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Sample records for prozone leeds england

  1. A reliable method for avoiding false negative results with Luminex single antigen beads; evidence of the prozone effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, B Sean; Boswijk, Kim; Mabrok, Mazen; Rowe, Peter A; Connor, Andrew; Saif, Imran; Poles, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    Luminex single antigen bead (SAB) assays have become an essential tool in monitoring the status of antibody to the Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) of patients both before and after transplantation. In addition SAB data is used to aid risk stratification to assess immunological risk of humoral rejection in solid organ transplantation (CTAG/BTAG guidelines) [1]. Increasingly laboratories are reporting false negative results at high antibody titre due to a prozone effect. Here we report a case study where the prozone effect led to a false negative antibody result that could have resulted in adverse outcome. We describe a method to reliably remove the prozone effect through heat inactivation and the addition of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to the Luminex wash buffer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The false sero-negativity of brucella standard agglutination test: Prozone phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Binici

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to assess prozone phenomenon that is quite rare and causes false negativity in serological diagnosisof brucellosis with standard dilution titers.Materials and methods: In this study the tests of four cases that have false negative serological results were evaluated.Blood cultures were obtained from all cases while cerebrospinal fluid cultures were studied in the two cases. Standardagglutination test (SAT and Coombs test were performed to all patients.Results: SAT and Coombs test was negative in titers up to 1/640 in all cases. The SAT and Coombs tests in cerebrospinalfluid (CSF of the two cases with neurobrucellosis diagnosis were negative, as well. Since the clinical and laboratoryfindings suggested the brucellosis, the serums were restudied by diluting up to 1/10240 titer and we saw that the first3 cases became positive at a titer of 1/1280. The fourth case remained negative and therefore, we applied high dilutionCoombs test. This time the test gave a positive result at 1/10240 titer beginning from 1/2560 titer. B.melitensis wasisolated from two cases.Conclusion: SAT and Coombs’ test must be diluted to titers 1/2560 or more in order to exclude false sero-negativity incases with clinical and laboratory findings suggesting brucellosis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011; 1(3:110-113

  3. The Prozone Effect Accounts for the Paradoxical Function of the Cdk-Binding Protein Suc1/Cks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Ha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that Suc1/Cks proteins can promote the hyperphosphorylation of primed Cdk1 substrates through the formation of ternary Cdk1-Cks-phosphosubstrate complexes. This raises the possibility that Cks proteins might be able to both facilitate and interfere with hyperphosphorylation through a mechanism analogous to the prozone effect in antigen-antibody interactions, with substoichiometric Cks promoting the formation of Cdk1-Cks-phosphosubstrate complexes and suprastoichiometric Cks instead promoting the formation of Cdk1-Cks and Cks-phosphosubstrate complexes. We tested this hypothesis through a combination of theory, proof-of-principle experiments with oligonucleotide annealing, and experiments on the interaction of Xenopus cyclin B1-Cdk1-Cks2 with Wee1A in vitro and in Xenopus extracts. Our findings help explain why both Cks under-expression and overexpression interfere with cell-cycle progression and provide insight into the regulation of the Cdk1 system.

  4. Federal Participation in LEED in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Christopher; Dyer, Beverly

    2005-11-01

    The federal government is an active participant in promotingsustainable design, construction and operations and in the use of USGBC'sLeadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green BuildingRating System. This paper presents an overview of sustainableconstruction activities in the federal sector in 2005.

  5. LEED Credit Review System and Optimization Model for Pursuing LEED Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ouk Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating sustainability in construction can result in desirable building attributes and project life cycle. The Leadership in Engineering and Environmental Design (LEED® Rating System helps project teams make the right green building decisions for their projects through a process. However, in current practice, project teams do not have a systematic procedure or tool for choosing the LEED credits appropriate for a particular project. The researchers have developed a tool, which support the LEED integrative process during a charrette, and developed an optimization model that can be utilized to assist project teams determine which credits to pursue for LEED certification, taking into account potential benefits associated with any LEED credit. The tool enables owners to incorporate sustainability in construction by helping the project teams make the right green building decisions for their projects through an integrated procedure.

  6. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project: An open-label pragmatic randomised control trial comparing the efficacy of differing therapeutic agents for primary care detoxification from either street heroin or methadone [ISRCTN07752728

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheard Laura

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heroin is a synthetic opioid with an extensive illicit market leading to large numbers of people becoming addicted. Heroin users often present to community treatment services requesting detoxification and in the UK various agents are used to control symptoms of withdrawal. Dissatisfaction with methadone detoxification 8 has lead to the use of clonidine, lofexidine, buprenorphine and dihydrocodeine; however, there remains limited evaluative research. In Leeds, a city of 700,000 people in the North of England, dihydrocodeine is the detoxification agent of choice. Sublingual buprenorphine, however, is being introduced. The comparative value of these two drugs for helping people successfully and comfortably withdraw from heroin has never been compared in a randomised trial. Additionally, there is a paucity of research evaluating interventions among drug users in the primary care setting. This study seeks to address this by randomising drug users presenting in primary care to receive either dihydrocodeine or buprenorphine. Methods/design The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project is a pragmatic randomised trial which will compare the open use of buprenorphine with dihydrocodeine for illicit opiate detoxification, in the UK primary care setting. The LEEDS project will involve consenting adults and will be run in specialist general practice surgeries throughout Leeds. The primary outcome will be the results of a urine opiate screening at the end of the detoxification regimen. Adverse effects and limited data to three and six months will be acquired.

  7. REPORTAGE\\ud Editorial Photo spread: Brexit : et au milieu coule l’Angleterre in Libération (France) Photographs © Garry Clarkson with journalist Guillaume Gendron, Envoyé spécial à Leeds et à Follifoot — 17 May 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Clarkson, Garry; Gendron, Guillaume; Libération Newspaper

    2016-01-01

    Libération (the one founded in Paris by Jean-Paul Sartre and Serge July in 1973) visit to North Yorkshire and Leeds concerning the Brexit European Referendum debate. \\ud \\ud Photographs © Garry Clarkson: Leeds Councillors, Dan Cohen and Neil Buckly, Slaughterhouse worker, Steve Hanson and environment around Follifoot village Yorkshire to show quintessential 'middle England'\\ud \\ud http://www.liberation.fr/planete/2016/05/17/brexit-et-au-milieu-coule-l-angleterre_1453266

  8. The expanding variety of building types for LEED certification is continuously; Die wachsende Bandbreite der Gebaeudetypen fuer LEED-Zertifizierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Jochen; Biernat, Torsten [Ebert and Baumann Consulting Engineers, Inc, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    In Europe and Germany, LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), developed by the USGBC (US Green Building Council), plays a major role in Green Building certifications. Although the system LEED-NC for new construction and major renovations is commonly known and mostly used, 9 additional LEED certification systems are either available or currently in development. Besides others, those systems allow the certification of existing buildings and account for buildings with specific requirements, such as hospitals, schools or retail. [German] Im Bereich der Nachhaltigkeitszertifizierungen von Gebaeuden ist das vom USGBC (US Green Building Council) entwickelte LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) in Europa und Deutschland ein fester Begriff[1]. Waehrend inzwischen das System LEED-NC, also fuer Neubauten und Generalsanierungen, sehr bekannt ist und am haeufigsten angewandt wird, sind neun weitere LEED-Zertifizierungssysteme entweder auf dem Markt oder in Entwicklung. Diese ermoeglichen es u. a. auch, bestehende Gebaeude zu zertifizieren und auf die Anforderungen spezieller Gebaeudenutzungen, wie Krankenhaus, Schule oder Einzelhandel, einzugehen. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Designing healthy communities: A walkability analysis of LEED-ND

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    Adriana A. Zuniga-Teran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prevailing city design in many countries has created sedentary societies that depend on automobile use. Consequently, architects, urban designers, and land planners have developed new urban design theories, which have been incorporated into the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Development (LEED-ND certification system. The LEED-ND includes design elements that improve human well-being by facilitating walking and biking, a concept known as walkability. Despite these positive developments, relevant research findings from other fields of study have not been fully integrated into the LEED-ND. According to Zuniga-Teran (2015, relevant walkability research findings from multiple disciplines were organized into a walkability framework (WF that organizes design elements related to physical activity into nine categories, namely, connectivity, land use, density, traffic safety, surveillance, parking, experience, greenspace, and community. In this study, we analyze walkability in the LEED-ND through the lens of the nine WF categories. Through quantitative and qualitative analyses, we identify gaps and strengths in the LEED-ND and propose potential enhancements to this certification system that reflects what is known about enhancing walkability more comprehensively through neighborhood design analysis. This work seeks to facilitate the translation of research into practice, which can ultimately lead to more active and healthier societies.

  10. Translanguaging business: Unpredictability and precarity in superdiverse inner city Leeds

    OpenAIRE

    Baynham, M; Bradley, J.; Callaghan, J.; Hanusova, J; Simpson, J

    2015-01-01

    The Leeds business case study focuses on Klára, a Czech-speaking community interpreter and her work with advocates providing interpreting services on an hourly-paid basis for a number of organizations. Klára’s business is her interpreting work with advocates who are primarily concerned with assisting Czech and Slovak Roma migrants in Leeds with the problems they face with life in a new country, principally the complex business of claiming benefits. Our work with Klára allows an insight into t...

  11. Automated fenestration allocation as complying with LEED rating system

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    Hazem Mohamed Talaat El Daly

    2014-12-01

    The allocation of windows, through the help of certain well known heuristic algorithms and simulation programs, could be reached automatically to compromise with the LEED rating system by achieving the required daylight amounts with a minimum solar radiation inside a particular building. This research shows a design method based on simulation techniques with the help of heuristic algorithms through a parametric design that automatically allocate windows to comply with LEED. At the end of the research, a small project is discussed for evaluating the design process.

  12. Performance or marketing benefits? The case of LEED certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoff, Daniel C; Noonan, Douglas S; Mazzolini, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Green building adoption is driven by both performance-based benefits and marketing based benefits. Performance based benefits are those that improve performance or lower operating costs of the building or of building users. Marketing benefits stem from the consumer response to green certification. This study illustrates the relative importance of the marketing based benefits that accrue to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) buildings due to green signaling mechanisms, specifically related to the certification itself are identified. Of course, all participants in the LEED certification scheme seek marketing benefits. But even among LEED participants, the interest in green signaling is pronounced. The green signaling mechanism that occurs at the certification thresholds shifts building patterns from just below to just above the threshold level, and motivates builders to cluster buildings just above each threshold. Results are consistent across subsamples, though nonprofit organizations appear to build greener buildings and engage in more green signaling than for-profit entities. Using nonparametric regression discontinuity, signaling across different building types is observed. Marketing benefits due to LEED certification drives organizations to build "greener" buildings by upgrading buildings at the thresholds to reach certification levels.

  13. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Leeds Assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sabri Garoushi

    2017-10-03

    Oct 3, 2017 ... from diverse ethno-cultural backgrounds [1]. Tools used to screen for the presence of neuropathic pain have been developed in English, French and German for use in European countries and the USA, and include the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic. Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) [2], the self-reported.

  14. Novel genetic algorithm search procedure for LEED surface structure determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, M L; dos Reis, D D; Soares, E A; Van Hove, M A; Moritz, W; de Carvalho, V E

    2014-06-04

    Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) is one of the most powerful experimental techniques for surface structure analysis but until now only a trial-and-error approach has been successful. So far, fitting procedures developed to optimize structural and nonstructural parameters-by minimization of the R-factor-have had a fairly small convergence radius, suitable only for local optimization. However, the identification of the global minimum among the several local minima is essential for complex surface structures. Global optimization methods have been applied to LEED structure determination, but they still require starting from structures that are relatively close to the correct one, in order to find the final structure. For complex systems, the number of trial structures and the resulting computation time increase so rapidly that the task of finding the correct model becomes impractical using the present methodologies. In this work we propose a new search method, based on Genetic Algorithms, which is able to determine the correct structural model starting from completely random structures. This method-called here NGA-LEED for Novel Genetic Algorithm for LEED-utilizes bond lengths and symmetry criteria to select reasonable trial structures before performing LEED calculations. This allows a reduction of the parameter space and, consequently of the calculation time, by several orders of magnitude. A refinement of the parameters by least squares fit of simulated annealing is performed only at some intermediate stages and in the final step. The method was successfully tested for two systems, Ag(1 1 1)(4 × 4)-O and Au(1 1 0)-(1 × 2), both in theory versus theory and in theory versus experiment comparisons. Details of the implementation as well as the results for these two systems are presented.

  15. Critical review of LEED system for rating sustainability of architecture of commercial interiors

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    Stevanović Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The LEED rating system for sustainability of architecture has gained large marketing potential in USA and became one of main ways American builders are attacking ecological challenges. In this paper the LEED rating system for commercial interiors is critically reviewed, pointing out its positive - focus on integrated design process - and negative impacts - low thresholds for highest ratings and tendency to gain LEED rating with projects that hardly pass the thresholds, largely neglecting the principles of energy efficiency. Based on a few prominent LEED platinum examples, the beginnings of a LEED style of designing interiors in historical landmark buildings are pointed out as well.

  16. 77 FR 40318 - Availability of Addendum to Documentation Supporting the Proposal of the Leeds Metal Site to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... the Leeds Metal Site to the National Priorities List AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION... EPA's revised Hazard Ranking System (HRS) scoring for the Leeds Metal site in Leeds, Maine. The site...: Site Scoring Information The Leeds Metal HRS site score at the time of proposal to the National...

  17. Achieving LEED credit for ergonomics: Laying the foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mallory

    2014-01-01

    Despite guidance from the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) on the requirements for earning a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) ergonomics credit in the Innovation in Design and Innovation in Operations category, few projects have received the credit. The University of California, Berkeley ergonomics program, Ergonomics@Work, has aligned the ergonomics strategy to those of the USGBC and LEED to achieve the ergonomics credit in several new buildings. This article describes the steps needed to obtain the credit and highlights the opportunities it creates to partner with the project team to promote ergonomics. As a profession it is up to ergonomists to create the road map that incorporates ergonomics into the green building design.

  18. A value-for-money solution in Leeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, M. [United Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-01

    A contract energy services scheme is described which supplies all the electric power, heating and chilling needs of the United Leeds Hospital and the University of Leeds campus. In order to meet current needs, a major expansion of capacity and reconfiguration of an existing GSC built as a joint venture between Leeds General Infirmary and the University in the 1970s was required. The estimated capital investment for the project was Pound 6.5 M. The decision to develop the project as an energy services scheme was taken in view of the technical complexity requiring project management and engineering skills not available either in the Hospital or the University. It has been successfully implemented and is meeting expectations in terms both of delivery of service and savings. The Hospital and University have avoided the need to obtain and invest capital themselves, the combination of more energy efficient equipment and better use of existing capacity have reduced revenue costs and management time has been reduced. Over the lifetime of the 20-year contract, savings of Pound 700,000 per annum on average are expected. (UK)

  19. A Study on the LEED Energy Simulation Process Using BIM

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    Han-Soo Ryu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the domestic and international environmentally friendly certification system, energy-related credit occupies a high ratio in the total distribution of certification score Leadership in the Energy and Environmental Design (LEED system is a certification system developed by the US Green Building Council (USGBC in order to assess the environmental friendliness of buildings. The energy-related credit is approximately 30% of the total and also the energy simulation ratio specifically is the highest among the single credits as it is 20%. In this research, the energy simulation process using Building Information Modeling (BIM based on the energy simulation case performed at the A-Tower, LEED certification was proposed. It places an emphasis on the verification process which was short in the previous research. The architectural geometry modeled through the BIM tool is converted to the gbXML, and in this process the geometry is verified through the interference check functions, the gbXML Viewer and the FZKViewer. The energy simulation is performed after the verification procedure. The geometry verification process in the A-Tower project is presented throughout this paper. In conclusion, an improved process is proposed for the productivity and reliability of energy simulation.

  20. John Pendry: His Contributions to the Development of LEED Surface Crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Rous, P.J.

    2007-10-15

    In this paper we discuss the pivotal role played by Sir John Pendry in the development of Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) during the past three decades; the earliest understanding on the physics of LEED to the development of sophisticated methods for the structural solution of complex surfaces.

  1. Presentation of laryngeal papilloma in childhood: the Leeds experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A T; Atkinson, H; Vaughan, C; Knight, L C

    2012-02-01

    The human papilloma virus (HPV) can cause laryngeal papillomatosis in childhood. The aetiology is thought to be vertical transmission. Clinically these children are usually asymptomatic for the first 6 months of life. As the papillomas develop locally, symptoms begin to develop. The symptoms range from voice change to frank hoarseness, and 'noisy' breathing, most commonly inspiratory stridor. Clinical images from microlaryngoscopy and bronchoscopy over a 12-year period were assessed for laryngeal papilloma. In Leeds seven cases presented to the specialist centre over the past 12 years, the average age at presentation was 6.8 years and duration of onset of symptoms to specialist review was 21 months. Five of the children had been treated for asthma and two presented in extremis. The take home message for clinicians is hoarse voice associated with shortness of breath needs specialist referral. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the Cookridge area of Leeds

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, K; Judd, P M; Lowe, A J; Shaw, J

    2002-01-01

    On the 8 and 9 May 2002 representatives of the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) performed a radiofrequency electromagnetic field survey in the Cookridge area of Leeds in order to assess exposure to radio signals from transmitters mounted on a water tower/a lattice tower and a radio station tower. Guidelines on limiting exposure to radio signals have been published by NRPB and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). These guidelines are designed to prevent established adverse effects on human health. During this survey, the total exposures due to all radio signals from 30 MHz to 18000 MHz (18 GHz) were measured. This frequency range was chosen as it includes mobile phone base station transmissions, which are at around 900 and 1800 MHz and super high frequency (SHF) transmissions from most of the large microwave dish antennas mounted on the towers. In addition, other major sources of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the environment such as broadcast radio...

  3. Leed and STM Study of cs on Cu(211)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragiu, M.; Seyller, Tl.; Diehl, R. D.; Norris, A. G.; McGrath, R.; Muryn, C. A.

    A low-temperature (25 K) STM study of Cs adsorption on Cu(211) indicates that Cs forms variable-density structures which align along the step edges of the Cu(211) surface. The density of the overlayer increases with Cs coverage, forming a quasihexagonal c(2×2) structure at a coverage of 0.17. A dynamical LEED study of that structure at 130 K indicates that the Cs atoms are adsorbed on top of the Cu atoms in the center of the terraces, with a Cs-Cu nearest-neighbor distance of 3.56± 0.04 Å. This structure is accompanied by a significant rumpling of the Cu(211) surface.

  4. LEED conformity inside and outside. Headquarters of the Deutsche Boerse in LEED {sup registered} Platin; Aussen und innen LEED-konform. Zentrale der Deutschen Boerse in LEED {sup registered} Platin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloedorn, Heike

    2011-07-01

    Due to the sustainable design of building, the new corporate headquarters of the group German Stock Exchange in Frankfurt (Federal Republic of Germany) with an investment of nearly 230 million Euro has been distinguished as the first skyscraper in Germany with the LEED platinum certification (as the highest category of the U.S. Green Building Council). The design of the 21-story building was by the architects KSP Engel Juergen Architekten GmbH (Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany). The project was developed by Gross Partner and Grundstuecksentwicklungsgesellschaft mbH (Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany) and Lang and Cie. Real Estate (Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany). The innovative energy concept was realized by Lenz Weber Ingenieure (Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany) in cooperation with EB-Partner GmbH and Co. KG (Frankfurt/Nuernberg, Federal Republic) and TP Electrical Plan (Gaggenau, Federal Republic of Germany). The stringent sustainability criteria in the interior construction were accomplished by feco wood materials in the form of displaceable system partition walls and sound absorbing doors.

  5. The pursuit of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification for campus housing at public universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konvalinka, April Hicks

    This dissertation identifies the reasons why institutions of higher education pursue Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification for new construction of campus housing. The research was guided by three questions: 1. Why did the institution choose to pursue LEED certification for campus housing? 2. What considerations should be made in the design, development, and planning process of a LEED residence hall? 3. What significant impact has the LEED residence hall made on campus? The outcomes of this study will provide insight to university and housing administrators who are considering pursuit of LEED certification for new residence hall development. The primary sources of data are chief housing officers or their designees at public four-year colleges and universities with new campus housing awarded LEED certification. Qualitative research techniques were used to conduct interviews by LEED certification level: Platinum, Silver, Gold, and Certified. Data collection ended when data saturation of each question in each certification level was achieved. This dissertation offers reasons why universities pursue LEED certification: state requirement, institutional commitment, institutional standard, environmental stewardship, departmental decision, and student interest. Additionally, considerations and lessons learned from the pursuit of LEED certification have been identified and can serve as a guide to housing administrators who aim to achieve any LEED level certification.

  6. Dynamical LEED study of Pt(111)-(3×3)R30°-Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyller, Th.; Caragiu, M.; Diehl, R. D.; Kaukasoina, P.; Lindroos, M.

    1999-10-01

    Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) studies of Pt(111)-(3×3)R30°-Xe at 80 K and 110 K indicate that the Xe adsorption site is on top of the Pt atoms with a Xe-Pt distance of 3.4 Å. The substrate structure is essentially unrelaxed with respect to the bulk. These results contrast with an earlier spin-polarized LEED study which indicated that hollow sites are occupied in this structure. The low-coordination-site geometry for Xe is discussed in the context of earlier studies of Xe adsorption.

  7. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS prisons project pilot study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial comparing dihydrocodeine and buprenorphine for opiate detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton Richard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom (UK, there is an extensive market for the class 'A' drug heroin. Many heroin users spend time in prison. People addicted to heroin often require prescribed medication when attempting to cease their drug use. The most commonly used detoxification agents in UK prisons are buprenorphine, dihydrocodeine and methadone. However, national guidelines do not state a detoxification drug of choice. Indeed, there is a paucity of research evaluating the most effective treatment for opiate detoxification in prisons. This study seeks to address the paucity by evaluating routinely used interventions amongst drug using prisoners within UK prisons. Methods/Design The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS Prisons Pilot Study will use randomised controlled trial methodology to compare the open use of buprenorphine and dihydrocodeine for opiate detoxification, given in the context of routine care, within HMP Leeds. Prisoners who are eligible and give informed consent will be entered into the trial. The primary outcome measure will be abstinence status at five days post detoxification, as determined by a urine test. Secondary outcomes during the detoxification and then at one, three and six months post detoxification will be recorded.

  8. Regional Variations of Credits Obtained by LEED 2009 Certified Green Buildings—A Country Level Analysis

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    Peng Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED is one of the most widely recognized green building rating systems. With more than 20% of the projects certified in non-United States (US countries, LEED’s global impact has been increasing and it is critically important for developers and regulatory authorities to understand LEED’s performance at the country level to facilitate global implementation. This study therefore aims to investigate the credit achievement pattern of LEED 2009, which is one of the well-developed versions of LEED, by using 4021 certified projects in the US, China, Turkey, and Brazil. The results show that significant differences can be identified on most rating categories, including sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, indoor environmental quality, and innovation in design. Using a post hoc analysis, country-specific credit allocation patterns are also identified to help developers to understand existing country-specific green building practices. In addition, it is also found that there is unbalanced achievement of regional priority credits. The study offers a useful reference and benchmark for international developers and contractors to understand the regional variations of LEED 2009 and for regulatory authorities, such as the U.S. Green Building Council, to improve the rating system, especially on designing regional priority credits.

  9. Evaluation of the Work-Place Cooperative Project in Geography Degrees at the University of Leeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, James

    1998-01-01

    Describes the context and objective of a Work-Place Cooperative Project (WPCP) established in the School of Geography at the University of Leeds in 1995. The project presents students with business, commerce, industry, and environmental research issues that have geographical dimensions. Includes a number of examples from the WPCP. (MJP)

  10. Transatlantic Dialogue: A Research Exchange; Papers from a Joint Conference (Leeds, England, July 11-13, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukas, Miriam, Ed.

    Over 90 papers focus on adult education research. Selected titles include "Karl Marx's Theoretical Contributions to Radical Adult Education" (Allman, Wallis); "Educating Educators" (Armstrong); "Comparative Study of Philosophical Foundations of Adult Education in China and United States" (Bao); "Ethical Value Dilemmas of Professional Adult…

  11. Inverse photoemission and LEED investigation of the ion-bombarded Ni(110) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Benjamin; Warner, Jim; Heskett, David

    2012-02-01

    Ion bombardment of the clean Ni(110) surface is investigated by a combination of Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy (IPES) with a Geiger-Muller detector and Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) with a homebuilt video capture system. Disorder of the surface is induced by argon ion bombardment with various combinations of argon pressure and sputtering time. The intensity of the unoccupied surface state at ˜ 2eV above the Fermi level at the =Y point of the surface Brillouin zone decreases with increasing surface bombardment. Simultaneously, intensity profiles of diffraction spots in LEED exhibit broadening and a rising background level for increasing surface disorder. Multiple attempts at correlation between the results of the two techniques are presented.

  12. LEED and AES characterization of the GaAs(110)-ZnSe interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, D.-W.; Kahn, A.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a study is conducted of the composition and structure of epitaxial ZnSe films grown by congruent evaporation on GaAs(110) at a rate of 2 A/min. It is found that the films grown on 300 C GaAs are nearly stoichiometric and form an abrupt interface with the substrate. Films grown at higher temperature (T greater than 350-400 C) are Se rich. The crystallinity of films grown at 300 C is good and their surface atomic geometry is identical to that of a ZnSe crystal. The GaAs-ZnSe interface geometry seems to be dominated by the Se-substrate bonds. The adsorption of Se, during the formation of very thin ZnSe films (2-3 A), produces a (1 x 2) LEED pattern and modifications of the LEED I-V profiles, which probably indicate a change in the substrate atomic relaxation.

  13. Dynamical LEED study of Pd(111)-((3)×(3))R30°-Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragiu, M.; Seyller, Th.; Diehl, R. D.

    2002-11-01

    A low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) study of Pd(111)-((3)×(3))R30°-Xe at 77 K indicates that the Xe adsorption site is on top of the Pd atoms. The Xe-Pd bond length is 3.07 Å+/-0.06 Å. The substrate structure is essentially unrelaxed from the bulk structure. These results contrast with an earlier spin-polarized LEED study, which indicated that hollow sites are occupied in this structure. The low-coordination-site geometry for Xe on Pd(111) is discussed in the context of earlier experimental studies and recent density functional theory results for Xe adsorption on metal surfaces.

  14. Assessment of Energy Credits in LEED-Certified Buildings Based on Certification Levels and Project Ownerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Pelin Gurgun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared to other categories, the Energy and Atmosphere category contributes the most to the maximum obtainable points in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED certification system. The objective of the study was to identify the extent to which project teams take advantage of the credits in the Energy and Atmosphere category of LEED. This study analyzes the performance of practitioners in achieving points in the Energy and Atmosphere credits of LEED-New Construction (NC 2009 for 1500 buildings that received LEED certification in the US. For a better understanding of the credit patterns, the differences in the performance of practitioners are investigated relative to certification levels and project ownership. Achievement in credits is calculated in terms of percent of maximum points (PMP, since the maximum achievable points differ for each credit. Practitioners’ achievements in the credits were ranked as follows: (1 enhanced commissioning, (2 optimized energy performance, (3 enhanced refrigerant management, (4 green power, (5 measurement and verification, and (6 on-site renewable energy. The largest achievement differences were observed in the on-site renewable energy credit. Concerning building ownership, investors were found to optimize mostly energy efficiency and on-site renewable energy, but to mostly skip enhanced refrigerant management. Performance in the measurement and verification credit was similar for all owner types, whereas investors performed differently from corporations, and government agencies in the enhanced commissioning credit. Practitioners who recognize these priorities and differences are expected to be better positioned to make sustainability-related decisions in building design and construction.

  15. Dilemma of green and pseudo green architecture based on LEED norms in case of developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieving sustainable and eco-friendly architecture is one of the main objectives that humans for creating a better life have made as the ultimate model for all their professional activities. For this reason, moving towards a greener architecture is considered the main goal of the contemporary architecture of our time. The goal of this study is to analyse architectural projects that have been already performed in the Middle East countries in terms of their compatibility with actual concepts of sustainability and their required green criteria. Therefore, for the sake of review and study, this paper is intended to discover up to what level the sustainability rating system such as LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design can be effective in rating contemporary architectural projects. Studies indicate three concepts for analysing contemporary architecture and have found to be descriptive: (1 green, (2 pseudo green and (3 energy-monger. The studies have also shown that some of the projects, although trying to display sustainable architecture concepts in appearance, in reality they turned out not to be sustainable enough. In latter steps, this paper intends to evaluate and examine the effectiveness of the LEED rating system. In evaluating LEED rating system, the results inferred indicate that the system is intended more for programming than actual designing purposes and is not an efficient instrument for analysing architectural design process. Analysis based on this study suggests that, for moving from pseudo green to green architecture, it is necessary to use design-oriented patterns.

  16. The association between the geography of fast food outlets and childhood obesity rates in Leeds, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lorna K; Edwards, Kimberley L

    2010-11-01

    To analyse the association between childhood overweight and obesity and the density and proximity of fast food outlets in relation to the child's residential postcode. This was an observational study using individual level height/weight data and geographic information systems methodology. Leeds in West Yorkshire, UK. This area consists of 476 lower super-output areas. Children aged 3-14 years who lived within the Leeds metropolitan boundaries (n=33,594). The number of fast food outlets per area and the distance to the nearest fast food outlet from the child's home address. The weight status of the child: overweight, obese or neither. 27.1% of the children were overweight or obese with 12.6% classified as obese. There is a significant positive correlation (pfast food outlets and higher deprivation. A higher density of fast food outlets was significantly associated (p=0.02) with the child being obese (or overweight/obese) in the generalised estimating equation model which also included sex, age and deprivation. No significant association between distance to the nearest fast food outlet and overweight or obese status was found. There is a positive relationship between the density of fast food outlets per area and the obesity status of children in Leeds. There is also a significant association between fast food outlet density and areas of higher deprivation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. LEED{sup TM} : evaluating the impact potential on passive/active solar buildings and renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boake, T.M. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). School of Architecture

    2004-08-01

    This paper described the guiding principles and rating system of LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) and its relationship with the building industry. Buildings are awarded platinum, gold, silver or certified status, based on a system of reward points. The rating system is divided into five sections: sustainable sites; water efficiency; energy and atmosphere; materials and resources; and indoor environmental quality and design process. The paper includes a chart based analysis of the 69 points used in the LEED rating system, with a particular emphasis on the relationship of passive and active solar technologies and other renewable energy systems to various LEED categories, using examples of buildings that have been rated in the past. A spreadsheet is provided diagramming the relationship between LEED and the Solar Energy Society of Canada Inc. (SESCI), along with charts providing detailed breakdowns of the relationships between the interests of SESCI and LEED categories. The paper concludes by emphasizing LEED as an effective environmental marketing tool in promoting the use of passive and active renewables. 10 figs., 11 tables, 2 refs.

  18. Walkable new urban LEED_Neighborhood-Development (LEED-ND community design and children's physical activity: selection, environmental, or catalyst effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens, Robert B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest is growing in physical activity-friendly community designs, but few tests exist of communities explicitly designed to be walkable. We test whether students living in a new urbanist community that is also a pilot LEED_ND (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design-Neighborhood Development community have greater accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA across particular time periods compared to students from other communities. We test various time/place periods to see if the data best conform to one of three explanations for MVPA. Environmental effects suggest that MVPA occurs when individuals are exposed to activity-friendly settings; selection effects suggest that walkable community residents prefer MVPA, which leads to both their choice of a walkable community and their high levels of MVPA; catalyst effects occur when walking to school creates more MVPA, beyond the school commute, on schooldays but not weekends. Methods Fifth graders (n = 187 were sampled from two schools representing three communities: (1 a walkable community, Daybreak, designed with new urbanist and LEED-ND pilot design standards; (2 a mixed community (where students lived in a less walkable community but attended the walkable school so that part of the route to school was walkable, and (3 a less walkable community. Selection threats were addressed through controlling for parental preferences for their child to walk to school as well as comparing in-school MVPA for the walkable and mixed groups. Results Minutes of MVPA were tested with 3 × 2 (Community by Gender analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs. Community walkability related to more MVPA during the half hour before and after school and, among boys only, more MVPA after school. Boys were more active than girls, except during the half hour after school. Students from the mixed and walkable communities--who attended the same school--had similar in-school MVPA levels, and

  19. AES and LEED study of the zinc blende SiC(100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, M.

    1985-01-01

    Auger and LEED measurements have been carried out on the (100) surface of zinc blende SiC. Two different phases of the clean surface, in addition to two kinds of oxygen-covered surfaces, have been obtained, identified, and discussed. In the oxygen-covered surface, the oxygen is bonded to the Si. The carbon-rich phase is reconstructed (2 x 1), similar to the (100) clean surfaces of Si, Ge, and diamond. The Si-topped surface is reconstructed. A model of alternating Si dimers is suggested for this surface.

  20. LEED crystallography studies of the structure of clean and adsorbate-covered Ir, Pt and Rh crystal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koestner, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    There have only been a few Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) intensity analyses carried out to determine the structure of molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces; most surface crystallography studies concentrated on the structure of clean unreconstructed or atomic adsorbate-covered transition metal faces. The few molecular adsorption systems already investigated by dynamical LEED are CO on Ni(100), Cu(100) and Pd(100) as well as C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ adsorbed on Pt(111). The emphasis of this thesis research has been to extend the applicability of LEED crystallography to the more complicated unit cells found in molecular overlayers on transition metals or in there constructed surfaces of clean transition metals.

  1. A study of the effects of computer animation on college students’ learning of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design - LEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Nilforooshan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ongoing research aimed at investigating the efficacy of computer animations in improving college students’ learning of building sustainability concepts and practices. The use of animations in educational contexts is not new, however scientific evidence that supports their effectiveness as educational materials is still limited. This paper reports an experiment that explored the impact of an educational digital animation, called “LEED-ERS”, on college students’ learning of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED rating system. Specifically, the animation focused on the LEED category of Sustainable Site. Results of a study with 68 students show that viewing the animation led to an increase in subjects’ declarative knowledge by 15%. Compared to traditional learning methods (e.g. reading assignments with static images, viewing the animation led to significantly higher declarative knowledge gains.

  2. Lisbon Emoji and Emoticon Database (LEED): Norms for emoji and emoticons in seven evaluative dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, David; Prada, Marília; Gaspar, Rui; Garrido, Margarida V; Lopes, Diniz

    2017-03-31

    The use of emoticons and emoji is increasingly popular across a variety of new platforms of online communication. They have also become popular as stimulus materials in scientific research. However, the assumption that emoji/emoticon users' interpretations always correspond to the developers'/researchers' intended meanings might be misleading. This article presents subjective norms of emoji and emoticons provided by everyday users. The Lisbon Emoji and Emoticon Database (LEED) comprises 238 stimuli: 85 emoticons and 153 emoji (collected from iOS, Android, Facebook, and Emojipedia). The sample included 505 Portuguese participants recruited online. Each participant evaluated a random subset of 20 stimuli for seven dimensions: aesthetic appeal, familiarity, visual complexity, concreteness, valence, arousal, and meaningfulness. Participants were additionally asked to attribute a meaning to each stimulus. The norms obtained include quantitative descriptive results (means, standard deviations, and confidence intervals) and a meaning analysis for each stimulus. We also examined the correlations between the dimensions and tested for differences between emoticons and emoji, as well as between the two major operating systems-Android and iOS. The LEED constitutes a readily available normative database (available at www.osf.io/nua4x ) with potential applications to different research domains.

  3. Structure Determination of Au on Pt(111 Surface: LEED, STM and DFT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Krupski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM and density functional theory (DFT calculations have been used to investigate the atomic and electronic structure of gold deposited (between 0.8 and 1.0 monolayer on the Pt(111 face in ultrahigh vacuum at room temperature. The analysis of LEED and STM measurements indicates two-dimensional growth of the first Au monolayer. Change of the measured surface lattice constant equal to 2.80 Å after Au adsorption was not observed. Based on DFT, the distance between the nearest atoms in the case of bare Pt(111 and Au/Pt(111 surface is equal to 2.83 Å, which gives 1% difference in comparison with STM values. The first and second interlayer spacing of the clean Pt(111 surface are expanded by +0.87% and contracted by −0.43%, respectively. The adsorption energy of the Au atom on the Pt(111 surface is dependent on the adsorption position, and there is a preference for a hollow fcc site. For the Au/Pt(111 surface, the top interlayer spacing is expanded by +2.16% with respect to the ideal bulk value. Changes in the electronic properties of the Au/Pt(111 system below the Fermi level connected to the interaction of Au atoms with Pt(111 surface are observed.

  4. Extending the range of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) surface structure determination: Co-adsorbed molecules, incommensurate overlayers and alloy surface order studied by new video and electron counting LEED techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogletree, D.F.

    1986-11-01

    LEED multiple scattering theory is briefly summarized, and aspects of electron scattering with particular significance to experimental measurements such as electron beam coherence, instrument response and phonon scattering are analyzed. Diffuse LEED experiments are discussed. New techniques that enhance the power of LEED are described, including a real-time video image digitizer applied to LEED intensity measurements, along with computer programs to generate I-V curves. The first electron counting LEED detector using a ''wedge and strip'' position sensitive anode and digital electronics is described. This instrument uses picoampere incident beam currents, and its sensitivity is limited only by statistics and counting times. Structural results on new classes of surface systems are presented. The structure of the c(4 x 2) phase of carbon monoxide adsorbed on Pt(111) has been determined, showing that carbon monoxide molecules adsorb in both top and bridge sites, 1.85 +- 0.10 A and 1.55 +- 0.10 A above the metal surface, respectively. The structure of an incommensurate graphite overlayer on Pt(111) is analyzed. The graphite layer is 3.70 +- 0.05 A above the metal surface, with intercalated carbon atoms located 1.25 +- 0.10 A above hollow sites supporting it. The (2..sqrt..3 x 4)-rectangular phase of benzene and carbon monoxide coadsorbed on Pt(111) is analyzed. Benzene molecules adsorb in bridge sites parallel to and 2.10 +- 0.10 A above the surface. The carbon ring is expanded, with an average C-C bond length of 1.72 +- 0.15 A. The carbon monoxide molecules also adsorb in bridge sites. The structure of the (..sqrt..3 x ..sqrt..3) reconstruction on the (111) face of the ..cap alpha..-CuAl alloy has been determined.

  5. The Validity and Test-Retest Reliability of the Leeds Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Scale in Turkish Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbiyik, Derya Iren; Sumbuloglu, Vildan; Guney, Zafer; Armutlu, Kadriye; Korkmaz, Nilufer; Keser, Ilke; Yuksel, Muazzez Merve; Karabudak, Rana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to translate and test the reliability and validity of the Leeds Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Scale (LMSQoL) in Turkish patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Demographic data of MS patients who had a registration in and followed up by a university hospital were recorded. The LMSQoL and Turkish Quality of Life…

  6. Uno strumento per la creazione di valore nella realizzazione di edifici sostenibili: la certificazione LEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rick Fedrizzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Il presente lavoro ha l’obiettivo di delineare gli aspetti chiave della sostenibilità in ambito edilizio focalizzando l’attenzione sul sistema di certificazione LEED® quale strumento “universale” di supporto per la realizzazione, gestione e valutazione di edifici sostenibili. Nella prima parte del lavoro si descrive la rapida diffusione della certificazione LEED nel recente passato quale diretta conseguenza della capacità di questo strumento di rating di adattarsi sia alle specifiche tipologie di edifici, sia alle diversità climatiche e morfologiche dei siti. Nella seconda parte si procede invece a presentare ed analizzare gli aspetti economico-finanziari degli edifici sostenibili con riferimento sia alle metodologie valutative applicabili, sia ai dati della letteratura. Partendo dalle esperienze internazionali in tema di sostenibilità, si procede successivamente a descrivere la situazione italiana, evidenziando la percezione del mercato e le opportunità di sviluppo future.

  7. LEED study of the potassium-induced reconstruction of Cu(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferralis, N.; Caragiu, M.; Franke, K. J.; Diehl, R. D.

    2001-05-01

    We have used low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) to determine the adsorption geometry of the ordered p(2×2) potassium overlayer on the (potassium-induced) (1×2) missing-row reconstruction of Cu(110) at 47 K. The K adsorption site in this ordered structure is substitutional, whereby the K atoms occupy half of the Cu sites which are vacated in the missing-row reconstruction. The distance between the K atom and its nearest neighbours (in the second Cu layer) is 3.24+/-0.05 Å. We observed very little, if any, lateral displacement of the second-layer Cu atoms, but a significant buckling in the third layer. The effect of this buckling is to pull the rows of third-layer Cu atoms which are directly beneath the K rows toward the surface, thus increasing the effective coordination of the K atoms.

  8. A value creation tool in the sustainable building field: the LEED certification®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rick Fedrizzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to outline the key aspects of sustainability in the built environment by focusing attention on the LEED® certification system as a “universal” instrument to support the implementation, management and evaluation of sustainable buildings. The first part of the paper describes the rapid spread of the LEED certification in recent years as a direct consequence of the capacity of this instrument rating to adapt to specific types of buildings as well as to different climatic conditions and morphological features of the sites. The second part presents and analyzes the economic and financial aspects of sustainable buildings. Starting from international experiences in the field of sustainability, the present world then proceeds to describe the current Italian condition, highlighting market perceptions and opportunities for future development.

  9. Flower Bulb Industry in England

    OpenAIRE

    Niisato, Yasutaka

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we survey the flower bulb production area in the Netherland, England and Japan. And we discuss the production and trade of England during the 1990's and the 2000's. We show some features of narcissus production in England and mention some activities in the bulb production place. We conclude that narcissus sector has a strong position and exportable power in the flower bulb industry in England. One of the advantages is quality of narcissi, e.g. relatively large and strong flowers...

  10. Mining Association Rules Between Credits in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Green Building Assessment System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Benjamin J

    2008-01-01

    The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Building Assessment System is a performance-based tool for determining the environmental impact of a facility from the whole-building perspective...

  11. Developing a green metric mechanism versus LEED for tall buildings in Qatar: evaluation-based case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galal A Ibrahim, Hatem [Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, College of Engineering, Qatar University (Qatar)], E-mail: hatem_ibrahim@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    Qatar, with its large and growing economy is one of the busiest construction sites in the world. In Doha, numerous tall buildings have been constructed to provide office space and meet life style property demand. The aim of this paper is to develop a new green metrics system for Doha tall buildings. This green metrics system distributes credits based on indoor thermal comfort, energy consumption, water management and innovation in design. The system was applied in the Tornado tower, a 52-storey office building situated in Doha's West Bay area and compared with the LEED system. It was found that the new metrics system developed herein is better suited to Doha's tall buildings than the LEED system. This paper presented a new green metrics system which will be helpful in determining the environmental performance of tall buildings in Qatar.

  12. LEED STUDY OF Ag(111)-(√ 7×√ 7)R19.1^o-4Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragiu, Mellita; Diehl, Renee D.; Leatherman, Gerry S.

    2000-03-01

    Recent LEED studies of the adsorption geometries of Xe and Kr on metal surfaces have indicated that, contrary to expectations, the low-coordination adsorption sites are generally preferred, even on relatively corrugated surfaces such as Cu(1\\overline 1 0). This study extends the range of this phenomenon to include Ar. On Ag(111), Ar can form a commensurate structure, Ag(111)-(√ 7×√ 7)R19.1^o-4Ar, if the step sites are first blocked by preadsorbing another species such as CO. A dynamical LEED analysis of this structure at 33K indicates that the structure includes one atom per unit cell on a top site and the remaining three on bridge sites. This structure is clearly preferred over ones in which hollow sites are occupied, providing evidence that the preference of noble gases atoms for low-coordination sites on metals extends to Ar.

  13. Translating research into practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB: a protocol for a programme of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibby John

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR has funded nine Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs. Each CLAHRC is a partnership between higher education institutions (HEIs and the NHS in nine UK regional health economies. The CLAHRC for Leeds, York, and Bradford comprises two 'research themes' and three 'implementation themes.' One of these implementation themes is Translating Research into Practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB. TRiPLaB aims to develop, implement, and evaluate methods for inducing and sustaining the uptake of research knowledge into practice in order to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford. Methods TRiPLaB is built around a three-stage, sequential, approach using separate, longitudinal case studies conducted with collaborating NHS organisations, TRiPLaB will select robust innovations to implement, conduct a theory-informed exploration of the local context using a variety of data collection and analytic methods, and synthesise the information collected to identify the key factors influencing the uptake and adoption of targeted innovations. This synthesis will inform the development of tailored, multifaceted, interventions designed to increase the translation of research findings into practice. Mixed research methods, including time series analysis, quasi-experimental comparison, and qualitative process evaluation, will be used to evaluate the impact of the implementation strategies deployed. Conclusion TRiPLaB is a theory-informed, systematic, mixed methods approach to developing and evaluating tailored implementation strategies aimed at increasing the translation of research-based findings into practice in one UK health economy. Through active collaboration with its local NHS, TRiPLaB aims to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford and to contribute to research knowledge regarding the

  14. Ownership and Wages: Estimating Public-Private and Foreign-Domestic Differentials with LEED from Hungary, 1986–2003

    OpenAIRE

    Earle, John S.; Telegdy, Álmos

    2007-01-01

    Studies of public-private and foreign-domestic wage differentials face difficulties distinguishing ownership effects from correlated characteristics of workers and firms. This paper estimates these ownership differentials using linked employer-employee data (LEED) from Hungary containing 1.35mln worker-year observations for 21,238 firms from 1986 to 2003. We find that ownership type is highly correlated with characteristics of both workers (education, experience, gender, and occupation) and f...

  15. Ownership and Wages: Estimating Public-Private and Foreign-Domestic Differentials using LEED from Hungary, 1986-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Earle, John S.; Telegdy, Álmos

    2007-01-01

    Studies of public-private and foreign-domestic wage differentials face difficulties distinguishing ownership effects from correlated characteristics of workers and firms. This paper estimates these ownership differentials using linked employer-employee data (LEED) from Hungary containing 1.35mln worker-year observations for 21,238 firms from 1986 to 2003. We find that ownership type is highly correlated with characteristics of both workers (education, experience, gender, and occupation) and f...

  16. Translating research into practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB): a protocol for a programme of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbury, Andria; Thompson, Carl; Wilson, Paul M; Farley, Kate; Chambers, Duncan; Warren, Erica; Bibby, John; Mannion, Russell; Watt, Ian S; Gilbody, Simon

    2010-05-21

    The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) has funded nine Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs). Each CLAHRC is a partnership between higher education institutions (HEIs) and the NHS in nine UK regional health economies. The CLAHRC for Leeds, York, and Bradford comprises two 'research themes' and three 'implementation themes.' One of these implementation themes is Translating Research into Practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB). TRiPLaB aims to develop, implement, and evaluate methods for inducing and sustaining the uptake of research knowledge into practice in order to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford. TRiPLaB is built around a three-stage, sequential, approach using separate, longitudinal case studies conducted with collaborating NHS organisations, TRiPLaB will select robust innovations to implement, conduct a theory-informed exploration of the local context using a variety of data collection and analytic methods, and synthesise the information collected to identify the key factors influencing the uptake and adoption of targeted innovations. This synthesis will inform the development of tailored, multifaceted, interventions designed to increase the translation of research findings into practice. Mixed research methods, including time series analysis, quasi-experimental comparison, and qualitative process evaluation, will be used to evaluate the impact of the implementation strategies deployed. TRiPLaB is a theory-informed, systematic, mixed methods approach to developing and evaluating tailored implementation strategies aimed at increasing the translation of research-based findings into practice in one UK health economy. Through active collaboration with its local NHS, TRiPLaB aims to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford and to contribute to research knowledge regarding the interaction between context and adoption behaviour in health

  17. A study of the effects of computer animation on college students’ learning of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design - LEED

    OpenAIRE

    Razieh Nilforooshan; Nicoletta Adamo-Villani; Hazar Dib

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents ongoing research aimed at investigating the efficacy of computer animations in improving college students’ learning of building sustainability concepts and practices. The use of animations in educational contexts is not new, however scientific evidence that supports their effectiveness as educational materials is still limited. This paper reports an experiment that explored the impact of an educational digital animation, called “LEED-ERS”, on college students’ learning of ...

  18. LEED, Its Efficacy and Fallacy in a Regional Context—An Urban Heat Island Case in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ho Shin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of energy in the building sector has increased rapidly over the past two decades. Accordingly, various building assessment methods have developed in green building practices. However, the questions still remain in regard to how positively green buildings affect regional surroundings. This study investigates the possible relationship between LEED-certified buildings and urban heat island effect. Using GIS with spatial regression, the study found that constructing an LEED building in a 30-m boundary could possibly lower the temperature of the surrounding environment by 0.35 °C. Also, having a higher certification level, such as Gold or Platinum, increased the lowering effect by 0.48 °C, while a lower certification level, such as Certified or Silver, had a lowering effect of 0.26 °C. Although LEED has gained a substantial amount of interest and skepticism at the same time, the study results could be a potential sign that the Sustainable Sites Credits or energy-efficient materials play a positive role in lowering the temperature.

  19. Life-cycle thinking and the LEED rating system: global perspective on building energy use and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Sami G; Bilec, Melissa M

    2015-04-07

    This research investigates the relationship between energy use, geographic location, life cycle environmental impacts, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). The researchers studied worldwide variations in building energy use and associated life cycle impacts in relation to the LEED rating systems. A Building Information Modeling (BIM) of a reference 43,000 ft(2) office building was developed and situated in 400 locations worldwide while making relevant changes to the energy model to meet reference codes, such as ASHRAE 90.1. Then life cycle environmental and human health impacts from the buildings' energy consumption were calculated. The results revealed considerable variations between sites in the U.S. and international locations (ranging from 394 ton CO2 equiv to 911 ton CO2 equiv, respectively). The variations indicate that location specific results, when paired with life cycle assessment, can be an effective means to achieve a better understanding of possible adverse environmental impacts as a result of building energy consumption in the context of green building rating systems. Looking at these factors in combination and using a systems approach may allow rating systems like LEED to continue to drive market transformation toward sustainable development, while taking into consideration both energy sources and building efficiency.

  20. The reliability of the Leeds Movement Performance Index (LMPI): a new tool for neurological physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Denise H; McCluskey, Serena; Fletcher-Cook, Phyl; Stephenson, John

    2014-11-01

    Measuring movement performance in people with neurological damage requires a tool that reflects physiotherapy assessment and clinical reasoning. The Leeds Movement Performance Index (LMPI) was previously developed by a group of neurological physiotherapists to fulfill these requirements. To assess the reliability of the LMPI for use in neurological physiotherapy practice. Twelve senior neurological physiotherapists were trained to use the LMPI and then asked to measure the movement performance of five patients whose movement had been previously video-recorded for this purpose. A retest session was completed after two weeks. Data were analysed to establish internal and external reliability. Internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, applied to the entire scale (0.862) and to each item (range 0.795-0.892). External (inter-rater) reliability was assessed by a calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient for scores awarded by multiple raters (0.959), with individual item reliability ranging from 0.874 to 0.968. External (test-retest) reliability was assessed by calculating the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between scores obtained on two testing occasions (0.792) with values of individual items ranging from 0.397 to 0.674. A variance components analysis partitioned variance into components arising from between-patient variability (55.2%) between-therapist variability (7.8%) and between-testing variability (2.8%). RESULTS indicate that the LMPI is a reliable measurement tool when used by senior neurological physiotherapists.

  1. Titanium dioxide surfaces and interfaces studied using ESDIAD, LEED and STM

    CERN Document Server

    Cocks, I D

    1998-01-01

    resolved into two contributions: H atoms bonded at the oxide substrate, and the rupture of the C-H bonds of the acetate. It is proposed that acetates are bridge bonded with five-fold coordinated Ti sup 4 sup + ions, with their molecular plane perpendicular to the surface. Decomposition of acetate at room temperature occurs under electron beam radiation, desorbing CH sub 2 CO and CH sub 3 /CH sub 4. Adsorption of benzoic acid at the TiO sub 2 (110) surface is dissociative, forming benzoate and surface hydroxyls. Adsorbed benzoate is bonded with the five-fold coordinated Ti sup 4 sup + cations, forming a pseudo (2x1) overlayer at a saturation coverage of 0.5 ML. Attractive interactions between benzoate aromatic rings leads to the formation of dimerised benzoate rows along the [001] direction. TiO sub 2 surfaces have been studied by electron stimulated desorption ion angular distribution (ESDIAD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The TiO sub 2 (100) surface was stu...

  2. Glasgow Gloom or Leeds Glue? Dialect-Specific Vowel Duration Constrains Lexical Segmentation and Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel; Rathcke, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Timing cues are important in many aspects of speech processing, fromidentifying segments to locating word and phrase boundaries. They vary across accents, yet representation and processing of this variation are poorly understood. We investigated whether an accent difference in vowel duration affects lexical segmentation and access. In Glasgow English (GE), /i u e o/ are shorter than in Leeds English (LE), especially for /i u/ before voiced stops and nasals. In a word-spotting experiment, GE and LE participants heard nonsense sequences (e.g. pobegloomezh) containing embedded words (gloom, glue), with segmental qualities intermediate between GE and LE. Critical vowel durations were manipulated according to accent (GE-appropriate vowels shorter than LE-appropriate ones) and phonological context (vowels shortest before voiceless stops spotted words like gloom more accurately with GE-appropriate than LE-appropriate vowels. LE participants were less accurate than GE participants to spot words like gloom with GE-appropriate vowels, but more likely to spot embeddings like glue. These results were broadly as predicted based on the accent differences, but depended less than expected on the accent-specific phonological constraints. We discuss theoretical implications regarding the representation of duration and the time course of lexical access. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Honeycomb BeO monolayer on the Mo(112) surface: LEED and DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasieva, Tetyana V.; Fedorus, A. G.; Rumiantsev, D. V.; Yakovkin, I. N.

    2018-01-01

    From the combined experimental and theoretical investigations, we suggest the formation of a honeycomb structure of BeO monolayer on the Mo(112) surface. This structure is matched to the substrate Mo(112), thus giving the (1 × 1) LEED pattern, and its formation is confirmed also by DFT calculations and work function measurements. While a free BeO monolayer is dielectric, the BeO/Mo(112) system is definitely metallic as follows from the bands crossing EF and significant density of states at EF. The honeycomb BeO monolayer is bound to the Mo(112) surface through O atoms situated atop Mo atoms of the surface rows. A substantial rigidity of the BeO monolayer leads to the appearance of empty space above the Mo(112) surface furrows, which may be filled by some gas or water molecules. Hence, this layered system can be very attractive in various applications where porous materials are explored (e.g. for hydrogen storage purposes).

  4. 75 FR 16096 - New England Power Generators Association Inc., Complainant v. ISO New England Inc., Respondent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New England Power Generators Association Inc., Complainant v. ISO New England Inc., Respondent; ISO New England Inc. and New England Power Pool; Notice of Complaint March 24... Generators Association Inc. (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against ISO New England Inc. (Respondent...

  5. Genomic characterization of the LEED..PEEDs, a gene family unique to the medicago lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Diana I; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Young, Nevin D

    2014-08-25

    The LEED..PEED (LP) gene family in Medicago truncatula (A17) is composed of 13 genes coding small putatively secreted peptides with one to two conserved domains of negatively charged residues. This family is not present in the genomes of Glycine max, Lotus japonicus, or the IRLC species Cicer arietinum. LP genes were also not detected in a Trifolium pratense draft genome or Pisum sativum nodule transcriptome, which were sequenced de novo in this study, suggesting that the LP gene family arose within the past 25 million years. M. truncatula accession HM056 has 13 LP genes with high similarity to those in A17, whereas M. truncatula ssp. tricycla (R108) and M. sativa have 11 and 10 LP gene copies, respectively. In M. truncatula A17, 12 LP genes are located on chromosome 7 within a 93-kb window, whereas one LP gene copy is located on chromosome 4. A phylogenetic analysis of the gene family is consistent with most gene duplications occurring prior to Medicago speciation events, mainly through local tandem duplications and one distant duplication across chromosomes. Synteny comparisons between R108 and A17 confirm that gene order is conserved between the two subspecies, although a further duplication occurred solely in A17. In M. truncatula A17, all 13 LPs are exclusively transcribed in nodules and absent from other plant tissues, including roots, leaves, flowers, seeds, seed shells, and pods. The recent expansion of LP genes in Medicago spp. and their timing and location of expression suggest a novel function in nodulation, possibly as an aftermath of the evolution of bacteroid terminal differentiation or potentially associated with rhizobial-host specificity. Copyright © 2014 Trujillo et al.

  6. LEED investigations on the interaction of Pd and Ni with different Si(111) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabes, J. G.

    1984-09-01

    The structural properties of Pd and Ni on cleaved Si(111)-2 × 1 and - 7 × 7 surfaces have been studies under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by LEED to evaluate the microstructure in the early stages of suicide-silicon interface formation. In contrast to the indifferent behavior of Ni, the reaction of Pd reveals strong evidence for the dependence of the nucleation and growth of epitaxial Pd 2Si on the initial surface reconstruction. A 5 × 1 superstructure emerges on the 2 × 1 surface after deposition of submonolayer Pd at room temperature, suggesting a rather well ordered lateral arrangement of Pd 2Si(1000)-1 × 1 nuclei, whereas epitaxial Pd 2Si on 7 × 7 is only established at much higher coverage ( θ ⩾ 3). An unexpected 3 × 3 reconstruction is formed after annealing at ˜ 200 ° C for θ ⩽ 3 monolayers of Ni, independent of the initial reconstruction and well below the formation temperature of epitaxial NiSi 2. The coverage dependence of the 3 structure implies the presence of an unknown epitaxial film. This finding represents the first evidence of a well defined intermediate state of reaction between unreacted Ni and NiSi 2, which has not been anticipated from other UHV experiments. The qualitative difference in the interaction of Pd and Ni with the Si lattice is demonstrated further by the reappearance of the 7 × 7 reconstruction even after several monolayers of Ni, which has not been achieved with Pd under any process condition, and the pronounced faceting of stepped surfaces under Pd.

  7. Carbon Footprint of Housing in the Leeds City Region - A Best Practice Scenario Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, John; Dawkins, Elena (Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden))|(Univ. of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom))

    2008-06-15

    The Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) was commissioned by the Environment Agency to carry out a carbon footprint analysis of the housing sector, using the Leeds City Region (LCR) as an example. The aim was to determine our ability to meet the 80 per cent by 2050 challenge of energy efficiency in the housing sector. The study relates specifically to LCR but its findings will help any planning and development teams make the right decisions and gain the resources necessary to meet carbon budgets at regional and local levels. With a growing population and an additional 263,000 housing units to be built within LCR by 2026, the housing sector would need to reduce its expected total carbon dioxide emissions by 38 million tonnes between 2010 and 2026 to be on track for 80 per cent savings in 2050. The report outlines the most detailed analysis to date of the required measures to deliver a growth-based regional housing strategy, alongside reducing carbon emissions. If the city region's new and existing housing is to attain the levels of energy efficiency necessary to deliver these carbon savings, big changes will be required in the way we build, maintain and run our homes over the next 20 years. There are pockets of good practice already in the region and the study shows that by combining innovative measures on construction standards, improvements to existing housing, low and zero carbon technologies and changing behaviour of householders, LCR can achieve the necessary savings to meet its carbon budget

  8. The Leeds food preference questionnaire after mild sleep restriction - A small feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Zant, Janneke C; Aussems, Audrey; Faatz, Vivian; Snackers, Daphne; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2016-02-01

    Besides the increased sedentary lifestyle and increased caloric intake, changes in dietary composition may play an important role in the increased prevalence of obesity. Because inadequate sleep could be a risk factor in the aetiology of obesity, reliable methods for assessing food intake and food choice after sleep restriction are needed. We translated the Leeds food preference questionnaire (LFPQ), addressing preferences for sweet/savoury tastes and low-fat/high-fat foods, into Dutch, and tested it in 15 mildly sleep-restricted psychology students. The participants completed the LFPQ in our laboratory on two separate occasions, with approximately one week in between. Sleep on the preceding night was not controlled, but mild sleep-restriction was confirmed by a short sleep latency test (sSLT) or a short maintenance of wakefulness test (sMWT). Each participant completed the sSLT and sMWT once, just before the LFPQ, in a cross-over design randomised for the first test. Differences were present in preferences for food items from different categories (sweet/savoury and low-fat/high-fat; pchoice frequencies for various food categories were comparable on both occasions (p=0.27). The choice frequencies for individual items were also comparable on both occasions (p=0.27). The LFPQ is easily implemented under mild sleep-restricted conditions, and translation is straightforward. Future studies using the LFPQ after sleep restriction could elucidate if restricting sleep or longer periods affects food choice, which could underlie increases in obesity risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing and Developing the Application of LEED Green Building Rating System as a Sustainable Project Management and Market Tool in the Italian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa S. E. Ismaee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the recent introduction of the LEED system to the Italian context in order to assess its role to promote sustainable building process in the Italian context, pointing out its potentials on one hand as well as their gaps and limitations on the other hand, and suggests means for its future development. The study discusses the application of LEED as a ‘Sustainable Project management tool’ to guide sustainable building performance. This requires investigating the following: its structure, tools, assessment criteria along with its benchmarks and references. It also discusses the application of LEED as a ‘Sustainable building Certification and market tool’. This investigates the role and value of the LEED certification in the Italian Green market. The research method is comprised of three parts. The first part is a comparative analysis of LEED categories against Italian national initiatives for sustainability. The comparison showed that most LEED categories are already mandated by national norms and directives but they may differ in their stringency creating some areas of precedence of LEED system or drawbacks. This streamlines the adaptation process of LEED system to the Italian context. The second part investigates LEED projects’ market analysis. The result showed that the shift towards a sustainable building process is occurring slowly and on a vertical scale focusing on some building sectors rather than others. Its market diffusion in the Italian context faces challenges regarding the insufficient availability of green materials and products satisfying its requirements, as well as high soft cost of sustainability tests and expertise required. The Third part presents a practical review-citing the methodology and results of a survey conducted by the researchers in mid-2012. It is composed of a web-based questionnaire and interviews among a sample of LEED professionals in Italy. The result shows that LEED systems needs

  10. The design and validation of a spatial microsimulation model of obesogenic environments for children in Leeds, UK: SimObesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kimberley L; Clarke, Graham P

    2009-10-01

    Obesogenic environments are a major explanation for the rapidly increasing prevalence in obesity. Investigating the relationship between obesity and obesogenic variables at the micro-level will increase our understanding about local differences in risk factors for obesity. SimObesity is a spatial microsimulation model designed to create micro-level estimates of obesogenic environment variables in the city of Leeds in the UK: consisting of a plethora of health, environment, and socio-economic variables. It combines individual micro-data from two national surveys with a coarse geography, with geographically finer scaled data from the 2001 UK Census, using a reweighting deterministic algorithm. This creates a synthetic population of individuals/households in Leeds with attributes from both the survey and census datasets. Logistic regression analyses identify suitable constraint variables to use. The model is validated using linear regression and equal variance t-tests. Height, weight, age, gender, and residential postcode data were collected on children aged 3-13 years in the Leeds metropolitan area, and obesity described as above the 98th centile for the British reference dataset. Geographically weighted regression is used to investigate the relationship between different obesogenic environments and childhood obesity. Validation shows that the small-area estimates were robust. The different obesogenic environments, as well as the parameter estimates from the corresponding local regression analyses, are mapped, all of which demonstrate non-stationary relationships. These results show that social capital and poverty are strongly associated with childhood obesity. This paper demonstrates a methodology to estimate health variables at the small-area level. The key to this technique is the choice of the model's input variables, which must be predictors for the output variables; this factor has not been stressed in other spatial microsimulation work. It also provides

  11. Osteolisis tibial secundaria a un implante ligamentoso de Leeds-Keio: Presentación de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Zafra, M.A.; Ballester, J.; Román, Manuel; Carpintero Benítez, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    Hasta hace algunos años, el ligamento artificial de Leeds-Keio, se usó en muchos casos para la reconstrucción de lesiones del ligamento cruzado anterior. Hoy día no se usa para este tipo de lesiones debido a los pobres resultados que se observaron a medio y largo plazo. No obstante, su uso está indicado en otras lesiones, como son la reconstrucción del aparato extensor de la rodilla, y en inestabilidades del hombro y de la columna vertebral. Presentamos un caso de osteolisis masiva del platil...

  12. Single-layer ZnS supported on Au(111): A combined XPS, LEED, STM and DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xingyi; Sorescu, Dan C.; Lee, Junseok

    2017-04-01

    Single-layer of ZnS, consisting of one atomic layer of ZnS(111) plane, has been grown on Au(111) and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). While the LEED measurement indicates a coincidence structure of ZnS-(3×3)/Au(111)-(4×4), high resolution STM images reveal hexagonal unit cells of 6.7×6.7 Å2 and 11.6×11.6 Å2, corresponding to √3 and 3 times the unit cell of the ideal zincblende ZnS-(1×1), respectively, depending on the tunneling conditions. Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) indicate a significantly reconstructed non-planar structure of ZnS single-layer on Au(111) with 2/3 of the S anions being located nearly in the plane of the Zn cations and the rest 1/3 of the S anions protruding above the Zn plane. The calculated STM image shows similar characteristics to those of the experimental STM image. Additionally, the DFT calculations reveal the different bonding nature of the S anions in ZnS single-layer supported on Au(111).

  13. Mn$_3$O$_4$(001) film growth on Ag(001) - a systematic study using NEXAFS, STM, and LEED

    CERN Document Server

    Gillmeister, Konrad; Shantyr, Roman; Trautmann, Martin; Meinel, Klaus; Chassé, Angelika; Schindler, Karl-Michael; Neddermeyer, Henning; Widdra, Wolf

    2015-01-01

    The film growth of Mn$_3$O$_4$(001) films on Ag(001) up to film thicknesses of almost seven unit cells of Mn$_3$O$_4$ has been monitored using a complementary combination of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The oxide films have been prepared by molecular beam epitaxy. Using NEXAFS, the identity of the Mn oxide has clearly been determined as Mn$_3$O$_4$. For the initial stages of growth, oxide islands with p(2$\\times$1) and p(2$\\times$2) structures are formed, which are embedded into the substrate. For Mn$_3$O$_4$ coverages up to 1.5 unit cells a p(2$\\times$1) structure of the films is visible in STM and LEED. Further increase of the thickness leads to a phase transition of the oxide films resulting in an additional c(2$\\times$2) structure with a 45$^\\circ$ rotated atomic pattern. The emerging film structures are discussed on the basis of a sublayer model of the Mn$_3$O$_4$ spinel unit cell. While t...

  14. A combined STM and SPA-LEED study of the "explosive" nucleation and collective diffusion in Pb/Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattab, H.; Hupalo, M.; Hershberger, M. T.; Horn von Hoegen, M.; Tringides, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    A novel type of very fast nucleation was recently found in Pb/Si(111) with 4- to 7-layer high islands becoming crystalline in an "explosive" way, when the Pb deposited amount in the wetting layer is compressed to θc 1.22 ML, well above the metallic Pb(111) density. This "explosive" nucleation is very different from classical nucleation when island growth is more gradual and islands grow in size by single adatom aggregation [8]. In order to identify the key parameters that control the nucleation we used scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). It was found that the number and duration of steps in iterative deposition used to approach θc and the flux rate have dramatic effects on the crystallization process. Larger depositions over shorter times induce greater spatial coverage fluctuations, so local areas can reach the critical coverage θc easier. This can trigger the collective motion of the wetting layer from far away to build the Pb islands "explosively". The SPA-LEED experiments show that even low flux experiments in iterative deposition experiments can trigger transfer of material to the superstable 7-layer islands, as seen from the stronger satellite rings close to the (00) spot.

  15. Optimization model for the selection of materials using a LEED-based green building rating system in Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro-Lacouture, Daniel [Building Construction Program, College of Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology, 280 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Sefair, Jorge A.; Florez, Laura; Medaglia, Andres L. [Centro de Optimizacion y Probabilidad Aplicada (COPA), Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial, Universidad de los Andes, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2009-06-15

    Buildings have a significant and continuously increasing impact on the environment because they are responsible for a large portion of carbon emissions and use a considerable number of resources and energy. The green building movement emerged to mitigate these effects and to improve the building construction process. This paradigm shift should bring significant environmental, economic, financial, and social benefits. However, to realize such benefits, efforts are required not only in the selection of appropriate technologies but also in the choice of proper materials. Selecting inappropriate materials can be expensive, but more importantly, it may preclude the achievement of the desired environmental goals. In order to help decision-makers with the selection of the right materials, this study proposes a mixed integer optimization model that incorporates design and budget constraints while maximizing the number of credits reached under the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system. To illustrate this model, this paper presents a case study of a building in Colombia in which a modified version of LEED is proposed. (author)

  16. ADOÇÃO DA CERTIFICAÇÃO LEED EM MEIOS DE HOSPEDAGEM: ESVERDEANDO A HOTELARIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna de Lima Medeiros

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The research intended to analyze the adoption process of the green certification “Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design” (LEED from the hotel sector establishments that has already adopted it. For its concretization it was proceeded a bibliographical research, secondary fact-gathering in journals, institutional sites and documentaries, and primary fact-gathering by means of semi structured interviews carried out with responsible people of the certified hotels and of the responsible entity of the certification in Brazil (Green Building Council Brazil. There were 21 interviewee, being 02 of the GBC Brazil and 19 of means of lodging (31% of the certified. For data analysis, it was utilized content analysis technique with the aid of ATLAS.ti software. The results permitted to identify the chronology of the processes of certification and the profile of the hotel categories that adopt the LEED program. Beyond that, the interviews enabled the discussion of the initial motivations for seeking the certification, as well the advantages and the obstacles perceived regarding its adoption.

  17. Energy efficiency benchmarks and the performance of LEED rated buildings for Information Technology facilities in Bangalore, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabapathy, Ashwin; Ragavan, Santhosh K.V.; Vijendra, Mahima; Nataraja, Anjana G. [Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd, 90, Hosur Road, Madiwala, Bangalore 560 068 (India)

    2010-11-15

    This paper provides a summary of an energy benchmarking study that uses performance data of a sample of Information Technology facilities in Bangalore. Information provided by the sample of occupiers was used to develop an Energy Performance Index (EPI) and an Annual Average hourly Energy Performance Index (AAhEPI), which takes into account the variations in operation hours and days for these facilities. The EPI and AAhEPI were modelled to identify the factors that influence energy efficiency. Employment density, size of facility, operating hours per week, type of chiller and age of facility were found to be significant factors in regression models with EPI and AAhEPI as dependent variables. Employment density, size of facility and operating hours per week were standardised and used in a separate regression analysis. Parameter estimates from this regression were used to normalize the EPI and AAhEPI for variance in the independent variables. Three benchmark ranges - the bottom third, middle third and top third - were developed for the two normalised indices. The normalised EPI and AAhEPI of LEED rated building, which were also part of the sample, indicate that, on average, LEED rated buildings outperform the other buildings. (author)

  18. Study of O/Ni(100) with LEED (low-energy electron diffraction) and AES (auger electron spectroscopy) from chemisorption to oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wen-Di.

    1990-11-16

    The structures formed on the Ni(100) surface during oxygen adsorption, leading to oxidation, are studied with Video-LEED (low-energy electron diffraction) and AES (Auger electron spectroscopy). The temperature- and exposure-dependence in the development of LEED patterns observed during oxidation of Ni(100), at oxidation temperatures of 80 to 400 K, are investigated extensively. Integrated diffraction spot intensities and fractional spot profiles are measured quantitatively and continuously, allowing unambiguous correlation of various surface processes. AES is used to measure the oxidation onset during adsorption and the final relative thickness of the oxide. 48 figs., 79 refs.

  19. Apprenticeships in England: What Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Terence; Gambin, Lynn; Hasluck, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines recent development in Apprenticeship training in England. Since the introduction of Modern Apprenticeships in the mid-1990s this form of training has been subject to much analysis and reform. This paper summarises the current situation and highlights some of the challenges and opportunities which face Apprenticeship over the…

  20. Au(111) surface structures induced by adsorption: LEED I(E) analysis of (1 × 1) and (5 × 5) Au(111)-S phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuirk, G. M.; Shin, H.; Caragiu, M.; Ash, S.; Bandyopadhyay, P. K.; Prince, R. H.; Diehl, R. D.

    2013-04-01

    We report on the various phases formed by sulfur adsorbed on Au(111), at less than 1 monolayer (ML) coverage, as monitored by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The phases transform from one to another via coexistence regions. The observation of ordered phases was matched to the coverage information obtained from Auger measurements, using as a calibration point the S coverage of 0.28 ML, corresponding to the sharpest (5 × 5) LEED pattern observed. The influence of emitting filaments (the Auger beam, ion gauge, or LEED electron beam) upon the adsorption itself is discussed. LEED structural investigations were performed on two particular S-Au phases. The analysis of the Au(1 × 1)-S structure provided the values for the first four gold interlayer spacings, showing a 1% expansion of the top layer, interpreted as a remnant of the expansion of the Au(111)-(22 × √3) reconstructed phase. The analysis of the Au(5 × 5)-7S phase confirmed the fcc adsorption site of the S atoms reported previously, and resulted in an average S-Au distance of 1.57 ± 0.10 Å, and an S-Au bond length of 2.29 ± 0.07 Å.

  1. Energy Provisions of the ICC-700, LEED for Homes, and ENERGY STAR Mapped to the 2009 IECC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, Michelle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Robin S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kora, Angela R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makela, Eric J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makela, Erin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This document provides the results of a comparison of building energy efficient elements of the ICC-700 National Green Building Standard, LEED for Homes, and ENERGY STAR versions 2, 2.5, and 3.0 to the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (2009 IECC). This comparison will provide a tool for states and local municipalities as they consider adoption of these programs. The comparison is presented in a series of appendices. The first appendix provides a summary chart that visually represents the comprehensive comparison of the programs to the 2009 IECC topic areas. Next there are a series of individual tables (one appendix for each program) that include the specific program mapping to the 2009 IECC elements with comments that briefly discuss how well the elements mapped. Finally, a comprehensive table is included that shows all five of the programs mapped to the 2009 IECC elements to allow a detailed comparison.

  2. Challenging Racist Violence and Racist Hostility in 'Post-Racial' Times: Research and Action in Leeds, UK, 2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Law

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing understanding of, information about and official commitment to challenge these patterns, racist hostility and violence continue to have an enduring presence in urban and rural life in the UK. This indicates the paradoxical nature of this racial crisis and challenges for antiracism as a political project. This paper charts how these issues play out at the local level through an examination of a five year process from problem identification through to research, response, action and aftermath from 2006 to 2012 in the city of Leeds, UK, with a focus on two predominantly white working class social housing estates in the city. We explore how embedded tensions and antagonisms can begin to be challenged, while examining how the contemporary climate of austerity and cuts in services, together with prevailing post-racial thinking, make the likelihood of such concerted action in the UK increasingly remote.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment and Optimization-Based Decision Analysis of Construction Waste Recycling for a LEED-Certified University Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kucukvar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current waste management literature lacks a comprehensive LCA of the recycling of construction materials that considers both process and supply chain-related impacts as a whole. Furthermore, an optimization-based decision support framework has not been also addressed in any work, which provides a quantifiable understanding about the potential savings and implications associated with recycling of construction materials from a life cycle perspective. The aim of this research is to present a multi-criteria optimization model, which is developed to propose economically-sound and environmentally-benign construction waste management strategies for a LEED-certified university building. First, an economic input-output-based hybrid life cycle assessment model is built to quantify the total environmental impacts of various waste management options: recycling, conventional landfilling and incineration. After quantifying the net environmental pressures associated with these waste treatment alternatives, a compromise programming model is utilized to determine the optimal recycling strategy considering environmental and economic impacts, simultaneously. The analysis results show that recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals significantly contributed to reductions in the total carbon footprint of waste management. On the other hand, recycling of asphalt and concrete increased the overall carbon footprint due to high fuel consumption and emissions during the crushing process. Based on the multi-criteria optimization results, 100% recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, cardboard, plastic and glass is suggested to maximize the environmental and economic savings, simultaneously. We believe that the results of this research will facilitate better decision making in treating construction and debris waste for LEED-certified green buildings by combining the results of environmental LCA with multi-objective optimization modeling.

  4. 78 FR 32384 - New England Power Generators Association v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New England Power Generators Association v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of...) filed a formal complaint against ISO New England Inc. (Respondent) alleging that certain newly imposed...

  5. EPA Region 1 - New England Towns, with Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The New England Town Boundary coverage is a compilation of coverages received from the six New England State GIS Offices. The EPA New England GIS Center appended the...

  6. The adsorption geometry of Ag(1 1 1)-(√7×√7) R19.1°-4Ar studied by LEED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragiu, M.; Leatherman, G. S.; Seyller, Th.; Diehl, R. D.

    2001-03-01

    The adsorption geometry of Ag(1 1 1)-(√7×√7) R19.1°-4Ar was studied using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). This higher-order commensurate phase was produced by preadsorbing a small amount of CO in order to block the close-packed steps, which pin the rotation angle of the overlayer. The dynamical LEED data were taken at a sample temperature of 31 K, and the results of the LEED analysis indicate that one Ar atom per unit cell occupies the top of a Ag substrate atom, while the other three Ar atoms occupy bridge sites. There is little, if any, distortion of the Ar lattice from hexagonal symmetry. The average Ar-Ag perpendicular spacing in this structure is 3.22±0.07 Å. The Ar-Ag nearest-neighbor distances are 3.22 and 3.52 Å for top-site and bridge-site Ar atoms, respectively.

  7. LEED AND THE DESIGN/BUILD EXPERIENCE: A SHELTER FOR HOMELESS FAMILIES RETURNING TO POST-KATRINA NEW ORLEANS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Verderber

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Katrina displaced nearly one million citizens from the New Orleans metro region in 2005. Five years after the catastrophe, in August of 2010, more than 150,000 citizens remained scattered across the United States. Katrina was the largest Diaspora in the nation’s history. The number of homes damaged or destroyed by Katrina’s devastation numbered more than 125,000. An award-winning case study is presented of a unique partnership forged between academia, a local social service agency, professional architectural and engineering firms, and a national humanitarian aid organization whose mission is to provide affordable housing for homeless persons in transition. This collaboration resulted in a sustainable design/build project that originated in a research-based university design studio. The facility is a 38-bed family shelter for homeless mothers and their children seeking to rebuild their lives in post-Katrina New Orleans. The site for this 4,400 facility did not flood when the city’s federally built levee system failed in 2005. This case study is presented from its inception, to programming and design, construction, occupancy, and the postoccupancy assessment of the completed building. This facility is the first LEED certified (Silver building in New Orleans. Project limitations, lessons learned, and recommendations for future initiatives of this type are discussed, particularly in the context of any inner urban community coping with the aftermath of an urban disaster.

  8. Growth of NaCl on thin epitaxial KCl films on Ag(100) studied by SPA-LEED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Christian; Paulheim, Alexander; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the growth of NaCl on thin (100)-oriented films of KCl by spot profile analysis of low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). The underlying question of this investigation was how the system accommodates to the misfit of - 10% between the NaCl and KCl lattices. The KCl films (3 atomic layers thick) were epitaxially grown on a Ag(100) single crystal. We studied the heteroepitaxial growth of NaCl on KCl at 300 K and at 500 K, respectively. At 300 K, the first NaCl monolayer (ML) grows pseudomorphically on the KCl film. From the second layer onward, the NaCl lattice relaxes. The NaCl multilayers roughen, and a small rotational disorder (± 4°) of the NaCl domains is observed. The roughening results from the formation of multilayer islands of limited lateral size due to the misfit to the pseudomorphic first NaCl layer. At a growth temperature of 500 K, no pseudomorphic NaCl layer forms, instead relaxed multilayer island growth of NaCl is observed from the first layer onward. Similarly to the growth at 300 K, we find NaCl multilayer islands of limited lateral size. For both temperatures, we explain this growth behavior by the misfit that makes the adsorption sites at the island edges of the first relaxed NaCl layer less favorable for larger islands, promoting nucleation of multilayer islands.

  9. New England Takes Stock of Midterm Elections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, John O.; Morwick, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    The recent midterm elections brought New England two new governors. Rhode Island elected its first woman chief executive in Gina Raimondo (D). Massachusetts elected Charlie Baker (R), a former Harvard Pilgrim CEO and official in the Weld and Cellucci administrations. Otherwise, the New England corner offices cautiously welcomed back incumbents:…

  10. Leading Indicator: New England's Higher Education Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    In few places is higher education so ingrained in a region's economic vitality as in New England. Students from all over the world enroll in New England's institutions of learning and research, bringing resources to finance their education and living expenses that reverberate throughout local and state economies. Human capital-based industries…

  11. Letter from England: Very Rich for Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Aidan

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the third edition of F. J. H. Darton's "Children's Books in England" and discusses in particular one of the books included in that publication, "A Humument: A Treated Victorian Novel" by Tom Phillips. (AEA)

  12. Radon atlas of England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, B.M.R.; Miles, J.C.H.; Bradley, E.J.; Rees, D.M

    2002-07-01

    This new report brings together and updates the information in three earlier reports on radon levels in English and Welsh homes. In particular, data from measurements in over 400,000 homes in England and Wales are presented in tabular format. The tables give the data by various administrative divisions, down to electoral wards for Cornwall, Devon and Somerset and council areas elsewhere and to sector level of the postcode system. The radon probability maps are based on the national grid system and show significantly more locational detail than the previous publications, an extra division in the probability banding to coincide with current Government initiatives on radon in England and, in southwest England, more detailed probability mapping than before - by 1 km grid squares in place of the 5 km grid squares used in Wales and the rest of England. (author)

  13. Epidemiology of Toxocariasis in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsby, K; Senyonjo, L; Gupta, S; Ladbury, G; Suvari, M; Chiodini, P; Morgan, D

    2016-11-01

    Toxocara infection occurs through ingestion of parasite eggs excreted by dogs and cats, and can cause severe morbidity. The burden of disease in England and Wales is not well described, and the impact of public health campaigns conducted in the mid-1990s is uncertain. This paper uses data from two extensive databases to explore the trends in this disease in England and Wales from the 1970s to 2009. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Gentrificación como política pública en una ciudad provincial: El caso de la ciudad de Leeds en el Reino Unido

    OpenAIRE

    González,Sara; Hodkinson,Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo analiza los procesos de gentrificación en una ciudad media del norte de Inglaterra. El caso de Leeds nos ayuda a provincializar el estudio sobre la gentrificación al centrarnos fuera de las grande ciudades del capitalismo global y posicionarnos en una geografía "provincial". Para capturar las especificidades de la gentrificación en esta ciudad a la vez que contextualizarlas en el marco más amplio del neoliberalismo urbano nos detenemos en 4 variables: escala y posicionamiento, v...

  15. Mining Association Rules Between Credits in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Green Building Assessment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    constant state of flux . The version of LEED-NC referenced by this study, version 2.2, is the fourth iteration in just 7 years. There have already been...run-off and heat island effect. EA-1, EQ-1 CO2 Monitors are a critical component in most high-performance HVAC Systems. MR-7, EQ-4.4 Lack of...Conference: Santiago, Chile , pp.478-479 AF Memo (2001). Sustainable Development Policy. Memorandum, Department of the Air Force: USAF/ILE

  16. Mapping midwifery and obstetric units in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Denis; Spiby, Helen; Grigg, Celia P; Dodwell, Miranda; McCourt, Christine; Culley, Lorraine; Bishop, Simon; Wilkinson, Jane; Coleby, Dawn; Pacanowski, Lynne; Thornton, Jim; Byers, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    to describe the configuration of midwifery units, both alongside&free-standing, and obstetric units in England. national survey amongst Heads of Midwifery in English Maternity Services SETTING: National Health Service (NHS) in England PARTICIPANTS: English Maternity Services Measurements descriptive statistics of Alongside Midwifery Units and Free-standing Midwifery Units and Obstetric Units and their annual births/year in English Maternity Services FINDINGS: alongside midwifery units have nearly doubled since 2010 (n = 53-97); free-standing midwifery units have increased slightly (n = 58-61). There has been a significant reduction in maternity services without either an alongside or free-standing midwifery unit (75-32). The percentage of all births in midwifery units has trebled, now representing 14% of all births in England. This masks significant differences in percentage of all births in midwifery units between different maternity services with a spread of 4% to 31%. In some areas of England, women have no access to a local midwifery unit, despite the National Institute for Health&Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommending them as an important place of birth option for low risk women. The numbers of midwifery units have increased significantly in England since 2010 but this growth is almost exclusively in alongside midwifery units. The percentage of women giving birth in midwifery units varies significantly between maternity services suggesting that many midwifery units are underutilised. Both the availability and utilisation of midwifery units in England could be improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Casebooks in Early Modern England:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  18. Análisis de Sistemas de Certificación Nacional e Internacional : aplicación de Certificación LEED (EEUU) a un Pabellón Polideportivo

    OpenAIRE

    SÁNCHEZ LÓPEZ, MIGUEL ÁNGEL

    2011-01-01

    Con este Proyecto se pretende dar a conocer de una forma sencilla pero a la vez intensa los Sistemas de Certificación Energética, con especial atención en la Certificación LEED de Estados Unidos Sánchez López, MÁ. (2011). Análisis de Sistemas de Certificación Nacional e Internacional : aplicación de Certificación LEED (EEUU) a un Pabellón Polideportivo. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/12382. Archivo delegado

  19. NASA New England Outreach Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA New England Outreach Center in Nashua, New Hampshire was established to serve as a catalyst for heightening regional business awareness of NASA procurement, technology and commercialization opportunities. Emphasis is placed on small business participation, with the highest priority given to small disadvantaged businesses, women-owned businesses, HUBZone businesses, service disabled veteran owned businesses, and historically black colleges and universities and minority institutions. The Center assists firms and organizations to understand NASA requirements and to develop strategies to capture NASA related procurement and technology opportunities. The establishment of the NASA Outreach Center serves to stimulate business in a historically underserved area. NASA direct business awards have traditionally been highly present in the West, Midwest, South, and Southeast areas of the United States. The Center guides and assists businesses and organizations in the northeast to target opportunities within NASA and its prime contractors and capture business and technology opportunities. The Center employs an array of technology access, one-on-one meetings, seminars, site visits, and targeted conferences to acquaint Northeast firms and organizations with representatives from NASA and its prime contractors to learn about and discuss opportunities to do business and access the inventory of NASA technology. This stimulus of interaction also provides firms and organizations the opportunity to propose the use of their developed technology and ideas for current and future requirements at NASA. The Center provides a complement to the NASA Northeast Regional Technology Transfer Center in developing prospects for commercialization of NASA technology. In addition, the Center responds to local requests for assistance and NASA material and documents, and is available to address immediate concerns and needs in assessing opportunities, timely support to interact with NASA Centers on

  20. Children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the home: a household survey in the North of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Nisreen; Siddiqi, Kamran; Thomson, Heather; Cameron, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Exposure of children to second-hand smoke (SHS) leads to increased risk of health and social problems and uptake of smoking in the future. We aimed to assess the prevalence of children's exposure to SHS in their homes, in a deprived area in the North of England and identify what people thought would help them achieve a smoke-free home (SFH). We performed a cross-sectional survey of 318 households with at least one child aged under 16 years in Beeston Hill, a deprived locality in Leeds, England in June 2008. One hundred and seventy-three households [54%, 95% confidence interval (C.I.) 49-60] had at least one smoker in the house. In 42% (95% C.I. 35-50) of these households (n = 73), smoking took place in the presence of children. The odds of allowing smoking in front of children were 2.2 (95% C.I. 1.1-4.5) times greater in households whose head had less than A-level (national exams at 18 years) or equivalent qualification than in homes with a more qualified head of household. 92% of respondents were aware that SHS has negative effects on children's health. However, 71% felt more information about health risks to children would help reduce exposure to SHS in the home. Smoking in the presence of children takes place in a relatively high proportion of households with smoker(s), despite media awareness campaigns regarding the dangers of passive smoking launched alongside the recently enforced smoke-free public and workplaces legislation. Specific promotion of SFHs is needed to protect the health of children.

  1. Orbital decompression for Graves' orbitopathy in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perros, P; Chandler, T; Dayan, C M; Dickinson, A J; Foley, P; Hickey, J; MacEwen, C J; Lazarus, J H; McLaren, J; Rose, G E; Uddin, J M; Vaidya, B

    2012-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to obtain data on orbital decompression procedures performed in England, classed by hospital and locality, to evaluate regional variation in care. Methods Data on orbital decompression taking place in England over a 2-year period between 2007 and 2009 were derived from CHKS Ltd and analysed by the hospital and primary care trust. Results and conclusions In all, 44% of these operations took place in hospitals with an annual workload of 10 or fewer procedures. Analysis of the same data by primary care trust suggests an almost 30-fold variance in the rates of decompression performed per unit population. Expertise available to patients with Graves' orbitopathy and rates of referral for specialist care in England appears to vary significantly by geographic location. These data, along with other outcome measures, will provide a baseline by which progress can be judged. PMID:22157920

  2. Cost of schizophrenia in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalore, Roshni; Knapp, Martin

    2007-03-01

    Despite the wide-ranging financial and social burdens associated with schizophrenia, there have been few cost-of-illness studies of this illness in the UK. To provide up-to-date, prevalence based estimate of all costs associated with schizophrenia for England. A bottom-up approach was adopted. Separate cost estimates were made for people living in private households, institutions, prisons and for those who are homeless. The costs included related to: health and social care, informal care, private expenditures, lost productivity, premature mortality, criminal justice services and other public expenditures such as those by the social security system. Data came from many sources, including the UK-SCAP (Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program) survey, Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys, Department of Health and government publications. The estimated total societal cost of schizophrenia was 6.7 billion pounds in 2004/05. The direct cost of treatment and care that falls on the public purse was about 2 billion pounds; the burden of indirect costs to the society was huge, amounting to nearly 4.7 billion pounds. Cost of informal care and private expenditures borne by families was 615 million pounds. The cost of lost productivity due to unemployment, absence from work and premature mortality of patients was 3.4 billion pounds. The cost of lost productivity of carers was 32 million pounds. Estimated cost to the criminal justice system was about 1 million pounds. It is estimated that about 570 million pounds will be paid out in benefit payments and the cost of administration associated with this is about 14 million pounds. It is difficult to compare estimates from previous cost-of-illness studies due to differences in the methods, scope of analyses and the range of costs covered. Costs estimated in this study are detailed, cover a comprehensive list of relevant items and allow for different levels of disaggregation. The main limitation of the study is that data came from a

  3. The New England travel market: changes in generational travel patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and explore the New England domestic travel market trends, from 1979 through 1991 within the context of generations. The existing travel markets, who travel to New England, are changing by age cohorts and specifically within different generations. The New England changes in generational travel patterns do not reflect national...

  4. Annual Directory of New England Colleges and Universities 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    New England Journal of Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "The New England Journal of Higher Education" (formerly "Connection") presents its "Annual Directory of New England Colleges and Universities," providing a wealth of information on New England higher education. For more than a quarter of a century, this college and university directory has been the publication of…

  5. Annual Directory of New England Colleges and Universities 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    New England Journal of Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "The New England Journal of Higher Education" (formerly "Connection") presents its "Annual Directory of New England Colleges and Universities," providing a wealth of information on New England higher education. For more than a quarter of a century, this college and university directory has been the publication of…

  6. Simulated National Identity and Ascendant Hyperreality in Julian Barnes’s England, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Abootalebi H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper sets out to analyze Julian Barnes’s novel England, England (1998 in the light of Jean Baudrillard’s concepts of simulation and hyperreality. According to Baudrillard, what we experience in today’s world is a simulation of reality superseded by signs and images, and therefore we are living in a hyperreal world. Barnes’s book offers a representative sample of hyperreal world in which Martha, the protagonist, finds herself troubled. Although initially she is impressed by the glamour of the theme park named England, England later on she loses interest in it when she comes to realization that everything about it is fake. This condition, making her think of her own identity and true self, finally leads her to leave the theme park and settle in the village of Anglia where she hopes to discover her true nature and regain her lost happiness.

  7. Simulated National Identity and Ascendant Hyperreality in Julian Barnes’s England, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Abootalebi H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper sets out to analyze Julian Barnes’s novel England, England (1998 in the light of Jean Baudrillard’s concepts of simulation and hyperreality. According to Baudrillard, what we experience in today’s world is a simulation of reality superseded by signs and images, and therefore we are living in a hyperreal world. Barnes’s book offers a representative sample of hyperreal world in which Martha, the protagonist, finds herself troubled. Although initially she is impressed by the glamour of the theme park named England, England later on she loses interest in it when she comes to realization that everything about it is fake. This condition, making her think of her own identity and true self, finally leads her to leave the theme park and settle in the village of Anglia where she hopes to discover her true nature and regain her lost happiness.

  8. 78 FR 1851 - New England States Committee on Electricity v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New England States Committee on Electricity v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice... States Committee on Electricity (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against ISO New England Inc...

  9. 78 FR 67357 - New England Power Generators Association, Inc. v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New England Power Generators Association, Inc. v. ISO New England Inc... Association, Inc. (NEPGA or Complainant) filed a complaint against ISO New England, Inc. (ISO-NE or Respondent). NEPGA alleges that the provisions of the ISO-NE Tariff that set capacity prices during circumstances...

  10. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  11. The Field of Educational Administration in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on over twenty years of empirical and intellectual work about knowledge production in the field of educational administration, I examine the origins and development of the canon, methodologies and knowledge workers in England. I focus on the field as being primarily concerned with professional activity and how and why this was established…

  12. Whales of New England. Secondary Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.

    Instructional materials and suggestions for conducting a whale watching field trip are contained in this curriculum packet for secondary science teachers. It is one unit in a series of curricular programs developed by the New England Aquarium Education Department. Activities and information are organized into three sections: (1) pre-trip…

  13. A View from England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This commentary outlines developments regarding Sex and Relationships Education (SRE, akin to Comprehensive Sex Education) in England and Wales over the past 15 years or so. BZgA has been a WHO/Europe collaborating centre for sexual and reproductive health since 2003. In this capacity, BZgA contributes to the development and dissemination of WHO…

  14. Dynamics of whlte pine in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; J.B. Cullen; Thomas S. Frieswyk

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of growth, regeneration, and quality changes for white pine between the 1970's and 1980's in the six-state New England region. Growth rates seemed comparable among ail states except Rhode Island, where the percentage of growth (1.71%) seemed low. Over all states, the proportion of acreage in seedling/sapling white pine stands averaged too low (8%) to...

  15. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrofani, E. Robert, Ed.

    These teacher-developed materials are designed to help educators integrate economic concepts into the teaching of history. The materials include readings on the Industrial Revolution in England and a series of activities that require students to analyze the impact of industrialization first on English peasant farmers, and then on workers in early…

  16. Comparing Teacher Roles in Denmark and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans; Pratt, Nick; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a comparative study of teaching in Denmark and England. Its broader aim is to help develop an approach for comparing pedagogy. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions these prompted. These were clustered using the lens of…

  17. The Politics of Education Policy in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    In this appreciative discussion paper I provide an overview of the reforms made to education in England, and engage with the politics of education through examining the simultaneous and inter-related processes of politicisation, depoliticisation and repoliticisation of educational matters. I engage in a discussion of the papers in this special…

  18. The plastic surgery postcode lottery in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, James

    2009-12-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) provides treatment free at the point of delivery to patients. Elective medical procedures in England are funded by 149 independent Primary Care Trusts (PCTs), which are each responsible for patients within a defined geographical area. There is wide variation of availability for many treatments, leading to a "postcode lottery" for healthcare provision in England. The aims were to review funding policies for cosmetic procedures, to evaluate the criteria used to decide eligibility against national guidelines, and to evaluate the extent of any postcode lottery for cosmetic surgery on the National Health Service. This study is the first comprehensive review of funding policies for cosmetic surgery in England. All PCTs in England were asked for their funding policies for cosmetic procedures including breast reduction & augmentation, removal of implants, mastopexy, abdominoplasty, facelift, blepharoplasty, rhinoplasty, pinnaplasty, body lifting, surgery for gynaecomastia and tattoo removal. Details of policies were received from 124/149 PCTs (83%). Guidelines varied widely; some refuse all procedures, whilst others allow a full range. Different and sometimes contradictory rules governing symptoms, body mass indices, breast sizes, weights, heights, and other criteria are used to assess patients for funding. Nationally produced guidelines were only followed by nine PCTs. A "postcode lottery" exists in the UK for plastic surgery procedures, despite national guidelines. Some of the more interesting findings are highlighted.

  19. Determinants of general practitioners' wages in England.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, S.; Goudie, R.; Sutton, M.; Gravelle, H.; Elliott, R.; Hole, A.R.; Ma, A.; Sibbald, B.S.; Skatun, D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the determinants of annual net income and wages (net income/hours) of general practitioners (GPs) using data for 2271 GPs in England recorded during Autumn 2008. The average GP had an annual net income of pound97,500 and worked 43 h per week. The mean wage was pound51 per h. Net income

  20. A SURFACE CRYSTALLOGRAPHY STUDY BY DYNAMICAL LEED OF THE (sqrt3xsqrt3)R30o CO STRUCTURE ON THE Rh(111) CRYSTAL SURFACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koestner, R.J.; Van Hove, M.A.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1980-09-01

    The atomic positions of the Rh(111) + ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{sup o} CO and CO{sub 2} surfaces are analyzed by dynamical LEED. The Rh(111) + ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{sup o} CO and CO{sub 2} systems produce identical I-V curves, confirming the dissociation of CO{sub 2} to CO on this surface. The adsorbed CO is found to stand perpendicular to the surface with the carbon end down at an atop site (that is, terminally bonded). The CO overlayer spacings are d{sub RhC} = 1.95 {+-} 0.1 {angstrom} and d{sub CD} = 1.07 {+-} 0.1 {angstrom}. This geometry yields a Zanazzi-Jona R-factor of 0.40 and a Pendry R-factor of 0.50.

  1. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) pain scale into Arabic for use with patients with diabetes in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoushi, Sabri; Johnson, Mark I; Tashani, Osama A

    2017-12-01

    In Libya neuropathic pain is rarely assessed in patients with diabetes. The Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) pain scale is used worldwide to screen for neuropathic pain. There is no Arabic version of LANSS for use in Libya. The aim of this study was to develop an Arabic version of LANSS and to assess its validity and reliability in diabetic patients in Benghazi, Libya. LANSS was translated into Arabic by four bilingual translators and back translated to English by a university academic. Validity and reliability of the Arabic LANSS was assessed on 110 patients attending a Diabetes Centre in Benghazi. Concurrent validity was tested and compared with the Self-completed Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS). Test-retest reliability was conducted 1-2 weeks later. Internal consistency and inter-class correlation (ICC) between LANSS and S-LANSS was also tested. Internal consistency within first completion of the Arabic LANSS was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.793) and similar to the Arabic S-LANSS (0.796) and the second completion of the Arabic LANSS (0.795). ICC between the Arabic LANSS and the Arabic S-LANSS was 0.999 (p 0.95, p < 0.0001). We concluded that the Arabic version of LANSS pain scale was valid and reliable for use on Libyan diabetic patients. This study provided results suggesting that the S-LANSS could also be used on diabetic patients.

  2. Epitaxial growth of coronene and hexa-peri-benzocoronene on MoS 2(0001) and graphite (0001): a LEED study of molecular size effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, U.; Karl, N.

    The molecular order in thin films of the aromatic hydrocarbon coronene, C 24H 12, and its larger homologue, hexa-peri-benzocoronene ("HBC"), C 42H 18, obtained by vacuum-deposition onto the (0001) cleavage plane of graphite and molybdenite, MoS 2, has been investigated by low-intensity low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). Under well-defined preparation conditions (low evaporation rates and moderate substrate temperatures), epitaxial films could be obtained; their epitaxial relations could be characterized by well-resolved LEED-patterns. For coverages in the monolayer region, commensurate graphite (0001)-p(√21 × √21 R ± 10.9°)-coronene and MoS 2(0001)-p(√13 × √13 R ± 13.9°)-coronene superstructures are formed, while hexa-peri-benzoncoronen forms commensurate graphite (0001)-p(√31 × √31 R ± 9.0°)-HBC and MoS 2(0001)-p(√21 × √21 R ± 10.9°)-HBC superstructures. From the dependence of the observed superstructure lattice constants on the size and shape of the adsorbed molecules relative to the respective substrate surface lattice constants a parallel orientation of the molecular planes with respect to the substrate surface can be inferred. It is shown that under the influence of the substrate the distances and azimuthal orientations of the molecules are determined by the closest packing permitted by their in-plane van der Waals radii. These structures are different from the respective bulk crystal structures. For the system coronene on MoS 2 a model of film formation is proposed.

  3. Mathematics anxiety in secondary students in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Steve

    2009-02-01

    Whatever the changes that are made to the mathematics curriculum in England, there will always remain a problem with mathematics anxiety. Maths anxiety is rarely facilitative. This study examined aspects of mathematics in secondary schools and how students rated them as sources of anxiety. Over 2000 students in independent and mainstream schools in England completed a 20-item questionnaire designed to investigate maths anxiety levels. The same questionnaire was given to over 440 dyslexic males in specialist schools within the same age range. The results showed that examinations and tests create high levels of anxiety in approximately 4% of students. The results suggest that certain aspects and topics in the maths curriculum, such as long division, cause similar levels of anxiety for students in all year groups in secondary schools.

  4. The Listed Building Consent System in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils White

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a brief summary of why and how buildings are listed in England. It then goes on to describe the framework through which local planning authorities control their alteration and demolition, using examples from Ashburton, a small town in the county of Devon. The decision-making process is then examined, again with examples, and the options for appeal or enforcement action described.

  5. Lawyers and legal services in NW England

    OpenAIRE

    Sugarman, David

    2008-01-01

    A consideration of the diversity and fragmentation which characterise contemporary legal practice with particular reference to the situation in the North West of England. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  6. Social Stratification and Sports' Participation in England

    OpenAIRE

    Widdop, Paul; Cutts, David

    2013-01-01

    Using a latent class analysis, we identify distinct typologies of sports' consumers in England and then determine whether the socio-economic makeup of the latent classes resemble recent scholarly work across different cultural and leisure fields. The third part of the analysis provides a nuanced rigorous statistical evaluation of the subtle socio-economic differences between the active sports' clusters. Our analysis is unique with few studies, if any, identifying and then examining types of s...

  7. Puritan iconoclasm in England 1640-1660

    OpenAIRE

    Spraggon, J.

    2000-01-01

    A study of Puritan iconoclasm in England during the period of the civil wars and Interregnum, this thesis looks at the reasons for the resurgence of large-scale iconoclasm a hundred years after the break with Rome. Initially a reaction to the emphasis on ceremony and the 'beauty of holiness' under Archbishop Laud, the attack on recent 'innovations' introduced into the church (such as images, stained glass windows and communion rails) developed into a drive for further reformati...

  8. Protecting Geoheritage - Geodiversity Charter for England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    The Geodiversity Charter for England, launched in 2014, sets out the clear vision that England's 'geodiversity is recognised as an integral and vital part of our environment, economy and heritage that must be safeguarded and managed for current and future generations'. England is privileged to be among the most geodiverse places in the world with 700 million years of geological history revealed by our rocks. The white cliffs of Dover, honey coloured Cotswold limestone, granite Dartmoor Tors, are examples of this geodiversity. To maintain and enhance our geodiversity it is important to recognise its role in: • the understanding of England's geological history and global geosciences • natural heritage, both terrestrial and marine, and landscapes in all their diversity • supporting habitats and species and the many essential benefits they provide for society • adaptation to changes in climate and sea-level through sustainable management of land and water and working with natural processes • sustainable economic development • the history, character and cultural development of our society through intellectual growth and creative expression alongside industrial and technological development • public health, quality of life and national well-being and connecting people with the natural environment including active promotion of geotourism. Geodiversity, however, is an often overlooked environmental asset. The vision of the Charter and the work of the English Geodiversity Forum is to encourage good practice and to act as a focus in order to: • raise awareness of the importance, value and relevance of geodiversity to our economic prosperity and comfort and its wider links with the natural environment, landscape, cultural and historical heritage and sense of place • encourage a sense of pride through education and learning, promotion and interpretation • promote careful management of geodiversity through conservation and enhancement of its special

  9. The Impact of Commissioning for Rhinosinusitis in England

    OpenAIRE

    Soni-Jaiswal, Archana; Philpott, Carl; Hopkins, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the compliance of clinical commissioning groups (CCG) in England with the ENT-UK Rhinosinusitis commissioning guide produced in collaboration with the Royal College of Surgeons England and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence. We also aimed to assess the ease of accessibility of data from CCG’s. Design:Audit of compliance of English CCG’s with the ENT-UK rhinosinusitis commissioning guide. Setting: CCG’s in England Participants: 58 of the 221 CCG’s in England we...

  10. The invertebrate ecology of the Chalk aquifer in England (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, L.; Robertson, A. R.; White, D.; Knight, L.; Johns, T.; Edwards, F.; Arietti, M.; Sorensen, J. P. R.; Weitowitz, D.; Marchant, B. P.; Bloomfield, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    The Chalk is an important water supply aquifer, yet ecosystems within it remain poorly understood. Boreholes (198) in seven areas of England (UK) were sampled to determine the importance of the Chalk aquifer as a habitat, and to improve understanding of how species are distributed. Stygobitic macro-invertebrates were remarkably common, and were recorded in 67 % of boreholes in unconcealed Chalk, although they were not recorded in Chalk that is concealed by low-permeability strata and thus likely to be confined. Most species were found in shallow boreholes (50 m) water tables, indicating that the habitat is vertically extensive. Stygobites were present in more boreholes in southern England than northern England (77 % compared to 38 %). Only two species were found in northern England compared to six in southern England, but overall seven of the eight stygobitic macro-invertebrate species found in England were detected in the Chalk. Two species are common in southern England, but absent from northern England despite the presence of a continuous habitat prior to the Devensian glaciation. This suggests that either they did not survive glaciations in the north where glaciers were more extensive, or dispersal rates are slow and they have never colonised northern England. Subsurface ecosystems comprising aquatic macro-invertebrates and meiofauna, as well as the microbial organisms they interact with, are likely to be widespread in the Chalk aquifer. They represent an important contribution to biodiversity, and may influence biogeochemical cycles and provide other ecosystem services.

  11. The evolving environmental marketplace, using green to make green[An introduction to the U.S. Green Building Council, Performance Rating Systems, LEED as a benchmarking tool in the United States and green economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andereck, K.J. [Skidmore Owings and Merrill LLP, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Using an economic perspective, it is possible to make a case for green buildings and green development practices by placing emphasis on Energy Efficiency and Environmental Design. Several case studies have demonstrated that green buildings save money through reduced consumption of natural resources, electricity and gas both at the building site and at the source of energy. Sound environmental practices and energy efficiency measures improve the environmental conditions throughout the state by reducing power plant emissions and reducing operations and maintenance budgets in the state. The author presented a case study where a green development project was guided and monitored using the Environmental Performance Rating System called Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), version 2.0. The work was registered to achieve LEED certification. A brief study on current construction related costs was also included. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-14

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W P&T) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012.

  13. Yorkshire's influence on the understanding and treatment of mental diseases in Victorian Britain: The golden triad of York, Wakefield, and Leeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Henry R; Reynolds, Edward H

    2017-10-04

    In the late-eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a more humane approach to the care of the insane in Britain was catalyzed in part by the illness of King George III. The Reform Movement envisaged "moral" treatment in asylums in pleasant rural environments, but these aspirations were overwhelmed by industrialization, urbanization, and the scale of the need, such that most asylums became gigantic institutions for chronic insanity. Three institutions in Yorkshire remained beacons of enlightenment in the general gloom of Victorian alienism: the Retreat in York founded and developed by the Quaker Tuke family; the West Riding Lunatic Asylum in Wakefield led by Sir James Crichton-Browne, which initiated research into brain and mental diseases; and the Leeds Medical School and Wakefield axis associated with Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt, which pioneered teaching of mental diseases and, later, the first Chair of Psychiatry. Three other Yorkshiremen who greatly influenced nineteenth-century "neuropsychiatry" in Britain and abroad were Thomas Laycock in York and Edinburgh, and Henry Maudsley and John Hughlings Jackson in London.

  14. A LEED analysis of the clean surfaces of α-Fe(2)O(3)(0001) and α-Cr(2)O(3)(0001) bulk single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbe, Maike; Moritz, Wolfgang

    2009-04-01

    We analyzed the (0001) surface structures of hematite and chromia bulk single crystals by low energy electron diffraction (LEED). The hematite crystal was annealed in an O(2) atmosphere, p(O(2))≈3 × 10(-8) mbar, for several hours. The chromia crystal was sputtered with Ar(+) ions, E = 1 keV, and afterward heated up to 900 °C for 5 min under ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) conditions. I(V)-curve data sets of 12 symmetrically independent diffraction spots were measured at room temperature in the energy range E = 150-500 eV. Charging effects hindered measurements at lower energies. Our analysis of the hematite single crystal surface indicates that it is terminated by a single iron layer which is occupied at ≈50%. Relaxation effects along the c-axis are quite large and involve several iron double layers. For the chromia surface the results indicate that termination with a single Cr seems not to hold. Most probably the surface is terminated by two partially occupied Cr sites or chromyl groups. Relaxations in deeper layers are small in contrast to α-Fe(2)O(3)(0001).

  15. Agreement Between the Douleur Neuropathique in 4 Questions and Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Questionnaires to Classify Neuropathic Pain Among Patients with Leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Jamilly C V; Santos, Victor S; Gurgel, Ricardo Q; Santana, Julianne C V; Reis, Francisco P; Cuevas, Luis E; Feitosa, Vera L C

    2016-10-05

    Neuropathic pain (NP) often occurs during the course of leprosy, and screening tools to differentiate NP from non-NP are often used. However, their performance varies in different settings. The most frequently used scales are the Douleur Neuropathique in 4 questions (DN4) and the Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs (LANSS) questionnaires. Thus, we conducted a study to evaluate the agreement between DN4 and LANSS questionnaires to classify NP in 195 leprosy patients attending two reference centers in Sergipe, Brazil. The DN4 and LANSS classified 166 and 110 patients, respectively, as having NP. One hundred and seven (54.8%) were classified as NP by both questionnaires; 59 (30.2%) solely by the DN4 questionnaire and three (1.5%) solely by the LANSS. The agreement of the questionnaires was 66.2% (weak agreement, Kappa = 0.30). Although both questionnaires identified a high proportion of NP, the development of more robust instruments is necessary to ensure the accuracy of diagnosis of leprosy patients classified as having NP. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Early stages of epitaxial CoSi 2 formation on Si(111) surface as investigated by ARUPS, XPS, LEED and work function variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirri, C.; Peruchetti, J. C.; Gewinner, G.; Derrien, J.

    1985-04-01

    We performed the CoSi 2 formation on a clean (7 × 7) Si(111) surface under UHV conditions. The used techniques were angle resolved UV photoemission, X-ray photoemission, work function change and low energy electron diffraction in order to study the electronic and structural properties of the interface during its formation. At room temperature, a small amount of Co reacts strongly with Si to form an interfacial and very thin cobalt suicide. The ultraviolet photoelectron spectrum displays already two features corresponding respectively to the Co 3d and Si 3p electron bonding states and the Co 3d non-bonding states. With increasing coverage ( θ ≳ 4 ML) it seems that the interfacial suicide prevents further Co-Si interdiffusion to achieve the suicide reaction and a metal rich film is found. At high temperature (˜ 600°C) and in the first monolayer range, several superstructures are found (√7 × √7, and 2 × 2). They are induced by a Co-Si bidimensional compound where the Co atoms are not yet completely surrounded by Si atoms as in their bulk CoSi 2 structure. With increasing coverage, a CoSi 2-like photoemission spectrum is observed reflecting the formation of the disilicide. The LEED pattern testifies an epitaxial growth displaying a (1 × 1) CoSi 2 diagram. The work function change technique also reflects faithfully this growth.

  17. Environmental Assessment Methodologies for Commercial Buildings: An Elicitation Study of U.S. Building Professionals’ Beliefs on Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Kientzel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary environmental programs (VEPs have become increasingly popular around the world to address energy efficiency issues that mandatory building codes have not been able to tackle. Even though the utility of voluntary schemes is widely debated, they have become a de facto reality for many professionals in the building and construction sector. One topic that is neglected, however, in both academic and policy discussions, relates to how professionals (architects, engineers, real estate developers, etc. perceive the rise of voluntary rating schemes. In order to fill this gap in the literature, the present study investigates beliefs underlying adoption behavior regarding one of the most prominent voluntary assessment and certification programs in the U.S. building industry, the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED scheme. In this paper, an elicitation study, based on 14 semi-structured interviews with building professionals in the North East of the United States, was conducted to analyze this question. Building on the Reasoned Action Approach, this paper shows that, in addition to more conventional factors such as financial calculations and marketing aspects, the understanding of beliefs held by building professionals offers important insights into their decisions to work with Voluntary Environmental Assessment and Rating Programs.

  18. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy studies of solid-vacuum, solid-air and solid-liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffer, Saskia [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Electron based surface probing techniques can provide detailed information about surface structure or chemical composition in vacuum environments. The development of new surface techniques has made possible in situ molecular level studies of solid-gas interfaces and more recently, solid-liquid interfaces. The aim of this dissertation is two-fold. First, by using novel sample preparation, Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and other traditional ultra high vacuum (UHV) techniques are shown to provide new information on the insulator/vacuum interface. The surface structure of the classic insulator NaCl has been determined using these methods. Second, using sum frequency generation (SFG) surface specific vibrational spectroscopy studies were performed on both the biopolymer/air and electrode/electrolyte interfaces. The surface structure and composition of polyetherurethane-silicone copolymers were determined in air using SFG, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SFG studies of the electrode (platinum, gold and copper)/electrolyte interface were performed as a function of applied potential in an electrochemical cell.

  19. Efficiency analysis in the application of indicators LEED-ND, the arid zone of the north of Mexico, case of study: Parajes del Sur, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua; Analisis de la eficiencia en la aplicacion de indicadores LEED-ND, en la zona arida del norte de Mexico, caso de estudio: parajes del sur, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Barrera, Leticia [Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    This article presents the analysis realized to the urban design of a colony applying the indicators of The Leadership in Energy (LEED-ND). The advantages that represent as far as impact are established and also the limits are pointed out, evaluating their efficiency in the application of indicators to improve performance and energy saving. Based on the analysis applied to the colony under study, some right solutions in the urban design are obtained that should be established as a part of the in force standardization. Nevertheless, the follow up to this same company in other developments, reflects that the proposals are not determined as a strategy of self planning but only to fulfill the asked requirements, obtaining a result with smaller impact and as an index that allows offering residential alternatives in the city tending to the sustained development. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta el analisis realizado al diseno urbano de un fraccionamiento aplicando los indicadores de The Leadership in Energy (LEED-ND). Se establecen las ventajas que presenta en cuanto a impacto y tambien se senalan las limitantes, evaluando su eficiencia en la aplicacion de indicadores para mejorar desempeno y ahorro energetico. Con base en el analisis aplicado al fraccionamiento en estudio, se tienen algunas soluciones acertadas en el diseno urbano que debieran establecerse como parte de la normatividad vigente, sin embargo, el seguimiento a esta misma empresa en otros desarrollos, refleja que las propuestas no estan determinadas como una estrategia de planeacion propia sino unicamente para cumplir con los requerimientos solicitados, obteniendo un resultado con menor impacto y como indice que permitan ofrecer alternativas habitacionales en la ciudad tendientes al desarrollo sostenido.

  20. The potential for measles transmission in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Graham

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the schools vaccination campaign in 1994, measles has been eliminated from England. Maintaining elimination requires low susceptibility levels to keep the effective reproduction number R below 1. Since 1995, however, MMR coverage in two year old children has decreased by more than 10%. Methods Quarterly MMR coverage data for children aged two and five years resident in each district health authority in England were used to estimate susceptibility to measles by age. The effective reproduction numbers for each district and strategic health authority were calculated and possible outbreak sizes estimated. Results In 2004/05, about 1.9 million school children and 300,000 pre-school children were recorded as incompletely vaccinated against measles in England, including more than 800,000 children completely unvaccinated. Based on this, approximately 1.3 million children aged 2–17 years were susceptible to measles. In 14 of the 99 districts, the level of susceptibility is sufficiently high for R to exceed 1, indicating the potential for sustained measles transmission. Eleven of these districts are in London. Our model suggests that the potential exists for an outbreak of up to 100,000 cases. These results are sensitive to the accuracy of reported vaccination coverage data. Conclusion Our analysis identified several districts with the potential for sustaining measles transmission. Many London areas remain at high risk even allowing for considerable under-reporting of coverage. Primary care trusts should ensure that accurate systems are in place to identify unimmunised children and to offer catch-up immunisation for those not up to date for MMR.

  1. Comparing teacher roles in Denmark and England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans; Pratt, Nick

    2014-01-01

    was the ease with which competent English teachers moved between roles. The English teachers observed adopted roles consistent with a wider techno-rationalist discourse. There was a greater subject emphasis by Danish teachers, whose work was set predominantly within a democratic humanist discourse, whilst...... the English teachers placed a greater emphasis on applied skills.......This article reports the findings of a comparative study of teaching in Denmark and England. Its broader aim is to help develop an approach for comparing pedagogy. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions...

  2. Seasonal Changes in Central England Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Hillebrand, Eric

    The aim of this paper is to assess how climate change is reflected in the variation of the seasonal patterns of the monthly Central England Temperature time series between 1772 and 2013. In particular, we model changes in the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle. Starting from the seminal work...... of the seasonal cycle is also documented. The literature so far has concentrated on the measurement of this phenomenon by various methods, among which complex demodulation and wavelet decompositions are prominent. We offer new insight by considering a model that allows for seasonally varying deterministic...

  3. Bottle wars: England versus Scotland versus France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Robert B; Athanasopoulos, Athanassios A; Allan, Michael S; Atchia, Sarah M

    2002-05-01

    Four batches of four brands of bottled water from England, Scotland and France were tested for their microbiological and physicochemical characteristics during a 2-month study. The lowest priced brand of water had the highest nitrate content (46.9 mg/L), while the most expensive brand did not necessarily have the best values for pH, total dissolved solids, turbidity or plate count. While no sample was positive for E. coli, the range of other measured values varied widely between brands and batches during the study. The bottled water samples from France on average demonstrated better results than the other countries studied.

  4. South Asians and epilepsy: exploring health experiences, needs and beliefs of communities in the north of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hanif; Wright, John; Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Jacoby, Ann

    2005-10-01

    To examine the beliefs and experiences of South Asians with epilepsy and the extent of provision of appropriate information and accessible services for them by health professionals. Qualitative interviews with 30 South Asians with epilepsy, 16 carers and 10 health professionals. In addition, two focus groups were held with 16 South Asians without epilepsy recruited from community centers. The interview sample was divided by religious groupings (Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims). Fieldwork was conducted in Bradford and Leeds (England). Beliefs that epilepsy is caused by spirit possession (Muslims) or attributable to sins committed in a past life (Sikhs and Hindus) were reported as being widely held among South Asians living both in the UK and the Indian subcontinent, although few informants themselves subscribed to such views. Compliance with conventional medication was high; however, those who experienced seizures most often were most likely to turn to traditional South Asian therapies. Most informants used both treatments simultaneously. The main issues regarding the provision of services were: lack of appropriate information and advice; language and communication barriers; problems in interaction with health professionals. Also discussed were the potential merits of attending support groups. Greatest dissatisfaction was expressed in relation to primary care, whereas the highest praise was reserved for specialist epilepsy nurses. Our findings show both similarities and differences between participants' experiences, where gender, age or other aspects of personal biography can be as important as religion, culture or country of origin. Furthermore, the impact of being diagnosed with epilepsy can be exacerbated by structural impediments to accessing information and appropriate services.

  5. Women Secondary Head Teachers in England: Where Are They Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Kay

    2017-01-01

    The underrepresentation of women in secondary school headship in England and elsewhere is an early and longstanding theme in the women and gender in educational leadership literature. The purpose of this article is to report findings from a statistical survey of secondary school head teachers across England. Data available in the public domain on…

  6. Ground-level Ozone (Smog) Information | New England | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Ground-level ozone presents a serious air quality problem in New England. In 2008, EPA revised the ozone standard to a level of 0.075 parts per million, 8-hour average. Over the last 5 years (2006 through 2010), there have been an average of 31 days per summer when New England's air exceeded this standard.

  7. Racialised Norms in Apprenticeship Systems in England and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderton, Charlotte; Wischmann, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the issue of the under-representation of young people from minority ethnic/migrant backgrounds in apprenticeships in England and Germany. Whilst there are many studies on apprenticeships in England and Germany, few focus on under-representation or discrimination, even fewer on ethnic under-representation, and there are…

  8. Who attempts to drive less in New England?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noblet, C. L.; Thøgersen, John; Teisl, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    travel choices in New England (USA). In total, 1340 New England residents responded to a mail survey, which asked them about their use of alternative travel modes, their attempts to drive less, and a range of potential psychological and structural antecedents. Responses were analyzed with structural...

  9. Nothing Changes: Perceptions of Vocational Education in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Liz; Flint, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores young people's perceptions of vocational education and training (VET) in England. It draws on interview and focus-group data from a funded project. Parallel studies were carried out in The Netherlands, South Africa and England. This study reports on the English project. It found that serendipity, contingent events and influence…

  10. Translation and Manipulation in Renaissance England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Denton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This supplementary volume to JEMS is part of an ongoing research project which began with a series of articles published by the author in the 1990s on the translation of Classical historical texts in Renaissance England. The methodology followed is that of Descriptive Translation Studies as developed by scholars such as Lefevere and Hermans with the accent on manipulation of the source text in line with the ideological stance of the translator and the need to ensure that readers of the translation received the ‘correct’ moral lessons.  Particular attention is devoted to a case study of the strategies followed in Thomas North’s domesticating English translation of Jacques Amyot’s French translation of Plutarch’s Lives and the consequences for Shakespeare’s perception of Plutarch.Biography John Denton was associate professor of English Language and Translation at the University of Florence until retirement in 2015. He  has published on contrastive analysis, history of translation (with special reference to the Early Modern England, religious discourse, literary and audiovisual translation. 

  11. Determinants of general practitioners' wages in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Stephen; Goudie, Rosalind; Sutton, Matt; Gravelle, Hugh; Elliott, Robert; Hole, Arne Risa; Ma, Ada; Sibbald, Bonnie; Skåtun, Diane

    2011-02-01

    We analyse the determinants of annual net income and wages (net income/hours) of general practitioners (GPs) using data for 2271 GPs in England recorded during Autumn 2008. The average GP had an annual net income of £97,500 and worked 43 h per week. The mean wage was £51 per h. Net income and wages depended on gender, experience, list size, partnership size, whether or not the GP worked in a dispensing practice, whether they were salaried of self-employed, whether they worked in a practice with a nationally or locally negotiated contract, and the characteristics of the local population (proportion from ethnic minorities, rurality, and income deprivation). The findings have implications for pay discrimination by GP gender and ethnicity, GP preferences for partnership size, incentives for competition for patients, and compensating differentials for local population characteristics. They also shed light on the attractiveness to GPs in England of locally negotiated (personal medical services) versus nationally negotiated (general medical services) contracts.

  12. Being Mad in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar eDimitrijevic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It has become almost a rule that the birth of scientific psychiatry and what we today term clinical psychology took place in the short period between the last decade of the XVIII century and the 1820s. Everything that happened before that period – every description, diagnosis, and therapy – has been considered ‘pre-scientific,’ outdated, in a way worthless.In this paper, however, I am providing the argument that, first, the roots of contemporary psychiatry reach at least to England of the early modern period, and that, second, it may still turn out that in the field of mental health care historical continuities are more numerous and persistent than discontinuities. Thus, I briefly review the most important surviving documents about the treatment of mental disorders in England of Elizabethan and Jacobian period, organizing the argument around the well-known markers: diagnostics and aetiology, therapy, organization of the asylum, the public image of the mentally ill…

  13. Anthropocene Survival of Southern New England's Salt ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southern New England, salt marshes are exceptionally vulnerable to the impacts of accelerated sea level rise. Regional rates of sea level rise have been as much as 50 % greater than the global average over past decades, a more than fourfold increase over late Holocene background values. In addition, coastal development blocks many potential marsh migration routes, and compensatory mechanisms relying on positive feedbacks between inundation and sediment deposition are insufficient to counter inundation increases in extreme low-turbidity tidal waters. Accordingly, multiple lines of evidence suggest that marsh submergence is occurring in southern New England. A combination of monitoring data, field re-surveys, radiometric dating, and analysis of peat composition have established that, beginning in the early and mid-twentieth century, the dominant low-marsh plant, Spartina alterniflora, has encroached upward in tidal marshes, and typical high-marsh plants, including Juncus gerardii and Spartina patens, have declined, providing strong evidence that vegetation changes are being driven, at least in part, by higher water levels. Additionally, aerial and satellite imagery show shoreline retreat, widening and headward extension of channels, and new and expanded interior depressions. Papers in this special section highlight changes in marsh-building processes, patterns of vegetation loss, and shifts in species composition. The final papers turn to strategies for minimiz

  14. Translation and linguistic validation of the self-completed Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) scale for use in a Libyan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzahaf, Raga A; Tashani, Osama A; Unsworth, Biddy A; Johnson, Mark I

    2013-03-01

    The Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) pain scale is used to identify pain of neuropathic origin and has been validated as a self-completed tool (S-LANSS). We translated the S-LANSS into Arabic and evaluated its reliability and linguistic validity for use by Libyan people. Thirteen of 45 Libyan nationals living in the UK were identified as having chronic pain and completed an English and Arabic S-LANSS 1 week apart. In addition, 23 of 104 respondents to a telephone interview in Derna City, Libya, were identified as having chronic pain and completed the Arabic S-LANSS. Seven of these 23 completed the S-LANSS again 1 week later. Cronbach's alpha was 0.72 (P Arabic S-LANSS and 0.71 (P English S-LANSS. There was good measurement of agreement of individual items in Arabic and English S-LANSS tools with kappa coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 1.00. Twelve of the 23 (52.2%) individuals with chronic pain scored 12 or more on the Arabic S-LANSS and were classified as possibly having neuropathic pain. There was good measurement of agreement of individual items in Arabic S-LANSS tools with kappa coefficients ranging from 0.462 to 1.00. There were strong intraclass correlations in both versions for test-retest reliability of total score. The Arabic S-LANSS is reliable and linguistically valid to use in Libya. Our translation of the S-LANSS into Arabic was shown to be linguistically valid and reliable for use in a Libyan population. © 2012 The Authors. Pain Practice © 2012 World Institute of Pain.

  15. Validity and reliability of the Spanish-language version of the self-administered Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) pain scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, I; Gil-Martínez, A; Candelas-Fernández, P; de Andrés-Ares, J; Beltrán-Alacreu, H; La Touche, R

    2016-12-08

    The self-administered Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) scale is a tool designed to identify patients with pain with neuropathic features. To assess the validity and reliability of the Spanish-language version of the S-LANSS scale. Our study included a total of 182 patients with chronic pain to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of the S-LANSS; the sample was increased to 321 patients to evaluate construct validity and reliability. The validated Spanish-language version of the ID-Pain questionnaire was used as the criterion variable. All participants completed the ID-Pain, the S-LANSS, and the Numerical Rating Scale for pain. Discriminant validity was evaluated by analysing sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Construct validity was assessed with factor analysis and by comparing the odds ratio of each S-LANSS item to the total score. Convergent validity and reliability were evaluated with Pearson's r and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. The optimal cut-off point for S-LANSS was ≥12 points (AUC=.89; sensitivity=88.7; specificity=76.6). Factor analysis yielded one factor; furthermore, all items contributed significantly to the positive total score on the S-LANSS (P<.05). The S-LANSS showed a significant correlation with ID-Pain (r=.734, α=.71). The Spanish-language version of the S-LANSS is valid and reliable for identifying patients with chronic pain with neuropathic features. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Factor analysis of treatment outcomes from a UK specialist addiction service: relationship between the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, Social Satisfaction Questionnaire and 10-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Caroline; Böhnke, Jan R; Gabe, Rhian; Croudace, Tim J; Tober, Gillian; Raistrick, Duncan

    2014-11-01

    To examine the relationship between three outcome measures used by a specialist addiction service (UK): the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ), the Social Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ) and the 10-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE-10). A clinical sample of 715 service user records was extracted from a specialist addiction service (2011) database. The LDQ (dependence), SSQ (social satisfaction) and CORE-10 (psychological distress) were routinely administered at the start of treatment and again between 3 and 12 months post-treatment. A mixed pre/post-treatment dataset of 526 service users was subjected to exploratory factor analysis. Parallel Analysis and the Hull method were used to suggest the most parsimonious factor solution. Exploratory factor analysis with three factors accounted for 66.2% of the total variance but Parallel Analysis supported two factors as sufficient to account for observed correlations among items. In the two-factor solution, LDQ items and nine of the 10 CORE-10 items loaded on the first factor >0.41, and the SSQ items on factor 2 with loadings >0.63. A two dimensional summary appears sufficient and clinically meaningful. Among specialist addiction service users, social satisfaction appears to be a unique construct of addiction and is not the same as variation due to psychological distress or dependence. Our interpretation of the findings is that dependence is best thought of as a specific psychological condition subsumed under the construct psychological distress. © 2014 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. The foot function index is more sensitive to change than the Leeds Foot Impact Scale for evaluating rheumatoid arthritis patients after forefoot or hindfoot reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradin, Imraan; van der Heide, Huub J L

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the responsiveness of the Foot Functional Index (FFI) and Leeds Foot Impact Scale for Rheumatoid Arthritis (LFIS-RA) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients receiving a forefoot or hindfoot reconstruction. This was a prospective cohort study including 30 rheumatoid arthritis patients with severe rheumatoid foot deformities in need for surgical correction. Responsiveness was measured using distribution-based methods (standardized effect size, standardized response mean and Guyatt responsiveness ratio) and anchor-based methods (receiver operating characteristics curves and correlation analyses) by making use of an anchor question. To examine the depth of the questionnaires we measured the floor and ceiling effects. The study population consisted of three males and 27 females, with a mean age of 62 years. The mean follow-up time was 38 months. Twenty-two feet received a forefoot reconstruction and eight feet a triple arthrodesis. For the FFI the SES was -0.80, SRM was -0.85 and the GRR was -1.25. For the LFIS-RA the SES was 0.58, SRM was 0.58 and the GRR was 0.88. The AUC was 0.741 and 0.645 for FFI and LFIS, respectively. Contrary to the LFIS-RA, the FFI showed a significant correlation between change score and the anchor question. Both questionnaires did not show a significant floor or ceiling effect. The FFI showed a large responsiveness and the LFIS- RA showed moderate responsiveness in rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving forefoot or hindfoot surgery, without floor or ceiling effects in both questionnaires.

  18. Comparative epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection: England and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alice; Mullish, Benjamin H; Williams, Horace R T; Aylin, Paul

    2017-10-01

    To examine whether there is an epidemiological difference between Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) inpatient populations in England and the United States. A cross-sectional study. National administrative inpatient discharge data from England (Hospital Episode Statistics) and the USA (National Inpatient Sample) in 2012. De-identifiable non-obstetric inpatient discharges from the national datasets were used to estimate national CDI incidence in the United States and England using ICD9-CM(008.45) and ICD10(A04.7) respectively. The rate of CDI was calculated per 100 000 population using national population estimates. Rate per 100 000 inpatient discharges was also calculated separated by primary and secondary diagnosis of CDI. Age, sex and Elixhauser comorbidities profiles were examined. The USA had a higher rate of CDI compared to England: 115.1/100 000 vs. 19.3/100 000 population (P USA (OR 1.20 95% CI [1.18,1.22] P USA compared to England apart from dementia, which was greater in England (9.63% vs. 1.25%, P USA was much higher than in England. Age and comorbidity profiles also differed between CDI patients in both countries. The reasons for this are likely multi-factorial but may reflect national infection control policy.

  19. Seasonal distribution of psychiatric births in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Disanto

    Full Text Available There is general consensus that season of birth influences the risk of developing psychiatric conditions later in life. We aimed to investigate whether the risk of schizophrenia (SC, bipolar affective disorder (BAD and recurrent depressive disorder (RDD is influenced by month of birth in England to a similar extent as other countries using the largest cohort of English patients collected to date (n = 57,971. When cases were compared to the general English population (n = 29,183,034 all diseases showed a seasonal distribution of births (SC p = 2.48E-05; BAD p = 0.019; RDD p = 0.015. This data has implications for future strategies of disease prevention.

  20. New England Wind Energy Education Project (NEWEEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Robert C.; Craddock, Kathryn A.; von Allmen, Daniel R.

    2012-04-25

    Project objective is to develop and disseminate accurate, objective information on critical wind energy issues impacting market acceptance of hundreds of land-based projects and vast off-shore wind developments proposed in the 6-state New England region, thereby accelerating the pace of wind installation from today's 140 MW towards the region's 20% by 2030 goals of 12,500 MW. Methodology: This objective will be accomplished by accumulating, developing, assembling timely, accurate, objective and detailed information representing the 'state of the knowledge' on critical wind energy issues impacting market acceptance, and widely disseminating such information. The target audience includes state agencies and local governments; utilities and grid operators; wind developers; agricultural and environmental groups and other NGOs; research organizations; host communities and the general public, particularly those in communities with planned or operating wind projects. Information will be disseminated through: (a) a series of topic-specific web conference briefings; (b) a one-day NEWEEP conference, back-to-back with a Utility Wind Interest Group one-day regional conference organized for this project; (c) posting briefing and conference materials on the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) web site and featuring the content on NEWF electronic newsletters distributed to an opt-in list of currently over 5000 individuals; (d) through interaction with and participation in Wind Powering America (WPA) state Wind Working Group meetings and WPA's annual All-States Summit, and (e) through the networks of project collaborators. Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC (lead) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory will staff the project, directed by an independent Steering Committee composed of a collaborative regional and national network of organizations. Major Participants - the Steering Committee: In addition to the applicants, the initial collaborators committing

  1. New England Wind Forum, Volume 1, Issue 1 -- January 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-01-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 1 features an interview with Brother Joseph of Portsmouth Abbey. A commercial-scale Vestas V47 wind turbine will soon be installed on the grounds of the Benedictine monastery and prep school in Rhode Island, with the assistance of a grant from the Rhode Island Renewable Energy Fund. This will be the first large-scale turbine located behind the customer meter in the region.

  2. Variability and trends in England and Wales precipitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Leeuw, Johannes; Methven, John; Blackburn, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The England and Wales precipitation ( EWP ) dataset is a homogeneous time series of daily accumulations from 1931 to 2014, composed from rain gauge observations spanning the region. The daily regional...

  3. 75 FR 70722 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    .... Howard, Executive Director, New England Fishery Management Council; telephone: (978) 465-0492... develop recommendations on proposed penalty schedule. Other business may be discussed. Although non..., 2010. Tracey L. Thompson, Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries...

  4. [The reception of Vesalius in Spain and England].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the depiction of engravings taken from Vesalius's, Valverde de Hamusco's and Casserio 's treatises in portraits during the 16th and the 17th centuries to understand better the reception of the Fabrica in Spain and England.

  5. 78 FR 70282 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; public meetings. SUMMARY: The New England Fishery Management Council's (Council) Groundfish Oversight Committee and Electronic Monitoring Working Group (EMWG) will...

  6. Detection and assessment of secondary sonic booms in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    This report documents the results of a secondary sonic boom detection and assessment program conducted by the U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Transportation Systems Center in New England during the summer of 1979. Measurements of both acoustic and infr...

  7. Ocean and Coastal Acidification off New England and Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    New England coastal and adjacent Nova Scotia shelf waters have a reduced buffering capacity because of significant freshwater input, making the region’s waters potentially more vulnerable to coastal acidification. Nutrient loading and heavy precipitation events further acid...

  8. Private Well Owners | Drinking Water in New England | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Recent studies in New England identified contamination of some private wells from methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MtBE), radon and arsenic. But, many homeowners are not aware of this risk to their drinking water.

  9. Mobile phone use by drivers : 2009 - survey results for England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Premise/hypothesis : The Department for Transport has commissioned surveys to monitor the levels of mobile phone use by drivers across England since 2002. Methods : Two or three-person teams conducted observational surveys of mobile phone use on repr...

  10. New England Energy Congress: progress report - a descriptive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Robert L.; Mayer, Jean; Buckley, John G.; Spencer, Bailey; Alford, Zeb D.; Keating, Jr., Stephen J.; Aubin, Elmer B.

    1978-09-01

    New England's dependence on oil (about 80%) is posing a double threat to the region and its economic prosperity, as oil dependency means extreme supply vulnerability and substantially higher prices than the national average. The New England Energy Congress, sponsored by the New England Congressional Caucus and Tufts Univ., represents the concerted effort of a highly diverse group of New Englanders to address these problems. The work of the six committees of the Congress is reviewed in this report. The committees are the Supply Committee, Energy Demand Committee, Energy Conservation Committee, Regulatory and Institutional Processes Committee, Economic Development through Alternative Sources of Energy Committee, and Energy Economics and Financing Committee. (MCW)

  11. Education governance and standardised tests in Denmark and England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine; Kelly, Peter; McNess, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    In this study we identify and compare the impact of standardised student assessment in England, an established neoliberal context, and in Denmark where a neoliberal education reform agenda is emerging in response to both national concerns and international governance. National reading tests...... for students aged 11–12 years, long established in England, were introduced in Denmark in 2010. The form they take differs considerably, being primarily formative in Denmark and largely summative in England. Culturally sensitive extended semi-structured interviews are conducted with both teachers and students...... they believe to be their students’ best interests. In England, however, teachers try to accommodate a concern for both their students’ and their own interests, and the pedagogy they enact is more often controlling, instrumental and reductionist; their wish to be proactive is compromised by their need...

  12. 78 FR 13868 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Management Council is holding a workshop to advance the development of a comprehensive acceptable biological catch (ABC) risk policy for New England fisheries through structured and participatory discussions. It...

  13. Privatizing education: free school policy in Sweden and England

    OpenAIRE

    Wiborg, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden has bypassed England by far in outsourcing schools to private providers. The comparative argument promulgated in this article is that the combination ...

  14. Legal services in North West England: the changing landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Sugarman, David

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the legal services revolution in the North West of England. Originally presented as a paper at a conference on Legal services in North West England: the changing landscape" hosted by Lancaster University's Centre for Law and Society on September 27, 2007. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Societ...

  15. Interconnection France-England; Interconnexion France-Angleterre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents defines the interconnection France-England rules for the 2000 MW DC submarine cable directly linking the transmission networks of England and Wales and France. Rights to use Interconnector capacity from 1 April 2001 are to be offered through competitive tenders and auctions, full details of which are set out in the Rules. The contract and a guide to the application form are provided. (A.L.B.)

  16. Environment Agency England flood warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Chris; Walters, Mark; Haynes, Elizabeth; Dobson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Context In England around 5 million homes are at risk of flooding. We invest significantly in flood prevention and management schemes but we can never prevent all flooding. Early alerting systems are fundamental to helping us reduce the impacts of flooding. The Environment Agency has had the responsibility for flood warning since 1996. In 2006 we invested in a new dissemination system that would send direct messages to pre-identified recipients via a range of channels. Since then we have continuously improved the system and service we offer. In 2010 we introduced an 'opt-out' service where we pre-registered landline numbers in flood risk areas, significantly increasing the customer base. The service has performed exceptionally well under intense flood conditions. Over a period of 3 days in December 2013, when England was experiencing an east coast storm surge, the system sent nearly 350,000 telephone messages, 85,000 emails and 70,000 text messages, with a peak call rate of around 37,000 per hour and 100% availability. The Floodline Warnings Direct (FWD) System FWD provides warnings in advance of flooding so that people at risk and responders can take action to minimise the impact of the flood. Warnings are sent via telephone, fax, text message, pager or e-mail to over 1.1 million properties located within flood risk areas in England. Triggers for issuing alerts and warnings include attained and forecast river levels and rainfall in some rapidly responding locations. There are three levels of warning: Flood Alert, Flood Warning and Severe Flood Warning, and a stand down message. The warnings can be updated to include relevant information to help inform those at risk. Working with our current provider Fujitsu, the system is under a programme of continuous improvement including expanding the 'opt-out' service to mobile phone numbers registered to at risk addresses, allowing mobile registration to the system for people 'on the move' and providing access to

  17. Urology study day: Leeds 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, Carmel; Kujawa, Magda; Namasivayam, Siva; Swann, Ania; Wigglesworth, Neil; Heavens, Catherine; Finan, Claire

    2017-06-22

    Last year, urology nurses and continence nurse specialists took part in the second of two study days on urology. The events were delivered by the British Journal of Nursing with programme support in association with the British Association of Urology Nurses and Hollister Inc. Below are reports of some of the presentations.

  18. Online chilling effects in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Townend

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Open and free internet-based platforms are seen as an enabler of global free expression, releasing writers from commercial and space constraints. However, many are working without the assistance of an in-house lawyer, or other legal resources. This may lead to undue suppression of public interest material, with important implications for freedom of expression and the democratic function of media. Two online surveys among digital and online journalists in England and Wales in 2013 indicated that the majority of encounters with defamation and privacy law take place outside the courts, with few formally recorded legal actions. This was particularly evident in a sample of ‘hyperlocal’ and local community publishers. In light of the results, this paper calls for a reappraisal of overly simplistic judicial and media applications of the ‘chilling effect’ doctrine, in order to expose its subjectivities and complexities. Additionally, attention needs to be paid to global and cross-jurisdictional media-legal environments, in order to help develop better internet policy and legal frameworks for protecting legitimate expression.

  19. Intergenerational relations and child development in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanskanen Antti O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary studies have shown that in many traditional populations the beneficial effects of grandparental presence for grandchildren may vary according to the sex and lineage of the grandparents, as well as by the sex of the grandchild. However, few studies have investigated the relevance of these factors in modern developed societies. The present investigation uses the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 4,636 children to analyse the association between grandparental investment and child development in contemporary England. Grandparental investment is measured by parent-grandparent contact frequencies at the child’s age of 3 and child development by “early learning goals” over the first year of primary school assessed with the Foundation Stage Profile (FSP. Children whose mothers reported contacts with maternal grandparents receive higher FSP scores compared to those with no contact at all. In addition, children whose fathers reported daily contacts with paternal grandfathers have lower FSP scores than other children. The study provides evidence of the relevance of grandparental investment on grandchild development also in developed societies. The results are discussed with reference to the grandmother hypothesis, sex-specific reproductive strategies and sex chromosome hypothesis.

  20. New England Cod Collapse and the Climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle C Meng

    Full Text Available To improve fishery management, there is an increasing need to understand the long-term consequences of natural and anthropogenic climate variability for ecological systems. New England's iconic cod populations have been in decline for several decades and have recently reached unprecedented lows. We find that 17% of the overall decline in Gulf of Maine cod biomass since 1980 can be attributed to positive phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. This is a consequence of three results: i a 1-unit increase in the NAO winter index is associated with a 17% decrease in the spring biomass of age-1 cod the following year; ii this NAO-driven decrease persists as the affected cohort matures; iii fishing practices appear to exacerbate NAO's direct biological effect such that, since 1913, a 1-unit increase in the NAO index lowers subsequent cod catch for up to 19 years. The Georges Bank cod stock displays similar patterns. Because we statistically detect a delay between the NAO and subsequent declines in adult biomass, our findings imply that observed current NAO conditions can be used in stock forecasts, providing lead time for adaptive policy. More broadly, our approach can inform forecasting efforts for other fish populations strongly affected by natural and anthropogenic climatic variation.

  1. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.; Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600, MSIN R4-41, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  2. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.

    2013-01-11

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE’s mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team’s successful integration of the project’s core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE’s mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification, which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award.

  3. The impact of commissioning for rhinosinusitis in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni-Jaiswal, A; Philpott, C; Hopkins, C

    2015-12-01

    To assess the compliance of clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) in England with the ENT-UK rhinosinusitis commissioning guide produced in collaboration with the Royal College of Surgeons England and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence. We also aimed to assess the ease of accessibility of data from CCGs. Audit of compliance of English CCGs with the ENT-UK rhinosinusitis commissioning guide. CCGs in England A total of 58 of the 221 CCGs in England were included and chosen because they were the first CCGs authorised by NHS England, or alternately, the CCGs forecasted to have a deficit in their first year of operation. Their websites were reviewed; when information was not easily accessible, a freedom of information request was submitted to the relevant CCG. Compliance with commissioning guidelines for rhinosinusitis. Thirteen percent of CCGs had restrictive referral criteria in place, largely unrelated to published evidence-based guidance. The routine use of multiple courses of oral steroids, prescription of antibiotics, CT scanning within primary care, and delaying referral for a year, prior to referral to a specialist were recommended against published advice. Restricting access to surgery may contribute to poorer outcomes and a decrease in the patient's quality of life. This is against the NHS constitution and is open to legal challenge. We encourage all ENT surgeons to review policies of their local CCG and engage with commissioners to ensure that their patients have evidence-based care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Snapshots of language and literature teaching in Denmark and England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans

    2016-01-01

    To illustrate differences in lower secondary-level language and literature teaching, we contrast a typical teaching episode in Denmark with one in England. Both reflect the dominant discourses in each country alongside recent policy initiatives, and each exemplifies a different orientation to lan...... to language and literature teaching focussing on performance in England and a personal formation in Denmark. Descriptions of the episodes are linked to wider debates and potential areas for further consideration are identified.......To illustrate differences in lower secondary-level language and literature teaching, we contrast a typical teaching episode in Denmark with one in England. Both reflect the dominant discourses in each country alongside recent policy initiatives, and each exemplifies a different orientation...

  5. Women Priests in the Church of England: Psychological Type Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Robbins

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study employed psychological type theory and measurement to explore the psychological profile of women priests ordained in the Church of England. A sample of 83 Anglican clergywomen in England completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI. The data demonstrated clear preferences for introversion (63% over extraversion (37%, for intuition (60% over sensing (40%, for feeling (76% over thinking (24%, and for judging (55% over perceiving (45%. In terms of dominant types, 37% were dominant feelers, 31% dominant intuitives, 23% dominant sensers, and 8% dominant thinkers. These findings are discussed to illuminate the preferred ministry styles of Anglican clergywomen in England and to highlight the significant differences between the psychological type profile of clergywomen and the UK female population norms.

  6. New England Energy Congress: preliminary report for public review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Robert L.; Mayer, Jean; Buckley, John G.; Spencer, Bailey

    1978-11-01

    The New England Energy Congress represents the concerted effort of a group of New Englanders to address the energy problem of the area. New England is dependent on oil, with fully 80% of its energy requirements derived from this single source. Detailed reports are presented by the Supply Committee (fossil fuels, nuclear, and alternative sources); the Committee on Economic Development Through Alternative Sources of Energy (defining the state of the art and future directions of the technologies applicable to renewable energy resources, specifically, biomass, direct solar, and wind/hydroelectric/tidal/wave energy; identifying, and formulating policies to reduce the institutional impediments and adverse environmental impacts of developing these resources; and evaluationg the relationship between renewable energy systems and regional economic development); Energy Demand Committee; Energy Conservation Committee; Regulatory and Institutional Processes Committee; and Energy Economics and Financing Committee.

  7. Development of priority based statewide scour monitoring systems in New England (PDF file)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-02

    A project was funded by the New England Transportation Consortium to research the creation of a scour monitoring system : that would assist in the allocation of resources during potentially destructive flood events in New England. Emphasis was placed...

  8. Climate Change Science Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert M.

    2016-03-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has actively pursued research in the effects of climate change on the hydrology of New England. Ongoing focus areas of climate change science activities of the USGS in New England include the following:

  9. Reforming birth registration law in England and Wales?

    OpenAIRE

    Julie McCandless

    2017-01-01

    The Law Commission of England and Wales is considering what its 13th Programme of Law Reform should address. During the consultation process, a project on birth registration law has been mooted. This is a very welcome proposal given that civil birth registration in England and Wales is a compulsory procedure that not only finds its roots in the early Victorian era, but also remains very similar, at least in terms of form and the information that is recorded. I first use two recent legal chall...

  10. Zoonotic diseases in South American camelids in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsby, K; Twomey, D F; Featherstone, C; Foster, A; Walsh, A; Hewitt, K; Morgan, D

    2017-04-01

    The number of South American camelids (SACs) in England and Wales is increasing and with this comes a risk of new and emerging infections. Although classified as livestock, these animals are also treated as pets and may be in regular contact with humans. This paper reviews zoonotic diseases that have been identified in SACs in England and Wales, and which pose a potential risk to human health. We also highlight the importance of surveillance continuing to capture information on infections in SACs for the protection of both public and animal health.

  11. Nocturnal Oviposition Behavior of Forensically Important Diptera in Central England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kate M; Grace, Karon A; Bulling, Mark T

    2015-11-01

    Timing of oviposition on a corpse is a key factor in entomologically based minimum postmortem interval (mPMI) calculations. However, there is considerable variation in nocturnal oviposition behavior of blow flies reported in the research literature. This study investigated nocturnal oviposition in central England for the first time, over 25 trials from 2011 to 2013. Liver-baited traps were placed in an urban location during control (diurnal), and nocturnal periods and environmental conditions were recorded during each 5-h trial. No nocturnal activity or oviposition was observed during the course of the study indicating that nocturnal oviposition is highly unlikely in central England. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. New England Energy Congress: A Blueprint for Energy Action. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Robert L.; Mayer, Jean; Buckley, John G.; Connolly, Patrick F.; Spencer, Bailey

    1979-05-01

    The New England Energy Congress consists of six committees, with members from each of the six New England states. Since May 1978, the Congress has been working to frame and substantiate energy action recommendations. Committee jurisdictions include New England Energy Supply, Economic Development through Alternative Sources of Energy, New England Energy Demand, Energy Conservation, Regulatory and Institutional Processes, and Energy Economics and Financing. The findings and recommendations that have resulted from their work are summarized. (MCW)

  13. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project - Newsletter #6 - September 2010, (NEWF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R.; Gifford, J.; Leeds, T.; Bauer, S.

    2010-09-01

    Wind Powering America program launched the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) in 2005 to provide a single comprehensive source of up-to-date, Web-based information on a broad array of wind energy issues pertaining to New England. The NEWF newsletter provides New England stakeholders with updates on wind energy development in the region.

  14. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Volume 1, Issue 4 -- May 2008 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2008-05-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 4 features an interview with Brian Fairbank, president and CEO of Jiminy Peak Mountain Resort.

  15. International Differences in the Links between Obesity and Physiological Dysregulation: The United States, England, and Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Kim, Jung Ki; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2013-01-01

    ...% for men aged 50-59. While obesity in England has also increased during this period, from approximately 9% in 1980 to 15% in 2004 for men aged 55-64, the level of obesity remains much lower in England [26]. Additionally, the difference in obesity between the US and England is more pronounced for women. The level of obesity in US women was ...

  16. Tourism in New England towns: a threat to the rural fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. Bristow

    2007-01-01

    A traditional tourist attraction in New England is the classic rural New England town. These small communities have a small-town feel bounded by family farms and wooded lands. These towns are heavily visited during the fall foliage season and during spring maple sugaring operations. The rural character of many New England communities is threatened by a growing...

  17. Grammar Teaching in Secondary School Foreign Language Learning in England: Teachers' Reported Beliefs and Observed Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liviero, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates teachers' beliefs relating to grammar teaching in modern foreign language (MFL) learning in England. Focus on grammatical form has been consistently supported by linguistic research and teacher practice, and has progressively been reinstated in England's National Curriculum. However, MFL learning assessment in England has…

  18. A Comparison of the Guide Dog Movements of England and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, E.; Eames, T.

    1989-01-01

    The article compares the guide dog movements in the United States and England, noting that in England there is one school with 7 centers while in the U.S. there are 10 competing schools. In England, twice as high a proportion of blind people use guide dogs. (Author/DB)

  19. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Volume 1, Issue 3 -- October 2007 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2007-10-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 3 features an interview with Andrew Dzykewicz, Commissioner of the Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources.

  20. Travel trends in New England and the Northeast United States: updating post 9-11 trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the travel market trends in New England after September 11, 2001 (9- 11). Comparisons of travel to New England are also made with overall national domestic travel trends and vacation travel trends. The primary purpose is to examine the markets that travel to both the Northeast United States and New England1 regions to determine if and when the...

  1. Influence of Fire and other anthropogenic practices on grassland and shrubland birds in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter D. Vickery; Benjamin Zuckerburg; Andrea L. Jones; W. Gregory Shriver; Andrew P. Weik

    2005-01-01

    Since 1966, many species of grassland and shrubland birds have declined substantially in New England (Askins 2000). The extent of grassland and shrubland habitat in New England has changed dramatically over the past 400 years. Presently, grassland and shrubland habitat in New England are created and maintained primarily as a result of four types of habitat management:...

  2. Retention of Recent College Graduates in New England. Policy Brief 09-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    The population of recent college graduates has been growing more slowly in New England than in the rest of the United States, and New England states are concerned that an inadequate supply of skilled workers may hamper economic growth. In some sense, New England is a victim of its own success. The region's colleges and universities excel at…

  3. 77 FR 11532 - Notice of Attendance at ISO New England and NEPOOL Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Attendance at ISO New England and NEPOOL Meetings The... Commission staff may attend upcoming ISO New England Inc. (ISO-NE) and New England Power Pool (NEPOOL... Commission staff may monitor the various meetings posted on the ISO-NE Web site. NEPOOL Participants...

  4. 78 FR 38027 - ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL13-72-000] ISO New England... III.A.15 of Appendix A of ISO New England Inc.'s existing tariff. Dominion Energy Marketing, Inc. and ISO New England Inc., 143 FERC ] 61,233 (2013). The refund effective date in Docket No. EL13-72-000...

  5. Iniciativas para melhoria do fluxo de informações do processo licitatório de obras públicas que visam a obtenção de certificação LEED

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Karoline

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho se propôs a efetuar uma análise tanto quantitativa como qualitativa do processo licitatório de uma obra em execução de uma IFE que visa à obtenção da certificação ambiental LEED. Para a concretização do trabalho, primeiramente, efetuouse um estudo maior com relação aos sistemas de certificação ambiental existentes no mundo e quais encontram-se mais difundidos em aspectos nacionais. Dentre estas, verificou-se qual certificação possuía critérios que se adaptassem ao...

  6. Introducing ICT in Schools in England: Rationale and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a critical perspective on the attempts to promote the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching and learning in England. It describes the rationale given for the introduction of ICT in terms of its potential to impact on educational standards to contribute to developing a curriculum which has more…

  7. 77 FR 14351 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Street, Mill 2, Newburyport, MA 01950. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England Fishery Management Council; telephone: (978) 465-0492. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The....gotomeeting.com/register/45053222 . Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come before...

  8. 78 FR 11820 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England Fishery Management... business may be discussed. Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come before this.... 1801 et seq. Dated: February 14, 2013. Tracey L. Thompson, Acting Deputy Director, Office of...

  9. 76 FR 77214 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ..., Newburyport, MA 01950. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England... auxiliary aids should be directed to Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, at (978) 465- 0492, at least 5 days... other business at this meeting. Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come...

  10. 76 FR 61345 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    .... Howard, Executive Director, New England Fishery Management Council; telephone: (978) 465-0492... year. Other business may be discussed. Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may... date. Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq. Dated: September 28, 2011. Tracey L. Thompson, Acting Director...

  11. 75 FR 80798 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ..., Executive Director, New England Fishery Management Council; telephone: (978) 465-0492. SUPPLEMENTARY... non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come before this group for discussion, those...: December 17, 2010. Tracey L. Thompson, Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine...

  12. 77 FR 29595 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... 01950. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England Fishery.... Howard, Executive Director, at (978) 465- 0492, at least 5 days prior to the meeting date. Authority: 16... Research Areas and (2) analysis of the coral measures. Although non-emergency issues not contained in this...

  13. 75 FR 63146 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    .... Howard, Executive Director, New England Fishery Management Council; telephone: (978) 465-0492.... Howard, Executive Director, at (978) 465- 0492, at least 5 days prior to the meeting date. Authority: 16... the development of the control rules. Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may...

  14. 77 FR 58983 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... Street, Mill 2, Newburyport, MA 01950. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England Fishery Management Council; telephone: (978) 465-0492. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The... their discretion. Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come before this group...

  15. 75 FR 78680 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ..., Newburyport, MA 01950. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England..., Executive Director, at (978) 465- 0492, at least 5 days prior to the meeting date. Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1801... non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come before this group for discussion, those...

  16. 75 FR 78681 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ..., Newburyport, MA 01950. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England... fishing year. Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come before this group for... sign language interpretation or other auxiliary aids should be directed to Paul J. Howard, Executive...

  17. 78 FR 25256 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    .... Nies, Executive Director, New England Fishery Management Council; telephone: (978) 465-0492... other auxiliary aids should be directed to Thomas A. Nies, Executive Director, at (978) 465- 0492, at.... Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come before this group for discussion, those...

  18. Idiocy and the Law in Colonial New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Parnel

    2001-01-01

    A review of laws and records of the courts of colonial New England indicates early laws of Massachusetts extended certain rights to idiots: they authorized the transfer of property, exonerated idiots who committed capital crimes, and extended relief to impoverished idiots. The relationship between colonial laws and present legislation is examined.…

  19. Institutional Conceptualisations of Teacher Education as Academic Work in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Viv; McNicholl, Jane; Pendry, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Through an analysis of job recruitment texts, and interviews with academic leaders, this article shows how the university-based teacher educator is produced as a category of academic worker in England. Focussing on the discursive processes of categorisation provides insights into how English universities conceptualise teacher education. Variations…

  20. Honour and Shame in a Church of England Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    While students of Islamic societies and cultures are aware of the influence of dynamics of honour and shame on behaviour, these factors are not always recognized by those who engage with Muslims in the UK. This paper will discuss the impact of concerns related to honour and shame on the behaviour of Muslim pupils in a Church of England primary…

  1. Educational Expansion, Economic Growth and Antisocial Behaviour: Evidence from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabates, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the increase in post-compulsory schooling and economic growth on conviction rates for antisocial behaviour in England. I hypothesise that both educational and employment opportunities should lead to greater reductions in antisocial behaviour when they are combined than when they exist in isolation. I test this…

  2. 78 FR 48860 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; public meetings. SUMMARY: The New England Fishery Management... Group (ABC WG) and Electronic Monitoring Working Group (EM WG). DATES: The first meeting of the ABC...

  3. Religious Education in England after 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In the ten years following 9/11 there was unprecedented interest in, and commitment to, religious education in the school curriculum in England. Politicians, academics, and professionals all argued that learning about religion could foster "social cohesion" and even prevent terrorism. Accordingly there were a number of national and…

  4. Pupils' Fear in the Classroom: Portraits from Palestine and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Eleanore; Affouneh, Saida

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the concept of fear related to the authoritarian classroom and how children express its influence on their learning. Its investigations draw on the comments of four classes of primary-age pupils, two from a school near London, England, and two from boys' and girls' schools in the West Bank, Palestine. It is written by one…

  5. Exploratory mapping of commuter flows in England and Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Harder, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The paper uses the origin–destination commute data published from the 1991 and 2001 Census to explore the developments in commuting and interaction patterns within England and Wales. Focus is on the geographical variations and a map of commuter flows is presented. Commuting is stretched out along...

  6. Snapshots of Language and Literature Teaching in Denmark and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans

    2016-01-01

    To illustrate differences in lower secondary-level language and literature teaching, we contrast a typical teaching episode in Denmark with one in England. Both reflect the dominant discourses in each country alongside recent policy initiatives, and each exemplifies a different orientation to language and literature teaching focussing on…

  7. No Lack of Principles: Leadership Development in England and Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBeath, John

    2011-01-01

    While there are significant differences between England and Scotland in the politics, the policy environment and the management of schools, leadership development both north and south of the border is charged with addressing what has been termed a recruitment and retention "crisis". An emerging phenomenon in both jurisdictions is that of…

  8. Schooling of Immigrant Children in West Germany, Sweden, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, I.

    1975-01-01

    The focus of this article is on children of migrant workers and immigrants in the schools of West Germany, Sweden and England. One central problem, that of language, is considered both as it is dealt with in policy, i. e., in curricula, and as it is actually implemented in some programs, which are typical for the actions in these countries.…

  9. Personalised Leadership Development? Lessons from the Pilot NPQH in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Megan; Earley, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon an evaluation, carried out for the National College, of the piloting of the new National Professional Qualification for Headship (NPQH) in England. The pilot programme focused on the personalisation of headship training to make it more customised to the identified needs of each individual. The reconfigured programme…

  10. Classification of paraglacial barrier systems: coastal New England, USA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FitzGerald, D.M.; van Heteren, S.

    1999-01-01

    The New England coast harbours a wide variety of barrier forms, which we organize into six barrier-coastline types. The barriers develop in response to the relative importance of several spatially and temporally variable parameters, particularly antecedent topography and geology, sediment abundance

  11. Decision Making Process and Declining Enrollments in Northern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Cyr, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This research was conducted as a qualitative comparative case study of two Northern New England school districts that were in the process of responding to declining enrollments. The purpose of the study was to explore decision-making through the lens of declining enrollments. An award winning rural school in an affluent town with high performing…

  12. Exploratory mapping of commuter flows in England and Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lassen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    and Birmingham. These are chosen for their size and differences in regional context. In the general analysis – at the country-wide scale - special emphasis is put on deriving a representation of the scale and the corridors of interaction from the relatively disaggregate data. A map of commuter flows in England...

  13. 75 FR 43928 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ..., Newburyport, MA 01950. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England... review the status of the red crab fishery and recent developments in processing, marketing, and... other auxiliary aids should be directed to Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, at (978) 465- 0492, at...

  14. Changing Landscapes in Safeguarding Babies and Young Children in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Eunice

    2014-01-01

    The importance of safeguarding children from violence is internationally recognised. However, detecting, intervening and protecting children from abuse both within the family and in institutions is complex. This paper specifically focuses on safeguarding in England and how workforce reform in the early years offers the opportunity to forge new…

  15. Comparing Pedagogy in Mathematics in Denmark and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter; Pratt, Nick; Dorf, Hans; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a comparative study of pedagogy in lower-secondary school mathematics in Denmark and England. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions these prompted. These were clustered using the lens of Bernstein's pedagogic discourse to…

  16. Research Article (New England Journal of Medicine) Four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-10

    Mar 10, 2016 ... Malawi Medical Journal 28 (3): September 2016. College of .... This article originally appeared in the New England Journal of Medicine ..... clearance,10 gametocytemia (prevalence and density), and changes in the hemoglobin level. Trial oversight. The contributions of the authors are listed in Table S5 in.

  17. Psychological Type Preferences of Female Bible College Students in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, William K.; Francis, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 122 female students attending a Pentecostal Bible College in England completed Form G (Anglicised) of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The data demonstrated preferences for extraversion over introversion, for sensing over intuition, for feeling over thinking, and for judging over perceiving. The predominant type was ISFJ (16%),…

  18. Locating Mathematics within Post-16 Vocational Education in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Diane; Noyes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The political importance of mathematics in post-16 education is clear. Far less clear is how mathematics does and should relate to vocational education. Successive mathematics curricula (e.g. core skills, key skills) have been developed in England with vocational learners in mind. Meanwhile, general mathematics qualifications remain largely…

  19. Research Article ( New England Journal of Medicine ) Four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Article ( New England Journal of Medicine ) Four artemisinin-based treatments in African pregnant women with malaria. ... The cure rate in the artemether–lumefantrine group was significantly lower than that in the other three groups, although the absolute difference was within the 5-percentage-point margin for ...

  20. Primary wood-product industries of southern New England - 1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Bones

    1973-01-01

    The results of a complete canvass of the primary wood manufacturers in southern New England. The report contains data about wood production and receipts for the states of the region. Comparisons are made with a similar 1952 survey and trends in industrial wood output are noted.

  1. Prices, wages and fertility in pre-industrial England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Marc Patrick Brag

    2012-01-01

    and relative prices to affect fertility. The model is estimated using new data for the pre-industrial period in England, and the analysis reveals a strong, positive effect of agricultural wages as well as a nonnegative effect of real agricultural prices on fertility. Furthermore, it is demonstrated...

  2. Privatizing Education: Free School Policy in Sweden and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden…

  3. Race and Vocational Education and Training in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, James; Orr, Kevin; Warmington, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Black and minority ethnic students (BME) are a significant constituency in vocational education and training (VET) and FE in England. Despite this recent research on race and VET has become a marginal concern. Insofar as current VET research addresses social justice, race appears to be a supplementary concern. Although there is a substantial…

  4. The Effects of Social Service Contact on Teenagers in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Morag; Scourfield, Jonathan; Cheung, Sin Yi; Sharland, Elaine; Sloan, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated outcomes of social service contact during teenage years. Method: Secondary analysis was conducted of the Longitudinal Survey of Young People in England (N = 15,770), using data on reported contact with social services resulting from teenagers' behavior. Outcomes considered were educational achievement and…

  5. Imported Talent: Foreign Immigration and the New England Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Andrew; Trubs'kyy, Mykhaylo; Fogg, Neeta P.

    2003-01-01

    The impacts of foreign immigration on population and labor force growth during the 1990s varied widely across U.S. geographic regions, divisions and states. New England was far more dependent than nearly all other regions on the new wave of foreign immigrants to achieve its population growth and labor force growth during the past decade. In fact,…

  6. 76 FR 38621 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ..., specificity and examples of the issues in the list for the purpose of developing recommended goals and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; public meeting. SUMMARY: The New England Fishery Management Council (Council) is...

  7. Educational Inclusion in England: Origins, Perspectives and Current Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauchlan, Fraser; Greig, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine different aspects of the inclusion debate, including how it has been shaped by the political context in England over the past 30 years. We then give consideration to the key argument that has dominated the inclusion agenda over the last decade: should effective inclusion be considered only as placement in mainstream school…

  8. The Oversoul of Reform: Horace Greeley and New England Transcendentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, Gary

    Entries in the New York "Tribune" suggest that editor Horace Greeley and his writing were part of New England transcendentalism. This was manifested in Greeley's interest in poetry, newspaper publishing, reform, and an overall practical social idealism. He was long associated with both literary figures and reform movements, and as a…

  9. A Bridge Too Far? Teacher Training in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Terry; Hake, Clare

    1995-01-01

    Examines recent changes, and the motives behind them, in teacher education in England and Wales. Recent years have seen a move toward reducing the role of higher education and creating school-based systems of training reminiscent of apprenticeships. Motives behind this reform trend appear to be primarily political. (SLD)

  10. Cross-cultural comparisons of personality : the Netherlands and England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SANDERMAN, R; EYSENCK, SBG; ARRINDELL, W A

    1991-01-01

    401 men and 475 women completed the Dutch version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Factor comparisons all exceeded 0.97 so that the factors of Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Social Desirability are deemed to be identical in the two countries, England and The Netherlands. Sex

  11. Surnames and social mobility in England, 1170-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gregory; Cummins, Neil

    2014-12-01

    Using educational status in England from 1170 to 2012, we show that the rate of social mobility in any society can be estimated from knowledge of just two facts: the distribution over time of surnames in the society and the distribution of surnames among an elite or underclass. Such surname measures reveal that the typical estimate of parent-child correlations in socioeconomic measures in the range of 0.2-0.6 are misleading about rates of overall social mobility. Measuring education status through Oxbridge attendance suggests a generalized intergenerational correlation in status in the range of 0.70-0.90. Social status is more strongly inherited even than height. This correlation is unchanged over centuries. Social mobility in England in 2012 was little greater than in preindustrial times. Thus there are indications of an underlying social physics surprisingly immune to government intervention.

  12. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, England and Wales, 1945-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Christopher R; LeBaigue, Susan; Esan, Oluwaseun B; Awofisyo, Adedoyin A; Adams, Natalie L; Fisher, Ian S T; Grant, Kathie A; Peters, Tansy M; Larkin, Lesley; Davies, Robert H; Adak, Goutam K

    2014-07-01

    In England and Wales, the emergence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis resulted in the largest and most persistent epidemic of foodborne infection attributable to a single subtype of any pathogen since systematic national microbiological surveillance was established. We reviewed 67 years of surveillance data to examine the features, underlying causes, and overall effects of S. enterica ser. Enteritidis. The epidemic was associated with the consumption of contaminated chicken meat and eggs, and a decline in the number of infections began after the adoption of vaccination and other measures in production and distribution of chicken meat and eggs. We estimate that >525,000 persons became ill during the course of the epidemic, which caused a total of 6,750,000 days of illness, 27,000 hospitalizations, and 2,000 deaths. Measures undertaken to control the epidemic have resulted in a major reduction in foodborne disease in England and Wales.

  13. Home visitors and child health in England: advances and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cowley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the early years as a focus for reducing health inequalities as well as one that is important for the children themselves. This paper describes the introduction in England of Sure Start Local Programmes, which included home visiting within a community development approach, and an intensive home visiting programme, the Nurse-Family partnership, for disadvantaged teenage mothers. It reflects on changes and challenges in service provision to mothers and their pre-school children in England, explaining that a long tradition of home visiting was, paradoxically, reduced as attention focused on the newer initiatives. This is now being addressed, with attention to a range of evidence based programmes and a specific focus on heath visitor provision.

  14. Relating counselor attributes to client engagement in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Dwayne; Rowan-Szal, Grace A; Joe, George W; Best, David; Day, Ed; Campbell, Angela

    2009-04-01

    Client functioning and treatment engagement were examined in relation to staff attributes and organizational climate across a diverse sample of drug treatment and outreach programs in England. Self-rating assessments were obtained from 1,539 clients and 439 counselors representing 44 programs, and results were interpreted using comparable data from studies of treatment programs in the United States. Client scores on treatment participation and counseling rapport in England were directly related to their higher levels of motivation and psychosocial functioning, as well as to staff ratings of professional attributes and program atmosphere. By linking records from English clients with their counselors in each program, findings also indicate these relationships are rooted in the personal interactions between clients and their counselor. Standardized assessments of treatment structure, process, and performance used across therapeutic settings and national boundaries show there is generalizability in the pattern of clinical dynamics, including the relationships between organizational functioning and quality of services.

  15. Wetland conservation and sustainable coastal governance in Japan and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Stephen; Kawabe, Midori; Rewhorn, Sonja

    2011-05-01

    Coastal wetlands present particular challenges for coastal governance and for the implementation of the Ramsar Convention, not least because coastal areas are focal points of human activity and of governance ambiguity. Through the evaluation of Ramsar delivery at both national and local levels in Japan and England, the relationship between Ramsar implementation and coastal governance was examined. In England, Ramsar status is primarily treated as a nature conservation designation which limits the wider opportunities inherent in the designation. In contrast, in Japan, the Ramsar Convention is used as a policy driver at the national level and as a leverage to encourage citizen engagement, economic benefit, and wetland conservation at the local level. It was concluded that through the implementation of the Ramsar Convention in important coastal wetland areas, significant steps can be taken towards delivering integrated approaches to coastal governance. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Building the New England Collaborative Data Management Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Kafel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for a curriculum designed for librarians to use for teaching STEM research data management skills to their constituents from diverse STEM disciplines has been widely identified. (Qin and D’Ignazio 2010. From 2012-2014, a collaborative group of New England librarians, led by a project team from the University of Massachusetts Medical School, developed lecture notes, presentation slides, assignments, readings, and case studies for teaching research data management. The New England Collaborative Data Management Curriculum (NECDMC is unique in its flexibility; providing subject agnostic instructional materials in a modular format for teaching common data management best practices along with a suite of teaching cases illustrating data management in disciplinary contexts. This article is a follow-up to the “Teaching Research Data Management: An Undergraduate/Graduate Curriculum (Piorun et al. 2012 that was published in the Journal of eScience Librarianship.

  17. Methodological Triangulation at the Bank of England:An Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Downward; Andrew Mearman

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which triangulation takes place within the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) process at the Bank of England. Triangulation is at its most basic, the mixing of two or more methods, investigators, theories, methodologies or data in a single investigation. More specifically, we argue for triangulation as a commitment in research design to the mixing of methods in the act of inference. The paper argues that there are many motivations for triangulation as well a...

  18. Euthanasia: a summary of the law in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simillis, Constantinos

    2008-07-01

    When medical treatment becomes futile, or the patient's suffering is intractable, doctors face the agonising dilemma of whether to proceed with euthanasia. It is important for a doctor to be familiar with the law surrounding euthanasia, in order to avoid prosecution. This paper explores the law in England and Wales regarding the different categories of euthanasia: voluntary euthanasia, nonvoluntary euthanasia, passive euthanasia, and active euthanasia.

  19. The Professional Rugby Experience in England and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Howard; Cavatorti, Francesco; Fino, Alessandro

    2004-01-01

    The Premier Rugby League is made up of 12 professional clubs. Its mission is to promote professional rugby in England. In fulfilling this mission, it bases all activities on the League's founding principles: a 'large virtual family' with values such as moral integrity. This strong sense of aggregation is a feature of the rugby community. The spirit of collaboration has also developed at the international level - formalised by an agreement with The Italian Rugby League-LIRE (Lega Italiana Rugb...

  20. Clothing the Poor in Nineteenth-Century England

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, Vivienne

    2013-01-01

    In this pioneering study Vivienne Richmond reveals the importance of dress to the nineteenth-century English poor, who valued clothing not only for its practical utility, but also as a central element in the creation and assertion of collective and individual identities. During this period of rapid industrialisation and urbanisation formal dress codes, corporate and institutional uniforms and the spread of urban fashions replaced the informal dress of agricultural England. This laid the found...

  1. Terminal Forecast Reference Notebook for RAF Alconbury, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-03

    REFERENCE NOTEBOOK FOR RAF ALCONjRY, ENGLAND Published By DETACHMENT 36 28TH WEATHER SQUADRON 2D WEATHER WING ( MAC ) UNITED STATES AIR FORCE UNCLASS I...ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Headquarters, 2d Weather Wing ( MAC ) 3 Oct 1983 Aerospace Sciences Division (DN) 13. NUMBER OF PAGES APO New York 09012 (0 8...squally in nature and produce snow flurries in the winter and brief thunderstorms. In summer it is generally cool and showery, but will often turn into

  2. Variations in prison mental health services in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Andrew; Exworthy, Tim; Olumoroti, Olumuyiwa; Sessay, Mohammed; Parrott, Janet; Spencer, Sarah-Jane; Whyte, Sean

    2013-01-01

    In responding to high levels of psychiatric morbidity amongst prisoners and recognising earlier poor quality prison mental health care, prison mental health in-reach teams have been established in England and Wales over the last decade. They are mostly provided by the National Health Service (NHS), which provides the majority of UK healthcare services. Over the same period, the prison population has grown to record levels, such that prisons in England and Wales now contain almost 90,000 of the world's overall prison population of over 10 million people (roughly the size of Paris or Istanbul). This study provides an overview of mental health in-reach services in prisons in England and Wales, including variations between them, through a telephone survey of senior staff in all prisons and young offender institutions in England and Wales. 73% of prisons took part; of them 13% had no in-reach team at all (usually low security establishments) and the majority of services were run by NHS teams, usually according to a generic community mental health team (CMHT) model rather than other specialist models. Team size was unrelated to prison size. Each nurse covered around 500 prisoners, each doctor over 3700. Many provided few or no healthcare cells and 24-h psychiatric cover (including on-call cover) was uncommon. Despite developments in recent years, mental health in-reach services still fall short of community equivalence and there is wide variation in service arrangements that cannot be explained by prison size or function. The aim of community equivalence has not yet been reached in prison healthcare and a more sophisticated measure of service improvement and standardisation would now be useful to drive and monitor future development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A. M.; Fox, A P; Sanders, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in suffici...

  4. A Swiss Manufacturer Sees the Industrial Revolution in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buess, Heinrich

    1962-01-01

    I have recently come across the diaries of Johann Conrad Fischer. These diaries span six decades and cover the years of social, economic, and technological upheaval which marked the industrial revolution in England. The reader is given a picture of these years through the eyes of a Swiss manufacturer with a good perception of history, and his notes are of some value to historians. PMID:13874462

  5. Montane lakes (lagoons) of the New England Tablelands Bioregion

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Dorothy M.; Hunter, John T.; Haworth, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The vegetation of montane lagoons of the New England Tablelands Bioregion, New South Wales is examined using flexible UPGMA analysis of frequency scores on all vascular plant taxa, charophytes and one liverworts. Seven communities are described: 1. Hydrocotyle tripartita – Isotoma fluviatilis – Ranunculus inundatus – Lilaeopsis polyantha herbfield; 2. Eleocharis sphacelata – Potamogeton tricarinatus sedgeland; 3. Eleocharis sphacelata – Utricularia australis – Isolepis fluitans, herbfield; 4....

  6. Heavy metal geochemistry of contaminated fenland soils in NW England

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Nikola R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of peri-urban fenlands for agriculture usmg urban waste as manorial treatments is increasingly common worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The risk to human health from the use of these contaminated materials for crop production has been studied using two historically contaminated fenlands in NW England. The GBASE survey carried out by the British Geological Survey identified two areas of metal contaminated fenland; west of Manchester (Chat Moss) and north of Liverpool (Ha...

  7. In Dahomey in England: A (negative) transatlantic performance heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Saxon, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The first all-black American musical comedy on Broadway, In Dahomey (1902-1905), has made a name for itself in America’s theatre annals and in the history of black American performance. Although critics have written about the relevance of the show in America, investigations into this turn-of-the-century performance in its wider transatlantic context have lagged behind. This article examines the reception of In Dahomey in England through specifically British interpretations of race, This artic...

  8. Briefing book on the energy situation in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, J P; Munson, J S; Palmedo, P F

    1976-10-01

    This briefing book is designed to give a concise overview of the facts of the energy situation in New England and of attitudes within the region towards current energy issues. Many of the central problems of U.S. energy policy are manifested in the region in a magnified form. The region entered the period of energy shortages and increasing prices in an economically declining condition. Energy prices were already high in 1970, 30% higher than the rest of the country; the difference increased to 38% by 1974. With essentially no indigenous energy resources, New England is an energy-importing region. For various reasons it is also more dependent on petroleum than other regions of the country and, at the same time, distant from domestic petroleum-producing regions. The result is that over 60% of the fuels it consumes is imported from abroad. Although the future supply of energy to the region is critically dependent on energy-resource policies, policies related for example to coal and oil shale development, the region's concerns cluster around policies and technologies that are perceived to have a more direct impact on its energy welfare. Thus, energy conservation, solar energy, nuclear power, offshore oil development and, in general, the price of energy to the region are paramount issues of concern and debate. Following the Introductory chapter, these issues are discussed in four additional chapters: The Energy Situation in New England; Regional Energy Issues; Energy-Related Institutions; and State Legislation.

  9. Assessing the obesogenic environment of North East England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoine, Thomas; Alvanides, Seraphim; Lake, Amelia A

    2011-05-01

    This study examines the influence of the environment (defined as 'walkability', food availability and deprivation), alongside individual factors, on Body Mass Index (BMI) and fruit and vegetable consumption. The aim of this unique study was to objectively scrutinise the concept of the obesogenic environment in the North East of England. A set of theoretical obesogenic indices based on the availability of food to consume within and outside of the home, residential density, street connectivity and land use mix were created for North East England. A pooled sample of 893 individuals (aged 16+) over 3 years (2003, 2004, 2005) from the Health Survey for England (HSE) was isolated for further analysis and correlation with the obesogenic indices. Results suggest that few elements of both walkability and food availability are significantly associated with BMI and fruit and vegetable intake. Some methodological concerns are highlighted, such as the appropriateness of walkability calculations for rural areas. The study concludes by strongly recommending a multi-faceted approach be taken when trying to tackle current levels of obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Low immigrant mortality in England and Wales: a data artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Matthew; Kulu, Hill

    2014-11-01

    Previous research shows low mortality for most immigrants compared to natives in host countries. This advantage is often attributed to health selection processes in migration and to protective health behaviours. Little research has examined the role of data quality, especially the registration of moves. Registration errors relating to moves between origin and host countries can mismatch deaths and risk populations, leading to denominator bias and an under-estimation of migrant mortality (data artefact). The paper investigates the mortality of immigrants in England and Wales from 1971 to 2001 using the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study (ONS LS), a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales. We apply parametric survival models to study the mortality of 450,000 individuals. We conduct sensitivity analysis to assess the impact of entry and exit uncertainty on immigrant mortality rates. The analysis shows that most international migrants have lower mortality than natives in England and Wales. Differences largely persist when we adjust models to entry and exit uncertainty and they become pronounced once we control for individual socioeconomic characteristics. This study supports low mortality among immigrants and shows that results are not a data artefact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Sin [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L{sup -1}) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L{sup -1} were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration ({approx}1400 ng L{sup -1}) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: > Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. > Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. > Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  12. Interviewee and Vessel Characteristics from Ethnographic Interviews of New England Groundfish Fishermen on Adaptation and Transition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of fisherman and vessel characteristics selected from ethnographic interviews of New England groundfish fishermen on adaptation and transition

  13. NACP New England and Sierra National Forests Biophysical Measurements: 2008-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes biophysical measurements collected in 2009 from five New England experimental forest stations: Bartlett Experimental Forest, Harvard Forest,...

  14. NACP New England and Sierra National Forests Biophysical Measurements: 2008-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set includes biophysical measurements collected in 2009 from five New England experimental forest stations: Bartlett Experimental Forest, Harvard...

  15. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project; Volume 1, Issue 2 -- December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2006-12-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 2 features an interview with John MacLeod of Hull Municipal Light Plant. Hull 2, a 1.8-MW Vestas turbine installed in the Town of Hull in Massachusetts in 2006, is the largest wind turbine in New England and the first U.S. installation on a capped landfill.

  16. Recent trends in children's exposure to second-hand smoke in England: cotinine evidence from the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Martin J; Feyerabend, Colin

    2015-09-01

    To examine changes in children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in England since 1998. Repeated cross-sectional surveys of the general population in England. The Health Survey for England. A total of 37 038 children participating in surveys from 1998 to 2012, 13 327 of whom were aged 4-15 years, had available cotinine and were confirmed non-smokers. The proportion of children with smoking parents; the proportion of children living in homes reported to be smoke-free; the proportion of children with undetectable concentrations of cotinine; linear and quadratic trend estimates of geometric mean cotinine across years. By 2012, 87.3% of children lived in a home that was smoke-free {97.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 95.9-98.1] when parents were non-smokers, 61.3% (95% CI = 55.5-66.8) when one or both parents smoked}. A total of 68.6% (95% CI = 64.3-72.6%) of children had undetectable cotinine in 2012, up from 14.3% (95% CI = 12.7-16.0%) in 1998. There was a highly significant linear trend across years (with a small but significant quadratic term) to declining geometric mean cotinine in all children from 0.52 ng/ml (95% CI = 0.48-0.57) in 1998 to 0.11 ng/ml (95% CI = 0.10-0.12) in 2012. Children from routine/manual backgrounds were more exposed, but experienced similar gains across years to those from non-manual backgrounds. In England, children's exposure to second-hand smoke has declined by 79% since 1998, with continuing progress since smoke-free legislation in 2007. An emerging social norm in England has led to the adoption of smoke-free homes not only when parents are non-smokers, but also when they smoke. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Envisioning an Ecologically Sustainable Campus At New England College

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula Amato; Gregory Palmer

    2010-09-30

    Appropriation funding for our project Ecologically Sustainable Campus - New England College (NH). 67.09. supported five environmental initiatives: (1) a wood pellet boiler for our Science Building, (2) solar hot water panels and systems for five campus buildings, (3) campus-wide energy lighting efficiency project, (4) new efficiency boiler system in Colby Residence Hall, and (5) energy efficient lighting system for the new artificial athletic turf field. (1) New England College purchased and installed a new wood pellet boiler in the Science Building. This new boiler serves as the primary heating source for this building. Our boiler was purchased through New England Wood Pellet, LLC, located in Jaffrey, New Hampshire. The boiler selected was a Swebo, P500. 300KW wood pellet boiler. The primary goals, objectives, and outcomes of this initiative include the installation of a wood pellet boiler system that is environmentally friendly, highly efficient, and represents a sustainable and renewable resource for New England College. This project was completed on December 15, 2010. (2) New England College purchased and installed solar hot water panels and systems for the Science Building, the Simon Center (student center), the H. Raymond Danforth Library, Gilmore Dining Hall, and Bridges Gymnasium. The College worked with Granite State Plumbing & Heating, LLC, located in Weare, New Hampshire on this project. The solar panels are manufactured by Heat Transfer; the product is Heat Transfer 30-tube collector panels (Evacuated Tube Type) with stainless steel hardware. The interior equipment includes Super Stor Ultra stainless steel super insulated storage tank, Taco 009 Bronze circulator pump, Solar Relay Control Pack, and a Taco Thermal Expansion Tank. The primary goals, objectives, and outcomes of this initiative will allow the College to utilize the sun as an energy resource. These solar hot water panels and systems will alleviate our dependency on fossil fuel as our primary

  18. Mortality in England during the 1783 4 Laki Craters eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, C. S.; Oppenheimer, C.

    2004-12-01

    1783/4 has been recognised as a mortality “crisis year” in the population history of England. This demographic incident coincides with the Laki Craters eruption, Iceland, which began in June 1783 and fumigated many parts of Europe with volcanic gases and particles. Many reports and proxy climate records implicate the volcanic cloud in meteorological anomalies, including notably hot 1783 summer conditions in England and a severe subsequent winter. We present here a detailed analysis of the geographical and temporal trends in English mortality data, and interpret them in the light of the climatological records and observations of the pollutant cloud. We show that there were two distinct crisis periods: in August-September 1783, and January-February 1784, which together accounted for ~20,000 extra deaths. In both cases, the East of England was the worst affected region. Possible causes for the two crisis periods are considered and we conclude that the timing and magnitude of the winter mortality peak can be explained by the severe cold of January 1784. The late summer mortality followed 1 2 months after the very hot July of 1783 and may also have been related to the weather, with the time lag reflecting the relatively slow spread of enteric disease or the contraction of malaria. However, it is hard to explain the entire late summer anomaly by these high temperature causes. We therefore consider that fine acid aerosol and/or gases in the volcanic haze may also have contributed to the unusual August-September mortality. Given that complex radiative and dynamical effects of the volcanic cloud are implicated in the climatic anomalies in 1783 4, it is likely that the Laki Craters eruption did play a role in the English mortality crises of the same period.

  19. 15 years of litigation following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaffaf, Bilal; Decadt, Bart

    2010-04-01

    We aimed to analyze trends in litigation following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in England and compare our findings with data from the United States. Several studies from the United States have highlighted the medico-legal repercussions of complications following LC. In 2007-2008, litigation claims cost the National Health Service in England over 660 million Great British Pounds (GBP) (1.1 billion USD). Despite this, there has been little examination of litigation following LC in England. Data from the National Health Service Litigation Authority on clinical negligence claims between 1995 and 2009 following LC were obtained and analyzed. Four hundred eighteen claims were made of which 303 were settled. One hundred ninety-eight (65%) were found to be in the claimants favor for a total cost of 20.4 million GBP (33.4 million USD). Litigation claims have leveled since 2001. Operator error was the most likely cause to result in a claim and the only cause associated with a successful claim (P = 0.023). A delay in the recognition of complications was the second most common reason for initiation of a claim. Bile duct injury was the most frequent injury resulting in litigation and the most likely injury associated with a successful claim (P < 0.001). The average payout for a successful claim was 102,827 GBP/168,337 USD. Findings from US studies were similar, although the magnitude of payouts was 4 times higher. Strategies that minimize bile duct injury and speed up recognition of injuries should be adopted to reduce the litigation burden and improve patient care.

  20. Characterizing tobacco control mass media campaigns in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Tessa; Lewis, Sarah; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Anna; Szatkowski, Lisa; West, Robert; Sims, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    To characterize publically funded tobacco control campaigns in England between 2004 and 2010 and to explore if they were in line with recommendations from the literature in terms of their content and intensity. International evidence suggests that campaigns which warn of the negative consequences of smoking and feature testimonials from real-life smokers are most effective, and that four exposures per head per month are required to reduce smoking prevalence. Characterization of tobacco control advertisements using a theoretically based framework designed to describe advertisement themes, informational and emotional content and style. Study of the intensity of advertising and exposure to different types of advertisement using data on population-level exposure to advertisements shown during the study period. England. Television Ratings (TVRs), a standard measure of advertising exposure, were used to calculate exposure to each different campaign type. A total of 89% of advertising was for smoking cessation; half of this advertising warned of the negative consequences of smoking, while half contained how-to-quit messages. Acted scenes featured in 72% of advertising, while only 17% featured real-life testimonials. Only 39% of months had at least four exposures to tobacco control campaigns per head. A theory-driven approach enabled a systematic characterization of tobacco control advertisements in England. Between 2004 and 2010 only a small proportion of tobacco control advertisements utilized the most effective strategies-negative health effects messages and testimonials from real-life smokers. The intensity of campaigns was lower than international recommendations. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Changing market for renewable energy in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, M. [Second Wind Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author discusses the rapidly changing power market in New England in the face of deregulation of the electric power industry. Utilities are moving to sell their generation assets, and the new players in the market are striving to present themselves as active in a green market. But there is little knowledge about renewable energy sources on the part of the new marketers, and little capacity available, while there does appear to be customer demand. Legislative action seems to be putting in place policies making renewable energy a more attractive option. The author looks at the disparity between demand and availability at this time.

  2. The mineralogy of mudrocks from the Lias Group of England

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, S.J.; McKervey, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the results of mineralogical analysis of a suite of sedimentary rocks from the Lias Group of England. The work was carried out as part of the ongoing BGS research programme, ‘Engineering Geology of UK Rocks and Soils.’ The first part of the report gives an introduction to the Lias Group geology and a summary of previous mineralogical studies of these rocks. A summary of analytical methods employed (X-ray diffraction analysis and surface area determinations) is then pr...

  3. Education governance and standardised tests in Denmark and England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Ydesen, Christian; Kelly, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this study we identify and compare the impact of standardised student assessment in England, an established neoliberal context, and in Denmark where a neoliberal education reform agenda is emerging in response to both national concerns and international governance. National reading tests...... and analysed to identify the extent to which neoliberal reform is mobilised through testing in each context and how testing shapes curriculum and pedagogy. Significantly, we find that in Denmark, where professional judgement still dominates, teachers often deploy pedagogical approaches to service what...

  4. Price discounts on alcohol in a city in Northern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Beenstock, Jane

    2012-01-01

    To describe the extent and nature of price discounts on alcohol in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. An observational survey in stores licensed for off-sales in December 2010 to January 2011. A total of 2018 price discounts in 29 stores led to a median saving of 25% and required a median purchase of 20 standard UK alcohol units. Median price per standard unit was £0.92 (US$1.49; €1.05) before discount and £0.68 (US$1.10; €0.78) after discount. Restriction of price discounting should be considered as a public health policy.

  5. Microorganisms responsible for periprosthetic knee infections in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleyman, Richard J; Baker, Paul; Charlett, Andre; Gould, Kate; Deehan, David J

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to delineate epidemiology of infecting microorganism genus in first-time revision knee arthroplasty for indication of periprosthetic joint infection in England and Wales using linked registry data. From the National Joint Registry database for England and Wales, a consecutive series of primary knee arthroplasties performed between April 2003 and January 2014 that went on to have a revision for periprosthetic infection were identified (n = 2810). Each case was then linked to microbiology data held by Public Health England in order to identify infecting microorganism at time of revision surgery established from intra-operative cultures. Following data linkage, 403 culture results at time of revision surgery were identified in a group of 331 patients. The demographic characteristics of five microorganism groups were compared: pure staphylococcus (single genus), pure streptococcus (single genus), other gram-positive infections (single genus), gram-negative infections (single genus) and mixed genus infections. Staphylococcus species was the most common organism genus isolated after revision of a primary implant for infection and present in 72 % of cases overall (71.3 % of patients with a single-genus infection and 76.8 % of patients with mixed genus infection). A pure staphylococcal infection was present in 59 % of all cases. A single-genus infection was responsible for infection in 83.1 % of cases, and mixed genera were responsible in 16.9 % of cases. A significant difference was observed for mean age at primary procedure in the cohort of patients where there was an isolated pure streptococcal infection (73.2 years) when compared to gram-negative infections (65.0 years). No other significant differences were observed between microorganism groups in terms of BMI, gender, ASA grade, indication for primary procedure and primary implant characteristics. Staphylococci were the most commonly isolated organism species responsible for periprosthetic

  6. Standardised testing in compulsory schooling in England and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Kelly, Peter; Kousholt, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    have on pupils´ perceptions of their potential academic skills. This article draws on research into the national testing of reading conducted in England and Denmark in Spring 2013 and draws on the work of Basil Bernstein to compare and contrast both sets of national assessment practices......., Denmark, in contrast, has only recently introduced such tests. Thus the two countries present excellent cases for comparison and analysis in order to gain knowledge about the possible consequences of such testing schemes on pedagogy and the content of the school curriculum, as well as the impact they may...

  7. Comparing pedagogy in mathematics in Denmark and England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorf, Hans; Kelly, Peter; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    the lens of Bernstein’s pedagogic discourse (1990; 1996) to construct mathematics teacher roles which provided a view of pedagogy. Comparison allowed variations in pedagogy across the two countries to be identified and implications drawn. Of particular interest were the differences in experience of lower......This paper reports the findings of a comparative study of pedagogy in lower-secondary school mathematics in Denmark and England. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions these prompted. These were clustered using...... attaining pupils, and some of the advantages and disadvantages of mathematics pedagogy in each country for this group are indicated....

  8. PROFESSIONALISATION OF NURSING IN ENGLAND AND SPAIN: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Camaño-Puig, Ramón

    2005-01-01

    The publication of this book is the result of the close collaboration,both in terms of research as well as in students and faculty exchanges that has existed for a long time between Laurea Polytechnic, in Finland, and the University of Valencia, Spain. Through the initiative of Laurea Polytechnic, the research of Dr. Ramón Camaño-Puig that led to his European Doctorate, is now brought to the public with the title of “Professionalisation of Nursing in England and Spain: A Comparative Study”. W...

  9. Prices, Wages and Fertility in Pre-Industrial England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Marc

    A two-sector Malthusian model is formulated in terms of a cointegrated vector autoregressive (CVAR) model on error correction form. The model allows for both agricultural product wages and relative prices to affect fertility. The model is estimated using new data for the pre-industrial period...... in England, and the analysis reveals a strong, positive effect of agricultural wages as well as a small and, surprisingly, positive effect of real agricultural prices on fertility. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that there is constant returns to scale with respect to labour in the manufacturing sector...

  10. Understanding Belonging to Church: The cases of England and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Nissen, Karen Marie; Jensen, Pernille Friis

    2016-01-01

    (Davie 2013: 283). Religion is increasing set free from the institutionalized churches (Heelas & Woodhead 2005). You would thus expect to see dramatic declines in church affiliation in all our majority churches. The Church of England is declining at the fastest rate. Yet, the Evangelical Lutheran Church...... in Denmark experiences a rather slow decline (see Kjems, chapter x). How can we explain this difference? In this chapter, we will outline church membership and affiliation for the two churches. Using theories explaining the declines, we will cautious compare the declines in the two churches. The discussion...

  11. Malthus in cointegration space: evidence of a post-Malthusian pre-industrial England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Framroze; Sharp, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper re-examines the interaction between population growth and income per capita in pre-industrial England. Our results suggest that, as early as two centuries preceding the Industrial Revolution, England had already escaped the Malthusian Epoch and entered a post-Malthusian regime, where...

  12. New England's travel and recreation markets: trends in the geographic target markets beyond 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to re-examine and update geographic travel and lifestyle activity market trends for those areas targeted by New England destinations beyond the year 2000. The central theme was to examine in detail the primary, secondary and tertiary geographic markets targeted by New England destinations through both travel behavior and lifestyle behavior...

  13. 76 FR 18674 - Security Zones; Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Sector Southeastern New England Captain... Southeastern New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone. These security zones are nearly identical to security... escorted by Coast Guard or law enforcement agencies assisting the Coast Guard. These zones are needed to...

  14. 76 FR 41073 - Security Zones; Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Sector Southeastern New England Captain... establishing security zones around cruise ships in the Southeastern New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone... around any cruise ship underway that is being escorted by Coast Guard or law enforcement agencies...

  15. New England Labor and the Economy at the Year-End, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Boston, MA. New England Regional Office.

    The economy of the six New England states expanded swiftly during 1972, with 67,000 jobs being added, which moved the job total close to the previous record of 1969. A slowdown was observed in the rise of both prices and wages in New England under Phase II of the Economic Stabilization Program. However, retail food prices rose four times as much…

  16. Future Apprenticeships in England: The Role of Mediation in the New Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ann; Spours, Ken; Smith, David

    2017-01-01

    Apprenticeship systems across the globe are having to adapt to changing international economic and social trends. England is no exception. This article examines the latest model of apprenticeship in England from the perspective of the "mediators" who work at local and regional level with employers to construct and deliver the majority of…

  17. The Politics of PISA: The Media, Policy and Public Responses in Norway and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Görgen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Using the PISA 2015 releases in Norway and England, this article explores how PISA has been presented in the media and how the policy level has responded to the results. England will be used as an example for comparison. The article presents early media responses from the 20 most circulated daily newspapers in the two countries and discusses them…

  18. Mortality of People with Intellectual Disabilities in England: A Comparison of Data from Existing Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Pauline; Glover, Gyles

    2015-01-01

    Background: At present, there is limited statistical information about mortality of people with intellectual disabilities in England. This study explores the data that are currently available. Materials and Methods: Four recent sources of data about mortality of people with intellectual disabilities in England are reviewed: the Confidential…

  19. Governing Education through Data: Scotland, England and the European Education Policy Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grek, Sotiria; Ozga, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on interview data from national policy makers in England, Scotland and the European Commission to illustrate differences in the referencing of "Europe" in education policy-making in England and Scotland in order to highlight the emergent complexity of post-devolution policy-making in education through a focus on…

  20. Special Deliveries: Certified Nurse-Midwifery Programs Lacking in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzosa, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    With Boston serving as a hub of both educational and medical excellence, it's no wonder that New England has a high reputation to uphold in both of these areas. However, Boston and the rest of the region lack a specific degree program that is putting New England below the radars of potential midwives. Certified nurse-midwifery is a popular field…

  1. New England's travel & tourism markets: trends in the geographic target markets in the 90's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the travel and lifestyle activity market trends to New England in the 90s. The central theme was to fully examine in detail the primary, secondary and tertiary geographic markets targeted by New England destinations.

  2. Trendsetting: A New Way to Keep up with Trends & Indicators in New England's Education and Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, John O.

    2013-01-01

    For more than half a century, the "New England Journal of Higher Education" ("NEJHE") has been publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" (T&I) in New England's demography, high school performance and graduation, college enrollment, college graduation rates and degree production, higher…

  3. Child survival in England: Strengthening governance for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Ingrid; Mandeville, Kate; Harrison, Katherine; Lingam, Raghu

    2017-11-01

    The United Kingdom, like all European countries, is struggling to strengthen health systems and improve conditions for child health and survival. Child mortality in the UK has failed to improve in line with other countries. Securing optimal conditions for child health requires a healthy society, strong health system, and effective health care. We examine inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral policy and governance for child health and survival in England. Literature reviews and universally applicable clinical scenarios were used to examine child health problems and English policy and governance responses for improving child health through integrating care and strengthening health systems, over the past 15 years. We applied the TAPIC framework for analysing policy governance: transparency, accountability, participation, integrity, and capacity. We identified strengths and weaknesses in child health governance in all the five domains. However there remain policy failures that are not fully explained by the TAPIC framework. Other problems with successfully translating policy to improved health that we identified include policy flux; policies insufficiently supported by delivery mechanisms, measurable targets, and sufficient budgets; and policies with unintended or contradictory aspects. We make recommendations for inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral child health governance, policy, and action to improve child health in England with relevant lessons for other countries. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A qualitative study of uptake of free vitamins in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessiman, Tricia; Cameron, Ailsa; Wiggins, Meg; Lucas, Patricia J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify reasons why eligible families are not accessing free ‘Healthy Start’ vitamin supplementation (providing vitamins A, C and D) in England. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting 13 primary care trusts in England. Participants Purposive sample of 15 Healthy Start coordinators, 50 frontline health and children's professionals and 107 parents. Results Vitamin take-up was low across all research sites, reported as below 10% of eligible beneficiaries for free vitamins. Reasons identified by both parents and professionals included (1) poor accessibility of vitamins, (2) low promotion of the scheme by health professionals, (3) a lack of awareness among eligible families, and (4) low motivation among mothers to take vitamins for themselves during pregnancy or for children under 4 years old. Conclusions Low uptake rates can be explained by poor accessibility of vitamins and lack of awareness and motivation to take vitamin supplements among eligible families. Universal provision (at least for pregnant women) and better training for health professionals are identified as potential solutions worthy of further research and evaluation. PMID:23702436

  5. TREATMENT IN ENGLAND OF CANADIAN PATIENTS ADDICTED TO NARCOTIC DRUGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRANKAU, L

    1964-02-08

    The method of treatment and the results obtained from the treatment of 50 Canadian patients addicted to narcotic drugs who went to England are recorded. These patients were first stabilized on the minimal dose of narcotic drug which permitted them to work, and to acquire security and self-respect. Then, after psychiatric treatment dealing with the basic problem of their personality disorder, complete withdrawal treatment of the narcotic drug was undertaken.Nine of 10 patients aged between 20 and 30, of good social and cultural background, have been relieved of dependence on drugs for over two years.The other 40 patients came from a different background. Nearly all had been imprisoned for drug offences and they had come to England to obtain treatment and to avoid further prison sentences in Canada.The 31 patients whose prison sentences had been directly connected with drug offences are working steadily and leading an apparently normal life.The remaining nine patients had been convicted of criminal acts before becoming addicted to narcotic drugs and, with two exceptions, the results of their treatment compare unfavourably with the other patients, seven having been convicted and imprisoned in London.

  6. Policy Variation among Japan, Korea, England and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekyung Lee

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available School reform initiatives during the last two decades in Japan, Korea, England, and the United States can be understood as balancing acts. Because policymakers in England and the United States saw their school systems fragmented and student outcomes mediocre, they focused reform efforts on raising educational standards, tightening curriculum and assessment, and improving academic achievement. In contrast, policymakers in Japan and Korea, who saw their school systems overstandardized and educational processes deficient, focused their reform efforts on deregulating schools, diversifying curriculum and assessment, and enhancing whole-person education. While school reform policies were formulated and adopted in response to each country’s unique problems, they also were driven by globalization forces that fostered an international perspective. If implemented successfully, such cross-cultural policy variations (i.e., standardization vs. differentiation in curriculum, unification vs. diversification in assessment, and privatization vs. democratization in governance would make distinctive educational systems more alike. Cultural and institutional barriers to educational convergence between the Eastern and Western school systems are discussed.

  7. Origins of modern economic system: England or Holland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozinskaya Natalia, A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper, following the approach of the Dutch scholars de Vries and vab der Woude, claims that the Netherlands, rather than England (as it is generally assumed, were the first country, which performed the transition from the traditional society to modern one. Identification of criteria distinguishing traditional and modern societies follows the works of W. Rostow, S. Kuznets and other authors who studied the issue. In order to prove the thesis, author compares urbanization level in Holland and in England, as well as degree of commercialization of those economies, and considers the process of commercial and productive specialization in the United Provinces. Besides that, the formation of modern-type institutional system in Holland is analyzed: the genesis of the markets of factors of production, development of monetary and credit systems and of institutional and technological basis of the industry, strengthening of competitive forces in the economy. Land ownership structure in Holland is considered and its role in genesis of the markets of factors of production. Attention is paid to technological basis of the industry, examined is the impact of immigration. It concludes that the Netherlands were the first country where modern economic growth, as defined by S. Kuznets, started. It was Holland where for the first time the markets of factors of production were formed and, what is particularly important, the industry began to operate on a competitive basis.

  8. Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards in England: implementation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Pennington, Mark; Heginbotham, Chris; Donaldson, Cam

    2011-09-01

    The Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DoLS), introduced into the Mental Capacity Act 2005, were fully implemented on 1 April 2009 in England and Wales. The government estimated 20 000 assessments for DoLS at a cost of £600 per assessment. Aims To estimate the costs likely to be incurred with the implementation of DoLS in England. The cost of conducting a single DoLS assessment was estimated using resource-utilisation data ascertained from 37 professionals, secretarial staff and independent mental capacity advocates involved with DoLS assessments in six diverse local DoLS offices. The estimated average cost of a single DoLS assessment was £1277. The estimated average cost of a single DoLS assessment was significantly higher than the £600 estimated by the government. However, the allocated budget, based on 20 000 estimated DoLS assessments in the first year of its implementation, is likely to be adequate because a significantly lower number of assessments (only 5200) were conducted in the first 9 months after its implementation.

  9. Possible windborne spread of myxomatosis to England in 1953.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, R F

    1987-02-01

    An analysis of the meterological conditions showed that the first outbreaks of myxomatosis in S.E. England in 1953 could have resulted from wind carriage of insects infected with myxoma virus from northern France. South-easterly winds on the night 11-12 August would have carried the insects 120-160 km from the Départements of Nord, Pas de Calais and Somme across the English Channel to near Edenbridge, Kent. The flight would have taken 6.5-8.5 h at wind speeds of 15-22 km h-1. On the night 11-12 August, temperatures increased with height (inversion) up to 500 m; at ground level temperature was around 19 degrees C and at 500 m was 25 degrees C. Insects would have travelled up to the top of the inversion arriving on 12 August as the inversion declined. Two or possibly three generations of infection would have taken place before the disease was seen around the middle of September 1953. The most likely insect was the mosquito Anopheles atroparvus which breeds along the coastal marshes of England and northern France and which has been shown experimentally and in the field to transmit myxoma virus mechanically.

  10. A qualitative study of uptake of free vitamins in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessiman, Tricia; Cameron, Ailsa; Wiggins, Meg; Lucas, Patricia J

    2013-08-01

    To identify reasons why eligible families are not accessing free 'Healthy Start' vitamin supplementation (providing vitamins A, C and D) in England. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. 13 primary care trusts in England. Purposive sample of 15 Healthy Start coordinators, 50 frontline health and children's professionals and 107 parents. Vitamin take-up was low across all research sites, reported as below 10% of eligible beneficiaries for free vitamins. Reasons identified by both parents and professionals included (1) poor accessibility of vitamins, (2) low promotion of the scheme by health professionals, (3) a lack of awareness among eligible families, and (4) low motivation among mothers to take vitamins for themselves during pregnancy or for children under 4 years old. Low uptake rates can be explained by poor accessibility of vitamins and lack of awareness and motivation to take vitamin supplements among eligible families. Universal provision (at least for pregnant women) and better training for health professionals are identified as potential solutions worthy of further research and evaluation.

  11. Reforming birth registration law in England and Wales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie McCandless

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Law Commission of England and Wales is considering what its 13th Programme of Law Reform should address. During the consultation process, a project on birth registration law has been mooted. This is a very welcome proposal given that civil birth registration in England and Wales is a compulsory procedure that not only finds its roots in the early Victorian era, but also remains very similar, at least in terms of form and the information that is recorded. I first use two recent legal challenges to illustrate why the current system is coming under increasing pressure. I further use these examples to caution against a law reform agenda that is narrowly focused on the precise information recorded, without a preliminary and wider examination of what the role and purpose of birth registration is, and should be, in society. I argue that this needs to be addressed before the state can justify the parameters of the information recorded. I then use an outline of historical reforms relating to the registration of births outside of marriage to highlight the normative two-parent family model that underpins the birth registration system. I argue that legal reform must be cognizant of the tenacity of this normative family model, particularly in relation to reform proposals surrounding donor conception and the annotation of birth certificates. Finally, I draw attention to wider developments in family law that cast birth registration as a social policy tool for the facilitation of parent–child relationships, particularly unmarried fathers.

  12. New England electricity supply outlook: Summer 1998 -- and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    New England is in the third summer of a protracted electricity supply shortage that began with the shutdown of a substantial quantity of nuclear generating capacity, particularly the 2,630 megawatts (MW) from the three Millstone units located in Connecticut and owned and operated by Northeast Utilities. This report was prepared in response to a request from Senator Christopher Dodd and Senator Joseph Lieberman, both of Connecticut, that the Department of Energy provide an update of its June 1997 report, New England Electricity Supply Outlook, Summer 1997--and Beyond, which examines measures that might be taken to ease the supply shortage, particularly measured to relieve transmission constraints that restrict the import of electricity into Connecticut. In the interval since the 1997 report, three changes have occurred in the region`s overall electric supply context that are particularly significant: the Millstone 3 nuclear unit (1,150 MW) has been put back into service at full capacity; electricity demand is higher, due primarily to regional economic growth. The region`s projected 1998 peak demand is 22,100 MW, 1,531 MW higher than the region`s 1997 peak; and many new additions to the region`s generating capacity have been announced, with projected completion dates varying between 1999 and 2002. If all of the announced projects were completed--which appears unlikely--the total additions would exceed 25,000 MW. A small number of new transmission projects have also been announced.

  13. Forward view: advancing health library and knowledge services in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey Bryant, Sue; Bingham, Helen; Carlyle, Ruth; Day, Alison; Ferguson, Linda; Stewart, David

    2018-01-10

    This article is the fourth in a series on New Directions. The National Health Service is under pressure, challenged to meet the needs of an ageing population, whilst striving to improve standards and ensure decision making is underpinned by evidence. Health Education England is steering a new course for NHS library and knowledge services in England to ensure access to knowledge and evidence for all decision makers. Knowledge for Healthcare calls for service transformation, role redesign, greater coordination and collaboration. To meet user expectations, health libraries must achieve sustainable, affordable access to digital content. Traditional tasks will progressively become mechanised. Alongside supporting learners, NHS librarians and knowledge specialists will take a greater role as knowledge brokers, delivering business critical services. They will support the NHS workforce to signpost patients and the public to high-quality information. There is a need for greater efficiency and effectiveness through greater co-operation and service mergers. Evaluation of service quality will focus more on outcomes, less on counting. These changes require an agile workforce, fit for the future. There is a bright future in which librarians' expertise is used to mobilise evidence, manage and share knowledge, support patients, carers and families, optimise technology and social media and provide a keystone for improved patient care and safety. © 2018 Health Libraries Group.

  14. Sporadic Cryptosporidiosis, North Cumbria, England, 1996–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Stella; Casemore, David P.; Verlander, Neville Q.; Chalmers, Rachel; Knowles, Margaret; Williams, Joy; Osborn, Keith; Richards, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis were determined in 152 patients and 466 unmatched controls who resided in two local government districts in North Cumbria, North West England, from March 1, 1996, to February 29, 2000. Risk was associated with the usual daily volume of cold unboiled tap water drunk (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.14 to 1.71 per pint consumed per day [p = 0.001]) and short visits to farms (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.90, p = 0.04). Fifty-six (84%) of 67 fecal specimens from patients obtained from January 1, 1998, and February 29, 2000, were Cryptosporidium parvum genotype 2 (animal and human strain). Livestock fecal pollution of water sources appears to be the leading cause of human sporadic cryptosporidiosis in this population and shows the need for better protection of water catchments from livestock and improved drinking water treatment in this area of England. PMID:15207050

  15. Sporadic cryptosporidiosis, North Cumbria, England, 1996-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Stella; Reacher, Mark; Casemore, David P; Verlander, Neville Q; Chalmers, Rachel; Knowles, Margaret; Williams, Joy; Osborn, Keith; Richards, Sarah

    2004-06-01

    Risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis were determined in 152 patients and 466 unmatched controls who resided in two local government districts in North Cumbria, North West England, from March 1, 1996, to February 29, 2000. Risk was associated with the usual daily volume of cold unboiled tap water drunk (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.14 to 1.71 per pint consumed per day [p = 0.001]) and short visits to farms (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.90, p = 0.04). Fifty-six (84%) of 67 fecal specimens from patients obtained from January 1, 1998, and February 29, 2000, were Cryptosporidium parvum genotype 2 (animal and human strain). Livestock fecal pollution of water sources appears to be the leading cause of human sporadic cryptosporidiosis in this population and shows the need for better protection of water catchments from livestock and improved drinking water treatment in this area of England.

  16. Agreement and correlation between the self-report leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs and Douleur Neuropathique 4 Questions neuropathic pain screening tools in subjects with low back-related leg pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jeremy; Rabey, Martin I; Hall, Toby M

    2012-01-01

    The self-report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) and Douleur Neuropathique 4 Questions (DN4) neuropathic pain screening tools have been shown to be reliable, valid, and able to differentiate neuropathic pain from inflammatory or mixed pain syndromes. However, no studies have compared these tools to determine whether their outcomes are similar. This study evaluated agreement and correlation between the S-LANSS and DN4 in the identification of neuropathic pain in subjects with low back-related leg pain. This observational study compared S-LANSS and DN4 scores in 45 patients with low back-related leg pain. The S-LANSS and DN4 cutoff scores of 12 and 4, respectively, were used to classify subjects as positive or negative for the presence of neuropathic pain for each screening tool. The κ statistic was used to determine whether there was agreement in classification of neuropathic pain between the 2 screening tools. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine correlation between scores of the 2 screening tools. Neuropathic pain was identified in 15 subjects (33%) using the S-LANSS and in 19 subjects (42%) using the DN4. Agreement on neuropathic pain classification was fair, with a κ value of 0.34. There was moderate to good correlation (r = 0.62; P < .001) between scores obtained from the 2 tools. The finding of fair agreement suggests that despite the moderate to good correlation between scores, the cutoff points for the classification of neuropathic pain of the 2 tools may not be congruent. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Engaging farmers to inform future diffuse pollution policy in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrain, Emilie; Lovett, Andrew; Nobel, Lister; Grant, Fiona; Blundell, Paul; Cleasby, Will

    2013-04-01

    Stakeholder knowledge and engagement is increasingly seen as a necessary ingredient for catchment management. Whilst many agricultural management options remain voluntary, the implementation of diffuse pollution mitigation measures will only be effective with the cooperation of stakeholders. Anthony et al. (2009) and Zhang et al. (2012) state the need for more information on the realistic farmer uptake of methods to enhance analyses of the potential for pollution mitigation. A study engaging farmers to understand current agricultural practices and their attitudes towards mitigation measures has formed part of the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) programme in England. Interviews with over seventy farmers were conducted during 2012 in three contrasting areas of the UK: the grassland dominated Eden catchment in the North West of England; the arable dominated Wensum catchment in East Anglia and the mixed farming of the Hampshire Avon catchment in southern England. Results from the farmer survey provide a baseline regarding current agricultural practices and give insight regarding attitudes to the adoption of other mitigation measures in the future. Opinions were obtained on eighty different measures taken from a recent guide to possible measures prepared for the UK government (Newell-Price et al., 2011). Analyses have been conducted examining how current use and attitudes towards future adoption of measures varies according to different characteristics of farm businesses. These findings will be of benefit to researchers, policy makers and farm advisers, particularly aiding decision making with respect to strategies for future implementation of programmes of measures. References. Anthony, S.G. et al., 2009. Quantitative assessment of scenarios for managing trade-off between the economic performance of agriculture and the environment and between different environmental media. Available at: http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Default

  18. Radiation risk of breast screening in England with digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Lucy M; Dance, David R; Young, Kenneth C

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the risks and benefits of breast screening in terms of number of deaths due to radiation-induced cancers and the number of lives saved owing to modern screening in the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) in England. Radiation risk model, patient dose data and data from national screening statistics were used to estimate the number of deaths due to radiation-induced breast cancers in the NHSBSP in England. Dose and dose effectiveness factors (DDREFs) equal to one and two were assumed. The breast cancer mortality reduction in the invited population due to screening and the percentage of females diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer, who die from breast cancer, were collated from the literature. The number of lives saved owing to screening was calculated. Assuming, a total of 1,770,436 females between the ages of 50-70 years were screened each year, and a breast cancer mortality reduction of 20% due to screening in the invited population, the number of screen-detected cancers were 14,872 annually, resulting in 1071 lives saved. Conversely, for the same mortality reduction, the number of radiation-induced cancers was 36 and 18 for DDREFs of 1 and 2, respectively. This resulted in seven and three deaths due to radiation-induced cancers annually for DDREFs of 1 and 2, respectively. The ratios of lives saved owing to screening to radiation-induced cancers were 30 : 1 and 60 : 1 for DDREFs of 1 and 2. The ratios of lives saved owing to screening to deaths due to radiation-induced cancers were 156 : 1 and 312 : 1 for DDREFs of 1 and 2. For the 1.8% of the screening population with very thick breasts, the latter ratios decrease to 94 : 1 and 187 : 1 for DDREFs of 1 and 2. The breast cancer mortality reduction due to screening greatly outweighs the risk of death due to radiation-induced cancers. Advances in knowledge: Estimation of the radiation risk for modern breast screening in England using digital mammography.

  19. Panel Data Models of New Firm Formation in New England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Parajuli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of the determinants of new firm formation in New England at the county level from 1999 to 2009. Based on the Spatial Durbin panel model that accounts for spillover effects, it is found that population density and human capital positively affect single-unit firm births within a county and its neighbors. Population growth rate also exerts a significant positive impact on new firm formation, but most of the effect is from spatial spillovers. On the contrary, the ratio of large to small firm in terms of employment size and unemployment rate negatively influence single-unit firm births both within counties and among neighbors. However, there is no significant impact of local financial capital and personal income growth on new firm formation.

  20. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sin; Turner, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L(-1)) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L(-1) were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration (~1400 ng L(-1)) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Three decades of geochronologic studies in the New England Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartman, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, both isotope geochronology and plate tectonics grew from infancy into authoritative disciplines in the geological sciences. The existing geochronlogy is summarized into a map and table emphasizing the temporal construction of the New England Appalachians. By using lithotectonic zones as the building blocks of the orogen, seven such zones are defined in terms of pre-, syn-, and post-assembly geologic history. The boundaries between these zones are faults in most cases, some of which may have had recurring movement to further complicate any plate-tectonic scenario. A delineation of underlying Grenvillian, Chain Lakes, and Avalonian basement is also attempted, which now can make use of isotopes in igneous rocks as petrogenic indicators to supplement the rare occurrences of basement outcrop within mobile zones of the orogen. -from Author

  2. Prisons and Health Reforms in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayton, Paul; Boyington, John

    2006-01-01

    Prison health in England and Wales has seen rapid reform and modernization. Previously it was characterized by over-medicalization, difficulties in staff recruitment, and a lack of professional development for staff. The Department of Health assumed responsibility from Her Majesty’s Prison Service for health policymaking in 2000, and full budgetary and health care administration control were transferred by April 2006. As a result of this reorganization, funding has improved and services now relate more to assessed health need. There is early but limited evidence that some standards of care and patient outcomes have improved. The reforms address a human rights issue: that prisoners have a right to expect their health needs to be met by services that are broadly equivalent to services available to the community at large. We consider learning points for other countries which may be contemplating prison health reform, particularly those with a universal health care system. PMID:17008562

  3. Survival from childhood cancer in northern England, 1968-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, N O; James, P W; Gomez-Pozo, B; Craft, A W; McNally, R J Q

    2011-10-25

    Cancer is the second most common cause of death in children in the developed world. The study investigated patterns and trends in survival from childhood cancer in patients from northern England diagnosed 1968-2005. Five-year survival was analysed using Kaplan-Meier estimation for four successive time periods. Cox regression analysis was used to explore associations with age and demographic factors. The study included 2958 cases (1659 males and 1299 females). Five-year survival for all cancers improved significantly from 39% in 1968-1977 to 79% in 1998-2005 (Psurvival for leukaemia increased from 24% to 81% (PSurvival was worse for cases of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Psurvival over a 38-year time span. Future work should examine factors that could influence further improvement in survival such as diagnosis delays.

  4. Income inequalities in unhealthy life styles in England and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina; Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores

    2014-03-01

    Health inequalities in developed societies are persistent. Arguably, the rising inequalities in unhealthy lifestyles might underpin these inequality patterns, yet supportive empirical evidence is scarce. We examine the patterns of inequality in unhealthy lifestyles in England and Spain, two countries that exhibit rising obesity levels with a high prevalence of smoking and alcohol use. This study is unique in that it draws from health survey data spanning over a period in which major contextual and policy changes have taken place. We document persistent income-related inequalities in obesity and smoking; both unhealthy lifestyles appear to be disproportionately concentrated among the relatively poor in recent decades. In contrast, alcohol use appears to be concentrated among richer individuals in both periods and countries examined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The geography of recreational physical activity in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy P

    2011-01-01

    Levels of physical activity have declined considerably over recent decades in England, and there is evidence that activity patterns vary across areas. Previous studies of the geography of physical activity have frequently relied on model based synthetic estimates. Using data from a large population survey this study develops a direct measure of recreational physical activity and investigates variations in activity patterns across English Local Authorities. For both sexes the results show a distinct geography of recreational physical activity associated with north/south variations and urban/rural status. The environmental and behavioural factors driving those patterns are still poorly understood. We conclude that the variations observed might reflect recreational opportunities and the socio-cultural context of areas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Critical group doses around nuclear sites in England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, C.A.; Mayall, A.; Attwood, C.A.; Cabianca, T.; Dodd, D.H.; Fayers, C.A.; Jones, K.A.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1994-12-01

    The assessment of radiation doses received by those members of the public who are most exposed, the critical group, forms an essential part of radiological protection. The report describes a study to estimate critical group doses around twelve nuclear installations in England and Wales, chosen for their potential radiological significance. This study was a joint undertaking between the National Radiological Protection Board, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, and Her Majesty`s Inspectorate of Pollution. The aims of the study were, firstly, to calculate critical group doses taking into account exposure from a combination of pathways additively and, secondly, recommendations were to be made on methods for assessing critical group radiation doses and on data requirements. (author).

  7. England and Wales: Stable fertility and pronounced social status differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Sigle-Rushton

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available For nearly three decades, the total fertility rate in England and Wales has remained high relative to other European countries, and stable at about 1.7 births per woman. In this chapter, we examine trends in both period and cohort fertility throughout the twentieth century, and demonstrate some important differences across demographic and social groups in the timing and quantum of fertility. Breaking with a market-oriented and laissez-faire approach to work and family issues, the last 10 years have seen the introduction of new social and economic policies aimed at providing greater support to families with children. However, the effect of the changes is likely to be limited to families on the lower end of the income scale. Rather than facilitating work and parenthood, some policies create incentives for a traditional gendered division of labour. Fertility appears to have remained stable despite, rather than because of, government actions.

  8. The Projects of Two Different Universtiy Libraries in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çev.: Muhittin Gürbüz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To respond to the changing needs of the 21st century, libraries are changing and must continue to change. In a competitive area, libraries either have to be brave and innovative or have to demonstrate their relevance, value and impact to make their community difference. In this study, information was given about the projects of two different universtiy libraries in England. Firstly, Study Happy project of Warwick University Library was mentioned. With the project, besides the information service which is traditional task of library, by organizing various activities aimed at providing a comfortable learning area for its users. Secondly, Reads and Rights project of Bath Spa University library was expressed. The main aim of the project is to stimulate thinking and conversations about equality and diversity and at the same time about books, reading and libraries.

  9. [Abolition of capital punishment in public in England].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, J C

    1975-01-01

    The Author, following a critical approach focussed on society's response to deviance and on the means of social control which society applies to defend itself from crime and criminals, confutes the thesis according to which the demise of public execution is generally considered as a step in the evolution of the humanitarian ideal of total abolition of the death penalty. By means of a detailed historical analysis of the socioeconomic and political climate which gave rise to the campagning for the demise of public execution in England, the Author gives evidence that such abolition cannot be seen as a linear descendant of a long line of criminal law reforms but rather as a successful manoeuvre to ensure the continuance of the use of the dealth penalty in order to reaffirm the power of the elite which represented itself as the moral guardian of society.

  10. Governing obesity policies from England, France, Germany and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-01-01

    . All plans define the physical and food environment as a crucial factor in the obesity development, but only the Scottish Government is prepared to use statutory means towards industry and other actors to achieve change. The policies convey an unresolved dilemma: To govern or not to govern......Defining a phenomenon as a political problem could be considered a crucial part of any political process. Body weight, when categorised as obesity, has been defined as a political problem since the beginning of the 21st century and has entered the political agenda in many countries. In this article......, I present a study of four plans from four Western European countries: England, France, Germany and Scotland, identifying how obesity is defined as a political issue. The questions addressed are: How is the development in the obesity prevalence explained and who is considered responsible...

  11. Pathology of naturally occurring bovine tuberculosis in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebana, E; Johnson, L; Gough, J; Durr, P; Jahans, K; Clifton-Hadley, R; Spencer, Y; Hewinson, R G; Downs, S H

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a contemporary data set of pathology in tuberculin reactor and in-contact cattle in England and Wales. Four hundred animals (200 reactors and 200 in-contacts) from 242 farms located in 14 counties in Western England and Wales were examined. The mean number of lymph nodes (LNs) with tuberculosis (TB)-like lesions per TB-confirmed animal was 1.7 in reactors and 1.5 in in-contact animals. Tuberculous lesions in both reactor and in-contact animals were most commonly observed in the LNs of the thorax, followed by the head and abdomen, particularly the mediastinal, retropharyngeal and tracheobronchial LNs. Twenty-five reactors had macroscopic lesions in the palatine tonsils. Among TB-confirmed cattle, 27% of reactors and 9% of in-contact animals had gross TB-like lesions in the lungs, particularly in the caudal lobes. Gross lesions that were not TB-confirmed were parasitic granulomas (45%), bacterial or mycotic club-forming pyogranulomas (27%) and bacterial abscesses (23%). Diagnostic sensitivity was maximised when bacteriology and histopathology were used concurrently. Stage IV granulomas, alone or in combination with other stages, constituted 63% of lesions, while 16% of lesions were stage I/II granulomas. Caseous necrosis and calcification were common features of the granulomas encountered in natural Mycobacterium bovis infections, even with pathology limited to a small number of sites. Granulomas often covered large areas of histological sections and typically contained only small numbers of acid fast bacilli.

  12. Randomised controlled trial adapting US school obesity prevention to England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, R R; Payne, C; Lawlor, D A

    2008-06-01

    To determine whether a school obesity prevention project developed in the United States can be adapted for use in England. A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial and interviews with teachers were carried out in 19 primary schools in South West England. Participants included 679 children in year 5 (age 9-10). Baseline and follow-up assessments were completed for 323 children (screen viewing) and 472 children (body mass index). Sixteen lessons on healthy eating, physical activity and reducing TV viewing were taught over 5 months by teachers. Main outcome measures were hours of screen activities, body mass index, mode of transport to school and teachers' views of the intervention. Children from intervention schools spent less time on screen-viewing activities after the intervention but these differences were imprecisely estimated: mean difference in minutes spent on screen viewing at the end of the intervention (intervention schools minus control schools) adjusted for baseline levels and clustering within schools was -11.6 (95% CI -42.7 to 19.4) for a week day and was -15.4 (95% CI -57.5 to 26.8) for a Saturday. There was no difference in mean body mass index or the odds of obesity. It is feasible to transfer this US school-based intervention to UK schools, and it may be effective in reducing the time children spend on screen-based activities. The study has provided information for a full-scale trial, which would require 50 schools ( approximately 1250 pupils) to detect effects on screen viewing and body mass index over 2 years of follow-up.

  13. Challenges Facing Healthwatch, a New Consumer Champion in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Pam; Martin, Graham

    2016-01-21

    This article engages with debates about the conceptualisation and practical challenges of patient and public involvement (PPI) in health and social care services. Policy in this area in England has shifted numerous times but increasingly a consumerist discourse seems to override more democratic ideas concerning the relationship between citizens and public services. Recent policy change in England has seen the creation of new consumer champion bodies in the form of local Healthwatch. The article describes these new organisational structures for PPI and shows how those who seek to influence planning and delivery of services or comment or complain about aspects of their care face considerable complexity. This is due, in part, to the ambiguous remit set out for newly instigated Healthwatch organisations by government. Drawing on governance theory, we show that it can also be understood as a function of an increasingly polycentric governance arena. Challenges that flow from this include problems of specifying jurisdictional responsibility, accountability, and legitimacy. We review Healthwatch progress to date, then we set out four challenges facing local Healthwatch organisations before discussing the implications of these for patients and the public. The first challenge relates to non-coterminous boundaries and jurisdictional integrity. Secondly, establishing the unique features of Healthwatch is problematic in the crowded PPI arena. The third challenge arises from limited resources as well as the fact that resources flow to Healthwatch from the local authorities that Healthwatch are expected to hold to account. The fourth challenge we identify is how local Healthwatch organisations negotiate the complexity of being a partner to statutory and other organisations, while at the same time being expected to champion local people's views. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  14. Commissioning of specialist palliative care services in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Harriet; Finlay, Ilora; Downman, Maxwell; Dumas, James

    2018-03-01

    Some failures in end-of-life care have been attributed to inconsistent provision of palliative care across England. We aimed to explore the variation in commissioning of services by Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) using a data collection exercise. We sent a Freedom of Information request in the form of an open questionnaire to all 209 CCGs in England to assess their commissioning of palliative and end-of-life care services, mainly focused on the provision of specialist palliative care services. 29 CCGs provided information about the number of patients with some form of palliative care needs in their population. For specialist palliative care services, CCGs allocated budgets ranging from £51.83 to £2329.19 per patient per annum. 163 CCGs (77.90%) currently commission 7-day admission to their specialist palliative care beds. 82.84% of CCGs commission 7-day specialist palliative care services in patients' own homes and out-of-hours services rely heavily on hospice provision. 64 CCGs (31.37%) commission pain control teams, the majority of whom only operate in regular working hours. 68.14% of CCGs reported commissioning palliative care education of any sort for healthcare professionals and 44.85% of CCGs had no plans to update or review their palliative care services. The most important finding from this exercise is that the information CCGs hold about their population and services is not standardised. However, information based on data that are more objective, for example, population and total budget for palliative care, demonstrate wide variations in commissioning. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Internet testing for Chlamydia trachomatis in England, 2006 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodhall Sarah C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been interest in websites as a means of increasing access to free chlamydia tests through the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP in England. We aimed to describe and evaluate online access to chlamydia testing within the NCSP. Methods We analysed NCSP chlamydia testing data (2006–2010 for 15–24 year olds from the 71/95 programme areas in England where site codes were available to identify tests ordered through the internet. The characteristics of people using online testing services in 2010 were compared with those testing in general practice (GP or community sexual and reproductive health (SRH services. We evaluated 58 websites offering free chlamydia tests through the NCSP, and 32 offering kits on a commercial basis for signposting to clinical service and health promotion advice offered. Results Between 2006 and 2010, 5% of all tests in the included programme areas were accessed through the internet. The number of internet tests increased from 18 (1 sexual partner in the past year. Provision of sexual health information and appropriate signposting for those in need of clinical services varied between websites. Service provision within the NCSP was fragmented with multiple providers serving specific geographical catchment areas. Conclusion Internet testing reaches a population with a relatively high risk of chlamydia infection and appears acceptable to young men, a group that has been difficult to engage with chlamydia testing. In order to maximise the potential benefit of these services, websites should be consistent with national guidelines and adhere to minimum standards for signposting to clinical care and health promotion information. The current system with multiple providers servicing geographically specific catchment areas is contrary to the geographically unrestricted nature of the internet and potentially confusing for clients.

  16. Nutrition practices of nurseries in England. Comparison with national guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Burgoine, Thomas; Hesketh, Kathryn R; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-02-01

    Recent national guidelines call for improved nutrition within early years settings. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe foods and beverages served in nurseries, assess provider behaviors related to feeding, and compare these practices to national guidelines. We administered a mailed survey to a random sample of nurseries across England, stratifying by tertile of deprivation. A total of 851 nurseries returned the survey (54.3% response rate). We fitted separate multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the association of deprivation with each of the 13 food and beverage guidelines and the seven provider behavior guidelines. We also conducted a joint F-test for any deprivation effect, to evaluate the effect of the guidelines combined. After adjusting for confounders, we observed differences in the frequency of nurseries that reported serving healthier foods across the tertiles of deprivation (p = 0.02 for joint F test). These adjusted results were driven mainly by nurseries in more deprived areas serving more whole grains (OR 1.57 (95% CI 1.00, 2.46)) and legumes, pulses, and lentils (1.40 (1.01, 2.14)). We also observed differences in the frequency of nurseries reporting more provider behaviors consistent with national guidelines across the tertiles of deprivation (p = 0.01 for joint F test). Nurseries in more deprived areas were more likely to dilute juice with water (2.35 (1.48, 3.73)), allow children to select their own portions (1.09 (1.06, 1.58)), and sit with children during meals (1.84 (1.07, 3.15)). While nurseries in the most deprived areas reported serving more healthy foods, a large percentage were still not meeting national guidelines. Policy and intervention efforts may increase compliance with national guidelines in nurseries in more deprived areas, and across England. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutrition practices of nurseries in England. Comparison with national guidelines☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelon, Sara E. Benjamin; Burgoine, Thomas; Hesketh, Kathryn R.; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Recent national guidelines call for improved nutrition within early years settings. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe foods and beverages served in nurseries, assess provider behaviors related to feeding, and compare these practices to national guidelines. We administered a mailed survey to a random sample of nurseries across England, stratifying by tertile of deprivation. A total of 851 nurseries returned the survey (54.3% response rate). We fitted separate multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the association of deprivation with each of the 13 food and beverage guidelines and the seven provider behavior guidelines. We also conducted a joint F-test for any deprivation effect, to evaluate the effect of the guidelines combined. After adjusting for confounders, we observed differences in the frequency of nurseries that reported serving healthier foods across the tertiles of deprivation (p = 0.02 for joint F test). These adjusted results were driven mainly by nurseries in more deprived areas serving more whole grains (OR 1.57 (95% CI 1.00, 2.46)) and legumes, pulses, and lentils (1.40 (1.01, 2.14)). We also observed differences in the frequency of nurseries reporting more provider behaviors consistent with national guidelines across the tertiles of deprivation (p = 0.01 for joint F test). Nurseries in more deprived areas were more likely to dilute juice with water (2.35 (1.48, 3.73)), allow children to select their own portions (1.09 (1.06, 1.58)), and sit with children during meals (1.84 (1.07, 3.15)). While nurseries in the most deprived areas reported serving more healthy foods, a large percentage were still not meeting national guidelines. Policy and intervention efforts may increase compliance with national guidelines in nurseries in more deprived areas, and across England. PMID:25450898

  18. Challenges to dental access - England as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Raman

    2006-06-01

    Access to dental services because of an insufficient workforce is a historic challenge faced by many developing countries. In recent years, however, it has become a major issue for many industrialized countries. The growing demand for cosmetic dentistry, an increase in patients' willingness to pay for dental treatment, and growing numbers of older dentate patients have all put pressure on dental systems. Ways of meeting these challenges and ensuring reasonable dental access will vary from country to country, but the solutions often lie in how the dental workforce is regulated. This case study of the dental reforms currently being implemented in England highlights progress at a particular point in time (Summer 2005). It is clear that it will take a number of years to find a new national dental payment system (the National Health Service) to replace the system which has changed little since 1948. However, the political pressure to address poor access to state-funded dental services calls for more immediate actions. The initial approach was to increase the dental workforce via international recruitment, and in the medium term to increase the number of dental students in training and to expand the numbers of other members of the dental team. An additional stratagem is to retain those already providing dental care under the National Health Service by the introduction of a new method of remuneration. England is trying to improve both access to care and the oral health of the population by creating a workforce more suitable to public demands and changing oral health needs.

  19. New England Energy Congress: a blueprint for energy action. Executive summary and recommendations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Robert L.; Mayer, Jean; Buckley, John G.; Connolly, Patrick F.; Spencer, Bailey

    1979-05-01

    The task of the New England Congress deals with reducing the region's dependence on foreign oil and its cost disadvantage compared to the rest of the country. The work of the Congress is summarized. Recommendations address the demand side of the energy equation and then analysis and recommendations address supply options. Reports from the following committees are included: New England Energy Supply; Alternatives; Economic Development Through Alternative Sources of Energy; New England Energy Demand; Conservation; Demand Transportation; Energy Conservation; Residential Energy Package; Regulatory and Institutional Processes; and Energy Economics and Financing.

  20. The effects of acculturation on obesity rates in ethnic minorities in England: evidence from the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neil R; Kelly, Yvonne J; Nazroo, James Y

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the extent of generational differences in adult health-related lifestyles and socio-economic circumstances, and explore whether these differences might explain changing patterns of obesity in ethnic minorities in England. Seven ethnic minority groups were selected from the ethnically boosted 1999 and 2004 Health Survey for England (Indian n = 1580; Pakistani n = 1858; Bangladeshi n = 1549; Black Caribbean n = 1472; Black African n = 587; Chinese n = 1559; and Irish n = 889). Age and sex adjusted odds of being obese in the second generation when compared with the first were estimated before and after adjusting for generational differences in health-related behaviours (snacking, eating cakes and fried foods, low levels of physical exercise, any drinking, current smoker, etc.) and socio-economic factors (social class, equivalized income and highest qualification). Indian [OR: 1.76 (1.14-2.71)] and Chinese [OR: 3.65 (1.37-9.78)] groups were more likely to be obese in the second generation than the first after adjusting for age and sex, with no significant differences observed in all other groups. However, the risk of obesity in all groups converged between generations to the risk observed in the White reference group, with exception to the Black Caribbean group. Adjusting independently for the mixed patterns of acculturative changes and the uniform upward social mobility in all groups increased the risk of obesity in the second generation. Obesity converged to the risk in the majority population following acculturation. Future research needs to consider generation and trans-cultural identities as a fundamental variable in determining the causes of ethnic health inequalities.

  1. 12 New England Organizations Honored for Outstanding Achievements in Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are honoring 12 New England businesses and organizations for their commitment to saving energy, saving money, and protecting the environment through superior energy efficiency achievements.

  2. Herkunfts-Sprachkompetenz von jugendlichen Immigranten in England, Deutschland, den Niederlanden und Schweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tubergen, Frank; Mentjox, Tessel

    2014-01-01

    We study minority language proficiency of adolescent immigrant children in England, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden. We elaborate on theoretical mechanisms of exposure, efficiency and non-economic incentives of minority language acquisition. Using data from adolescent immigrant children in

  3. EPA Begins Reviews of 24 New England Site Cleanups during Current Fiscal Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA plans to conduct comprehensive reviews of site cleanups at 24 National Priorities List Sites (Superfund Sites), including two Federal Facilities, across New England by performing required Five-Year Reviews of sites.

  4. Equity, justice and the crime drop: the case of burglary in England and Wales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunter, James; Tseloni, Andromachi

    2016-01-01

    ...) groups taking into account group composition. To this end, it compares their burglary incidence rates based on burglary count models of the 1994 and 2008/09 Crime Survey for England and Wales data...

  5. Have winter fuel payments reduced excess winter mortality in England and Wales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iparraguirre, J

    2015-03-01

    The historical series of excess winter mortality (EWM) in England and Wales presents a negative trend. Winter fuel payments (WFPs) are the most important benefits for people aged 65 or over directly related to Winter Mortality in the UK. This study presents a time series analysis of the direct effect of WFPs on EWM in England and Wales. We find a significant structural break in trend and volatility in the EWM series in England and Wales in 1999-2000. After controlling for a number of covariates, an ARIMA-X model finds that WFPs can account for almost half of the reduction in EWM in England and Wales since 1999/2000. Almost half of the reduction in EWM since 1999/2000 is attributable to WFPs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Adult ADHD patient experiences of impairment, service provision and clinical management in England: a qualitative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matheson, Lauren; Asherson, Philip; Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Hodgkins, Paul; Setyawan, Juliana; Sasane, Rahul; Clifford, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    ...) in the published scientific literature. This study aimed to explore the experiences of adults in England with ADHD regarding access to diagnostic and treatment services, ADHD-related impairment and to compare experiences between patients...

  7. Analysis of physical activity and acculturation among Turkish migrants in Germany and England (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Canan; Lapa, Tennur Yerlisu

    2014-12-01

    Recent literature shows that migrant populations in Western countries are generally less physically active than their host populations. The purpose of the present study was to expand research investigating associations between physical activity (PA) and acculturation and their relationship with several socio-demographic factors among Turkish migrants in Germany and England. The sample consisted of 521 Turkish migrants. Migrant generation, length of residence, and language proficiency were used as indicators of acculturation. Acculturation was not associated with PA among migrants in Germany and England. PA of migrants was significantly associated with migrant's host country, age, sex, marital status, and education. The total PA of migrants in Germany was higher than that of migrants in England; the large majority of females in both Germany and England had low PA, whereas most males had moderate PA. Seemingly, PA in Turkish migrant populations will not necessarily increase as a result of greater acculturation to the host society.

  8. Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in the Law of Iran and England: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasat Pour Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in the Law of Iran and England: A Comparative Study. There are a lot of similarities and commonalities between the legal system of Iran and England in the field of recognition and enforcement of the foreign judgments including public discipline and conflicting judgments. Public discipline in England Law is more specific than that of Iran. Being a civil case of the judgment, impossibility of recognition, enforcement of tax and criminal judgments are among the similarities of the two systems. On the other hand, reciprocity, precise of the foreign court, and the jurisdiction governing the nature of the claim are among instances which are different in Iran and England legal systems on the recognizing of the enforcement of foreign judgments.

  9. Forestry Across Borders: Proceedings of the New England Society of American Foresters 84th Winter Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey S. Ward; Mark J., eds. Twery

    2004-01-01

    Contains 19 short papers and abstracts presented at the 84th annual winter meeting of the New England Society of American Foresters, Forestry Across Borders, in Quebec City, Canada, March 23-26, 2004.

  10. New England observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum daily rate of change points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum negative rate of change in New England based on a...

  11. New England observed and predicted median August stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted median August stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  12. New England observed and predicted growing season maximum stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted growing season maximum stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial statistical...

  13. Predicted median July stream/river temperature regime in New England

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile includes the predicted thermal regime for all NHDPlus version 1 stream and river reaches in New England within the model domain based on the spatial...

  14. New England observed and predicted Julian day of maximum growing season stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted Julian day of maximum growing season stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial...

  15. New England observed and predicted July stream/river temperature daily range points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted July stream/river temperature daily ranges in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  16. New England observed and predicted August stream/river temperature daily range points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted August stream/river temperature daily ranges in New England based on a spatial statistical...

  17. New England observed and predicted median July stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted median July stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  18. New England Organizations Step Up for EPAs Food Recovery Challenge and Help to Reduce Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen New England organizations have backed a national effort led by the US Environmental Protection Agency to help cut down on the nearly 35 million tons of food wasted in the United States each year.

  19. Two New England Businesses and One Individual Recognized by EPA for Climate Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has recognized the leadership of one individual and two New England companies for their climate actions, such as investing in energy efficiency and renewable energy, and preparing for the impacts of climate change.

  20. Two New England Small Businesses Awarded EPA Funding to Develop Environmental Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two New England small businesses - one in Connecticut and the other in Massachusetts - were among eight companies nationwide awarded contracts by the U.S. EPA to develop innovative technologies to protect the environment.

  1. Natural and Anthropogenic Methane Sources, New England, USA, 1990-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains an inventory of natural and anthropogenic methane emissions for all counties in the six New England states of Connecticut, Rhode Island,...

  2. Do financial incentives trump clinical guidance? Hip Replacement in England and Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolas, Irene; McGuire, Alistair

    2015-12-01

    Following devolution in 1999 England and Scotland's National Health Services diverged, resulting in major differences in hospital payment. England introduced a case payment mechanism from 2003/4, while Scotland continued to pay through global budgets. We investigate the impact this change had on activity for Hip Replacement. We examine the financial reimbursement attached to uncemented Hip Replacement in England, which has been more generous than for its cemented counterpart, although clinical guidance from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence recommends the later. In Scotland this financial differential does not exist. We use a difference-in-difference estimator, using Scotland as a control, to test whether the change in reimbursement across the two countries had an influence on treatment. Our results indicate that financial incentives are directly linked to the faster uptake of the more expensive, uncemented Hip Replacement in England, which ran against the clinical guidance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Democratic police governance in comparative perspective: reflections from England & Wales and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, T.; van Steden, R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the specific institutional arrangements for realizing democratically accountable policing in England & Wales and the Netherlands. It assesses each accountability system against a set of "democratic criteria" and considers the implications for

  4. The Idea of England in Eighteenth-century Indian Travel Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Satapathy, Amrita

    2012-01-01

    In her article "The Idea of England in Eighteenth-century Indian Travel Writing" Amrita Satapathy discusses how Dean Mahomed's 1794 The Travels of Dean Mahomed maps out territories of the mind of the colonizer and the colonized, how the narrative redefines contours of two diverse communities and cultures, and determines forms of cultural representations. Mahomed's Travels presented for the first time the idea of England from an Indian immigrant's point of view and altered the prejudiced outlo...

  5. A Review on Multicultural Education Programmes in Initial Teacher Training in England

    OpenAIRE

    Morito, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on programmes of multicultural education in initial teacher training (ITT) in England. England, which has a long history as a multiethnic and multicultural society, offers significant opportunities for consideration for multicultural educational design. The issue of educating teachers for diverse schools and classrooms needs to be addressed urgently (OECD, 2010). Hence, it is significant to grasp how teacher education offers trainees and teachers the knowledg...

  6. Temporal patterns of alcohol consumption and attempts to reduce alcohol intake in England

    OpenAIRE

    de Vocht, F; Brown, J.; Beard, E; Angus, C; Brennan, A; Michie, S; Campbell, R.; Hickman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS) is a monthly survey of approximately 1700 adults per month aged 16 years of age or more in England. We aimed to explore patterns of alcohol consumption and motivation to reduce alcohol use in England throughout the year. Methods Data from 38,372 participants who answered questions about alcohol consumption (March 2014 to January 2016) were analysed using weighted regression using the R survey package. Questions assessed alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C) ...

  7. Drinking Outcome Expectancies and Normative Perceptions of Students Engaged in University Sport in England

    OpenAIRE

    Longstaff, Fran; Heather, Nick; Allsop, Susan; Partington, Elizabeth; Jankowski, Mark; Wareham, Helen; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Partington, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether students engaged in university sport have different drinking outcome expectancies and normative beliefs than students who are not engaged in university sport. A cross-sectional survey of university students in England in 2008–2009 was undertaken. A questionnaire battery, including the Drinking Expectancies Questionnaire (DEQ) and a measure of normative beliefs, was completed by 770 students from seven universities across England. Responses from 638 students who wer...

  8. Documenting Reproductive Phenology using Herbarium Specimens: Experiences from the New England Vascular Plants Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney,Patrick; Gilbert,Edward

    2017-01-01

    Herbarium specimens and associated label data are valuable sources of phenological data. They can provide information about the phenological state of the specimen and information about how phenology varies in space and time. In an effort to leverage this tremendous phenological resource, the New England Vascular Plants project (NEVP) has worked over the past few years to create a data set catered to the study of the effects of climate change in New England. This project has focused on capturi...

  9. Rural in-migration in England and Wales, 1980-1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, P

    1995-01-01

    "A partially constrained Poisson regression model approach was used to examine 31,356 district-level flows into and between rural areas in England and Wales between 1980 and 1981.... The results suggest that military redeployment was of considerable importance in explaining the patterns of rural in-migration in England and Wales between 1980 and 1981. Little evidence of a major redistribution of population from the largest urban centres to the rural periphery was identified." excerpt

  10. [Accepted Manuscript] Increased orthogeriatrician involvement in hip fracture care and its impact on mortality in England

    OpenAIRE

    Neuburger, J.; C. Currie; Wakeman, R.; Johansen, A.; Tsang, C.; Plant, F.; Wilson, H.; Cromwell, D. A.; Van der Meulen, J.; De Stavola, B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives to describe the increase in orthogeriatrician involvement in hip fracture care in England and its association with improvements in time to surgery and mortality.\\ud \\ud Study design analysis of Hospital Episode Statistics for 196,401 patients presenting with hip fracture to 150 hospitals in England between 1 April 2010 and 28 February 2014, combined with data on orthogeriatrician hours from a national organisational survey.\\ud \\ud Methods we examined changes in the average number o...

  11. Geography is not destiny: geography, institutions and literacy in England, 1837–63

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Clark; Rowena Gray

    2014-01-01

    Geography made rural society in the southeast of England unequal. Economies of scale in grain growing created a farmer elite and many landless labourers. In the pastoral northwest, in contrast, family farms dominated, with few hired labourers and modest income disparities. Did this geography driven difference in social structure influence educational outcomes in England 1810–45? Using new micro-level data we show that this geographically driven inequality is not a strong predictor of regional...

  12. A history of Soil Survey in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, S.; Deeks, L.

    2012-04-01

    Early soil mapping in Britain was dominated, as in the USA, by soil texture with maps dating back to the early 1900's identifying surface texture and parent rock materials. Only in the 1920's did Dokuchaev's work in Russia involving soil morphology and the development of the soil profile start to gain popularity, drawing in the influence of climate and topography on pedogenesis. Intentions to create a formal body at this time responsible for soil survey were not implemented and progress remained slow. However, in 1939 definite steps were taken to address this and the soil survey was created. In 1947, its activities were transferred from Bangor to the research branch of the Rothamsted experimental station in Hertfordshire under Professor G.W. Robinson. Soon after, a number of regional offices were also established to act as a link with the National Agricultural Advisory Service. At this time a Pedology Department was established at Rothamsted, focussing on petrological, X-ray, spectrographic and chemical analyses. Although not a Rothamsted Department itself, the Survey did fall under the 'Lawes Agricultural Trust'. A Soil Survey Research Advisory Board was also formed to act as a liaison with the Agricultural Field Council. In Scotland by contrast, soil survey activities became centred on the Macaulay Institute in Aberdeen. Developments in the survey of British soils were accompanied in parallel by the development of soil classification systems. In 1930 a Soils Correlation Committee had been formed to ensure consistency in methods and naming of soil series and to ensure the classification was applied uniformly. In England and Wales the zonal system adopted was similar to that used in the USA, where soil series were named after the location where they were first described. American soil scientists such as Veitch and Lee provided stimulus to the development of mapping methods. In Scotland a differing classification was adopted, being similar to that used in Canada

  13. Identifying dietary differences between Scotland and England: a rapid review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie; Barton, Karen L; Albani, Viviana; Anderson, Annie S; Wrieden, Wendy L

    2017-10-01

    Rates of premature mortality have been higher in Scotland than in England since the 1970s. Given the known association of diet with chronic disease, the study objective was to identify and synthesise evidence on current and historical differences in food and nutrient intakes in Scotland and England. A rapid review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature was carried out. After an initial scoping search, Medline, CINAHL, Embase and Web of Science were searched. Relevant grey literature was also included. Inclusion criteria were: any date; measures of dietary intake; representative populations; cross-sectional or observational cohort studies; and English-language publications. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-sectional Studies. A narrative synthesis of extracted information was conducted. Fifty publications and reports were included in the review. Results indicated that children and adults in Scotland had lower intakes of vegetables and vitamins compared with those living in England. Higher intakes of salt in Scotland were also identified. Data were limited by small Scottish samples, difficulty in finding England-level data, lack of statistical testing and adjustment for key confounders. Further investigation of adequately powered and analysed surveys is required to examine more fully dietary differences between Scotland and England. This would provide greater insight into potential causes of excess mortality in Scotland compared with England and suitable policy recommendations to address these inequalities.

  14. Greater Perceived Age Discrimination in England than the United States: Results from HRS and ELSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninotto, Paola; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined cross-national differences in perceptions of age discrimination in England and the United States. Under the premise that the United States has had age discrimination legislation in place for considerably longer than England, we hypothesized that perceptions of age discrimination would be lower in the United States. Methods. We analyzed data from two nationally representative studies of aging, the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (n = 4,818) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 7,478). Respondents aged 52 years and older who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination were significantly higher in England than the United States, with 34.8% of men and women in England reporting age discrimination compared with 29.1% in the United States. Associations between perceived age discrimination and older age and lower levels of household wealth were observed in both countries, but we found differences between England and the United States in the relationship between perceived age discrimination and education. Discussion. Our study revealed that levels of perceived age discrimination are lower in the United States than England and are less socially patterned. This suggests that differing social and political circumstances in the two countries may have an important role to play. PMID:26224759

  15. Residential mobility during pregnancy in the north of England

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    Bythell Mary

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies assign exposure to an individual's residence at a single time point, such as birth or death. This approach makes no allowance for migration and may result in exposure error, leading to reduced study power and biased risk estimates. Pregnancy outcomes are less susceptible to this bias, however data from North American populations indicate that pregnant women are a highly mobile group. We assessed mobility in pregnant women in the north of England using data from the Northern Congenital Abnormality Survey (NorCAS. Methods Data were extracted from NorCAS for 1985 to 2003. Eligible cases had a gestational age at delivery of ≥ 24 weeks (a viable delivery (n = 11 559. We assessed mobility between booking appointment (average gestational age 13 weeks and delivery for pregnancies where the address at booking appointment and delivery were known. The impacts on mobility of maternal age and area-level socio-economic indicators were explored using standard descriptive statistics. A sensitivity analysis and a small validation exercise were undertaken to assess the impact of missing data on the estimate of mobility. Results Out of 7 919 eligible cases for whom addresses at booking and delivery were known, 705 (8.9% (95% CI 8.3 - 9.5 moved between booking and delivery; the mean and median moving distance was 9.7 and 1.4 km respectively. Movers were significantly younger (25.4 versus 27.3 years, p Conclusion Mobility in the north of England (9% is considerably lower than that reported in North America and the only other study from the UK (23%. Consistent with other studies, mobility was related to maternal age and socio-economic status, and the majority of moves were over a relatively short distance. Although this population appears relatively stable, the mobility we have observed may still introduce misclassification or error into an exposure assessment relying solely on postcode at delivery, and migration

  16. Explaining variation in the uptake of HPV vaccination in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whynes David K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In England, two national programmes of HPV vaccination for girls have been instituted, a routine programme for 12- and 13-year-olds and a catch-up programme for 17- and 18-year-olds. Uptake rates across the country have been far from uniform, and this research sought to identify factors explaining the variation in uptake by locality. Methods An association between uptake, deprivation and ethnic background had been established in pilot research. The present analysis was conducted at an aggregate, Primary Care Trust (PCT, level for the first year of the programmes. Published measures of HPV vaccination uptake, material deprivation, ethnic composition of PCT populations, primary care quality, and uptake of cervical screening and of other childhood immunisations were collated. Strong evidence of collinearity amongst the explanatory variables required a factor analysis to be undertaken. This provided four independent factors, used thereafter in regression models to explain uptake by PCT. Results The factor analysis revealed that ethnic composition was associated with attitudes towards cervical screening and other childhood vaccinations, whilst material deprivation and quality of primary care were orthogonal. Ethnic composition, early childhood vaccination, cervical screening and primary care quality were found to be influential in predicting uptake in both the routine and the catch-up cohorts, although with a lower degree of confidence in the case of the last two independent variables. Lower primary care quality was significant in explaining a greater fall in vaccination uptake between the first two doses in the catch-up cohort. Greater deprivation was a significant explanatory factor for both uptake and the fall in uptake between doses for the catch-up cohort but not for uptake in the routine cohort. Conclusion These results for uptake of the first year of the national programme using aggregate data corroborate findings from

  17. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  18. Radiotherapy demand and activity in England 2006-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, C E; Williams, M V; Mee, T; Kirkby, N F; Cooper, T; Hoskin, P; Jena, R

    2013-09-01

    This paper compares the predictions of radiotherapy demand for England from the Malthus model with those from the earlier National Radiotherapy Advisory Group (NRAG) model, from the international literature and also with observed radiotherapy usage in England as a whole as recorded in the English radiotherapy dataset (RTDS). We reviewed the evidence base for radiotherapy for each type and stage of cancer using national and international guidelines, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and key clinical trials. Twenty-two decision trees were constructed and radiotherapy demand was calculated using English cancer incidence data for 2007, 2008 and 2009, accurate to the Primary Care Trust (PCT) level (population 91,500-1,282,384). The stage at presentation was obtained from English cancer registry data. In predictive mode, the model can take account of changes in cancer incidence as the population grows and ages. The Malthus model indicates reduced indications for radiotherapy, principally for lung cancer and rarer tumours. Our estimate of the proportion of patients who should receive radiotherapy at some stage of their illness is 40.6%. This is lower than previous estimates of about 50%. Nevertheless, the overall estimate of demand in terms of attendances is similar for the NRAG and Malthus models. The latter models that 48,827 attendances should have been delivered per million population in 2011. National data from RTDS show 32,071 attendances per million in 2011. A 50% increase in activity would be required to match estimated demand. This underprovision extends across all cancers and represents reduced access and the use of dose fractionation at odds with international norms of evidence-based practice. By 2016, demand is predicted to grow to about 55,206 attendances per million and by 2020 to 60,057. Services have increased their activity by 14% between 2006 and 2011, but estimated demand has increased by 11%. Access remains low and English radiotherapy dose

  19. Social representations of memory and gender in later medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Bronach

    2012-12-01

    Social representations in later medieval culture have attracted little attention amongst psychologists, pre-dating the development of the so-called 'public sphere' in the eighteenth century. In addition, the association of pre-modern societies with 'traditional' modes of communication in social psychology places implicit limits on areas that may be studied through the lens of social representation theory. This article analyses the way in which knowledge circulated in late medieval society, noting initially the plural nature of representations of events and marginal groups, and the myriad channels through which beliefs were consolidated. In later medieval England perceptions of the past depended on collective and group memory, with customary rights and local histories forged through 'common knowledge', hearsay and the opinions of 'trustworthy men' of the village. The final section of this commentary provides an analysis of testimony from the late medieval church courts, in which witnesses articulated gender ideologies that reflected perceptions drawn from everyday life. Social representations of women were thus deployed in ecclesiastical suits, on the one hand supporting evidence of female witnesses and on the other justifying misogynistic stereotypes of women's behaviour.

  20. Background exposure rates of terrestrial wildlife in England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk; Barnett, C.L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Jones, D.G. [British Geological Society, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Wood, M.D. [Institute for Sustainable Water Integrated Management and Ecosystem Research (SWIMMER), Nicholson Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GP (United Kingdom); Appleton, J.D.; Breward, N. [British Geological Society, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Copplestone, D. [Environment Agency, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 1HG (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    It has been suggested that, when assessing radiation impacts on non-human biota, estimated dose rates due to anthropogenically released radionuclides should be put in context by comparison to dose rates from natural background radiation. In order to make these comparisons, we need data on the activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in environmental media and organisms of interest. This paper presents the results of a study to determine the exposure of terrestrial organisms in England and Wales to naturally occurring radionuclides, specifically {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U series and {sup 232}Th series radionuclides. Whole-body activity concentrations for the reference animals and plants (RAPs) as proposed by the ICRP have been collated from literature review, data archives and a targeted sampling campaign. Data specifically for the proposed RAP are sparse. Soil activity concentrations have been derived from an extensive geochemical survey of the UK. Unweighted and weighted absorbed dose rates were estimated using the ERICA Tool. Mean total weighted whole-body absorbed dose rates estimated for the selected terrestrial organisms was in the range 6.9 x 10{sup -2} to 6.1 x 10{sup -1} {mu}Gy h{sup -1}.

  1. Simple rationality? The law of healthcare resource allocation in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Charles

    2007-07-01

    This paper examines the law relating to healthcare resource allocation in England. The National Health Service (NHS) Act 1977 does not impose an absolute duty to provide specified healthcare services. The courts will only interfere with a resource allocation decision made by an NHS body if that decision is frankly irrational (or where the decision infringes the principle of proportionality when a right under the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is engaged). Such irrationality is very difficult to establish. The ECHR has made no significant contribution to domestic English law in the arena of healthcare provision. The decision of the European Court in the Yvonne Watts case establishes that, in relation to the question of entitlement to seek treatment abroad at the expense of the NHS, a clinical judgment about the urgency of treatment trumps an administrative decision about waiting list targets. That decision goes against the grain of domestic law about healthcare allocation, but is not likely to have wide ramifications in domestic law.

  2. Advanced level nursing in England: organisational challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Linda; Knowles, Kate; Pettman, Maria; Fisher, Leslie

    2015-11-01

    To explore the background, activities and future development needs of advanced practice nurses within a large NHS Trust in England, allowing for a wider review of the current situation within the UK. There are currently no national requirements for advanced practice nursing within the UK, which has led to considerable variability in these roles. Recently, focus has been placed on local governance rather than regulation of advanced practice nursing. However, governance and coordinated workforce planning within the UK is in its infancy. An electronic survey was sent to all nurses within one Trust identified as practising at an advanced level; a total of 136 responses were received. The survey identified considerable variation in titles, educational preparation and current activities even within similar roles. Some participants identified the need for more support in undertaking professional development activities. The findings echo the wider picture within the UK, and point to the need to actively work on developing strategies for governance, education, and succession planning for advanced practice nursing. In the absence of national regulation, UK NHS Trusts should develop their own registers of advanced practice nurses in order to facilitate improved management, governance and workforce planning systems. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Risk factors for acute toxoplasmosis in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, B; Halsby, K D; O'Connor, C M; Francis, J; Hewitt, K; Verlander, N Q; Guy, E; Morgan, D

    2017-01-01

    Over 300 cases of acute toxoplasmosis are confirmed by reference testing in England and Wales annually. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection to inform prevention strategies. Twenty-eight cases and 27 seronegative controls participated. We compared their food history and environmental exposures using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals in a model controlling for age and sex. Univariable analysis showed that the odds of eating beef (OR 10·7, P < 0·001), poultry (OR 6·4, P = 0·01) or lamb/mutton (OR 4·9, P = 0·01) was higher for cases than controls. After adjustment for potential confounders a strong association between beef and infection remained (OR 5·6, P = 0·01). The small sample size was a significant limitation and larger studies are needed to fully investigate potential risk factors. The study findings emphasize the need to ensure food is thoroughly cooked and handled hygienically, especially for those in vulnerable groups.

  4. Evaluation of educational programmes for paediatric cancer nursing in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Linda; Long, Tony; Hale, Claire

    2004-06-01

    The results of part of a larger study to evaluate educational provision for paediatric oncology and palliative care nursing in England are presented here. Mapping of cancer care provision, based upon the English National Board 240 programme, was undertaken by analysis of relevant curriculum documents. Prescribed programme outcomes were reviewed against expected course outcomes proposed by the European Oncology Nursing Society. Particular attention was also paid to expected processes of assessment of clinical practice, consideration of adolescent patients, and opportunities for shared learning. Widespread compliance with the European Oncology Nursing Society standard was found, with only two of the 19 areas substantially neglected. These related to the prevention and early detection of cancer (less relevant in paediatric cancer than for adults), and understanding the principles of cancer clinical trials (probably due to lack of explicit statement in curriculum documents rather than actual failure to address the topic). A range of prescribed assessment practices were noted, but the degree to which direct observation was involved was variable, and indirect measures appeared to predominate. There was little specific recognition of adolescence as a discrete topic to be addressed in the programmes. Shared learning tended to be introduced for logistical reasons of small class numbers rather than for any perceived intrinsic value.

  5. Longevity and mortality of owned dogs in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D G; Church, D B; McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Brodbelt, D C

    2013-12-01

    Improved understanding of longevity represents a significant welfare opportunity for the domestic dog, given its unparalleled morphological diversity. Epidemiological research using electronic patient records (EPRs) collected from primary veterinary practices overcomes many inherent limitations of referral clinic, owner questionnaire and pet insurance data. Clinical health data from 102,609 owned dogs attending first opinion veterinary practices (n=86) in central and southeast England were analysed, focusing on 5095 confirmed deaths. Of deceased dogs with information available, 3961 (77.9%) were purebred, 2386 (47.0%) were female, 2528 (49.8%) were neutered and 1105 (21.7%) were insured. The overall median longevity was 12.0 years (IQR 8.9-14.2). The longest-lived breeds were the Miniature poodle, Bearded collie, Border collie and Miniature dachshund, while the shortest-lived were the Dogue de Bordeaux and Great Dane. The most frequently attributed causes of death were neoplastic, musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. The results of multivariable modelling indicated that longevity in crossbred dogs exceeded purebred dogs by 1.2 years (95% confidence interval 0.9-1.4; Pdogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. User involvement in assisted reproductive technologies: England and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorinha, Catarina; Lichon, Mateusz; Silva, Susana; Dent, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare user involvement in the case of assisted reproductive technologies in England and Portugal through the concepts of voice, choice and co-production, assessing the implications for user empowerment. This qualitative study draws primarily on policy review and uses exploratory semi-structured interviews with key informants as a way of illustrating points. Data on the following themes was compared: voice (users' representativeness on licensing bodies and channels of communication between users and doctors); choice (funding and accessibility criteria; choice of fertility centres, doctors and level of care); and co-production (criteria through which users actively engage with health professionals in planning the treatment). Inter- and intra-healthcare systems variations between the two countries on choice and co-production were identified. Differences between funding and accessibility, regions, public and private sectors and attitudes towards doctor-patient relationship (paternalistic/partnership) were the key issues. Although consumer choice and indicators of co-production are evident in treatment pathways in both countries, user empowerment is not. This is limited by inequalities in accessibility criteria, dependence on doctors' individual perspectives and lack of genuine and formal hearing of citizens' voice. Enhancing users' involvement claims for individual and organizational cultures reflecting user-centred values. Effective ways to incorporate users' knowledge in shared decision making and co-design are needed to empower patients and to improve the delivery of care.

  7. Salience Effects in the North-West of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jansen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The question of how we can define salience, what properties it includes and how we can quantify it have been discussed widely over the past thirty years but we still have more questions than answers about this phenomenon, e. g. not only how salience arises, but also how we can define it. However, despite the lack of a clear definition, salience is often taken into account as an explanatory factor in language change. The scientific discourse on salience has in most cases revolved around phonetic features, while hardly any variables on other linguistic levels have been investigated in terms of their salience. Hence, one goal of this paper is to argue for an expanded view of salience in the sociolinguistic context. This article investigates the variation and change of two groups of variables in Carlisle, an urban speech community in the north west of England. I analyse the variable (th and in particular the replacement of /θ/ with [f] which is widely known as th-fronting. The use of three discourse markers is also examined. Both groups of features will then be discussed in the light of sociolinguistic salience.

  8. Screening for breast cancer in England: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben, Rosalyn Katy F

    2008-12-01

    This year, the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme in the UK (NHSBSP) celebrates its 20th anniversary. Since 1988, it has evolved with the help of randomized control studies to become more efficient at picking up in-situ disease and small invasive cancers. This review will address these new developments and discuss their impact on screening. The introduction of extra mammographic views, the reading of films by two specialists and digital mammography as well as age extension have all made significant differences to the detection of breast cancer through screening. A discussion of how less obvious factors such as organization and structure as well as rigorous national audit have improved matters is also included. Controversial topics such as the screening interval and screening women under 50 will also be addressed in this review. Population-based breast screening will continue to evolve in England. It is unique and with its annual national audit it continues to drive the development of breast services nationally.

  9. West Nile virus vector Culex modestus established in southern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golding Nick

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk posed to the United Kingdom by West Nile virus (WNV has previously been considered low, due to the absence or scarcity of the main Culex sp. bridge vectors. The mosquito Culex modestus is widespread in southern Europe, where it acts as the principle bridge vector of WNV. This species was not previously thought to be present in the United Kingdom. Findings Mosquito larval surveys carried out in 2010 identified substantial populations of Cx. modestus at two sites in marshland in southeast England. Host-seeking-adult traps placed at a third site indicate that the relative seasonal abundance of Cx. modestus peaks in early August. DNA barcoding of these specimens from the United Kingdom and material from southern France confirmed the morphological identification. Conclusions Cx. modestus appears to be established in the North Kent Marshes, possibly as the result of a recent introduction. The addition of this species to the United Kingdom's mosquito fauna may increase the risk posed to the United Kingdom by WNV.

  10. Renal calculi in wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, V R; Tomlinson, A J; Molenaar, F M; Lawson, B; Rogers, K D

    2011-07-09

    Macroscopic renal calculi were seen in 50 of 492 (10.2 per cent) wild Eurasian otters found dead in England from 1988 to 2007. Forty-eight adults and two subadults were affected. Calculi were present in 15.7 per cent (31 of 197) of adult males and 12.7 per cent (17 of 134) of adult females. There was an increase in prevalence in the study population over time; no calculi were found in 73 otters examined between 1988 and 1996, but in most subsequent years they were observed with increased frequency. Calculi occurred in both kidneys but were more common in the right kidney. They varied greatly in shape and size; larger calculi were mostly seen in the calyces while the smallest ones were commonly found in the renal medulla. Calculi from 45 cases were examined by x-ray diffraction analysis; in 43 (96 per cent), they were composed solely of ammonium acid urate. Affected otters had heavier adrenal glands relative to their body size than unaffected otters (P0.05). Many otters had fresh bite wounds consistent with intraspecific aggression. The proportion bitten increased over time and this coincided with the increased prevalence of renal calculi.

  11. Bringing it all Together: Networking Heritage Inventories in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, P. K.; Lee, E. S.

    2013-07-01

    This paper will look at the requirements for a future vision of networked, digital heritage inventories to support heritage protection in England. The present loose network presents several challenges for multiple organizations maintaining similar datasets on disparate IT software: Duplication of content; ownership of content and different approaches to recording practice and standards. This paper will discuss the potential use of the Arches Heritage Inventory and Management System as part of the vision for better operation of this network. Arches was developed by the Getty Conservation Institute, World Monuments Fund and Farallon Geographics as an open source web-based geographic information system (GIS) to help inventorize and manage immovable cultural heritage. The system is based around internationally recognized standards from both the heritage and IT sectors. These include: ISO 21127: 2006, commonly referred to as the CIDOC-CRM (Conceptual Reference Model); the CIDOC Core Data Standard for Archaeological and Architectural Sites; Core Data Index to Historic Buildings and Monuments of the Architectural Heritage as well as Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The proposed use of Arches as a data collection and exchange platform would provide effective and useful recording systems for small heritage projects lacking in-house IT support and the finances and skills to support their development. In addition it would promote standards to support cross-searching, data exchange and digital archiving and through its use of open source a community of IT developers, standards developers and content specialists can be developed to sustain the network.

  12. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  13. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1977-12-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  14. Selenium in sediments and biota from estuaries of southwest England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew

    2013-08-15

    Selenium concentrations have been measured in sediment, fucoid macroalgae and macroinvertebrates from four estuaries of SW England (Yealm, Plym, Looe, Fal). Sediment concentrations ranged from about 0.4 μg g(-1) in the Yealm to 1.49 μg g(-1) at one site in the Plym. Concentrations in Fucus vesiculosus (0.05-0.31 μg g(-1)) and F. ceranoides (0.05-0.51 μg g(-1)) were significantly lower than corresponding concentrations in sediment but there was no correlation between algal and sediment concentrations. Selenium concentrations in Littorina littorea (~4 μg g(-1)), Hediste diversicolor (2.82-12.68 μg g(-1)), Arenicola marina (~17 μg g(-1)) and Scrobicularia plana (1.18-6.85 μg g(-1)) were considerably higher than concentrations in macroalga or sediment, suggesting that Se is effectively accumulated from the diet. Although Se concentrations in some invertebrates exceed toxicity thresholds for the diet of predacious birds and fish, no specific evidence for Se toxicity exists in these estuaries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves.

  16. Victim support services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, authors tried to present activities of one of the oldest European Victim Support Services - Victim Support for England, Wales and Northern Ireland. During 1970s, through practice and research projects, the need for recognizing the physical and psychological status of victims after the crime was committed, as well as the need of providing them with the (informal assistance and support were noticed. That has resulted in establishing numerous of local victim support services (schemes, which united in the National Association of the Victim Support Services in 1979. Significant support was given to the Service in 1980s through the recommendations of the Council of Europe on the assistance for victims of crime and prevention of victimization through direct support given to the victim immediately after the incident, including protection and safety, medical, mental, social and financial support, as well as providing the victim with information on his/her rights, support during the criminal proceeding, assistance in getting compensation etc. Organization and structure of the service, referral system, code of practice and two main programs: Victim Service and Witness Service are reviewed in the paper.

  17. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Newsletter #5 -- January 2010, Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2010-01-01

    Wind Powering America program launched the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) in 2005 to provide a single comprehensive source of up-to-date, Web-based information on a broad array of wind energy issues pertaining to New England. The NEWF newsletter provides New England stakeholders with updates on wind energy development in the region. In addition to regional updates, Issue #5 offers an interview with Angus King, former governor of Maine and co-founder of Independence Wind.

  18. New England and northern New York forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the New England Climate Change Response Framework project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria K. Janowiak; Anthony W. D' Amato; Christopher W. Swanston; Louis Iverson; Frank R. Thompson; William D. Dijak; Stephen Matthews; Matthew P. Peters; Anantha Prasad; Jacob S. Fraser; Leslie A. Brandt; Patricia Butler-Leopold; Stephen D. Handler; P. Danielle Shannon; Diane Burbank; John Campbell; Charles Cogbill; Matthew J. Duveneck; Marla R. Emery; Nicholas Fisichelli; Jane Foster; Jennifer Hushaw; Laura Kenefic; Amanda Mahaffey; Toni Lyn Morelli; Nicholas J. Reo; Paul G. Schaberg; K. Rogers Simmons; Aaron Weiskittel; Sandy Wilmot; David Hollinger; Erin Lane; Lindsey Rustad; Pamela H. Templer

    2018-01-01

    Forest ecosystems will face direct and indirect impacts from a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems across the New England region (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, northern New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont) under a range of future climates. We synthesized and summarized information...

  19. Temporal trends in adults' sports participation patterns in England between 1997 and 2006: the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, E; Chaudhury, M

    2008-11-01

    To examine temporal trends in participation in sport and exercise activities in England between 1997 and 2006 while taking into account wider societal changes. A series of annual cross-sectional surveys. Nationally representative samples of men (n = 27 217) and women (n = 33 721) aged >or=16 years. Any (more than once every 4 weeks) and regular (more than once a week) participation in overall sport and exercise and a number of sport and exercise groupings (eg cycling, swimming, gym and fitness club-based activities (G/FC), racquet sports). Time point (1997/98, 2003/04, 2006) was the main dependent variable. Age-standardised overall regular participation changed from 40.8% in 1997/98 to 41.2% in 2006 for men (multivariable-adjusted participation OR = 1.11 in 2006, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.19, por=45 years) (1.25, 1.16 to 1.35, p1997 and 2006 as the result of increases among middle-aged and older adults and decreases among young men. There are no signs that the participation gap between less and more advantaged population groups is narrowing.

  20. Patient Safety Incidents Involving Sick Children in Primary Care in England and Wales: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rees, Philippa; Edwards, Adrian; Powell, Colin; Hibbert, Peter; Williams, Huw; Makeham, Meredith; Carter, Ben; Luff, Donna; Parry, Gareth; Avery, Anthony; Sheikh, Aziz; Donaldson, Liam; Carson-Stevens, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    .... Methods and Findings We undertook a mixed methods investigation of reports of primary care patient safety incidents involving sick children from England and Wales' National Reporting and Learning...

  1. Teachers' reported practices for teaching writing in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, Julie E; Marshall, Chloë R; Wyse, Dominic

    To date there have been no systematic studies examining the ways in which teachers in England focus and adapt their teaching of writing. The current study addresses this gap by investigating the nature and frequency of teachers' approaches to the teaching of writing in a sample of English primary schools, using the 'simple view of writing' as a framework to examine the extent to which different aspects of the writing process are addressed. One hundred and eighty-eight staff from ten different schools responded to an online questionnaire. Only the data from class teachers (n = 88) who responded to all items on the questionnaire were included in the final analyses. Respondents enjoyed teaching writing and felt prepared to teach it. However, despite feeling that they were effective in identifying approaches to support students' writing, nearly half reported that supporting struggling writers was problematic for them. Overall teachers reported more work at word level, occurring several times a week, than with transcription, sentence or text levels, which were reported to occur weekly. Planning, reviewing and revising occurred least often, only monthly. For these variables no differences were found between teachers of younger (age 4-7) and older students (age 8-11). By contrast, an examination of specific aspects of each component revealed differences between the teachers of the two age groups. Teachers of younger students focused more frequently on phonic activities related to spelling, whereas teachers of older students focussed more on word roots, punctuation, word classes and the grammatical function of words, sentence-level work, and paragraph construction.

  2. Quaternary geology and waste disposal in South Norfolk, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J. M.

    South Norfolk is dominated by the till plain of the Anglian Glaciation in eastern England, and therefore there are very few disused gravel pits and quarries suitable for the landfilling of municipal waste. Consequently, in May 1991, Norfolk County Council applied for planning permission to develop an above ground or 'landraise' waste disposal site at a disused U.S. World War II Airfield at Hardwick in South Norfolk. The proposal involved excavating a pit 2-4 m deep into the Lowestoft Till and overfilling it to create a hill of waste up to 10 m above the existing till plain. In general, leachate containment was to be achieved by utilising the relatively low permeability till on the floor of the site, but with reworking of the till around the site perimeter because of sand lenses in the upper part of the till. This paper examines three aspects of the proposal and the wider issues relating to Quaternary geology and waste disposal planning in South Norfolk: (i) the suitability of the till as a natural leachate containment system; (ii) the appropriateness of the landraise landform; and (iii) alternative sites. A Public Inquiry into the proposals was held in January/February 1993 and notification of refusal of planning permission was published in August 1993. Among the grounds for refusal were an inadequate knowledge of the site's geology and hydrogeology and the availability of alternative sites. The paper concludes by stressing that a knowledge of Quaternary geology is crucial to both the planning and design of landfill sites in areas of glacial/Quaternary sediments.

  3. Using population segmentation to inform local obesity strategy in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Jane; Crichton, Nicola; Lorenc, Ava; Kelly, Muireann

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the views of obese people and how best to meet their needs. Amongst London boroughs Barking and Dagenham has the highest prevalence of adult obesity at 28.7%; the lowest level of healthy eating and of physical activity; and is the 22nd most deprived area of England. The study aimed to gain insight into the attitudes, motivations and priorities of people who are obese or overweight to inform the social marketing of an obesity strategy. Two hundred and ten obese or overweight adults were recruited through visual identification in public thoroughfares to attempt to recruit those seldom seen in primary care. One hundred and eighty-one street-intercept and 52 in-depth interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis was followed by psychographic segmentation. Eleven population segments were identified based on their readiness to change, the value accorded to tackling obesity, identified enabling factors and barriers to weight management and perceived self-efficacy. This population showed considerable variation in its readiness to change and perceived control over obesity but considerable similarity in the exchange value they attributed to tackling their obesity. Even within a relatively homogenous socio-demographic community, there needs to be a range of interventions and messages tailored for different population segments that vary in their readiness to change and confidence about tackling obesity. The dominant emphasis of policy and practice on the health consequences of obesity does not reflect the priorities of this obese population for whom the exchange value of addressing obesity was daily functioning especially in relation to family life. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Dust from mineral extraction: regulation of emissions in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The United Kingdom, which includes England, has fairly high levels of rainfall but sporadic droughts occur especially in the east. Mineral working gives rise to dust. Concerns about dust soiling are major source of public objections to new minerals extraction operations. Dust emissions from mineral workings are a significant cause of public concern in the United Kingdom and are recognised as sources of health concerns and nuisance. Emissions are controlled through a number of complementary sets of regulations that are generally well observed by the industry and well enforced by the relevant public authorities. comprehensive system of regulation, based on European and national law, to deal with all aspects of these operations including pollution control, planning, occupational health and safety and statutory nuisances. Most minerals applications are subject to EIA which forms that basis for planning and environmental conditions and monitoring of operations. There are limit values on PM10 and PM2.5 in air, and for potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in soils and water, derived from European regulations but, as yet, no limit values for PHEs (other than radioactive materials) in air. Stakeholder engagement is encouraged so that members of the public can express concerns during minerals operations and operators can quickly deal with these. While some effects inevitably remain, the levels of dust emissions are kept low through good site design and management, proper use of machinery which is equipped to minimise emissions, and good training of the workforce. Operational sites are required to have dust monitoring equipment located outside the site boundary so that any emerging problems can be detected and addressed quickly.

  5. GPs' perceptions of workload in England: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxson, Caroline Hd; Ashdown, Helen F; Hobbs, Fd Richard

    2017-02-01

    GPs report the lowest levels of morale among doctors, job satisfaction is low, and the GP workforce is diminishing. Workload is frequently cited as negatively impacting on commitment to a career in general practice, and many GPs report that their workload is unmanageable. To gather an in-depth understanding of GPs' perceptions and attitudes towards workload. All GPs working within NHS England were eligible. Advertisements were circulated via regional GP e-mail lists and national social media networks in June 2015. Of those GPs who responded, a maximum-variation sample was selected until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analysed thematically. In total, 171 GPs responded, and 34 were included in this study. GPs described an increase in workload over recent years, with current working days being long and intense, raising concerns over the wellbeing of GPs and patients. Full-time partnership was generally not considered to be possible, and many participants felt workload was unsustainable, particularly given the diminishing workforce. Four major themes emerged to explain increased workload: increased patient needs and expectations; a changing relationship between primary and secondary care; bureaucracy and resources; and the balance of workload within a practice. Continuity of care was perceived as being eroded by changes in contracts and working patterns to deal with workload. This study highlights the urgent need to address perceived lack of investment and clinical capacity in general practice, and suggests that managing patient expectations around what primary care can deliver, and reducing bureaucracy, have become key issues, at least until capacity issues are resolved. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  6. Community pharmacists in England's opinions on skill mix and delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Emma; Bullock, Alison; Allan, Margaret; Hodson, Karen

    2017-12-06

    Following the 2005 contractual framework amendment, the expanding role of community pharmacy team members required a shift in entrenched views on roles and duties. This study aimed to report on community pharmacists' opinions on skill mix and explore how they can be addressed so that skill mix may be optimised. An invitation to complete an online questionnaire was distributed via email, marked for the attention of the lead pharmacist. Following a low response, a paper-based questionnaire was sent to all community pharmacies in England (n = 11,816). Questions elicited data about the respondent, the pharmacy (including staffing profile) and opinions on skill mix. A total of 1154 returns were received, representing a 10% response rate. Of these, most were pharmacy chains (76%; n = 877), with 5-9 staff (54%; n = 600); commonly open 40-49 hours (42%; n = 487), dispensing skill mix, three factors were identified by principal-components factor analysis: 'working well', 'feeling the pressure' and 'open to development'. Characteristics associated with 'working well': pharmacy owners, single businesses, with pharmacy technician(s), dispensing fewer prescriptions and open shorter hours. Characteristics associated with 'feeling the pressure': pharmacy chains, open longer hours, large numbers of prescriptions and relief pharmacists. Characteristics associated with 'open to development': recently qualified, second pharmacists, working longer hours, chains and dispensing lower numbers of prescriptions. Although limited by a low response, results suggest being in a position to influence (more experienced, business owners) may be associated with more positive opinions. Further training (including about legalities and leadership) could contribute to optimising skill mix in community pharmacies. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Depletions in winter total ozone values over southern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, A.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been made of the recently re-evaluated time series of daily total ozone values for the period 1979 to 1992 for southern England. The series consists of measurements made at two stations, Bracknell and Camborne. The series shows a steady decline in ozone values in the spring months over the period, and this is consistent with data from an earlier decade that has been published but not re-evaluated. Of exceptional note is the monthly mean for January 1992 which was very significantly reduced from the normal value, and was the lowest so far measured for this month. This winter was also noteworthy for a prolonged period during which a blocking anticyclone dominated the region, and the possibility existed that this was related to the ozone anomaly. It was possible to determine whether the origin of the low ozone value lay in ascending stratospheric motions. A linear regression analysis of ozone value deviation against 100hPa temperature deviations was used to reduce ozone values to those expected in the absence of high pressure. The assumption was made that the normal regression relation was not affected by atmospheric anomalies during the winter. This showed that vertical motions in the stratosphere only accounted for part of the ozone anomaly and that the main cause of the ozone deficit lay either in a reduced stratospheric circulation to which the anticyclone may be related or in chemical effects in the reduced stratospheric temperatures above the high pressure area. A study of the ozone time series adjusted to remove variations correlated with meteorological quantities, showed that during the period since 1979, one other winter, that of 1982/3, showed a similar although less well defined deficit in total ozone values.

  8. Healthy children's identification and risk perception of medicines in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Ben; Williams, Sian E; Gard, Paul R; MacAdam, Angela B

    2012-01-01

    Children's understanding of medicines has an impact on their behavior toward those medicines, and yet there has been a paucity of studies exploring this area. To assess children's ability to identify and to explore their risk perceptions of medicines. One hundred eighty-two children aged 4 to 11 years at 2 primary schools in England completed a worksheet containing photos of foods and pharmaceutical products. Children were asked to identify what the picture showed and classify it as "good for them," "bad for them," or "sometimes good/sometimes bad for them." Responses were marked as correct if they identified an item without the need for exact identification. Where an item was correctly identified, risk perception was analyzed. Children correctly identified 5 of the 7 pictures as a form of medicine (mean=5.10, standard deviation=1.51), and identification was positively correlated with age (ρ=0.59, Pwhite (71.4% correct, 95% CI=64.9-78) or pink tablets (33.5% correct, 95% CI=26.7-40.4). There was a significant shift with age in the perceptions of the children as they changed from reporting that medicines were good for them to reporting that they were sometimes good and sometimes bad for them. This held for all medicines (χ(2) tests, P<.05) except for the cream and the inhaler. As children get older, they become better at identifying medicines, and they become more likely to see their potential risks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A M; Fox, A P; Sanders, M F

    1989-10-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in sufficient numbers for transmission to occur throughout the year, but the observed seasonal pattern of the disease appeared to be influenced by seasonal mass movements of these fleas. However other factors were also important including the timing and success of the main rabbit breeding season, the proportion of rabbits which had recovered from the disease and the timing and extent of autumn rabbit mortality from other causes. Significantly more males than females, and more adults and immatures than juveniles, were observed to be infected by myxomatosis. Only 25-27% of the total populations were seen to be infected during outbreaks. Using two independent methods of calculation, it was estimated that between 47 and 69% of infected rabbits died from the disease (much lower than the expected 90-95% for fully susceptible rabbits with the partly attenuated virus strains that predominated). Thus it was estimated that 12-19% of the total rabbit populations were known to have died directly or indirectly from myxomatosis. Although the effects of myxomatosis were much less than during the 1950s and 1960s, it continued to be an important mortality factor. It may still have a regulatory effect on rabbit numbers, with autumn/winter peaks of disease reducing the numbers of rabbits present at the start of the breeding season.

  10. Challenges of research recruitment in a university setting in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeboncoeur, Claudia; Foster, Charlie; Townsend, Nick

    2017-05-20

    The recruitment is an integral part of most research projects in medical sciences involving human participants. In health promotion research, there is increasing work on the impact of environments. Settings represent environments such as schools where social, physical and psychological development unfolds. In this study, we investigated weight gain in students within a university setting. Barriers to access and recruitment of university students within a specific setting, in the context of health research are discussed. An online survey on health behaviours of first year students across 101 universities in England was developed. Ethics committees of each institutions were contacted to obtain permission to recruit and access their students. Recruitment adverts were standardized and distributed within restrictions imposed by universities. Three time points and incentives were used. Several challenges in recruiting from a university setting were found. These included (i) ethics approval, (ii) recruitment approval, (iii) navigating restrictions on advertisement and (iv) logistics of varying university academic calendars. We also faced challenges of online surveys including low recruitment, retention and low eligibility of respondents. From the 101 universities, 28 allowed dissemination of adverts. We obtained 1026 responses at T1, 599 at T2 and 497 at T3. The complete-case sample represented 13% of those originally recruited at T1. Conducting research on students within the university setting is a time consuming and challenging task. To improve research-based health promotion, universities could work together to increase consistency as to their policies on student recruitment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Veterinary problems of endurance horses in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A; Dyson, S J; Murray, J K

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have shown that a considerable proportion of horses are eliminated from endurance rides due to lameness and metabolic problems. Limited information is available on specific veterinary issues in endurance horses and there are no descriptive data on veterinary problems in a large population of endurance horses. The aim of this study was to describe veterinary problems occurring in endurance horses in England and Wales, the regions of the United Kingdom where endurance rides are organised and regulated by Endurance Great Britain (Endurance GB). A comprehensive online self-completed questionnaire was used for data collection (30th December 2015-29th February 2016) All members of Endurance GB who were the main rider of one or more endurance horses were eligible to participate. From the target population of 1209 horses, 190 questionnaires were completed by riders, resulting in a 15.7% response rate. The most common rider-reported veterinary problem was lameness, affecting 152/190 (80.0%) of endurance horses at some point during their careers and 101/190 (53.2%) of horses in the previous 12 months. Detailed information on the most recent episode of lameness was available for 147 horses. Seventy-six percent of these lameness episodes (112/147) had been initially identified by a veterinarian, but only 52% of these lameness episodes were investigated further by a veterinarian, despite the high proportion of horses affected by lameness and the proportion of horses with recurrent lameness episodes. The second most common veterinary problem was thoracolumbar region pain, followed by non-specific cough, skin disease and colic. Education of endurance riders may improve the number, quality and timing of veterinary investigations, especially for lameness and thoracolumbar region pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of severe childhood obesity in England: 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Louisa J; Hancock, Caroline; Copley, Vicky R; Mead, Emma; Dinsdale, Hywell; Kinra, Sanjay; Viner, Russell M; Rutter, Harry

    2015-07-01

    International evidence shows that severe paediatric obesity results in an increased risk of ill health and may require specialised weight management strategies, yet there remains a lack of data on the extent of the problem. To examine the prevalence of severe obesity in children aged 4-5 and 10-11 years, attending English schools between 2006/2007 and 2012/2013. A retrospective analysis of National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) data. Maintained schools in England. All children aged 4-5 and 10-11 years included in the NCMP dataset. Prevalence of severe childhood obesity, defined using the 99.6th centile of the British 1990 (UK90) growth reference for body mass index (BMI), analysed by sex, geography, ethnic group and deprivation. The key findings show that in 2012/2013, severe obesity (BMI ≥UK90 99.6th centile) was found in 1.9% of girls and 2.3% of boys aged 4-5 years, and 2.9% of girls and 3.9% of boys aged 10-11 years. Severe obesity prevalence varies geographically and is more prevalent in children from deprived areas, and among those from black ethnic groups. The findings from this study should help to raise awareness of the prevalence of severe obesity and support the provision of adequate treatment and prevention services both to support children who are already severely obese and reduce the prevalence of extreme weight in the future. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Leverage and other informal pressures in community psychiatry in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canvin, Krysia; Rugkåsa, Jorun; Sinclair, Julia; Burns, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Informal practices aimed at managing psychiatric patients in the community setting fall outside legal and policy provision or guidance. "Leverage" is an informal practice whereby practitioners attempt to influence patients' treatment adherence by, for example, making patients' access to subsidised housing conditional upon adherence to treatment or by making treatment adherence a condition of patients' avoidance of financial control. Lower rates of leverage are reported in the UK compared to the USA, possibly due to differences between the US and European social welfare systems. These differences raise questions as to the international comparability of leverage practices described in the literature. The study aimed to capture patients' experiences and perceptions of pressures and to explore (a) whether "leverage" can be distinguished from other pressures, and (b) how a concept of leverage derived from patient experiences in England might fit with the literature to date. In this article we present the different types of pressure that we identified from patients' accounts, and a set of criteria derived for the purpose of distinguishing between these different types of pressure. Twenty-nine qualitative interviews with a purposive subsample from a study of leverage in the English mental health system were analysed. Participants reported a range of what can be classified as both leveraged and non-leveraged pressures. These were perceived as pressures to adhere to treatment, as well as "staying well." Leveraged pressures were distinguishable from non-leveraged pressures by the presence of three features: conditionality, a lever and direct communication. The portrayal of "leverage" in the current literature does not fully capture patient experiences of pressure. Our analysis offers a clearer concept of leverage and other pressures that influence patients, and which may have different legal, ethical and clinical implications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Patterns and Predictors of Recent Forest Conversion in New England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Thorn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available New England forests provide numerous benefits to the region’s residents, but are undergoing rapid development. We used boosted regression tree analysis (BRT to assess geographic predictors of forest loss to development between 2001 and 2011. BRT combines classification and regression trees with machine learning to generate non-parametric statistical models that can capture non-linear relationships. Based on National Land Cover Database (NLCD maps of land cover change, we assessed the importance of the biophysical and social variables selected for full region coverage and minimal collinearity in predicting forest loss to development, specifically: elevation, slope, distance to roads, density of highways, distance to built land, distance to cities, population density, change in population density, relative change in population density, population per housing unit, median income, state, land ownership categories and county classification as recreation or retirement counties. The resulting models explained 6.9% of the variation for 2001–2011, 4.5% for 2001–2006 and 1.8% for 2006–2011, fairly high values given the complexity of factors predicting land development and the high resolution of the spatial datasets (30-m pixels. The two most important variables in the BRT were “population density” and “distance to road”, which together made up 55.5% of the variation for 2001–2011, 49.4% for 2001–2006 and 42.9% for 2006–2011. The lower predictive power for 2006–2011 may reflect reduced development due to the “Great Recession”. From our models, we generated high-resolution probability surfaces, which can provide a key input for simulation models of forest and land cover change.

  15. Variations in dementia diagnosis in England and association with general practice characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian F; Lord, Paul A; Farragher, Tracey M

    2017-05-01

    Improving dementia diagnosis rates in England has been a key strategic aim of the UK Government but the variation and low diagnosis rates are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore the variation in actual versus expected diagnosis of dementia across England, and how these variations were associated with general practice characteristics. A cross-sectional, ecological study design using secondary data sources and median regression modelling was used. Data from the year 2011 for 7711 of the GP practices in England (92.7%). Associations of dementia diagnosis rates (%) per practice, calculated using National Health Service England's 'Dementia Prevalence Calculator' and various practice characteristics were explored using a regression model. The median dementia diagnosis rate was 41.6% and the interquartile range was 31.2-53.9%. Multivariable regression analysis demonstrated positive associations between dementia diagnosis rates and deprivation of the population, overall Quality and Outcomes Framework performance, type of primary care contract and size of practice list. Negative associations were found between dementia diagnosis rates and average experience of GPs in the practice and the proportion of the practice caseload over 65 years old. Dementia diagnosis rates vary greatly across GP practices in England. This study has found independent associations between dementia diagnosis rates and a number of patient and practice characteristics. Consideration of these factors locally may provide targets for case-finding interventions and so facilitate timely diagnosis.

  16. Trends in penile cancer: a comparative study between Australia, England and Wales, and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, James; Ranasinghe, Weranja; De Silva, Daswin; Ayres, Ben; Ranasinghe, Tamra; Hounsome, Luke; Verne, Julia; Persad, Raj

    2015-01-01

    To investigate and compare the trends in incidence and mortality of penile cancer between Australia, England and Wales, and the US, and provide hypotheses for these trends. Cancer registry data from 1982 to 2005 inclusive were obtained from Australia, England and Wales, and the United States. From these data, age-specific, -standardised and mortality:incidence ratios were calculated, and compared. The overall incidence of penile cancer in England and Wales (1.44 per 100,000 man-years) was higher than in Australia (0.80 per 100,000), and the US (0.66 per 100,000). Incidence of penile cancer in all three countries has remained relatively stable over time. Similarly, although the mortality rates were also higher in England and Wales (0.37 per 100,000 man-years) compared to Australia (0.18 per 100,000) and the US (0.15 per 100,000), the mortality/incidence ratios were similar for all three countries. Penile cancer incidence is low, affecting mainly older men. Rates differ between the three countries, being twice as common in England and Wales as in the other studied regions. Circumcision rates have a potential influence on these rates but are not the sole explanation for the variation.

  17. The population prevalence of Down's syndrome in England and Wales in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianhua; Morris, Joan K

    2013-09-01

    There is uncertainty over the population prevalence of people with Down's syndrome in England and Wales. This study aimed to estimate the population prevalence of Down's syndrome in England and Wales in 2011. A meta-analysis of published survival rates of people with Down's syndrome from 1938 to 2010 was conducted and the results were applied to the estimated numbers of babies born with Down's syndrome since 1938 in England and Wales. An estimated 37 090 people had Down's syndrome in England and Wales in 2011, a population prevalence of 0.66 per 1000 people; 650 under 1, 2673 aged 1-5, 7115 aged 5-18, 12819 aged 19-40, 10 626 aged 41-55 and 3207 aged 56 and older. The average life expectancy for babies with Down's syndrome born in 2011 was 51 years and the median life expectancy was 58 years. This study provides clarity on the number of people with Down's syndrome in England and Wales. Owing to sudden increases in the survival of babies with Down's syndrome in the 1950s there are a large proportion of people with Down's syndrome who are in their 40s. These people have an increased risk of developing dementia in the future and services should be aware of their potential needs.

  18. Recommodification, Unemployment, and Health Inequalities: Trends in England and Sweden 1991-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrants, Kristin; Bambra, Clare; Nylen, Lotta; Kasim, Adetayo; Burstrom, Bo; Hunter, David

    2016-01-01

    Recommodification, the withdrawal of social welfare, has been going on for some decades in both Sweden and England. Recommodification disproportionately affects the unemployed because of their weak market position. We investigated the impact recommodification has had on health inequalities between the employed and unemployed in Sweden and England. Using national surveys, odds ratios for the likelihood of reporting less than good health between the employed and unemployed were computed annually between 1991 and 2011. The correlation between these odds ratios and net replacement rates was then examined. Health inequalities between the employed and unemployed were greater in 2011 than in 1991 in both countries. Sweden began with smaller health inequalities, but by 2011, they were in line with those in England. Sweden experienced more recommodification than England during this period, although it started from a much less commodified position. Correspondingly, correlation between unemployment benefit generosity and health inequalities was stronger in Sweden than in England. Recommodification is linked to ill health among the unemployed and to the health gap between the employed and unemployed. We propose that further recommodification will be associated with increased health inequalities between the employed and unemployed. © IMechE 2016.

  19. Trends in national suicide rates for Scotland and for England & Wales, 1960-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Pearl L H; Kapur, Navneet; Windfuhr, Kirsten; Leyland, Alastair H; Appleby, Louis; Platt, Stephen; Webb, Roger T

    2012-03-01

    Suicide rates in Scotland have increased markedly relative to those in England in recent decades. To compare changing patterns of suicide risk in Scotland with those in England & Wales, 1960-2008. For Scotland and for England & Wales separately, we obtained national data on suicide counts and population estimates. Gender-specific, directly age-standardised rates were calculated. We identified three distinct temporal phases: 1960-1967, when suicide rates in England & Wales were initially higher than in Scotland, but then converged; 1968-1991, when male suicide rates in Scotland rose slightly faster than in England & Wales; and 1992-2008, when there was a marked divergence in national trends. Much of the recent divergence in rates is attributable to the rise in suicide among young men and deaths by hanging in Scotland. Introduction of the 'undetermined intent' category in 1968 had a significant impact on suicide statistics across Great Britain, but especially so in Scotland. Differences in temporal patterns in suicide risk between the countries are complex. Reversal of the divergent trends may require a change in the perception of hanging as a 'painless' method of suicide.

  20. Medication adherence and community pharmacy: a review of education, policy and research in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this narrative review was to identify and describe the current policy, education and research related to community pharmacy and medication adherence in England.Methods: Medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and Pharmline were used to search for relevant research articles. Current policy documents were identified via the websites of the Department of Health in England, the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, the National Pharmacy Association, the Pharmaceutical Services Negotiating Committee and NHS Employers. All pharmacy schools in England were contacted to obtain information about the adherence-related courses they provide to undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students.Results: National policies and guidelines in England are conducive to an increasing role for community pharmacists to support patients with medication adherence. Many pharmacy schools cover the issue of adherence in their undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Research in this area has tested the effectiveness of pharmacists providing adherence support in the form of compliance aids, education, involvement in discharge planning, and tailored interventions. Conclusion: In community pharmacy in England, current policy and funding arrangements suggest there is great scope for pharmacists to support patients with medication adherence. Further research is necessary to identify the most useful, cost-effective and sustainable approach in practice.

  1. Politics, Society and Communication in the Constitution of Modern Society: Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim ÖZKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inception of Modern England comprises a hundred and fifty years between sixteenth and mid eighteenth centuries. The structural qualities of modern societies of this day occur in this era. The political and economic changes and transformations that England experienced in this period of time are in enormous scale. In this period all social structure and institutions experienced structural change in terms of cultural, economic and political processes. In addition to this in this period the framework of the international system regarding economy and politics is established too. Important qualities of current modern societies are the speed of communication and interaction between its elements, its transformational capacity and the extent of its scope. In this, it is possible to apprehend the basic cornerstones of today’s information and communication age by analyzing the early modern period of England

  2. The direct cost of intravenous insulin infusions to the NHS in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Rajesh; Scott, Anne; Rayman, Gerry

    2015-08-01

    The cost of intravenous insulin infusion to the NHS is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct cost of insulin infusions to the NHS in England and Wales in the first 24-hour period of infusion. Data from the National Inpatient Diabetes Audit 2013 in the UK were used to estimate the number of insulin infusions in use across England and Wales. Costs were calculated for six models for setting up and maintenance of insulin infusions, depending on the extent of involvement of different healthcare professionals in the UK. In this study, the direct costs of intravenous insulin infusions to the NHS in England and Wales have been estimated to vary from £6.4-8.5 million in the first 24-hour period on infusion. More appropriate use of these infusions could result in substantial cost savings. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  3. Objects, Words, and Religion: Popular Belief and Protestantism in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwikowska Joanna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with selected aspects of popular belief in post-Reformation England as compared to the pre-Reformation popular tradition of the fourteenth and fifteenth century. Through a discussion of the politics of superstition and religiously-shaped concepts of reason in Early Modern England, this article discusses medicinal magic, and the power of objects and words in the context of religion and popular belief, focusing in particular on leprosy and exorcism. By examining the Protestant understanding of the supernatural as well as its polemical importance, the article investigates the perseverance of popular belief after the Reformation and outlines some of the reasons and politics behind this perseverance, while also examining the role of the supernatural in the culture of belief in Early Modern England by tracing the presence and importance of particular beliefs in popular imagination and in the way religion and confessional rhetoric made use of popular beliefs.

  4. New England Energy Congress project. Final report, June 1978-July 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-11-20

    From May 1978 until April 1979, 120 New Englanders volunteered for one of six committees to devise and consider energy policy recommendations for the region's twenty-five Member, six state Congressional delegation. Sponsored by the New England Congressional Caucus and Tufts University, the New England Energy Congress was funded by grants from the Economic Development Administration, US Department of Commerce and the Office of Environment, US Department of Energy. The results of the work of the 120 delegates and nine staff was a 500 page report, Blueprint for Energy Action, containing over 150 policy recommendations to the Congress, Executive agencies, state legislatures and municipalities. The New England Congressional Caucus responded in June 1979 with an Energy Package, including twenty (and ultimately twenty-five) legislative bills and several letters to federal agencies, based on the recommendations of the Energy Congress. Following the release of the report in June 1979, 55 delegates continued their efforts as members of the Implementation Group of the Energy Congress. In July 1980, this group released a volume of Strategy Papers designed to assist in the implementation of Energy Congress recommendations. As a result of this work, a broad array of energy activities were initiated in New England and in Washington. By January 1981, 20 of the 25 bills in the Caucus package had been passed in whole or in part. This final report discusses the Energy Congress' activities, consensus decision-making process and its findings. The report reviews the results of a thorough evaluation conducted through the mail and by phone of participants, outside observers and from Capital Hill. The clear conclusion is that the Energy Congress made a unique and significant contribution towards enabling New Englanders, both in the region and in Washington, to set energy goals and priorities and to begin serious efforts to reduce the region's precarious dependence on oil imports.

  5. Historical summer base flow and stormflow trends for New England rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    River base flow is important to aquatic ecosystems, particularly because of its influence on summer water temperatures. Summer (June through September) daily mean streamflows were separated into base flow and stormflow components by use of an automated method at 25 stations in the New England region of the United States that drain predominantly natural basins. Summer monthly mean base flows increased from 1950-2006 at most stations in western New England with many large increases (>20%) and some very large increases (>50%) in and near New Hampshire and Vermont. The same was true for increases in summer 7 day low base flows in and near New Hampshire and Vermont during this same period; in contrast, there were small and large decreases in 7 day low base flows in northern and coastal areas of Maine. Summer stormflows increased from 1950-2006 by more than 50% at many stations in New England, particularly in and near New Hampshire and Vermont. The increases in base flows and stormflows at many stations in and near New Hampshire and Vermont were likely driven by the large increases in summer precipitation recorded at weather stations in this area. Summer rainfall increased at most weather stations in New England from 1950-2006 with many increases of more than 20% in western New England. Summer air temperature increased on average by 1.1??C from 1950-2006 in New England and may have played a role in the decreased base flows in northern and coastal Maine through increased evapotranspiration. Many variables increased less from 1930-2006 than from 1950-2006. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. 78 FR 4143 - Mega Energy of New England, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mega Energy of New England, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Mega Energy of New England, LLC's application for market-based...

  7. 76 FR 29233 - Glacial Energy of New England, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Glacial Energy of New England, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Glacial Energy of New England, Inc.'s application for market...

  8. Teaching Children the Geography of England and Wales: An Analysis of Selected Georgian and Victorian Textbooks and Educational Pastimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Children in Georgian and Victorian times were expected to be familiar with the geography of England and Wales. This study analyses some of the resources then available which taught children this information. John Aikin's "England Delineated" is evaluated as a geographical text and then compared with less formal games and puzzles, then on…

  9. Genealogy of Self-Expression: A Reappraisal of the History of Art Education in England and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Kayoko

    2017-01-01

    In both England and Japan, art education was viewed as having nothing to do with self-expression, but was considered to be an efficient means for industrial development. In England, it was designed to train the eyes and hands of artisans. The art critic Ruskin has often been referred to in the context of the transition to self-expression in the…

  10. Primary School Physical Education and Sports Coaches: Evidence from a Study of School Sport Partnerships in North-West England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on interview data from a study of one School Sport Partnership (SSP) in north-west England, this paper examines (from the perspective of teachers): (1) some of the ways in which the SSP programme facilitated the increasing use of sports coaches to deliver aspects of physical education (PE) in state primary schools in England and (2) how…

  11. Launching the next Industrial Revolution in New England: New Hampshire's Green Launching Pad 1.0 and 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittell, Ross; Venkatachalam, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    There is an exciting new opportunity for universities and colleges to advance the New England economy and at the same time help address environmental concerns. The current snapshot of New England's economy relative to other areas is favorable. The region suffered less decline during the recent recession than the national average, and the region's…

  12. 75 FR 61746 - New England Wire Technologies Corp; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New England Wire Technologies Corp; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of New England Wire Technologies Corp's application for...

  13. 75 FR 18828 - PSEG Power Connecticut LLC, Complainant v. ISO New England Inc., Respondent; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Power Connecticut LLC, Complainant v. ISO New England Inc., Respondent... (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against ISO New England Inc. (Respondent) challenging the justness and...

  14. PHYSIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF SENIOR AND JUNIOR ENGLAND INTERNATIONAL AMATEUR BOXERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus S. Smith

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite worldwide popularity of amateur boxing, research focussed on the physiological demands of the sport is limited. The physiological profile of Senior and Junior England international amateur boxers is presented. A gradual (8 to 21-days and rapid (0 to 7-days phase of body weight reduction was evident with 2.2 ± 0.3 % of the 7.0 ± 0. 8 % weight loss occurring over the final 24-hours. An increase in body weight >4% was observed following a recovery period. High urine osmolality values (> 1000 mOsm·kg-1 were recorded during training and competition. High post-competition blood lactate values (>13.5 mmol·l-1 highlighted the need for a well-developed anaerobic capacity and the importance of not entering the ring in a glycogen depleted state. The aerobic challenge of competition was demonstrated by maximum heart rate values being recorded during 'Open' sparring. Mean body fat values of 9-10% were similar to those reported for other weight classified athletes. Normal resting values were reported for hematocrit (Senior 48 ± 2 % and Junior 45 ± 2 %, haemoglobin (Senior 14.7 ± 1.0 g·dl-1 and Junior 14.5 ± 0.8 g·dl-1, bilirubin (Senior 15.3 ± 6.2 µmol·l-1-1 and ferritin (Senior 63.3 ± 45.7 ng·ml-1. No symptoms associated with asthma or exercise-induced asthma was evident. A well- developed aerobic capacity was reflected in the Senior VO2max value of 63.8 ± 4.8 ml·kg-1·min-1. Senior lead hand straight punching force (head 1722 ± 700 N and body 1682 ± 636 N was lower than the straight rear hand (head 2643 ± 1273 N and body 2646 ± 1083 N, lead hook (head 2412 ± 813 N and body 2414 ± 718 N and rear hook (head 2588 ± 1040 N and body 2555 ± 926 N. It was concluded that amateur boxing performance is dependent on the interplay between anaerobic and aerobic energy systems. Current weight making methods may lead to impaired substrate availability, leading to reduced competitive performance and an increased risk to a boxers health

  15. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might

  16. Effects of the 2010 World Cup football tournament on emergency department assault attendances in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    We explore the impact of the 2010 World Cup, held in South Africa, on levels of assault attendances to 15 emergency departments in England. The majority (70.1%) of assault attendees during the 2010 World Cup was male and aged 18-34 years (52.5%). Assault attendances increased by 37.5% on the days that England played (P 001). Preparation for major sporting events in non-host countries should include violence prevention activity. Emergency department data can be used to identify violence associated with such events and thus inform both the targeting of prevention efforts and assessments of their effectiveness.

  17. Reading Lydgate's Troy Book: patronage, politics, and history in Lancastrian England

    OpenAIRE

    Fawsitt, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis, Reading Lydgate's Troy Book: Patronage, Politics and History in Lancastrian England, discusses the relationship between John Lydgate as a court poet to his patron Henry V. I contend that the Troy Book is explored as a vehicle to propagate the idea that the House of Lancaster is the legitimate successor to King Richard II in order to smooth over the usurpation of 1399. Paul Strohm's England's Empty Throne was a key influence to the approach of this thesis' topic. I examine that al...

  18. Malthus in the Bedroom: Birth Spacing as Birth Control in Pre-Transition England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnirella, Francesco; Klemp, Marc; Weisdorf, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    We use duration models on a well-known historical data set of more than 15,000 families and 60,000 births in England for the period 1540-1850 to show that the sampled families adjusted the timing of their births in accordance with the economic conditions as well as their stock of dependent children. The effects were larger among the lower socioeconomic ranks. Our findings on the existence of parity-dependent as well as parity-independent birth spacing in England are consistent with the growing evidence that marital birth control was present in pre-transitional populations.

  19. Is education the best contraception: the case of teenage pregnancy in England?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Sourafel; Paton, David

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines potential explanations for recent declines in teenage pregnancy in England. We estimate panel data models of teenage conception, birth and abortion rates from regions in England. Although point estimates are consistent with the promotion of long acting reversible contraception (LARC) having a negative impact on teenage pregnancy rates, the effects are generally small and statistically insignificant. In contrast, improvements in educational achievement and, to a lesser extent, increases in the non-white proportion of the population are associated with large and statistically significant reductions in teenage pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. School Lunch Take up and Attainment in Primary and Secondary Schools in England

    OpenAIRE

    Michael eNelson; Karen eGibson; Jo eNicholas

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis Average levels of attainment in primary and secondary schools in England in 2010 and 2011 are positively associated with changes in average school lunch take up between 2008–2009 and 2010–2011. Subjects/methods Average school lunch take up and attainment data were available for 2009–2011 for primary and secondary sectors in a minimum of 106 local authorities (LAs) in England and 853 individual primary schools in six LAs. Associations between attainment at 11–12 years (pr...

  1. The Epidemiology of Q Fever in England and Wales 2000–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate D. Halsby

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 2000 and 2015, 904 cases of acute Q fever were reported in England and Wales. The case dataset had a male to female ratio of 2.5:1, and a median age of 45 years. Two outbreaks were recognised during this time period, and the incidence of sporadic cases was highest across the southwest of England, and Wales. There are limitations in the surveillance system for Q fever, including possible geographical differences in reporting and limited epidemiological data collection. The surveillance system needs to be strengthened in order to improve the quality and completeness of the epidemiological dataset. The authors conclude with recommendations on how to achieve this.

  2. The floods of March 1936, part 1, New England rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Nathan Clifford

    1937-01-01

    by white men, were broken many of them by wide margins. The peak of the Connecticut River at Hartford, Conn., was 8.6 feet higher than had been experienced since the settlement by white men, 300 years ago. The Susquehanna River at Harrisburg, Pa., was 3.5 feet higher than had been known in a period of record covering about 200 years. The Ohio River at Pittsburgh, Pa., was 6.1 feet higher than had been known in the period beginning 1762. This volume presents many of the facts of these notable floods with respect to the New England rivers, for permanent record and for study and reference by engineers concerned with the building of highways, bridges, and industrial plants, planners of river development, and others. Similar volumes for the region from the Hudson River to the Susquehanna River and for the Potomac, James, and upper Ohio River Basins are presented in companion Water-Supply Papers 799 and 800 respectively. In this volume records of stage and discharge for the period Including the floods are presented for about 150 measurement stations; peak discharges with comparative data for other floods at more than 400 measurement points are summarized; crest stages along an aggregate length of stream channel of 2,820 miles are tabulated; and results of detailed studies of the rainfall and run-off and many other kinds of flood information are presented.

  3. Dance Students' Perceptions of Tertiary Education in England and in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsompanaki, Eleni; Benn, Tansin

    2011-01-01

    The comparative study examined dance students' views of their dance education and training in tertiary education (further and higher) and their perceptions about the opportunities offered in the their courses available in England (higher education) and in Greece (further education). The aim was to explore similarities and differences between…

  4. Toppling Teacher Domination of Primary Classroom Talk through Dialogic Literary Gatherings in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Linda; García-Carrión, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Dialogic Literary Gatherings (DLGs), first implemented by Ramon Flecha, have proved to be a "successful educational action" (SEA) for inclusion, social cohesion and raising children's attainment in several European and Latin American countries. This article reports their implementation in England and their consistent and dramatic…

  5. John Dewey and the Democratic Role of Higher Education in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Michael; Sloam, James

    2010-01-01

    Education policy in England has been criticized for an overemphasis on narrow performance targets and the adoption of private sector principles. Universities and colleges have increasingly been viewed in terms of their value for the U.K. economy. This article argues that there are sound ethical (philosophical), political, and pedagogical reasons…

  6. Evidence that soil aluminum enforces site fidelity of southern New England forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. W. Bigelow; C. D. Canham

    2010-01-01

    Tree species composition of hardwood forests of the northeastern United States corresponds with soil chemistry, and differential performance along soil calcium (Ca) gradients has been proposed as a mechanism for enforcing this fidelity of species to site. We conducted studies in a southern New England forest to test if surface-soil Ca is more important than other...

  7. Physical Education in New England Schools and Academies from 1789 to 1860: Concepts and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Roxanne M.

    This study traces the major programs and factors which contributed to the development of physical education in New England schools and academies between 1789 and 1860. First, the major types of physical exercise programs and the schools in which these programs operated are presented. Types of exercise programs identified include military training…

  8. Neoliberal Globalisation, Managerialism and Higher Education in England: Challenging the Imposed "Order of Things"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Andrea; Cooper, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    This article critically explores the consequences of the imposition of neoliberal ideology on a transnational scale on the higher education system. Its particular focus is England where the context of the "new managerialism" continues to dominate the "lifeworlds" of educators and the educated, despite strong concerns about its…

  9. Access for Women to Higher Education in England and Australia: A "Second Chance".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Mark

    This paper explores the way that opportunity of access to higher education, particularly for women of color and those disadvantaged by homelessness, is placed at risk by market approaches to education. In England, Asian and Afro-Caribbean women, have been able to access higher education through funds made available under the Race Relations Act of…

  10. "Ducking and Diving" Adult Educator Agency in Testing Times: Insights from England and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowl, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the possibilities for adult educators to exercise professional agency in contexts which have become dominated by neoliberalism. It draws on research undertaken in England and New Zealand which investigated the impact of global discourses and policies on experienced adult educators whose philosophy of practice was orientated…

  11. Fatal methadone and heroin overdoses : Time trends in England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Farrell, M

    Study objective-Although the total number of self poisonings in England and Wales has dropped by 32%, the number involving methadone and/or heroin rose by 900% in 1974-92. Because of concern about the role of methadone in this increase, the part played by methadone and heroin in poisoning deaths in

  12. Influences on Students' Views on Religions and Education in England and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Sean; Schihalejev, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Structural modelling offers an overall pattern of relationships; this paper looks at differences in students' attitude structures between England and Estonia. Where different coherent sets of beliefs exist in a national sample, factor analysis, which focuses on sets of responses which differ between groups, should be able to separate them out.…

  13. 77 FR 32573 - New England Fishery Management Council (NEFMC); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ..., Newburyport, MA 01950. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England... should be directed to Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, at (978) 465-0492, at least 5 days prior to the... Council at a future date. Other business may be discussed. Although non-emergency issues not contained in...

  14. MERGANSER: an empirical model to predict fish and loon mercury in New England lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, James B.; Moore, Richard; Smith, Richard A.; Miller, Eric K.; Simcox, Alison; Kamman, Neil; Nacci, Diane; Robinson, Keith; Johnston, John M.; Hughes, Melissa M.; Johnston, Craig; Evers, David; Williams, Kate; Graham, John; King, Susannah

    2012-01-01

    MERGANSER (MERcury Geo-spatial AssessmeNtS for the New England Region) is an empirical least-squares multiple regression model using mercury (Hg) deposition and readily obtainable lake and watershed features to predict fish (fillet) and common loon (blood) Hg in New England lakes. We modeled lakes larger than 8 ha (4404 lakes), using 3470 fish (12 species) and 253 loon Hg concentrations from 420 lakes. MERGANSER predictor variables included Hg deposition, watershed alkalinity, percent wetlands, percent forest canopy, percent agriculture, drainage area, population density, mean annual air temperature, and watershed slope. The model returns fish or loon Hg for user-entered species and fish length. MERGANSER explained 63% of the variance in fish and loon Hg concentrations. MERGANSER predicted that 32-cm smallmouth bass had a median Hg concentration of 0.53 μg g-1 (root-mean-square error 0.27 μg g-1) and exceeded EPA's recommended fish Hg criterion of 0.3 μg g-1 in 90% of New England lakes. Common loon had a median Hg concentration of 1.07 μg g-1 and was in the moderate or higher risk category of >1 μg g-1 Hg in 58% of New England lakes. MERGANSER can be applied to target fish advisories to specific unmonitored lakes, and for scenario evaluation, such as the effect of changes in Hg deposition, land use, or warmer climate on fish and loon mercury.

  15. Understanding School Leadership and Management Development in England: Retrospect and Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkins, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which leadership and management development (LMD) in England has been researched and analysed over the past 40 years. The article is in two parts. The first analyses the ways in which patterns of provision have evolved in response to changing conceptions of how the school system should be organized and how,…

  16. Legalised Leadership: Law-Based Educational Reform in England and Its Effect on Head Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibton, Dan

    2004-01-01

    "Legalised Leadership" explores the links between educational law and law-based reform that have a profound influence on the work and professional life of school headteachers. The book offers lawmakers and policymakers in England some pathways for strengthening the role of leadership in English law-based reform and empowering…

  17. What Do Geography Textbook Authors in England Consider When They Design Content and Select Case Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Catling, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the perspectives of seven English authors, on aspects of their geography textbook writing for schools in England, through a questionnaire-based enquiry. This investigation asked about the features that geography textbook authors consider to be the most important when designing student activities, and which criteria they…

  18. Assessing Children's Play: Reality or Illusion? The Case of Early Years Foundation Stage in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2017-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) in England in 2008, assessment of children has taken a formal and standardized measurable approach. Such an approach goes against most findings of play-oriented research. Thus, the project reported here employed participatory action research with practitioners in order to identify…

  19. Antibodies to Brucella in marine mammals around the coast of England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, P D; Brew, S; MacMillan, A P; Baker, J R; Barnett, J; Kirkwood, J K; Kuiken, T; Robinson, I R; Simpson, V R

    1997-11-15

    Following the isolation of previously unrecognised species of Brucella from stranded seals and cetaceans in Scotland and northern England, a serological survey was carried out to investigate the range of marine mammal species which may have been exposed to Brucella species around the coasts of England and Wales, the prevalence of infection and the temporal and geographical distribution of seropositive animals. Serum collected from 153 stranded marine mammals from the coasts of England and Wales between 1989 and 1995 were tested by competitive and indirect ELISA. Positive titres were recorded for six of 62 (10 per cent) grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), one of 12 (8 per cent) common seals (Phoca vitulina), 11 of 35 (31 per cent) harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and nine of 29 (31 per cent) common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) tested. Positive titres were also found in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), a killer whale (Orcinus orca) and a pilot whale (Globicephala melas). The seropositive animals were from all around the coasts of England and Wales and the first seropositive sample was from a common dolphin in 1990.

  20. How Technicians Can Lead Science Improvements in Any School: A Small-Scale Study in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Beth; Quinnell, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how seven schools in England improved their science provision by focusing on the professional development of their science technicians. In September 2013, the Gatsby Charitable Foundation funded the National Science Learning Centre to lead a project connecting secondary schools with experienced senior science technicians…

  1. 77 FR 71585 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brookfield Energy Marketing LP v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of... Procedure of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206 and sections 206 and 306...

  2. Language Learning in the Public Eye: An Analysis of Newspapers and Official Documents in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Suzanne; Santos, Denise

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the issue of low levels of motivation for foreign language learning in England by exploring how language learning is conceptualised by different key voices in that country through the examination of written data: policy documents and reports on the UK's language needs, curriculum documents and press articles. The extent to…

  3. The CPD Needs of Mentors in Post-Compulsory Initial Teacher Training in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingleby, Ewan; Hunt, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the compulsory professional development (CPD) needs of mentors within post-compulsory Initial Teacher Training (ITT) provision in England. The discussion applies the ideas of Weber, Foucault, Habermas and Bourdieu in interpreting the implications for post-compulsory ITT mentor CPD training. The paper's primary and secondary…

  4. Teaching Assistants and Teacher Education in England: Meeting Their Continuing Professional Development Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignold, Wendy; Barbera, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Teaching assistants are often the constant adult in classrooms in England today and find themselves working closely with student-teachers. This paper explores the role of teaching assistants in the training and assessment of primary initial teacher education students and considers their continuing professional development (CPD) needs in relation…

  5. Religious Education in Germany and England: The Recent Work of Hans-Georg Ziebertz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Religious education in England and Germany is similar in many respects and different in others. In both countries the subject must embrace religious plurality, and in both there are questions about the role of the religious communities in their relation to religious education. In recent his book, "Religious Education in a Plural, Western…

  6. Practice Placement Experiences and Needs of Trainee Educational Psychologists in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kevin; Atkinson, Cathy; Bond, Caroline; Gibbs, Simon; Hill, Vivian; Howe, Julia; Morris, Sue

    2015-01-01

    As part of initial professional training, educational psychologists in England undertake substantial periods of practice placement, within which the role of supervision is instrumental to their professional learning and effectiveness. The research reported here provides up-to-date and comprehensive information on the experiences and needs of…

  7. Post-16 Curriculum Provision in England: The Emerging Functional "Triage" Serving Capital's Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Tristan

    2011-01-01

    The post-16 examination field in England has changed radically over the past decade. The previously hegemonic A-Level has been joined by the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme, Cambridge Pre-U, AQA Baccalaureate, and the Government's own Diploma's. This has been attacked as a "cluttered" field and an unnecessary duplication of…

  8. Exposure to the Eyes of God: Monitorial Schools and Evangelicals in Early Nineteenth-Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedra, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Through a close analysis of the links between nineteenth-century Protestant missionary thought and the British and Foreign School Society (BFSS) this article suggests that to distinguish Enlightenment educational and social reform from evangelism is mistaken. Emblematic of the social reform projects which emerged in England as responses to the…

  9. Social Pedagogy and Bullying in Schools: The Views of University Students in England, Greece and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Chris; Mylonakou-Keke, Iro; Stephens, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a social pedagogic perspective is evident in the views of bullying in schools held by a sample of university students in England, Greece and Norway studying in the area of the education, care and welfare of children. A total of 469 university students completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to…

  10. Enhanced MERS Coronavirus Surveillance of Travelers from the Middle East to England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Helen Lucy; Zhao, Hongxin; Green, Helen K.; Boddington, Nicola L.; Carvalho, Carlos F.A.; Osman, Husam K.; Sadler, Carol; Zambon, Maria; Bermingham, Alison

    2014-01-01

    During the first year of enhanced MERS coronavirus surveillance in England, 77 persons traveling from the Middle East had acute respiratory illness and were tested for the virus. Infection was confirmed in 2 travelers with acute respiratory distress syndrome and 2 of their contacts. Patients with less severe manifestations tested negative. PMID:25148267

  11. Widening Participation, Social Justice and Injustice: Part-Time Students in Higher Education in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This article critically assesses the nature and scope of current financial support for part-time undergraduates in England, highlighting its importance for widening participation. It considers the limitations of these financial arrangements, why they are in need of reform, and some of the consequences of their inadequacies. The paper argues that…

  12. Neutropenia and agranulocytosis in England and Wales: incidence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Staa, T. P.; Boulton, F.; Cooper, C.; Hagenbeek, A.; Inskip, H.; Leufkens, H. G. M.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence of idiosyncratic neutropenia and agranulocytosis in England and Wales and to evaluate their risk factors and outcomes. The study was conducted using data from the General Practice Research Database. All cases of idiosyncratic neutropenia or

  13. Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-16

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014.  Created: 8/16/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/16/2016.

  14. National Curriculum Reform in China and England: Origins, Character and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, David

    2010-01-01

    Both China and England require state-funded schools to teach a national curriculum. While policy congruence in terms of overall intention is apparent, there are major differences between each country's approach to systemic curriculum reform which highlight contrasting attitudes to how best to effect change in schools and widely differing views on…

  15. Joshua Rodda: Public Religious Disputations in England 1558–1626, St Andrews Studies in Reformation History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Schwend

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution offers a review of Joshua Rodda's Public Religious Disputations in England 1558–1626, St Andrews Studies in Reformation History. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2014. 252 pages, regular price £ 70, 234 x 156 mm, ISBN 978–1–4724–1555–4.

  16. The Pre-School Education Market in England from 1997: Quality, Availability, Affordability and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores changes in the pre-school education market in England since the Labour Government came into office in 1997. It focuses in particular on quality, availability and affordability and in so doing explores issues of equity. It will be argued that whilst overall levels of pre-school educational provision have increased, there are…

  17. The New England travel market: generational travel patterns, 1979 to 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod Warnick

    2002-01-01

    Generations of travelers who select New England as a primary destination are examined over time from the years of 1979 through 1996 and the analysis serves to update an earlier review of generational travel patterns of the region (Warnick, 1994). Changes in travel patterns are noted by overall adjusted annual change rates by demographic and geographic regions of...

  18. Shifting Codes: Education or Regulation? Trainee Teachers and the Code of Conduct and Practice in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, David; Barton, Amanda; Hallett, Fiona; Shortt, Damien

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the General Teaching Council for England (GTCE) introduced a revised Code of Conduct and Practice (2009) for registered teachers. The code also applies to all trainee teachers who are provisionally registered with the GTCE and who could be liable to a charge of misconduct during their periods of teaching practice. This paper presents the…

  19. Centrifugal Schooling: Third Sector Policy Networks and the Reassembling of Curriculum Policy in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2012-01-01

    This article examines changes in curriculum policy in secondary education in England. It is concerned with recent curriculum policy and reform, and the proliferation of non-government actors in curriculum policy creation. It examines the emergence of a loose alliance of third sector organisations and their involvement in a series of alternative…

  20. A comparison of disease prevalence in general practice in the Netherlands and in England & Wales.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, D.; Schellevis, F.; Linden, M. van der; Westert, G.

    2006-01-01

    General practice-based morbidity surveys have been conducted in the Netherlands and in England and Wales primarily to estimate disease prevalence and examine health inequalities. We have compared disease prevalence in general practice reported in the second Dutch Natinal Survey of General Practice

  1. Learning the Faith in England in the Later Middle Ages: Contributions of the Franciscan Friars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Kevin E.

    2012-01-01

    In popular understanding, the late Middle Ages has been viewed as a time of relative religious ignorance for both laity and clergy. Recent scholarship is indicating a more knowledgeable and vigorous faith experience in this time period. This article examines the major educational ministry renewal of the church in England following the Fourth…

  2. Appropriating Professionalism: Restructuring the Official Knowledge Base of England's "Modernised" Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, John

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examines efforts by government and government agencies in England to prescribe and control the knowledge base of a teaching profession that has, under successive New Labour administrations since 1997, been subjected to "modernisation". A theoretical framework drawn from aspects of the work of Basil Bernstein, and of Rob…

  3. Historical Child Sexual Abuse in England and Wales: The Role of Historians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Adrian; Delap, Lucy; Jackson, Louise; Settle, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on methodological and ethical issues that have shaped a collaborative project which aims to chart social, legal and political responses to child sexual abuse in England and Wales across the twentieth century. The etymological problem of searching for child sexual abuse in the historical archive is discussed, given that the…

  4. Trends in Examination Performance and Exposure to Standardised Tests in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harvey; Leckie, George

    2016-01-01

    Schools in England and Wales since the late 1980s have been compared in terms of their performances in public examinations and standardised test scores in the form of "school league tables", with Wales ceasing to produce these after 2001. One of the factors related to performance in examinations is the choice of the examination board,…

  5. Density and abundance of badger social groups in England and Wales in 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Johanna; Wilson, Gavin J; Macarthur, Roy; Delahay, Richard J; McDonald, Robbie A

    2014-01-23

    In the United Kingdom, European badgers Meles meles are a protected species and an important wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis. We conducted a survey of badger dens (main setts) in 1614 1 km squares across England and Wales, between November 2011 and March 2013. Using main setts as a proxy for badger social groups, the estimated mean density of badger social groups in England and Wales was 0.485 km(-2) (95% confidence interval 0.449-0.521) and the estimated abundance of social groups was 71,600 (66,400-76,900). In the 25 years since the first survey in 1985-88, the annual rate of increase in the estimated number of badger social groups was 2.6% (2.2-2.9%), equating to an 88% (70-105%) increase across England and Wales. In England, we estimate there has been an increase of 103% (83-123%) in badger social groups, while in Wales there has been little change (-25 to +49%).

  6. "Inside Out": A Collaborative Approach to Designing Schools in England, 1945-1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the European dimension of a collaborative approach to school design through the lives and relationships of a group of key individuals who in England set about transforming school in the post-war era. The philosophy and practice of this group of architects, educators, designers and policy makers, who regarded the school…

  7. Eugenics and Education: A Note on the Origins of the Intelligence Testing Movement in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Roy

    1980-01-01

    Examines influence of Francis Galton and the Eugenics Education Society in the intelligence testing movement in England (early 1900s). For eugenicists, the central issue confronting society was the problem of racial deterioration. They responded with modification of the Binet-Simon tests and developed tests to examine the whole ability range.…

  8. Social and Economic Impacts of School Influenza Outbreaks in England: Survey of Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorrington, Dominic; Balasegaram, Sooria; Cleary, Paul; Hay, Catherine; Eames, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a cause of considerable morbidity in England, particularly among children. A total of 39% of all influenza-attributable general practitioner consultations and 37% of all influenza-attributable hospital admissions occur in those aged under 15 years. Few studies have quantified the impact of influenza outbreaks on families.…

  9. Class Size and Education in England Evidence Report. Research Report. DFE-RR169

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department for Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the existing evidence base on class size and education in England. In particular, it considers how class sizes have changed over time; the impact of the increase in birth rate on pupil numbers and how this could affect the teacher requirement and class sizes; and the impact of class size on educational outcomes.…

  10. A COUNTRY UNDER CONTRACT: EARLY-TUDOR ENGLAND AND THE GROWTH OF A CREDIT CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Horowitz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical explanations for the development of modern English credit and finance often overlook the late-medieval period, favoring instead a late fruition by focusing on economic growth in late-Tudor and Stuart England and the anticipation of the founding of the Bank of England in 1694. Moreover, European practices regularly dominate the discussion to show both borrowing and influence, especially from the Italian city- states. However, England developed methods of credit and business transactions through the use of written obligations long before Continental financial instruments, and they permeated all aspects of English law, administration and finance. This paper provides an overview of how a bottom-up system developed and expanded through English common and statutory law and ultimately became the main form of statecraft for the first Tudor king, Henry VII (d. 1509. Henry’s success in business, finance and the prosecution of the law stemmed from his recognition that upon acquiring the throne of England he now ruled a country under contract among private parties, public courts and a developing centralized government.

  11. "Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The…

  12. A Population-Based Study of Juvenile Perpetrators of Homicide in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway, Cathryn; Norrington-Moore, Victoria; While, David; Hunt, Isabelle M.; Flynn, Sandra; Swinson, Nicola; Roscoe, Alison; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the social, behavioural and offence characteristics of all convicted perpetrators of homicide aged 17 and under; to examine their previous contact with mental health services, and to discuss strategies for homicide prevention. An eight-year (1996-2004) sample of 363 juvenile homicide perpetrators in England and Wales…

  13. Introducing National Curriculum Geography to Australia's Primary Schools: Lessons from England's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an insight into the development of primary geography since the inception of the national curriculum in England in the late 1980s. It is hoped this is informative as the "Australian Curriculum: Geography Foundation to Year 12" is introduced to and implemented in primary schools. It draws out various matters which…

  14. Not Nearly Enough Geography! University Provision for England's Pre-Service Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Research into geography provision in primary initial teacher education [ITE] courses in the United Kingdom and worldwide is very limited. England educates pre-service primary teachers of 5-11 year olds to be "generalists" who teach the full range of curriculum subjects, including geography. This article identifies that the provision of…

  15. New strategies for learning geography: a tool for teachers' professional development in England and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leat, D.; Schee, J. van der; Vankan, L.J.A.E.

    2005-01-01

    Following a constructivist view on learning and based on the work of Adey and Shayer a group of teachers and lecturers in geographical education from north‐east England developed some successful strategies to stimulate pupils' thinking skills. At the start of this century the ideas reached The

  16. Effect of balanced information on attitudes towards open ocean aquaculture development in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Robertson; Erika L. Carlsen

    2001-01-01

    Assessing public support for natural resource management initiatives requires an understanding of how information will affect public attitudes. Using the development of marine aquaculture in New England as a case study, an experimental design was used to investigate the effects of balanced information on attitudes. The moderating effects of familiarity on attitudes...

  17. The Role of Trust in the Development of Connectivities amongst Rural Elders in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Nigel; Fisher, Rhiannon

    2012-01-01

    Using Simmel's notion of sociation, the way in which rural elders in England and Wales relate to, or connect with, each other and others within their community, can be seen to be conflictual as well as consensual. As a vehicle for exploiting this relationship, social capital also can be antithetic as well as convergent and an important element of…

  18. Supporting STEM in Schools and Colleges in England: The Role of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyles, Celia; Reiss, Michael; Tough, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    STEM is the acronym used in England for science, technology, engineering and mathematics. STEM subjects are a central plank in developing the UK's skills base. Specialist knowledge in these subjects not only underpins many high-tech sectors--such as IT and engineering--but is also important for creativity and developing new ideas. This report…

  19. Streamwater chemistry and nutrient budgets for forested watersheds in New England: variability and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Hornbeck; S.W. Bailey; D.C. Buso; J.B. Shanley

    1997-01-01

    Chemistry of precipitation and streamwater and resulting input-output budgets for nutrient ions were determined concurrently for three years on three upland, forested watersheds located within an 80 km radius in central New England. Chemistry of precipitation and inputs of nutrients via wet deposition were similar among the three watersheds and were generally typical...

  20. Erfaringer fra England, Norge og Tyskland med mere privatiserede former for sociale boliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Vestergaard, Hedvig; Hansen, Knud Erik

    Formålet med denne rapport er at indsamle og formidle lettere tilgængelig viden om, hvordan den boligsociale opgave er løst i tre lande, England, Norge og Tyskland, der har mere privatiserede former for sociale boliger end i Danmark. Rapporten indledes med en diskussion af, hvad der skal forsås ved...