bone Graft and Platelet-Rich Plasma in Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery Followed Over 10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagama, Shiro; Ando, Kei; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Machino, Masaaki; Ota, Kyotaro; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Takamatsu, Junki; Matsushita, Tadashi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2017-12-01

    Prospective clinical study. Many oral surgeons use platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for bone defects, but the efficacy of PRP for spinal arthrodesis remains uncertain. The objective was to compare the efficacy of autologous local bone graft and PRP with local bone graft alone for promotion of bony union in posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) surgery, with investigation of the safety of PRP over 10 years. A prospective study was conducted in 29 consecutive patients who underwent one-level PLF at L4/5 for degenerative lumbar disease. Local bone on the left (control) side and local bone with PRP on the right side were grafted. The fusion area and absorption of grafted bone at 58 regions were determined using computed tomography at 2 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Average bone fusion areas on the PRP side were significantly wider at 3 and 6 months after surgery (P < .05). Average absorption values were significantly lower on the PRP side than on the control side at 3 and 6 months after surgery (P < .05). The PRP/control ratio was significantly different at 3 and 6 months compared to that at 2 weeks (P < .005). No adverse events related to PRP occurred with good clinical outcome over 10 years follow-up. Local application of PRP combined with autologous local bone graft has a positive impact on early fusion for lumbar arthrodesis with no adverse events over 10 years, and thus is a safe and low cost autologous option in spinal fusion.

  13. Platelet-rich plasma exerts antinociceptive activity by a peripheral endocannabinoid-related mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descalzi, Fiorella; Ulivi, Valentina; Cancedda, Ranieri; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Luongo, Livio; Guida, Francesca; Gatta, Luisa; Maione, Sabatino; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-10-01

    In regenerative medicine, platelet by-products containing factors physiologically involved in wound healing, have been successfully used in the form of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for the topical therapy of various clinical conditions since it produces an improvement in tissue repair as well as analgesic effects. Measurement of endocannabinoids and related compounds in PRP revealed the presence of a significant amount of anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, palmitoylethanolamide, and oleoylethanolamide. Investigation of the activity of PRP on the keratinocyte cell line NCTC2544 in physiological and inflammatory conditions showed that, under inflammatory conditions, PRP induced in a statistically significant manner the production of these compounds by the cells suggesting that PRP might induce the production of these analgesic mediators particularly in the physiologically inflamed wounded tissue. Studies in a mouse model of acute inflammatory pain induced by formalin injection demonstrated a potent antinociceptive effect against both early and late nocifensive responses. This effect was observed following intrapaw injection of (1) total PRP; (2) lipids extracted from PRP; and (3) an endocannabinoid-enriched lipid fraction of PRP. In all conditions, antagonists of endocannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, injected in the paw, abrogated the antinociceptive effects strongly suggesting for this preparation a peripheral mechanism of action. In conclusion, we showed that PRP and PRP lipid extract exert a potent antinociceptive activity linked, at least in part, to their endocannabinoids and related compound content, and to their capability of elevating the levels of these lipid mediators in cells.

  14. Histologic Evidence of New Collagen Formulation Using Platelet Rich Plasma in Skin Rejuvenation: A Prospective Controlled Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuaf, Ozlem Karabudak; Baloglu, Hüseyin; Bilgili, Memet Ersan; Simsek, Hasan Aktug; Dogan, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    Background Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous concentration of human platelets contained in a small volume of plasma and has recently been shown to accelerate rejuvenate aging skin by various growth factors and cell adhesion molecules. Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intradermal injection of PRP in the human facial rejuvenation. Methods This study was a prospective, single-center, single-dose, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. PRP injected to the upper site of this right infra-auricular area and all face. Saline was injected to the left infra-auricular area. Histopathological examinations were performed before PRP treatment, 28 days after the PRP, and saline (control) treatments. Results Twenty women ranging in age from 40 to 49 years (mean age, 43.65±2.43 years) were enrolled in the study. The mean optical densities (MODs) of collagen in the pre-treatment, control, and PRP-treated area were measured. They were 539±93.2, 787±134.15, 1,019±178, respectively. In the MOD of PRP, 89.05 percent improvement was found when MOD of PRP was compared with MOD of pre-treatment. The mean MOD of collagen fibers was clearly highest on the PRP side (pmesotherapy technique 'point by point'). PRP application could be considered as an effective (even a single application) and safety procedure for facial skin rejuvenation. PMID:27904271

  15. Molecular dissection of step 2 catalysis of yeast pre-mRNA splicing investigated in a purified system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt, Thomas; Odenwälder, Peter; Dannenberg, Julia; Prior, Mira; Warkocki, Zbigniew; Schmitzová, Jana; Karaduman, Ramazan; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Jörg; Fabrizio, Patrizia; Lührmann, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Step 2 catalysis of pre-mRNA splicing entails the excision of the intron and ligation of the 5' and 3' exons. The tasks of the splicing factors Prp16, Slu7, Prp18, and Prp22 in the formation of the step 2 active site of the spliceosome and in exon ligation, and the timing of their recruitment, remain poorly understood. Using a purified yeast in vitro splicing system, we show that only the DEAH-box ATPase Prp16 is required for formation of a functional step 2 active site and for exon ligation. Efficient docking of the 3' splice site (3'SS) to the active site requires only Slu7/Prp18 but not Prp22. Spliceosome remodeling by Prp16 appears to be subtle as only the step 1 factor Cwc25 is dissociated prior to step 2 catalysis, with its release dependent on docking of the 3'SS to the active site and Prp16 action. We show by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy that Slu7/Prp18 and Prp16 bind early to distinct, low-affinity binding sites on the step-1-activated B* spliceosome, which are subsequently converted into high-affinity sites. Our results shed new light on the factor requirements for step 2 catalysis and the dynamics of step 1 and 2 factors during the catalytic steps of splicing.

  16. Cell type-specific neuroprotective activity of untranslocated prion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Restelli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A key pathogenic role in prion diseases was proposed for a cytosolic form of the prion protein (PrP. However, it is not clear how cytosolic PrP localization influences neuronal viability, with either cytotoxic or anti-apoptotic effects reported in different studies. The cellular mechanism by which PrP is delivered to the cytosol of neurons is also debated, and either retrograde transport from the endoplasmic reticulum or inefficient translocation during biosynthesis has been proposed. We investigated cytosolic PrP biogenesis and effect on cell viability in primary neuronal cultures from different mouse brain regions.Mild proteasome inhibition induced accumulation of an untranslocated form of cytosolic PrP in cortical and hippocampal cells, but not in cerebellar granules. A cyclopeptolide that interferes with the correct insertion of the PrP signal sequence into the translocon increased the amount of untranslocated PrP in cortical and hippocampal cells, and induced its synthesis in cerebellar neurons. Untranslocated PrP boosted the resistance of cortical and hippocampal neurons to apoptotic insults but had no effect on cerebellar cells.These results indicate cell type-dependent differences in the efficiency of PrP translocation, and argue that cytosolic PrP targeting might serve a physiological neuroprotective function.

  17. Human platelet-rich plasma promotes axon growth in brain-spinal cord coculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Michiko; Kamei, Naosuke; Shinomiya, Rikuo; Sunagawa, Toru; Suzuki, Osami; Kamoda, Hiroto; Ohtori, Seiji; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2012-08-22

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains several growth factors, including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), that are associated with repair processes after central nervous system injury. Although PRP have been applied to some regenerative therapies, the regeneration effects of PRP on spinal cord injury have not been reported. This study applied a rat organ coculture system to examine the ability of PRP to enhance axonal growth in spinal cord tissues and to identify the growth factors in PRP that contribute to the regulation of axon growth. PRP from human peripheral blood was added to organ cocultures. Furthermore, neutralizing antibodies against PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, IGF-1, or VEGF were added to the cocultures with PRP. Axon growth from the brain cortex into the spinal cord was assessed quantitatively using anterograde axon tracing with DiI. Addition of PRP to the cocultures promoted axon growth, and the axon growth was significantly suppressed by the addition of neutralizing antibodies against IGF-1 and VEGF, but not PDGF-AB. In contrast, axon growth was promoted significantly by the addition of neutralizing antibodies against TGF-β1. These findings indicate that PRP promotes axon growth in spinal cord tissues through mechanisms associated with IGF-1 and VEGF, and that TGF-β1 in PRP exerts negative effects on axon growth.

  18. Freeze-Dried Platelet-Rich Plasma Accelerates Bone Union with Adequate Rigidity in Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion Surgery Model in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Yasuhiro; Orita, Sumihisa; Kubota, Go; Kamoda, Hiroto; Yamashita, Masaomi; Matsuura, Yusuke; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Suzuki, Miyako; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Inoue, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyone, Tomoaki; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2016-11-01

    Fresh platelet-rich plasma (PRP) accelerates bone union in rat model. However, fresh PRP has a short half-life. We suggested freeze-dried PRP (FD-PRP) prepared in advance and investigated its efficacy in vivo. Spinal posterolateral fusion was performed on 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into six groups based on the graft materials (n = 10 per group): sham control, artificial bone (A hydroxyapatite-collagen composite) -alone, autologous bone, artificial bone + fresh-PRP, artificial bone + FD-PRP preserved 8 weeks, and artificial bone + human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP) as a positive control. At 4 and 8 weeks after the surgery, we investigated their bone union-related characteristics including amount of bone formation, histological characteristics of trabecular bone at remodeling site, and biomechanical strength on 3-point bending. Comparable radiological bone union was confirmed at 4 weeks after surgery in 80% of the FD-PRP groups, which was earlier than in other groups (p < 0.05). Histologically, the trabecular bone had thinner and more branches in the FD-PRP. Moreover, the biomechanical strength was comparable to that of autologous bone. FD-PRP accelerated bone union at a rate comparable to that of fresh PRP and BMP by remodeling the bone with thinner, more tangled, and rigid trabecular bone.

  19. Biology of platelet-rich plasma and its clinical application in cartilage repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous concentrated cocktail of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, and has been considered to be potentially effective for cartilage repair. In addition, the fibrinogen in PRP may be activated to form a fibrin matrix to fill cartilage lesions, fulfilling the initial requirements of physiological wound healing. The anabolic, anti-inflammatory and scaffolding effects of PRP based on laboratory investigations, animal studies, and clinical trials are reviewed here. In vitro, PRP is found to stimulate cell proliferation and cartilaginous matrix production by chondrocytes and adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), enhance matrix secretion by synoviocytes, mitigate IL-1β-induced inflammation, and provide a favorable substrate for MSCs. In preclinical studies, PRP has been used either as a gel to fill cartilage defects with variable results, or to slow the progression of arthritis in animal models with positive outcomes. Findings from current clinical trials suggest that PRP may have the potential to fill cartilage defects to enhance cartilage repair, attenuate symptoms of osteoarthritis and improve joint function, with an acceptable safety profile. Although current evidence appears to favor PRP over hyaluronan for the treatment of osteoarthritis, the efficacy of PRP therapy remains unpredictable owing to the highly heterogeneous nature of reported studies and the variable composition of the PRP preparations. Future studies are critical to elucidate the functional activity of individual PRP components in modulating specific pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25164150

  20. Therapeutic treatment with sustained-release platelet-rich plasma restores blood perfusion by augmenting ischemia-induced angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Shyamal Chandra; Esaki, Jiro; Marui, Akira; Sakaguchi, Hisashi; Kevil, Christopher G; Ikeda, Tadashi; Komeda, Masashi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish the effectiveness of sustained-release platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on perfusion and neovascularization in diabetic murine hind limb ischemia. After surgery in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, the mice were randomly assigned to the following 4 experimental groups: control (C), 100 μl of the sustained-release form of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), 100 μl of the solution form of PRP (PRP-sol), and 100 μl of the sustained-release form of PRP (PRP-sr). Endpoint evaluations were: blood perfusion by laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), vascular density by anti-vWF, and mature vessel density by anti-smooth muscle actin antibody. This study demonstrated that a sustained release of PRP increases the perfusion of ischemic tissue as measured by LDPI (57 ± 12; 56 ± 9; 72 ± 7, and 98 ± 4 for the C, PPP, PRP-sol, and PRP-sr groups, respectively; p < 0.05), capillary density (151 ± 16; 158 ± 12; 189 ± 39, and 276 ± 39 for groups C, PPP, PRP-sol, and PRP-sr, respectively; p < 0.05), and mature vessel density (28 ± 2; 31 ± 3; 52 ± 10, and 85 ± 13 for the C, PPP, PRP-sol, and PRP-sr groups, respectively; p < 0.05). A sustained release of PRP containing potent angiogenic growth factors restores blood perfusion by stimulating angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Conserved roles of the prion protein domains on subcellular localization and cell-cell adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo P Solis

    Full Text Available Analyses of cultured cells and transgenic mice expressing prion protein (PrP deletion mutants have revealed that some properties of PrP -such as its ability to misfold, aggregate and trigger neurotoxicity- are controlled by discrete molecular determinants within its protein domains. Although the contributions of these determinants to PrP biosynthesis and turnover are relatively well characterized, it is still unclear how they modulate cellular functions of PrP. To address this question, we used two defined activities of PrP as functional readouts: 1 the recruitment of PrP to cell-cell contacts in Drosophila S2 and human MCF-7 epithelial cells, and 2 the induction of PrP embryonic loss- and gain-of-function phenotypes in zebrafish. Our results show that homologous mutations in mouse and zebrafish PrPs similarly affect their subcellular localization patterns as well as their in vitro and in vivo activities. Among PrP's essential features, the N-terminal leader peptide was sufficient to drive targeting of our constructs to cell contact sites, whereas lack of GPI-anchoring and N-glycosylation rendered them inactive by blocking their cell surface expression. Importantly, our data suggest that the ability of PrP to homophilically trans-interact and elicit intracellular signaling is primarily encoded in its globular domain, and modulated by its repetitive domain. Thus, while the latter induces the local accumulation of PrPs at discrete punctae along cell contacts, the former counteracts this effect by promoting the continuous distribution of PrP. In early zebrafish embryos, deletion of either domain significantly impaired PrP's ability to modulate E-cadherin cell adhesion. Altogether, these experiments relate structural features of PrP to its subcellular distribution and in vivo activity. Furthermore, they show that despite their large evolutionary history, the roles of PrP domains and posttranslational modifications are conserved between mouse and

  2. Differential effect of platelet-rich plasma fractions on β1-integrin signaling, collagen biosynthesis, and prolidase activity in human skin fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszczyn T

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomasz Guszczyn,1 Arkadiusz Surażyński,2 Ilona Zaręba,2 Edyta Rysiak,2 Janusz Popko,1 Jerzy Pałka2 1Department of Pediatric Orthopedics and Traumatology, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP, supernatant of PRP (SPRP obtained by centrifugation, and supernatant of activated PRP (SActi-PRP obtained by Ca2+ solution-treated PRP on collagen biosynthesis, prolidase activity, and β1-integrin signaling in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Incubation of fibroblasts with 5% PRP for 24 h contributed to ~5-fold increase in collagen biosynthesis compared to the control. In the cells treated with 5% of SPRP or SActi-PRP, collagen biosynthesis showed a 3-fold increase of the control. PRP, SPRP, and SActi-PRP stimulated prolidase activity similar to collagen biosynthesis. Collagen biosynthesis and prolidase activity are regulated by β1-integrin receptor signaling. Incubation of fibroblasts with PRP for 24 h contributed to a dose-dependent increase in the expression of β1-integrin receptor, while SActi-PRP increased the process to a much lower extent. SPRP had no effect on the β1-integrin receptor expression. All the studied fractions of blood increased the expression of FAK as well as the expression of phosphorylated MAP-kinases. However, PRP was found to be the most effective stimulator of expression of these particular kinases. These studies suggest that a complex of factors, including growth factors, adhesion molecules, and prolidase contained in PRP, all evoke growth and collagen-promoting activities in human dermal fibroblasts. Keywords: fibroblasts, FAK, MAPK

  3. Lipid interaction converts prion protein to a PrPSc-like proteinase K-resistant conformation under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Fan; Hu, Yunfei; Wang, Xu; Wang, Xinhe; Jin, Changwen; Ma, Jiyan

    2007-06-12

    The conversion of prion protein (PrP) to the pathogenic PrPSc conformation is central to prion disease. Previous studies revealed that PrP interacts with lipids and the interaction induces PrP conformational changes, yet it remains unclear whether in the absence of any denaturing treatment, PrP-lipid interaction is sufficient to convert PrP to the classic proteinase K-resistant conformation. Using recombinant mouse PrP, we analyzed PrP-lipid interaction under physiological conditions and followed lipid-induced PrP conformational change with proteinase K (PK) digestion. We found that the PrP-lipid interaction was initiated by electrostatic contact and followed by hydrophobic interaction. The PrP-lipid interaction converted full-length alpha-helix-rich recombinant PrP to different forms. A significant portion of PrP gained a conformation reminiscent of PrPSc, with a PrPSc-like PK-resistant core and increased beta-sheet content. The efficiency for lipid-induced PrP conversion depended on lipid headgroup structure and/or the arrangement of lipids on the surface of vesicles. When lipid vesicles were disrupted by Triton X-100, PrP aggregation was necessary to maintain the lipid-induced PrPSc-like conformation. However, the PK resistance of lipid-induced PrPSc-like conformation does not depend on amyloid fiber formation. Our results clearly revealed that the lipid interaction can overcome the energy barrier and convert full-length alpha-helix-rich PrP to a PrPSc-like conformation under physiological conditions, supporting the relevance of lipid-induced PrP conformational change to in vivo PrP conversion.

  4. Platelet-Rich Plasma in a Murine Model: Leukocytes, Growth Factors, Flt-1, and Muscle Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denapoli, Priscila Martins Andrade; Stilhano, Roberta Sessa; Ingham, Sheila Jean McNeill; Han, Sang Won; Abdalla, Rene Jorge

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparations are not the same and that not all preparations include white blood cells, but the part that leukocytes play on the healing role of PRP is still unknown. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of leukocytes in different PRP preparations with a special emphasis on growth factor concentrations. The secondary aim was to evaluate the influence of PRP on muscle healing. Controlled laboratory study. Two PRP preparation procedures were evaluated. Blood fractions were stained with Rapid Panoptic, and growth factors (transforming growth factor beta 1 [TGF-β1], vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], insulin-like growth factor [IGF], epidermal growth factor [EGF], hepatocyte growth factor [HGF], and platelet-derived growth factor [PDGF]) were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blotting analysis was performed for Fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt-1). A muscle contusion injury was created and treated with PRP at different time points. Leukocytes were the main source of VEGF, and all other growth factors measured had a higher concentration in the preparations that included the buffy coat and consequently had a higher concentration of white blood cells. Flt-1 was also found in platelet-poor plasma (PPP). There were higher concentrations of PDGF and HGF in the preparations that encompassed the buffy coat. A PRP injection 7 days after the injury provided significantly increased exercise performance and decreased the fibrotic area when compared with other PRP-treated groups. VEGF is only present in PRP's buffy coat, while Flt-1 is present in PPP. A PRP injection 7 days after an injury resulted in improved exercise performance. The presence of Flt-1 in PRP provides yet another explanation for results described in the literature after a PRP injection. This information is relevant for selecting the best PRP for each type of injury. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Platelet-rich plasma in meniscal repair: does augmentation improve surgical outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Justin W; Hadeed, Michael M; Werner, Brian C; Diduch, David R; Carson, Eric W; Miller, Mark D

    2015-05-01

    Increased contact stresses after meniscectomy have led to an increased focus on meniscal preservation strategies to prevent articular cartilage degeneration. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has received attention as a promising strategy to help induce healing and has been shown to do so both in vitro and in vivo. Although PRP has been used in clinical practice for some time, to date, few clinical studies support its use in meniscal repair. We sought to (1) evaluate whether PRP augmentation at the time of index meniscal repair decreases the likelihood that subsequent meniscectomy will be performed; (2) determine if PRP augmentation in arthroscopic meniscus repair influenced functional outcome measures; and (3) examine whether PRP augmentation altered clinical and patient-reported outcomes. Between 2008 and 2011, three surgeons performed 35 isolated arthroscopic meniscus repairs. Of those, 15 (43%) were augmented with PRP, and 20 (57%) were performed without PRP augmentation. During the study period, PRP was used for patients with meniscus tears in the setting of no ACL reconstruction. Complete followup at a minimum of 2 years (mean, 4 years; range, 2-6 years) was available on 11 (73%) of the PRP-augmented knees and 15 (75%) of the nonaugmented knees. Clinical outcome measures including the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale, and return to work and sports/activities survey tools were completed in person, over the phone, or through the mail. Range of motion data were collected from electronic patient charts in chart review. With the numbers available, a post hoc power calculation demonstrated that we would have expected to be able to discern a difference using IKDC if we treated 153 patients with PRP and 219 without PRP assuming an alpha rate of 5% and power exceeding 80%. Using the Lysholm score as an outcome measure, post hoc power estimate was 0.523 and effect size was -1.1 (-2.1 to -0.05) requiring 12 patients

  6. Platelet-rich plasma regenerative medicine sports medicine, orthopedic, and recovery of musculoskeletal injuries

    CERN Document Server

    Santana, Maria; Belangero, William; Luzo, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) has gained tremendous popularity in recent years as a treatment option for specialties including Orthopedics, Dentistry, Sports Medicine, Otorhinolaryngology, Neurosurgery, Ophthalmology, Urology, Vascular, Cardiothoracic and Maxillofacial Surgery, and Veterinarian Medicine. Nowadays, PRP and Stem Cell Science have added an exciting dimension to tissue repair. This book begins by giving the reader a broad overview of current progress as well as a discussion of the technical aspects of preparation and therapeutic use of autologous PRP. It is followed by a review of platelet structure, function and major growth factors in PRP (PDGF and TGFβ).The third chapter outlines the basic principles of biochemical cellular metabolism that increases the efficacy of PRP. Analogous to the preparation of soil for a garden, restoring cellular health should be the first consideration in Regenerative Medicine. Standardization of PRP preparation to clinical use still remains a challenging prospect. In ...

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of patellar tendon graft remodelling after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with or without platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijas, Roberto; Ares, Oscar; Catala, Jordi; Alvarez-Diaz, Pedro; Cusco, Xavier; Cugat, Ramon

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the stages of patellar tendon graft remodelling using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with or without platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection. 98 patients aged 18 to 65 years with complete rupture of the ACL were randomised to undergo reconstruction with the autologous patellar tendon grafts with or without PRP injection. For the PRP group, 8 ml of PRP was obtained in the surgery room and was percutaneously injected into the suprapatellar joint after portal suture. MRI was obtained at months 4, 6, and 12. Remodelling stages of the grafts were classified as hypointense, mildly hyperintense, moderately hyperintense, severely hyperintense, and diffusely hyperintense by a radiologist blinded to treatment allocation. More patients in the PRP group than controls attained higher stages of remodelling at month 4 (p=0.003), month 6 (p=0.0001), and month 12 (p=0.354). PRP enabled faster remodelling of patellar tendon grafts.

  8. Transition-metal prion protein attachment: Competition with copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

    2012-02-01

    Prion protein, PrP, is a protein capable of binding copper ions in multiple modes depending on their concentration. Misfolded PrP is implicated in a group of neurodegenerative diseases, which include ``mad cow disease'' and its human form, variant Creutzfeld-Jacob disease. An increasing amount of evidence suggests that attachment of non-copper metal ions to PrP triggers transformations to abnormal forms similar to those observed in prion diseases. In this work, we use hybrid Kohn-Sham/orbital-free density functional theory simulations to investigate copper replacement by other transition metals that bind to PrP, including zinc, iron and manganese. We consider all known copper binding modes in the N-terminal domain of PrP. Our calculations identify modes most susceptible to copper replacement and reveal metals that can successfully compete with copper for attachment to PrP.

  9. Musculoskeletal applications of platelet-rich plasma: fad or future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth S; Wilson, John J; Rabago, David P; Baer, Geoffrey S; Jacobson, Jon A; Borrero, Camilo G

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to detail the biology of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), critically review the existing literature, and discuss future research applications needed to adopt PRP as a mainstay treatment method for common musculoskeletal injuries. Any promising minimally invasive therapy such as PRP deserves further investigation to avoid surgery. Diagnostic imaging outcome assessments, including ultrasound-guided needle precision, should be included in future investigations.

  10. Single Dose of Intra-Muscular Platlet Rich Plasma Reverses the Increase in Plasma Iron Levels in Exercise Induced Muscle Damage

    OpenAIRE

    P?nd?k, Zekine; Onur ORAL; ?zkay?n, Nadir; Rahman, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) therapy, is considered to be a promising solution in accelerating the healing process of injured skeletal muscle tissue. In addition to the release of growth factors, PRP also promotes concentrated anti-inflammatory signals, including interleukins. However, the impact of the intramuscular administration of the PRP on hematologic and biochemical responses has not been fully elucidated in exercise induced muscle damage. Methods: Twelve healthy m...

  11. Assessment of processed rock phosphate as source of inorganic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1.8, 2.8 and 5.64% PRP which contributed 0, 0.16, 0.25 and 0.5% inorganic phosphorus in the diets respectively. Results showed PRP levels in diets had no significant (P>0.05) effect cm weight gain, growth rate and feed intake at 0 - 4 weeks. When 2.8% PRP replaced 2% of bone meal, feed efficiency was not significantly ...

  12. Methionine sulfoxides on PrPSc: a prion-specific covalent signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canello, Tamar; Engelstein, Roni; Moshel, Ofra; Xanthopoulos, Konstantinos; Juanes, María E; Langeveld, Jan; Sklaviadis, Theodoros; Gasset, Maria; Gabizon, Ruth

    2008-08-26

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders believed to be transmitted by PrP (Sc), an aberrant form of the membrane protein PrP (C). In the absence of an established form-specific covalent difference, the infectious properties of PrP (Sc) were uniquely ascribed to the self-perpetuation properties of its aberrant fold. Previous sequencing of the PrP chain isolated from PrP(27-30) showed the oxidation of some methionine residues; however, at that time, these findings were ascribed to experimental limitations. Using the unique recognition properties of alphaPrP mAb IPC2, protein chemistry, and state of the art mass spectrometry, we now show that while a large fraction of the methionine residues in brain PrP (Sc) are present as methionine sulfoxides this modification could not be found on brain PrP (C) as well as on its recombinant models. In particular, the pattern of oxidation of M213 with respect to the glycosylation at N181 of PrP (Sc) differs both within and between species, adding another diversity factor to the structure of PrP (Sc) molecules. Our results pave the way for the production of prion-specific reagents in the form of antibodies against oxidized PrP chains which can serve in the development of both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In addition, we hypothesize that the accumulation of PrP (Sc) and thereafter the pathogenesis of prion disease may result from the poor degradation of oxidized aberrantly folded PrP.

  13. A retrospective comparison of the management of recalcitrant lateral elbow tendinosis: platelet-rich plasma injections versus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Ronald D; Schmitt, William P; Lineberry, Kyle; Luce, Paul

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the outcomes of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections to surgical release and decortication for lateral elbow tendinosis within a similar patient population. A retrospective chart review was performed on two groups of patients, receiving either PRP injections (n = 28) or surgery (n = 50). Patient demographics, clinical presentation, pain score, worker's compensation status, and previous steroid injections were recorded. Primary outcomes included pain and symptom improvement, range of motion, return to work, and postoperative complications. Demographics, duration of symptoms, and exam findings were similar between the PRP and surgical patients. There was no significant difference in pain and symptom improvement. Pain improvement was reported in 89.3 % of PRP patients and 84 % of surgical patients, with a reported percent reduction in pain of 61.1 and 55 %, respectively. Symptoms other than pain improved in 85.7 and 88 % of the PRP and surgical patients, respectively. Tenderness to palpation at the lateral epicondyle (64.3 % PRP, 44 % surgical), pain with resisted wrist extension (35.7 % PRP, 30 % surgical), or residual symptoms other than pain (14.3 % PRP, 10 % surgical) were not significantly different between groups at last follow-up. Eighty-two percent of patients in both the PRP and surgical groups returned to work. No complications were reported. Mean follow-up was 315 vs. 352 days for the PRP and surgical groups, respectively. Similar outcomes in pain improvement and return to work may be achievable with either PRP injections or surgery in recalcitrant lateral elbow tendinosis. PRP injections may be a reasonable alternative for patients apprehensive to proceed with surgery or poor surgical candidates.

  14. Advantages of Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma Compared with Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma in Treating Rabbit Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-Jing; Xu, Hai-Tao; Sheng, Jia-Gen; An, Zhi-Quan; Guo, Shang-Chun; Xie, Xue-Tao; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background Concentrated leukocytes in leukocyte- and platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) may deliver increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines to activate the NF-κB signaling pathway, to counter the beneficial effects of growth factors on osteoarthritic cartilage. However, to date no relevant studies have substantiated that in vivo. Material/Methods Autologous L-PRP and pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) were prepared, measured for componential composition, and injected intra-articularly after 4, 5, and 6 weeks post-anterior cruciate ligament transection. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) was injected intraperitoneally to inhibit NF-κB activation. All rabbits were sacrificed after 8 weeks postoperative. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to determine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations in the synovial fluid, Indian ink staining was performed for gross morphological assessment, and hematoxylin and eosin staining and toluidine blue staining were performed for histological assessment. Results Compared with L-PRP, P-PRP injections achieved better outcomes regarding the prevention of cartilage destruction, preservation of cartilaginous matrix, and reduction of IL-1β and PGE2 concentrations. CAPE injections reversed the increased IL-1β and PGE2 concentrations in the synovial fluid after L-PRP injections and improved the outcome of L-PRP injections to a level similar to P-PRP injections, while they had no influence on the therapeutic efficacy of P-PRP injections. Conclusions Concentrated leukocytes in L-PRP may release increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines to activate the NF-κB signaling pathway, to counter the beneficial effects of growth factors on osteoarthritic cartilage, and finally, result in a inferior efficacy of L-PRP to P-PRP for the treatment of osteoarthritis. PMID:27086145

  15. Platelet Rich Plasma: What should the rheumatologist expect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Fernandes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, thousands of patients have benefited from platelet rich plasma (PRP therapies, emerging as a safe alternative in many different medical fields. Current evidence suggests that PRP may be of benefit over standard treatment in osteoarthritis patients and, in the musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries potential healing effects are waiting to be confirmed with robust evidence. Finally, in systemic rheumatic diseases PRP seems to have a role to play in the treatment of extra-articular symptoms.

  16. Combination of platelet-rich plasma within periodontal ligament stem cell sheets enhances cell differentiation and matrix production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiu; Li, Bei; Yuan, Lin; Dong, Zhiwei; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Han; Sun, Jin; Ge, Song; Jin, Yan

    2017-03-01

    The longstanding goal of periodontal therapy is to regenerate periodontal tissues. Although platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been gaining increasing popularity for use in the orofacial region, whether PRP is useful for periodontal regeneration is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mixture of periodontal ligament stem cell (PDLSC) sheets and PRP promoted bone regeneration, one of the most important measurement indices of periodontal tissue regenerative capability in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we evaluated the effects of different doses of PRP on the differentiation of human PDLSCs. Then cell sheet formation, extracellular matrix deposition and osteogenic gene expression in response to different doses of PRP treatment during sheet grafting was investigated. Furthermore, we implanted PDLSC sheets treated with 1% PRP subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice to evaluate their bone-regenerative capability. The results revealed that 1% PRP significantly enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. Based on the production of extracellular matrix proteins, the results of scanning electron microscopy and the expression of the osteogenic genes ALP, Runx2, Col-1 and OCN, the provision of 1% PRP for PDLSC sheets was the most effective PRP administration mode for cell sheet formation. The results of in vivo transplantation showed that 1% PRP-mediated PDLSC sheets exhibited better periodontal tissue regenerative capability than those obtained without PRP intervention. These data suggest that a suitable concentration of PRP stimulation may enhance extracellular matrix production and positively affect cell behaviour in PDLSC sheets. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection With Percutaneous Needling for Recalcitrant Lateral Epicondylitis: Comparison of Tenotomy and Fenestration Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar, Michael P.; Motto, Michael A.; Lewis, Sarah; Jacoby, Sidney M.; Culp, Randall W.; Lee Osterman, A.; Kane, Patrick M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a common debilitating condition, with numerous treatment options of varying success. An injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to improve LE, although it is unclear whether the method of needling used in conjunction with a PRP injection is of clinical importance. Purpose: To determine whether percutaneous needle tenotomy is superior to percutaneous needle fenestration when each is combined with a PRP injection for the trea...

  18. Generating a Prion with Bacterially Expressed Recombinant Prion Protein**

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Xinhe; Yuan, Chong-Gang; Ma, Jiyan

    2010-01-01

    The prion hypothesis posits that a misfolded form of prion protein (PrP) is responsible for the infectivity of prion disease. Using recombinant murine PrP purified from Escherichia coli, we created a recombinant prion with the hallmarks of the pathogenic PrP isoform: aggregated, protease-resistant, and self-perpetuating. After intracerebral injection of the recombinant prion, wild-type mice developed neurological signs in ~130 days and reached the terminal stage of disease in ~150 days. Chara...

  19. Resistance of Soil-Bound Prions to Rumen Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Samuel E.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Bartz, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    Before prion uptake and infection can occur in the lower gastrointestinal system, ingested prions are subjected to anaerobic digestion in the rumen of cervids and bovids. The susceptibility of soil-bound prions to rumen digestion has not been evaluated previously. In this study, prions from infectious brain homogenates as well as prions bound to a range of soils and soil minerals were subjected to in vitro rumen digestion, and changes in PrP levels were measured via western blot. Binding to clay appeared to protect noninfectious hamster PrPc from complete digestion, while both unbound and soil-bound infectious PrPSc proved highly resistant to rumen digestion. In addition, no change in intracerebral incubation period was observed following active rumen digestion of unbound hamster HY TME prions and HY TME prions bound to a silty clay loam soil. These results demonstrate that both unbound and soil-bound prions readily survive rumen digestion without a reduction in infectivity, further supporting the potential for soil-mediated transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) and scrapie in the environment. PMID:22937149

  20. Resistance of soil-bound prions to rumen digestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E Saunders

    Full Text Available Before prion uptake and infection can occur in the lower gastrointestinal system, ingested prions are subjected to anaerobic digestion in the rumen of cervids and bovids. The susceptibility of soil-bound prions to rumen digestion has not been evaluated previously. In this study, prions from infectious brain homogenates as well as prions bound to a range of soils and soil minerals were subjected to in vitro rumen digestion, and changes in PrP levels were measured via western blot. Binding to clay appeared to protect noninfectious hamster PrP(c from complete digestion, while both unbound and soil-bound infectious PrP(Sc proved highly resistant to rumen digestion. In addition, no change in intracerebral incubation period was observed following active rumen digestion of unbound hamster HY TME prions and HY TME prions bound to a silty clay loam soil. These results demonstrate that both unbound and soil-bound prions readily survive rumen digestion without a reduction in infectivity, further supporting the potential for soil-mediated transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD and scrapie in the environment.

  1. Modified expression of surface glyconjugates in stored human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, A.; Ganguly, P.

    1987-05-01

    Platelets are anucleated cells which play an important part in blood coagulation and thrombosis. These cells may be stored in the blood bank for only 4/5 days. In order to improve the storage of platelets, it is essential to first understand the changes in these cells due to storage. In this work, human platelets were stored in autologous plasma at 4/sup 0/ or 22/sup 0/ and their surface changes were monitored with three lectins - wheat germ afflutinin (WGA), concanavalin A (Con A) and lentil lectin (LL). Blood was drawn from healthy donors and platelet rich plasma (PRP) was collected by slow speed centrifugation. Platelets stored at either temperature for different times showed increased sensitivity to agglutination by WGA after 34-48 hrs. Lectins, Con A and LL, which were not agglutinating to fresh platelets readily caused agglutination after 48-72 hrs. The platelets stored for 25 hrs or longer period were insensitive to thrombin but showed enhanced aggregation with WGA. Labelling of surface glycoconjugates of stored platelets with /sup 3/H-boro-hydride revealed progressive loss of a glycoprotein of Mr 150,000 (GPIb infinity) together with the appearance of components of Mr 69,000; Mr 60,000; Mr 25,000. New high molecular weight glycoproteins were also detected only in stored platelets. The author studies clearly indicate that modification or altered expression of platelets surface glycoproteins may be one factor of storage related dysfunction of platelets.

  2. Infectivity in skeletal muscle of cattle with atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardi, Silvia; Vimercati, Chiara; Casalone, Cristina; Gelmetti, Daniela; Corona, Cristiano; Iulini, Barbara; Mazza, Maria; Lombardi, Guerino; Moda, Fabio; Ruggerone, Margherita; Campagnani, Ilaria; Piccoli, Elena; Catania, Marcella; Groschup, Martin H; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Caramelli, Maria; Monaco, Salvatore; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    The amyloidotic form of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) termed BASE is caused by a prion strain whose biological properties differ from those of typical BSE, resulting in a clinically and pathologically distinct phenotype. Whether peripheral tissues of BASE-affected cattle contain infectivity is unknown. This is a critical issue since the BASE prion is readily transmissible to a variety of hosts including primates, suggesting that humans may be susceptible. We carried out bioassays in transgenic mice overexpressing bovine PrP (Tgbov XV) and found infectivity in a variety of skeletal muscles from cattle with natural and experimental BASE. Noteworthy, all BASE muscles used for inoculation transmitted disease, although the attack rate differed between experimental and natural cases (∼70% versus ∼10%, respectively). This difference was likely related to different prion titers, possibly due to different stages of disease in the two conditions, i.e. terminal stage in experimental BASE and pre-symptomatic stage in natural BASE. The neuropathological phenotype and PrP(res) type were consistent in all affected mice and matched those of Tgbov XV mice infected with brain homogenate from natural BASE. The immunohistochemical analysis of skeletal muscles from cattle with natural and experimental BASE showed the presence of abnormal prion protein deposits within muscle fibers. Conversely, Tgbov XV mice challenged with lymphoid tissue and kidney from natural and experimental BASE did not develop disease. The novel information on the neuromuscular tropism of the BASE strain, efficiently overcoming species barriers, underlines the relevance of maintaining an active surveillance.

  3. Wound Healing Activity of a New Formulation from Platelet Lysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Jamshidzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is an attractive preparation in regenerative medicine due to its potential role in the healing process in different experimental models. This study was designed to investigate the wound healing activity of a new formulation of PRP. Different gel-based formulations of PRP were prepared. Open excision wounds were made on the back of male Sprague-Dawley rats, and PRP gel was administered topically once daily until the wounds healed completely (12 days. The results revealed that the tested PRP formulation significantly accelerated the wound healing process by increasing the wound contraction, tissue granulization, vascularization, and collagen regeneration. Interestingly, this study showed that there were no significant differences between the PRP and its gel-based formulation in all the above mentioned parameters. Although this investigation showed that PRP formulation had significant wound healing effects, the PRP gel-based formulation also had significant wound healing properties. This might indicate the wound healing properties of the PRP gel ingredients in the current investigation.

  4. Investigation of platelet-rich plasma in rabbit cranial defects: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaloo, Tara L; Moy, Peter K; Freymiller, Earl G

    2002-10-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on bone healing. Fifteen rabbits were included in this randomized, blinded, prospective pilot study. Four equal 8 mm diameter cranial bone defects were created and immediately grafted with autogenous bone, PRP alone, autogenous bone and PRP, and no treatment as a control. The defects were evaluated by digital subtraction radiography with step-wedge calibration, histology, and histomorphometric analysis performed at 1, 2, and 4 months. The results showed a significant increase in histomorphometric bone area and radiographic bone density in both bone and bone and PRP samples as compared with the control and PRP alone. No significant increase in bone formation was seen with the addition of PRP to autogenous bone. No significant difference in bone formation was seen between defects treated with PRP alone and control sites. No significant improvement, radiographically or histomorphometrically, was seen with the addition of PRP in bone formation in noncritical sized defects in the rabbit cranial model. However, bone and bone and PRP showed a histomorphometric tendency toward increased bone formation at 1, 2, and 4 months. Copyright 2002 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

  5. Evaluacion clinica de la oseointegracion de implantes con plasma rico en plaquetas y hueso liofilizado en pacientes con perdida dentoalveolar por trauma en el sector anterior: primera fase.(Clinical report)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanin G., Luisa Fernanda; Correa T., Diana Marcela; Naranjo R., Rodrigo Felipe; Levi Duque S., Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Introduccion: el proposito del presente estudio (primera fase) fue evaluar clinica y radiograficamente la oseointegracion de implantes con regeneracion osea por medio de plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP...

  6. Platelet-rich plasma and autogenous bone graft combined with guided tissue regeneration in periodontal fenestration defects in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskiner, Ilker; Alkan, Arzu; Acikgoz, Gokhan; Arpak, Nejat; Kaplan, Suleyman; Arslan, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), autogenous bone (AB), and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) combination therapy compared to GTR therapy alone on healing of bone and cementum in fenestration-type periodontal defects in dogs. Six dogs were included in this study. Fenestration-type defects were created, and the following treatment groups were established: a control group treated with GTR alone and experimental groups treated with a combination of GTR + PRP, GTR + AB, and GTR + AB + PRP. The defects were evaluated by stereologic method and histomorphometric analysis, which were performed 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. The results showed a significant increase in trabecular bone area in the GTR + PRP group as compared with the control at 4 and 8 weeks (P < .05). The GTR + AB + PRP group showed significantly more trabecular bone area than both GTR and GTR + PRP groups at all time intervals (P < .05). The 8- and 12-week results in terms of cementum area revealed a significant difference between the GTR + AB + PRP group and the control in favor of the former (P < .05). Cementum area in the GTR + AB group was significantly greater than that in the GTR group at all time intervals (P < .05). Within the limitations of this study, PRP and AB, when used under barrier membrane, resulted in significant improvement in bone and cementum formation compared to GTR alone in periodontal fenestration defects; AB, rather than PRP, was responsible for this outcome.

  7. Autologous leukocyte-reduced platelet-rich plasma therapy for Achilles tendinopathy induced by collagenase in a rabbit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan C.; López, Catalina; Álvarez, María E.; Pérez, Jorge E.; Carmona, Jorge U.

    2016-01-01

    Leukocyte-reduced platelet-rich plasma (LR-PRP) is a therapy for tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon (TAT); however, there is scarce information regarding LR-PRP effects in rabbit models of TAT. We compared, at 4 and 12 weeks (w), the LR-PRP and placebo (PBS) effects on ultrasonography, histology and relative gene expression of collagen types I (COL1A1) and III (COL3A1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 24 rabbits with TAT induced by collagenase. The rabbits (treated with both treatments) were euthanatised after either 4 or 12 w. A healthy group (HG (n = 6)) was included. At 4 and 12 w, the LR-PRP group had a no statistically different histology score to the HG. At w 4, the COL1A1 expression was significantly higher in the LR-PRP group when compared to HG, and the expression of COL3A1from both LR-PRP and PBS-treated tendons was significantly higher when compared to the HG. At w 12, the expression of COL3A1 remained significantly higher in the PBS group in comparison to the LR-PRP group and the HG. At w 4, the LR-PRP group presented a significantly higher expression of VEGF when compared to the PBS group and the HG. In conclusion, LR-PRP treatment showed regenerative properties in rabbits with TAT. PMID:26781753

  8. The Effect of Local Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy on the Composition of Bacterial Flora in Chronic Venous Leg Ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Witold; Tarnas, Monika; Miłek, Tomasz; Mlosek, Krzysztof R; Ciostek, Piotr

    2016-08-26

    Microbial colonisation of chronic venous ulcers and synergism between bacterial species slow down the healing process. The study aimed at performing qualitative analysis of microbial flora in venous leg ulcers treated with platelet rich plasma (PRP). Twenty two women and twelve men aged 47-90 years were treated with PRP at our department between 2012 and 2015. Ulcer cultures collected before and after PRP therapy yielded 83 and 110 microbial isolates, respectively, of Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and candida. Pseudomonas aueruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were the most common pre- and post-treatment isolates. PRP therapy and increased the variety of microbial flora.

  9. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Partnership Discounts Regulatory Resources Products Recognition Programs Endoscopy Unit Recognition Program (EURP) Excellence in GI Practice Operations Recognition Program (PRP) Tools to Educate Patients Polyp ...

  10. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reference Guide Regulatory Resources Products Recognition Programs Endoscopy Unit Recognition Program (EURP) Excellence in GI Practice Operations Recognition Program (PRP) Tools to Educate Patients Polyp ...

  11. Platelet-Rich Plasma for the Management of Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, Kim L; Hunter, David J; Paterson, Kade L

    2017-05-01

    Knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA) are major public health problems worldwide causing pain, disability and impaired quality of life. This narrative paper discusses platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a treatment for hip and knee OA, with a focus on evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Since the first RCT of PRP in 2012, there has been 15 RCTs in knee OA and three in hip OA, mostly comparing PRP to another intra-articular injection therapy, hyaluronic acid. All studies are of low to moderate methodological quality and use variable PRP protocols. In general, results showed that PRP is a safe treatment with potential to provide symptomatic benefit for OA at least in the short term (up to 12 months). Younger patients with less severe disease may be more responsive. There are no RCTs investigating the effects of PRP on OA structural changes. No definitive conclusions can be made about the effects of PRP in OA given methodological concerns and considerable heterogeneity between studies. Further high-quality research is needed to establish the clinical and cost-effectiveness of PRP, the patients most likely to benefit and the optimal PRP protocol.

  12. Effects of different concentrations of Platelet-rich Plasma and Platelet-Poor Plasma on vitality and differentiation of autologous Adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felthaus, Oliver; Prantl, Lukas; Skaff-Schwarze, Mona; Klein, Silvan; Anker, Alexandra; Ranieri, Marco; Kuehlmann, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Autologous fat grafts and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be used to treat soft tissue defects. However, the results are inconsistent and sometimes comprise tissue resorption and necrosis. This might be due to insufficient vascularization. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a source of concentrated autologous platelets. The growth factors and cytokines released by platelets can facilitate angiogenesis. The simultaneous use of PRP might improve the regeneration potential of fat grafts. The optimal ratio has yet to be elucidated. A byproduct of PRP preparation is platelet-poor plasma (PPP). In this study we investigated the influence of different concentrations of PRP on the vitality and differentiation of ASCs. We processed whole blood with the Arthrex Angel centrifuge and isolated ASCs from the same donor. We tested the effects of different PRP and PPP concentrations on the vitality using resazurin assays and the differentiation of ASCs using oil-red staining. Both cell vitality and adipogenic differentiation increase to a concentration of 10% to 20% PRP. With a PRP concentration of 30% cell vitality and differentiation decrease. Both PRP and PPP can be used to expand ASCs without xenogeneic additives in cell culture. A PRP concentration above 20% has inhibitory effects.

  13. Autologous platelet rich plasma: topical versus intradermal after fractional ablative carbon dioxide laser treatment of atrophic acne scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawdat, Heba I; Hegazy, Rehab A; Fawzy, Marwa M; Fathy, Marwa

    2014-02-01

    A proposal has recently been made regarding the potential adjuvant use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with fractional carbon dioxide laser (FCL) for the correction of acne scars. To compare the efficacy and safety of two administration modes of autologous PRP (intradermal injection (ID) and topical application) after FCL with that of FCL alone in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. Thirty patients were randomly divided into two groups. Both underwent split-face therapy. Group 1 was administered FCL followed by ID PRP on one side and FCL followed by ID saline on the other. In group 2, one cheek was treated with FCL followed by ID PRP, and the other received FCL followed by topical PRP. Each patient received 3 monthly sessions. The final assessment took place at 6 months. Combined PRP- and FCL-treated areas had a significantly better response (p = .03), fewer side effects, and shorter downtime (p = .02) than FCL-treated areas, but there were no significant differences in ID- and topical PRP-treated areas in degree of response and downtime (p = .10); topically treated areas had significantly lower pain scores. The current study introduces the combination of topical PRP and FCL as an effective, safe modality in the treatment of atrophic acne scars with shorter downtime than FCL alone and better tolerability than FCL combined with ID PRP. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The N-terminus of the prion protein is a toxic effector regulated by the C-terminus

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Bei; McDonald, Alex J.; Markham, Kathleen; Rich, Celeste B.; McHugh, Kyle P; Tatzelt, J?rg; David W Colby; Millhauser, Glenn L.; David A Harris

    2017-01-01

    eLife digest Prion diseases are a group of degenerative illnesses of the brain caused when a molecule called the prion protein (PrP for short) adopts the wrong shape. These diseases include the human form of mad cow disease, and are often fatal with no effective treatments or cures. Though the normal activity of PrP is not certain, abnormal PrP can affect the healthy PrP on the surface of brain cells and lead to disease. Similar mechanisms may also contribute to other life-threatening brain d...

  15. The effect of performance related pay in employment services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofie Johansen, Ann; Holm, Anders; Rosdahl, Anders

    This paper investigates the effects of performance-related pay (PRP) in Danish local employment administration on unemployed social clients’ employment outcomes. PRP implies here that employees in the employment administration are rewarded each time a social client gets a job. There are different...... schemes with collective monetary payoffs have a positive effect. Furthermore it seems that the PRP schemes are most productive for social clients with relatively high prior employment opportunities. A skimming effect does not seem to occur. This seems to indicate that the PRP schemes increases...

  16. Biodegradable electrospun nanofibers coated with platelet-rich plasma for cell adhesion and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Gomez, Luis [Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15872 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Instituto de Ortopedia y Banco de Tejidos Musculoesqueléticos, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15872 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.alvarez.lorenzo@usc.es [Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15872 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Concheiro, Angel [Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15872 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Silva, Maite [Instituto de Ortopedia y Banco de Tejidos Musculoesqueléticos, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15872 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Dominguez, Fernando [Fundación Publica Galega de Medicina Xenómica, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sheikh, Faheem A.; Cantu, Travis; Desai, Raj; Garcia, Vanessa L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78541 (United States); Macossay, Javier, E-mail: jmacossay@utpa.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78541 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Biodegradable electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds were coated with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to improve cell adhesion and proliferation. PRP was obtained from human buffy coat, and tested on human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to confirm cell proliferation and cytocompatibility. Then, PRP was adsorbed on the PCL scaffolds via lyophilization, which resulted in a uniform sponge-like coating of 2.85 (S.D. 0.14) mg/mg. The scaffolds were evaluated regarding mechanical properties (Young's modulus, tensile stress and tensile strain), sustained release of total protein and growth factors (PDGF-BB, TGF-β1 and VEGF), and hemocompatibility. MSC seeded on the PRP–PCL nanofibers showed an increased adhesion and proliferation compared to pristine PCL fibers. Moreover, the adsorbed PRP enabled angiogenesis features observed as neovascularization in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Overall, these results suggest that PRP–PCL scaffolds hold promise for tissue regeneration applications. - Highlights: • Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can be adsorbed on electrospun fibers via lyophilization. • PRP coating enhanced mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and proliferation on scaffolds. • PRP-coated scaffolds showed sustained release of growth factors. • Adsorbed PRP provided angiogenic features. • PRP-poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds hold promise for tissue regeneration applications.

  17. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recognition Program (PRP) Tools to Educate Patients Polyp Information Sheets Foundation About ASGE Foundation ... Reviews Articles Videos Events & Products Ensuring the Safety ...

  18. Advantages of pure platelet-rich plasma compared with leukocyte- and platelet-rich plasma in promoting repair of bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenjing; Qi, Xin; Zhang, Yuelei; Sheng, Jiagen; Xu, Zhengliang; Tao, Shicong; Xie, Xuetao; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Changqing

    2016-03-15

    High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in leukocyte- and platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) may activate the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway to counter the beneficial effect of the growth factors on bone regeneration. However, to date, no relevant studies have substantiated this. L-PRP and pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) were isolated. The in vitro effects of L-PRP and P-PRP on the proliferation, viability and migration of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs) and EaHy926, tube formation of EaHy926, and osteogenic differentiation of HBMSCs were assessed by cell counting, flow cytometry, scratch assay, tube formation assay, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting and Alizarin red staining, respectively. The in vitro effects of L-PRP and P-PRP on the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, and production of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxid were assessed by western blotting, RT-PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Griess reaction, respectively. The in vivo effects of L-PRP or P-PRP preprocessed β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on the calvarial defects in rats were assessed by histological and immunofluorescence examinations. P-PRP, which had similar platelet and growth factors concentrations but significantly lower concentrations of leukocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokines compared with L-PRP, promoted the proliferation, viability and migration of HBMSCs and EaHy926, tube formation of EaHy926 and osteogenic differentiation of HBMSCs in vitro, compared with L-PRP. The implantation of P-PRP preprocessed β-TCP also yielded better histological results than the implantation of L-PRP preprocessed β-TCP in vivo. Moreover, L-PRP treatment resulted in the activation of the NF-κB pathway in HBMSCs and EaHy926 in vitro while the postoperative delivery of caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation, enhanced the

  19. RevaTen platelet-rich plasma improves cardiac function after myocardial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Allan; Velotta, Jeff; Brinton, Todd J; Wang, Xi; Chang, Stephanie; Palmer, Owen; Sheikh, Ahmad; Chung, Jaehoon; Yang, Phillip Chung-Ming; Robbins, Robert; Fischbein, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Cell therapy is an exciting area of investigation for repair of injured myocardial tissue. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous fractionation of whole blood containing high concentrations of growth factors including vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor, among many others. PRP has been shown to safely and effectively enhance healing of musculoskeletal tissue primarily by reparative cell signaling. Despite a growing body of evidence on PRP's safety and efficacy, limited studies have been performed using PRP in cardiovascular tissues. Utilizing a murine myocardial permanent ligation and ischemia/reperfusion model, this study sought to determine whether RevaTen PRP (Menlo Park, CA, USA), a proprietary formulation of PRP, improves cardiac function as measured by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Via thoracotomy, the left anterior descending arteries (LAD) of 28 mice were occluded by suture either permanently or for 45 min to induce ischemic injury and then reperfused. Mice undergoing permanent ligation had intramyocardial injections of either RevaTen PRP (n=5) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; n=4). Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed to calculate LVEF at 7 days. Mice undergoing ischemia and reperfusion had intramyocardial injections of either PRP (n=10) or PBS (n=9) and underwent MR imaging to calculate LVEF at 21 days. Hearts were harvested for histologic examination following imaging. Compared with PBS controls, RevaTen PRP-treated animals that underwent LAD ligation had a 38% higher LVEF 7 days after injury (PRP=36.1±6.1%; PBS=26.4±3.6%, P=.027). Compared with PBS controls, PRP-treated animals who underwent ischemia-reperfusion of the LAD had a 28% higher LVEF 21 days after injury (PRP=37.6±4.8%, control=29.3±9.7%, P=.038). Histologic analysis suggested the presence of more scar tissue in the control group compared to the PRP-treated animals. MR imaging demonstrated a positive effect of RevaTen PRP on left

  20. Randomized controlled trial comparing hyaluronic acid, platelet-rich plasma and the combination of both in the treatment of mild and moderate osteoarthritis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana JFSD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to evaluate the clinical effects of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP and Hyaluronic Acid (HA as individual treatments for mild to moderate Osteoarthritis (OA, and also examine the potential synergistic effects of PRP in combination with HA. Research continues to emerge examining the potential therapeutic efficacy of HA and PRP as autologous injectable treatments for joint arthritis. However, there is a paucity of research investigating the effects of combining HA and PRP on pain and functional status in patients with OA. Design: In this multicenter, randomized, controlled, double blind, prospective trial, 105 patients with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis who met the study criteria were randomly allocated to one of three interventions: HA (n=36, PRP (n=36, or HA+PRP (n=33. Each patient received 3 intaarticular knee injections of their assigned substance, with 2 week intervals between each injection. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS questionnaire at baseline and after 1,3,6, and 12 months. Results: The study showed that the PRP group have significant reduction in VAS scores at 1 (p= 0.003, 3 (p= 0.0001, 6 (p= 0.0001 and 12 (p= 0.000 months when compared to HA. In addition, the PRP group illustrated greater improvement in WOMAC physical activity scale at 12 months (p= 0.008 when compared to the HA group. Combining HA and PRP resulted in a significant decreases in pain (p=0.0001 and functional limitation (p=0.0001 when compared to HA alone at 1 year post treatment; and significantly increased physical function at 1 (p=0.0004 and 3 (p=.011 months when compared to PRP alone. Conclusion: The findings of the study support the use of autologous PRP as an effective treatment of mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis. It also shows that the combination of HA and PRP resulted to better outcomes than HA alone up to 1 year and PRP

  1. Enhanced cellular responses of human bone marrow stromal cells cultured on pretreated surface with allogenic platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Han; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Kim, Ha Na; Nam, Jinwoo; Kim, Hee Joong

    2012-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of surface pretreatment with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the cellular functions of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). The surfaces of tissue culture plates (TCPs) were pretreated by adding PRP followed by centrifugation to bring platelets closer to the surface, followed by incubation for 60 min at 37°C. Then, hBMSCs were seeded onto TCP and TCP pretreated with PRP (TCP-PRP), followed by culture in osteogenic medium. Cell attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation were evaluated. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM; JSM-7401F, JEOL Ltd., Japan) observations were conducted. The attachment of hBMSCs was significantly lower on TCP-PRP than on TCP. However, when the cell numbers were normalized with those observed on day 1 of culture, cellular proliferation on 5 days was significantly higher on TCP-PRP. Alkaline phosphatase activity, an index of early phase of osteoblastic differentiation, was significantly higher on TCP-PRP on day 14. Calcium deposition amount, an index of terminal osteoblastic differentiation, was also significantly higher on TCP-PRP on days 14 and 21. The results of von Kossa staining confirmed that, on day 21, the area of mineralized nodules was significantly larger on TCP-PRP. FE-SEM observation demonstrated that activated platelets and fibrin network covered the surface after PRP treatment. An increase in the number of hBMSCs and their cellular products was evident on the FE-SEM observation, and the fibrin network remained on day 21. Our results demonstrate that a PRP-treated surface enhanced early proliferation and late osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs.

  2. Combined treatment with platelet-rich plasma and brain-derived neurotrophic factor-overexpressing bone marrow stromal cells supports axonal remyelination in a rat spinal cord hemi-section model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tengfei; Yan, Weiqi; Xu, Kan; Qi, Yiying; Dai, Xuesong; Shi, Zhongli

    2013-07-01

    Combining biologic matrices is becoming a better choice to advance stem cell-based therapies. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a biologic product of concentrated platelets and has been used to promote regeneration of peripheral nerves after injury. We examined whether PRP could induce rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) differentiation in vitro and whether a combination of BMSCs, PRP and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could provide additive therapeutic benefits in vivo after spinal cord injury (SCI). BMSCs and BDNF-secreting BMSCs (BDNF-BMSCs) were cultured with PRP for 7 days and 21 days, respectively, and neurofilament (NF)-200, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) gene levels were assessed. After T10 hemi-section in 102 rats, 15-μL scaffolds (PRP alone, BMSCs, PRP/BMSCs, BDNF-BMSCs or PRP/BDNF-BMSCs) were transplanted into the lesion area, and real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural studies were performed. The messenger RNA expression of NF-200, GFAP, MAP2 and p70S6K was promoted in BMSCs and BDNF-BMSCs after culture with PRP in vitro. BDNF levels were significantly higher in the injured spinal cord after implantation of BDNF-BMSCs. In the PRP/BDNF-BMSCs group at 8 weeks postoperatively, more GFAP was observed, with less accumulation of astrocytes at the graft-host interface. Rats that received PRP and BDNF-BMSC implants showed enhanced hind limb locomotor performance at 8 weeks postoperatively compared with control animals, with more axonal remyelination. A combined treatment comprising PRP and BDNF-overexpressing BMSCs produced beneficial effects in rats with regard to functional recovery after SCI through enhancing migration of astrocytes into the transplants and axonal remyelination. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma Preparations: Influence of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs on Platelet Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippinger, Gert; Prüller, Florian; Divjak, Manuela; Mahla, Elisabeth; Fankhauser, Florian; Rackemann, Steve; Raggam, Reinhard Bernd

    2015-06-01

    Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been widely used for the treatment of sports injuries. It has been associated with improved healing and regeneration of soft tissues in elite athletes. Athletes are commonly receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). As yet, the effect of these drugs on platelet function in PRP formulations has not been taken into consideration. The function of platelets in PRP produced under the influence of NSAIDs is inhibited and may lessen a possible healing effect on the site of injury. Controlled laboratory study. PRP was collected from patients receiving NSAIDs after elective orthopaedic surgery, and platelet function was evaluated using light transmission aggregometry (LTA). Results were compared with those obtained from healthy volunteers without a history of NSAID intake during the previous 2 weeks. Two different systems for blood collection and PRP production (Arthrex ACP double-syringe system and standard 4.5-mL sodium citrate blood collection tubes) were used and compared regarding the quality of PRP that was produced. For both groups, the baseline platelet counts of whole blood and the platelet counts of PRP formulations were found to be in the normal range. Both collection systems for PRP produced comparable results without significant differences between the groups. Platelet function testing with LTA revealed significantly impaired platelet aggregation in both PRP preparations, obtained from patients taking NSAIDs, irrespective of the type of NSAID (P < .001). All subjects from the control group showed normal platelet aggregation patterns when tested with LTA. Autologous PRP produced from subjects after NSAID medication shows significantly impaired platelet function and may result in lower quality regarding the content of bioactive compounds. If required, the administration of NSAIDs should be performed after blood collection for preparation of autologous PRP; otherwise, the therapeutic effect may be limited.

  4. Prospective Randomized Evaluation of Intraoperative Application of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma on Surgical Site Infection or Delayed Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanGiovanni, Thomas P; Kiebzak, Gary M

    2016-05-01

    Prevention of surgical site infections and the reduction of wound-related complication rates have become increasingly emphasized by hospital task groups and government agencies given the degree of economic burden it places on the health care system. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains growth factors and other biomolecules that promote endogenous microbicidal activity. We hypothesized that PRP would help prevent postoperative infection and delayed wound healing (DWH). We randomized patients having foot or ankle surgery to the treatment group receiving intraoperative PRP (applied to operative field) and platelet-poor plasma at closing (PPP, on the sutured skin) or the control group (no PRP/PPP). The incidence of deep surgical site infection and DWH (collectively called endpoints) was compared between groups (n = 250/group). PRP had a mean 5.3-fold platelet concentration compared to whole blood, with concentrated white blood cells. Mean age (±SD) of patients was 52 years (±15), 65% were women. Minor and major operative procedures were included. Patients were followed for 60 days. Seventy controls had PRP prepared for assay of growth factors. Procedure mix, ASA scores, mean operative times, and comorbidity mix were similar between groups. The primary result was no difference in number of endpoints between groups: 19 patients in the PRP group (7.6%) versus 18 controls (7.2%). Endpoints were deep surgical site infections in 2 PRP/PPP patients and 1 control, and DWH in 17 PRP/PPP patients and 17 controls. Analysis of PRP samples revealed a large variation in growth factor concentrations between patients. Intraoperative application of PRP/PPP did not reduce the incidence of postoperative infection or DWH. Growth factor profiles varied greatly between patients, suggesting that the potentially therapeutic treatment delivered was not consistent from patient-to-patient. Level I, prospective randomized trial. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Platelet-rich plasma stimulates human dermal fibroblast proliferation via a Ras-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Tomoya; Kakudo, Natsuko; Morimoto, Naoki; Ogawa, Takeshi; Lai, Fangyuan; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains a high concentration of several growth factors and contributes to soft-tissue engineering and wound healing. However, the effect of PRP on human dermal fibroblast proliferation and responses is unknown. This was investigated in the present study using PRP prepared from the whole human blood using the double-spin method. Human dermal fibroblast cultures were established from skin samples collected during plastic surgery. Platelet concentration and growth factor levels in PRP were estimated, and a cell proliferation assay was carried out after PRP treatment. The role of Ras-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in the effects of PRP was investigated in human dermal fibroblasts by suppressing ERK1/2 expression with an inhibitor or by short interfering (si)RNA-mediated knockdown, and assessing ERK1/2 phosphorylation by western blotting as well as proliferation in PRP-treated cells. We found that PRP stimulated human dermal fibroblast proliferation, which was suppressed by ERK1/2 inhibitor treatment (P < 0.01). ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased in the presence of PRP, while siRNA-mediated knockdown of ERK1/2 blocked cell proliferation normally induced by PRP treatment (P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that PRP induces human dermal fibroblast proliferation via activation of ERK1/2 signaling. Our findings provide a basis for the development of agents that can promote wound healing and can be applied to soft-tissue engineering.

  6. Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Animal Long-Bone Model: An Analysis of Basic Science Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianakos, Arianna; Zambrana, Lester; Savage-Elliott, Ian; Lane, Joseph M; Kennedy, John G

    2015-12-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been suggested as an adjunct to aid in long-bone healing. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the basic science in vivo evidence for the use of PRP in the treatment of bone pathology. The PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were screened using the following search criteria: "(Platelet-rich plasma OR PRP OR autologous conditioned plasma OR ACP) AND (bone OR osteocytes OR osteogenesis OR nonunion OR delayed union)." Studies were included if they fulfilled the following criteria: (1) studied the effect of PRP or a similar concentrated platelet product, defined as a blood product with platelet concentration elevated to higher than baseline; (2) established a control with which to compare PRP; (3) were published in a peer-reviewed journal; and (4) looked specifically at animal long-bone models. All review articles and clinical studies, including randomized controlled trials and case series, were excluded from the review. Studies examining the effects of PRP on bones of animals with confounding pathology were excluded. In studies that contained additional treatment variables, only the portion of the experiment that compared PRP directly with the control were evaluated. Data were then extracted with a standardized table. The search yielded 29 articles for inclusion. Seventy-two percent of the studies reported platelet concentrations. Eighty-nine percent of studies reported significant improvement in earlier bone healing on histologic/histomorphometric assessment. One hundred percent showed significant increase in bone formation on radiographs in the PRP group. Eighty percent of studies reported a significant increase in bone area on microcomputed tomography. One hundred percent of studies showed a higher torsional stiffness for the PRP-treated defects. In the in vivo studies evaluated, PRP confers several beneficial effects on animal long-bone models. Proof of concept for PRP as a biologic adjunct in long-bone models has

  7. Distribution of Platelet-rich Plasma after Ultrasound-Guided Injection for Chronic Elbow Tendinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi-Young Park, Dong Rak Kwon, Hee Kyung Cho, Jinyoung Park, Jung Hyun Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the spreads of platelet-rich plasma (PRP are not widely known despite commonly use. This study aims to evaluate whether PRP stays within the injected area by using ultrasonography, to improve understanding of the spreads of intratendinous injected PRP. Thirty-nine patients (15 males, 24 females; mean age, 49.3 years, who had symptoms on their elbows (> 6 months and diagnosed as lateral (25 elbows or medial (14 elbows tendinopathies of elbow, were included. The severity of tendon pathology was assessed by ultrasonography as tear or no tear. Immediately after ultrasound-guided PRP injection, ultrasound images were evaluated to assess the area of PRP distribution, which was defined as the presence of fluid or microbubbles. Ultrasound revealed that 13 elbows had tendon tear and 26 had no tear, respectively. Post-injection ultrasound confirmed the injected PRP was within the tendon in all cases. The mean distance of distribution from the injection site was 12.6 mm (5.0–26.0 mm. There was no difference in the distance of PRP distribution between tendon tear and no tear. Injected PRP spread to soft tissue outside the tendon in 20 of 39 cases. Intra-articular extension of PRP was observed in 5 cases. Although PRP remained intratendinous after the injection in all cases, some portion tended to spread outside from the injection site in a short space of time. Postinjection ultrasonographic imaging has a value for observing the spreading patterns of intratendinous PRP injection.

  8. Study of a Two-Step Centrifugation Protocol for Concentrating Cells and Growth Factors in Bovine Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information about the methods used for bovine platelet-rich plasma (PRP/platelet-rich gel (PRG procurement, including information on platelet (PLT, white blood cell (WBC in PRP, and growth factor release from PRG supernatants. The aims of this study were to compare and to correlate the PLT, WBC, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1, and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB concentrations in bovine whole blood, plasma, and four PRP layers and their respective PRG supernatants: A and B (obtained by a single centrifugation tube method at 720g/5 min and C and D (obtained by a double centrifugation tube method, by using two centrifugation episodes at 720g/5 min. PLT and WBC counts were significantly higher in PRP-C, followed by whole blood, PRP-A, PRP-B, and PRP-D. TGF-β1 concentrations were significantly higher in PRG-B supernatants and its correspondent PRP-B lysate when compared to the other PRG supernatants and plasma. Supernatants from PRG-A, PRG-B, and PRG-D had equivalent TGF-β1 concentrations. PDGF-BB concentrations were not statistically different between the hemoderivatives. Significant Pearson correlations were noted between PLT counts and WBC counts (0.8 and between PLT counts and PLT distribution width (0.6. Further studies should be performed to assess the potential clinical applications of these PRPs.

  9. Application of Platelet-Rich Plasma to Disorders of the Knee Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbaum, Bert R.; McIlwraith, C. Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Importance. The promising therapeutic potential and regenerative properties of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) have rapidly led to its widespread clinical use in musculoskeletal injury and disease. Although the basic scientific rationale surrounding PRP products is compelling, the clinical application has outpaced the research. Objective. The purpose of this article is to examine the current concepts around the basic science of PRP application, different preparation systems, and clinical application of PRP in disorders in the knee. Evidence Acquisition. A systematic search of PubMed for studies that evaluated the basic science, preparation and clinical application of platelet concentrates was performed. The search used terms, including platelet-rich plasma or PRP preparation, activation, use in the knee, cartilage, ligament, and meniscus. Studies found in the initial search and related studies were reviewed. Results. A comprehensive review of the literature supports the potential use of PRP both nonoperatively and intraoperatively, but highlights the absence of large clinical studies and the lack of standardization between method, product, and clinical efficacy. Conclusions and Relevance. In addition to the call for more randomized, controlled clinical studies to assess the clinical effect of PRP, at this point, it is necessary to investigate PRP product composition and eventually have the ability to tailor the therapeutic product for specific indications. PMID:26069674

  10. Comparison of postinjection protocols after intratendinous Achilles platelet-rich plasma injections: a cadaveric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Johannes I.; de Jonge, Suzan; de Jonge, Milko C.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M.; Verhaar, Jan; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the distribution of intratendinous injected platelet-rich plasma (PRP) after 15 minutes of prone resting versus immediate manipulation simulating weightbearing. Ten cadaveric lower limbs were injected under ultrasound guidance with PRP dyed

  11. Course of disability reduction during a pain rehabilitation program : a prospective clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterschoot, Franka P. C.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    The aim of this study was to analyze the course of reduction of disability during a pain rehabilitation program (PRP) and factors influencing this course. A prospective cohort study was carried out. All patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain treated in a PRP between March 2010 and December 2010

  12. Platelet-rich plasma enhances the differentiation of dental pulp progenitor cells into odontoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, K H; Ariyoshi, W; Okinaga, T; Washio, A; Morotomi, T; Kitamura, C; Nishihara, T

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of PRP on odontoblastic differentiation using dental pulp progenitor cells derived from the dental papilla of rat incisors. Monolayer cultures of odontoblastic lineage KN-3 cells were incubated with PRP for various time periods. The expression of dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentine matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) was determined using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. To further clarify the role of PRP in odontogenesis, KN-3 cells were stimulated with PRP in the presence of ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate. The cells were stained for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and ALP activity was quantified in cell lysates. The formation of mineralized nodules was assessed by alizarin red staining. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance. PRP increased the mRNA and protein expressions of odontoblastic markers, such as DSPP and DMP-1. Furthermore, PRP stimulated the ALP activity and mineralized nodule formation induced by ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate in a time-dependent manner. PRP enhances odontoblastic differentiation of KN-3 cells. These results indicate that PRP could be a potential candidate for use in the regeneration of dentine-pulp complex. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on early and late bone healing using a mixture of particulate autogenous cancellous bone and Bio-Oss: an experimental study in goats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooren, R.E.C.M.; Dankers, A.C.A.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Jansen, J.A.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), containing various growth factors, may speed up wound and bone healing. Using osteoconductive alloplastic materials in reconstructive surgery, the amount of autogenous bone needed can be reduced. The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of PRP on a mixture

  14. An exercise-based physical therapy program for patients with patellar tendinopathy after platelet-rich plasma injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Meijer, L.T.B.; Zwerver, Hans

    Objectives: To describe a post platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection, exercise-based physical therapy program, investigate feasibility and report the first results of patellar tendinopathy patients treated with PRP injection combined with the physical therapy program. Study Design: Case-series.

  15. Applications of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgül, Ahmet; Cirak, Musa; Birinci, Tansu

    2016-12-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous concentrated preparation of human platelets contained in a small volume of plasma that is characterized by hemostatic and tissue-repairing effects. Being enriched by various kinds of growth factors, and their tissue-repairing effects have made them the focus of attention for use in tissue regeneration. PRP has been safely used and documented in many different fields, including orthopedics, sports injuries, dental and periodontal surgery, and cosmetic, plastic, cardiovascular, general, and maxillofacial surgery. The current evidence obtained from in vitro and animal studies pointed out that PRP may potentially be used to regenerate injured lymphatic vessels to treat or prevent lymphedema. Therefore, we have reviewed existing literature on the clinical uses of PRP in lymphedema and inquired whether there is enough evidence to support the use of PRP in clinical practice as a treatment option. In contrast to in vitro and animal models, there is no clinical trial regarding the use of PRP in lymphedema treatment. Only two animal studies matched to our research yielded positive and promising results in terms of the potential role of PRP in future for lymphedema therapies. In the light of these findings, it is clear that this is an important issue that should be studied in greater depth to clarify the efficacy of PRP in the management of lymphedema.

  16. Quick and sensitive SPR detection of prion disease-associated isoform (PrPSc) based on its self-assembling behavior on bare gold film and specific interactions with aptamer-graphene oxide (AGO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zhichao; Wan, Jinfeng; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Haiqian; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Su; Gu, Ning

    2017-09-01

    Herein, we constructed a novel sandwich surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection assay for sensitive prion disease-associated isoform (PrP Sc ) detection, utilizing bare gold film and apatamer-graphene oxide (AGO). Due to the self-assembling behavior of PrP Sc on gold surface, the non-modified gold surface can be directly used as sensing surface for the quick detection, for the purpose to avoid the interference from the traditional, complex and changeable probe-modified sensing surface. And due to the highly specific affinity of AGO towards PrP Sc , the sandwich type SPR sensor exhibits excellent analytical performance towards the discrimination and quantitation of PrP Sc . A good linear relationship was obtained between SPR responses and the logarithm of PrP Sc concentrations over a range of 0.001-1ng/mL. The detection sensitivity for PrP Sc was improved by ∼156 orders of AGO compared with SPR direct detection format. Besides, morphological changes of the sensing film surfaces were investigated by high resolution AFM imaging, confirming the capture of PrP Sc molecules and their further specific recognition by AGO. The specificity of the present biosensor was also investigated by PrP C and other regents as controls. By compared with other reported methods, the AGO enhanced sandwich SPR assay was confirmed to be efficient, sensitive, and with wide working range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In silico strategies on prion pathogenic conversion and inhibition from PrPC-PrPSc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagadala, Nataraj S; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Bhat, Rakesh

    2017-03-01

    To date, various therapeutic strategies identified numerous anti-prion compounds and antibodies that stabilize PrP C , block the conversion of PrP C -PrP Sc and increased effect on PrP Sc clearance. However, no suitable drug has been identified clinically so far due to the poor oral absorption, low blood-brain-barrier [BBB] penetration, and high toxicity. Although some of the drugs were proven to be effective in prion-infected cell culture and whole animal models, none of them increased the rate of survival compared to placebo. Areas covered: In this review, the authors highlight the importance of in silico approaches like molecular docking, virtual screening, pharmacophore analysis, molecular dynamics, QSAR, CoMFA and CoMSIA applied to detect molecular mechanisms of prion inhibition and conversion from PrP C -PrP Sc . Expert opinion: Several in silico approaches combined with experimental studies have provided many structural and functional clues on the stability and physiological activity of prion mutants. Further, various studies of in silico and in vivo approaches were also shown to identify several new small organic anti-scrapie compounds to decrease the accumulation of PrP res in cell culture, inhibit the aggregation of a PrP C peptide, and possess pharmacokinetic characteristics that confirm the drug-likeness of these compounds.

  18. What Is Our Current Understanding of PrPSc-Associated Neurotoxicity and Its Molecular Underpinnings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Daniel; Halliday, Mark

    2017-12-01

    The prion diseases are a collection of fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative diseases that cause rapid onset dementia and ultimately death. Uniquely, the infectious agent is a misfolded form of the endogenous cellular prion protein, termed PrP Sc . Despite the identity of the molecular agent remaining the same, PrP Sc can cause a range of diseases with hereditary, spontaneous or iatrogenic aetiologies. However, the link between PrP Sc and toxicity is complex, with subclinical cases of prion disease discovered, and prion neurodegeneration without obvious PrP Sc deposition. The toxic mechanisms by which PrP Sc causes the extensive neuropathology are still poorly understood, although recent advances are beginning to unravel the molecular underpinnings, including oxidative stress, disruption of proteostasis and induction of the unfolded protein response. This review will discuss the diseases caused by PrP Sc toxicity, the nature of the toxicity of PrP Sc , and our current understanding of the downstream toxic signaling events triggered by the presence of PrP Sc .

  19. Probing structural differences between PrPC and PrPSc by surface nitration and acetylation: evidence of conformational change in the C-terminus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used two chemical modifiers, tetranitromethane (TNM) and acetic anhydride, which specifically target accessible tyrosine and lysine residues, respectively, to modify Syrian hamster recombinant PrP(90-231) (rPrP) and PrP27-30, aiming at finding locations of conformational change. Modified proteins...

  20. A Prospective Study of Platelet-Rich Plasma as Biological Augmentation for Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute Achilles tendon rupture is one of the most common tendon injuries in adults. We hypothesized that Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP can be used as biological augmentation for surgical treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. Our study is a prospective randomized controlled trial. Patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture undergoing surgical repair were randomly assigned into either control group or PRP group. End-to-end modified Krackow suture was performed in both groups. In the PRP group, PRP was injected into the paratenon sheath and around the ruptured tissue after the tendon was repaired. Postoperatively we evaluated isokinetic muscle strength at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. In addition, ankle ROM, calf circumference, Leppilahti score, and the SF-36 score were evaluated at 6, 12, and 24 months after operation. At 3 months, the PRP group had better isokinetic muscle. The PRP group also achieved higher SF-36 and Leppilahti scores at 6 and 12 months. At 24 months, the PRP group had an improved ankle range of motion compared to the control group. Our study results suggest that PRP can serve as a biological augmentation to acute Achilles tendon rupture repair and improves both short and midterm functional outcomes.

  1. Enhanced virulence of sheep-passaged bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent is revealed by decreased polymorphism barriers in prion protein conversions studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priem, J.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Keulen, van L.J.M.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Andreoletti, O.; Bossers, A.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) can be efficiently transmitted to small ruminants (sheep and goats) with certain prion protein (PrP) genotypes. Polymorphisms in PrP of both the host and donor influence the transmission efficiency of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in general.

  2. Platelet rich plasma promotes skeletal muscle cell migration in association with up-regulation of FAK, paxillin, and F-Actin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chung; Yu, Tung-Yang; Lin, Li-Ping; Lin, Mioa-Sui; Tsai, Ting-Ta; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2017-11-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) contains various cytokines and growth factors which may be beneficial to the healing process of injured muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of PRP on migration of skeletal muscle cells. Skeletal muscle cells intrinsic to Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with PRP. The cell migration was evaluated by transwell filter migration assay and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. The spreading of cells was evaluated microscopically. The formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. The protein expressions of paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were assessed by Western blot analysis. Transfection of paxillin small-interfering RNA (siRNAs) to muscle cells was performed to validate the role of paxillin in PRP-mediated promotion of cell migration. Dose-dependently PRP promotes migration of and spreading and muscle cells. Protein expressions of paxillin and FAK were up-regulated dose-dependently. F-actin formation was also enhanced by PRP treatment. Furthermore, the knockdown of paxillin expression impaired the effect of PRP to promote cell migration. It was concluded that PRP promoting migration of muscle cells is associated with up-regulation of proteins expression of paxillin and FAK as well as increasing F-actin formation. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2506-2512, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The role of the unusual threonine string in the conversion of prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abskharon, Romany; Wang, Fei; Vander Stel, Kayla J; Sinniah, Kumar; Ma, Jiyan

    2016-12-16

    The conversion of normal prion protein (PrP) into pathogenic PrP conformers is central to prion disease, but the mechanism remains unclear. The α-helix 2 of PrP contains a string of four threonines, which is unusual due to the high propensity of threonine to form β-sheets. This structural feature was proposed as the basis for initiating PrP conversion, but experimental results have been conflicting. We studied the role of the threonine string on PrP conversion by analyzing mouse Prnp(a) and Prnp(b) polymorphism that contains a polymorphic residue at the beginning of the threonine string, and PrP mutants in which threonine 191 was replaced by valine, alanine, or proline. The PMCA (protein misfolding cyclic amplification) assay was able to recapitulate the in vivo transmission barrier between PrP(a) and PrP(b). Relative to PMCA, the amyloid fibril growth assay is less restrictive, but it did reflect certain properties of in vivo prion transmission. Our results suggest a plausible theory explaining the apparently contradictory results in the role of the threonine string in PrP conversion and provide novel insights into the complicated relationship among PrP stability, seeded conformational change, and prion structure, which is critical for understanding the molecular basis of prion infectivity.

  4. To evaluate the role of platelet-rich plasma in healing of acute diaphyseal fractures of the femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roop Singh

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: PRP has no effect on femoral shaft fracture healing treated with closed intramedullary nailing. However, PRP and matrix scaffold provided by fibrin membrane may provide an artificial hematoma effect in the initial phase of healing in open or failed closed intramedullary nailing.

  5. Extraction optimization and characterization of polysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the optimum extraction conditions of polysaccharides from Pinellia Rhizoma (PRP) and their antioxidant activities. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the water extraction conditions of PRP by Box-Benhnken design (BBD). A high performance liquid ...

  6. RESONANCEI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the DNA that encodes them. There is a genetically inherited form of human prion disease, known as Gerstmann-Straussler-. Scheinker syndrome (GSS). GSS is accompanied by a single amino acid change in the normal PrP. When the corresponding change is introduced into the mouse PrP gene, it leads to spontanous ...

  7. Early effect of platelet-rich plasma on bone healing in combination with an osteoconductive material in rat cranial defects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plachokova, A.S.; Dolder, J. van den; Stoelinga, P.J.W.; Jansen, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The early effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on bone regeneration in combination with dense biphasic hydroxyl apatite (HA)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) particles (ratio 60%/40%) was evaluated in rat cranial defects with a diameter of 6.2 mm. We hypothesize that PRP exerts its

  8. Teacher Evaluation, Performance-Related Pay, and Constructivist Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guodong; Akiba, Motoko

    2015-01-01

    Using statewide longitudinal teacher survey data collected in 2009 and 2010, this study examined the characteristics of teacher evaluation used to determine performance-related pay (PRP), and the association between PRP and improvement in the practice of constructivist instruction. The study found that 10.9% of middle school mathematics teachers…

  9. Genetic variation of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are caused by accumulation of a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP). The normal cellular isoform of PrP is produced by the prion gene (PRNP) and is highly expressed in the central nervous system. Currently, there is an absence of information rega...

  10. No effect of platelet-rich plasma with frozen or processed bone allograft around noncemented implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T B; Rahbek, O; Overgaard, S

    2005-01-01

    We compared processed morselized bone allograft with fresh-frozen bone graft around noncemented titanium implants. Also, the influence of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in combination with bone allograft was evaluated. Analysis was based on implant fixation and histomorphometry. PRP was prepared...

  11. Application of Platelet-Rich Plasma and Platelet-Rich Fibrin in Fat Grafting: Basic Science and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Han-Tsung; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the natural properties of fat, fat grafting remains a popular procedure for soft tissue volume augmentation and reconstruction. However, clinical outcome varies and is technique dependent. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains α-granules, from which multiple growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, vascular endothelial growth factor, and epidermal growth factor can be released after activation. In recent years, the scope of PRP therapies has extended from bone regeneration, wound healing, and healing of musculoskeletal injuries, to enhancement of fat graft survival. In this review, we focus on the definition of PRP, the different PRP preparation and activation methods, and growth factor concentrations. In addition, we discuss possible mechanisms for the role of PRP in fat grafting by reviewing in vitro studies with adipose-derived stem cells, preadipocytes, and adipocytes, and preclinical and clinical research. We also review platelet-rich fibrin, a so-called second generation PRP, and its slow-releasing biology and effects on fat grafts compared to PRP in both animal and clinical research. Finally, we provide a general foundation on which to critically evaluate earlier studies, discuss the limitations of previous research, and direct plans for future experiments to improve the optimal effects of PRP in fat grafting. PMID:24004354

  12. Exosomes derived from platelet-rich plasma promote the re-epithelization of chronic cutaneous wounds via activation of YAP in a diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shang-Chun; Tao, Shi-Cong; Yin, Wen-Jing; Qi, Xin; Yuan, Ting; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Chronic wounds have become an economic, social, and public health burden and need advanced treatment. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used extensively in treatment of chronic wounds because it contains an abundance of growth factors secreted by platelets. The exosomes derived from PRP (PRP-Exos) have been proven to encapsulate principal growth factors from platelets. This study is the first to show that these exosomes may exert the function of PRP. PRP-Exos can effectively induce proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and fibroblasts to improve angiogenesis and re-epithelialization in chronic wounds. We regulated YAP to verify the PRP-Exos-dependent effect on fibroblast proliferation and migration through YAP activation. In vivo, we observed the cutaneous healing process in chronic wounds treated with PRP-Exos in a diabetic rat model. We provide evidence of the probable molecular mechanisms underlying the PRP effect on healing of chronic ulcers and describe a promising resource of growth factors from exosomes without species restriction.

  13. The influence of environmental variables on platelet concentration in horse platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnovati, Riccardo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Gentilini, Fabio; Lambertini, Carlotta; Spadari, Alessandro

    2016-07-04

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) commonly refers to blood products which contain a higher platelet (PLT) concentration as compared to normal plasma. Autologous PRP has been shown to be safe and effective in promoting the natural processes of soft tissue healing or reconstruction in humans and horses. Variability in PLT concentration has been observed in practice between PRP preparations from different patients or from the same individual under different conditions. A change in PLT concentration could modify PRP efficacy in routine applications. The aim of this study was to test the influence of environmental, individual and agonistic variables on the PLT concentration of PRP in horses. Six healthy Standardbred mares were exposed to six different variables with a one-week washout period between variables, and PRP was subsequently obtained from each horse. The variables were time of withdrawal during the day (morning/evening), hydration status (overhydration/dehydration) treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and training periods on a treadmill. The platelet concentration was significantly higher in horses treated with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (P = 0.03). The leukocyte concentration increased 2-9 fold with respect to whole blood in the PRP which was obtained after exposure to all the variable considered. Environmental variation in platelet concentration should be taken into consideration during PRP preparation.

  14. Resistance to chronic wasting disease in transgenic mice expressing a naturally occurring allelic variant of deer prion protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meade-White, K.; Race, B.; Trifilo, M.; Bossers, A.; Favara, C.; Lacasse, R.; Miller, M.; Williams, E.; Oldstone, M.; Race, R.; Chesebro, B.

    2007-01-01

    Prion protein (PrP) is a required factor for susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion diseases. In transgenic mice, expression of prion protein (PrP) from another species often confers susceptibility to prion disease from that donor species. For example, expression of deer

  15. Platelet-rich plasma versus dry needling of myofascial meridian trigger points in the treatment of plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem El Mallah

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion PRP injection is a promising line of treatment for chronic PF with documented ultrasonographic healing effect. Dry needling is a simple and safe technique for treating pain associated with PF, yet it is more invasive and less effective compared with PRP injection.

  16. Autologous platelet-rich plasma compared with whole blood for the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis; a comparative clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Vahdatpour

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Significant improvement in pain and function, as well as decrease in plantar fascia thickness, was observed by intralesional injection of the PRP and WB in patients with chronic PF. The study results indicate similar effectiveness between PRP and WB for the treatment of chronic PF in short-term.

  17. Prion potency in stem cells biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marilene H; Santos, Tiago G

    2012-01-01

    Prion protein (PrP) can be considered a pivotal molecule because it interacts with several partners to perform a diverse range of critical biological functions that might differ in embryonic and adult cells. In recent years, there have been major advances in elucidating the putative role of PrP in the basic biology of stem cells in many different systems. Here, we review the evidence indicating that PrP is a key molecule involved in driving different aspects of the potency of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells in self-perpetuation and differentiation in many cell types. It has been shown that PrP is involved in stem cell self-renewal, controlling pluripotency gene expression, proliferation, and neural and cardiomyocyte differentiation. PrP also has essential roles in distinct processes that regulate tissue-specific stem cell biology in nervous and hematopoietic systems and during muscle regeneration. Results from our own investigations have shown that PrP is able to modulate self-renewal and proliferation in neural stem cells, processes that are enhanced by PrP interactions with stress inducible protein 1 (STI1). Thus, the available data reveal the influence of PrP in acting upon the maintenance of pluripotent status or the differentiation of stem cells from the early embryogenesis through adulthood.

  18. Engagement of cellular prion protein with the co-chaperone Hsp70/90 organizing protein regulates the proliferation of glioblastoma stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesia, Rebeca Piatniczka; Prado, Mariana Brandão; Cruz, Lilian; Martins, Vilma Regina; Santos, Tiago Góss; Lopes, Marilene Hohmuth

    2017-04-17

    Glioblastoma (GBM), a highly aggressive brain tumor, contains a subpopulation of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) that play roles in tumor maintenance, invasion, and therapeutic resistance. GSCs are therefore a promising target for GBM treatment. Our group identified the cellular prion protein (PrP C ) and its partner, the co-chaperone Hsp70/90 organizing protein (HOP), as potential target candidates due to their role in GBM tumorigenesis and in neural stem cell maintenance. GSCs expressing different levels of PrP C were cultured as neurospheres with growth factors, and characterized with stem cells markers and adhesion molecules markers through immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. We than evaluated GSC self-renewal and proliferation by clonal density assays and BrdU incorporation, respectively, in front of recombinant HOP treatment, combined or not with a HOP peptide which mimics the PrP C binding site. Stable silencing of HOP was also performed in parental and/or PrP C -depleted cell populations, and proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo were evaluated. Migration assays were performed on laminin-1 pre-coated glass. We observed that, when GBM cells are cultured as neurospheres, they express specific stemness markers such as CD133, CD15, Oct4, and SOX2; PrP C is upregulated compared to monolayer culture and co-localizes with CD133. PrP C silencing downregulates the expression of molecules associated with cancer stem cells, upregulates markers of cell differentiation and affects GSC self-renewal, pointing to a pivotal role for PrP C in the maintenance of GSCs. Exogenous HOP treatment increases proliferation and self-renewal of GSCs in a PrP C -dependent manner while HOP knockdown disturbs the proliferation process. In vivo, PrP C and/or HOP knockdown potently inhibits the growth of subcutaneously implanted glioblastoma cells. In addition, disruption of the PrP C -HOP complex by a HOP peptide, which mimics the PrP C binding site, affects GSC self

  19. Comparison of growth factor and platelet concentration from commercial platelet-rich plasma separation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Tiffany N; Pouliot, Michael A; Kim, Hyeon Joo; Dragoo, Jason L

    2011-02-01

    Clinical studies claim that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) shortens recovery times because of its high concentration of growth factors that may enhance the tissue repair process. Most of these studies obtained PRP using different separation systems, and few analyzed the content of the PRP used as treatment. This study characterized the composition of single-donor PRP produced by 3 commercially available PRP separation systems. Controlled laboratory study. Five healthy humans donated 100 mL of blood, which was processed to produce PRP using 3 PRP concentration systems (MTF Cascade, Arteriocyte Magellan, Biomet GPS III). Platelet, white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell, and fibrinogen concentrations were analyzed by automated systems in a clinical laboratory, whereas ELISA determined the concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor αβ and ββ (PDGF-αβ, PDGF-ββ), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). There was no significant difference in mean PRP platelet, red blood cell, active TGF-β1, or fibrinogen concentrations among PRP separation systems. There was a significant difference in platelet capture efficiency. The highest platelet capture efficiency was obtained with Cascade, which was comparable with Magellan but significantly higher than GPS III. There was a significant difference among all systems in the concentrations of WBC, PDGF-αβ, PDGF-ββ, and VEGF. The Cascade system concentrated leukocyte-poor PRP, compared with leukocyte-rich PRP from the GPS III and Magellan systems. The GPS III and Magellan concentrate leukocyte-rich PRP, which results in increased concentrations of WBCs, PDGF-αβ, PDGF-ββ, and VEGF as compared with the leukocyte-poor PRP from Cascade. Overall, there was no significant difference among systems in the platelet concentration, red blood cell, active TGF-β1, or fibrinogen levels. Products from commercially available PRP separation systems produce differing concentrations of

  20. Increased infectivity of anchorless mouse scrapie prions in transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Brent; Phillips, Katie; Meade-White, Kimberly; Striebel, James; Chesebro, Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Prion protein (PrP) is found in all mammals, mostly as a glycoprotein anchored to the plasma membrane by a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. Following prion infection, host protease-sensitive prion protein (PrPsen or PrPC) is converted into an abnormal, disease-associated, protease-resistant form (PrPres). Biochemical characteristics, such as the PrP amino acid sequence, and posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation and GPI anchoring, can affect the transmissibility of prions as well as the biochemical properties of the PrPres generated. Previous in vivo studies on the effects of GPI anchoring on prion infectivity have not examined cross-species transmission. In this study, we tested the effect of lack of GPI anchoring on a species barrier model using mice expressing human PrP. In this model, anchorless 22L prions derived from tg44 mice were more infectious than 22L prions derived from C57BL/10 mice when tested in tg66 transgenic mice, which expressed wild-type anchored human PrP at 8- to 16-fold above normal. Thus, the lack of the GPI anchor on the PrPres from tg44 mice appeared to reduce the effect of the mouse-human PrP species barrier. In contrast, neither source of prions induced disease in tgRM transgenic mice, which expressed human PrP at 2- to 4-fold above normal. Prion protein (PrP) is found in all mammals, usually attached to cells by an anchor molecule called GPI. Following prion infection, PrP is converted into a disease-associated form (PrPres). While most prion diseases are species specific, this finding is not consistent, and species barriers differ in strength. The amino acid sequence of PrP varies among species, and this variability affects prion species barriers. However, other PrP modifications, including glycosylation and GPI anchoring, may also influence cross-species infectivity. We studied the effect of PrP GPI anchoring using a mouse-to-human species barrier model. Experiments showed that prions produced by

  1. Platelet-rich Plasma as a Potential Treatment for Noncicatricial Alopecias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria-Angeliki, Gkini; Alexandros-Efstratios, Kouskoukis; Dimitris, Rigopoulos; Konstantinos, Kouskoukis

    2015-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and alopecia areata (AA) are common hair loss disorders affecting both men and women. Despite available therapeutic options, search for new, more effective treatment is constant. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could be effective in promoting hair growth: (1) To present PRP and its mechanism of action in promoting hair growth and (2) to evaluate its preparation methods and its therapeutic potential in noncicatrial alopecias in a systematic review. An international bibliography search, through five databases, was conducted to find articles regarding PRP's action on hair loss. Growth factors in platelets’ granules of PRP bind in the bulge area of hair follicle, promoting hair growth. In our systematic review, 14 articles matched our criteria, including 12 articles for AGA and two for AA. PRP is a potential useful therapeutic tool for alopecias, without major adverse effects. Nevertheless, due to the small number of conducted trials, further studies are required to investigate its efficacy. PMID:26180449

  2. Meta-analysis of efficacy of platelet-rich plasma therapy for androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Carviel, J L

    2017-02-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy is used as an off-label treatment for androgenetic alopecia (AGA); however, published efficacy evidence is still preliminary. Conduct a meta-analysis of current trial data to estimate efficacy. Thirteen studies which investigated the use of PRP for treatment of AGA were identified from the literature. A meta-analysis was used to analyze results from four trials (N = 60) where sufficient quantifiable data extraction was possible. All 13 studies were analyzed qualitatively. When comparing PRP treatment to baseline, the overall standardized mean difference was 0.51 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14, 0.88; I2 = 0%] in favour of PRP treatment. Preliminary results suggest that the investigation of PRP for the treatment of AGA is promising. Controlled trials with quantifiable measures of treatment success are now required to confirm these results.

  3. Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma for the Treatment of Pattern Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Babu; Goldberg, Lynne J

    2016-08-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a solution derived from whole blood that is enriched in the platelet fraction. Platelets serve as a reservoir of growth factors and cytokines. When platelets are activated in vivo, signaling molecules are released into the immediate microenvironment and activate receptors for various pathways. Historically, PRP has been applied to wound beds to promote healing of complex wounds. Over the last decade, it has served as a valuable therapeutic tool in various specialties such as maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery, orthopedics and sports medicine. Only recently has PRP been utilized for dermatologic purposes, more specifically, for the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss. In this review, we discuss molecular and cellular pathways upregulated by PRP important in hair folliculogenesis, and examine clinical evidence from all previously published studies involving the use of PRP for pattern hair loss.

  4. Efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in treatment of androgenic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Singhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has shown remarkable beneficial effects without any major adverse reactions in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. The growth factors in activated autologous PRP induce the proliferation of dermal papilla cells. Objectives: The objective was to investigate the clinical efficacy of PRP in treatment of androgenic alopecia. Materials and Methods: Ten patients were given autologous PRP injections on the affected area of alopecia over a period of 3 months at interval of 2-3 weeks and results were assessed. Results: Three months after the treatment, the patients presented clinical improvement in the hair counts, hair thickness, hair root strength, and overall alopecia. Conclusion: PRP appears to be a cheap, effective, and promising therapy for androgenic alopecia with no major adverse effects.

  5. Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris In The Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Rashmi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP is an uncommon idiopathic papulosqamous disorder characterized by circumscribed follicular keratosis, palmoplantar keratoderma and frequently erythroderma. Seven patients of PRP (five females and two males in the age range of 2 to 50 years seen over a 2-year period are presented with their clinical features, triggering factors, associations and laboratory investigations. The clinical type of PRP was adult onset classical variety in three, juvenile circumscribed variety in two and adult onset atypical variety and juvenile classical variety in one each. The triggering factors were upper respiratory tract infection with nutritional deficiencies in two and folliculitis in one. The histopathology was consistent with PRP in all. Four patients were managed with oral vitamin A while one each was put on methotrexate, etretinate and topical steroids and they showed a good response. More number of cases should be studied over a longer period to substantiate the suggested immunologic mechanism of PRP.

  6. Estudo comparativo do uso isolado de plasma rico em plaquetas e combinado com cimento de alfa-fosfato tricálcico no reparo ósseo em ratos Comparative study on use of platelet-rich plasma alone and in combination with alpha-tricalcium phosphate cement for bone repair in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Deise Sebben

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o efeito do cimento α-TCP combinado com PRP sobre a osteogênese, comparando os resultados com PRP utilizado isoladamente. MÉTODOS: Foi confeccionado defeito bilateral no fêmur de ratos e preenchido com um dos dois tipos de tratamentos (PRP ou α-TCP+PRP, sendo avaliado em quatro e oito semanas. As imagens radiográficas forneceram valores da área da lesão, e a histologia (coloração Picrosirius indicou a área de neoformação óssea. RESULTADOS: As médias referentes à área de lesão do grupo α-TCP+PRP (2,64mm² ± 2,07 e 1,91mm² ± 0,93; quatro e oito semanas, respectivamente demonstraram numericamente melhores resultados, porém não significativos (p > 0,05, em comparação com aqueles observados no grupo PRP (5,59mm² ± 2,69 e 3,23mm² ± 1,46; quatro e oito semanas, respectivamente. As médias de neoformação óssea foram de 62,7% ± 12,1% e 79,01% ± 6,25 no grupo PRP, e 73,3% ± 12,7 e 85,86% ± 10,45 no grupo α-TCP+PRP, em quatro e oito semanas, respectivamente (p > 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados deste estudo sugerem que o tratamento com cimento α-TCP combinado com PRP não demonstra diferença significativa quando comparado ao PRP isolado. Entretanto, há um possível efeito precoce sobre a regeneração óssea quando os dois biomateriais são aplicados em conjunto.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP cement combined with platelet-rich plasma (PRP on osteogenesis, and to compare the results with use of PRP alone. METHODS: A bilateral defect was produced in rat femurs and was filled with one of two types of treatments (PRP or α-TCP + PRP. The outcomes were evaluated after four and eight weeks. Radiographic images provided values for the lesion area, and histology (picrosirius staining indicated the area of ​​new bone formation. RESULTS: The means relating to the lesion area of the α-TCP + PRP group (2.64 ± 2.07 and 1.91 ± 0.93 mm², after four and eight weeks

  7. Induced prion protein controls immune-activated retroviruses in the mouse spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Lötscher

    Full Text Available The prion protein (PrP is crucially involved in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE, but neither its exact role in disease nor its physiological function are known. Here we show for mice, using histological, immunochemical and PCR-based methods, that stimulation of innate resistance was followed by appearance of numerous endogenous retroviruses and ensuing PrP up-regulation in germinal centers of the spleen. Subsequently, the activated retroviruses disappeared in a PrP-dependent manner. Our results reveal the regular involvement of endogenous retroviruses in murine immune responses and provide evidence for an essential function of PrP in the control of the retroviral activity. The interaction between PrP and ubiquitous endogenous retroviruses may allow new interpretations of TSE pathophysiology and explain the evolutionary conservation of PrP.

  8. Why not “just for the money”? An experimental vignette study of the cognitive price effects and crowding effects of performance-related pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Jensen, Lars Engelbrecht

    2017-01-01

    Motivation crowding theory (MCT) argues that performance-related pay (PRP) can crowd out intrinsic motivation with detrimental consequences for the employees’ willingness to exert effort, but this mechanism is only expected, when PRP is perceived to be controlling. However, no studies have tested......-controlling, the importance of intrinsic motivation can actually increase. The implications of this study are that PRP is not necessarily harmful, and that managers should pay close attention to how their employees perceive performance-based pay systems.......Motivation crowding theory (MCT) argues that performance-related pay (PRP) can crowd out intrinsic motivation with detrimental consequences for the employees’ willingness to exert effort, but this mechanism is only expected, when PRP is perceived to be controlling. However, no studies have tested...

  9. Detection of prion seeding activity in the olfactory mucosa of patients with Fatal Familial Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaelli, Veronica; Bistaffa, Edoardo; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Salzano, Giulia; Sacchetto, Luca; Rossi, Martina; De Luca, Chiara Maria Giulia; Di Bari, Michele; Portaleone, Sara Maria; Agrimi, Umberto; Legname, Giuseppe; Roiter, Ignazio; Forloni, Gianluigi; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Moda, Fabio

    2017-04-07

    Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI) is a genetic prion disease caused by a point mutation in the prion protein gene (PRNP) characterized by prominent thalamic atrophy, diffuse astrogliosis and moderate deposition of PrP Sc in the brain. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that the olfactory mucosa (OM) of patients with FFI contains trace amount of PrP Sc detectable by PMCA and RT-QuIC. Quantitative PMCA analysis estimated a PrP Sc concentration of about 1 × 10 -14  g/ml. In contrast, PrP Sc was not detected in OM samples from healthy controls and patients affected by other neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia. These results indicate that the detection limit of these assays is in the order of a single PrP Sc oligomer/molecule with a specificity of 100%.

  10. The Prion Concept and Synthetic Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legname, Giuseppe; Moda, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by unconventional infectious agents, known as prions (PrP Sc ). Prions derive from a conformational conversion of the normally folded prion protein (PrP C ), which acquires pathological and infectious features. Moreover, PrP Sc is able to transmit the pathological conformation to PrP C through a mechanism that is still not well understood. The generation of synthetic prions, which behave like natural prions, is of fundamental importance to study the process of PrP C conversion and to assess the efficacy of therapeutic strategies to interfere with this process. Moreover, the ability of synthetic prions to induce pathology in animals confirms that the pathological properties of the prion strains are all enciphered in abnormal conformations, characterizing these infectious agents. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical Applications of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Patellar Tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. U. Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP, a blood derivative with high concentrations of platelets, has been found to have high levels of autologous growth factors (GFs, such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, fibroblastic growth factor (FGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and epidermal growth factor (EGF. These GFs and other biological active proteins of PRP can promote tissue healing through the regulation of fibrosis and angiogenesis. Moreover, PRP is considered to be safe due to its autologous nature and long-term usage without any reported major complications. Therefore, PRP therapy could be an option in treating overused tendon damage such as chronic tendinopathy. Here, we present a systematic review highlighting the clinical effectiveness of PRP injection therapy in patellar tendinopathy, which is a major cause of athletes to retire from their respective careers.

  12. Muscle and tendon injuries: the role of biological interventions to promote and assist healing and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andia, Isabel; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-05-01

    To summarize clinical studies after platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy for tendinopathy, plantar fasciopathy, and muscle injuries; to review PRP formulations used across studies; and to identify knowledge deficits that require further investigation. After a systematic review in PubMed, we identified clinical studies assessing PRP efficacy in tendon and muscle during the past decade. We standardized data extraction by grouping studies based on anatomic location; summarized patient populations, PRP formulations, and clinical outcomes; and identified knowledge deficits that require further investigation. Overall, 1,541 patients had been treated with PRP in 58 clinical studies; of these, 26 addressed upper limb tendinopathies and 32 addressed the lower limb (810 patients and 731 patients treated with PRP, respectively). The quality of research is higher for the upper limb than for the lower limb (23 controlled studies, of which 17 are Level I, v 19 controlled studies, of which 6 are Level I, respectively). Patients have been treated mostly with leukocyte-platelet-rich plasma, except in the arthroscopic management of the rotator cuff. The safety and efficacy of PRP for muscle injuries has been addressed in 7 studies including 182 patients. Differences across results are mainly attributed to dissimilarities between tissues and different stages of degeneration, numbers of PRP applications, and protocols. Given the heterogeneity in tendons and tendinopathies, currently, we are not able to decide whether PRP therapies are useful. Despite advances in PRP science, data are insufficient and there is a clear need to optimize protocols and obtain more high-quality clinical data in both tendinopathies and muscle injuries before making treatment recommendations. Level IV, systematic review of Level I through IV studies. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Outcome of intra-operative injected platelet-rich plasma therapy during follicular unit extraction hair transplant: A prospective randomised study in forty patients

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    Suruchi Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP therapy is finding importance in aesthetic medicine. Aim: The objective of this study was to study efficacy of PRP therapy in follicular unit extraction (FUE hair transplant. Materials and Methods: It is a single-blind, prospective randomised study on 40 FUE hair transplant subjects, allocated in two groups (PRP and non-PRP alternately. PRP was injected intra-operatively immediately after creating slits over the recipient area in PRP group; and normal saline in non-PRP group. Two groups were evaluated at 2, 4 and 8 weeks, 3 and 6 months of the procedure. Statistical Analysis: It was done using Chi-square test and test of significance was set as P 75% hair regrowth at 6 months, density of >75% grafts was noticed in 12 patients at 4 weeks meaning reduced fall of transplanted hair during catagen phase. New hair growth started at 8 weeks in 16 patients and redness over recipient area completely disappeared in 19 patients at 3 months of surgery and activity in dormant follicles as fine thread like hair was noticed besides the thick transplanted hair in all subjects. In non-PRP group, four patients had >75% hair regrowth at 6 months; none showed >75% graft density at 4 weeks, and 13 subjects showed dormant follicle activity at 4 months. The number of patients having lengthier hairs was significantly more in PRP group. Conclusion: Intra-operative PRP therapy is beneficial in giving faster density, reducing the catagen loss of transplanted hair, recovering the skin faster and activating dormant follicles in FUE transplant subjects.

  14. Gait Changes Vary Among Horses with Naturally Occurring Osteoarthritis Following Intra-articular Administration of Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustajab Hussain Mirza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms to reduce lameness associated with osteoarthritis (OA are vital to equine health and performance. This study was designed to quantify response to autologous, intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP in horses with OA. Kinetic gait analysis was performed on 12 horses with unilateral forelimb lameness and OA in the same limb before and after intra-articular anesthesia (IAA. Radiographs and kinetic data were obtained before, 6 and 16 weeks after PRP administration to same joint 4 weeks after IAA. Statistical evaluations included filtration effect on platelet concentration, relationship between kinetic variable changes after IAA versus PRP in the affected limb, and associations between response to PRP and response to IAA, platelet concentration and radiographic OA. A positive response to IAA or PRP was defined as ≥5% improvement in peak vertical force, vertical impulse or breaking impulse of the affected limb. Out of 10 horses that responded to IAA, 4 responded to PRP at both time points and 2 responded at one. Of 2 horses that did not respond to IAA, one responded to PRP at both time points. Filtration increased platelet concentration significantly. The relationship between kinetic variable alterations of the affected limb after IAA and PRP was not significant, and response to PRP was not associated with response to IAA, platelet concentration or radiographic OA. Changes in kinetic variables following IAA in joints with naturally occurring OA provide a custom standard to assess intra-articular therapy. Kinetic gait changes after intra-articular PRP are variable in horses with moderate to severe forelimb OA.

  15. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma synergistically ameliorate the surgical-induced osteoarthritis in Beagle dogs.

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    Yun, Sungho; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Kwon, Young-Sam

    2016-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) as the fundamental treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Twenty four Beagle dogs were used as cranial cruciate ligament transection models. The dogs were divided into four groups (n = 6) according to the intra-articular injection materials: the control group with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), the PRP group with PRP, the MSC group with MSCs emerged in PBS, and the MSC and PRP co-treatment (MP) group with MSCs and PRP. Lameness score, focal compression strength, articular extracellular matrix (ECM) compositions, histopathology, and real-time PCR were used to evaluate the effects of PRP and MSCs on canine OA. In the order of MP, PRP, and MSC group, these all showed positive effects on the evaluated categories. The lameness scores were lower, and the focal compression strengths of the affected femoral articular surface cartilages were higher than those in the OA control group. Also, the inflammatory changes, when evaluated with Mankin scoring and histomorphologic examination, were significantly ameliorated with the treatment of PRP and/or MSCs. The glycosaminoglycan and collagen composition of extracellular matrix was more favorable in the test groups. The ECM-related genes significantly increased through the up-regulation, while the protein expressions of inflammatory cytokines were decreased through the inhibitory effects of PRP and MSCs on chondrocyte apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, this study suggests that PRP and MSCs treatments have a beneficial effect on OA via the stimulation of ECM synthesis and chondrocyte proliferation and via the inhibition of inflammatory reaction.

  16. Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Tissue Expansion in Rabbits.

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    Jinming, Wang; Caiyue, Liu; Baojin, Wu; Antang, Liu; Yingfan, Zhang; Hui, Wang; Lie, Zhu; Hua, Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Tissue expansion has been widely applied in clinic practice. However, the expanded skin is always insufficient for clinical use and how to promote tissue expansion is still a challenge. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains multiple tissue growth factors and has been widely utilized in hard- and soft-tissue augmentation. However, its feasibility to promote tissue expansion has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of PRP in tissue expansion. Tissue expanders were implanted in the dorsal sides of rabbit ears, and the left and right side were for the PRP group and the control group randomly. The PRP group was injected with 1.0 mL of autologous PRP in the expansion skin and the control group with the same volume of saline solution. The expanders were inflated regularly by injecting saline solution under the same pressure. After the inflation phase, the expansion skin was harvested and the inflation volume, gross specimen, and histological characteristics were assayed and evaluated. The mean inflation volume of the PRP group was significantly higher than that of the control (p < 0.05). H&E staining of expanded skin sections showed more epidermal cell layers and thicker skin in the PRP group than that in the control group. There were significantly more capillaries in the expanded skin in the PRP group than those from the control group by IHC staining with its marker anti-CD31. A higher level of mRNA expression of VEGF was observed in the PRP group by real-time PCR. The present study suggests that PRP plays a pivotal role in tissue expansion and skin proliferation. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors. www.springer.com/00266 .

  17. Protective Nature of Platelet-Rich Plasma Against Chondrocyte Death When Combined With Corticosteroids or Local Anesthetics.

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    Durant, Thomas J S; Dwyer, Corey R; McCarthy, Mary Beth R; Cote, Mark P; Bradley, James P; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2017-01-01

    The use of corticosteroids and local anesthetics to treat osteoarthritis has established benefits, including relief of pain and increased range of motion, but may also have the potential to lead to tissue atrophy or degeneration, specifically on chondrocytes. There is growing evidence that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has anti-inflammatory characteristics that can limit the cytotoxic effects of corticosteroids and local anesthetics. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of PRP in chondrocyte cultures when combined with corticosteroids or local anesthetics. The hypothesis of this study was that PRP would (1) dampen the negative effects on chondrocyte viability and (2) improve chondrocyte proliferation seen with corticosteroid or local anesthetic treatment alone. Controlled laboratory study. Peripheral blood was obtained from 8 healthy participants, followed by centrifugation to obtain PRP. Human chondrocytes were treated with PRP alone or in combination with corticosteroids or local anesthetics. Saline (concentration of 0.9%) served as the control. Luminescence and radioactive thymidine assays were performed to examine chondrocyte viability and proliferation, respectively. Cell exposures of 0, 5, 10, and 30 minutes were used for viability and 120 hours for proliferation. The presence of PRP significantly limited the negative effect on chondrocyte viability at tested time points for the examined corticosteroids and local anesthetics ( P < .05). PRP in addition to corticosteroids and local anesthetics significantly improved chondrocyte proliferation ( P < .05). The addition of PRP can significantly reduce the cytotoxic effects of corticosteroids and/or local anesthetics applied to chondrocytes. PRP can improve the proliferation of chondrocytes compared with corticosteroids or local anesthetics alone. With the use of corticosteroids and local anesthetics for temporary symptomatic relief and improvement of function to treat the chronic

  18. Liposomal Encapsulation for Systemic Delivery of Propranolol via Transdermal Iontophoresis Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Ovariectomized Rats.

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    Teong, Benjamin; Kuo, Shyh Ming; Tsai, Wei-Hsin; Ho, Mei-Ling; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Huang, Han Hsiang

    2017-04-13

    The stimulatory effects of liposomal propranolol (PRP) on proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblastic cells suggested that the prepared liposomes-encapsulated PRP exerts anabolic effects on bone in vivo. Iontophoresis provides merits such as sustained release of drugs and circumvention of first pass metabolism. This study further investigated and evaluated the anti-osteoporotic effects of liposomal PRP in ovariectomized (OVX) rats via iontophoresis. Rats subjected to OVX were administered with pure or liposomal PRP via iontophoresis or subcutaneous injection twice a week for 12 weeks. Changes in the microarchitecture at the proximal tibia and the fourth lumbar spine were assessed between pure or liposomal PRP treated and non-treated groups using micro-computed tomography. Administration of liposomal PRP at low dose (0.05 mg/kg) via iontophoresis over 2-fold elevated ratio between bone volume and total tissue volume (BV/TV) in proximal tibia to 9.0% whereas treatment with liposomal PRP at low and high (0.5 mg/kg) doses via subcutaneous injection resulted in smaller increases in BV/TV. Significant improvement of BV/TV and bone mineral density (BMD) was also found in the fourth lumbar spine when low-dose liposomal PRP was iontophoretically administered. Iontophoretic low-dose liposomal PRP also elevated trabecular numbers in tibia and trabecular thickness in spine. Enhancement of bone microarchitecture volumes has highlighted that liposomal formulation with transdermal iontophoresis is promising for PRP treatment at the lower dose and with longer duration than its clinical therapeutic range and duration to exhibit optimal effects against bone loss in vivo.

  19. N-terminal helix-cap in α-helix 2 modulates β-state misfolding in rabbit and hamster prion proteins.

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    Sweeting, Braden; Brown, Eric; Khan, M Qasim; Chakrabartty, Avijit; Pai, Emil F

    2013-01-01

    Susceptibility of a particular species to prion disease is affected by small differences in the sequence of PrP and correlates with the propensity of its PrP to assume the β-state. A helix-cap motif in the β2-α2-loop of native α-helical rabbit PrP, a resistant species, contains sequence differences that influence intra- and interspecies transmission. To determine the effect the helix-cap motif on β-state refolding propensity, we mutated S170N, S174N, and S170N/S174N of the rabbit PrP helix-cap to resemble that of hamster PrP and conversely, N170S, N174S, and N170S/N174S of hamster PrP to resemble the helix-cap of rabbit PrP. High-resolution crystal structures (1.45-1.6 Å) revealed that these mutations ablate hydrogen-bonding interactions within the helix-cap motif in rabbit PrP(C). They also alter the β-state-misfolding propensity of PrP; the serine mutations in hamster PrP decrease the propensity up to 35%, whereas the asparagine mutations in rabbit PrP increase it up to 42%. Rapid dilution of rabbit and hamster into β-state buffer conditions causes quick conversion to β-state monomers. Kinetic monitoring using size-exclusion chromatography showed that the monomer population decreases exponentially mirrored by an increase in an octameric species. The monomer-octamer transition rates are faster for hamster than for rabbit PrP. The N170S/N174S mutant of hamster PrP has a smaller octamer component at the endpoint compared to the wild-type, whereas the kinetics of octamer formation in mutant and wild-type rabbit PrP are comparable. These findings demonstrate that the sequence of the β2-α2 helix-cap affects refolding to the β-state and subsequently, may influence susceptibility to prion disease.

  20. Allografts with autogenous platelet-rich plasma for tibial defect reconstruction: a rabbit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nather, Aziz; Wong, Keng Lin; David, Vikram; Pereira, Barry P

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of autogenous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for fresh-frozen allografts in tibial defect reconstruction in rabbits. 40 adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent tibial defect reconstruction with autografts (n=12), allografts without PRP (n=12), or allografts with PRP (n=12) and were observed for 12, 16, and 24 weeks (4 for each period). Tibias of the remaining 4 rabbits were used as donor allografts, and the remaining allografts were procured from recipient rabbits. A 1.5- cm cortical segment of the tibia was osteotomised, and then fixed with a 9-hole mini-compression plate and 2 cerclage wires. Allografts were stripped off the periosteum and soft tissues and medullary contents, and then stored in a freezer at -80 ºC. All allografts were deep frozen for at least 4 weeks before transplantation. 7 ml of whole blood was drawn to prepare 1 ml of PRP. The PRP was then mixed with 1.0 ml of human thrombin to form a platelet gel. The PRP gel was then packed into the medullary canal of the allograft and applied on the cortical surface before tibial defect reconstruction. Rabbits were sacrificed at 12, 16, and 24 weeks. The specimens were assessed for bone union at host-graft junctions and for bone resorption, new bone formation, callus encasement, and viable osteocyte counts. There were 4 specimens in each group at each observation period. Osteoid bridging the gap at host-graft junctions was noted in all specimens in the autograft and allograft-with-PRP groups at week 12 and in the allograft-without-PRP group at week 24. Bone union in allografts without PRP was delayed. All indices for biological incorporation (resorption index, new bone formation index, callus encasement index, and viable osteocyte count) were significantly greater in the autograft than allograft-without-PRP groups, except for the resorption index at week 24, whereas the differences were not significant between the autograft and allograft-with-PRP groups. The differences between the 2