WorldWideScience

Sample records for provoked public opposition

  1. Siting a low-level radioactive waste incinerator in North Carolina: the impacts of public opposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Establishing low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facilities has become increasingly difficult due to public opposition to siting proposals. Widespread opposition to siting new waste management facilities of all types has focused sharp attention on the technical, political, and socioeconomic problems associated with siting controversial, but necessary facilities. This paper reviews a recent private sector initiative to site a LLRW incinerator in Bladen County, NC. Public reactions to the proposed facility are documents, as well as reasons for public opposition to the facility. The impacts of public opposition on the siting process, regulatory agencies, the media, industry, the general public, and elected officials are examined. The paper points out how public opposition to proposed waste management facilities may have both positive and negative impacts on the long-term management of LLRW. In doing so, the paper addresses policy questions, processes, and perceptions that will shape the debate over the development and location of new treatment and disposal facilities for managing LLRW. 14 references

  2. A structural model analysis of public opposition to a high-level radioactive waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.; Burns, W.

    1991-09-01

    Studies show that most Nevada residents and almost all state officials oppose the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository project at Yucca Mountain. Surveys of the public show that individual citizens view the Yucca Mountain repository as having high risk; nuclear experts, in contrast, believe the risks are very low. Policy analysts have suggested that public risk perceptions may be reduced by better program management, increased trust in the federal government, and increased economic benefits for accepting a repository. The model developed in this study is designed to examine the relationship between public perceptions of risk, trust in risk management, and potential economic impacts of the current repository program using a confirmatory multivariate method known as covariance structure analysis. The results indicate that perceptions of potential economic gains have little relationship to opposition to the repository. On the other hand, risk perceptions and the level of trust in repository management are closely related to each other and to opposition. The impacts of risk perception and trust in management on opposition to the repository result from a combination of their direct influences as well as their indirect influences operating through perceptions that the repository would have serious negative impacts on the state's economy due to stigmatization and reduced tourism

  3. Rise and fall of public opposition in specific social movements. [Including nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahy, P J [Akron Univ., OH (USA); Mazur, A [Syracuse Univ., NY (USA)

    1980-08-01

    This article reports a comparative study of four 'specific' social movements which involve aspects of technological controversy: Fluoridation, the ABM, Nuclear Power Plants, and Legalized Abortion. A theoretical model of the rise and fall of public opposition in these movements over time is suggested. Quantitative indicators are developed and applied to this historical model. Rise and fall of controversy follows a regular sequence: Activities of protest leaders increase during periods of great national concern over issues that are complementary to the movement; during these periods, social and economic resources are relatively available to the movement. As the activity of protest leaders increases, mass media coverage of their activities increases. As mass media coverage increases, opposition to the technology among the wider public increases. As the activity of the leaders wanes, mass media coverage declines, and so does opposition among the wider public. The paper concludes with a discussion of the relevance of this perspective for making predictions about the future course of 'specific' social movements.

  4. The rise and fall of public opposition in specific social movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, P.J.; Mazur, A.

    1980-01-01

    This article reports a comparative study of four 'specific' social movements which involve aspects of technological controversy: Fluoridation, the ABM, Nuclear Power Plants, and Legalized Abortion. A theoretical model of the rise and fall of public opposition in these movements over time is suggested. Quantitative indicators are developed and applied to this historical model. Rise and fall of controversy follows a regular sequence: Activities of protest leaders increase during periods of great national concern over issues that are complementary to the movement; during these periods, social and economic resources are relatively available to the movement. As the activity of protest leaders increases, mass media coverage of their activities increases. As mass media coverage increases, opposition to the technology among the wider public increases. As the activity of the leaders wanes, mass media coverage declines, and so does opposition among the wider public. The paper concludes with a discussion of the relevance of this perspective for making predictions about the future course of 'specific' social movements. (author)

  5. British Columbia capital regional district 100% smokefree bylaw: a successful public health campaign despite industry opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, J; Glantz, S

    2003-09-01

    To describe how the British Columbia Capital Regional District successfully passed, implemented, and enforced a 100% smokefree bylaw in all public places, including restaurants and bars, despite an aggressive campaign by the tobacco industry (acting through the hospitality industry) to stop it. Information was obtained from news reports, internal tobacco industry documents, reports, public documents, and interviews with key players. Tobacco industry documents were accessed between February and April 2002. This project was approved by the University of California San Francisco committee on human research. As in the USA and elsewhere in the world, the tobacco industry in British Columbia, Canada, recruited and created hospitality associations to fight against the district smokefree bylaw. They used the classic industry rhetoric of individual rights and freedoms, economic devastation, and ventilation as a solution. Public health authorities were able to counter industry strategies with a strong education campaign, well written bylaws, and persistent enforcement. It is possible to overcome serious opposition orchestrated by the tobacco industry and develop and implement a 100% smokefree bylaw in Canada. Doing so requires attention to detail in drafting the bylaw, as well as a public education campaign on the health dangers of secondhand smoke and active enforcement to overcome organised resistance to the bylaw. Jurisdictions considering smokefree bylaws should anticipate this opposition when developing and implementing their bylaws.

  6. Red Planet Mania: The Public Response to the 2003 Mars Opposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, E. F.; Dundee, D. A.

    2003-12-01

    Interest in Mars is at an all time high. For many weeks leading up to and after August 27th or, the date of opposition, record crowds flocked to observatories for a look at Mars. Even after the media "dropped" the event and moved on to other stories, the public response was still unusually strong. It is suggested that such an overwhelming public enthusiasm can be taken as good reason to seek a higher level of government funding for astronomy and the exploration of the Red Planet. Our observations and impressions of the public response to the close approach of Mars were taken from the authors affiliation with the Fernbank Science Center in Atlanta, Georgia - a museum which houses a well-equipped planetarium and observatory. The 500 seat planetarium features a Zeiss Mark V projector beneath a 21 meter diameter dome. A 0.9 meter reflecting telescope, situated not far from the planetarium, provided for stunning views of the Red Planet. Fernbank staff produced an original planetarium presentation entitled "Visions of Mars." Due to overflow crowds, special extended showings were offered. After the planetarium program, members of the public were invited to the observatory for a look at Mars. An average of approximately 120 people each hour looked through the telescope. On many evenings, centered around opposition, the observatory remained open from 9:00 p.m. until 5:30 a.m. the following morning. On each of these nights, we estimate that at least 950 people saw Mars through our telescope. An important tool, an Astrovid CCD video camera, was attached to a piggybacked 11-inch telescope. This instrument proved invaluable in preparing observers for their actual observation. Features such as a Polar Ice Cap, Syrtis Major, and Tharsis were easily identified on the TV monitor and then readily spotted through the telescope.

  7. Long timescales, low risks: rational containment objectives that account for ethics, resources, feasibility and public expectations some thoughts to provoke discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a range of technical and non-technical factors related to long timescales for deep geological repositories. It is intended to provoke discussion between implementers, regulators and the public about realistic containment and protection objectives for long-lived wastes such as spent fuel and HLW. The ethical and practical aspects of providing protection are discussed, along with society's perceptions of hazard, protection and time. A proposal is made for a series of time-graded containment levels that reflect objectively achievable and ethically reasonable protection for future generations. (authors)

  8. Reversing nuclear opposition: evolving public acceptance of a permanent nuclear waste disposal facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Silva, Carol L; Nowlin, Matthew C; deLozier, Grant

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear facilities have long been seen as the top of the list of locally unwanted land uses (LULUs), with nuclear waste repositories generating the greatest opposition. Focusing on the case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southern New Mexico, we test competing hypotheses concerning the sources of opposition and support for siting the facility, including demographics, proximity, political ideology, and partisanship, and the unfolding policy process over time. This study tracks the changes of risk perception and acceptance of WIPP over a decade, using measures taken from 35 statewide surveys of New Mexico citizens spanning an 11-year period from fall 1990 to summer 2001. This time span includes periods before and after WIPP became operational. We find that acceptance of WIPP is greater among those whose residences are closest to the WIPP facility. Surprisingly, and contrary to expectations drawn from the broader literature, acceptance is also greater among those who live closest to the nuclear waste transportation route. We also find that ideology, partisanship, government approval, and broader environmental concerns influence support for WIPP acceptance. Finally, the sequence of procedural steps taken toward formal approval of WIPP by government agencies proved to be important to gaining public acceptance, the most significant being the opening of the WIPP facility itself. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Public opposition to the siting of the high-level nuclear waste repository: The importance of trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.; Mushkatel, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines several dimensions of public opposition to the proposed siting of the high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. In order to provide a context for the public's views of the repository in metropolitan Clark County, both governmental studies of the repository siting process are analyzed, as well as elements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This analysis suggests that one potentially key component of the public's opposition to the siting, as well as their perceptions of risk of the facility, may be the result of a lack of trust in the Department of Energy. Empirical analysis of survey data collected in Nevada in 1988 confirms the strong relationship between political trust and repository risk perceptions

  10. Government regulation and public opposition create high additional costs for field trials with GM crops in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Tribaldos, Theresa; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Field trials with GM crops are not only plant science experiments. They are also social experiments concerning the implications of government imposed regulatory constraints and public opposition for scientific activity. We assess these implications by estimating additional costs due to government regulation and public opposition in a recent set of field trials in Switzerland. We find that for every Euro spent on research, an additional 78 cents were spent on security, an additional 31 cents on biosafety, and an additional 17 cents on government regulatory supervision. Hence the total additional spending due to government regulation and public opposition was around 1.26 Euros for every Euro spent on the research per se. These estimates are conservative; they do not include additional costs that are hard to monetize (e.g. stakeholder information and dialogue activities, involvement of various government agencies). We conclude that further field experiments with GM crops in Switzerland are unlikely unless protected sites are set up to reduce these additional costs.

  11. Public opinion on abortion in eight Mexican states amid opposition to legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia Rodríguez, Jorge; Wilson, Kate S; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; García, Sandra G; Sánchez Fuentes, Maria Luisa

    2011-09-01

    In opposition to Mexico City's legalization of first-trimester abortion, 17 Mexican states (53 percent) have introduced initiatives or reforms to ban abortion entirely, and other states have similar legislation pending. We conducted an opinion survey in eight states--four where constitutional amendments have already been approved and four with pending amendments. Using logistic regression analyses, we found that higher education, political party affiliation, and awareness of reforms/initiatives were significantly associated with support for the Mexico City law. Legal abortion was supported by a large proportion of respondents in cases of rape (45-70 percent), risk to a woman's life (55-71 percent), and risk to a woman's health (48-68 percent). A larger percentage of respondents favored the Mexico City law, which limits elective legal abortion to the first 12 weeks of gestation (32-54 percent), than elective abortion without regard to gestational limit (14-31 percent).

  12. RISK MANAGEMENT AND EXPERTISE: Germany: “Elite precaution” alongside continued public opposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyer Marion

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany is the EU member state with the most difficult situation (besides Austria for marketing genetically modified (GM crops and food. At the same time, it shows the least administrative effort to respond to the reasons for this situation - public suspicion and protest. Regulators advocate specific precaution-related measures, including market-stage monitoring; these measures, however, do not relate to the primary demands of critics and opponents. The administration’s claim to prioritize scientific evidence over politics constructs the administration and the public as two separate worlds without real mediation. This conflicts with the ever-growing demands for public participation. Participation in a broader sense, however, is not dependent on formal opportunities. In this conflict, NGOs bring up issues of democracy, transparency and precaution through public mobilization. This strategy results in an anticipated consumer boycott and thereby a commercial blockage of GM products. These dynamics can be analysed as “reflexive modernization”, which implies greater public aversion to externally imposed risks. The politico-administrative system responds with a legalistic-scientistic approach in order to increase safety but without participatory measures to overcome predictive uncertainty and value conflicts. Environmental and consumer protest has led the technology providers to revise their political strategies in the biotechnology conflict. Thus, in Germany reflexive modernization takes place without reflexive politics.

  13. Studies on provoked asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munkner, L.; Bundgaard, A.

    1982-01-01

    A group of adult patients with perennial bronchial asthma has been studied as to lung perfusion and alveolar ventilation (81m-Kr) at rest and after provocation of an acute attack. Asthma was provoked by exercise and by histamine inhalation. After provocation the peak expiratory flow values were reduced to less than 80% of the base line values. Perfusion was often deranged. Regional ventilation changed rapidly after provocation and not always in the same fashion after exercise and histamine. During attacks lung volume increased. The expansion decreased (in parallel with increased peak expiratory flow) after inhalator of a #betta#-2 agonist (terbutaline). 81m-Kr offers unique opportunities for studying acute regional changes in alveolar ventilation. (Author)

  14. Multi-causal pathways of public opposition to dam projects in Asia: A fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Charles, Katrina J.; Walton, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Scholars overwhelmingly adopt the case study method when analyzing causal conditions inducing anti-dam-protests. We have carried out the first medium-N-study on this topic analyzing public opposition to 12 dam projects in Asia. For this purpose, we employ a fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis

  15. Vote No! Managing Organized Opposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifto, Don E.; Senden, J. Bradford

    2008-01-01

    Organized opposition from A to Z symbolizes both the breadth and the core values of organized opposition groups that have emerged across the nation in recent years. Technological advances have expanded the reach and impact of oppositional messages. Anti-public school websites, group e-mail, the mushrooming blogosphere and web-based marketing…

  16. We want to be provoked

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen

    2001-01-01

    The title is a quotation from one of the meetings between residents and professionals during the Holmbladsgade regeneration process. During a discussion of future projects somebody asked what the residents expected from the professionals. We want to be provoked a resident answered. Provocations...

  17. Nuclear power threats, public opposition and green electricity adoption: Effects of threat belief appraisal and fear arousal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Patrick; Apaolaza, Vanessa; D'Souza, Clare; Echebarria, Carmen; Barrutia, Jose M.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the extent to which willingness to oppose nuclear power and intention to adopt green electricity are related to the cognitive and emotional appraisal of threats deriving from nuclear power. The analysis draws on a theoretical framework which introduces emotional fear arousal as a direct behavioural antecedent of coping behaviour into a model based on cognitive centred Protection Motivation Theory (PMT, Maddux and Rogers, 1983; Rogers, 1983) and the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM, Witte, 1992, 1998). Hypothesized relations are tested in a nationally representative online study conducted in April and May 2012, one year after the Fukushima accident. Results support the hypothesized influences of perceived threat, fear arousal and perceived coping efficacy. Support for the proposed effects of fear control is rather limited. Findings contribute to extending previous knowledge on the role of cognitive and emotional appraisal processes induced by awareness of threats from nuclear power as behavioural antecedents of both opposing nuclear power and adopting green electricity. Findings of the study have implications for nuclear power policy and activism, as well as for institutional and commercial promoters of voluntary residential green electricity adoption. - Highlights: • Nationally representative online survey on nuclear power conducted in Spain in April and May 2012. • Opposition to nuclear power and green electricity adoption are related to threat beliefs. • Emotional fear arousal motivates nuclear opposition and green electricity uptake. • Significant behavioural effects of coping efficacy are confirmed. • Influences of fear control on behaviour intentions are rather weak

  18. Public opinion about nuclear energy is in a change process: we have moved from opposition to the consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, P.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear sector in Spain is making huge affords towards improving public acceptance. the common trend is rigorous and professional diffusion and information regarding nuclear issues. The goal, besides informing on the excel ent results and impeccable performance of nuclear power plants, is for effective communication to offer society information on current activities. (Author)

  19. The Violence of Cultural Difference: Accommodation and Oppositional Practices of Muslim Pupils in a Public Primary School in Metro Manila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry M. Lanuza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary schools are supposed to provide a haven for young people to learn respect for individual differences and cultural diversity. However, schools often do not acknowledge cultural differences among their pupils or do not consciously consider the dynamics of these cultural differences in the school, which may lead to a simmering violence. This paper is an attempt to document the ways in which minority Muslim pupils in a primary public school develop different strategies of accommodation, assimilation, and resistance to the mainstream culture of the school.

  20. Mars at Opposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    On January 29, Mars will reach opposition, a point along its orbit around the Sun where Mars will be directly opposite from the Sun in a two-planet and Sun line-up with the Earth in between. At this opposition, the Earth and Mars will be separated by nearly 100 million km. An opposition is similar to a full Moon in that the planet at opposition…

  1. Provoking Reflective Thinking in Post Observation Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younhee; Silver, Rita Elaine

    2016-01-01

    We present a micro-analysis of post observation conversations between classroom teachers and mentors. Using the approach of conversation analysis, we show how the sequential organization of an episode (i.e., who initiates the interaction, question format used by mentors) could potentially serve to provoke or hinder teacher reflection. Our analysis…

  2. Defining Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Richard; Maughan, Barbara; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Background: ICD-10 and DSM-IV include similar criterial symptom lists for conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), but while DSM-IV treats each list separately, ICD-10 considers them jointly. One consequence is that ICD-10 identifies a group of children with ODD subtype who do not receive a diagnosis under DSM-IV. Methods: We…

  3. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis provoked by furosemide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andżelika Schwann-Majewska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP is a skin disease characterized by the sudden appearance of generalized pustules, accompanied by elevated body temperature and neutrophilia. Objective. Presentation of a patient with AGEP provoked by furosemide. Case report. We present a case of a 65-year-old patient diagnosed with and treated for generalized pustular eruption, with fever and changes in laboratory tests. Numerous coexisting medical conditions and a great number of frequently changed drugs (ciprofloxacin, allopurinol, folic acid, calcium carbonate, cyclophosphamide, atorvastatin, betaxolol and furosemide hindered identification of the causative factor. Conclusions. On the basis of the medical history and clinical picture, the patient was diagnosed with generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by furosemide.

  4. Horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobzheva, Ya.V.; Krasnov, V.M.; Sokolova, O.I.

    2001-01-01

    The horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions have been experimentally determined for 13 explosions conducted at the Balapan test site of the Semipalatinsk test site. (author)

  5. Thyroid Storm Provoked by Interleukin-2 Therapy for Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Yao-Chung Liu; Ming-Hung Hu; Yuan-Hao Yang; Jyh-Pyng Gau; Jin-Hwang Liu

    2014-01-01

    With the growing use of immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune disease, severe autoimmune thyroid dysfunction may be provoked at an increasing rate. We herein report a 49-year-old male patient experiencing a life- threatening thyroid storm provoked by interleukin-2 (IL-2). This was a case of pulmonary metastasis of melanoma without a previous history of thyroid dysfunction. For the metastatic melanoma, he underwent combined immunochemotherapy including dacarbazine and IL-2. T...

  6. OPPOSITIONS CREATING HOMOUR IN JOKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umral Deveci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human beings, who perceive the reality of death however who do not know when it will happen, begin their life with this deficiency. Therefore, throughout their lives, they struggle to consummate and make up for the things that they perceive as deficiency or shortcomings through different ways. Humor is one of these means. The fact that deficiencies are eliminated results in superiority and relaxation. The sense of humor and relaxation simultaneously provide laughter. When theories of humor such as superiority, incongruous and relief are taken into consideration, it seems that these theories are related and support each other. Each text is whole with its form and content, which should be evaluated as a whole as much as possible. Hence this study dwells on shortcomings in jokes and in the lights of these shortcomings and theories of humor, it is intended tomake humor in stories, in terms of structural and semantic context, more concrete. Five stories/jokes randomly selected through samples are analyzed in this article. There are two basic types of opposition. The firstone is opposition that creates situation, the second one is thatcreates laughter. The first opposition depicts the shortcomings of knowledge, skill, patience arrogance and jealousyand prepares the second opposition. The opposition that creates laughter make up for shortcomings through cause and effect relationship and laughter comes out.

  7. Thyroid Storm Provoked by Interleukin-2 Therapy for Metastatic Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Chung Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the growing use of immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune disease, severe autoimmune thyroid dysfunction may be provoked at an increasing rate. We herein report a 49-year-old male patient experiencing a life- threatening thyroid storm provoked by interleukin-2 (IL-2. This was a case of pulmonary metastasis of melanoma without a previous history of thyroid dysfunction. For the metastatic melanoma, he underwent combined immunochemotherapy including dacarbazine and IL-2. The 3rd course of immunochemotherapy was complicated with a thyroid storm manifested by high fever, tachycardia and even transient cardiac arrest. Fortunately, he recovered eventually from this crisis by immediate resuscitation followed by antithyroid dugs. Our case highlights the rare complication of a thyroid storm provoked by IL-2 treatment. Precaution against autoimmune thyroid dysfunction is required during treatment with IL-2 and probably also other kinds of newly-developed immunotherapy to avoid life-threatening complications.

  8. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Yue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC algorithm.

  9. Do stages of dentistry training affect anxiety provoking situations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Getting diagnosis wrong, help in faint episode, not developing radiograph properly and coping with children were the anxiety provoking situations that showed statistically significant difference in the 3 studied training stages of dentistry. Bonferroni post‑hoc analysis significant difference was in the preclinical and clinical ...

  10. Phenomenon of isomorphic provoking responses in cases of limited scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talnikova Е.Е.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the historical origin of the term "Koebner phenomenon". The literature data reflect the etiology, pathogenesis and epidemiology of isomorphic mechanisms provoking responses in lichen planus, psoriasis, scleroder-ma, syphilis. Variants of the Koebner phenomenon's classifications are given. The clinical cases of limited scleroderma after mechanical injury are described.

  11. Foods provoking and alleviating symptoms in gastroparesis: patient experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wytiaz, Victoria; Homko, Carol; Duffy, Frank; Schey, Ron; Parkman, Henry P

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional counseling for gastroparesis focuses on reduction of meal size, fiber, and fat to control symptoms. The tolerance of gastroparesis patients for particular foods is largely anecdotal. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize foods provoking or alleviating gastroparesis symptoms. Gastroparesis patients completed: (1) Demographic Questionnaire; (2) Patient Assessment of Upper GI Symptoms; (3) Food Toleration and Aversion survey asking patients about experiences when eating certain foods utilizing a scale from -3 (greatly worsening symptoms) to +3 (greatly improving symptoms). Descriptive qualities (acidic, fatty, spicy, roughage-based, bitter, salty, bland, and sweet) were assigned to foods. Forty-five gastroparesis patients participated (39 idiopathic gastroparesis). Foods worsening symptoms included: orange juice, fried chicken, cabbage, oranges, sausage, pizza, peppers, onions, tomato juice, lettuce, coffee, salsa, broccoli, bacon, and roast beef. Saltine crackers, jello, and graham crackers moderately improved symptoms. Twelve additional foods were tolerated by patients (not provoking symptoms): ginger ale, gluten-free foods, tea, sweet potatoes, pretzels, white fish, clear soup, salmon, potatoes, white rice, popsicles, and applesauce. Foods provoking symptoms were generally fatty, acidic, spicy, and roughage-based. The foods shown to be tolerable were generally bland, sweet, salty, and starchy. This study identified specific foods that worsen as well as foods that may help alleviate symptoms of gastroparesis. Foods that provoked symptoms differed in quality from foods that alleviated symptoms or were tolerable. The results of this study illustrate specific examples of foods that aggravate or improve symptoms and provide suggestions for a gastroparesis diet.

  12. Success of opposition against Temelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollmann, A.

    1989-01-01

    A first success for the anti-nuclear movement emerges: the Czechoslovakian government renounces of blocks 3 and 4, 1000 MW each, in Temelin. Although lack of money is admitted as a partial cause, the main cause is the broad opposition of the population, especially in Austria, says the author. Therefore the author appeals to the coworkers to double their efforts in the signature collection against Temelin. The slogan is: we shall make Temelin too. (qui)

  13. The Necessary Unity of Opposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Brian Russell

    and `suprahistorical' alternative. As Graham points out, much of Frye's thought is focused on secular concerns, and, within that context, his dialectical and `suprahistorical' thinking is `post-partisan,' a feature which also signifies and explains Frye's appeal. Graham contends it is the thinking of William Blake......, specifically his conceptions of innocence and experience, which provides the inspiration for Frye's dialectical thinking. Graham systematically addresses the main areas of Frye's work: Blake's poetry, secular literature, education and work, politics, and Scripture. In following each of these themes......, The Necessary Unity of Opposites expertly clarifies Frye's dialectical thinking, while drawing attention to its structural connection to Blake, Frye's great preceptor....

  14. Fatal attraction: the intuitive appeal of GMO opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Van Breusegem, Frank; De Jaeger, Geert; Braeckman, Johan; Van Montagu, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Public opposition to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) remains strong. By contrast, studies demonstrate again and again that GM crops make a valuable contribution to the development of a sustainable type of agriculture. The discrepancy between public opinion and the scientific evidence requires an explanation. We argue that intuitive expectations about the world render the human mind vulnerable to particular misrepresentations of GMOs. We explain how the involvement of particular intuitions accounts for the popularity, persistence, and typical features of GM opposition and tackle possible objections to our approach. To conclude, we discuss the implications for science education, science communication, and the environmental movement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity in provoked vestibulodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witzeman K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn Witzeman,1 Ruby HN Nguyen,2 Alisa Eanes,3 Sawsan As-Sanie,4 Denniz Zolnoun51Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, CO, 2Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Pelvic Pain Research Unit, Division of Advanced Laparoscopy and Pelvic Pain, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center for Neurosensory Disorders, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USABackground: An estimated 8.3%–16% of women experience vulvovaginal discomfort during their lifetime. Frequently these patients report provoked pain on contact or with attempted intercourse, commonly referred to as provoked vestibulodynia (PVD. Despite the burden of this condition, little is known about its potential etiologies including pelvic floor muscular dysfunction and mucosal components. This knowledge would be beneficial in developing targeted therapies including physical therapy.Objective: To explore the relative contribution of mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity on pain report from intercourse among women with PVD.Design: In this proof of concept study, 54 women with PVD underwent a structured examination assessing mucosal and pelvic muscle sensitivity.Methods: We examined three mucosal sites in the upper and lower vestibule. Patients were asked to rate their pain on cotton swab palpation of the mucosa using a 10-point visual analog scale. Muscle pain was assessed using transvaginal application of pressure on right and left puborectalis, and the perineal muscle complex. The Gracely pain scale (0–100 was used to assess the severity of pain with intercourse, with women rating the lowest, average, and highest pain levels; a 100 rating the

  16. Oppositional defiant disorder: current insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh A

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abhishek Ghosh,1 Anirban Ray,2 Aniruddha Basu1 1Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER, Chandigarh, 2Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, India Abstract: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD is diagnosed broadly on the basis of frequent and persistent angry or irritable mood, argumentativeness/defiance, and vindictiveness. Since its inception in the third Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, epidemiological and longitudinal studies have strongly suggested a distinct existence of ODD that is different from other closely related externalizing disorders, with different course and outcome and possibly discrete subtypes. However, several issues, such as symptom threshold, dimensional versus categorical conceptualization, and sex-specific symptoms, are yet to be addressed. Although ODD was found to be highly heritable, no genetic polymorphism has been identified with confidence. There has been a definite genetic overlap with other externalizing disorders. Studies have begun to explore its epigenetics and gene–environment interaction. Neuroimaging findings converge to implicate various parts of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and insula. Alteration in cortisol levels has also been demonstrated consistently. Although a range of environmental factors, both familial and extrafamilial, have been studied in the past, current research has combined these with other biological parameters. Psychosocial treatment continues to be time-tested and effective. These include parental management training, school-based training, functional family therapy/brief strategic family therapy, and cognitive behavior therapy. Management of severe aggression and treatment of co-morbid disorders are indications for pharmacotherapy. In line with previous conceptualization of chronic

  17. Epitaxial strain relaxation by provoking edge dislocation dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufi, A.; El-Hami, K.

    2018-02-01

    Thin solid films have been used in various devices and engineering systems such as rapid development of highly integrated electronic circuits, the use of surface coatings to protect structural materials in high temperature environments, and thin films are integral parts of many micro-electro-mechanical systems designed to serve as sensors, actuators. Among techniques of ultra-thin films deposition, the heteroepitaxial method becomes the most useful at nanoscale level to obtain performed materials in various applications areas. On the other hand, stresses that appeared during the elaboration of thin films could rise deformations and fractures in materials. The key solution to solve this problem at the nanoscale level is the nucleation of interface dislocations from free surfaces. By provoking edge dislocation dipoles we obtained a strain relaxation in thin films. Moreover, the dynamic of nucleation in edge dislocations from free lateral surfaces was also studied.

  18. Public opinion about nuclear energy is in a change process: we have moved from opposition to the consideration; La opinion publica sobre la energia nuclear esta en proceso de cambio: hemos pasado del rechazo a la consideracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, P.

    2012-07-01

    The nuclear sector in Spain is making huge affords towards improving public acceptance. the common trend is rigorous and professional diffusion and information regarding nuclear issues. The goal, besides informing on the excellent results and impeccable performance of nuclear power plants, is for effective communication to offer society information on current activities. (Author)

  19. Peak provoked craving: an alternative to smoking cue-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayette, Michael A; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2013-06-01

    Smoking cue-exposure research has provided a powerful tool for examining cravings in the laboratory. A key attraction of this method is that tightly controlled experimental procedures can model craving experiences that are presumed to relate to addiction. Despite its appeal, key assumptions underlying the clinical relevance of smoking cue-reactivity studies have been questioned recently. For both conceptual and methodological reasons it may be difficult to tease apart cue-based and abstinence-based cravings. Moreover, conventional cue-reactivity procedures typically generate levels of craving with only minimal clinical relevance. We argue here that sometimes it is unfeasible-and in some instances conceptually misguided-to disentangle abstinence-based and cued components of cigarette cravings. In light of the challenges associated with cue-reactivity research, we offer an alternative approach to smoking cue-exposure experimental research focusing on peak provoked craving (PPC) states. The PPC approach uses nicotine-deprived smokers and focuses on urges during smoking cue-exposure without subtracting out urge ratings during control cue or baseline assessments. This design relies on two factors found in many cue-exposure studies-nicotine deprivation and exposure to explicit smoking cues-which, when combined, can create powerful craving states. The PPC approach retains key aspects of the cue-exposure method, and in many circumstances may be a viable design for studies examining robust laboratory-induced cravings. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Around and Beyond the Square of Opposition

    CERN Document Server

    Béziau, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    aiThe theory of oppositions based on Aristotelian foundations of logic has been pictured in a striking square diagram which can be understood and applied in many different ways having repercussions in various fields: epistemology, linguistics, mathematics, psychology. The square can also be generalized in other two-dimensional or multi-dimensional objects extending in breadth and depth the original theory of oppositions of Aristotle. The square of opposition is a very attractive theme which has been going through centuries without evaporating. Since 10 years there is a new growing interest for

  1. Reasons for opposition to the breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timbal-Duclaux, Louis

    1979-01-01

    The author gives a sociological analysis of the opposition to breeder reactors in France, stressing that the antinuclear groups main thrust of protest against the Super-Phenix has dimished since its apex two years ago [fr

  2. Opposition-Based Adaptive Fireworks Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Chibing Gong

    2016-01-01

    A fireworks algorithm (FWA) is a recent swarm intelligence algorithm that is inspired by observing fireworks explosions. An adaptive fireworks algorithm (AFWA) proposes additional adaptive amplitudes to improve the performance of the enhanced fireworks algorithm (EFWA). The purpose of this paper is to add opposition-based learning (OBL) to AFWA with the goal of further boosting performance and achieving global optimization. Twelve benchmark functions are tested in use of an opposition-based a...

  3. Prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villalobos, José Antonio; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús María; Rodríguez-Molinero, Luis; Garrido-Redondo, Mercedes; Sacristán-Martín, Ana María; Martínez-Rivera, María Teresa; Alberola-López, Susana; Sánchez-Azón, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures. ODD is one of the most frequent reasons for clinical consultation on mental health during childhood and adolescence. ODD has a high morbidity and dysfunction, and has important implications for the future if not treated early. To determine the prevalence of ODD in schoolchildren aged 6-16 years in Castile and Leon (Spain). Population study with a stratified multistage sample, and a proportional cluster design. Sample analyzed: 1,049. Cases were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. An overall prevalence rate of 5.6% was found (95% CI: 4.2%-7%). Male gender prevalence=6.8%; female=4.3%. Prevalence in secondary education=6.2%; primary education=5.3%. No significant differences by gender, age, grade, type of school, or demographic area were found. ODD prevalence without considering functional impairment, such as is performed in some research, would increase the prevalence to 7.4%. ODD cases have significantly worse academic outcomes (overall academic performance, reading, maths and writing), and worse classroom behavior (relationship with peers, respect for rules, organizational skills, academic tasks, and disruption of the class). Castile and Leon has a prevalence rate of ODD slightly higher to that observed in international publications. Depending on the distribution by age, morbidity and clinical dysfunctional impact, an early diagnosis and a preventive intervention are required for health planning. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Opposition to nuclear power: a review of international experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surrey, J; Huggett, C

    1976-12-01

    This paper examines the rise of opposition to nuclear power in the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Sweden, and Japan. It explores the course that opposition has taken, the issues on which it has focused, the factors that have influenced it, and the problems it poses for public decision making. Opinions differ about the causes of nuclear opposition. Indeed, it is probable that a variety of factors have contributed, including cultural and political values regarding continued economic and energy growth and fears of deliberate large-scale violence with the spread of radioactive materials, the protest movements against nuclear weapons testing, the upsurge in environmental concern in the 1960s, the movement towards greater social responsibility in science, and a growing distrust of ''the Establishment''--particularly in the USA because of Watergate. The upsurge in concern was reflected in greater attention to environmental matters in the mass media, schools, universities, and the international agencies. It is important to recognize that this concern cuts across conventional left-right divisions of politics. Radicals, communists, and conservatives can be found among both the proponents and the critics. These difficulties facing the policy maker are accentuated by the amorphous nature both of the opposition and the issues which have received attention and by the evidence of many opinion surveys: that more people are in favor of nuclear power than oppose it, but the majority are uncertain and do not understand the issues. For purposes of analysis it is useful to distinguish between three types of opposition--nuclear-specific, site-specific, and that related to planning and consent procedures. (MCW)

  5. Understanding opposition in green advertising: The opposite does not always attract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, Svetlana; Hubner, Arlette; Fenko, Anna; Warlop, L.; Muylle, S.

    2015-01-01

    Opposition (contrasting images and/or verbal cues) is acknowledged as a powerful tool to increase ads recall. Yet, no evidence exists whether opposition may be efficiently used in green advertising. The current study addresses this issue. European consumers (N=120) were exposed to print ads. Type of

  6. Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct, and ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1996-01-01

    The link between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) was evaluated in 140 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 120 normal controls examined at baseline and 4 years later, in midadolescence, at the Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Psychiatric Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

  7. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: Information for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcalow, Kelly

    2006-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder, one of the disruptive behavior disorders, has far-reaching consequences for the individual, family, school, community, and society. Early recognition allows interventions geared toward promotion of prosocial behaviors, possibly halting progression to the more deviant conduct disorder. Awareness of this disorder and…

  8. Interaction between opposite river bank dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonilla Porras, J.A.; Crosato, A.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies regarding bank erosion  and accretion can be found in the literature, it is  not common to find works studying the interaction  between opposite banks. Some existing  morphodynamic models describe bank erosion as  an event that depends on

  9. Synchronized SETI-The Case for "Opposition"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, Robin H. D.

    2003-06-01

    If the signals being sought in search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) programs exist but are brief (for example, they are produced intermittently to conserve energy), then it is essential to know when these signals will arrive at the Earth. Different types of transmitter/receiver synchronization schemes are possible, which vary in the relative amount of effort required by the transmitter and the receiver. The case is made for a scheme that is extremely simple for the receiver: Make observations of a target when it is at maximum angular distance from the Sun (i.e., "opposition"). This strategy requires that the transmitter has accurate knowledge of the distance and proper motion of the Sun and the orbit of the Earth. It is anticipated that within the next 10-20 years it will be possible to detect directly nearby extrasolar planets of approximately terrestrial mass. Since extraterrestrial transmitters are expected to have significantly more advanced technology, it is not unreasonable to expect that they would be able to detect the presence of the Earth and measure its orbit at even greater distances. This strategy is simple to implement, and opposition is also typically the time when observations are easiest to make. Limited opposition surveys contained in a number of all-sky surveys have already been performed. However, full-sky opposition surveys are best suited to detectors with very large fields of view.

  10. What is the opposite of cat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Leron, Uri

    2016-01-01

    the open and interactive teaching approach needed to achieve students' active participation and reflection. To demonstrate these challenges, and our experience of trying to cope with them, we have chosen the concept of "inverses" as used in group theory, and its common sense precursor "opposites". We...

  11. Oppositional Decoding as an Act of Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Argues that contributors to the "No Comment" feature of "Ms." magazine are engaging in oppositional decoding and speculates on why this is a satisfying group process. Also notes such decoding presents another challenge to the idea that mass media has the same effect on all audiences. (SD)

  12. Opposition-Based Adaptive Fireworks Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibing Gong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A fireworks algorithm (FWA is a recent swarm intelligence algorithm that is inspired by observing fireworks explosions. An adaptive fireworks algorithm (AFWA proposes additional adaptive amplitudes to improve the performance of the enhanced fireworks algorithm (EFWA. The purpose of this paper is to add opposition-based learning (OBL to AFWA with the goal of further boosting performance and achieving global optimization. Twelve benchmark functions are tested in use of an opposition-based adaptive fireworks algorithm (OAFWA. The final results conclude that OAFWA significantly outperformed EFWA and AFWA in terms of solution accuracy. Additionally, OAFWA was compared with a bat algorithm (BA, differential evolution (DE, self-adapting control parameters in differential evolution (jDE, a firefly algorithm (FA, and a standard particle swarm optimization 2011 (SPSO2011 algorithm. The research results indicate that OAFWA ranks the highest of the six algorithms for both solution accuracy and runtime cost.

  13. Political opposition in patriarchal East London

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, D

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the growing level of politicization in East London in the 1950s, and the way this affected the patriarchal normative system, which prevailed in urban administration. Patriarchalism, as a system, was susceptible of different interpretations by white municipal officials, and their response to black political opposition ranged from liberal forbearance to rigid and uncompromising intolerance. Black leaders’ attitudes to the patriarchal order were similarly nuan...

  14. Emerging and continuing trends in vaccine opposition website content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Sandra J

    2011-02-24

    Anti-vaccination websites appeal to persons searching the Internet for vaccine information that reinforces their predilection to avoid vaccination for themselves or their children. Few published studies have systematically examined these sites. The aim of this study was to employ content analysis as a useful tool for examining and comparing anti-vaccination websites for recurring and changing emphases in content, design, and credibility themes since earlier anti-vaccination website content analyses were conducted. Between February and May 2010, using a commonly available search engine followed by a deep web search, 25 websites that contained anti-vaccination content were reviewed and analyzed for 24 content, 14 design, and 13 credibility attributes. Although several content claims remained similar to earlier analyses, two new themes emerged: (1) the 2009 H1N1 epidemic threat was "manufactured," and (2) the increasing presence of so-called "expert" testimony in opposing vaccination. Anti-vaccination websites are constantly changing in response to the trends in public health and the success of vaccination. Monitoring the changes can permit public health workers to mount programs more quickly to counter the opposition arguments. Additionally, opposition claims commonly appeal to emotions whereas the supporting claims appeal to reason. Effective vaccine support may be better served by including more emotionally compelling content. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oppositely charged colloids out of equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, T.

    2010-11-01

    Colloids are particles with a size in the range of a few nanometers up to several micrometers. Similar to atomic and molecular systems, they can form gases, liquids, solids, gels and glasses. Colloids can be used as model systems because, unlike molecules, they are sufficiently large to be studied directly with light microscopy and move sufficiently slow to study their dynamics. In this thesis, we study binary systems of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) colloidal particles suspended in low-polar solvent mixtures. Since the ions can still partially dissociate, a surface charge builds up which causes electrostatic interactions between the colloids. By carefully tuning the conditions inside the suspension, we make two kinds of particles oppositely charged. To study our samples, we use Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The positively and negatively charged particles can be distinguished by a different fluorescent dye. Colloids constantly experience a random motion resulting from random kicks of surrounding solvent molecules. When the attractions between the oppositely charged particles are weak, the particles can attach and detach many times and explore a lot of possible configurations and the system can reach thermodynamic equilibrium. For example, colloidal ‘ionic’ crystals consisting of thousands to millions of particles can form under the right conditions. When the attractions are strong, the system can become kinetically trapped inside a gel-like state. We observe that when the interactions change again, crystals can even emerge again from this gel-like phase. By using local order parameters, we quantitatively study the crystallization of colloidal particles and identify growth defects inside the crystals. We also study the effect of gravity on the growth of ionic crystals by using a rotating stage. We find that sedimentation can completely inhibit crystal growth and plays an important role in crystallization from the gel-like state. The surface

  16. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  17. The Loyal Opposition & The Practice of Aikido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Miller-Lane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Discussions regarding martial arts often focus on the unique manner in which different styles respond to a set of common attacks. Indeed, it is in these unique responses that most martial arts distinguish themselves. However, this paper examines the role of the aggressor during training; specifically, in the martial art of Aikido and draws an analogy between the role of an aggressor during Aikido practice and the actions of a member of the loyal opposition in a democracy. A commitment to a set of rules that govern and protect the participants and a commitment to maintain a rich, creative tension mark both the vibrant interactions of an Aikido dojo and democratic life in a multicultural society.

  18. Repulsion between oppositely charged planar macroions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YongSeok Jho

    Full Text Available The repulsive interaction between oppositely charged macroions is investigated using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations of an unrestricted primitive model, including the effect of inhomogeneous surface charge and its density, the depth of surface charge, the cation size, and the dielectric permittivity of solvent and macroions, and their contrast. The origin of the repulsion is a combination of osmotic pressure and ionic screening resulting from excess salt between the macroions. The excess charge over-reduces the electrostatic attraction between macroions and raises the entropic repulsion. The magnitude of the repulsion increases when the dielectric constant of the solvent is lowered (below that of water and/or the surface charge density is increased, in good agreement with experiment. Smaller size of surface charge and the cation, their discreteness and mobility are other factors that enhance the repulsion and charge inversion phenomenons.

  19. The problem of social opposition to industrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malocchi, Andrea

    1996-01-01

    The problem of social opposition to the localization, construction and operation of industrial plants is a major social issue in many industrialized countries where environmental consciousness has rooted deeply in society. This paper proposes a general model for the analysis of the social conflict against the localization and operation of industrial plants. The paper investigates the difference between the 'risk analysis' approach and the 'social acceptability' approach in order to demonstrate the major influence of information and communication between industry and society on social consensus (rather than ordinary technological and environmental factors). In a second part the paper analyses a limit of social acceptability approach highlighting the role of environmental NGO's in the promotion and diffusion of the social protest. As a result of the analysis, a general model for the management of social consensus by companies and public authorities is provided

  20. The square of opposition a cornerstone of thought

    CERN Document Server

    Basti, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    This is a collection of new investigations and discoveries on the theory of opposition (square, hexagon, octagon, polyhedra of opposition) by the best specialists from all over the world. The papers range from historical considerations to new mathematical developments of the theory of opposition including applications to theology, theory of argumentation and metalogic.

  1. Opposition to nuclear power in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, W.

    1977-01-01

    The opposing factions to nuclear energy in Europe are composed of groups establishing themselves as distinct political forces. The author describes specifically the anti-nuclear movements in West Germany, Sweden, England, and France. The new government in Sweden, swept to power on a wave of anti-nuclear and anti-big government sentiment on September 19, 1976, has put tight restrictions on reactor construction. In Great Britain, economic crisis, North Sea oil, new coal discoveries, and political confusion concerning choice of technology have sufficed to bring new nuclear construction to a halt. The German government, under pressure from a complex coalition of groups exploiting every available means of protest, has stalled on a waste-management issue. While the French opposition has had little success in blocking nuclear construction, the movement is increasingly broad-based; it has managed to make certain issues the subject of a national debate with elections scheduled for March 1978. It is concluded that whatever the outcome, there is no assurance that it will be favorable from the point of view of weapons proliferation

  2. Windpower opposition : notify, consult, engage or partnership?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prier, P.G. [Stantec Consulting, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the methods that can be used to understand and defuse opposition to wind power projects. The presentation discussed the actual empowerment of communities and citizens as opposed to the token gestures often used by large organizations to placate and manipulate stakeholders. Stakeholders were defined as regulatory authorities, directly and indirectly affected landowners, non-government organizations, First Nations groups, and anyone in or outside the study area with an interest in the prospective development. The consultation scope should reflect the significance of potential effects and be conducted early in the decision-making process. The design of the project and its implementation should be transparent, and operators should be responsive to all concerns and questions. A range of consultation techniques should be used to reflect the nature of different stakeholders. Community engagement should support mutual respect of values in order to create an authentic decision-making partnership. Communities should be notified when routine operational or maintenance activities are being conducted. Consultations are required for increases in nameplate capacity of less than 25 percent. Community engagement is required for the development of greenfield wind farms greater than 20 MW. tabs., figs.

  3. Common Questions About Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Ahmed, Sana; Locke, Amy

    2016-04-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a disruptive behavior disorder characterized by a pattern of angry or irritable mood, argumentative or defiant behavior, or vindictiveness lasting for at least six months. Children and adolescents with ODD may have trouble controlling their temper and are often disobedient and defiant toward others. There are no tools specifically designed for diagnosing ODD, but multiple questionnaires can aid in diagnosis while assessing for other psychiatric conditions. ODD is often comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and mood disorders, including anxiety and depression. Behavioral therapy for the child and family members improves symptoms of ODD. Medications are not recommended as first-line treatment for ODD; however, treatment of comorbid mental health conditions with medications often improves ODD symptoms. Adults and adolescents with a history of ODD have a greater than 90% chance of being diagnosed with another mental illness in their lifetime. They are at high risk of developing social and emotional problems as adults, including suicide and substance use disorders. Early intervention seeks to prevent the development of conduct disorder, substance abuse, and delinquency that can cause lifelong social, occupational, and academic impairments.

  4. Opposition to legal abortion: challenges and questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the Roman Catholic Church's arguments against abortion rights suggests that its opposition is grounded more in outmoded views regarding women's roles than in concern for protecting fetal life. The 1st argument raised by Catholics and other anti-abortion forces is that abortion represents the unjustifiable destruction of a human life. A 2nd argument focuses on the status of the fetus as a person from the moment of conception, making abortion murder. A 3rd equates the fetus's potential for personhood with the pregnant woman's actual personhood. Despite the vehement sentiments expressed by Catholic leaders against abortion, the majority of Catholics support legal abortion. The assignment of personhood status to the fetus is contraindicated by actual practice in the Church, where aborted or miscarried products of early pregnancy are not baptized. Also, the Church does not forbid the taking of human life in war or to preserve political freedom. Finally, in countries such as Poland where abortion has been made illegal through religious pressure, there have been drastic cuts in health care and child care programs.

  5. Privatisation of agro-industrial parastatals and anglophone opposition in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the regional anglophone opposition in Cameroon which arose after 15 July 1994, when the government was forced by international donors to announce the privatization of 15 public enterprises, notably in the transport and agroindustrial sectors. The most prominent among them was

  6. Narrowing the Gap: Explaining the Increasing Competitiveness of the Venezuelan Opposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krouwel, A.P.M.; Kutiyski, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to explain why electoral support for the Venezuelan opposition has increased substantially, using Venezuelan public opinion survey data from LAPOP and an opt-in sample collected through the online vote advice application Brújula Presidencial Venezuela. It analyzes why Venezuelans

  7. Parlementaires debout : l'interface de l'opposition politique pendant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    espace médiatique dans la lutte qui opposa singulièrement le pouvoir (Mobutu) et l'opposition (Tshisekedi) entre 1990 et 1997. L'expérience congolaise de Parlement debout ne pourrait servir de modèle à la gestion de l'espace public africain qu'à ...

  8. Lack of effect of laboratory-provoked anxiety on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemishlany, Z; Davidson, M

    1996-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate if acute anxiety can affect plasma concentrations of homovanillic acid (pHVA). Since elevated pHVA levels have been associated with severity of schizophrenic symptoms, the results of this study will help determine if the pHVA elevations are directly related to psychosis or if anxiety is also a contributory factor. Anxiety was provoked in 10 young normal subjects by a combined paradigm of mental arithmetic task and threat of electrical shock. A significant increase in self-ratings of anxiety, blood pressure, and plasma levels of norepinephrine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol and growth hormone indicated that the paradigm used was effective in provoking anxiety; however, anxiety did not affect pHVA concentrations. The results may support the notion that increased pHVA levels in severely ill schizophrenic patients are related to the schizophrenic pathophysiology rather than to anxiety.

  9. Physical properties of the Saturn's rings with the opposition effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deau, E.

    2012-04-01

    We use the Cassini/ISS images from the early prime mission to build lit phase curves data from 0.01 degrees to 155 degrees at a solar elevation of 23-20 degrees. All the main rings exhibit on their phase curves a prominent surge at small phase angles. We use various opposition effect models to explain the opposition surge of the rings, including the coherent backscattering, the shadow hiding and a combination of the two (Kawata & Irvine 1974 In: Exploration of the planetary system Book p441; Shkuratov et al. 1999, Icarus, 141, p132; Poulet et al. 2002 Icarus, 158, p224 ; Hapke et al. 2002 Icarus, 157, p523). Our results show that either the coherent backscattering alone or a combination of the shadow hiding and the coherent backscattering can explain the observations providing physical properties (albedo, filling factor, grain size) consistent with previous other studies. However, they disagree with the most recent work of Degiorgio et al. 2011 (EPSC-DPS Abstract #732). We think that their attempt to use the shadow hiding alone lead to unrealistic values of the filling factor of the ring particles layer. For example they found 10^-3 in one of the thickest regions of the C ring (a plateau at R=88439km with an optical depth tau=0.22). We totally disagree with their conclusions stating that these values are consistent for the C ring plateaux and did not found any references that are consistent with theirs, as they claimed. We believe that their unrealistic values originated from the assumptions of the models they used (Kawata & Irvine and Hapke), which are basically an uniform size distribution. Any model using an uniform size distribution force the medium to be very diluted to reproduce the opposition surge. Our modeling that uses a power law size distribution provides realistic values. All these results have been already published previously (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT........25D) and are summarized in a forthcoming manuscript submitted to publication so

  10. Inhibition of Bcl-2 or IAP proteins does not provoke mutations in surviving cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar, Tanmay M.; Green, Maja M.; Rayner, David M.; Miles, Mark A.; Cutts, Suzanne M.; Hawkins, Christine J.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mutagenicities of anti-cancer drugs were tested using HPRT, γH2AX and comet assays. • TRAIL, doxorubicin and etoposide were more mutagenic than BH3- or Smac-mimetics. • Physiologically achievable levels of the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 were not mutagenic. • High concentrations of ABT-737 provoked mutations via an off-target mechanism. • Even very high concentrations of IAP antagonists were not mutagenic. - Abstract: Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause permanent damage to the genomes of surviving cells, provoking severe side effects such as second malignancies in some cancer survivors. Drugs that mimic the activity of death ligands, or antagonise pro-survival proteins of the Bcl-2 or IAP families have yielded encouraging results in animal experiments and early phase clinical trials. Because these agents directly engage apoptosis pathways, rather than damaging DNA to indirectly provoke tumour cell death, we reasoned that they may offer another important advantage over conventional therapies: minimisation or elimination of side effects such as second cancers that result from mutation of surviving normal cells. Disappointingly, however, we previously found that concentrations of death receptor agonists like TRAIL that would be present in vivo in clinical settings provoked DNA damage in surviving cells. In this study, we used cell line model systems to investigate the mutagenic capacity of drugs from two other classes of direct apoptosis-inducing agents: the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 and the IAP antagonists LCL161 and AT-406. Encouragingly, our data suggest that IAP antagonists possess negligible genotoxic activity. Doses of ABT-737 that were required to damage DNA stimulated Bax/Bak-independent signalling and exceeded concentrations detected in the plasma of animals treated with this drug. These findings provide hope that cancer patients treated by BH3-mimetics or IAP antagonists may avoid mutation-related illnesses that afflict

  11. Inhibition of Bcl-2 or IAP proteins does not provoke mutations in surviving cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhar, Tanmay M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Green, Maja M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Department of Anatomy & Neuroscience, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Rayner, David M.; Miles, Mark A.; Cutts, Suzanne M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Hawkins, Christine J., E-mail: c.hawkins@latrobe.edu.au [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mutagenicities of anti-cancer drugs were tested using HPRT, γH2AX and comet assays. • TRAIL, doxorubicin and etoposide were more mutagenic than BH3- or Smac-mimetics. • Physiologically achievable levels of the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 were not mutagenic. • High concentrations of ABT-737 provoked mutations via an off-target mechanism. • Even very high concentrations of IAP antagonists were not mutagenic. - Abstract: Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause permanent damage to the genomes of surviving cells, provoking severe side effects such as second malignancies in some cancer survivors. Drugs that mimic the activity of death ligands, or antagonise pro-survival proteins of the Bcl-2 or IAP families have yielded encouraging results in animal experiments and early phase clinical trials. Because these agents directly engage apoptosis pathways, rather than damaging DNA to indirectly provoke tumour cell death, we reasoned that they may offer another important advantage over conventional therapies: minimisation or elimination of side effects such as second cancers that result from mutation of surviving normal cells. Disappointingly, however, we previously found that concentrations of death receptor agonists like TRAIL that would be present in vivo in clinical settings provoked DNA damage in surviving cells. In this study, we used cell line model systems to investigate the mutagenic capacity of drugs from two other classes of direct apoptosis-inducing agents: the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 and the IAP antagonists LCL161 and AT-406. Encouragingly, our data suggest that IAP antagonists possess negligible genotoxic activity. Doses of ABT-737 that were required to damage DNA stimulated Bax/Bak-independent signalling and exceeded concentrations detected in the plasma of animals treated with this drug. These findings provide hope that cancer patients treated by BH3-mimetics or IAP antagonists may avoid mutation-related illnesses that afflict

  12. Treatment of Provoked Vulvodynia in a Swedish cohort using desensitization exercises and cognitive behavioral therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstr?m, Suzanne; Kvist, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Problems related to pain during vaginal penetration are complex and the etiology is multi-factorial. It was the aim of the present study to measure whether treatment using desensitization exercises and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for women with provoked vulvodynia (PVD) could increase sexual interest, sexual satisfaction and response whilst decreasing experiences of sexual pain. Methods and outcome measures Sixty women suffering from PVD were treated during a 10-week period ...

  13. Entitled vengeance: A meta-analysis relating narcissism to provoked aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kyler

    2016-07-01

    Narcissism has long been used to predict aggressive or vengeful responses to provocations from others. The strength of this relation can, however, vary widely from study to study. Narcissism and revenge were examined in 84 independent samples (N = 11297), along with the moderating role of sample type (i.e., child/adolescent, prisoner, undergraduate, or general samples), type of narcissism measure used (i.e., Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Psychological Entitlement Scale, Short D3, etc.), the nature of the provocation, and the type of provoked aggression examined. Narcissism was positively related to provoked aggression across studies (ρ = .25), but that relation was stronger in child/adolescent samples (ρ = .36) and when measures of entitlement or vulnerable narcissism were employed (ρ = .29). Implications for practical research, as well as neglected areas of research on narcissism and provoked aggression are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:362-379, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Multiple Pseudomonas species secrete exolysin-like toxins and provoke Caspase-1-dependent macrophage death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Pauline; Wallet, Pierre; Elsen, Sylvie; Soleilhac, Emmanuelle; Henry, Thomas; Faudry, Eric; Attrée, Ina

    2017-10-01

    Pathogenic bacteria secrete protein toxins that provoke apoptosis or necrosis of eukaryotic cells. Here, we developed a live-imaging method, based on incorporation of a DNA-intercalating dye into membrane-damaged host cells, to study the kinetics of primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) mortality induced by opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa expressing either Type III Secretion System (T3SS) toxins or the pore-forming toxin, Exolysin (ExlA). We found that ExlA promotes the activation of Caspase-1 and maturation of interleukin-1β. BMDMs deficient for Caspase-1 and Caspase-11 were resistant to ExlA-induced death. Furthermore, by using KO BMDMs, we determined that the upstream NLRP3/ASC complex leads to the Caspase-1 activation. We also demonstrated that Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas protegens and the Drosophila pathogen Pseudomonas entomophila, which naturally express ExlA-like toxins, are cytotoxic toward macrophages and provoke the same type of pro-inflammatory death as does ExlA + P. aeruginosa. These results demonstrate that ExlA-like toxins of two-partner secretion systems from diverse Pseudomonas species activate the NLRP3 inflammasome and provoke inflammatory pyroptotic death of macrophages. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Oral regurgitation after reflux provoking meals: a possible cause of dental erosion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, D W; Evans, D F; Smith, B G

    1997-02-01

    Certain foods and drinks such as alcohol, heavily spiced or fatty meals are known to provoke gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). This may give rise to symptoms of heartburn, epigastric pain and occasionally oral regurgitation of the gastric contents. Oral regurgitation of gastric juice is important in dentistry because of its association with dental erosion. This study measured oesophageal and oral reflux in 12 healthy subjects after a curry meal taken with alcohol 2 h before sleep. Each subject repeated the test with a bland non-reflux provoking control meal. GOR was measured by recording distal and proximal oesophageal pH on a dual channel, portable pH monitor. Oral pH was measured with a pH sensitive radio-telemetry capsule (RTC) held on the palate in a vacuum formed splint. Signals from the RTC were received by an aerial worn around the head. The pH change produced by GOR was estimated as the percentage time that pH (PTpH) was less than 4 in the distal oesophagus. Similarly, the PTpH was estimated reflux in only two subjects. In one of these subjects the bland meal provoked oral regurgitation with a PTpH < 5.5 of 13.5%. In the remaining subjects little oral regurgitation occurred.

  16. Public values in public-private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaers, A.; de Graaf, G.

    2014-01-01

    Although public-private partnerships (PPPs) are often evaluated in terms of efficiency, their impact on public values is often neglected. In order to find out what we know about the public values-PPPs relation, this article reviews public administration literature and describes two opposite

  17. The Attractiveness of Opposites: Agonists and Antagonists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Tony

    2015-02-02

    ABSTRACT Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, of which constipation is the most common aspect, is a major limiting factor in the use of opioids for pain management. The availability of an oral, long-acting formulation of oxycodone and naloxone represents a highly significant development in pain management. The combination of an opioid analgesic with an opioid antagonist offers reliable pain control with a significant reduction in the burden of opioid-induced constipation. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 3, ©Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd, and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, LTD and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be accessed via the website: http:\\/\\/www.paineurope.com at which European health professionals can register online to receive copies of the quarterly publication.

  18. Balancing former opposites as mutual preconditions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmström, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Luhmann: Contingency, risk, trust and reflection. In Ø. Ihlen, M. Fredriksson, & B. van Ruler (Eds.), Public relations and social theory (pp. 187–211). New York: Routledge. Holmström, S. (2010a) Society’s Constitution and Corporate Legitimacy, in Rendtorff, J.D. (ed.) Ethics in the Economy: Power...... legitimacy under conditions of complexity: The case of the multinational enterprise. Academy of Management Review, 24(1), 64–81. Luhmann, N. (1982). Trust and power. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. (Original work published 1968) Luhmann, N. (1989). Ecological communication. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. (Original work....... Journal of Business Ethics, 81, 1–12....

  19. Evaluation of pro-convulsant risk in the rat: spontaneous and provoked convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esneault, Elise; Peyon, Guillaume; Froger-Colléaux, Christelle; Castagné, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of different tests performed in the absence or presence of factors promoting seizures in order to evaluate the pro-convulsant effects of drugs. We studied the effects of theophylline in the rat since this is a well-known pro-convulsant substance in humans. The occurrence of spontaneous convulsions following administration of theophylline was evaluated by observation in the Irwin Test and by measuring brain activity using video-EEG recording in conscious telemetered animals. Theophylline was also tested in the electroconvulsive shock (ECS) threshold and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions tests, two commonly used models of provoked convulsions. In the Irwin test, theophylline induced convulsions in 1 out of 6 rats at 128 mg/kg. Paroxysmal/seizure activity was also observed by video-EEG recording in 4 out of the 12 animals tested at 128 mg/kg, in presence of clonic convulsions in 3 out of the 4 rats. Paroxysmal activity was observed in two rats in the absence of clear behavioral symptoms, indicating that some precursor signs can be detected using video-EEG. Clear pro-convulsant activity was shown over the dose-range 32-128 mg/kg in the ECS threshold and PTZ-induced convulsions tests. Evaluation of spontaneous convulsions provides information on the therapeutic window of a drug and the translational value of the approach is increased by the use of video-EEG. Tests based on provoked convulsions further complement the evaluation since they try to mimic high risk situations. Measurement of both spontaneous and provoked convulsions improves the evaluation of the pro-convulsant risk of novel pharmacological substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Objectifying the Adjacent and Opposite Angles: A Cultural Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh; Musallam, Nadera

    2018-01-01

    The angle topic is central to the development of geometric knowledge. Two of the basic concepts associated with this topic are the adjacent and opposite angles. It is the goal of the present study to analyze, based on the cultural historical semiotics framework, how high-achieving seventh grade students objectify the adjacent and opposite angles'…

  1. Oppositional Culture Theory and the Delusion of Colorblindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowitz, Marvin J.; Hutchins, Brandi N.; Jenkins, Derrick J.; Mussman, Mark P.; Schneider, Carri A.

    2006-01-01

    Oppositional culture theory is a widely accepted explanation for disparities in academic performance between middle class Whites and middle class African Americans. The authors make the case that oppositional culture theory has its roots in cultural deficit theory popularized in the early 1960s and present a significant body of evidence to refute…

  2. Sex and Age Differences in Attitude toward the Opposite Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Rawley

    1997-01-01

    Examines fantasies about the opposite sex expressed by 116 children, adolescents, and adults responding to the Drawing from Imagination task of the Silver Drawing Test of Cognition and Emotion. Results indicate that both males and females expressed more negative than positive feelings toward subjects of the opposite sex. Males were more negative.…

  3. National renewable energy policy and local opposition in the UK: the failed development of a biomass electricity plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upreti, B.R.; Horst, Dan van der

    2004-01-01

    Biomass energy developments in the UK are supported by central government but face considerable opposition from the public. The purpose of this study is to explore the causes and consequences of public opposition to biomass energy development in North Wiltshire where Ambient Energy Ltd. proposed the development of a 5 MWe wood gasification plant near the town of Cricklade. The case study was conducted through in-depth interviews, content analysis, person to person questionnaire survey, focus group discussion and participatory appraisal methods. Though biomass energy plants in general have fewer environmental impacts than plants which use fossil fuel, there could still be local impacts which give rise to concerns and local opposition to the development. The opposition could be partially explained by the fact that the general public is relatively unfamiliar with biomass energy. Public acceptance or rejection was mainly based on the public trust or mistrust. The case study demonstrates two distinctly rigid characteristics among the key stakeholders of biomass energy development. These are the 'not-in-my-back-yard' attitude from the public and the 'there-is-no-alternative' attitude of the developers. These rigid stances were widely contributing to the failure of the project to gain planning permission. The environmental justification of biomass energy at the national level is not always sufficient to convince the local residents. Winning public support to promote biomass energy requires an alternative approach of planning and action through interactive communication, public participation and collective learning among all the stakeholders

  4. Epilepsy provoked by television and video games: safety of 100-Hz screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, S; Vigevano, F; Manfredi, M; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G

    1998-03-01

    Television (TV) and video games (VG) can provoke seizures in patients with photosensitive epilepsies. Flicker frequency is the most important factor in screen activation. We tested conventional 50-Hz versus 100-Hz monitors during TV viewing and VG playing in 30 photosensitive subjects, 23 of whom had a history of TV or VG seizures or both. Fifteen subjects' discharges were activated by 50-Hz TV; 17 by 50-Hz VG; and one by a 100-Hz screen. Thus, 100-Hz screens protect against screen activation.

  5. Emotional reaction evaluation provoked by the vestibular caloric test through physiological variables monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barona-de-Guzmán, Rafael; Krstulovic-Roa, Claudio; Donderis-Malea, Elena; Barona-Lleó, Luz

    2018-03-08

    The emotional evaluation of the causes of vertigo is made using the clinical records and several subjective questionnaires. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the emotional response objectively, in normal subjects, during an induced vertigo crisis. A caloric vestibular test with cold water was performed on 30 healthy subjects. The following physiological parameters were monitored during the 60seconds prior to and the 60seconds after the stimulation: Skin Conductivity, Peripheral Pulse Volume, Body Temperature, Muscle Contraction, Heart Rate, and Respiratory Rate. The maximum angular speed of the nystagmus slow phase at each stimulation was assessed. Skin conductance presented a statistically significant increase during the vertigo crisis in relation to the prior period while the peripheral pulse volume presented a statistically significant decrease. There was no relationship between the slow phase of the provoked nystagmus angular speed and skin conductance and peripheral pulse volume changes. The decrease in peripheral pulse volume was significantly higher in the second vertigo crisis. Skin conductance and peripheral pulse volume changed significantly during a vertigo crisis. There was no relation between the provoked vertiginous crisis intensity and the changes produced in those variables. The stress generated by the caloric stimulation is higher in the second crisis, when the subject has experience of the vertigo caused by the stimulation. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of the generation and suppression of runaway currents in provoked disruptions in J-TEXT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.Y., E-mail: zychen@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Chen, Z.P., E-mail: zpchen@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Zhang, Y.; Jin, W.; Fang, D.; Ba, W.G.; Wang, Z.J.; Zhang, M.; Yang, Z.J.; Ding, Y.H.; Zhuang, G. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2012-05-14

    Runaway currents following disruptions have an important effect on the first wall for the next generation tokamak. The behaviors of runaway currents following intentional provoked disruptions have been investigated in the J-TEXT tokamak. It is found that the runaway current generation following provoked disruptions depends on both the toroidal magnetic field and the plasma current. The conversion efficiency of pre-disruptive plasma currents into runaway currents is in the ranges of 30% to 60% in J-TEXT. The runaway currents can be avoided by the intensive gas puffing of H{sub 2} due to the low multiplication factor in J-TEXT. -- Highlights: ► The regime of runaway generation in disruptions in J-TEXT has been established. ► The magnetic field threshold for runaway current generation in disruptions is 2.2 T. ► The conversion efficiency of runaway current is in the ranges of 30% to 60%. ► The runaway currents can be avoided by the intensive gas puffing of H{sub 2}.

  7. Study of the generation and suppression of runaway currents in provoked disruptions in J-TEXT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.Y.; Chen, Z.P.; Zhang, Y.; Jin, W.; Fang, D.; Ba, W.G.; Wang, Z.J.; Zhang, M.; Yang, Z.J.; Ding, Y.H.; Zhuang, G.

    2012-01-01

    Runaway currents following disruptions have an important effect on the first wall for the next generation tokamak. The behaviors of runaway currents following intentional provoked disruptions have been investigated in the J-TEXT tokamak. It is found that the runaway current generation following provoked disruptions depends on both the toroidal magnetic field and the plasma current. The conversion efficiency of pre-disruptive plasma currents into runaway currents is in the ranges of 30% to 60% in J-TEXT. The runaway currents can be avoided by the intensive gas puffing of H 2 due to the low multiplication factor in J-TEXT. -- Highlights: ► The regime of runaway generation in disruptions in J-TEXT has been established. ► The magnetic field threshold for runaway current generation in disruptions is 2.2 T. ► The conversion efficiency of runaway current is in the ranges of 30% to 60%. ► The runaway currents can be avoided by the intensive gas puffing of H 2 .

  8. Synergism between endotoxin priming and exotoxin challenge in provoking severe vascular leakage in rabbit lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, H; Rosseau, S; Czymek, R; Ermert, L; Walmrath, D; Krämer, H J; Seeger, W; Grimminger, F

    1997-09-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria prime rabbit lungs for enhanced thromboxane-mediated vasoconstriction upon subsequent challenge with the exotoxin Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA) (Walmrath et al. J. Exp. Med. 1994;180:1437-1443). We investigated the impact of endotoxin priming and subsequent HlyA challenge on lung vascular permeability while maintaining constancy of capillary pressure. Rabbit lungs were perfused in a pressure-controlled mode in the presence of the thromboxane receptor antagonist BM 13.505, with continuous monitoring of flow. Perfusion for 180 min with 10 ng/ml LPS did not provoke vasoconstriction or alteration of capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) values. HlyA (0.021 hemolytic units/ml) induced thromboxane release and a transient decrease in perfusion flow in the absence of significant changes in Kfc. Similar results were obtained when LPS and HlyA were coapplied simultaneously. However, when the HlyA challenge was undertaken after 180 min of LPS priming, a manifold increase in Kfc values was noted, with concomitant severe lung edema formation, although capillary pressure remained unchanged. Thus, endotoxin primes the lung vasculature to respond with a severe increase in vascular permeability to a subsequent low-dose application of HlyA. Such synergism between endotoxin priming and exotoxin challenge in provoking lung vascular leakage may contribute to the pathogenesis of respiratory failure in sepsis and severe lung infection.

  9. Anxiety and oppositional behavior profiles among youth with selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Rachele A; Kearney, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a debilitating condition in which a child does not speak in social situations where speech is expected. The clinical conceptualization of SM has been debated historically, with evidence pointing partly to anxious and oppositional behavior profiles. Behavioral characteristics were examined in a clinical sample of 57 youth formally diagnosed with selective mutism. Parents rated children across internalizing and externalizing behaviors on the Child Behavior Checklist. Eighteen highly rated items were subjected to exploratory and then confirmatory factor analysis. Anxiety and oppositional behavior factors were derived. The anxious behavior profile was associated with social anxiety disorder symptoms, social problems, and aggressive behaviors but not oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. The oppositional behavior profile was associated with aggressive behaviors, oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, social problems, and inversely to social anxiety disorder symptoms. Results are consistent with emerging research regarding subgroups of children with SM. Behavior profiles are discussed as well with respect to assessment and treatment implications. Readers will learn about the nature of children with selective mutism as well as behaviors that differentiate anxious and oppositional behavior profiles. Items that comprise anxious and oppositional behavior profiles are presented. These item profiles may have ramifications for assessment and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Urban and Spatial Opposition by the Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Gizem; Kırcı, Nazan

    2017-10-01

    In the production of spaces, an important aspect, that is ‘the subject’ was neglected with the influence of the industrial revolution, modernisation, capitalism and neo-liberalism. While the rationalist reason was standardising and extending production, the relationship between space and its user was broken-off. It initiated a tremendous change when the subject as the user of the spaces, singled out his own existence and needs from the whole and comprehended his self-distinctiveness. Such a split up indicating the act of critical thinking and liberation of the subject also created a demand for diversity. The demands of the subject being the user of the space was not met at the architectural and urban levels for several reasons. The subject feeling the discomfort of such a situation brings into view his criticisms first in his own individual space and then in public space for the purposes of expressing his right to live and his locus standi. Such acts being classified as adversary are being realised in order to provide the adaptability of the subject and the space to changing living conditions using different means. Such adversary touches being provided partly by the urbanites and partly by the professionals draw attention to the issue through by-pass interventions to the architecturally choked urban areas. By taking a stance against the existing situation, the intention is to treat space in a different way than what has been produced by the system, to re-produce it and to render it more democratic. All such alternative spatial situations show us that other production methods and lines of thought, other than what has been defined by the dominant market conditions are also possible. It has been asserted through these adversary instigations that there is a requirement for micro designs towards the daily and changing needs of the subject as a user during the act of design by architects and planners. For this reason, the part played by the designer should be

  11. Learning preferences from paired opposite-based semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Montero, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Preference semantics examine the meaning of the preference predicate, according to the way that alternatives can be understood and organized for decision making purposes. Through opposite-based semantics, preference structures can be characterized by their paired decomposition of preference...... on the character of opposition, the compound meaning of preference emerges from the fuzzy reinforcement of paired opposite concepts, searching for significant evidence for affirming dominance among the decision objects. Here we propose a general model for the paired decomposition of preference, examining its...

  12. Understanding the critics : a case study of opposition to wind power initiatives in Europe and North America. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etcheverry, J.

    2005-01-01

    The causes behind public opposition to wind power projects were examined. A summary of factors identified in existing literature as affecting public perception of wind farms included physical, contextual, political, and socio-economic concerns. It was suggested that opposition to wind projects was correlated with the types of institutional policies used in a country to support development of the renewable energy sector. Explicit policy choices directly affect the type of project ownership as well as public acceptance and opposition of wind power projects. A review of international wind power policies and development was presented. While Denmark pioneered advanced renewable tariffs (ARTs) and remain fourth in the world, with over 3177 MW, public opposition to wind power is developing due to an increasing shift in ownership from co-operatives to individuals. Germany uses ARTs and has become leader in the world with over 17,000 MW. Canada uses tendering and ranks fourteenth in the world, with 570 MW. Opposition to wind power is increasing in some provinces who argue that it poses a threat to tourism opportunities and presents a visual intrusion to the landscape. Opposition in the United Kingdom has existed for decades. However, the United Kingdom ranks ninth in the world, with 880 MW and has one of Europe's best wind regimes. Spain uses ARTs and now ranks second in the world with 8263 MW with a new target of 20,000 MW by 2011. Some locations in Spain have been declared out of bounds for wind power development, and opposition is developing against proposed offshore facilities. It was concluded that the wind power industry needs to advocate for community power policy initiatives, listen to local people and maximize local participation, as well as accepting that some areas will remain out of bounds for development. refs., tabs., figs

  13. State Violence and Oppositional Protest in High-Capacity Authoritarian Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hank Johnston

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This examination of the mobilization-repression nexus in high-capacity authoritarian regimes draws on examples from China, Russia, Iran, and several Middle Eastern states to develop a framework for analyzing state violence and how political oppositions are organized. The study examines middle and low levels of state violence, the provincial and municipal organization of party and regime, and the police, private militias, and thugs as low-level enforcers, and focuses on: (1 the complexity of the state’s apparatus of repression and control and how different levels exercise different forms of violence against activists; (2 the creativity of the opposition’s actions to voice its demands and avoid repression and surveillance; and (3 the recursive relationship between the two, a dark dance between state and opposition with high stakes for both. Hierarchical analysis at national, provincial, and local levels, and lateral analysis across these levels, where elite interests frequently diverge, show that intersections and gaps on both axes can create lapses in social control and openings the opposition. These free spaces of speech and innovative action give rise to novel ways to keep oppositional sentiments in the public forum. The article offers several propositions for analyzing repression and state violence at various levels, and, similarly, the various ways that these free spaces occur.

  14. Neural markers of opposite-sex bias in face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado eProverbio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that adults prefer to view attractive faces of the opposite sex more than attractive faces of the same sex. However, unlike the other-race face effect (ORE; Caldara et al., 2004, little is known regarding the existence of an opposite-/same-sex bias in face processing. In this study, the faces of 130 attractive male and female adults were foveally presented to 40 heterosexual university students (20 men and 20 women who were engaged in a secondary perceptual task (landscape detection. The automatic processing of face gender was investigated by recording ERPs from 128 scalp sites. Neural markers of opposite- vs. same-sex bias in face processing included larger and earlier centro-parietal N400s in response to faces of the opposite sex and a larger late positivity (LP to same-sex faces. Analysis of intra-cortical neural generators (swLORETA showed that facial processing-related (FG, BA37, BA20/21 and emotion-related brain areas (the right parahippocampal gyrus, BA35; uncus, BA36/38; and the cingulate gyrus, BA24 had higher activations in response to opposite- than same-sex faces. The results of this analysis, along with data obtained from ERP recordings, support the hypothesis that both genders process opposite-sex faces differently than same-sex faces. The data also suggest a hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of opposite-/same-sex faces, with the right hemisphere involved in processing same-sex faces and the left hemisphere involved in processing faces of the opposite sex. The data support previous literature suggesting a right lateralization for the representation of self-image and body awareness.

  15. Neural markers of opposite-sex bias in face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Riva, Federica; Martin, Eleonora; Zani, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that adults prefer to view attractive faces of the opposite sex more than attractive faces of the same sex. However, unlike the other-race face effect (Caldara et al., 2004), little is known regarding the existence of an opposite-/same-sex bias in face processing. In this study, the faces of 130 attractive male and female adults were foveally presented to 40 heterosexual university students (20 men and 20 women) who were engaged in a secondary perceptual task (landscape detection). The automatic processing of face gender was investigated by recording ERPs from 128 scalp sites. Neural markers of opposite- vs. same-sex bias in face processing included larger and earlier centro-parietal N400s in response to faces of the opposite sex and a larger late positivity (LP) to same-sex faces. Analysis of intra-cortical neural generators (swLORETA) showed that facial processing-related (FG, BA37, BA20/21) and emotion-related brain areas (the right parahippocampal gyrus, BA35; uncus, BA36/38; and the cingulate gyrus, BA24) had higher activations in response to opposite- than same-sex faces. The results of this analysis, along with data obtained from ERP recordings, support the hypothesis that both genders process opposite-sex faces differently than same-sex faces. The data also suggest a hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of opposite-/same-sex faces, with the right hemisphere involved in processing same-sex faces and the left hemisphere involved in processing faces of the opposite sex. The data support previous literature suggesting a right lateralization for the representation of self-image and body awareness.

  16. Objectifying the adjacent and opposite angles: a cultural historical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh; Musallam, Nadera

    2018-02-01

    The angle topic is central to the development of geometric knowledge. Two of the basic concepts associated with this topic are the adjacent and opposite angles. It is the goal of the present study to analyze, based on the cultural historical semiotics framework, how high-achieving seventh grade students objectify the adjacent and opposite angles' concepts. We videoed the learning of a group of three high-achieving students who used technology, specifically GeoGebra, to explore geometric relations related to the adjacent and opposite angles' concepts. To analyze students' objectification of these concepts, we used the categories of objectification of knowledge (attention and awareness) and the categories of generalization (factual, contextual and symbolic), developed by Radford. The research results indicate that teacher's and students' verbal and visual signs, together with the software dynamic tools, mediated the students' objectification of the adjacent and opposite angles' concepts. Specifically, eye and gestures perceiving were part of the semiosis cycles in which the participating students were engaged and which related to the mathematical signs that signified the adjacent and the opposite angles. Moreover, the teacher's suggestions/requests/questions included/suggested semiotic signs/tools, including verbal signs that helped the students pay attention, be aware of and objectify the adjacent and opposite angles' concepts.

  17. Twenty years of environmental opposition in the electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molocchi, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    This article aims to provide a framework for analysing social opposition In Italy against the construction and management of electric power plants (nuclear and thermoelectric) and big electricity power lines in the past twenty years. First The author provide a history of social environmental opposition in the electric sector. This is followed by a typology of reason for opposition in terms of risk perception, which has been applied to about forty cases of social opposition against electric plants. This study an original experimental methodology which could also yield useful results when applied to other complex social phenomena. In the third phase of the study the author analyse the various roles of the social and institutional actors involved in the opposition, and the obstacles to future consensus building. The most interesting result of the study is the not only social but political nature opposition. This factor necessitates integration of the traditional individual risk perception approach with an approach which analyses political and social action of NGO's

  18. Activation of vestibule-associated lymphoid tissue in localized provoked vulvodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommola, Päivi; Bützow, Ralf; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Paavonen, Jorma; Meri, Seppo

    2015-04-01

    Localized provoked vulvodynia (LPV) may have inflammatory etiology. We wanted to find out whether the cell-mediated immune system becomes activated in the vestibular mucosa in LPV. This was a controlled cross-sectional study. Vestibular mucosal specimens were obtained from 27 patients with severe LPV and 15 controls. Detailed clinical history of the patients was obtained. For immunohistochemistry, antibodies against CD3 (T cells), CD20 (B cells), IgA (mucosal plasma cells), CD163 (dendritic cells [DCs]), CD68 (macrophages), and CD117 (mast cells) were employed. Mann-Whitney U test and χ(2) test were used for statistical analyses. More B lymphocytes and mature mucosal IgA-plasma cells were found in patients than in controls (P associated lymphoid tissue analogous to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Vestibule-associated lymphoid tissue may emerge as a response to local infection or inflammation in LPV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Physical Therapy Modalities in Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Mélanie; Carroll, Marie-Soleil; Bergeron, Sophie

    2017-07-01

    Pelvic floor muscle physical therapy is recommended in clinical guidelines for women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). Including isolated or combined treatment modalities, physical therapy is viewed as an effective first-line intervention, yet no systematic review concerning the effectiveness of physical therapy has been conducted. To systematically appraise the current literature on the effectiveness of physical therapy modalities for decreasing pain during intercourse and improving sexual function in women with PVD. A systematic literature search using PubMed, Scopus, CINHAL, and PEDro was conducted until October 2016. Moreover, a manual search from reference lists of included articles was performed. Ongoing trials also were reviewed using clinicaltrial.gov and ISRCTNregistry. Randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohorts, and case reports evaluating the effect of isolated or combined physical therapy modalities in women with PVD were included in the review. Main outcome measures were pain during intercourse, sexual function, and patient's perceived improvement. The literature search resulted in 43 eligible studies including 7 randomized controlled trials, 20 prospective studies, 5 retrospective studies, 6 case reports, and 6 study protocols. Most studies had a high risk of bias mainly associated with the lack of a comparison group. Another common bias was related to insufficient sample size, non-validated outcomes, non-standardized intervention, and use of other ongoing treatment. The vast majority of studies showed that physical therapy modalities such as biofeedback, dilators, electrical stimulation, education, multimodal physical therapy, and multidisciplinary approaches were effective for decreasing pain during intercourse and improving sexual function. The positive findings for the effectiveness of physical therapy modalities in women with PVD should be investigated further in robust and well-designed randomized controlled trials

  20. Understanding the Uncanny: Both Atypical Features and Category Ambiguity Provoke Aversion toward Humanlike Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. Strait

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with people. However, observation of an “uncanny valley”—a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers—has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood. We thus explored the relationship between human similarity and people's aversion toward humanlike robots via manipulation of the agents' appearances. To that end, we employed a picture-viewing task (Nagents = 60 to conduct an experimental test (Nparticipants = 72 of the uncanny valley's existence and the visual features that cause certain humanlike robots to be unnerving. Across the levels of human similarity, we further manipulated agent appearance on two dimensions, typicality (prototypic, atypical, and ambiguous and agent identity (robot, person, and measured participants' aversion using both subjective and behavioral indices. Our findings were as follows: (1 Further substantiating its existence, the data show a clear and consistent uncanny valley in the current design space of humanoid robots. (2 Both category ambiguity, and more so, atypicalities provoke aversive responding, thus shedding light on the visual factors that drive people's discomfort. (3 Use of the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale did not reveal any significant relationships between people's pre-existing attitudes toward humanlike robots and their aversive responding—suggesting positive exposure and/or additional experience with robots is unlikely to affect the occurrence of an uncanny valley effect in humanoid robotics

  1. Understanding the Uncanny: Both Atypical Features and Category Ambiguity Provoke Aversion toward Humanlike Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Megan K; Floerke, Victoria A; Ju, Wendy; Maddox, Keith; Remedios, Jessica D; Jung, Malte F; Urry, Heather L

    2017-01-01

    Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with) people. However, observation of an "uncanny valley"-a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers-has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood. We thus explored the relationship between human similarity and people's aversion toward humanlike robots via manipulation of the agents' appearances. To that end, we employed a picture-viewing task ( N agents = 60) to conduct an experimental test ( N participants = 72) of the uncanny valley's existence and the visual features that cause certain humanlike robots to be unnerving. Across the levels of human similarity, we further manipulated agent appearance on two dimensions, typicality (prototypic, atypical, and ambiguous) and agent identity (robot, person), and measured participants' aversion using both subjective and behavioral indices. Our findings were as follows: (1) Further substantiating its existence, the data show a clear and consistent uncanny valley in the current design space of humanoid robots. (2) Both category ambiguity, and more so, atypicalities provoke aversive responding, thus shedding light on the visual factors that drive people's discomfort. (3) Use of the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale did not reveal any significant relationships between people's pre-existing attitudes toward humanlike robots and their aversive responding-suggesting positive exposure and/or additional experience with robots is unlikely to affect the occurrence of an uncanny valley effect in humanoid robotics. This work furthers

  2. Changes provoked by boiling, steaming and sous-vide cooking in the lipid and volatile profile of European sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva-Echevarría, Bárbara; Manzanos, María J; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Guillén, María D

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to shed light on the changes provoked by boiling, steaming and sous-vide cooking on the lipids and volatile profile of farmed and wild European sea bass meat. None of the cooking techniques provoked changes due to hydrolytic or oxidation processes detectable by 1 H NMR on sea bass lipids. The lipid profile of main and minor lipidic components was maintained after cooking. However, study by SPME-GC/MS evidenced that steaming and sous-vide cooking modified the volatile profile of sea bass meat, especially in farmed specimens. The compounds generated came from the occurrence, to a very small extent, of lipid and protein degradation. By contrast, boiling scarcely modified the initial characteristics of raw sea bass. Thus, from a sensory point of view and considering the odour-active compounds generated, steaming and sous-vide cooking provoked more noticeable changes than boiling, especially in farmed sea bass meat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Some Observations on Cultural Opposites in Contemporary China: Kunming and Beijing Twenty Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the cultural opposites observed in various segments of Chinese culture during the author's three stays in China over a period of twenty years. The first and second stay, in 1986 and 1989 respectively, coincided with the initial period of the implementation of modernization reforms in China, when their results were just beginning to be felt. The third stay was in 2009, towards the end of the third decade of reform implementation, at the time of an already developed marketoriented communism. The paper's main thesis is that most of the phenomena observed in present-day urban China can be assigned to opposite categories, namely Chinese-Western and traditional- contemporary. Cultural opposites have been observed in the sphere of tourism and the behavior of both Chinese and foreign visitors, in the use of Chinese and English in notices and signs in public places, and in the promotion of traditional and modern architecture. In addition, they have been noted in the presentation of arts and crafts and industrial products, in the manner of consumption of hot drinks, and in the combining of Chinese and foreign cuisine. They are also evident in a Beijing Opera performance adapted both to the modern Chinese and to foreigners, and in the traditional Chinese exercises and western dances performed in public parks. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the process of establishing connections between China and the West is being carried on in a moderate and controlled way. In the globalization process cultural opposites coexist and merge, imparting new features to Chinese culture.

  4. The irresistible fascination of medical theories about opposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, L R; Frati, L

    1989-01-01

    Theurgical medicine was a part of the eternal fight between good and evil and health was reconciliation with the gods. This duality characterized ancient medicine, i.e. Greek medicine after the Homeric age or Chinese traditional medicine. In the passage to medicine of observation due to the School of Cos duel between good and evil becomes substrate of new medicine and the balances between*opposites represented by elements and qualities were the fundaments of the humoralism. Fascination of opposites continues for centuries up to now, both in western and far eastern medicine: yin/yang, antibody/antigen, cAMP/cGMP, oncogene/antioncogene are examples of this attractive theory. Although fundaments of biological and medical observations are the basis of theories of opposites, the trend is to overcome reality and today represents, following idealism in the 19th century, an inconscious ancestral reminiscence of theurgical philosophy and medicine.

  5. Symmetry breaking in clogging for oppositely driven particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Tobias; Wittkowski, Raphael; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-11-01

    The clogging behavior of a symmetric binary mixture of colloidal particles that are driven in opposite directions through constrictions is explored by Brownian dynamics simulations and theory. A dynamical state with a spontaneously broken symmetry occurs where one species is flowing and the other is blocked for a long time, which can be tailored by the size of the constrictions. Moreover, we find self-organized oscillations in clogging and unclogging of the two species. Apart from statistical physics, our results are of relevance for fields like biology, chemistry, and crowd management, where ions, microparticles, pedestrians, or other particles are driven in opposite directions through constrictions.

  6. Two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Kyeong Hwa; Kim, Seon Jeong; KIm Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Beak, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daun [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Yoon Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Cervical spondylolysis, with or without spondylolisthesis, is a rare condition defined as a corticated cleft between the superior and inferior articular facets of the articular pillar. The defect occurs predominantly at C6, and is usually bilateral in up to two-thirds of cases. Multilevel involvement is uncommon, however, to date, no case of two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides has been reported. Here, we report a rare case of a patient affected by two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis at C5 and C6 on opposite sides in a 19-year-old male complaining of neck pain.

  7. Receptivity to sexual invitations from strangers of the opposite gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Hogh-Olesen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the primary conclusion from Clark and Hatfield's often cited field experiment ``Consent to Sex with a Stranger'' that men agree to sexual invitations from moderately attractive strangers of the opposite gender more readily than women do. In addition, this study investigated...... whether rates of consent are influenced by a subject's age, relationship status, rating of confederate attractiveness, and type of sexual invitation. A number of moderately attractive confederates of the opposite gender individually approached 173 men and 216 women. After a standard introduction...

  8. Peculiarities of functioning of opposition political parties in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Malyavin

    2017-07-01

    It has been proven that the political opposition does not take into account the mentality of Russians, their aspiration not to the mild model of Western democracy but to the host leader, the defender of the Motherland from external threat. Whereas, the ruling elite and its leader successfully and effectively implement this image in practice, and despite the deterioration of economic indicators, they get the support among the population. Consequently, the political opposition of Russia is immature and primary controlled by the current government.

  9. Two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyeong Hwa; Kim, Seon Jeong; KIm Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Beak, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daun; Cha, Yoon Ki

    2015-01-01

    Cervical spondylolysis, with or without spondylolisthesis, is a rare condition defined as a corticated cleft between the superior and inferior articular facets of the articular pillar. The defect occurs predominantly at C6, and is usually bilateral in up to two-thirds of cases. Multilevel involvement is uncommon, however, to date, no case of two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides has been reported. Here, we report a rare case of a patient affected by two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis at C5 and C6 on opposite sides in a 19-year-old male complaining of neck pain

  10. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation as an Additional Treatment for Women Suffering from Therapy-Resistant Provoked Vestibulodynia : A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallinga, Marleen S.; Spoelstra, Symen K.; Hemel, Inge L. M.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijnnar

    IntroductionThe current approach to women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) comprises a multidimensional, multidisciplinary therapeutic protocol. As PVD is considered to be a chronic pain disorder, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) can be used as an additional therapy for women

  11. Adrenal crisis provoked by dental infection: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, Ana; Markovic, Dejan; Zdravkovic, Dragan; Peric, Tamara; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Vukovic, Rade

    2010-09-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency is an endocrine disorder characterized by cortisol and aldosterone deficiency caused by destruction of the adrenal cortex. Adrenal crisis is a medical emergency with acute symptoms: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, hypoglycemia, seizures, hypovolemic shock, and cardiovascular failure. It occurs in patients with chronic adrenal insufficiency who are exposed to additional stress, such as infection, trauma, or surgical procedures. Dental infection is a possible cause of adrenal crisis in patients with chronic adrenal insufficiency, so pediatric endocrinologists and pediatric dentists should be aware of this risk. The purpose of this report was to present a 6-year-old patient in whom Addison disease was diagnosed through adrenal crisis provoked by dental infection. The patient was treated with intravenous rehydration, intravenous hydrocortisone and antibiotics, and extraction of the infected primary tooth. Multidisciplinary approach and collaboration between the pediatric endocrinologist and the pediatric dentist are necessary to enable adequate medical and dental treatment in children with primary adrenal insufficiency. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fructose during pregnancy provokes fetal oxidative stress: The key role of the placental heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Silvia; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Otero, Paola; Panadero, María I; García, Antonia; Barbas, Coral; Roglans, Núria; Ramos, Sonia; Goya, Luis; Laguna, Juan C; Álvarez-Millán, Juan J; Bocos, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    One of the features of metabolic syndrome caused by liquid fructose intake is an impairment of redox status. We have investigated whether maternal fructose ingestion modifies the redox status in pregnant rats and their fetuses. Fructose (10% wt/vol) in the drinking water of rats throughout gestation, leads to maternal hepatic oxidative stress. However, this change was also observed in glucose-fed rats and, in fact, both carbohydrates produced a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity. Surprisingly, mothers fed carbohydrates displayed low plasma lipid oxidation. In contrast, fetuses from fructose-fed mothers showed elevated levels of plasma lipoperoxides versus fetuses from control or glucose-fed mothers. Interestingly, a clearly augmented oxidative stress was observed in placenta of fructose-fed mothers, accompanied by a lower expression of the transcription factor Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and its target gene, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent antioxidant molecule. Moreover, histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) that has been proposed to upregulate HO-1 expression by stabilizing Nrf2, exhibited a diminished expression in placenta of fructose-supplemented mothers. Maternal fructose intake provoked an imbalanced redox status in placenta and a clear diminution of HO-1 expression, which could be responsible for the augmented oxidative stress found in their fetuses. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Sibutramine provokes apoptosis of aortic endothelial cells through altered production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Yoshifumi; Shibata, Akinobu; Okumura, Naoko; Ikari, Akira; Sasajima, Yasuhide; Suenami, Koichi; Sato, Kiyohito; Takekoshi, Yuji; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Overdose administration of sibutramine, a serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, is considered to elicit severe side effects including hypertension, whose pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. Here, we found that 48-h incubation with >10μM sibutramine provokes apoptosis of human aortic endothelial (HAE) cells. Treatment with the lethal concentration of sibutramine facilitated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), altered expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress response genes (heat shock protein 70 and C/EBP homologous protein), and inactivated 26S proteasome-based proteolysis. The treatment also decreased cellular level of nitric oxide (NO) through lowering of expression and activity of endothelial NO synthase. These results suggest that ROS production and depletion of NO are crucial events in the apoptotic mechanism and may be linked to the pathogenesis of vasoconstriction elicited by the drug. Compared to sibutramine, its metabolites (N-desmethylsibutramine and N-didesmethylsibutramine) were much less cytotoxic to HAE cells, which hardly metabolized sibutramine. In contrast, both the drug and metabolites showed low cytotoxicity to hepatic HepG2 cells with high metabolic potency and expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. The cytotoxicity of sibutramine to HepG2 and Chang Liver cells was remarkably augmented by inhibition and knockdown of CYP3A4. This study also suggests an inverse relationship between sibutramine cytotoxicity and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism into the N-desmethyl metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The clinical relevance of the duration of loss of consciousness provoked by tilt testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Kozluk, Edward; Agrawal, Anil Kumar; Smereka, Jacek; Checiński, Igor

    2010-04-01

    The authors assessed the relationships between the duration of loss of consciousness (dLOC) during tilt testing-induced syncope (TTS) and demographics, medical history as well as tilt testing results. Previous research focused on the relevance of the type of neurocardiogenic reaction during TTS. The importance of dLOC has not been assessed so far. The study was carried out in 274 patients with suspected neurally mediated syncope and total loss of consciousness during tilt testing. The syncope burden, demographics, and data regarding spontaneous syncope orTTS were compared between group I with dLOC > or =47 seconds and group 2 with dLOC <47 seconds. Medical history revealed that patients in group I had more syncopal spells, more frequent syncope-related traumatic injuries, urine incontinence, jerking movements and typical vasovagal history than in group 2. Moreover, group I patients had more frequently a cardioinhibitory type of reaction and a shorter active phase duration. In addition, they manifested more frequent accompanying cerebral hypoperfusion signs and reproduction of symptoms during TTS than patients in group 2. The loss of consciousness during tilt testing-induced syncope differs in terms of duration among patients with neurally mediated syncope. The dLOC during TTS is associated with medical history and tilt-testing data which confirm the vasovagal aetiology of spontaneous events. The longer dLOC suggests deeper cerebral haemodynamic disturbances during either spontaneous or provoked syncope.

  15. Optimal duration of anticoagulation. Provoked versus unprovoked VTE and role of adjunctive thrombophilia and imaging tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandoni, Paolo; Barbar, Sofia; Milan, Marta; Campello, Elena; Spiezia, Luca; Piovella, Chiara; Pesavento, Raffaele

    2015-06-01

    Once anticoagulation is stopped, the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) over years after a first episode is consistently around 30%. This risk is higher in patients with unprovoked than in those with (transient) provoked VTE, and among the latter in patients with medical than in those with surgical risk factors. Baseline parameters that have been found to be related to the risk of recurrent VTE are the proximal location of deep-vein thrombosis, obesity, old age, male sex and non-0 blood group, whereas the role of inherited thrombophilia is controversial. The persistence of residual vein thrombosis at ultrasound assessment has consistently been shown to increase the risk, as do persistently high values of D-dimer and the early development of the post-thrombotic syndrome. Although the latest international guidelines suggest indefinite anticoagulation for most patients with the first episode of unprovoked VTE, strategies that incorporate the assessment of residual vein thrombosis and D-dimer have the potential to identify subjects in whom anticoagulation can be safely discontinued. Moreover, new opportunities are offered by a few emerging anti-Xa and anti-IIa oral compounds, which are likely to induce fewer haemorrhagic complications than vitamin K antagonists while preserving the same effectiveness; and by low-dose aspirin, which has the potential to prevent the occurrence of both venous and arterial thrombotic events.

  16. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Provokes Neuroplasticity in Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jeong Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI provokes behavioral and cognitive changes. But the study about electrophysiologic findings and managements of rmTBI is limited. In this study, we investigate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on rmTBI. Thirty-one Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: sham, rmTBI, and rmTBI treated by tDCS. Animals received closed head mTBI three consecutive times a day. Anodal tDCS was applied to the left motor cortex. We evaluated the motor-evoked potential (MEP and the somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed 12 days after rmTBI. After rmTBI, the latency of MEP was prolonged and the amplitude in the right hind limb was reduced in the rmTBI group. The latency of SEP was delayed and the amplitude was decreased after rmTBI in the rmTBI group. In the tDCS group, the amplitude in both hind limbs was increased after tDCS in comparison with the values before rmTBI. Anodal tDCS after rmTBI seems to be a useful tool for promoting transient motor recovery through increasing the synchronicity of cortical firing, and it induces early recovery of consciousness. It can contribute to management of concussion in humans if further study is performed.

  17. Grey Wisdom? : Philosophical Reflections on Conformity and Opposition between Generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Ernst; Goor, van Roel

    2006-01-01

    Should 'new' generations act in conformity with, or in opposition to 'older' generations? This can be regarded as a central question in the philosophical study of education. This question has practical implications. Should it be our main concern to initiate children into our traditions, or should we

  18. Challenging Social Hierarchy: Playing with Oppositional Identities in Family Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Shoraka, Helena

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how bilingual family members use language choice and language alternation as a local scheme of interpretation to distinguish different and often contesting social identities in interaction. It is argued that the playful creation of oppositional identities in interaction relieves the speakers from responsibility and creates a…

  19. Perspectives on Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Psychopathic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Burke, Jeffrey; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a few perspectives on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and early forms of psychopathy. The developmental changes and stability of each, and the interrelationship between the three conditions are reviewed, and correlates and predictors are highlighted. The paper also examines effective interventions…

  20. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: An Overview and Strategies for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sara H.

    2018-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a behavioral disorder that affects approximately 3.3% of the population across cultures. In this article, the author discusses symptoms, methods of diagnosis, and treatments for the disorder. Although most empirically supported treatments of ODD are based on parent--child training and therapy, there are some…

  1. Dynamic force spectroscopy of oppositely charged polyelectrolyte brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, E.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Gucht, van der J.

    2010-01-01

    Ion pairing is the main driving force in the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes, which find widespread use in micellar assemblies, drug carriers, and coatings. In this paper we examine the actual ion pairing forces in a polyelectrolyte complex between two oppositely charged polyelectrolyte

  2. Colloids from oppositely charged polymers: reversibility and surface activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofs, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns the formation, solution properties, and adsorption of polyelectrolyte complexes composed of at least one diblock copolymer with a neutral and a charged block and either an oppositely charged homopolyelectrolyte or a diblock copolymer, with a neutral

  3. Will the Real Tunisian Opposition Please Stand Up?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Rikke Hostrup; Cavatorta, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT This contribution examines the reasons behind the failure of Tunisia’s opposition to forge effective coordination and collaborative links during Ben Ali’s reign, focusing specifically on the inability and unwillingness of political parties to act in concert in order to challenge his auth...

  4. Paired fuzzy sets and other opposite-based models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Gómez, Daniel; Tinguaro Rodríguez, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we stress the relevance of those fuzzy models that impose a couple of simultaneous views in order to represent concepts. In particular, we point out that the basic model to start with should contain at least two somehow opposite valuations plus a number of neutral concepts that are ...

  5. Assassinating political opposition: An "Albatross" and aberration-the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logicians, though they are not mathematicians, do challenge mathematicians to prove that one plus one is equal to two; so also it appeals to governance and especially the democratic system, where the judiciary and legislature act as watch dogs to the executive; so is the opposition party to the ruling party. This is what the ...

  6. Visible technologies, invisible organisations: An empirical study of public beliefs about electricity supply networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine-Wright, Patrick; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Sherry-Brennan, Fionnguala

    2010-01-01

    Reducing carbon emissions in the energy system poses significant challenges to electricity transmission and distribution networks. Whilst these challenges are as much social as economic or technical, to date few research studies have investigated public beliefs about electricity supply networks. This research aimed to address this gap by means of a nationally representative study of UK adults (n=1041), probing beliefs about how electricity reaches the home, responsibility for electricity supply, associations with the words 'National Grid', as well as beliefs about the planning of new infrastructure. Findings suggest that electricity networks are represented predominantly in terms of technologies rather than organisations, specifically in terms of familiar, visible components such as cables or wires, rather than more systemic concepts such as networks. Transmission and distribution network operators were largely invisible to members of the public. In terms of planning new lines, most respondents assumed that government ministers were involved in decision-making, while local residents were widely perceived to have little influence; moreover, there was strong public support for placing new power lines underground, regardless of the cost. In conclusion, organisational invisibility, coupled with low expectations of participatory involvement, could provoke public opposition and delay siting new network infrastructure.

  7. Evidence for age-associated disinhibition of the wake drive provided by scoring principal components of the resting EEG spectrum in sleep-provoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putilov, Arcady A; Donskaya, Olga G

    2016-01-01

    Age-associated changes in different bandwidths of the human electroencephalographic (EEG) spectrum are well documented, but their functional significance is poorly understood. This spectrum seems to represent summation of simultaneous influences of several sleep-wake regulatory processes. Scoring of its orthogonal (uncorrelated) principal components can help in separation of the brain signatures of these processes. In particular, the opposite age-associated changes were documented for scores on the two largest (1st and 2nd) principal components of the sleep EEG spectrum. A decrease of the first score and an increase of the second score can reflect, respectively, the weakening of the sleep drive and disinhibition of the opposing wake drive with age. In order to support the suggestion of age-associated disinhibition of the wake drive from the antagonistic influence of the sleep drive, we analyzed principal component scores of the resting EEG spectra obtained in sleep deprivation experiments with 81 healthy young adults aged between 19 and 26 and 40 healthy older adults aged between 45 and 66 years. At the second day of the sleep deprivation experiments, frontal scores on the 1st principal component of the EEG spectrum demonstrated an age-associated reduction of response to eyes closed relaxation. Scores on the 2nd principal component were either initially increased during wakefulness or less responsive to such sleep-provoking conditions (frontal and occipital scores, respectively). These results are in line with the suggestion of disinhibition of the wake drive with age. They provide an explanation of why older adults are less vulnerable to sleep deprivation than young adults.

  8. A prospective 2-year examination of cognitive and behavioral correlates of provoked vestibulodynia outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Seth N P; Bergeron, Sophie; Bois, Katy; Sadikaj, Gentiana; Binik, Yitzchak M; Steben, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a common genital pain disorder in women that is associated with sexual dysfunction and lowered sexual satisfaction. A potentially applicable cognitive-behavioral model of chronic pain and disability is the fear-avoidance model (FAM) of pain. The FAM posits that cognitive variables, such as pain catastrophizing, fear, and anxiety lead to avoidance of pain-provoking behaviors (eg, intercourse), resulting in continued pain and disability. Although some of the FAM variables have been shown to be associated with PVD pain and sexuality outcomes, the model as a whole has never been tested in this population. An additional protective factor, pain self-efficacy (SE), is also associated with PVD, but has not been tested within the FAM model. Using a 2-year longitudinal design, we examine (1) whether initial levels (T1) of the independent FAM variables and pain SE were associated with changes in pain, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction over the 2-year time period; (2) the prospective contribution of changes in cognitive-affective (FAM) variables to changes in pain, and sexuality outcomes; and (3) whether these were mediated by behavioral change (avoidance of intercourse). A sample of 222 women with PVD completed self-report measures of FAM variables, SE, pain, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction at time 1 and at a 2-year follow-up. Structural equation modeling with Latent Difference Scores was used to examine changes and to examine mediation between variables. Questionnaires included the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Pain Self-Efficacy Scale, and Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, Female Sexual Function Index. Participants who reported higher SE at T1 reported greater declines in pain, greater increases in sexual satisfaction, and greater declines in sexual function over the 2 time points. The overall change model did not support the FAM using negative cognitive

  9. Preferential loss of dorsal-hippocampus synapses underlies memory impairments provoked by short, multimodal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, P M; Molet, J; Chen, Y; Rice, C; Ji, S G; Solodkin, A; Baram, T Z

    2014-07-01

    The cognitive effects of stress are profound, yet it is unknown if the consequences of concurrent multiple stresses on learning and memory differ from those of a single stress of equal intensity and duration. We compared the effects on hippocampus-dependent memory of concurrent, hours-long light, loud noise, jostling and restraint (multimodal stress) with those of restraint or of loud noise alone. We then examined if differences in memory impairment following these two stress types might derive from their differential impact on hippocampal synapses, distinguishing dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Mice exposed to hours-long restraint or loud noise were modestly or minimally impaired in novel object recognition, whereas similar-duration multimodal stress provoked severe deficits. Differences in memory were not explained by differences in plasma corticosterone levels or numbers of Fos-labeled neurons in stress-sensitive hypothalamic neurons. However, although synapses in hippocampal CA3 were impacted by both restraint and multimodal stress, multimodal stress alone reduced synapse numbers severely in dorsal CA1, a region crucial for hippocampus-dependent memory. Ventral CA1 synapses were not significantly affected by either stress modality. Probing the basis of the preferential loss of dorsal synapses after multimodal stress, we found differential patterns of neuronal activation by the two stress types. Cross-correlation matrices, reflecting functional connectivity among activated regions, demonstrated that multimodal stress reduced hippocampal correlations with septum and thalamus and increased correlations with amygdala and BST. Thus, despite similar effects on plasma corticosterone and on hypothalamic stress-sensitive cells, multimodal and restraint stress differ in their activation of brain networks and in their impact on hippocampal synapses. Both of these processes might contribute to amplified memory impairments following short, multimodal stress.

  10. A prospective study of pelvic floor physical therapy: pain and psychosexual outcomes in provoked vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, Corrie; Pukall, Caroline F; Gentilcore-Saulnier, Evelyne; McLean, Linda; Chamberlain, Susan

    2009-07-01

    Research suggests that increased tension in the pelvic floor muscles of women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD, the most common form of chronic vulvar pain) may play an important role in maintaining and exacerbating their pain. However, no prospective studies of pelvic floor physical therapy (PFPT) for PVD have been carried out. This study prospectively examined the effectiveness of a PFPT intervention in treating the pain and sexual and psychological components of PVD, and determined predictors of greater treatment success. Thirteen women with PVD completed eight sessions of PFPT. Participants were assessed at pre- and post-treatment via gynecological examinations, vestibular pain threshold testing, structured interviews, and standardized questionnaires. A 3-month follow-up interview assessed any further changes. Outcome measures included: vestibular pain thresholds, gynecological examination and intercourse pain ratings, sexual function and intercourse frequency, mental health, negative pain cognitions, and success rates. Following treatment, participants had significantly higher vestibular pain thresholds and significantly lower pain ratings during the gynecological examination. Participants reported significant reductions in pain intensity during intercourse and were able to engage in significantly more pain-free activities. Although overall sexual function significantly improved, various components of sexual function and frequency of intercourse did not. Participants' mental health did not significantly improve; however, pain catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety significantly decreased. The treatment was considered to be successful for 10 of the 13 participants, and predictors of greater treatment success included greater reductions in helplessness and a longer period of time in treatment. Results provide preliminary support for the effectiveness of PFPT in treating the pain of PVD, as well as some of the sexual and cognitive correlates of PVD. The

  11. Provoked Vestibulodynia and the Health Care Implications of Comorbid Pain Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Robynn A; Brotto, Lori A; Sadownik, Leslie A

    2015-11-01

    Sexual pain secondary to provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a chronic pain condition affecting up to 16% of women. Women with PVD may report other chronic pain conditions. The goals of this study were (1) to identify the prevalence of self-reported chronic pain conditions in a sample of women with a diagnosis of PVD and seeking treatment, and (2) to compare demographic and clinical characteristics and health care needs of women with PVD alone and women with PVD and two or more self-reported chronic pain conditions. We assessed the characteristics of 236 women with PVD alone and 55 women with PVD and comorbid chronic pain using a standardized questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire, and the Female Sexual Distress Scale. Compared with women with PVD alone, women with PVD and other concurrent pain reported a significantly longer duration of pain, pain radiating to other parts of the vulva, and pain interfering in a variety of daily activities. This group was also significantly more likely to have seen more gynaecologists, and to have had more office visits with their gynaecologist than women with PVD alone. They were more likely to have tried anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and stress/relaxation therapy for their PVD and were also more likely to have allergies and skin sensitivities. Finally, this group of women had higher symptoms of depression, trait anxiety, and showed a trend towards more pain vigilance. Taken together, these findings suggest that physicians caring for women with PVD and concurrent chronic pain must be alert to the potentially greater health needs among this subsample of women.

  12. Memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer's disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundstroem, Torbjoern; Riklund, Katrine Aa.; Elgh, Eva; Naesman, Birgitta; Larsson, Anne; Nyberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary degenerative disease that progressively affects all brain functions, with devastating consequences for the patient, the patient's family and society. Rest regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) could have a strategic role in differentiating between AD patients and normal controls, but its use for this purpose has a low discriminatory capacity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the diagnostic sensitivity of rCBF single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be increased by using an episodic memory task provocation, i.e. memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT (MP-SPECT). Eighteen persons (73.2±4.8 years) with mild AD and 18 healthy elderly (69.4±3.9 years) were included in the study. The subjects were injected with 99m Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) during memory provocation with faces and names, followed by an rCBF-SPECT study. The rCBF 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT images were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). Peaks with a false discovery rate corrected value of 0.05 were considered significant. On MP-SPECT, the AD group showed a significant rCBF reduction in the left parietal cortex in comparison with healthy elderly. At rest, no significant group differences were seen. Memory provocation increased the sensitivity of rCBF-SPECT for the detection of AD-related blood flow changes in the brain at the group level. Further studies are needed to evaluate MP-SPECT as a diagnostic tool at the individual level. If a higher sensitivity for AD at the individual level is verified in future studies, a single MP-SPECT study might be sufficient in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  13. Associations Between Penetration Cognitions, Genital Pain, and Sexual Well-being in Women with Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alexandra B; Rosen, Natalie O; Price, Lisa; Bergeron, Sophie

    2016-03-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a common vulvovaginal pain condition that negatively impacts women's psychological and sexual well-being. Controlled studies have found that women with PVD report greater negative and less positive cognitions about penetration; however, associations between these types of cognitions and women's pain and sexual well-being remain unknown. Further, researchers have yet to examine how interpersonal variables such as sexual communication may impact the association between women's penetration cognitions and PVD outcomes. We examined associations between vaginal penetration cognitions and sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain in women with PVD, as well as the moderating role of sexual communication. Seventy-seven women (M age = 28.32, SD = 6.19) diagnosed with PVD completed the catastrophic and pain cognitions and positive cognitions subscales of the Vaginal Penetration Cognition Questionnaire, as well as the Dyadic Sexual Communication Scale. Participants also completed measures of sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain. Dependent measures were the (i) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale; (ii) Female Sexual Function Index; and (iii) Present Pain Intensity scale of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, with reference to pain during vaginal intercourse. Women's lower catastrophic and pain cognitions, higher positive cognitions, and higher sexual communication were each uniquely associated with higher sexual satisfaction and sexual function. Lower catastrophic and pain cognitions also were associated with women's lower pain. For women who reported higher sexual communication, as positive cognitions increased, there was a significantly greater decrease in pain intensity during intercourse compared to women who reported lower levels of sexual communication. Findings may inform cognitive-behavioral interventions aimed at improving the pain and sexual well-being of women with PVD. Targeting the couple's sexual communication

  14. Cybersickness provoked by head-mounted display affects cutaneous vascular tone, heart rate and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalivaiko, Eugene; Davis, Simon L; Blackmore, Karen L; Vakulin, Andrew; Nesbitt, Keith V

    2015-11-01

    Evidence from studies of provocative motion indicates that motion sickness is tightly linked to the disturbances of thermoregulation. The major aim of the current study was to determine whether provocative visual stimuli (immersion into the virtual reality simulating rides on a rollercoaster) affect skin temperature that reflects thermoregulatory cutaneous responses, and to test whether such stimuli alter cognitive functions. In 26 healthy young volunteers wearing head-mounted display (Oculus Rift), simulated rides consistently provoked vection and nausea, with a significant difference between the two versions of simulation software (Parrot Coaster and Helix). Basal finger temperature had bimodal distribution, with low-temperature group (n=8) having values of 23-29 °C, and high-temperature group (n=18) having values of 32-36 °C. Effects of cybersickness on finger temperature depended on the basal level of this variable: in subjects from former group it raised by 3-4 °C, while in most subjects from the latter group it either did not change or transiently reduced by 1.5-2 °C. There was no correlation between the magnitude of changes in the finger temperature and nausea score at the end of simulated ride. Provocative visual stimulation caused prolongation of simple reaction time by 20-50 ms; this increase closely correlated with the subjective rating of nausea. Lastly, in subjects who experienced pronounced nausea, heart rate was elevated. We conclude that cybersickness is associated with changes in cutaneous thermoregulatory vascular tone; this further supports the idea of a tight link between motion sickness and thermoregulation. Cybersickness-induced prolongation of reaction time raises obvious concerns regarding the safety of this technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression changes provoked by bacterial and fungal infection in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Engelmann

    Full Text Available While Caenorhabditis elegans specifically responds to infection by the up-regulation of certain genes, distinct pathogens trigger the expression of a common set of genes. We applied new methods to conduct a comprehensive and comparative study of the transcriptional response of C. elegans to bacterial and fungal infection. Using tiling arrays and/or RNA-sequencing, we have characterized the genome-wide transcriptional changes that underlie the host's response to infection by three bacterial (Serratia marcescens, Enterococcus faecalis and otorhabdus luminescens and two fungal pathogens (Drechmeria coniospora and Harposporium sp.. We developed a flexible tool, the WormBase Converter (available at http://wormbasemanager.sourceforge.net/, to allow cross-study comparisons. The new data sets provided more extensive lists of differentially regulated genes than previous studies. Annotation analysis confirmed that genes commonly up-regulated by bacterial infections are related to stress responses. We found substantial overlaps between the genes regulated upon intestinal infection by the bacterial pathogens and Harposporium, and between those regulated by Harposporium and D. coniospora, which infects the epidermis. Among the fungus-regulated genes, there was a significant bias towards genes that are evolving rapidly and potentially encode small proteins. The results obtained using new methods reveal that the response to infection in C. elegans is determined by the nature of the pathogen, the site of infection and the physiological imbalance provoked by infection. They form the basis for future functional dissection of innate immune signaling. Finally, we also propose alternative methods to identify differentially regulated genes that take into account the greater variability in lowly expressed genes.

  16. GCH1-polymorphism and pain sensitivity among women with provoked vestibulodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heddini Ulrika

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD is a pain disorder localized in the vestibular mucosa. It is the most common cause of dyspareunia among young women and it is associated with general pain hypersensitivity and other chronic pain conditions. Polymorphism in the guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase (GCH1 gene has been found to influence general pain sensitivity and the risk of developing a longstanding pain condition. The aim of this study was to investigate GCH1-polymorphism in women with PVD and healthy controls, in correlation to pain sensitivity. Results We found no correlation between the previously defined pain-protective GCH1-SNP combination and the diagnosis of PVD. Nor any correlation with pain sensitivity measured as pressure pain thresholds on the arm, leg and in the vestibule, coital pain scored on a visual analog scale and prevalence of other bodily pain conditions among women with PVD (n = 98 and healthy controls (n = 102. However, among patients with current treatment (n = 36, there was a significant interaction effect of GCH1-gene polymorphism and hormonal contraceptive (HC therapy on coital pain (p = 0.04 as well as on pressure pain thresholds on the arm (p = 0.04. PVD patients carrying the specified SNP combination and using HCs had higher pain sensitivity compared to non-carriers. In non-HC-users, carriers had lower pain sensitivity. Conclusions The results of this study gave no support to the hypothesis that polymorphism in the GCH1-gene contributes to the etiology of PVD. However, among patients currently receiving treatment an interaction effect of the defined SNP combination and use of hormonal contraceptives on pain sensitivity was found. This finding offers a possible explanation to the clinically known fact that some PVD patients improve after cessation of hormonal contraceptives, indicating that PVD patients carrying the defined SNP combination of GCH1 would benefit from this

  17. Daily associations between partner responses and sexual and relationship satisfaction in couples coping with provoked vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Muise, Amy; Bergeron, Sophie; Delisle, Isabelle; Baxter, Mary Lou

    2015-04-01

    Women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) experience a recurrent vulvo-vaginal pain triggered primarily during sexual intercourse. Although affected couples report adverse effects on their sexual and global romantic relationships, few studies have examined interpersonal factors that may influence their sexual and relationship satisfaction. Cross-sectional studies have shown that greater partner solicitous and negative responses and lower facilitative responses are associated with poorer sexual and relationship satisfaction in women with PVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the within-person associations between partner responses to painful intercourse and the sexual and relationship satisfaction of affected couples. In a dyadic daily experience study, 69 women (M(age) = 28.46, SD = 6.66) diagnosed with PVD and their cohabitating male partners (M(age) = 30.29, SD = 8.13) reported on male partner responses, as well as sexual and relationship satisfaction on sexual intercourse days (M = 6.81; SD = 5.40) over 8 weeks. Dependent measures were the (i) Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale and (ii) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. On sexual intercourse days when women perceived more facilitative partner responses than usual and on days when they perceived lower negative partner responses than usual, they reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. On sexual intercourse days when men reported more solicitous responses than usual, both they and their female partners reported lower sexual satisfaction. Interventions aimed at improving the day-to-day sexual and relationship satisfaction of couples with PVD should target increasing facilitative and decreasing negative and solicitous partner responses. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Provoked Vestibulodynia: Does Pain Intensity Correlate With Sexual Dysfunction and Dissatisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Leen; Bergeron, Sophie; Pukall, Caroline F; Khalifé, Samir

    2016-06-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is suspected to be the most frequent cause of vulvodynia in premenopausal women. Previous research has been inconclusive as to whether higher vulvovaginal pain ratings are associated with lower sexual function and satisfaction in women with PVD. Whether pain intensity correlates with sexual impairment is an important question given its implications for treatment recommendations. To examine the associations among self-reported and objective pain measurements, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction in a large combined clinical and community sample of premenopausal women diagnosed with PVD. Ninety-eight women with PVD underwent a cotton-swab test, a vestibular friction pain measurement, and a vestibular pressure-pain threshold measurement. In addition to sociodemographics, participants completed measurements of pain, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction. Self-report measurements were the pain numerical rating scale (0-10), the McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction. Objective measurements were pain during a cotton-swab test, pain during a vestibular friction procedure, and the vestibular pressure-pain threshold measurement. Age and relationship duration were significantly correlated with the Female Sexual Function Index total score (r = -0.31, P sexual function and satisfaction in women with PVD. The findings show that in women with PVD, self-report and objective pain ratings are not associated with sexual function and satisfaction. The results support the biopsychosocial nature of PVD and underscore the importance of a patient-focused multidisciplinary treatment approach for PVD. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reliability and Convergent Validity of the Algometer for Vestibular Pain Assessment in Women with Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Marie-Pierre; Bourbonnais, Daniel; Pinard, Alexandra; Dubois, Olivia; Morin, Mélanie

    2016-07-01

    Women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) suffer pain at the entry of the vagina elicited by pressure as during vaginal penetration. To quantify vestibular pain, we developed a new instrument, an algometer. The aim of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of the algometer and evaluate its convergent validity for vestibular pain assessment in women with PVD. Twenty-six women with PVD participated in the study. Vestibular pain was assessed with the new algometer and the already known vulvalgesiometer during two different sessions 2 to 4 weeks apart. At each session, the pressure pain threshold (PPT) and pressure pain tolerance (PPTol) were measured twice at the 3, 6, and 9 o'clock sites of the vestibule in random order. The test-retest reliability (intra- and inter-session) of the algometer was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Its convergent validity was evaluated by the correlation coefficients between PPTs and PPTols measured by the algometer and those measured with the vulvalgesiometer. Intra-session reliability at all three sites for PPTs and PPTols in both sessions was excellent (ICC = 0.859 to 0.988, P ≤ 0.002). Inter-session reliability was good to excellent (ICC = 0.683 to 0.922, SEM = 15.06 to 47.04 g, P ≤ 0.001). Significant correlations were found between the two tools for all sites for PPTs (r = 0.500 to 0.614, P ≤ 0.009) and PPTols (r = 0.809 to 0.842, P algometer is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring PPTs and PPTols in the vestibular area in women with PVD. This technology is promising for pinpointing treatment mechanisms and efficacy. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Disease-Related Microstructural Differences in the Brain in Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Woodworth, Davis C; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Rapkin, Andrea J; Naliboff, Bruce; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Stains, Jean; Masghati, Salome; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A; Labus, Jennifer S

    2018-05-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a chronic pelvic pain disorder affecting 16% of the female population. Neuroimaging studies have highlighted central abnormalities in PVD, similar to other chronic pelvic pain disorders, including brain regions involved in sensory processing and modulation of pain. The aim of the study was to determine alterations in the subvoxel, microstructural organization within tissues in PVD compared with healthy control participants (HCs) and a disease control group (irritable bowel syndrome [IBS]). Diffusion tensor imaging magnetic resonance imaging was conducted in 87 age-matched premenopausal women (29 PVD, 29 HCs, 29 IBS). Statistical parameter mapping of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps were used to identify microstructural difference in the brain specific to PVD or shared with IBS. PVD alterations in microstructural organization of the brain were predominantly observed in fibers associated with sensorimotor integration and pain processing that relay information between the thalamus, basal ganglia, sensorimotor, and insular cortex. PVD, compared with HCs, showed extensive increases in the FA of somatosensory and basal ganglia regions. In contrast, PVD and IBS subjects did not show any FA-related group differences. PVD subjects showed greater MD in the basal ganglia compared with HCs (higher MD in the internal capsule and pallidum) and IBS (higher MD in the putamen and pallidum). Increases in MD were associated with increased vaginal muscle tenderness and vulvar pain. The current findings highlight possible shared mechanisms between 2 different pelvic pain disorders, but also highlight the widespread alterations observed specifically in PVD compared with HCs. Alterations in microstructure in PVD were observed in fibers associated with sensorimotor integration and pain processing, which were also associated with increased vaginal muscle tenderness and vulvar pain. These alterations may be contributing to increased

  1. Preferential loss of dorsal-hippocampus synapses underlies memory impairments provoked by short, multimodal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, P M; Molet, J; Chen, Y; Rice, C; Ji, S G; Solodkin, A; Baram, T Z

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive effects of stress are profound, yet it is unknown if the consequences of concurrent multiple stresses on learning and memory differ from those of a single stress of equal intensity and duration. We compared the effects on hippocampus-dependent memory of concurrent, hours-long light, loud noise, jostling and restraint (multimodal stress) with those of restraint or of loud noise alone. We then examined if differences in memory impairment following these two stress types might derive from their differential impact on hippocampal synapses, distinguishing dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Mice exposed to hours-long restraint or loud noise were modestly or minimally impaired in novel object recognition, whereas similar-duration multimodal stress provoked severe deficits. Differences in memory were not explained by differences in plasma corticosterone levels or numbers of Fos-labeled neurons in stress-sensitive hypothalamic neurons. However, although synapses in hippocampal CA3 were impacted by both restraint and multimodal stress, multimodal stress alone reduced synapse numbers severely in dorsal CA1, a region crucial for hippocampus-dependent memory. Ventral CA1 synapses were not significantly affected by either stress modality. Probing the basis of the preferential loss of dorsal synapses after multimodal stress, we found differential patterns of neuronal activation by the two stress types. Cross-correlation matrices, reflecting functional connectivity among activated regions, demonstrated that multimodal stress reduced hippocampal correlations with septum and thalamus and increased correlations with amygdala and BST. Thus, despite similar effects on plasma corticosterone and on hypothalamic stress-sensitive cells, multimodal and restraint stress differ in their activation of brain networks and in their impact on hippocampal synapses. Both of these processes might contribute to amplified memory impairments following short, multimodal stress. PMID:24589888

  2. Observing back pain provoking lifting actions modulates corticomotor excitability of the observer's primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Rea; Meesen, Raf; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    Observing another person experiencing exogenously inflicted pain (e.g. by a sharp object penetrating a finger) modulates the excitability of the observer' primary motor cortex (M1). By contrast, far less is known about the response to endogenously evoked pain such as sudden back pain provoked by lifting a heavy object. Here, participants (n=26) observed the lifting of a heavy object. During this action the actor (1) flexed and extended the legs (LEG), (2) flexed and extended the back (BACK) or (3) flexed and extended the back which caused visible pain (BACKPAIN). Corticomotor excitability was measured by applying a single transcranial magnetic stimulation pulse to the M1 representation of the muscle erector spinae and participants scored their perception of the actor's pain on the numeric pain rating scale (NPRS). The participants scored vicarious pain as highest during the BACKPAIN condition and lowest during the LEG condition. MEP size was significantly lower for the LEG than the BACK and BACKPAIN condition. Although we found no statistical difference in the motor-evoked potential (MEP) size between the conditions BACK and BACKPAIN, there was a significant correlation between the difference in NPRS scores between the conditions BACKPAIN and BACK and the difference in MEP size between these conditions. Participants who believed the vicarious pain to be much stronger in the BACKPAIN than in the BACK condition also exhibited higher MEPs for the BACKPAIN than the BACK condition. Our results indicate that observing how others lift heavy objects facilitates motor representations of back muscles in the observer. Modulation occurs in a movement-specific manner and is additionally modulated by the extent to which the participants perceived the actor's pain. Our findings suggest that movement observation might be a promising paradigm to study the brain's response to back pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sibutramine provokes apoptosis of aortic endothelial cells through altered production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Yoshifumi [Forensic Science Laboratory, Gifu Prefectural Police Headquarters, Gifu 500-8501 (Japan); Shibata, Akinobu; Okumura, Naoko; Ikari, Akira [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu 501-1196 (Japan); Sasajima, Yasuhide; Suenami, Koichi; Sato, Kiyohito; Takekoshi, Yuji [Forensic Science Laboratory, Gifu Prefectural Police Headquarters, Gifu 500-8501 (Japan); El-Kabbani, Ossama [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Matsunaga, Toshiyuki, E-mail: matsunagat@gifu-pu.ac.jp [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu 501-1196 (Japan)

    2017-01-01

    Overdose administration of sibutramine, a serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, is considered to elicit severe side effects including hypertension, whose pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. Here, we found that 48-h incubation with > 10 μM sibutramine provokes apoptosis of human aortic endothelial (HAE) cells. Treatment with the lethal concentration of sibutramine facilitated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), altered expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress response genes (heat shock protein 70 and C/EBP homologous protein), and inactivated 26S proteasome-based proteolysis. The treatment also decreased cellular level of nitric oxide (NO) through lowering of expression and activity of endothelial NO synthase. These results suggest that ROS production and depletion of NO are crucial events in the apoptotic mechanism and may be linked to the pathogenesis of vasoconstriction elicited by the drug. Compared to sibutramine, its metabolites (N-desmethylsibutramine and N-didesmethylsibutramine) were much less cytotoxic to HAE cells, which hardly metabolized sibutramine. In contrast, both the drug and metabolites showed low cytotoxicity to hepatic HepG2 cells with high metabolic potency and expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. The cytotoxicity of sibutramine to HepG2 and Chang Liver cells was remarkably augmented by inhibition and knockdown of CYP3A4. This study also suggests an inverse relationship between sibutramine cytotoxicity and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism into the N-desmethyl metabolites. - Highlights: • Treatment with sibutramine, an anorexiant, induces endothelial cell apoptosis. • The apoptotic mechanism includes induction of ROS and NO depletion. • There is an inverse relationship between sibutramine cytotoxicity and its metabolism.

  4. Two opposite hysteresis curves in semiconductors with mobile dopants

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Shin Buhm; Kahng, Byungnam; Noh, Tae Won

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental researches on semiconductors with mobile dopants (SMD) have reported unconventional hysteretic current-voltage (I-V) curves, which form dynamically in either one of the two opposite directions, the counter-figure-eight and figure-eight ways. However the fundamental theory for the formation of the two directions is still absent, and this poses a major barrier for researches oriented to applications. Here, we introduce a theoretical model to explain the origin of the two dir...

  5. Examining ISIS Support and Opposition Networks on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Examining ISIS Support and Opposition Networks on Twitter Elizabeth Bodine-Baron, Todd C. Helmus, Madeline Magnuson, Zev Winkelman C O R P O R A T...Syria (ISIS), like no other terrorist organization before, has used Twitter and other social media channels to broadcast its message, inspire followers...and recruit new fighters. Though much less heralded, ISIS opponents have also taken to Twitter to cas- tigate the ISIS message. This report draws on

  6. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB, which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments.A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5.The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers. Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way.Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.

  7. Dig1 protects against cell death provoked by glyphosate-based herbicides in human liver cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Gasnier, C?line; Benachour, Nora; Clair, Emilie; Travert, Carine; Langlois, Fr?d?ric; Laurant, Claire; Decroix-Laporte, C?cile; S?ralini, Gilles-Eric

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Worldwide used pesticides containing different adjuvants like Roundup formulations, which are glyphosate-based herbicides, can provoke some in vivo toxicity and in human cells. These pesticides are commonly found in the environment, surface waters and as food residues of Roundup tolerant genetically modified plants. In order to know their effects on cells from liver, a major detoxification organ, we have studied their mechanism of action and possible protection by precise ...

  8. [Children's oppositional behaviour, practice of parental authority and temporal anomie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeau, L

    2014-02-01

    This article examines the relationship between children's oppositional behaviour and the exercise of parental authority. It seeks to explore the value of a heuristic approach to psychic temporality in exercising parental authority. The study aims to better understand the role of psychic temporality in operations producing symbolic law. It goes on to describe a disorder of temporality, known as temporal anomie, which may be involved in a child's oppositional disorders. Psychiatric or psychological consultations motivated by oppositional disorders in children have increased steadily in the past fifteen years in France. The primary reason for consultation is in the form of difficulties for children in accepting the social rules or constraints, but also the difficulties of parenting while coping with the opposition of their children. This increase is made in connection with the works analysing the social and psychological effects imposed by modernity and its acceleration. Correspondingly, we find that some parents do not prioritize their educational requirements, do not know when or how to frustrate their child, or even if it is legitimate to expect from him/her a certain type of behaviour. They seem more preoccupied with the fear of not being loved by their child more than their duty to educate. A general trend suggests an alteration of psychological time, characterized by: a) a disinvestment of links between present and past for the enjoyment of the moment and its extension in the immediate future ; b) a difficulty in supporting educational responses causing frustration for the child ; c) a lack of continuity and constancy in educational requirements. The author proposes to define temporal anomie as the psychical time that weakens the consistency of educational responses. A link between psychological temporality and the symbolic law is discussed. Specifically, the study notes that: in intersubjective relations, mastery of psychological time by parents is an

  9. Neither Knowledge Deficit nor NIMBY: Understanding Opposition to Hydraulic Fracturing as a Nuanced Coalition in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Danielle M; Cutts, Bethany B

    2018-05-08

    The expansion of unconventional sources of natural gas across the world has generated public controversy surrounding fracking drilling methods. Public debates continue to reverberate through policy domains despite very inconclusive biophysical evidence of net harm. As a consequence, there is a need to test the hypothesis that resistance to fracking is due to the way it redistributes economic and environmental risks. As in many other communities, opposition to fracking is common in central Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, (USA) but the rationale underpinning opposition is poorly understood. We test the prevailing assumption in the environmental management literature that fracking opposition is motivated by knowledge deficits and/or not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) politics. This study uses Q methodology to examine emergent perspectives and sub-discourses within the fracking opposition debate in central Westmoreland County, PA. Q methodology offers a systematic and iterative use of both quantitative and qualitative research techniques to explore frequently overlooked marginal viewpoints that are critical to understanding the fracking problem. The analysis reveals four different narratives of factors amongst people actively involved in locally opposing fracking, labeled (1) Future Fears; (2) NIMBY (3) Community Concerns; and (4) Distrust Stakeholders. The conflicts that emerge across these four factors are indicative of deeper discourse within the fracking debate that signifies diversity in motivations, values, and convictions, and suggests the inadequacy of relying on knowledge deficit and/or NIMBY explanations to fracking politics.

  10. Qualitative investigation of the reasons behind opposition to water fluoridation in regional NSW, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Knox

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate reasons behind strong opposition to water fluoridation in regional New South Wales, Australia, and to make recommendations to improve community engagement. Importance: Few studies have used qualitative methodologies to understand the reasons for strong antifluoridation views. An understanding of these reasons could be useful when designing public campaigns to combat the strong antifluoridation message. Methods: The qualitative study used semistructured interviewing and thematic analysis. Ten participants were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling methods until data saturation was reached. Thematic analysis and graphical representation of themes assisted in analysing the data for logical connections and relationships. Results: Six dominant themes and numerous subthemes were identified. Five of the major themes were reasons for opposition: scepticism, health effects, ethics, environmental impacts and economics. Each of these was inextricably linked to a sixth major theme: alternatives to fluoridation. Conclusions: All participants had strongly held antifluoridation views, and provided a unique insight into their perceptions and reasons for opposing water fluoridation. Concerns about ‘fraudulent research’ and the influence of industry on government bodies were novel themes. The concerns raised could be used to inform future population health campaigns, research, public education and resource-allocation decisions. Open community consultation may be able to address the issues raised in a nonjudgemental and collaborative manner.

  11. Body image in women with primary and secondary provoked vestibulodynia: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillé, Delphine L; Bergeron, Sophie; Lambert, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a women's genito-pelvic pain condition associated with psychosexual impairments, including depression. Body image (BI) has been found to be different in women with primary (PVD1) and secondary (PVD2) PVD. No controlled study has compared BI in women with PVD1 and PVD2 and investigated its associations with sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain. The aims of this study were to (i) compare BI in women with PVD1, PVD2, and asymptomatic controls and (ii) to examine associations between BI and sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain during intercourse in women with PVD. Fifty-seven women (20 with PVD1, 19 with PVD2, and 18 controls) completed measures of BI, sexual satisfaction, sexual function, pain during intercourse, and depression. The main outcome measures were (i) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale, (ii) Female Sexual Function Index, and (iii) pain numerical rating scale. Controlling for depression, women with PVD1 reported more body exposure anxiety during sexual activities than women with PVD2 and controls F(2,51)=4.23, P=0.02. For women with PVD, more negative BI during sexual activities was associated with lower sexual satisfaction (β=-0.45, P=0.02) and function (β=-0.39, P=0.04) and higher pain during intercourse (β=0.59, P=0.004). More positive body esteem was associated with higher sexual function (β=0.34, P=0.05). Findings suggest that women with PVD1 present more body exposure anxiety during sexual activities than women with PVD2 and asymptomatic women. Body esteem and general attitudes toward women's genitalia were not significantly different between groups. Higher body exposure anxiety during sexual activities was associated with poorer sexual outcomes in women with PVD. Further studies assessing interventions targeting BI during sexual activities in this population are needed, as improving BI during sexual interactions may enhance sexual outcomes in women with PVD. © 2014 International

  12. Migration Processes Provoked yy the Break-Up of Yugoslavia and the Agression against Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Domini

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with forced migration caused by Serb aggression in areas of Croatia and the neighbouring countries. The first part presents the relevant facts relating to Croatia and important for an understanding of the migration flows (some demographic data as well as the basic guidelines of migration policy, legal regulations and most important problems connected with expellees, refugees and displaced persons. The main elements of contemporary migration movements in Croatia are indicated – migration based on economic causes (traditional migration, migration provoked by crisis and war destruction in former Yugoslavia and migration flows that are difficult to register (mainly clandestine crossings of the border of the Republic of Croatia and the irregular labour market. The author states that the expellee, refugee and displaced persons crisis (with psychological and material repercussions began in 1991 and reached a climax in 1992 when Croatia became one of the most pronounced refugee countries in the world, with refugees accounting for about 15% of its population. As the war crisis shifted, the areas from which intense forced migration to and from Croatia resulted also shifted as did the mechanisms for regulating these forced migrations (dual citizenship, transit visas, accords with "third countries" for accepting refugees and expellees, ways of resolving and caring for the refugee-expellee populations in the Republic of Croatia. The author concludes that even after seven years from the start of the aggression against Croatia, this humanitarian crisis among expellees, refugees and displaced persons has not yet finished, as testified by the new military conflict in Kosovo and by many open questions in regard to the future organisation of states in this crisis area as well as the creation of mechanisms for monitoring potential conflicts. A fundamental idea is expressed throughout the paper – i.e. the notion that now it is maybe more

  13. Tumores perianais provocados pelo herpes simples Perianal tumors provoked by herpes simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O Herpes simplex (HSV é um DNA vírus que provoca afecções perianais, sendo considerada a causa mais comum das úlceras na região. Apesar da forma ulcerativa ser a mais conhecida, a literatura relata o aparecimento de lesões tumorais, nodulares ou hipertróficas relacionadas ao vírus. O exame proctológico mostra tumores dolorosos, achatados, com superfície recoberta por ulceração rasa e com bordas bem delimitadas, elevadas e lobuladas, localizados na margem anal e/ou no sulco interglúteo, algumas vezes imitando condilomas virais ou carcinoma. A anamnese revela instalação insidiosa com crescimento lento e progressivo, além da história de tratamentos anteriores para úlceras herpéticas. O diagnóstico diferencial com carcinoma impõe a realização de biópsia para confirmação histológica. Esse exame revela hiperplasia epitelial moderada e denso processo inflamatório com linfócitos e plasmócitos. Células gigantes e multinucleadas são observadas na epiderme. Os testes imunohistoquímicos sugerem o HSV. A opção terapêutica inicial deve ser o tratamento medicamentoso. Importante definir o diagnóstico etiológico para aliviar o desconforto e evitar operação radical desnecessária, e introduzir medicação anti-retroviral nos portadores do HIV para melhora da imunidade.Herpes simplex is a DNA virus which provokes perianal lesions, and it is the most frequent etiology of anal ulcer. Despite the ulcerative herpes being known worldwide, literature relates a tumoral, or nodular, or hypertrophic form related to this virus. Proctological examination showed nodules with a verrucous appearance and an ulcerated surface at the anal margin, sometimes mimicking viral condylomas or carcinomas. Anamnesis reveals insidious installation, slow growth and prior treatments for herpetic ulcers. The differential diagnoses with cancer allow us to perform biopsies for histological confirmation. This exam reveals mild epithelial hyperplasia and

  14. Treatment of Provoked Vulvodynia in a Swedish cohort using desensitization exercises and cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Suzanne; Kvist, Linda J

    2015-11-25

    Problems related to pain during vaginal penetration are complex and the etiology is multi-factorial. It was the aim of the present study to measure whether treatment using desensitization exercises and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for women with provoked vulvodynia (PVD) could increase sexual interest, sexual satisfaction and response whilst decreasing experiences of sexual pain. Sixty women suffering from PVD were treated during a 10-week period with a combination of mucosal desensitization and pelvic floor exercises and CBT. The McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire (MFSQ) was used to measure efficacy of the treatment. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure psychological distress. The primary outcome measurements were changes in scores for the MFSQ and changes in individual items on the MFSQ directly after treatment completion. Secondary outcome measurements were changes in the MFSQ items 6 months after treatment and changes in HADS sub-scales 6 months after treatment. Statistical comparisons of answers to the MFSQ were carried out using the Wilcoxon signed rank test (paired). Validity of the MFSQ in this study was measured by testing one global question about sexuality and total scores on MFSQ using Spearman's correlation test. Study participants reported a statistically significant increase in sexual fantasies, increased sexual pleasure, excitement and vaginal lubrication after treatment was completed. PVD occurred less often which resulted in significantly less avoidance of sexual intercourse, increased frequency of masturbation and intercourse. All improvements were sustained at 6 months after treatment ended. Two questions showed no significant changes, these pertained to the individual's contentment with her partner as a lover and a friend. The anxiety sub-scale of the HADS showed a significantly decreased level of anxiety at 6 months follow-up but no change in the scores on the depression sub-scale. Treatment for PVD

  15. Three dimensions of oppositionality in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Roughan, Laura; Skuse, David

    2014-02-01

    In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common but poorly understood. DSM-5 has adopted a tripartite model of ODD, parsing its features into 'angry and irritable symptoms' (AIS), 'argumentative and defiant behavior' (ADB) and 'vindictiveness'. This was based on findings in non-autistic populations that each of these dimensions of oppositionality has a distinct constellation of associations with internalising and externalising psychopathology. We applied the tripartite DSM-5 ODD model to ASD to test its generalisability beyond non-ASD populations; and to elucidate the nature of ODD symptoms in ASD. Participants were 216 verbally-fluent young people (mean age = 9.6 years, range 3.0 to 16.2 years, 82 % male) with ASD. Cross-sectional parent-and teacher-report data were analysed using bootstrap multiple regression to test the following predictions, derived from studies of non-ASD young people: (1) AIS will be the main predictor of internalising problems; (2) ADB will be the main predictor of ADHD symptoms; (3) all ODD traits will independently predict conduct disorder symptoms; (4) vindictiveness will be the main predictor of aggressive conduct problems. Our findings using both parent and teacher data were consistent with the non-ASD ODD literature. AIS were associated with internalising but not externalising problems; ADB and vindictiveness were associated with externalising but not internalising problems; and vindictiveness was the main predictor of aggression. The DSM-5 tripartite model of ODD appears to be generalisable to ASD: for people with an autistic disorder, AIS, ADB and vindictive dimensions of oppositionality have distinct associations with concurrent psychopathology, suggesting the need to assess them as separate constructs.

  16. Consolidity: Moving opposite to built-as-usual systems practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Taher Dorrah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the recent uncovering of the mystery of consolidity as an inner property of systems, it is demonstrated that this notion is an indispensable pillar of systems modeling, analysis, design and building. Based on the opposite mathematical relation between consolidity versus stability and controllability, a new conceptual life cycle (change pathway graph for natural and man-made built-as-usual systems is presented and thoroughly discussed. For the conceptual cycle development progress, it is logically conceived that system behavior changes rate has not accidentally happened, but is relatively influenced at the point of progress by the associated direct system consolidity index corresponding to the acting on-the-spot varying environments or effects. Such conceptual graph represents a real research advancement indicating that we have to move opposite to current systems building practices for solving many real life enigmatic problems. It is illustrated using stabilization of inverted pendulum problem that it is amenable by cleverly manipulating systems structure and parameters to attain new designed systems with aggregates of superiority of consolidity, stability and controllability principle. It is recommended that we have to seek new generation of innovative non-conventional systems structures moving opposite to conventional built-as-usual system practices that can enable providing directly such three aggregates of superiority requirements as their built-in self property. This will open the door towards solving many real life challenging dilemmas in various sciences and disciplines, such as engineering, space sciences, medicine, pharmacology, biology, ecology, life sciences, economy, operations research, humanities and social sciences that are believed to be attributed due to their systems inferior consolidity.

  17. Efficacy of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) in women with provoked vestibulodynia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Annie; Léonard, Guillaume; Gougeon, Véronique; Waddell, Guy; Bureau, Yves-André; Girard, Isabelle; Morin, Mélanie

    2016-05-14

    Provoked vestibulodynia is the most common form of vulvodynia. Despite its high prevalence and deleterious sexual, conjugal, and psychological repercussions, effective evidence-based interventions for provoked vestibulodynia remain limited. For a high proportion of women, significant pain persists despite the currently available treatments. Growing evidence suggests that the central nervous system (CNS) could play a key role in provoked vestibulodynia; thus, treatment targeting the CNS, rather than localized dysfunctions, may be beneficial for women suffering from provoked vestibulodynia. In this study, we aim to build on the promising results of a previous case report and evaluate whether transcranial direct-current stimulation, a non-invasive brain stimulation technique targeting the CNS, could be an effective treatment option for women with provoked vestibulodynia. This single-center, triple-blind, parallel group, randomized, controlled trial aims to compare the efficacy of transcranial direct-current stimulation with sham transcranial direct-current stimulation in women with provoked vestibulodynia. Forty women diagnosed with provoked vestibulodynia by a gynecologist, following a standardized treatment protocol, are randomized to either active transcranial direct-current stimulation treatment for ten sessions of 20 minutes at an intensity of 2 mA or sham transcranial direct-current stimulation over a 2-week period. Outcome measures are collected at baseline, 2 weeks after treatment and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome is pain during intercourse, assessed with a numerical rating scale. Secondary measurements focus on the sexual function, vestibular pain sensitivity, psychological distress, treatment satisfaction, and the patient's global impression of change. To our knowledge, this study is the first randomized controlled trial to examine the efficacy of transcranial direct-current stimulation in women with provoked vestibulodynia. Findings from this

  18. Paired structures and other opposite-based models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    , that we will assume dependent on a specific negation, previously determined. In this way we can define a paired fuzzy set as a couple of opposite valuation fuzzy sets. Then we shall explore what kind of new valuation fuzzy sets can be generated from the semantic tension between those two poles, leading...... to a more complex valuation structure that still keeps the essence of being paired. In this way several neutral fuzzy sets can appear, in particular indeterminacy, ambivalence and conflict. Two consequences are then presented: on one hand, we will show how Atanassov´s Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets can be viewed...

  19. [The relevance of junctional rhythm during neurocardiogenic reaction provoked by tilt testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Agrawal, Anil Kumar; Rudnicki, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    During neurocardiogenic reaction provoked by tilt testing (TT), different arrhythmias such as sinus bradycardia, sinus arrest, atrioventricular block or junctional rhythm or beats (JR) may occur. The characteristics of the JR during neurocardiogenic reaction have not yet been systematically assessed. It is not known whether the presence of JR during neurocardiogenic reaction is related to clinical characteristics of syncopal patients or the outcome of TT. To assess whether clinical outcome of TT and clinical data are related to the presence of JR during TT. The study group consisted of 532 patients aged 43.3 ± 18.2 years with positive TT, divided into four groups on the basis of the presence of JR and/or a ventricular pause (VP) during neurocardiogenic reaction: group VP(-)/JR(+) - JR present and VP absent, group VP(+)/JR(+) - both JR and VP present, group VP(+)/JR(-) - JR absent and VP present, and group VP(-)/JR(-) - both JR and VP absent. The control group consisted of 53 patients with no history of syncope or presyncope, including 46 patients with negative TT and seven patients with false positive TT. Total loss of consciousness during TT occurred in group VP(-)/JR(+) less frequently than in groups VP(+)/JR(+) and VP(+)/JR(-), and more frequently than in group VP(-)/JR(-) (80% vs 96% vs 94% vs 62%; p 〈 0.05 for both comparisons). Group VP(-)/JR(+) was significantly younger than group VP(-)/JR(-) (37.3 ± 16.3 years vs 45.8 ± 18.9 years; p 〈 0.05) and had a lower number of syncopal events than group VP(+)/JR(+) and VP(+)/JR(-) (median [IQ]: 2.5 (1-6) vs 4 (2-12) and 4 (2-10), respectively; p 〈 0.05) and lower rate of traumatic injuries than group VP(+)/JR(+) and VP(+)/JR(-) (22% vs 45% and 39%, respectively; p 〈 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of JR was associated with younger age, male gender, history of blood-instrumentation-injection phobia and higher number of syncopal spells in medical history. The ROC curve analysis

  20. Opposite brain laterality in analogous auditory and visual tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltedal, Leif; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2017-11-01

    Laterality for language processing can be assessed by auditory and visual tasks. Typically, a right ear/right visual half-field (VHF) advantage is observed, reflecting left-hemispheric lateralization for language. Historically, auditory tasks have shown more consistent and reliable results when compared to VHF tasks. While few studies have compared analogous tasks applied to both sensory modalities for the same participants, one such study by Voyer and Boudreau [(2003). Cross-modal correlation of auditory and visual language laterality tasks: a serendipitous finding. Brain Cogn, 53(2), 393-397] found opposite laterality for visual and auditory language tasks. We adapted an experimental paradigm based on a dichotic listening and VHF approach, and applied the combined language paradigm in two separate experiments, including fMRI in the second experiment to measure brain activation in addition to behavioural data. The first experiment showed a right-ear advantage for the auditory task, but a left half-field advantage for the visual task. The second experiment, confirmed the findings, with opposite laterality effects for the visual and auditory tasks. In conclusion, we replicate the finding by Voyer and Boudreau (2003) and support their interpretation that these visual and auditory language tasks measure different cognitive processes.

  1. Moscow and St. Petersburgpsychological schools: from opposition to friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Allakhverdov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to summarize the interaction of the two largest schools of psychology in Russia: the psychological schools of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The paper is a sketch dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the psychological faculties of Moscow and St. Petersburg, and should not be appreciated as a historical treatise. Tense ties between the psychological schools, that originate in the distant past, have gone through different historical stages. Slavophilevs Westernizer traditions affected the initial difference in these schoolsemerging into the opposition: either the human being is studied entirety with his/her vast subjective experience, but losing the reliability of our statements (peculiarity of Moscow school, or we study the human being accurately using objective methods, but losing the integrity of our ideas (peculiarity of St.-Petersburg school. Both psychological schools, having gone through the ups and downs, have retained their identity and their emphasis on research. Moscow scholars in their studies are aimed to larger issues and still rely on large-scale Vygotsky-Leontiev approach. Scholars of St.-Petersburgtouch upon more specific issues using empirical methods, but still continue with nostalgia and hope making plans about creating a common concept of human individual according to Ananiev. Nowadays between the two schools there is no opposition, but only one mutual love.

  2. The parakeet protectors: Understanding opposition to introduced species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Sarah L; Hinchliffe, Steve; McDonald, Robbie A

    2018-01-02

    The surveillance and control of introduced and invasive species has become an increasingly important component of environmental management. However, initiatives targeting 'charismatic' wildlife can be controversial. Opposition to management, and the subsequent emergence of social conflict, present significant challenges for would-be managers. Understanding the substance and development of these disputes is therefore vital for improving the legitimacy and effectiveness of wildlife management. It also provides important insights into human-wildlife relations and the 'social dimensions' of wildlife management. Here, we examine how the attempted eradication of small populations of introduced monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) from England has been challenged and delayed by opposition from interested and affected communities. We consider how and why the UK Government's eradication initiative was opposed, focusing on three key themes: disagreements about justifying management, the development of affective attachments between people and parakeets, and the influence of distrustful and antagonistic relationships between proponents and opponents of management. We draw connections between our UK case and previous management disputes, primarily in the USA, and suggest that the resistance encountered in the UK might readily have been foreseen. We conclude by considering how management of this and other introduced species could be made less conflict-prone, and potentially more effective, by reconfiguring management approaches to be more anticipatory, flexible, sensitive, and inclusive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Uranium and cadmium provoke different oxidative stress responses in Lemna minor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horemans, N; Van Hees, M; Van Hoeck, A; Saenen, E; De Meutter, T; Nauts, R; Blust, R; Vandenhove, H

    2015-01-01

    Common duckweed (Lemna minor L.) is ideally suited to test the impact of metals on freshwater vascular plants. Literature on cadmium (Cd) and uranium (U) oxidative responses in L. minor are sparse or, for U, non-existent. It was hypothesised that both metals impose concentration-dependent oxidative stress and growth retardation on L. minor. Using a standardised 7-day growth inhibition test, the adverse impact of these metals on L. minor growth was confirmed, with EC50 values for Cd and U of 24.1 ± 2.8 and 29.5 ± 1.9 μm, respectively, and EC10 values of 1.5 ± 0.2 and 6.5 ± 0.9 μm, respectively. The metal-induced oxidative stress response was compared through assessing the activity of different antioxidative enzymes [catalase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD) and syringaldizyne peroxidase (SPOD)]. Significant changes in almost all antioxidative enzymes indicated their importance in counteracting the U- and Cd-imposed oxidative burden. However, some striking differences were also observed. For activity of APODs and SODs, a biphasic but opposite response at low Cd compared to U concentrations was found. In addition, Cd (0.5-20 μm) strongly enhanced plant GPOD activity, whereas U inhibited it. Finally, in contrast to Cd, U up to 10 μm increased the level of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids. In conclusion, although U and Cd induce similar growth arrest in L. minor, the U-induced oxidative stress responses, studied here for the first time, differ greatly from those of Cd. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes: Effect of charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Mingtian; Li, Baohui; Zhou, Jihan; Su, Cuicui; Niu, Lin; Liang, Dehai

    2015-01-01

    Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in a solution is investigated using a combination of computer simulations and experiments, focusing on the influence of polyelectrolyte charge distributions along the chains on the structure of the polyelectrolyte complexes. The simulations are performed using Monte Carlo with the replica-exchange algorithm for three model systems where each system is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged model polyelectrolyte chains (EGEG) 5 /(KGKG) 5 , (EEGG) 5 /(KKGG) 5 , and (EEGG) 5 /(KGKG) 5 , in a solution including explicit solvent molecules. Among the three model systems, only the charge distributions along the chains are not identical. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated as a function of temperature (or ionic strength), and the microscopic structures of complexes are examined. It is found that the three systems have different transition temperatures, and form complexes with different sizes, structures, and densities at a given temperature. Complex microscopic structures with an alternating arrangement of one monolayer of E/K monomers and one monolayer of G monomers, with one bilayer of E and K monomers and one bilayer of G monomers, and with a mixture of monolayer and bilayer of E/K monomers in a box shape and a trilayer of G monomers inside the box are obtained for the three mixture systems, respectively. The experiments are carried out for three systems where each is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged peptide chains. Each peptide chain is composed of Lysine (K) and glycine (G) or glutamate (E) and G, in solution, and the chain length and amino acid sequences, and hence the charge distribution, are precisely controlled, and all of them are identical with those for the corresponding model chain. The complexation behavior and complex structures are characterized through laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy measurements. The order of the apparent weight

  5. Effect of subdepressor clonidine on flushing reactions in rosacea. Change in malar thermal circulation index during provoked flushing reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, J K

    1983-03-01

    The effects of clonidine hydrochloride, an agent effective in suppressing other types of flushing reactions, were investigated in patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. Clonidine hydrochloride, 0.05 mg, was given orally twice daily for two weeks. Mean arterial BP was not altered during clonidine treatment. Flushing reactions provoked with water at 60 degrees C, red wine, and chocolate were not suppressed during clonidine treatment. Clonidine did lead to malar hypothermia. It may be that any treatment benefit obtained from the reduction in vascular reactivity by clonidine in rosacea is offset by the malar hypothermia.

  6. Antithrombotic Protective Effects of Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro Peptide during Emotional Stress Provoked by Forced Swimming Test in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, M E; Lyapina, L A

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation was enhanced and all factors (total, enzyme, and non-enzyme) of the fibrinolytic system were suppressed in rats in 60 min after forced swimming test. Argininecontaining tetrapeptide glyproline Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro administered prior to this test activated fibrinolysis and prevented hypercoagulation. Administration of this peptide in 5 min after swimming test also enhanced anticoagulant, fibrinolytic, and antithrombotic activity of the blood. Therefore, glyproline Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro exerted both preventive and curative effects on the hemostasis system and prevented enhancement of blood coagulation provoked by emotional stress modeled by forced swimming test.

  7. Nuclear safety and public debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.

    1997-01-01

    In this article are evoked the question of nuclear safety and the public opinion, from the beginning of nuclear power plants in 1954 where a peaceful use of nuclear energy is developed in minds. If the aim was to avoid any important accident, the Three Miles Island accident and more recently the Chernobyl accident provoked a shock in public opinion and marked a peak of nuclear controversy. From this point, the policy of transparence and a best information of the public taken as a partner are necessary to maintain the dialogue. (N.C.)

  8. Speciation and gene flow between snails of opposite chirality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Davison

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in snails is intriguing because individuals of opposite chirality are either unable to mate or can only mate with difficulty, so could be reproductively isolated from each other. We have therefore investigated chiral evolution in the Japanese land snail genus Euhadra to understand whether changes in chirality have promoted speciation. In particular, we aimed to understand the effect of the maternal inheritance of chirality on reproductive isolation and gene flow. We found that the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of Euhadra is consistent with a single, relatively ancient evolution of sinistral species and suggests either recent "single-gene speciation" or gene flow between chiral morphs that are unable to mate. To clarify the conditions under which new chiral morphs might evolve and whether single-gene speciation can occur, we developed a mathematical model that is relevant to any maternal-effect gene. The model shows that reproductive character displacement can promote the evolution of new chiral morphs, tending to counteract the positive frequency-dependent selection that would otherwise drive the more common chiral morph to fixation. This therefore suggests a general mechanism as to how chiral variation arises in snails. In populations that contain both chiral morphs, two different situations are then possible. In the first, gene flow is substantial between morphs even without interchiral mating, because of the maternal inheritance of chirality. In the second, reproductive isolation is possible but unstable, and will also lead to gene flow if intrachiral matings occasionally produce offspring with the opposite chirality. Together, the results imply that speciation by chiral reversal is only meaningful in the context of a complex biogeographical process, and so must usually involve other factors. In order to understand the roles of reproductive character displacement and gene flow in the chiral evolution of Euhadra, it will be

  9. Evidence for Absolute Moral Opposition to Genetically Modified Food in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sydney E; Inbar, Yoel; Rozin, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Public opposition to genetic modification (GM) technology in the food domain is widespread (Frewer et al., 2013). In a survey of U.S. residents representative of the population on gender, age, and income, 64% opposed GM, and 71% of GM opponents (45% of the entire sample) were "absolutely" opposed-that is, they agreed that GM should be prohibited no matter the risks and benefits. "Absolutist" opponents were more disgust sensitive in general and more disgusted by the consumption of genetically modified food than were non-absolutist opponents or supporters. Furthermore, disgust predicted support for legal restrictions on genetically modified foods, even after controlling for explicit risk-benefit assessments. This research suggests that many opponents are evidence insensitive and will not be influenced by arguments about risks and benefits. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Effect of the systemic inflammatory response, as provoked by elective orthopaedic surgery, on HbA1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadburn, Andrew J; Garman, Elizabeth; Abbas, Raad; Modupe, Anu; Ford, Clare; Thomas, Osmond L; Chugh, Sanjiv; Deshpande, Shreeram; Gama, Rousseau

    2017-07-01

    Background In acutely ill patients with new onset hyperglycaemia, plasma glucose cannot reliably distinguish between stress hyperglycaemia and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. We, therefore, investigated the diagnostic reliability of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in acute illness by prospectively evaluating the effect of the systemic inflammatory response, as provoked by elective orthopaedic surgery, on HbA 1c . Methods HbA 1c and serum C-reactive protein concentrations were compared before and two days after elective knee or hip surgery in 30 patients without diabetes. C-reactive protein was used to assess the systemic inflammatory response. Results The mean (standard deviation) serum C-reactive protein increased following surgery (4.8 [7.5] vs. 179.7 [61.9] mg/L; P<0.0001). HbA 1c was similar before and after surgery (39.2 [5.4] vs. 38.1 [5.1] mmol/moL, respectively; P = 0.4363). Conclusions HbA 1c is unaffected within two days of a systemic inflammatory response as provoked by elective orthopaedic surgery. This suggests that HbA 1c may be able to differentiate newly presenting type 2 diabetes mellitus from stress hyperglycaemia in acutely ill patients with new onset hyperglycaemia.

  11. Muscular hypertrophy and atrophy in normal rats provoked by the administration of normal and denervated muscle extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Eduardo; Castilla, Salvador; Luque, Evelio; Jimena, Ignacio; Leiva-Cepas, Fernando; Ruz-Caracuel, Ignacio; Peña, José

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of extracts obtained from both normal and denervated muscles on different muscle types. Wistar rats were used and were divided into a control group and four experimental groups. Each experimental group was treated intraperitoneally during 10 consecutive days with a different extract. These extracts were obtained from normal soleus muscle, denervated soleus, normal extensor digitorum longus, and denervated extensor digitorum longus. Following treatment, the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles were obtained for study under optic and transmission electron microscope; morphometric parameters and myogenic responses were also analyzed. The results demonstrated that the treatment with normal soleus muscle and denervated soleus muscle extracts provoked hypertrophy and increased myogenic activity. In contrast, treatment with extracts from the normal and denervated EDL had a different effect depending on the muscle analyzed. In the soleus muscle it provoked hypertrophy of type I fibers and increased myogenic activity, while in the extensor digitorum longus atrophy of the type II fibers was observed without changes in myogenic activity. This suggests that the muscular responses of atrophy and hypertrophy may depend on different factors related to the muscle type which could be related to innervation.

  12. Is There an Oppositional Culture among Immigrant Adolescents in the Netherlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tubergen, Frank; van Gaans, Milou

    2016-01-01

    This study examines oppositional culture among immigrant and majority adolescents in the Netherlands. Oppositional culture theory expects that immigrant adolescents would uphold positive attitudes towards education. The social exclusion theory predicts instead that immigrant adolescents develop an oppositional culture, particularly in ethnically…

  13. Dimensions of Oppositionality in a Brazilian Community Sample: Testing the "DSM-5" Proposal and Etiological Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Fernanda Valle.; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Goodman, Robert; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade; Salum, Giovanni; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro; Stahl, Daniel; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Investigating dimensions of oppositional symptoms may help to explain heterogeneity of etiology and outcomes for mental disorders across development and provide further empirical justification for the "DSM-5"-proposed modifications of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). However, dimensions of oppositionality have not…

  14. Breaching barriers to collaboration in public spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Mitchell, Robb

    2014-01-01

    Technology provoking disparate individuals to collaborate or share experiences in the public space faces a difficult barrier, namely the ordinary social order of urban places. We employed the notion of the breaching experiment to explore how this barrier might be overcome. We analyse responses...... of life in public spaces. Arising from this, we argue for the importance of qualities such as availability, facilitation, perspicuous settings, and perspicuous participants to encourage and support co-located strangers to collaborate and share experiences....

  15. Complexation of Polyelectrolyte Micelles with Oppositely Charged Linear Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogirou, Andreas; Gergidis, Leonidas N; Miliou, Kalliopi; Vlahos, Costas

    2017-03-02

    The formation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPECs) from linear AB diblock copolymer precursor micelles and oppositely charged linear homopolymers is studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations. All beads of the linear polyelectrolyte (C) are charged with elementary quenched charge +1e, whereas in the diblock copolymer only the solvophilic (A) type beads have quenched charge -1e. For the same Bjerrum length, the ratio of positive to negative charges, Z +/- , of the mixture and the relative length of charged moieties r determine the size of IPECs. We found a nonmonotonic variation of the size of the IPECs with Z +/- . For small Z +/- values, the IPECs retain the size of the precursor micelle, whereas at larger Z +/- values the IPECs decrease in size due to the contraction of the corona and then increase as the aggregation number of the micelle increases. The minimum size of the IPECs is obtained at lower Z +/- values when the length of the hydrophilic block of the linear diblock copolymer decreases. The aforementioned findings are in agreement with experimental results. At a smaller Bjerrum length, we obtain the same trends but at even smaller Z +/- values. The linear homopolymer charged units are distributed throughout the corona.

  16. Infrared photometric behavior and opposition effect of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erard, S.; Bibring, J-P.; Drossart, P.

    1992-01-01

    Although the instrument wasn't designed for this purpose, data from the imaging spectrometer ISM may be used for studying photometric variations of Mars reflectance, that are related to the surface materials and aerosols physical properties. ISM flew aboard the Phobos-2 spacecraft which orbited Mars from January to March, 1989. About 40,000 spectra were acquired in 128 channels ranging from 0.76 to 3.16 micro-m, with a spatial resolution of 25 km and a signal-to-noise ratio ranging up to 1000. Analysis of the results leads to the following conclusions: width variations of the opposition surge can be related to differences in porosity or grain size distribution on the various domains, with little or no effect from suspended dust. As the biggest effects are observed on dark and bright materials, intermediate behaviors on average-bright regions cannot result from a mixing process, but are more likely to come from either cementation processes or modification of the grain size distribution under the influence of wind, which under Martian conditions preferentially removes the biggest particles. Thus, a surface dust consisting in big bright and small dark grains could explain the observations.

  17. Dynamic evolution process of turbulent channel flow after opposition control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Mingwei; Tian, De; Yongqian, Liu, E-mail: gmwncepu@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources (North China Electric Power University), Beijing102206 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Dynamic evolution of turbulent channel flow after application of opposition control (OC), together with the mechanism of drag reduction, is studied through direct numerical simulation (DNS). In the simulation, the pressure gradient is kept constant, and the flow rate increases due to drag reduction. In the transport of mean kinetic energy (MKE), one part of the energy from the external pressure is dissipated by the mean shear, and the other part is transported to the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) through a TKE production term (TKP). It is found that the increase of MKE is mainly induced by the reduction of TKP that is directly affected by OC. Further analysis shows that the suppression of the redistribution term of TKE in the wall normal direction plays a key role in drag reduction, which represses the wall normal velocity fluctuation and then reduces TKP through the attenuation of its main production term. When OC is suddenly applied, an acute imbalance of energy in space is induced by the wall blowing and suction. Both the skin-friction and TKP terms exhibit a transient growth in the initial phase of OC, which can be attributed to the local effect of 〈 v ′ v ′〉 and 〈− u ′ v ′〉 in the viscous sublayer. (paper)

  18. Dig1 protects against cell death provoked by glyphosate-based herbicides in human liver cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travert Carine

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide used pesticides containing different adjuvants like Roundup formulations, which are glyphosate-based herbicides, can provoke some in vivo toxicity and in human cells. These pesticides are commonly found in the environment, surface waters and as food residues of Roundup tolerant genetically modified plants. In order to know their effects on cells from liver, a major detoxification organ, we have studied their mechanism of action and possible protection by precise medicinal plant extracts called Dig1. Methods The cytotoxicity pathways of four formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides were studied using human hepatic cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, known models to study xenobiotic effects. We monitored mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity and caspases 3/7 for cell mortality and protection by Dig1, as well as cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 3A4 and 2C9 and glutathione-S-transferase to approach the mechanism of actions. Results All the four Roundup formulations provoke liver cell death, with adjuvants having stronger effects than glyphosate alone. Hep3B are 3-5 times more sensitive over 48 h. Caspases 3/7 are greatly activated in HepG2 by Roundup at non-cytotoxic levels, and some apoptosis induction by Roundup is possible together with necrosis. CYP3A4 is specifically enhanced by Roundup at doses 400 times less than used in agriculture (2%. CYP1A2 is increased to a lesser extent together with glutathione-S-transferase (GST down-regulation. Dig 1, non cytotoxic and not inducing caspases by itself, is able to prevent Roundup-induced cell death in a time-dependant manner with an important efficiency of up to 89%, within 48 h. In addition, we evidenced that it prevents Caspases 3/7 activation and CYP3A4 enhancement, and not GST reduction, but in turn it slightly inhibited CYP2C9 when added before Roundup. Conclusion Roundup is able to provoke intracellular disruption in hepatic cell lines at different levels, but a

  19. Ictal brain SPET during seizures pharmacologically provoked with pentylenetetrazol: a new diagnostic procedure in drug-resistant epileptic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Giordano, Alessandro; Bruno, Isabella; Di Giuda, Daniela; De Rossi, Giuseppe; Troncone, Luigi; Parbonetti, Giovanni; Colicchio, Gabriella

    2002-01-01

    Functional brain imaging plays an important role in seizure focus localisation. However, truly ictal single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies are not routinely performed owing to technical problems associated with the use of tracers and methodological and logistical difficulties. In this study we tried to resolve both of these issues by means of a new procedure: technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain SPET performed during seizures pharmacologically provoked with pentylenetetrazol, a well-known central and respiratory stimulant. We studied 33 drug-resistant epileptic patients. All patients underwent anamnestic evaluation, neuropsychological and psychodynamic assessment, magnetic resonance imaging, interictal and ictal video-EEG monitoring, and interictal and ictal SPET with 99m Tc-ECD. In order to obtain truly ictal SPET, 65 mg of pentylenetetrazol was injected every 2 minutes and, immediately the seizure began, 740 MBq of 99m Tc-ECD was injected. The scintigraphic findings were considered abnormal if a single area of hyperperfusion was present and corresponded to the site of a single area of hypoperfusion at interictal SPET: the ''hypo-hyperperfusion'' SPET pattern. In 27 of the 33 patients (82%), interictal-ictal SPET showed the hypo-hyperperfusion SPET pattern. Video-EEG showed a single epileptogenic zone in 21/33 patients (64%), and MRI showed anatomical lesions in 19/33 patients (57%). Twenty-two of the 27 patients with hypo-hyperperfusion SPET pattern underwent ablative or palliative surgery and were seizure-free at 3 years of follow-up. No adverse effects were noted during pharmacologically provoked seizure. It is concluded that ictal brain SPET performed during pharmacologically provoked seizure provides truly ictal images because 99m Tc-ECD is injected immediately upon seizure onset. Using this feasible procedure it is possible to localise the focus, to avoid the limitations due to the unpredictability of seizures, to avoid pitfalls due

  20. The "Other" Speaks Up. When Social Science (Representations Provoke Reactance from the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Breuer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses science communication problems: How do researchers convey social science representations and findings to the researched? How are the latter described in research reports? How do they react when they read or hear such reports and when they subsequently engage in discourse with researchers? Typically, social science researchers approach a field site with an attitude of curiosity that is unburdened by an immediate pressure to act. The field inhabitants, by contrast, are subject to the practical constraints of these everyday worlds; they identify personally with their milieu and its protagonists, and they are correspondingly sensitive. The present paper describes their defensive reactions, taking as an example the reception of a research project presented at conferences attended by a mixed audience. It highlights the reactions and strategies displayed by the researched in the contexts of discourse and meaning negotiation in response to unwelcome representations. And it offers several interpretations of the interactions between the researchers and the researched. Field members may oppose the revelation of contextual and causal factors construing it as "washing dirty laundry in public". Researchers react to this in their textual representations, and their reactions may take the form of score-settling. The present paper asks how such contradictory, conflict-laden constellations and perspectives in the discourse between the observers and the observed can be productively dealt with. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1102233

  1. Cognitive, psychophysical, and neural correlates of vulvar pain in primary and secondary provoked vestibulodynia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Katherine; Pukall, Caroline; Wild, Conor; Johnsrude, Ingrid; Chamberlain, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a common condition characterized by localized, provoked pain that can be present since first vaginal penetration attempt (primary) or can develop after a period of pain-free penetration (secondary). Research has demonstrated psychosocial and psychophysical differences between women with these subtypes of PVD, but the question of whether neural responses to pain also differ remains to be investigated. This study aims to examine whether cognitive, psychophysical, and neural responses to vulvar pressure pain differ between women with PVD1 and PVD2. Women with PVD1 and PVD2 were compared for group differences using multiple modalities, including questionnaires, psychophysical testing, and neuroimaging. Pain ratings were held constant across groups, rather than amount of pressure applied. Demographics, sexual functioning, four questionnaires examining anxiety and catastrophizing, quantitative sensory testing at the vulvar vestibule using a vulvalgesiometer, and functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Findings suggest that women with PVD1 are more anxious and that they catastrophize more about their vulvar and nonvulvar pain than women with PVD2. Overall, MRI results demonstrated structural and functional similarities to other chronic pain findings for both groups of women. Gray matter (GM) density also differed between groups: women with PVD1 showed significant decreases in GM throughout areas associated with pain processing. Functionally, between-groups differences were found during painful vulvar stimulation despite lower pressures applied to the vulva for women with PVD1 because of their heightened sensitivity; the determination of the level of vulvar pressure to elicit pain was based on subjective ratings. Findings are limited by sample size and liberal alpha values; however, future research is certainly warranted based on the preliminary findings of this study suggesting both similarities and differences between

  2. Public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildgruber, O.H.

    1990-01-01

    The lecture addresses the question why we need public acceptance work and provides some clues to it. It explains various human behaviour patterns which determine the basics for public acceptance. To some extent, the opposition to nuclear energy and the role the media play are described. Public acceptance efforts of industry are critically reviewed. Some hints on difficulties with polling are provided. The lecture concludes with recommendations for further public acceptance work. (author)

  3. Opposition to gender-sensitive development. Learning to answer back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longwe, S H

    1995-02-01

    Opposition to gender-sensitive development policies can arise within the very development agencies charged with implementing the policies. Agencies may maintain that policies on equality for women are unnecessary because development is concerned with improving welfare in general. This can be refuted by referring to the literature which points out that failure to address the specific needs of women means their exclusion from the development process. Agencies may argue that women's equality is a political rather than a developmental issue. This is countered by the fact that the "Forward-Looking Strategies" define women's development, equality, and empowerment as intertwined processes. Agencies may say that promoting women's equality constitutes undue interference in a country's internal affairs. This is wrong because aid programs should not be supported in countries which do not support women's rights. Agencies may claim that they must work within the existing laws and policies of a developing country. This is partly correct, but the point must be limited because policies and laws may be "given," but they are not fixed. An agency may state that they have no business seeking or promoting change in existing social and customary practices. This is wrong where such practices stand in the way of development and because any development project is by definition a social and economic intervention. Agencies may consider their policy on women an inappropriate imposition of Western ideas. This is wrong because international conventions place a concern for women's rights on a level with a concern for human rights. Finally, agencies may maintain that women in developing countries do not desire equality with men. While it may be true that women accept their subordinate position, this does not offset issues of human rights and equal development. Oppressed women may be very silent; given the opportunity, they generally have a great deal to say.

  4. Postcolonial Powers of Opposition in Octavia Butler’s Kindred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamer Amer JubouriAl_Ogaili

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study will examine postcolonial powers of opposition in Octavia Butler’s Kindred (1979; through Homi Bhabha’s concept of ambivalence and Edward Said’s self-other relationship. By using these concepts, this research aims to unravel how the colonized and the colonizer perceive each in the selected works. It will offer an in-depth analysis of the thematic and ideological characteristics of selected works. Thus, the focus will mainly be on the theme of the mutual relationship between the colonized and the colonizer in the selected works. This relationship is specified to the concept of ambivalence. This concept incarnates the dual, yet, uncontrolled relationship between the colonized and the colonizer. Nevertheless, the colonized considers the colonizer as oppressive but an envious power; and the colonizer judges the colonized as inferior but indigenous. The colonial relationship will also be revealed by using the concept of self-other. Such concept scrutinizes the way the colonized and the colonizer perceive and resist each other. Accordingly, the research’s main focus point is the power relationship developed in the light of colonial ambivalence and self-other continuum. The research’s methodology relies on Bhabha’s concept of ambivalence and Edward Said’s self-other relationship.  In The Location of Culture (1994, Bhabha maintains that the concept of ambivalence conveys “the exercise of colonialist authority, however, requires the production of differentiations, individuations, identity effects through which discriminatory practices can map out subject populations that are tarred with the visible and transparent mark of power” (111. Edward Said, in his discussion of self-other relationship in Orientalism (1979, argues that self-other relationship is “the vacillation [inconstancy] between the familiar [self] and the alien [other]” (72.

  5. Genesis of Josephitism and functioning the opposition in “anti-Sergius” movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Pawełczyk-Dura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in the Russian Orthodox Church, connected with the Patriarch Tikhon’s death, initiated the deep divisions between hierarchs. Deputies of Tikhon, including dignity as a result of the nomination – which was a precedent in the canonical order of the Orthodox Church authorities – were not able to maintain the monolith community, destructed by internal divisions and persecuted by the communist state. Nomination of metropolitan of Nizhny Novogorod on the Guardian of the Patriarchal Throne and publication of The Letter (declaration of the deputy of the Guardian of the Patriarchal Throne Metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky of Nizhny Novgorod and the Temporary Saint Synod about the attitude of Russian Orthodox Church to the state authorities underlined differences between the faithful and the clergy. On opposite sides were followers and opponents of the Sergius’ “political line”. Activity of the last ones, manifesting in not-exchanging name of Sergius during liturgy, in moments, when words of the prayer for the superior of the local Church are being said, took the non-institutional forms of movement, definite as not-recalling. This formation, which was essentially the conglomeration of different groups of the clergy and faithful, dominated Josephites – the strongest and most active adherents of the archbishop of Leningrad Joseph (Petrovykh. Genesis those movement as a kind of symbol of opposition to the policy of servility and compromises metropolitan Sergius has been the subject of analysis of this text.

  6. Learning to argue as a biotechnologist: disprivileging opposition to genetically modified food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Anne; Bach, Frank; Åkerman, Björn

    2014-03-01

    In the public discussion of genetically modified (GM) food the representations of science as a social good, conducted in the public interest to solve major problems are being subjected to intense scrutiny and questioning. Scientists working in these areas have been seen to struggle for the position of science in society. However few in situ studies of how the debate about science appears in learning situations at the university level have been undertaken. In the present study an introductory course in biotechnology was observed during one semester, lectures and small group supervision concerning GM food were videotaped and student's reports on the issue were collected. The ethnographic approach to Discourse analysis was conducted by means of a set of carefully selected and representative observations of how a group of students learn to argue and appropriate views held in the Discourse they are enculturated into. While socio-scientific issues (SSIs) are often associated with achieving scientific literacy in terms of "informed decisions" involving "rational thought and Discourse" this study shows that SSI in practice, in the context studied here, is primarily concerned with using scientific language to privilege professional understandings of GMOs and discredit public worries and concerns. Scientific claims were privileged over ethical, economical and political claims which were either made irrelevant or rebutted. The students were seen to appropriate a Discourse model held in the biotechnological community that public opposition towards GMO is due to "insufficient knowledge". The present study offers insights into biotechnology students' decision making regarding socio-scientific issues, while also demonstrating the utility of Discourse analysis for understanding learning in this university context. Implications for reflection on the institutional Discourse of science and teaching of controversial issues in science are drawn and the study contributes to the

  7. Emotional stimuli-provoked seizures potentially misdiagnosed as psychogenic non-epileptic attacks: A case of temporal lobe epilepsy with amygdala enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Tamune

    Full Text Available The association between emotional stimuli and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is largely unknown. Here, we report the case of a depressed, 50-year-old female complaining of episodes of a “spaced out” experience precipitated by emotional stimuli. Psychogenic non-epileptic attacks were suspected. However, video-EEG coupled with emotional stimuli-provoked procedures and MRI findings of amygdala enlargement, led to the diagnosis of left TLE. Accurate diagnosis and explanation improved her subjective depression and seizure frequency. This case demonstrated that emotional stimuli can provoke seizures in TLE and suggested the involvement of the enlarged amygdala and the modulation of emotion-related neural circuits. Keywords: Video-EEG, Psychogenic non-epileptic attacks, Temporal lobe epilepsy, Amygdala enlargement, Reflex seizure, Provoked seizure

  8. Politics, proximity and the pipeline: Mapping public attitudes toward Keystone XL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravelle, Timothy B.; Lachapelle, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The politics of oil pipelines have become increasingly salient in American politics in recent years. In particular, debates about economic benefits, energy security and environmental impact have been provoked by the proposed Keystone XL pipeline expansion intended to take bitumen from northern Alberta in Canada to refineries on the Gulf Coast in Texas. Drawing on data from recent surveys conducted by the Pew Research Center, this article asks a series of questions. What levels of support for (and opposition to) the pipeline exist among the American public? What are the roles of political factors (such as party identification and ideology), economic attitudes, environmental attitudes and proximity to the proposed pipeline route in shaping attitudes toward the pipeline? And how do political factors and proximity to the pipeline interact? We find that partisanship and ideology drive attitudes toward the Keystone XL pipeline, and that the effect of ideology is attenuated by proximity to the proposed route. The policy implications of these findings for energy infrastructure siting controversies are discussed. -- Highlights: •Americans are divided on the Keystone XL energy pipeline. •Attitudes toward Keystone XL are driven by political party identification and ideology. •Attitudes toward the pipeline are also shaped by attitudes toward the economy and global warming. •The effect of proximity on attitudes toward Keystone XL is non-linear. •Spatial proximity to the pipeline attenuates the effect of ideology

  9. Linguistic Representation of the Category of Oppositeness in English Folk Tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Владимировна Соловьева

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to study manifestations of the category of oppositeness at all language levels in order to establish a classification of textual oppositions found in folktales. Achieving this goal requires using integrated multi-disciplinary research methods such as hypothetical-deductive, inductive, descriptive, comparative and classification methods. The study also involves specifically linguistic research procedures: the method of phonological oppositions which served as the methodological basis for further research into morphological and grammatical oppositions, transformational and component analyses to describe the semantic content of the considered language units, the logical and semantic procedures in text analysis. English is used as the basis for the research, the theoretical principles are illustrated by the data included in The Oxford Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms, The Merriam-Webster Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms, and The Collins Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms, the collection of folktales edited by J. Jacobs serves as the material for the empirical analysis. The category of oppositeness is seen as a phenomenon represented by phonological, semantic and grammatical oppositions and their subclasses. The textual oppositions under consideration are based on semantic and grammatical oppositions and represent the opposed spatial images, the opposed characters and the opposed beginning and ending of a folktale. The phenomenon of neutralization, which is the removal of the opposition in certain positions, is found at all levels of the language system, manifesting itself on the textual level in the ambivalent nature and the contradictory functional roles of certain folktale characters.

  10. An obesity provoking behaviour negatively influences young normal weight subjects' health related quality of life and causes depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernersson, Asa; Frisman, Gunilla Hollman; Sepa Frostell, Anneli; Nyström, Fredrik H; Lindström, Torbjörn

    2010-12-01

    In many parts of the world the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in combination with high consumption of food has increased, which contributes to increased risk for becoming overweight. Our primary aim was, in an intervention, to examine the influence on health related quality of life (HRQoL) and mood in young normal weight subjects of both sexes, when adopting an obesity provoking behaviour by increasing the energy intake via fast food and simultaneously adopting a sedentary lifestyle. A secondary aim was to follow-up possible long-term effects on HRQoL and mood 6 and 12 months after this short-term intervention. In this prospective study, 18 healthy normal weight subjects (mean age 26±6.6 years), mainly university students were prescribed doubled energy intake, and maximum 5000 steps/day, during 4 weeks. An age and sex matched control group (n=18), who were asked to have unchanged eating habits and physical activity, was recruited. Before and after the intervention questionnaires including Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety Depression scale, Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, Sense of Coherence and Mastery scale were completed by the subjects in the intervention group and by the controls with 4 weeks interval. Six and 12 months after the intervention the subjects underwent the same procedure as at baseline and the controls completed the same questionnaires. During the intervention, subjects in the intervention group increased their bodyweight and developed markedly lower physical and mental health scores on Short Form-36 as well as depressive symptoms while no changes appeared in the controls. The increase of depressive symptoms was associated with increases of energy intake, body weight and body fat. When followed up, 6 and 12 months after the intervention, physical and mental health had returned completely to baseline values, despite somewhat increased body weight. In conclusion, adopting obesity provoking behaviour for 4 weeks decreases HRQo

  11. It Takes Two: Sexual Communication Patterns and the Sexual and Relational Adjustment of Couples Coping With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Kate M; Flynn, Michelle; Bergeron, Sophie; Rosen, Natalie O

    2017-03-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that is associated with sexual and relational consequences for women and their partners. Greater perceived quality of sexual communication has been associated with women's lower pain during intercourse and with couples' better sexual and relational well-being. Whether couples' collaborative (eg, expressing feelings or problem solving) and negative (eg, withdrawing or criticizing) sexual communication patterns (SCPs) are differentially associated with couples' adjustment to PVD is unknown. To examine associations between collaborative and negative SCPs and women's pain and the sexual and relationship adjustment of women with PVD and their partners. Women diagnosed with PVD (N = 87) and their partners completed the Sexual Communication Patterns Questionnaire and measurements of pain (women only), sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and relationship satisfaction. (i) Numerical rating scale of pain during intercourse, (ii) Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function, (iii) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, (iv) Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised, and (v) Couple Satisfaction Index. When women reported greater collaborative SCP, they also reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. When women reported greater negative SCP, they reported less relationship satisfaction and had partners who reported greater sexual distress. When partners reported greater collaborative SCP, they also reported higher relationship satisfaction and had female partners who were less sexually distressed. When partners reported higher negative SCP, they also reported less relationship satisfaction. There were no associations between SCP and women's or partners' sexual functioning or women's pain. Collaborative SCP may benefit couples' sexual and relational well-being, whereas negative SCP may impede sexual and relational adjustment to PVD. Findings

  12. Caffeine provokes adverse interactions with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’) and related psychostimulants: mechanisms and mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanattou-Saïfoudine, N; McNamara, R; Harkin, A

    2012-01-01

    Concomitant consumption of caffeine with recreational psychostimulant drugs of abuse can provoke severe acute adverse reactions in addition to longer term consequences. The mechanisms by which caffeine increases the toxicity of psychostimulants include changes in body temperature regulation, cardiotoxicity and lowering of the seizure threshold. Caffeine also influences the stimulatory, discriminative and reinforcing effects of psychostimulant drugs. In this review, we consider our current understanding of such caffeine-related drug interactions, placing a particular emphasis on an adverse interaction between caffeine and the substituted amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’), which has been most recently described and characterized. Co-administration of caffeine profoundly enhances the acute toxicity of MDMA in rats, as manifested by high core body temperature, tachycardia and increased mortality. In addition, co-administration of caffeine enhances the long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity induced by MDMA. Observations to date support an interactive model of drug-induced toxicity comprising MDMA-related enhancement of dopamine release coupled to a caffeine-mediated antagonism of adenosine receptors in addition to inhibition of PDE. These experiments are reviewed together with reports of caffeine-related drug interactions with cocaine, d-amphetamine and ephedrine where similar mechanisms are implicated. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will guide appropriate intervention strategies for the management of severe reactions and potential for increased drug-related toxicity, resulting from concomitant caffeine consumption. PMID:22671762

  13. Upregulations of Clcn3 and P-Gp Provoked by Lens Osmotic Expansion in Rat Galactosemic Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Lens osmotic expansion, provoked by overactivated aldose reductase (AR, is the most essential event of sugar cataract. Chloride channel 3 (Clcn3 is a volume-sensitive channel, mainly participating in the regulation of cell fundamental volume, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp acts as its modulator. We aim to study whether P-gp and Clcn3 are involved in lens osmotic expansion of galactosemic cataract. Methods and Results. In vitro, lens epithelial cells (LECs were primarily cultured in gradient galactose medium (10–60 mM, more and more vacuoles appeared in LEC cytoplasm, and mRNA and protein levels of AR, P-gp, and Clcn3 were synchronously upregulated along with the increase of galactose concentration. In vivo, we focused on the early stage of rat galactosemic cataract, amount of vacuoles arose from equatorial area and scattered to the whole anterior capsule of lenses from the 3rd day to the 9th day, and mRNA and protein levels of P-gp and Clcn3 reached the peak around the 9th or 12th day. Conclusion. Galactosemia caused the osmotic stress in lenses; it also markedly leads to the upregulations of AR, P-gp, and Clcn3 in LECs, together resulting in obvious osmotic expansion in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Sexual Assertiveness Mediates the Associations Between Partner Facilitative Responses and Sexual Outcomes in Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicoll, Gabrielle; Corsini-Munt, Serena; O Rosen, Natalie; McDuff, Pierre; Bergeron, Sophie

    2017-10-03

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a recurrent idiopathic vulvo-vaginal pain associated with negative sexual and psychological consequences. Facilitative partner responses to pain are currently receiving empirical attention because they are positively associated with women's sexual outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which facilitative responses to pain are associated with these outcomes have not been examined. One potential mechanism is sexual assertiveness, which has been found to be associated with better sexual function and satisfaction in women with PVD. The present study examined whether women's sexual assertiveness mediated the association between women's perception of facilitative partner responses and women's sexual function and satisfaction. Women (N = 140) with PVD symptomatology completed self-reported questionnaires evaluating their perception of their partners' facilitative responses, and their own sexual assertiveness, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction. Dependent measures were sexual function measured by the Female Sexual Function Index and sexual satisfaction assessed by the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. Results indicated that women's higher sexual assertiveness mediated the association between their greater perceived facilitative partner responses and their improved sexual function and satisfaction. Findings suggest a potential mechanism through which partner responses may be associated with women's sexual outcomes.

  15. Reproduction and mode of delivery in women with vaginismus or localised provoked vestibulodynia: a Swedish register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, L; Josefsson, A; Bladh, M; Lilliecreutz, C; Sydsjö, G

    2015-02-01

    To compare sociodemographics, parity and mode of delivery between women diagnosed with vaginismus or localised provoked vestibulodynia (LPV) to women without a diagnosis before first pregnancy. Retrospective, population-based register study. Sweden. All women born in Sweden 1973-83 who gave birth for the first time or remained nulliparous during the years 2001-09. Nationally linked registries were used to identify the study population. Women diagnosed with vaginismus or LPV were compared to all other women. Odds ratios for parity and mode of delivery were calculated using multinominal regression analysis and logistic regression. Parity and mode of delivery. Women with vaginismus/LPV were more likely to be unmarried (P = 0.001), unemployed (P = 0.012), have a higher educational level (P vaginismus/LPV more often delivered by caesarean section (P vaginismus/LPV were more likely to suffer a perineal laceration (adjusted OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.56-2.25). Women with vaginismus/LPV are less likely to give birth and those that do are more likely to deliver by caesarean section and have a caesarean section based upon maternal request. Those women delivering vaginally are more likely to suffer perineal laceration. These findings point to the importance of not only addressing sexual function in women with vaginismus/LPV but reproductive function as well. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Attachment, Sexual Assertiveness, and Sexual Outcomes in Women with Provoked Vestibulodynia and Their Partners: A Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Bianca; Bergeron, Sophie; Brassard, Audrey; Bélanger, Claude; Steben, Marc; Lambert, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent women's sexual pain disorder, which is associated with sexual function difficulties. Attachment theory has been used to understand adult sexual outcomes, providing a useful framework for examining sexual adaptation in couples confronted with PVD. Research to date indicates that anxious and avoidant attachment dimensions correlate with worse sexual outcomes in community and clinical samples. The present study examined the association between attachment, pain, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction in a sample of 101 couples in which the women presented with PVD. The actor-partner interdependence model was used in order to investigate both actor and partner effects. This study also examined the role of sexual assertiveness as a mediator of these associations via structural equation modeling. Women completed measures of pain intensity and both members of the couple completed measures of romantic attachment, sexual assertiveness, sexual function, and satisfaction. Results indicated that attachment dimensions did not predict pain intensity. Both anxious and avoidant attachment were associated with lower sexual satisfaction. Only attachment avoidance predicted lower sexual function in women. Partner effects indicated that higher sexual assertiveness in women predicted higher sexual satisfaction in men. Finally, women's sexual assertiveness was found to be a significant mediator of the relationship between their attachment dimensions, sexual function, and satisfaction. Findings highlight the importance of examining how anxious and avoidant attachment may lead to difficulties in sexual assertiveness and to less satisfying sexual interactions in couples where women suffer from PVD.

  17. Elevated expression of NEU1 sialidase in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis provokes pulmonary collagen deposition, lymphocytosis, and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzina, Irina G; Lockatell, Virginia; Hyun, Sang W; Kopach, Pavel; Kang, Phillip H; Noor, Zahid; Liu, Anguo; Lillehoj, Erik P; Lee, Chunsik; Miranda-Ribera, Alba; Todd, Nevins W; Goldblum, Simeon E; Atamas, Sergei P

    2016-05-15

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) poses challenges to understanding its underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms and the development of better therapies. Previous studies suggest a pathophysiological role for neuraminidase 1 (NEU1), an enzyme that removes terminal sialic acid from glycoproteins. We observed increased NEU1 expression in epithelial and endothelial cells, as well as fibroblasts, in the lungs of patients with IPF compared with healthy control lungs. Recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene delivery of NEU1 to cultured primary human cells elicited profound changes in cellular phenotypes. Small airway epithelial cell migration was impaired in wounding assays, whereas, in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, NEU1 overexpression strongly impacted global gene expression, increased T cell adhesion to endothelial monolayers, and disrupted endothelial capillary-like tube formation. NEU1 overexpression in fibroblasts provoked increased levels of collagen types I and III, substantial changes in global gene expression, and accelerated degradation of matrix metalloproteinase-14. Intratracheal instillation of NEU1 encoding, but not control adenovirus, induced lymphocyte accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage samples and lung tissues and elevations of pulmonary transforming growth factor-β and collagen. The lymphocytes were predominantly T cells, with CD8(+) cells exceeding CD4(+) cells by nearly twofold. These combined data indicate that elevated NEU1 expression alters functional activities of distinct lung cell types in vitro and recapitulates lymphocytic infiltration and collagen accumulation in vivo, consistent with mechanisms implicated in lung fibrosis.

  18. Intracellular scFvs against the viral E6 oncoprotein provoke apoptosis in human papillomavirus-positive cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrange, Magali; Boulade-Ladame, Charlotte; Mailly, Laurent; Weiss, Etienne; Orfanoudakis, Georges; Deryckere, Francois

    2007-01-01

    The E6 protein of human papillomavirus type 16 (16E6) is involved in the tumorigenesis of human cervical cells by targeting numerous cellular proteins. We have designed a strategy for neutralizing 16E6 based on the intracellular expression of single-chain Fv antibodies (scFvs) specific to 16E6. Recombinant adenovirus vectors were constructed to allow expression of two 16E6-binding scFvs and one 16E6-non-binding scFv in HPV16-positive and -negative cells. Expression of the scFvs provoked two types of effects: (i) inhibition of proliferation of all cell lines tested, this aspecific toxicity being likely due to the aggregation of unfolded scFvs; and (ii) apoptosis observed only in HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell lines after expression of 16E6-binding scFvs, this specific effect being proportional to the intracellular solubility of the scFvs. These data demonstrate the feasibility of intracellular immunization with anti-16E6 scFvs and highlight the importance of the solubility of the intracellular antibodies

  19. Hippocampal Dysfunction Provoked by Mercury Chloride Exposure: Evaluation of Cognitive Impairment, Oxidative Stress, Tissue Injury and Nature of Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walessa Alana Bragança Aragão

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a highly toxic metal, which can be found in its inorganic form in the environment. This form presents lower liposolubility and lower absorption in the body. In order to elucidate the possible toxicity of inorganic Hg in the hippocampus, we investigated the potential of low doses of mercury chloride (HgCl2 to promote hippocampal dysfunction by employing a chronic exposure model. For this, 56 rats were exposed to HgCl2 (0.375 mg/kg/day via the oral route for 45 days. After the exposure period, the animals were submitted to the cognitive test of fear memory. The hippocampus was collected for the measurement of total Hg levels, analysis of oxidative stress, and evaluation of cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and tissue injury. It was observed that chronic exposure to inorganic Hg promotes an increase in mercury levels in this region and damage to short- and long-term memory. Furthermore, we found that this exposure model provoked oxidative stress, which led to cytotoxicity and cell death by apoptosis, affecting astrocytes and neurons in the hippocampus. Our study demonstrated that inorganic Hg, even with its low liposolubility, is able to produce deleterious effects in the central nervous system, resulting in cognitive impairment and hippocampal damage when administered for a long time at low doses in rats.

  20. Micro-computed tomography derived anisotropy detects tumor provoked deviations in bone in an orthotopic osteosarcoma murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A Cole

    Full Text Available Radiographic imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. Currently, computed-tomography (CT is used to measure tumor-induced osteolysis as a marker for tumor growth by monitoring the bone fractional volume. As most tumors primarily induce osteolysis, lower bone fractional volume has been found to correlate with tumor aggressiveness. However, osteosarcoma is an exception as it induces osteolysis and produces mineralized osteoid simultaneously. Given that competent bone is highly anisotropic (systematic variance in its architectural order renders its physical properties dependent on direction of load and that tumor induced osteolysis and osteogenesis are structurally disorganized relative to competent bone, we hypothesized that μCT-derived measures of anisotropy could be used to qualitatively and quantitatively detect osteosarcoma provoked deviations in bone, both osteolysis and osteogenesis, in vivo. We tested this hypothesis in a murine model of osteosarcoma cells orthotopically injected into the tibia. We demonstrate that, in addition to bone fractional volume, μCT-derived measure of anisotropy is a complete and accurate method to monitor osteosarcoma-induced osteolysis. Additionally, we found that unlike bone fractional volume, anisotropy could also detect tumor-induced osteogenesis. These findings suggest that monitoring tumor-induced changes in the structural property isotropy of the invaded bone may represent a novel means of diagnosing primary and metastatic bone tumors.

  1. Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Women from Opposite-Sex Twin Pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, E.A.M.; Vink, J.M.; Lambalk, C.B.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Intrauterine androgens of a male fetus may influence the female fetus in opposite-sex twin pairs. Because female intrauterine overexposure to androgens could lead to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the prevalence of PCOS should be higher in women from opposite-sex twin pairs.

  2. Impulsore Chresto. Opposition to Christianity in the Roman Empire c. 50-250 AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jakob

    in context as the most dramatic aspect of a spectrum of opposition including rumors, polemic, harassment and accusations. Such opposition was taken for granted and rarely described. But studying the preserved texts on trials against Christians it appears that even here the roles of relatives, plaintiffs...

  3. The Yami's opposition to the Lanyu LLW storage installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.K.; Chang, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1982, the solidified low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) in Taiwan, regardless of the origins, have been sent to Lanyu for interim storage. Lanyu is a small island located 80 kilometers southeast of Taiwan. Its unique Polynesian cultural characteristics make it an attractive tourist spot. Dissatisfaction of being the commonly neglected powerless minority, in addition to the political claims from the outside environmental activists made the majority of the Lanyu residents oppose the operation of the storage facility. Approximately 80,000 drums of these wastes have been sent to Lanyu. Although the radiological monitoring results demonstrated that the current operation causes negligible impact on the environment. Accounting for the fast changing social and political situations in Taiwan today, without a good public acceptance program for both sides, the continuous operation of the Lanyu LLW storage facility until the year 2002, at which time the LLW disposal facility will be commissioned, could be in limbo

  4. Provoking, disturbing, hacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    Among the artists on the contemporary Danish scene of computer music and sound art the musician and composer Goodiepal (Gæoudjiparl van den Dobbelsteen or Parl Kristian Bjørn Vester) is by no comparison the most controversial and provocative. This statement is applicable whether we meet him as mu...

  5. Provoking, disturbing, hacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2013-01-01

    The article is a discussion of works by two Danish composers who both, with self-constructed instruments challenge computer music both as genre, the understanding and use of conventional technology and the relation to history. At first glance, the use of the homemade instruments appears as a comm...

  6. [Family violence and aggressive and oppositional behavior in childhood: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Renata

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of the world literature about two important subjects: family violence and problems of aggressive behavior and oppositional defiant disorder in childhood. We opted for publications that had used the CBCL- Child Behavior Checklist for investigating behavior problems in children. This instrument is internationally recognized for its reliability and validity, considered an efficient tool for identifying behavior problems in children. Our findings showed that marital violence predominated in the studies as kind of familiar violence able to cause problems of aggressiveness and transgression in children. Another point discussed was the lack of consensus on the terms used in the articles to refer to such behavior problems. The review showed the need for in-depth studies into this subject, mainly in the sense of thinking about prevention and health promotion in childhood and adolescence. Aggressive behavior in children tends to remain and increase over time, a fact that points to the need for strategies for preventing these problems in the school, familiar and health environments.

  7. Anomalous aortic origin of coronary arteries from the opposite sinus: A critical appraisal of risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peñalver Josiah M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anomalous aortic origin of the coronary artery (AAOCA from the opposite sinus of Valsalva with an interarterial course has received much attention due to its association with sudden death in otherwise healthy individuals. AAOCA is relatively common and may have significant public health implications. While our knowledge of its pathophysiology and natural history remains incomplete, an emphasis has been placed on surgical correction. Discussion In 2005 we published a review examining the rates of sudden death with AAOCA, as well as complications of surgical management. Evidence now points even more strongly to lower rates of sudden death, while surgical outcomes data now better documents associated risks. Summary Armed with this updated information, we agree with the need for a national registry to better track patients with AAOCA. We submit that the risks of surgical management outweigh any benefits in the asymptomatic patient with anomalous right coronary artery, and expectant management should also be strongly considered even in asymptomatic patients with anomalous left coronary artery.

  8. Influence Of Opposition On Ball Velocity In The Handball Jump Throw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivilla-Garcia, Jesús; Grande, Ignacio; Sampedro, Javier; Van Den Tillaar, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of different degrees of opposition on ball velocity in the jump throw in elite, amateur and adolescent team handball players. Thus, one hundred and nineteen elite, amateur and under 18 team handball players performed jump throws under three different conditions: 1) without opposition, 2) with the opposition of the goalkeeper and 3) with the opposition of the goalkeeper and a defensive player. The degree of opposition was found to have a negative effect on ball velocity in all three groups (p handball players in the jump throw. It indicated that an increase of external stimuli influences the execution of throwing. Experience does not seem to be a factor that can reduce the influence of these external stimuli. PMID:24150629

  9. In Defense of Tradition: Religiosity, Conservatism, and Opposition to Same-Sex Marriage in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Toorn, Jojanneke; Jost, John T; Packer, Dominic J; Noorbaloochi, Sharareh; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2017-10-01

    Arguments opposing same-sex marriage are often made on religious grounds. In five studies conducted in the United States and Canada (combined N = 1,673), we observed that religious opposition to same-sex marriage was explained, at least in part, by conservative ideology and linked to sexual prejudice. In Studies 1 and 2, we discovered that the relationship between religiosity and opposition to same-sex marriage was mediated by explicit sexual prejudice. In Study 3, we saw that the mediating effect of sexual prejudice was linked to political conservatism. Finally, in Studies 4a and 4b we examined the ideological underpinnings of religious opposition to same-sex marriage in more detail by taking into account two distinct aspects of conservative ideology. Results revealed that resistance to change was more important than opposition to equality in explaining religious opposition to same-sex marriage.

  10. Infusion of sodium bicarbonate in experimentally induced metabolic acidosis does not provoke cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, Saman; Zello, Gordon A; Lohmann, Katharina L; Alcorn, Jane; Hamilton, Don L; Naylor, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    In a crossover study, 5 calves were made acidotic by intermittent intravenous infusion of isotonic hydrochloric acid (HCl) over approximately 24 h. This was followed by rapid (4 h) or slow (24 h) correction of blood pH with isotonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) to determine if rapid correction of acidemia produced paradoxical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis. Infusion of HCl produced a marked metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation. Venous blood pH (mean ± S(x)) was 7.362 ± 0.021 and 7.116 ± 0.032, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2), torr) 48.8 ± 1.3 and 34.8 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate (mmol/L), 27.2 ± 1.27 and 11 ± 0.96; CSF pH was 7.344 ± 0.031 and 7.240 ± 0.039, Pco(2) 42.8 ± 2.9 and 34.5 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate 23.5 ± 0.91 and 14.2 ± 1.09 for the period before the infusion of hydrochloric acid and immediately before the start of sodium bicarbonate correction, respectively. In calves treated with rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate, correction of venous acidemia was significantly more rapid and increases in Pco(2) and bicarbonate in CSF were also more rapid. However, there was no significant difference in CSF pH. After 4 h of correction, CSF pH was 7.238 ± 0.040 and 7.256 ± 0.050, Pco(2) 44.4 ± 2.2 and 34.2 ± 2.1, and bicarbonate 17.8 ± 1.02 and 14.6 ± 1.4 for rapid and slow correction, respectively. Under the conditions of this experiment, rapid correction of acidemia did not provoke paradoxical CSF acidosis.

  11. Pelvic floor muscle assessment outcomes in women with and without provoked vestibulodynia and the impact of a physical therapy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilcore-Saulnier, Evelyne; McLean, Linda; Goldfinger, Corrie; Pukall, Caroline F; Chamberlain, Susan

    2010-02-01

    Physical therapy (PT) may reduce the pain associated with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) based on previous findings that pelvic floor muscle dysfunction (PFMD) is associated with PVD symptoms. The goals of this study were: (i) to determine whether women with and without PVD differ on measures of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) behavior; and (ii) to assess the impact of PT treatment for women with PVD on these measures. Eleven women with PVD and 11 control women completed an assessment evaluating PFM behavior using surface electromyography (SEMG) recordings and a digital intravaginal assessment. Women with PVD repeated the assessment after they had undergone eight PT treatment sessions of manual therapy, biofeedback, electrical stimulation, dilator insertions, and home exercises. Superficial and deep PFM SEMG tonic activity and phasic activity in response to a painful pressure stimulus, PFM digital assessment variables (tone, flexibility, relaxation capacity, and strength). At pretreatment, women with PVD had higher tonic SEMG activity in their superficial PFMs compared with the control group, whereas no differences were found in the deep PFMs. Both groups demonstrated contractile responses to the painful pressure stimulus that were significantly higher in the superficial as compared with the deep PFMs, with the responses in the PVD group being higher than those in control women. Women with PVD had higher PFM tone, decreased PFM flexibility and lower PFM relaxation capacity compared with control women. Posttreatment improvements included less PFM responsiveness to pain, less PFM tone, improved vaginal flexibility, and improved PFM relaxation capacity, such that women with PVD no longer differed from controls on these measures. Women with PVD demonstrated altered PFM behavior when compared with controls, providing empirical evidence of PFMD, especially at the superficial layer. A PT rehabilitation program specifically targeting PFMD normalized PFM behavior in women with PVD.

  12. Memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer's disease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundstroem, Torbjoern; Riklund, Katrine Aa. [Umeaa University, Umeaa University Hospital, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology, Umeaa (Sweden); Elgh, Eva; Naesman, Birgitta [Umeaa University, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeaa (Sweden); Larsson, Anne [Umeaa University, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics, Umeaa (Sweden); Nyberg, Lars [Umeaa University, Department of Psychology, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary degenerative disease that progressively affects all brain functions, with devastating consequences for the patient, the patient's family and society. Rest regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) could have a strategic role in differentiating between AD patients and normal controls, but its use for this purpose has a low discriminatory capacity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the diagnostic sensitivity of rCBF single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be increased by using an episodic memory task provocation, i.e. memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT (MP-SPECT). Eighteen persons (73.2{+-}4.8 years) with mild AD and 18 healthy elderly (69.4{+-}3.9 years) were included in the study. The subjects were injected with{sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) during memory provocation with faces and names, followed by an rCBF-SPECT study. The rCBF{sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT images were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). Peaks with a false discovery rate corrected value of 0.05 were considered significant. On MP-SPECT, the AD group showed a significant rCBF reduction in the left parietal cortex in comparison with healthy elderly. At rest, no significant group differences were seen. Memory provocation increased the sensitivity of rCBF-SPECT for the detection of AD-related blood flow changes in the brain at the group level. Further studies are needed to evaluate MP-SPECT as a diagnostic tool at the individual level. If a higher sensitivity for AD at the individual level is verified in future studies, a single MP-SPECT study might be sufficient in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  13. Approach and Avoidance Sexual Goals in Couples with Provoked Vestibulodynia: Associations with Sexual, Relational, and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Muise, Amy; Bergeron, Sophie; Impett, Emily A; Boudreau, Gillian K

    2015-08-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that is triggered primarily during sexual intercourse. PVD adversely impacts women's and their partners' sexual relationship and psychological well-being. Over 80% of women with PVD continue to have intercourse, possibly because of sexual goals that include wanting to pursue desirable outcomes (i.e., approach goals; such as a desire to maintain intimacy) and avoid negative outcomes (i.e., avoidance goals; such as avoiding a partner's disappointment). The aim of this study was to investigate associations between approach and avoidance sexual goals and women's pain, as well as the sexual, relational, and psychological well-being of affected couples. Women with PVD (N = 107) and their partners completed measures of sexual goals, sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, and depression. Women also completed measures of pain during intercourse and sexual functioning. (1) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale, (2) Dyadic Adjustment Scale-Revised or the Couple Satisfaction Index, (3) Beck Depression Inventory-II, (4) numerical rating scale of pain during intercourse, and (5) Female Sexual Function Index. When women reported higher avoidance sexual goals, they reported lower sexual and relationship satisfaction, and higher levels of depressive symptoms. In addition, when partners of women reported higher avoidance sexual goals, they reported lower relationship satisfaction. When women reported higher approach sexual goals, they also reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. Targeting approach and avoidance sexual goals could enhance the quality and efficacy of psychological couple interventions for women with PVD and their partners. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Are primary and secondary provoked vestibulodynia two different entities? A comparison of pain, psychosocial, and sexual characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Leen; Bergeron, Sophie; Corsini-Munt, Serena; Steben, Marc; Pâquet, Myriam

    2015-06-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is suspected to be the most frequent cause of vulvodynia in premenopausal women. Based on the onset of PVD relative to the start of sexual experience, PVD can be divided into primary (PVD1) and secondary PVD (PVD2). Studies comparing these PVD subgroups are inconclusive as to whether differences exist in sexual and psychosocial functioning. The aim of this study was to compare the pain, sexual and psychosocial functioning of a large clinical and community-based sample of premenopausal women with PVD1 and PVD2. A total of 269 women (n = 94 PVD1; n = 175 PVD2) completed measures on sociodemographics, pain, sexual, and psychosocial functioning. Dependent variables were the 0-10 pain numerical rating scale, McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire, Female Sexual Function Index, Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Painful Intercourse Self-Efficacy Scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Trait Subscale, Ambivalence over Emotional Expression Questionnaire, Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale--Revised, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale-Revised. At first sexual relationship, women with PVD2 were significantly younger than women with PVD1 (P sexual, psychological, and relational functioning between the PVD subgroups. Nevertheless, on average, both groups were in the clinical range of sexual dysfunction and reported impaired psychological functioning. The findings show that there are no significant differences in the sexual and psychosocial profiles of women with PVD1 and PVD2. Results suggest that similar psychosocial and sex therapy interventions should be offered to both subgroups of PVD. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. Woman and partner-perceived partner responses predict pain and sexual satisfaction in provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Bergeron, Sophie; Leclerc, Bianca; Lambert, Bernard; Steben, Marc

    2010-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that results in significant sexual dysfunction, psychological distress, and reduced quality of life. Although some intra-individual psychological factors have been associated with PVD, studies to date have neglected the interpersonal context of this condition. We examined whether partner responses to women's pain experience-from the perspective of both the woman and her partner-are associated with pain intensity, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction. One hundred ninety-one couples (M age for women=33.28, standard deviation [SD]=12.07, M age for men=35.79, SD=12.44) in which the woman suffered from PVD completed the spouse response scale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, assessing perceptions of partners' responses to the pain. Women with PVD also completed measures of pain, sexual function, sexual satisfaction, depression, and dyadic adjustment. Dependent measures were women's responses to: (i) a horizontal analog scale assessing the intensity of their pain during intercourse; (ii) the Female Sexual Function Index; and (iii) the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. Controlling for depression, higher solicitous partner responses were associated with higher levels of women's vulvovaginal pain intensity. This association was significant for partner-perceived responses (β=0.29, Psexual function and dyadic adjustment, woman-perceived greater solicitous partner responses (β=0.16, P=0.02) predicted greater sexual satisfaction. Partner-perceived responses did not predict women's sexual satisfaction. Partner responses were not associated with women's sexual function. Findings support the integration of dyadic processes in the conceptualization and treatment of PVD by suggesting that partner responses to pain affect pain intensity and sexual satisfaction in affected women. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Acceptance of vulvovaginal pain in women with provoked vestibulodynia and their partners: associations with pain, psychological, and sexual adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Katelynn E; Rosen, Natalie O

    2015-06-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a common vulvovaginal pain condition associated with negative psychological and sexual consequences for affected women and their sexual partners. Greater pain acceptance has been found to be associated with better functional and psychological outcomes in individuals with chronic pain, and acceptance-based strategies are being increasingly incorporated into treatment protocols. The present study is a novel investigation of pain acceptance in PVD couples. The aim was to examine the associations between acceptance of vulvovaginal pain and women's pain during intercourse, as well as the psychological and sexual adjustment of both women with PVD and their partners. Sixty-one couples (M(age) for women = 27.95 years, SD = 5.87; M(age) for men = 30.48 years, SD = 6.70) in which the woman was diagnosed with PVD completed the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, in reference to women's vulvovaginal pain. Women also rated their pain during intercourse, and couples completed measures of anxiety, depression, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction. Dependent measures were (i) women's self-reported pain during intercourse on a numerical rating scale; (ii) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory trait subscale; (iii) Beck Depression Inventory-II; (iv) Derogatis Interview for Sexual Functioning; and (v) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. Women's greater pain acceptance was associated with their lower self-reported pain during intercourse, controlling for partner's pain acceptance. Greater pain acceptance among women was associated with their own lower anxiety and depression, greater sexual functioning, as well as their own and their partner's greater sexual satisfaction, controlling for the partner's pain acceptance. Additionally, greater pain acceptance among male partners was associated with their own lower depression. Findings suggest that psychological interventions for PVD should target increasing couples' vulvovaginal pain acceptance in

  17. Pristanic acid provokes lipid, protein, and DNA oxidative damage and reduces the antioxidant defenses in cerebellum of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Lobato, Vannessa Gonçalves Araujo; Zanatta, Ângela; Borges, Clarissa Günther; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Manfredini, Vanusa; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Vargas, Carmen Regla; de Souza, Diogo Onofre Gomes; Wajner, Moacir

    2014-12-01

    Zellweger syndrome (ZS) and some peroxisomal diseases are severe inherited disorders mainly characterized by neurological symptoms and cerebellum abnormalities, whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. Biochemically, these diseases are mainly characterized by accumulation of pristanic acid (Prist) and other fatty acids in the brain and other tissues. In this work, we evaluated the in vitro influence of Prist on redox homeostasis by measuring lipid, protein, and DNA damage, as well as the antioxidant defenses and the activities of aconitase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in cerebellum of 30-day-old rats. The effect of Prist on DNA damage was also evaluated in blood of these animals. Some parameters were also evaluated in cerebellum from neonatal rats and in cerebellum neuronal cultures. Prist significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and carbonyl formation and reduced sulfhydryl content and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in cerebellum of young rats. It also caused DNA strand damage in cerebellum and induced a high micronuclei frequency in blood. On the other hand, this fatty acid significantly reduced α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and aconitase activities in rat cerebellum. We also verified that Prist-induced increase of MDA levels was totally prevented by melatonin and attenuated by α-tocopherol but not by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indicating the involvement of reactive oxygen species in this effect. Cerebellum from neonate rats also showed marked alterations of redox homeostasis, including an increase of MDA levels and a decrease of sulfhydryl content and GSH concentrations elicited by Prist. Finally, Prist provoked an increase of dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation in cerebellum-cultivated neurons. Our present data indicate that Prist compromises redox homeostasis in rat cerebellum and blood and inhibits critical enzymes of the citric acid cycle that are susceptible to free radical attack. The

  18. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation as an additional treatment for women suffering from therapy-resistant provoked vestibulodynia: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinga, Marleen S; Spoelstra, Symen K; Hemel, Inge L M; van de Wiel, Harry B M; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C M

    2015-01-01

    The current approach to women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) comprises a multidimensional, multidisciplinary therapeutic protocol. As PVD is considered to be a chronic pain disorder, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) can be used as an additional therapy for women with otherwise therapy-resistant PVD. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether TENS has a beneficial effect on vulvar pain, sexual functioning, and sexually-related personal distress in women with therapy-resistant PVD and to assess the effect of TENS on the need for vestibulectomy. A longitudinal prospective follow-up study was performed on women with therapy-resistant PVD who received additional domiciliary TENS. Self-report questionnaires and visual analog scales (VASs) were completed at baseline (T1), post-TENS (T2), and follow-up (T3). Vulvar pain, sexual functioning, and sexually-related personal distress were the main outcome measures. Thirty-nine women with therapy-resistant PVD were included. Mean age was 27 ± 5.6 years (range: 19 to 41); mean duration between TENS and T3 follow-up was 10.1 ± 10.7 months (range: 2 to 32). Vulvar pain VAS scores directly post-TENS (median 3.4) and at follow-up (median 3.2) were significantly (P pain and the need for vestibulectomy. The long-term effect was stable. These results not only support our hypothesis that TENS constitutes a feasible and beneficial addition to multidimensional treatment for therapy-resistant PVD, but also the notion that PVD can be considered as a chronic pain syndrome. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Variables that Predict Serve Efficacy in Elite Men's Volleyball with Different Quality of Opposition Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, Álvaro; Fernández-Echeverría, Carmen; González-Silva, Jara; Claver, Fernando; Moreno, M Perla

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the variables that predicted serve efficacy in elite men's volleyball, in sets with different quality of opposition. 3292 serve actions were analysed, of which 2254 were carried out in high quality of opposition sets and 1038 actions were in low quality of opposition sets, corresponding to a total of 24 matches played during the Men's European Volleyball Championships held in 2011. The independent variables considered in this study were the serve zone, serve type, serving player, serve direction, reception zone, receiving player and reception type; the dependent variable was serve efficacy and the situational variable was quality of opposition sets. The variables that acted as predictors in both high and low quality of opposition sets were the serving player, reception zone and reception type. The serve type variable only acted as a predictor in high quality of opposition sets, while the serve zone variable only acted as a predictor in low quality of opposition sets. These results may provide important guidance in men's volleyball training processes.

  20. Later School Start Times: What Informs Parent Support or Opposition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunietz, Galit Levi; Matos-Moreno, Amilcar; Singer, Dianne C; Davis, Matthew M; O'Brien, Louise M; Chervin, Ronald D

    2017-07-15

    To investigate parental knowledge about adolescent sleep needs, and other beliefs that may inform their support for or objection to later school start times. In 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of a nationally representative sample of parents as part of the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health. Parents with teens aged 13-17 years reported their children's sleep patterns and school schedules, and whether the parents supported later school start times (8:30 am or later). Responses associated with parental support of later school start times were examined with logistic regression analysis. Overall, 88% of parents reported school start times before 8:30 am, and served as the analysis sample (n = 554). In this group, 51% expressed support for later school start times. Support was associated with current school start times before 7:30 am (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2, 8.4]); parental opinion that their teen's current school start time was "too early" (OR = 3.8 [1.8, 7.8]); and agreement with American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations about school start times (OR = 4.7 [2.2, 10.1]). Support also was associated with anticipation of improved school performance (OR = 3.0 [1.5, 5.9]) or increased sleep duration (OR = 4.0 [1.8, 8.9]) with later school start times. Conversely, parents who anticipated too little time for after-school activities (OR = 0.5 [0.3, 0.9]) and need for different transportation plans (OR = 0.5 [0.2, 0.9]) were often less supportive. Parental education about healthy sleep needs and anticipated health benefits may increase their support for later school start times. Educational efforts should also publicize the positive experiences of communities that have made this transition, with regard to limited adverse effect on after-school activity schedules and transportation. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  1. Identification of Fuzzy Inference Systems by Means of a Multiobjective Opposition-Based Space Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new category of fuzzy inference systems with the aid of a multiobjective opposition-based space search algorithm (MOSSA. The proposed MOSSA is essentially a multiobjective space search algorithm improved by using an opposition-based learning that employs a so-called opposite numbers mechanism to speed up the convergence of the optimization algorithm. In the identification of fuzzy inference system, the MOSSA is exploited to carry out the parametric identification of the fuzzy model as well as to realize its structural identification. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy models.

  2. Differentiating social and personal power: opposite effects on stereotyping, but parallel effects on behavioral approach tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Joris; Stoker, Janka I; Stapel, Diederik A

    2009-12-01

    How does power affect behavior? We posit that this depends on the type of power. We distinguish between social power (power over other people) and personal power (freedom from other people) and argue that these two types of power have opposite associations with independence and interdependence. We propose that when the distinction between independence and interdependence is relevant, social power and personal power will have opposite effects; however, they will have parallel effects when the distinction is irrelevant. In two studies (an experimental study and a large field study), we demonstrate this by showing that social power and personal power have opposite effects on stereotyping, but parallel effects on behavioral approach.

  3. Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Oppositional Defiant Problems as Antecedents of School Bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Jansen, Pauline W.; Veenstra, Rene; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Shaw, Philip; Tiemeier, Henning

    Objective: To examine whether early manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) increase children's later risk of bullying or victimization. Method: Using a population-based, prospective cohort, our multi-informant approach comprised

  4. Modeling Game Avatar Synergy and Opposition through Embedding in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Games

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhengxing; Xu, Yuyu; Nguyen, Truong-Huy D.; Sun, Yizhou; El-Nasr, Magy Seif

    2018-01-01

    Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have received increasing worldwide popularity recently. In such games, players compete in teams against each other by controlling selected game avatars, each of which is designed with different strengths and weaknesses. Intuitively, putting together game avatars that complement each other (synergy) and suppress those of opponents (opposition) would result in a stronger team. In-depth understanding of synergy and opposition relationships among game ...

  5. Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P

    2000-01-01

    pregnancy, and 95 took no artificial iodine supplementation. Iodine supplementation (+I) induced opposite variations in thyroid function in the mother and the fetus. In +I mothers, TSH was 7.6% lower than in mothers with no supplementation (P ... in the +I group (P caused by opposite shifts in TSH frequency distribution in mothers and neonates. The association between iodine supplementation and high serum TSH in the neonates was further substantiated by an inverse correlation between thyroglobulin and TSH in cord blood...

  6. Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex mar...

  7. Pain, psychological distress and motor pattern in women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) - symptom characteristics and therapy suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugstad, Gro Killi; Wojniusz, Slawomir; Kirste, Unni Merete; Kirschner, Rolf Steinar; Lilleheie, Ingvild; Haugstad, Tor Sigbjørn

    2018-04-25

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) represent a longstanding pain syndrome that affects large numbers of women worldwide. However, no standardized guidelines for PVD treatment exist. In a cross-sectional pilot study we examined 30 PVD patients on multidimensional parameters including pain, psychological distress and quality of movement, in order to obtain a broader understanding of the somatic and psychological symptoms in PVD, and for the future to develop better interventions. Additionally, we compare the findings to previously published results regarding the same parameters in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Thirty women with PVD recruited from a tertiary care university clinic of gynecology were assessed for demographic data, pain intensity (VAS), psychological distress (GHQ-30 and Tampa scale of Kinesophobia) and quality of movement (standardized Mensendieck test, SMT). Average age of the PVD women was 24.7±3.60 years, 60% of them were in permanent relationships, all were nulliparous, none had been subjected to surgical procedures, 100% were working full or part time and 90% were educated to at least undergraduate level. Mean VAS score was 7.77±1.97 (mean±SD), kinesiophobia 24.4±3.95 and anxiety domain of GHQ-30 9.73±4.06. SMT scores were particularly low for the domains of respiration and gait (less than 50% of optimal scores). PVD women display reduced quality of movement, especially for gait and respiration patterns, increased level of anxiety and high average pain scores. These findings are similar to what we have previously reported in CPP patients. However, in contrast to CPP group, PVD women are on average younger, have higher work participation, higher education level and have not been subjected to surgical procedures. Since PVD women display similar, although somewhat less severe, symptom profile than CPP, we suggest that a multidimensional approach to treatment, such as "somatocognitive therapy" should be investigated in this group as it has

  8. Visceral hypersensitivity is provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced ileitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Shah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Crohn’s Disease (CD, a chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease, can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but most frequently in the ileum. Visceral hypersensitivity contributes for development of chronic abdominal pain in this disease. Currently, the understanding of the mechanism underlying hypersensitivity of Crohn’s ileitis has been hindered by a lack of specific animal model. The present study is undertaken to investigate the visceral hypersensitivity provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS-induced ileitis rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and laparotomized for intraileal injection of TNBS (0.6 ml, 80 mg/kg body weight in 30% ethanol, n = 48, an equal volume of 30% Ethanol (n = 24 and Saline (n = 24, respectively. Visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by visceromotor responses (VMR to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mmHg colorectal distension pressure (CRD at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Immediately after CRD test, the rats were euthanized for collecting the terminal ileal segment for histopathological examinations and ELISA of myleoperoxidase and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and dorsal root ganglia (T11 for determination of calcitonin gene-related peptide by immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Among all groups, TNBS-treatment showed transmural inflammation initially at 3 days, reached maximum at 7 days and persisted up to 21 days. The rats with ileitis exhibited (P < 0.05 VMR to CRD at day 7 to day 21. The calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive positive cells increased (P < 0.05 in dorsal root ganglia at day 7 to 21, which was persistently consistent with visceral hypersensitivity in TNBS-treated rats.Conclusions: TNBS injection into the ileum induced transmural ileitis including granuloma and visceral hypersensitivity. As this model mimics clinical manifestations of CD, it may provide a road map to probe the pathogenesis of gut inflammation and visceral

  9. COOBBO: A Novel Opposition-Based Soft Computing Algorithm for TSP Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzheng Xu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel definition of opposite path. Its core feature is that the sequence of candidate paths and the distances between adjacent nodes in the tour are considered simultaneously. In a sense, the candidate path and its corresponding opposite path have the same (or similar at least distance to the optimal path in the current population. Based on an accepted framework for employing opposition-based learning, Oppositional Biogeography-Based Optimization using the Current Optimum, called COOBBO algorithm, is introduced to solve traveling salesman problems. We demonstrate its performance on eight benchmark problems and compare it with other optimization algorithms. Simulation results illustrate that the excellent performance of our proposed algorithm is attributed to the distinct definition of opposite path. In addition, its great strength lies in exploitation for enhancing the solution accuracy, not exploration for improving the population diversity. Finally, by comparing different version of COOBBO, another conclusion is that each successful opposition-based soft computing algorithm needs to adjust and remain a good balance between backward adjacent node and forward adjacent node.

  10. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  11. Lumbar internal disc derangement in patients with chronic low back pain: diagnostic value of the MR imaging findings as compared with provoked discography as the standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeon Seon; Park, Jee Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Ahn, Yong; Lee, Sang Yeun

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the MR imaging findings with provoked discography used as the standard for painful lumbar disc derangement. Two hundred patients (412 discs), (age rang: 21-77 year), with chronic low back pain underwent MRI and provoked discography. We evaluated the MRI T2-WI findings such as disc degeneration, high-Intensity zones and endplate abnormalities. Subsequently, provocative discography was independently performed with using MR imaging, and a painful disc was defined when moderate to severe and concordant pain was provoked. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the MRI findings with using provoked discography as the standard. 400 discs showed abnormal findings such as disc degeneration, HIZ and endplate abnormalities on the T2-WI images. 12 discs showed normal finding. HIZ or endplate abnormalities were always combined with disc degeneration. The prevalence of each findings were disc degeneration (400 discs: 97.1%), HIZ (111 discs: 26.9%), type I endplate abnormalities (34 discs: 8.3%), type II endplate abnormalities (75 discs: 18.2%), the combined findings of HIZ and type I endplate abnormalities (2 discs: 0.5%) and the combined findings of HIZ and type II endplate abnormalities (7 discs: 1.7%). The disc degeneration showed high sensitivity (99.5%) and low specificity (5.0%), so only the NPV (91.7%) was significant, and not the PPV (47.8%). Each findings of HIZ (sensitivity, 36.5%, specificity, 81.4%; PPV, 63.18%; NPV, 59.5%), type I endplate abnormalities (11.0%, 94.1%, 61.8% and 54.8%, respectively), type II endplate abnormalities (19.8%, 83.2%, 50.7% and 54.3%, respectively), the combined findings of HIZ and type I endplate abnormalities (0.5%, 99.6%, 50.0% and 53.4%, respectively) and the combined findings of HIZ and type II endplate abnormalities (26.0%, 99.1%, 71.4% and 53.8%, respectively) show high specificity, but low

  12. Lumbar internal disc derangement in patients with chronic low back pain: diagnostic value of the MR imaging findings as compared with provoked discography as the standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyeon Seon; Park, Jee Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Ahn, Yong [Wooridul spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Yeun [Puchon Daesung Hospital, Puchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the MR imaging findings with provoked discography used as the standard for painful lumbar disc derangement. Two hundred patients (412 discs), (age rang: 21-77 year), with chronic low back pain underwent MRI and provoked discography. We evaluated the MRI T2-WI findings such as disc degeneration, high-Intensity zones and endplate abnormalities. Subsequently, provocative discography was independently performed with using MR imaging, and a painful disc was defined when moderate to severe and concordant pain was provoked. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the MRI findings with using provoked discography as the standard. 400 discs showed abnormal findings such as disc degeneration, HIZ and endplate abnormalities on the T2-WI images. 12 discs showed normal finding. HIZ or endplate abnormalities were always combined with disc degeneration. The prevalence of each findings were disc degeneration (400 discs: 97.1%), HIZ (111 discs: 26.9%), type I endplate abnormalities (34 discs: 8.3%), type II endplate abnormalities (75 discs: 18.2%), the combined findings of HIZ and type I endplate abnormalities (2 discs: 0.5%) and the combined findings of HIZ and type II endplate abnormalities (7 discs: 1.7%). The disc degeneration showed high sensitivity (99.5%) and low specificity (5.0%), so only the NPV (91.7%) was significant, and not the PPV (47.8%). Each findings of HIZ (sensitivity, 36.5%, specificity, 81.4%; PPV, 63.18%; NPV, 59.5%), type I endplate abnormalities (11.0%, 94.1%, 61.8% and 54.8%, respectively), type II endplate abnormalities (19.8%, 83.2%, 50.7% and 54.3%, respectively), the combined findings of HIZ and type I endplate abnormalities (0.5%, 99.6%, 50.0% and 53.4%, respectively) and the combined findings of HIZ and type II endplate abnormalities (26.0%, 99.1%, 71.4% and 53.8%, respectively) show high specificity, but low

  13. Opposite Side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ruya Tuncturk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep neck infections are mortal diseases that need emergency treatment. It can occur at any age but usually in pediatric ages. In this report, a left cervical carotid space abscess of a pediatric patient was discussed. It was interesting that the only origin of the left carotid sheath abscess was right inferior first molar tooth decay. Right neck spaces were all clean. Patient had no immunosupression and also there were no congenital masses such as branchial cleft cysts, foreign bodies, or masses suspicious for malignancies in cervical ultrasound and MRI. We discussed this rare condition under the light of the literature.

  14. Nuclear public information activities in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Quintana; R

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper

  15. Deep underground disposal facility and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumberova, V.

    1997-01-01

    Factors arousing public anxiety in relation to the deep burial of radioactive wastes are highlighted based on Czech and foreign analyses, and guidelines are presented to minimize public opposition when planning a geologic disposal site in the Czech Republic. (P.A.)

  16. Understanding Death Penalty Support and Opposition Among Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Sethuraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a sizable number of studies have gathered information from college students regarding their varying degrees of support for capital punishment, few have explored the underlying rationales behind these students’ death penalty support or opposition. In addition, although criminal justice majors have frequently been used as study participants, little research has sought to explore if law enforcement majors are different in manners for supporting or opposing capital punishment than other criminal justice majors. In the current study, a survey designed to measure reasons for support or opposition to capital punishment was administered to a convenience sample of 135 criminal justice and law enforcement majors at a mid-size Midwestern university. The results indicated that law enforcement majors were not significantly different from criminal justice majors on measures of support or opposition to capital punishment. There were, however, some notable differences found related to the academic standing of the students.

  17. Oppositionality and socioemotional competence: interacting risk factors in the development of childhood conduct disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Skuse, David; Steer, Colin; St Pourcain, Beate; Oliver, Bonamy R

    2013-07-01

    Oppositional behavior in childhood is a probabilistic risk factor for the subsequent development of more serious conduct problems characteristic of conduct disorder (CD). The capacity to understand the subjective states of others (socioemotional competence) helps regulate antisocial behavior in typical development. We hypothesized that socioemotional competence moderates the developmental relationship between oppositionality and CD symptoms, such that oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms pose the greatest risk for subsequent CD symptoms in children with poor socioemotional competence. Parent-report data were collected for 6,218 children at 7 and 10 years of age. Bootstrap multiple regression predicting CD symptoms at age 10 was used to test for an interaction between socioemotional competence and ODD symptoms, while also accounting for direct effects and controlling for sex, maternal education, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and CD symptoms at 7 years. We further tested whether the interaction applied to both males and females, and to both aggressive and rule-breaking CD symptoms. A significant interaction was found between ODD and socioemotional competence: the association between oppositionality at 7 years and CD traits at 10 years was strongest for children with poor socioemotional capacities. As predicted, this moderation effect was significant in a model predicting aggression, but it was not significant for rule-breaking CD symptoms. Socioemotional competence moderates the developmental relationship between mid-childhood oppositionality and more serious conduct problems in later childhood. A capacity to understand the subjective states of others may buffer the risk posed by oppositionality for later CD symptoms, including aggression. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Same sex marriage and the perceived assault on opposite sex marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.

  19. Gender differences in the effects of oppositional behavior on teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David A; King, Alan R

    2004-04-01

    H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child exhibiting unremarkable behavior) suggested that oppositional tendencies inflated teacher ratings of ADHD for boys. The term "halo effect" has been used in the literature to refer to the impact of one class of behavior on the perception of another. This study replicated this procedure using identical scripts with both male and female child models. Oppositional behavior was associated with higher teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattentiveness. Portrayals of behavior associated with ADHD generated higher teacher ratings of oppositional conduct. This bidirectional effect differed in magnitude as a function of child gender. The boy actor exhibiting oppositional behavior received teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattention that were roughly half of those elicited by his portrayal of ADHD itself. The girl actor portraying ADHD generated oppositional defiant ratings that were roughly two thirds of those elicited from her performance as a child with ODD. These teacher rating tendencies could contribute to higher diagnostic rates of ADHD among boys and ODD among girls. Available epidemiologic data indicate a much higher rate of ADHD among boys and prevalence differentials for ODD (girls initially lower) that disappear by adolescence. Future research will be required to determine the extent to which these teacher response sets generalize to other evaluators such as parents, physicians and mental health professionals.

  20. Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Background Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Methods and Findings Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. Conclusion A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers–including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages. PMID:23776536

  1. Paired structures, imprecision types and two-level knowledge representation by means of opposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Opposition-based models are a current hot-topic in knowledge representation. The point of this paper is to suggest that opposition can be in fact introduced at two different levels, those of the predicates of interest being represented (as short/tall) and of the logical references (true/false) used...... to evaluate the verification of the former. We study this issue by means of the consideration of different paired structures at each level. We also pay attention at how different types of fuzziness may be introduced in these paired structures to model imprecision and lack of knowledge. As a consequence, we...

  2. Parliamentary Behaviour of the Members of Opposition Political Parties in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Fuzi Omar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In a hegemonic consociational system practised in Malaysia, the Opposition can hardly play a dominant role in making democracy work. Nevertheless, a content analysis of the debates in the House of Representatives from 1982 to 2003 show that the opposition members have contributed to the process of check and balance in the government by asking questions to relevant ministries and by initiating adjournment motions. In the process, they not merely attacked the government for their failure but also suggested alternative policies some of which were implemented by the ruling coalition.

  3. Social Anxiety Predicts Aggression in Children with ASD: Clinical Comparisons with Socially Anxious and Oppositional Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Cara E.; White, Bradley A.; White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which social anxiety predicts aggression in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD, n = 20) compared to children with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, n = 20) or with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD, n = 20). As predicted, children with HFASD reported levels…

  4. Opposition and Identicalness: Two Basic Components of Adults’ Perception and Mental Representation of Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bianchi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Symmetry is a salient aspect of biological and man-made objects, and has a central role in perceptual organization. Two studies investigate the role of opposition and identicalness in shaping adults’ naïve idea of “symmetry”. In study 1, both verbal descriptions of symmetry (either provided by the participants or selected from among alternatives presented by the experimenter and configurations drawn as exemplars of symmetry were studied. In study 2, a pair comparison task was used. Both studies focus on configurations formed by two symmetrical shapes (i.e., between-objects symmetry. Three main results emerged. The explicit description of symmetry provided by participants generally referred to features relating to the relationship perceived between the two shapes and not to geometrical point-by-point transformations. Despite the fact that people tended to avoid references to opposition in their verbal definition of symmetry in study 1, the drawings that they did to represent their prototypical idea of symmetry manifested opposition as a basic component. This latter result was confirmed when the participants were asked to select the definition (in study 1 or the configuration (in study 2 that best fitted with their idea of symmetry. In conclusion, identicalness is an important component in people’s naïve idea of symmetry, but it does not suffice: opposition complements it.

  5. Leaders, Followers, Oppositional Intellectuals, and the PhD Job Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adalaide

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the role of the English department head in a time of educational crisis. Examines the possibility that graduate study in English is losing its moral base. Considers the role of leadership and oppositional politics in the context of the crisis in graduate study. (HB)

  6. Gender Differences in the Effects of Oppositional Behavior on Teacher Ratings of ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David A.; King, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child…

  7. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers' emotion coaching and children's emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children's adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Dyads completed the questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching was associated…

  8. Dimensions of Oppositional Defiant Disorder as Predictors of Depression and Conduct Disorder in Preadolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) rather than CD may explain the comorbidity between behavioral disorders and depression; to test whether distinct affective and behavioral dimensions can be discerned within the symptoms of ODD; and to determine if an affective dimension of ODD symptoms is specifically predictive of later depression.

  9. Temperament Differences among Children with Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Diana; Oakland, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Temperament-based learning style preferences of 80 children, ages 8 to 17, 40 with conduct disorder (CD) and 40 with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were examined using the Student Styles Questionnaire (SSQ). The SSQ measures four dimensions of learning style preferences based on temperament theory (Extroverted-Introverted, Thinking-Feeling,…

  10. Conduct behaviors and oppositional defiant behaviors in children and adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    There is controversy about the association among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder behaviors, and oppositional defiant behaviors. This study examines whether different subcategories of conduct behaviors co-occur in children with ADHD, and investigates the association of conduct behaviors with ADHD symptoms and oppositional defiant behavior, considering the covariant factors of parental age and educational level. A total of 441 children and adolescents with ADHD participated in this study - 342 (77.6%) boys and 99 girls (22.4%). Their mean age was 9.1 (standard deviation = 2.2) years. They came from families with 1 to 8 children. There were statistically significant correlations among different subcategories of conduct disorder (p Oppositional behavior scores were associated with all 4 subcategories of conduct behaviors. The severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity was associated with the subcategory of "destruction of property." The inattentiveness score was associated with "aggression to people and animals." The current results do not suggest that conduct behaviors exclude oppositional defiant behaviors. The subcategories of conduct behaviors occur in a cluster rather than as a solitary behavior. Larger family size and lower educational level of the father increase the risk of aggression to people and animals in children with ADHD.

  11. Effectiveness of Group Play Therapy on Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Among Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Morshed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: With regard to the prevalence of Oppositional-Defiant Disorder in children and converting to the other disorders, if left untreated, this research aims to investigate the effectiveness of group play therapy on oppositional-defiant disorder symptoms among children. Materials and Methods: This study is interventional and quasi-experimental research. In this study based on cluster sampling method, 30 participants were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The tools discussed here included Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, Raven's Progressive Matrixes, Teacher Report Form (TRF as well as a clinical interview with parents. Play therapy was provided weekly by group for the participants, in sixty-minute eight sessions. Participants were assessed in three stages of pre- interference post- interference and after two month intervals from completing sessions. SPSS18 and multi-variables covariance analysis method were used for analyzing data. Results: The results obtained by Mancova analysis showed that there was a significant decrease in oppositional defiant-disorder symptoms in comparison with control group reporting by parents and teacher (P < 0.001. In addition, the results indicated the same effect after two months. Conclusions: The results indicated the efficiency of group play therapy on decrease of oppositional defiant disorder symptoms among children. Accordingly using this treatment method on children was recommended to the therapists.

  12. Cancer risk in opposite-sex and same-sex twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Ahrenfeldt, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Twin pregnancies are characterized by simultaneous development of two fetuses that share the womb. An interest in opposite-sex (OS) twins, twin pairs consisting of one male and one female, comes from animal studies that showed that exposure to sex hormones is influenced by the position of the fetus...

  13. Bubble merging in breathing DNA as a vicious walker problem in opposite potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Hansen, Mikael Sonne; Novotny, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    on the problem of two vicious walkers in opposite potentials. We also present a discrete master equation approach to the bubble coalescence problem. Numerical evaluation and stochastic simulation of the master equation show excellent agreement with the results from the continuum approach. Given...

  14. An Analysis of Oppositional Culture Theory Applied to One Suburban Midwestern High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackard, Tricia; Puchner, Laurel; Reeves, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether and to what extent Ogbu and Fordham's Oppositional Culture Theory applied to African American high school students at one Midwestern suburban high school. Based on multiple interviews with six African American students, the study found support for some aspects of the theory but not for others.

  15. How Oppositionality, Inattention, and Hyperactivity Affect Response to Atomoxetine versus Methylphenidate: A Pooled Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Gregory W.; Hazell, Philip L.; Kohn, Michael R.; Granger, Renee E.; Walton, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess how threshold oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity affect the response to atomoxetine versus methylphenidate. Method: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs; greater than or equal to 6 weeks follow-up). The primary measure was core symptom response--greater than or…

  16. Opposite-side flavour tagging of $B$ mesons at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; de Bruyn, K; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Constantin, F; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    The calibration and performance of the opposite-side flavour tagging algorithms used for the measurements of time-dependent asymmetries at the LHCb experiment are described. The algorithms have been developed using simulated events and optimized and calibrated with $B^+ \\to J/ \\psi K^+$, $B^0 \\to J/\\psi K^{*0}$ and $B^0 \\to D^{*-} \\mu^+ \

  17. Does beauty catch the eye?: Sex differences in gazing at attractive opposite-sex targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, I.; Holland, R.; Finkenauer, C.; Hollenstein, T.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated to what extent the length of people's gazes during conversations with opposite-sex persons is affected by the physical attractiveness of the partner. Single participants (N = 115) conversed for 5 min with confederates who were rated either as low or high on physical attractiveness.

  18. Dimensions of Oppositional Defiant Disorder as Predictors of Depression and Conduct Disorder in Preadolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) rather than conduct disorder (CD) may explain the comorbidity between behavioral disorders and depression; to test whether distinct affective and behavioral dimensions can be discerned within the symptoms of ODD; and to determine whether an affective dimension of ODD symptoms is…

  19. Predictive Validity of DSM-IV Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders in Clinically Referred Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Boeldt, Debra; Chen, Diane; Coyne, Claire; Donald, Radiah; Duax, Jeanne; Hart, Katherine; Perrott, Jennifer; Strickland, Jennifer; Danis, Barbara; Hill, Carri; Davis, Shante; Kampani, Smita; Humphries, Marisha

    2011-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic validity of oppositional defiant and conduct disorders (ODD and CD) for preschoolers has been questioned based on concerns regarding the ability to differentiate normative, transient disruptive behavior from clinical symptoms. Data on concurrent validity have accumulated, but predictive validity is limited. Predictive…

  20. The relevance of introducing opposition proceedings into the Serbian trademark legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the quality of certain legal procedures applied in domestic trademark legislation in the light of harmonizing our legislation with those of the EU. Trademark Law in the Republic of Serbia (2009 does not rely on opposition proceedings as a phase in the process of trademark registration and a tool that would ensure that only those trademarks that fulfill the necessary conditions are granted legal protection. Intellectual Property Office examines the so-called relative grounds for trademark registration refusal but does so ex officio, thus preventing the holders of trademark rights from benefiting from a relatively inexpensive and effective opposition procedure regarding the registration of a second trademark which violates their previously established rights. In contrast to our trademark laws, EU Council Regulation 207/2009 on Community Trademarks of February 26, 2009 (CTMR -Community trademark regulation enforces opposition proceedings as the most important phase in the process of trademark registration. European experience shows that opposition proceedings carry significant benefits for the process of trademark application. First of all, they allow the holders of previously established trademark rights to avoid long and costly court proceedings whose purpose is to dispute trademarks that violate the owner's rights. Also, state agencies authorizing in trademark approval no longer need to monitor registered trademarks.

  1. Family Correlates of Oppositional and Conduct Disorders in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; McBurnett, Keith; Rathouz, Paul J.; Judice, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    Comorbidities among children with ADHD are key determinants of treatment response, course, and outcome. This study sought to separate family factors (parental psychopathology and parenting practices) associated with comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) from those associated with Conduct Disorder (CD) among children with Attention…

  2. Source-Specific Oppositional Defiant Disorder among Inner-City Children: Prospective Prediction and Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Bubier, Jennifer; Chen, Diane; Price, Julia; Lanza, H. Isabella

    2011-01-01

    We examined prospective prediction from parent- and teacher-reported oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms to parent-reported ODD, conduct disorder (CD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and whether child executive functioning abilities moderated these relations among an urban, low-income sample of…

  3. Predicting Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder from Preschool Diagnostic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Youngwirth, Sara D.; Thakar, Dhara A.; Errazuriz, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the power of measures of early preschool behavior to predict later diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 168 children with behavior problems at age 3 who underwent a multimethod assessment of ADHD and ODD symptoms and…

  4. Differentiating social and personal power : opposite effects on stereotyping, but parallel effects on behavioral approach tendencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Stoker, J.I.; Stapel, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    How does power affect behavior? We posit that this depends on the type of power. We distinguish between social power (power over other people) and personal power (freedom from other people) and argue that these two types of power have opposite associations with independence and interdependence. We

  5. Effects of complexation of oppositely charged water-soluble cobaltphthalocyanines on catalytic mercaptoethanol autoxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, E.T.W.M.; Heuts, J.P.A.; Piet, P.; Beelen, T.P.M.; German, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    In order to elucidate the different promoting effects polycations have on cobalt(II) phthalocyanine-catalyzed autoxidn. of 2-mercaptoethanol, the properties of mixts. of oppositely charged water-sol. cobalt(II) phthalocyanines were studied. The contribution of polycation-induced dimerization of the

  6. Repulsion between oppositely charged rod-shaped macromolecules: Role of overcharging and ionic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Hanne S.; Van Tassel, Paul R.; Sammalkorpi, Maria

    2017-09-01

    The interaction between two oppositely charged rod-shaped macro-ions in a micro-ion solution is investigated via Monte Carlo simulations of the primitive model. The focus is on the asymmetry in rod and/or ion charge, i.e., conditions where oppositely charged objects can repel one another. For equally and oppositely charged rods with asymmetric z:1 micro-ions, repulsion may be induced by overcharging one of the rods with the z valent ions. For asymmetrically charged rods in a symmetric z:z micro-ion solution, a repulsive interaction—at separation of the order of one ion diameter—can arise via an unbalanced osmotic pressure contribution from the ionic atmosphere in the inter-rod space, and an attractive interaction—at a smaller separation—may occur due to a "squeezing out" of the micro-ions from the space between the rods (with a consequent gain in entropy). The thermodynamics of each mechanism is investigated in terms of rod charge and size and micro-ion valence, size, and concentration. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the complex role of charge asymmetry on the interaction of, for example, oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, functionalized nanotubes, and rod-like biomolecules, e.g., viruses.

  7. The Treatment of Maladaptive Shame in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study of "Opposite Action"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Shireen L.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to pilot test a short-term intervention for maladaptive shame in borderline personality disorder (BPD) based on the skill of "opposite action" from dialectical behavior therapy. Five women with BPD were treated with the intervention using a single-subject, multiple-baseline design. Results indicate that, although state ratings of…

  8. In defense of tradition: Religiosity, conservatism, and opposition to same-sex marriage in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, J.; Jost, J. T.; Packer, D. J.; Noorbaloochi, S.; van Bavel, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Arguments opposing same-sex marriage are often made on religious grounds. In five studies conducted in the United States and Canada (combined N = 1,673), we observed that religious opposition to same-sex marriage was explained, at least in part, by conservative ideology and linked to sexual

  9. Initial Opposition--Won't Portfolio Assessment Take Away Teacher Autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Marcia

    Unacknowledged and untended opposition can lead the "resistance" to destroy even the best planned of portfolio systems. The greatest cause of initial resistance to portfolio assessment is the fear that teachers will lose their autonomy and/or authority in the classroom. Writing instructors need to ask themselves about issues of control and…

  10. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY AND HARDNESS OF COMPRESSION AND OPPOSITE WOOD CELL WALLS OF MASSON PINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Huang,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Compression wood is commonly found in Masson pine. To evaluate the mechanical properties of the cell wall of Masson pine compression and opposite wood, nanoindentation was used. The results showed that the average values of hardness and cell wall modulus of elasticity of opposite wood were slightly higher than those of compression wood. With increasing age of the annual ring, the modulus of elasticity showed a negative correlation with microfibril angle, but a weak correlation was observed for hardness. In opposite and compression wood from the same annual ring, the differences in average values of modulus of elasticity and hardness were small. These slight differences were explained by the change of microfibril angle (MFA, the press-in mode of nanoindentation, and the special structure of compression wood. The mechanical properties were almost the same for early, transition, and late wood in a mature annual ring of opposite wood. It can therefore be inferred that the average modulus of elasticity (MOE and hardness of the cell walls in a mature annual ring were not being affected by cell wall thickness.

  11. Support and Opposition to the Women's Liberation Movement: Some Personality and Parental Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worell, Judith; Worell, Leonard

    1977-01-01

    This study examines eight hypotheses concerning personality and parental determinants of support and opposition to the Women's Liberation Movement. These cognitive, motivational, and parental variables are interpreted in relation to the differing dispositions of each group toward the issues raised by the women's movement. (Editor/RK)

  12. Functional Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…

  13. Familial Risk Factors to Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Parental Psychopathology and Maternal Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In sample of 177 clinic-referred children aged 7-13, association was found between diagnosis of conduct disorder and several aspects of family functioning: maternal parenting (supervision and persistence in discipline) and parent adjustment (paternal antisocial personality disorder and paternal substance abuse). Children with oppositional defiant…

  14. Birth weight in opposite sex twins as compared to same sex dizygotic twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlebeke, J.F.; van Baal, G.C.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Neeleman, D.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in the present report is whether the large birth weight differences in dizygotic twin pairs of opposite sex (DZos), especially in 'male first' couples - observed by Blickstein and Weissman (Blickstein I, Weissman A. Birth weight discordancy in male-first and female-first pairs

  15. A Comprehensive Investigation of Memory Impairment in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sinead M.; Park, Joanne; Seth, Sarah; Coghill, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We conducted a comprehensive and systematic assessment of memory functioning in drug-naive boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Methods: Boys performed verbal and spatial working memory (WM) component (storage and central executive) and verbal and spatial storage load tasks,…

  16. Microscopic origin and macroscopic implications of lane formation in mixtures of oppositely-driven particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelam, Stephen

    Colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, can segregate into lanes. I will describe some results on this phenomenon obtained by simple physical arguments and computer simulations. Laning results from rectification of diffusion on the scale of a particle diameter: oppositely-driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This geometric constraint implies that the diffusion constant of a particle, in the presence of those of the opposite type, grows approximately linearly with Peclet number, a prediction confirmed by our numerics. Such environment-dependent diffusion is statistically similar to an effective interparticle attraction; consistent with this observation, we find that oppositely-driven colloids display features characteristic of the simplest model system possessing both interparticle attractions and persistent motion, the driven Ising lattice gas. Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  17. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adult ADHD and Impact on Emotional and Oppositional Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Barrie K.; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Robison, Reid J.; Olsen, John L.; Kondo, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This trial evaluated the effect of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) on the full spectrum of adult symptoms (attention-disorganization, hyperactivity-impulsivity, emotional dysregulation [ED], and oppositional-defiant disorder [ODD]) found in this disorder. Method: This placebo-controlled, double-blind, flexible-dose, crossover…

  18. Three-Dimensional Bioprinting of Oppositely Charged Hydrogels with Super Strong Interface Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Tan, Yu Jun; Liu, Sijun; Li, Lin

    2018-04-04

    A novel strategy to improve the adhesion between printed layers of three-dimensional (3D) printed constructs is developed by exploiting the interaction between two oppositely charged hydrogels. Three anionic hydrogels [alginate, xanthan, and κ-carrageenan (Kca)] and three cationic hydrogels [chitosan, gelatin, and gelatin methacrylate (GelMA)] are chosen to find the optimal combination of two oppositely charged hydrogels for the best 3D printability with strong interface bonding. Rheological properties and printability of the hydrogels, as well as structural integrity of printed constructs in cell culture medium, are studied as functions of polymer concentration and the combination of hydrogels. Kca2 (2 wt % Kca hydrogel) and GelMA10 (10 wt % GelMA hydrogel) are found to be the best combination of oppositely charged hydrogels for 3D printing. The interfacial bonding between a Kca layer and a GelMA layer is proven to be significantly higher than that of the bilayered Kca or bilayered GelMA because of the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes between the oppositely charged hydrogels. A good cell viability of >96% is obtained for the 3D-bioprinted Kca-GelMA construct. This novel strategy has a great potential for 3D bioprinting of layered constructs with a strong interface bonding.

  19. Public attitudes toward nuclear generating facilities: positive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krannich, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    Public opposition and intervention in the siting and development of nuclear power plants has become more of a limiting factor than technological issues. Attitude surveys indicate that, while the majority of Americans support nuclear power, the utilities would do well to respond to the concerns and opinions of local residents when projects are in the planning stages. Recent polls are analyzed to identify the demographic and perceptive factors of opposition. Demographic studies indicate that the greatest opposition comes from women, young people, urban residents, farmers, low-income groups, and the unemployed. Perceptual opposition is associated with anticipated negative impacts in the form of hazards and social disruption. Since there appears to be a correlation between access to pertinent information and level of support, utility planners could develop educational programs to provide this information on the advantages of nuclear power. 10 references

  20. Efficacy of an opposite position aspiration on resolution of pneumothorax following CT-guided lung biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L-C; Du, Y; Yang, H-F; Xie, M-G; Liao, H-Q; Zhang, Y-D; Li, L; Wang, Q; Hu, L

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of aspiration in an opposite position to deal with pneumothorax after CT-guided lung biopsy. Methods: A retrospective study was developed involving 210 patients with pneumothorax who had undergone CT-guided percutaneous core biopsies from January 2012 to March 2014 for various pulmonary lesions. Asymptomatic patients with minimal pneumothorax were treated conservatively. Simple manual aspiration was performed for symptomatic patients with minimal pneumothorax and for all patients with moderate to large pneumothorax. An opposite position aspiration was performed when simple manual aspiration failed. The efficacy of simple manual aspiration and the opposite position aspiration was observed. Results: Among 210 patients with pneumothorax, 128 (61.0%) asymptomatic patients with minimal pneumothorax were treated conservatively. The remaining 82 were treated with attempted simple manual aspiration. Out of these 82 patients, simple manual aspiration was successful in 58 (70.7%, 58/82) cases. The complete and partial regression rates were 17.2% (10/58) and 82.8% (48/58), respectively. In the other 24 patients (29.3%, 24/82), simple aspiration technique was ineffective. An opposite position (from prone to supine or vice versa) was applied, and a new biopsy puncture site was chosen for reaspiration. This procedure was successful in 22 patients but not in 2 patients who had to have a chest tube insertion. The complete and partial regression rates were 25.0% (6/24) and 66.7% (16/24), respectively. Applying the new method, the total effective rate of aspiration improved significantly from 70.7% (58/82) to 97.6% (80/82). Conclusion: The opposite position aspiration can be safe, effective and minimally invasive treatment for CT-guided lung biopsy-induced pneumothorax thus reducing the use of chest tube significantly. Advances in knowledge: (1) Opposite position aspiration can elevate the success rate of aspiration significantly (from 70.7% to 97

  1. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposi-tion of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existen-tial aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the follow-ing tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inac-tivity through the opposition of fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of hu-man activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authen-tic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific nov-elty. For the first time the analysis of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its es-sential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being. If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with human mind and conscious decision, non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental mean

  2. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposition of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existential aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the following tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of  fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inactivity through the opposition of  fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authentic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific novelty. For the first time the analysis of the  fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the  fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its essential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being.  If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with  human mind and conscious decision,  non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental meaning

  3. Public acceptance in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.; Heerden, A. van

    1990-01-01

    The paper deals with public perceptions of nuclear power. These perceptions were shaped initially by the worlds violent introduction to nuclear power when the first nuclear bombs were exploded during 1945. Public perceptions have deteriorated due to the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. Although there are signs of improvement the nuclear industry internationally is facing opposition, a situation which also obtains in South Africa, although to a lesser degree. Public concern in respect of fossil fuels have lessened the pressure on nuclear power. (author)

  4. Public acceptance in Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, J [The Star, Johannesburg (South Africa); Heerden, A van [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1990-06-01

    The paper deals with public perceptions of nuclear power. These perceptions were shaped initially by the worlds violent introduction to nuclear power when the first nuclear bombs were exploded during 1945. Public perceptions have deteriorated due to the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. Although there are signs of improvement the nuclear industry internationally is facing opposition, a situation which also obtains in South Africa, although to a lesser degree. Public concern in respect of fossil fuels have lessened the pressure on nuclear power. (author)

  5. Reassuring the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.

    1999-01-01

    The first site selection, which was performed in Slovenia between 1990 and 1993, was unsuccessful. The representatives of local municipalities which were identified in the siting process were alarmed and had shown extremely high opposition to everything linked to radioactive waste. To learn by previous mistakes, the RAO Agency decided to conduct a public opinion poll on those locations, with the main objective of obtaining information on the present opinion of the local communities, and to use the experiences in the preparation of a new site selection procedure. The results of this poll and the starting-points for the new siting process are presented in this paper.(author)

  6. Relationship between non-genital tender point tenderness and intra-vaginal muscle pain intensity: Ratings in women with provoked vestibulodynia and implications for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    PHILLIPS, Nancy; BROWN, Candace; BACHMANN, Gloria; WAN, Jim; WOOD, Ronald; ULRICH, Dagny; BACHOUR, Candi; FOSTER, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Vulvodynia is a chronic vulvar pain disorder and fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder; both of unknown etiology. Association of these conditions is well documented. Intra-vaginal algometer measurement of tenderness to pressure applied to the pelvic floor muscles helps to define vulvodynia associated with musculoskeletal factors. Women with both vulvodynia and fibromyalgia might have increased pelvic muscle pain compared to women with vulvodynia alone, defining the possible link of these two conditions. Objective 1) correlate pain intensity during the non-genital tender point tenderness examination to pain intensity with the vaginal algometer in women with provoked vestibulodynia, 2) determine whether subjects with provoked vestibulodynia and fibromyalgia had higher pain intensity scores with the vaginal algometer than those without fibromyalgia. Study Design Ninety-two subjects referred for vulvar pain were confirmed to have provoked vestibulodynia using the cotton swab test. A diagnosis of fibromyalgia was made if pain was present (Numerical rating scale> 1) in at least 11 sites of the 18-point non-genital tender point tenderness exam. Vaginal pain sensitivity was measured using an intra-vaginal pressure algometer, where 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 kg/cm2 forces were applied digitally in random assignment by force and location to the right and left iliococcygeus muscle regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Both tender point tenderness and algometer pain intensity were reported on a 0 (no pain) to 10 (worse pain) numeric rating scale. Correlations were computed between the composite pain intensity (total of rating scale from each pressure threshold at specified site) of non-genital and those of iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences in iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal algometer pain ratings and presence or absence of fibromyalgia. The significance

  7. Development and implementation of public relations strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukovica, T.; Mele, I.; Stritar, A.; Isteni, R.

    1995-01-01

    Following the strong public opposition after the announcement of the results of possible site selections for the final low and intermediate waste repository in Slovenia in 1993, the Agency for Radwaste Management has completely revised its public information strategy. The information and education programs, that should lead to greater public acceptance, are described. At present the bulletin, leaflets, booklet, permanent exhibition and lectures in the Nuclear Training Centre are applied. (author)

  8. Not so sweet refrain: sugar-sweetened beverage taxes, industry opposition and harnessing the lessons learned from tobacco control legal challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Anita

    2018-05-21

    As a growing number of countries implement, or announce plans to introduce, a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax, this paper explores the public health rationale for such a tax and provides an overview of the international normative and policy instruments supporting the introduction of fiscal measures on sugary drinks. After examining parallels between the legal arguments raised by the food and beverage industry in opposition to SSB taxes and those raised by the tobacco industry in response to tobacco control measures, this paper draws four key lessons that will assist countries to design effective and robust SSB tax measures and counter food and beverage industry opposition: regulatory distinctions in tax coverage should be based on bona fide, evidence-based reasoning; evidence-based measures need to be tailored to a country's public health objectives as part of a comprehensive strategy to address unhealthy diet consumption; procedural requirements and due process should be observed in the drafting and implementation of the measure; and regulatory space exists within domestic constitutions, laws and international trade and investment agreements recognising the sovereign right of states to regulate in the interests of public health.

  9. Public interest group involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, P.

    1986-01-01

    Including public interest groups in the siting process for nuclear waste disposal facilities is of great importance. Controversial sitings often result in litigation, but involving public interest groups early in the process will lessen the change of this. They act as surrogates for the general public and should be considered as members of the team. It is important to remember though, that all public interest groups are different. In choosing public panels such as public advisory committees, members should not be chosen on the basis of some quota. Opposition groups should not be excluded. Also, it is important to put the right person in charge of the committee. The goal of public involvement is to identify the conflicts. This must be done during the decision process, because conflicts must be known before they can be eliminated. Regarding litigation, it is important to ease through and around legal battles. If the siting process has integrity and a good faith effort has been shown, the court should uphold the effort. In addition, it is important to be negotiable and to eliminate shortcuts

  10. A review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder complicated by symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; Steeber, Jennifer; McBurnett, Keith

    2010-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent disorder with significant functional impairment. ADHD is frequently complicated by oppositional symptoms, which are difficult to separate from comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and aggressive symptoms. This review addresses the impact of oppositional symptoms on ADHD, disease course, functional impairment, clinical management, and treatment response. Oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder may be comorbid in more than half of ADHD cases and are more common with the combined than with the inattentive ADHD subtype. Comorbid symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in patients with ADHD can have a significant impact on the course and prognosis for these patients and may lead to differential treatment response to both behavioral and pharmacologic treatments. Assessment of oppositional symptoms is an essential part of ADHD screening and diagnosis and should include parental, as well as educator, input. Although clinical evidence remains limited, some stimulant and nonstimulant medications have shown effectiveness in treating both core ADHD symptoms and oppositional symptoms. Oppositional symptoms are a key consideration in ADHD management, although the optimum approach to treating ADHD complicated by such symptoms remains unclear. Future research should focus on the efficacy and safety of various behavioral and medication regimens, as well as longitudinal studies to further clarify the relationships between ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder.

  11. The effects of presenting oncologic information in terms of opposites in a medical context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burro R

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Burro,1 Ugo Savardi,1 Maria Antonietta Annunziata,2 Paolo De Paoli,2 Ivana Bianchi3 1Department of Human Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 2National Cancer Institute IRCCS ‘Centro di Riferimento Oncologico’ (CRO, Aviano, Italy; 3Department of Humanities (Section Philosophy and Human Sciences, University of Macerata, Macerata, Italy Background: An extensive body of literature has demonstrated that many patients who have been asked to participate in clinical trials do not fully understand the informed consent forms. A parallel independent study has demonstrated that opposites have a special status in human cognitive organization: they are common to all-natural languages and are intuitively and naturally understood and learnt.Purpose: The study investigates whether, and how, the use of opposites impacts on doctor–patient communication: does using the terms “small–large” to describe a nodule (ie, bipolar communication rather than speaking in terms of centimeters (ie, unipolar communication affect a patient’s understanding of the situation? And is it better to speak of “common–rare” side effects (ie, bipolar communication instead of the number of people who have suffered from particular side effects (ie, unipolar communication?Methods: Two questionnaires were created and used, one presenting the information in terms of opposites (ie, bipolar communication and another using unipolar communication.Results: The participants’ perception of their situation (in terms of feeling healthy–ill, being at high–low risk, and their treatment requiring high–low commitment varied in the two conditions. Moreover, self-reported levels of understanding and satisfaction with how the information was communicated were higher when opposites were used.Limitations: Since this is the first study that addresses the merits of using bipolar structures versus unipolar structures in doctor–patient communication, further work is

  12. Intranasal oxytocin reduces provoked symptoms in female patients with posttraumatic stress disorder despite exerting sympathomimetic and positive chronotropic effects in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, M; Spieler, D; Wizelman, L; Epple, G; Stich, J; Zaba, M; Schmidt, U

    2017-02-17

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe psychiatric disease accompanied by neuroendocrine changes such as adrenergic overdrive and hence an elevated cardiovascular morbidity. Current pharmacotherapeutic options for PTSD are less than suboptimal, necessitating the development of PTSD-specific drugs. Although the neuropeptide oxytocin has been repeatedly suggested to be effective in PTSD treatment, there are, to our knowledge, only three studies that have assessed its efficacy on the intensity of PTSD symptoms in PTSD patients - among them one symptom provocation study in male veterans. To evaluate for the first time how oxytocin influences the intensity of provoked PTSD symptoms and, furthermore, cardiac control in female PTSD patients, we assessed their psychic and cardiac response to trauma-script exposure with and without oxytocin pretreatment in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. We used a within-subject design to study 35 female PTSD patients who received oxytocin and placebo in a 2-week interval. Furthermore, we performed a small pilot study to get an idea of the relation of the stress-modulated endogenous oxytocin levels and heart rate - we correlated oxytocin serum levels with the heart rate of 10 healthy individuals before and after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Intranasal oxytocin treatment was followed by a reduction of provoked total PTSD symptoms, in particular of avoidance, and by an elevation in baseline and maximum heart rate together with a drop in the pre-ejection period, a marker for sympathetic cardiac control. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between endogenous oxytocin levels and heart rate both before and after TSST challenge in healthy control subjects. This study provides the first evidence that oxytocin treatment reduces the intensity of provoked PTSD symptoms in female PTSD patients. The small size of both samples and the heterogeneity of the patient sample restrict the

  13. Comparing Tense Systems: the Primacy of the Pres/Past Opposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Borik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A way of improving on the description of the English tense system in Reichenbach [1947] is achieved by changing its matrix 3x3 design into a 2x2x2 set up, formed by 3 basic oppositions: • present vs. past • synchronous vs. posterior • incompleted vs. completed action The advantages of the binary system over the Reichenbachian ternary system are the following: • the binary system is completely compositional; • there is no tripartition between Past, Present and Future, but only the basic opposition between Past and Present remains. As we intend to show later, this is empirically supported by the Russian and Polish data; • some concrete problems, for instance, the ambiguity of past perfect with temporal adverbials or more then one configuration for the same tense form [Future Perfect [will have written] or Past Future tense [would write

  14. Performance Assessment in a Heat Exchanger Tube with Opposite/Parallel Wing Twisted Tapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eiamsa-ard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermohydraulic performance in a tube containing a modified twisted tape with alternate-axes and wing arrangements is reported. This work aims to investigate the effects of wing arrangements (opposite (O and parallel (P wings at different wing shapes (triangle (Tri, rectangular (Rec, and trapezoidal (Tra wings and on the thermohydraulic performance characteristics. The obtained results show that wing twisted tapes with all wing shape arrangements (O-Tri/O-Rec/O-Tra/P-Tri/P-Rec/P-Tra give superior thermohydraulic performance and heat transfer rate to the typical twisted tape. In addition, the tapes with opposite wing arrangement of O-Tra, O-Rec, and O-Tri give superior thermohydraulic performances to those with parallel wing arrangement of P-Tra, P-Rec, and P-Tri around 2.7%, 3.5%, and 3.2%, respectively.

  15. Air conditioning system and component therefore distributing air flow from opposite directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obler, H. D.; Bauer, H. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The air conditioning system comprises a plurality of separate air conditioning units coupled to a common supply duct such that air may be introduced into the supply duct in two opposite flow directions. A plurality of outlets such as registers or auxiliary or branch ducts communicate with the supply duct and valve means are disposed in the supply duct at at least some of the outlets for automatically channelling a controllable amount of air from the supply duct to the associated outlet regardless of the direction of air flow within the supply duct. The valve means comprises an automatic air volume control apparatus for distribution within the air supply duct into which air may be introduced from two opposite directions. The apparatus incorporates a freely swinging movable vane in the supply duct to automatically channel into the associated outlet only the deflected air flow which has the higher relative pressure.

  16. Superposition of two optical vortices with opposite integer or non-integer orbital angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando Díaz Meza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a brief proposal to achieve the superposition of two opposite vortex beams, both with integer or non-integer mean value of the orbital angular momentum. The first part is about the generation of this kind of spatial light distributions through a modified Brown and Lohmann’s hologram. The inclusion of a simple mathematical expression into the pixelated grid’s transmittance function, based in Fourier domain properties, shifts the diffraction orders counterclockwise and clockwise to the same point and allows the addition of different modes. The strategy is theoretically and experimentally validated for the case of two opposite rotation helical wavefronts.

  17. The Emergence of Political Opposition in Mexico, 1949-1952. Two Proposals for Electoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Ayala López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using methodological elements from political and institutional history, the present article analyzes, the first proposal for the implementation of an electoral system of proportional representation in Mexico and its primary repercussions in the formulation of subsequent electoral laws. This initiative was presented by Vicente Lombardo Toledano and the Popular Party (PP in 1951, during the XLI Legislature (1949-1952. This event is correlated with the emergence of political opposition in the Chamber of Deputies. In the same year as the PP proposes reform, the National Action Party (PAN proposes another initiative of electoral reform. Both proposals propitiate a legislative debate that identifies the importance of elections as an instrument of State political control and proposed its reformulation. In this sense, the principal contribution of this study is to visibilize the proreform discourses of political opposition in a period which is often through of as being characterized by authoritarianism and censorship.

  18. Opposite-side flavour tagging of B mesons at the LHCb experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Abellan Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; de Bruyn, K; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Constantin, F; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The calibration and performance of the opposite-side flavour tagging algorithms used for the measurements of time-dependent asymmetries at the LHCb experiment are described. The algorithms have been developed using simulated events and optimized and calibrated with B + → J / ψK + , B 0 → J / ψK ∗0 and B 0 → D ∗- μ + ν μ decay modes with 0.37 fb -1 of data collected in pp collisions at [Formula: see text] during the 2011 physics run. The opposite-side tagging power is determined in the B + → J / ψK + channel to be (2.10±0.08±0.24) %, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  19. Adversarial Framing: President Bashar al-Assad’s Depiction of the Armed Syrian Opposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Merz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper evaluates how Syrian president Bashar al-Assad is framing his opponents in the context of the Syrian civil war. The question is addressed by conducting a qualitative thematic analysis of 13 interviews he gave to international television news networks and newspapers between March and November 2013. It is found that Al-Assad consequently labels the armed opposition as “terrorists” preponderantly composed of groups affiliated to Al-Qaeda. The “terrorists” are framed as posing a threat to the region as well as to international security on a global scale. Furthermore, Al-Assad denies the armed opposition its Syrian grassroots by portraying them as outside aggressors fighting for foreign interests. They are also depicted as “enemies of the Syrian people”, responsible for all the atrocities and human suffering committed during the Syrian civil war.' ' '

  20. Opposition-Based Improved PSO for Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch and Voltage Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengrang Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An opposition-based improved particle swarm optimization algorithm (OIPSO is presented for solving multiobjective reactive power optimization problem. OIPSO uses the opposition learning to improve search efficiency, adopts inertia weight factors to balance global and local exploration, and takes crossover and mutation and neighborhood model strategy to enhance population diversity. Then, a new multiobjective model is built, which includes system network loss, voltage dissatisfaction, and switching operation. Based on the market cost prices, objective functions are converted to least-cost model. In modeling process, switching operation cost is described according to the life cycle cost of transformer, and voltage dissatisfaction penalty is developed considering different voltage quality requirements of customers. The experiment is done on the new mathematical model. Through the simulation of IEEE 30-, 118-bus power systems, the results prove that OIPSO is more efficient to solve reactive power optimization problems and the model is more accurate to reflect the real power system operation.

  1. Political opposition in patriarchal East London, 1950-1960: dilemmas of paternalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Atkinson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the growing level of politicization in East London in the 1950s, and the way this affected the patriarchal normative system, which prevailed in urban adminis tration. Patriarchal ism, as a sys tem, was susceptible of different interpretations by white municipal officials, and their response to black political opposition ranged from liberal forbearance to rigid and uncompromising intolerance. Black leaders’ attitudes to the patriarchal order were similarly nuanced. The Location Native Advisory Boards vacillated between opposition to the white patriarchal order and compliance with it. Towards the late 1950s, the political climate became ever more polarized. The paper draws on archival sources from East London to show that patriarchalism, as a moral system, was sufficiently robust to accommodate a variety of viewpoints, within the white and black communities. But as violent resistance took its toll during the 1950s, more coercive forms of paternalism came increasingly to the fore.

  2. Attitudes and opposition in siting a high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Viklund, M.; Truedsson, J.

    1998-09-01

    In Sweden, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) handles all issues concerning nuclear waste, including the siting process, in which the final outcome is intended to be a repository for high level nuclear waste placed deep down in bedrock. The main objective of the siting process is to find a host community fulfilling two important conditions: the safety demands have been met and agreements with the municipality can be accomplished. Only in such municipalities, so-called feasibility studies will be conducted. After conducting general studies in the whole country, SKB, in October 1992, sent letters with information about the intended feasibility studies to all Swedish municipalities. As a result, feasibility studies are or have been considered - and in some cases also been conducted - in eleven Swedish municipalities up until 1998. These are the municipalities where the attitudes and opposition towards a feasibility study, and possibly a final repository, are studied. The discussion can be divided into three main parts: Management of the siting process; Inherent 'chaotic' processes and/or factors and risk perception. It is argued that two important problems could have been avoided at least partly: The citizens in many municipalities were uncertain of the relationship between a feasibility study and a final repository, and in many municipalities the citizens were afraid that the Government could overrule the municipal veto. Because of these fears, a common argument among the opponents of a feasibility study was: 'to be sure of not receiving a final repository, we say no to a feasibility study'. Some inherent factors, more or less prevalent in the municipalities as well as in society in general, may also partly explain the outcome of the siting process. The municipalities in which the debate has been heated, and where public support has been more difficult to reach, share some common characteristics. Esp. in the municipalities in the north of

  3. Attitudes and opposition in siting a high level nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Viklund, M.; Truedsson, J

    1998-09-01

    In Sweden, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) handles all issues concerning nuclear waste, including the siting process, in which the final outcome is intended to be a repository for high level nuclear waste placed deep down in bedrock. The main objective of the siting process is to find a host community fulfilling two important conditions: the safety demands have been met and agreements with the municipality can be accomplished. Only in such municipalities, so-called feasibility studies will be conducted. After conducting general studies in the whole country, SKB, in October 1992, sent letters with information about the intended feasibility studies to all Swedish municipalities. As a result, feasibility studies are or have been considered - and in some cases also been conducted - in eleven Swedish municipalities up until 1998. These are the municipalities where the attitudes and opposition towards a feasibility study, and possibly a final repository, are studied. The discussion can be divided into three main parts: Management of the siting process; Inherent `chaotic` processes and/or factors and risk perception. It is argued that two important problems could have been avoided at least partly: The citizens in many municipalities were uncertain of the relationship between a feasibility study and a final repository, and in many municipalities the citizens were afraid that the Government could overrule the municipal veto. Because of these fears, a common argument among the opponents of a feasibility study was: `to be sure of not receiving a final repository, we say no to a feasibility study`. Some inherent factors, more or less prevalent in the municipalities as well as in society in general, may also partly explain the outcome of the siting process. The municipalities in which the debate has been heated, and where public support has been more difficult to reach, share some common characteristics. Esp. in the municipalities in the north of

  4. Luxury as the opposite of vulgarity:a trio of perspectives on luxury brands

    OpenAIRE

    Reyneke, Mignon

    2011-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Luxury as the opposite of vulgarity: A trio of perspectives on luxury brands” considers luxury brands in a trio of contemporary contexts. Despite the academic research surrounding luxury brands being limited, the existent research most often studies luxury brands in a traditional retail context. That is, luxury is viewed from a perspective where the products are sold in luxury retail stores. However, the landscape that these brands function within has changed significan...

  5. Opposition and identicalness: Two basic components of adults' perception and mental representation of symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, I.; Bertamini, M.; Burro, R.; Savardi, U.

    2017-01-01

    Symmetry is a salient aspect of biological and man-made objects, and has a central role in perceptual organization. Two studies investigate the role of opposition and identicalness in shaping adults’ naïve idea of “symmetry”. In study 1, both verbal descriptions of symmetry (either provided by the participants or selected from among alternatives presented by the experimenter) and configurations drawn as exemplars of symmetry were studied. In study 2, a pair comparison task was used. Both stud...

  6. "The Opposite Ends of Supersymmetry and their Implications for the LHC" (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    There have been many predictions for the mass patterns of superpartners. In these lectures I discuss two interesting opposite-end approaches to supersymmetry breaking that determine the superpartner masses: zero scalar mass supersymmetry (no scale, gaugino mediation, etc.) and heavy scalar mass supersymmetry (split susy, PeV-scale susy, etc.). We will step through the theory motivations for each scenario, and detail the rich phenomena that each implies for LHC discovery.

  7. "The Opposite Ends of Supersymmetry and their Implications for the LHC" (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    There have been many predictions for the mass patterns of superpartners. In these lectures I discuss two interesting opposite-end approaches to supersymmetry breaking that determine the superpartner masses: zero scalar mass supersymmetry (no scale, gaugino mediation, etc.) and heavy scalar mass supersymmetry (split susy, PeV-scale susy, etc.). We will step through the theory motivations for each scenario, and detail the rich phenomena that each implies for LHC discovery.

  8. "The Opposite Ends of Supersymmetry and their Implications for the LHC" (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    There have been many predictions for the mass patterns of superpartners. In these lectures I discuss two interesting opposite-end approaches to supersymmetry breaking that determine the superpartner masses: zero scalar mass supersymmetry (no scale, gaugino mediation, etc.) and heavy scalar mass supersymmetry (split susy, PeV-scale susy, etc.). We will step through the theory motivations for each scenario, and detail the rich phenomena that each implies for LHC discovery.

  9. Emotional Regulation and Executive Function Deficits in Unmedicated Chinese Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wenqing; Li, Yan; Du, Yasong; Fan, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to explore the feature of emotional regulation and executive functions in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) children. Methods The emotional regulation and executive functions of adolescents with ODD, as well as the relationship between the two factors were analyzed using tools including Adolescent Daily Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ADERQ), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), in comparison with ...

  10. Differences of “Traditional Marketing” in Opposition to “Electronic Marketing”

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Salehi

    2012-01-01

    This paper initially seeks to document and review Differences of traditional marketing in opposition to Electronic marketing.Nowadays; the methods of business conduction have been changed by the revolution of information communication technology (ICT) that most of the transactions are related to internet. Execution of Electronic marketing all over the world can transform the forms of transactions due to the rapid proliferation of the Internet. The World Wide Web, online communication skills h...

  11. The relevance of introducing opposition proceedings into the Serbian trademark legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Vasić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the quality of certain legal procedures applied in domestic trademark legislation in the light of harmonizing our legislation with those of the EU. Trademark Law in the Republic of Serbia (2009) does not rely on opposition proceedings as a phase in the process of trademark registration and a tool that would ensure that only those trademarks that fulfill the necessary conditions are granted legal protection. Intellectual Property Office examines the so-called relative groun...

  12. Opposite Effects of Stimulant and Antipsychotic Drugs on Striatal Fast-Spiking Interneurons

    OpenAIRE

    Wiltschko, Alexander B; Pettibone, Jeffrey R; Berke, Joshua D

    2010-01-01

    Psychomotor stimulants and typical antipsychotic drugs have powerful but opposite effects on mood and behavior, largely through alterations in striatal dopamine signaling. Exactly how these drug actions lead to behavioral change is not well understood, as previous electrophysiological studies have found highly heterogeneous changes in striatal neuron firing. In this study, we examined whether part of this heterogeneity reflects the mixture of distinct cell types present in the striatum, by di...

  13. Co-precipitation of oppositely charged nanoparticles: the case of mixed ligand nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Moglianetti, Mauro; Ponomarev, Evgeniy; Szybowski, Maxime; Stellacci, Francesco; Reguera, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Colloid stability is of high importance in a multitude of fields ranging from food science to biotechnology. There is strong interest in studying the stability of small particles (of a size of a few nanometres) with complex surface structures, that make them resemble the complexity of proteins and other natural biomolecules, in the presence of oppositely charged nanoparticles. While for nanoparticles with homogeneously charged surfaces an abrupt precipitation has been observed at the neutrali...

  14. Parenting practices as mediating variables between parents' psychopathology and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Trepat de Ancos, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is very frequent in preschoolers. The severity and the long-term negative outcomes make the understanding of this disorder a priority. The goal in this study was to assess the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between parents’ psychopathology and ODD in preschoolers. Method: A community sample of 622 children was assessed longitudinally at age 3 and age 5. Parents reported on children’s psychopathology through a diagnosti...

  15. Microscopic origin and macroscopic implications of lane formation in mixtures of oppositely driven particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymko, Katherine; Geissler, Phillip L.; Whitelam, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, can segregate into lanes [Vissers et al., Soft Matter 7, 2352 (2011), 10.1039/c0sm01343a]. This phenomenon can be reproduced by two-dimensional Brownian dynamics simulations of model particles [Dzubiella et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 021402 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.021402]. Here we use computer simulation to assess the generality of lane formation with respect to variation of particle type and dynamical protocol. We find that laning results from rectification of diffusion on the scale of a particle diameter: oppositely driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This geometric constraint implies that the diffusion constant of a particle, in the presence of those of the opposite type, grows approximately linearly with the Péclet number, a prediction confirmed by our numerics over a range of model parameters. Such environment-dependent diffusion is statistically similar to an effective interparticle attraction; consistent with this observation, we find that oppositely driven nonattractive colloids display features characteristic of the simplest model system possessing both interparticle attractions and persistent motion, the driven Ising lattice gas [Katz, Leibowitz, and Spohn, J. Stat. Phys. 34, 497 (1984), 10.1007/BF01018556]. These features include long-ranged correlations in the disordered regime, a critical regime characterized by a change in slope of the particle current with the Péclet number, and fluctuations that grow with system size. By analogy, we suggest that lane formation in the driven colloid system is a phase transition in the macroscopic limit, but that macroscopic phase separation would not occur in finite time upon starting from disordered initial conditions.

  16. Political opposition in patriarchal East London, 1950-1960: dilemmas of paternalism

    OpenAIRE

    D Atkinson

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the growing level of politicization in East London in the 1950s, and the way this affected the patriarchal normative system, which prevailed in urban adminis tration. Patriarchal ism, as a sys tem, was susceptible of different interpretations by white municipal officials, and their response to black political opposition ranged from liberal forbearance to rigid and uncompromising intolerance. Black leaders’ attitudes to the patriarchal order were similarly nuanced. The Loc...

  17. Socioeconomic status and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables

    OpenAIRE

    Roser eGranero; Roser eGranero; Leonie eLouwaars; Lourdes eEzpeleta; Lourdes eEzpeleta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES) as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children’s executive functioning (EF) as the mediating factors.Method. Sample included 622 three years-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed.Results. Structural Equation Modeling showed...

  18. Phase-space dynamics of opposition control in wall-bounded turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yongyun; Ibrahim, Joseph; Yang, Qiang; Doohan, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    The phase-space dynamics of wall-bounded shear flow in the presence of opposition control is explored by examining the behaviours of a pair of nonlinear equilibrium solutions (exact coherent structures), edge state and life time of turbulence at low Reynolds numbers. While the control modifies statistics and phase-space location of the edge state and the lower-branch equilibrium solution very little, it is also found to regularise the periodic orbit on the edge state by reverting a period-doubling bifurcation. Only the upper-branch equilibrium solution and mean turbulent state are significantly modified by the control, and, in phase space, they gradually approach the edge state on increasing the control gain. It is found that this behaviour results in a significant reduction of the life time of turbulence, indicating that the opposition control significantly increases the probability that the turbulent solution trajectory passes through the edge state. Finally, it is shown that the opposition control increases the critical Reynolds number of the onset of the equilibrium solutions, indicating its capability of transition delay. This work is sponsored by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) in the UK (EP/N019342/1).

  19. Friends with Benefits: The Evolved Psychology of Same- and Opposite-Sex Friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M.G. Lewis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During human evolution, men and women faced distinct adaptive problems, including pregnancy, hunting, childcare, and warfare. Due to these sex-linked adaptive problems, natural selection would have favored psychological mechanisms that oriented men and women toward forming friendships with individuals possessing characteristics valuable for solving these problems. The current study explored sex-differentiated friend preferences and the psychological design features of same- and opposite-sex friendship in two tasks. In Task 1, participants (N = 121 categorized their same-sex friends (SSFs and opposite-sex friends (OSFs according to the functions these friends serve in their lives. In Task 2, participants designed their ideal SSFs and OSFs using limited budgets that forced them to make trade-offs between the characteristics they desire in their friends. In Task 1, men, more than women, reported maintaining SSFs for functions related to athleticism and status enhancement and OSFs for mating opportunities. In Task 2, both sexes prioritized agreeableness and dependability in their ideal SSFs, but men prioritized physical attractiveness in their OSFs, whereas women prioritized economic resources and physical prowess. These findings suggest that friend preferences may have evolved to solve ancestrally sex-linked adaptive problems, and that opposite-sex friendship may directly or indirectly serve mating functions.

  20. Friends with benefits: the evolved psychology of same- and opposite-sex friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David M G; Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Al-Shawaf, Laith; Raja, Annia; DeKay, Todd; Buss, David M

    2011-12-08

    During human evolution, men and women faced distinct adaptive problems, including pregnancy, hunting, childcare, and warfare. Due to these sex-linked adaptive problems, natural selection would have favored psychological mechanisms that oriented men and women toward forming friendships with individuals possessing characteristics valuable for solving these problems. The current study explored sex-differentiated friend preferences and the psychological design features of same- and opposite-sex friendship in two tasks. In Task 1, participants (N = 121) categorized their same-sex friends (SSFs) and opposite-sex friends (OSFs) according to the functions these friends serve in their lives. In Task 2, participants designed their ideal SSFs and OSFs using limited budgets that forced them to make trade-offs between the characteristics they desire in their friends. In Task 1, men, more than women, reported maintaining SSFs for functions related to athleticism and status enhancement and OSFs for mating opportunities. In Task 2, both sexes prioritized agreeableness and dependability in their ideal SSFs, but men prioritized physical attractiveness in their OSFs, whereas women prioritized economic resources and physical prowess. These findings suggest that friend preferences may have evolved to solve ancestrally sex-linked adaptive problems, and that opposite-sex friendship may directly or indirectly serve mating functions.

  1. An opposition-based harmony search algorithm for engineering optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Banerjee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmony search (HS is a derivative-free real parameter optimization algorithm. It draws inspiration from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. The proposed opposition-based HS (OHS of the present work employs opposition-based learning for harmony memory initialization and also for generation jumping. The concept of opposite number is utilized in OHS to improve the convergence rate of the HS algorithm. The potential of the proposed algorithm is assessed by means of an extensive comparative study of the numerical results on sixteen benchmark test functions. Additionally, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is tested for reactive power compensation of an autonomous power system. For real-time reactive power compensation of the studied model, Takagi Sugeno fuzzy logic (TSFL is employed. Time-domain simulation reveals that the proposed OHS-TSFL yields on-line, off-nominal model parameters, resulting in real-time incremental change in terminal voltage response profile.

  2. Dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder as predictors of depression and conduct disorder in preadolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Hipwell, Alison E; Loeber, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    To examine whether oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) rather than conduct disorder (CD) may explain the comorbidity between behavioral disorders and depression; to test whether distinct affective and behavioral dimensions can be discerned within the symptoms of ODD; and to determine whether an affective dimension of ODD symptoms is specifically predictive of later depression. The dimensions of ODD and their prediction to later CD and depression were examined in a community sample of 2,451 girls between the ages of 5 and 8 years, followed up annually over a 5-year period, using parent, child, and teacher questionnaire ratings of the severity of symptoms of psychopathology. Dimensions of negative affect, oppositional behavior, and antagonistic behavior were found within ODD symptoms. Negative affect predicted later depression. Oppositional and antagonistic behavior predicted CD overall, and for Caucasian girls, negative affect also predicted later CD. CD was not predictive of later depression, controlling for comorbid conditions. ODD plays a key role in the early development of psychopathology. It is central in the comorbidity between internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, which may be caused by a dimension of negative affective symptoms within ODD. How this dimension relates to later CD appears to vary by race.

  3. White cells facilitate opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms are extremely diverse. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a phenotypic switch from the white to the opaque phase in order to become mating-competent. In this study, we report that functionally- and morphologically-differentiated white and opaque cells show a coordinated behavior during mating. Although white cells are mating-incompetent, they can produce sexual pheromones when treated with pheromones of the opposite mating type or by physically interacting with opaque cells of the opposite mating type. In a co-culture system, pheromones released by white cells induce opaque cells to form mating projections, and facilitate both opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells. Deletion of genes encoding the pheromone precursor proteins and inactivation of the pheromone response signaling pathway (Ste2-MAPK-Cph1 impair the promoting role of white cells (MTLa in the sexual mating of opaque cells. White and opaque cells communicate via a paracrine pheromone signaling system, creating an environment conducive to sexual mating. This coordination between the two different cell types may be a trade-off strategy between sexual and asexual lifestyles in C. albicans.

  4. The effect of the promiscuity stereotype on opposition to gay rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsof, David; Haselton, Martie G

    2017-01-01

    Opposition to gay rights is prevalent in countries around the world. Recent correlational research suggests that opposition to gay rights may be driven by an interaction between one's own short-term mating orientation (i.e. willingness to engage in casual sex) and representations of gay people as sexually promiscuous. Here, we experimentally manipulated representations of gay men by randomly assigning participants to read one of two versions of a fictitious newspaper article, one of which contained faux scientific evidence confirming the stereotype that gay men are promiscuous, and the other containing faux scientific evidence refuting the stereotype. We found that the manipulation interacted with short-term mating orientation (STMO) to predict opposition to gay rights, such that low-STMO individuals (i.e. more averse to casual sex) exhibited more support for gay rights when assigned to read the stereotype-refuting article compared to the stereotype-confirming article, whereas high-STMO individuals (i.e. less averse to casual sex) were not significantly influenced by the manipulation. We discuss the implications of these findings for the study of antigay attitudes, as well as for recent societal changes in acceptance of homosexuality.

  5. Beliefs and practices of the parents of violent and oppositional adolescents: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Glaser, Brian A; Calhoun, Georgia B; Bates, Jeffrey M

    2006-05-01

    Parenting is a transactional process, influenced by the child's behavior and the environmental context. The present study explores the beliefs and practices of parents of aggressive and oppositional adolescents to understand better the relation among parenting practices, context, and youth violence. Parents of juvenile offenders (N=203) completed assessments of youths' violent and oppositional behaviors, community violence exposure, and their own beliefs and parenting behaviors and perceptions of the juvenile justice system. Parents of youth with the highest levels of violent and oppositional behavior problems reported elevated feelings of hopelessness regarding the child's future, inadequacy as a parent, fear of physical harm by the child, anger toward the child, as well as difficulty monitoring the child. All parents reported relatively high levels of perceived support by the justice system. Parental stress was also examined as a possible influence on the parents' beliefs and behaviors regarding the child. Results suggest that parents' emotional and behavioral responses should be addressed when intervening with juvenile offenders. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors present evidence to suggest that parents' perceptions of hopelessness/inadequacy and their fear for their child's safety are both by-products of life with an aggressive child as well as contributing factors to that aggressive behavior. Thus, successful interventions must both target the parents as change agents in the youth's life but also include a strong parental support component, so that parents will have an opportunity to orchestrate positive impacts in high-risk environments.

  6. Uncovering the mystery of opposite circadian rhythms between mouse and human leukocytes in humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Liu, Min; Chan, Xue Ying; Tan, Sue Yee; Subramaniam, Sharrada; Fan, Yong; Loh, Eva; Chang, Kenneth Tou En; Tan, Thiam Chye; Chen, Qingfeng

    2017-11-02

    Many immune parameters show circadian rhythms during the 24-hour day in mammals. The most striking circadian oscillation is the number of circulating immune cells that display an opposite rhythm between humans and mice. The physiological roles and mechanisms of circadian variations in mouse leukocytes are well studied, whereas for humans they remain unclear because of the lack of a proper model. In this study, we found that consistent with their natural host species, mouse and human circulating leukocytes exhibited opposite circadian oscillations in humanized mice. This cyclic pattern of trafficking correlated well with the diurnal expression levels of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4, which were controlled by the intracellular hypoxia-inducible factor 1α/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like heterodimer. Furthermore, we also discovered that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases/mitogen-activated 2 had opposite effects between mice and humans in generating intracellular reactive oxygen species, which subsequently regulated HIF-1α expression. In conclusion, we propose humanized mice as a robust model for human circadian studies and reveal insights on a novel molecular clock network in the human circadian rhythm. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  7. Quantifying the molecular origins of opposite solvent effects on protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Vagenende

    Full Text Available Although the nature of solvent-protein interactions is generally weak and non-specific, addition of cosolvents such as denaturants and osmolytes strengthens protein-protein interactions for some proteins, whereas it weakens protein-protein interactions for others. This is exemplified by the puzzling observation that addition of glycerol oppositely affects the association constants of two antibodies, D1.3 and D44.1, with lysozyme. To resolve this conundrum, we develop a methodology based on the thermodynamic principles of preferential interaction theory and the quantitative characterization of local protein solvation from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that changes of preferential solvent interactions at the protein-protein interface quantitatively account for the opposite effects of glycerol on the antibody-antigen association constants. Detailed characterization of local protein solvation in the free and associated protein states reveals how opposite solvent effects on protein-protein interactions depend on the extent of dewetting of the protein-protein contact region and on structural changes that alter cooperative solvent-protein interactions at the periphery of the protein-protein interface. These results demonstrate the direct relationship between macroscopic solvent effects on protein-protein interactions and atom-scale solvent-protein interactions, and establish a general methodology for predicting and understanding solvent effects on protein-protein interactions in diverse biological environments.

  8. Massage treatment and medial tibial stress syndrome; A commentary to provoke thought about the way massage therapy is used in the treatment of MTSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    As students and practitioners we are taught about the treatment and causative factors of medial shin pain, in particular' shin splints' or the more recent term; medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). During the years there have been many theories, conjecture and misunderstandings about the mechanisms of 'shin splints/medial tibial stress syndrome' however the ramifications of these mechanisms on how massage treatment is delivered have not being discussed. The evidence for the treatment of MTSS is largely clinical with little evidence of any treatment being proven to be effective in treating MTSS. The aim of this article is to present a summary of the mechanisms of MTSS and a commentary to provoke thought about the way massage therapy is used in the treatment of MTSS based on these mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between nongenital tender point tenderness and intravaginal muscle pain intensity: ratings in women with provoked vestibulodynia and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nancy; Brown, Candace; Bachmann, Gloria; Wan, Jim; Wood, Ronald; Ulrich, Dagny; Bachour, Candi; Foster, David

    2016-12-01

    Vulvodynia is a chronic vulvar pain disorder and fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder, both of unknown etiology. Association of these conditions is well documented. Intravaginal algometer measurement of tenderness to pressure applied to the pelvic floor muscles helps define vulvodynia associated with musculoskeletal factors. Women with both vulvodynia and fibromyalgia might have increased pelvic muscle pain compared to women with vulvodynia alone, defining the possible link of these 2 conditions. We sought to: (1) correlate pain intensity during the nongenital tender point tenderness examination to pain intensity with the vaginal algometer in women with provoked vestibulodynia, and (2) determine whether subjects with provoked vestibulodynia and fibromyalgia had higher pain intensity scores with the vaginal algometer than those without fibromyalgia. In all, 92 subjects referred for vulvar pain were confirmed to have provoked vestibulodynia using the cotton swab test. A diagnosis of fibromyalgia was made if pain was present (numeric rating scale >1) in at least 11 sites of the 18-point nongenital tender point tenderness exam. Vaginal pain sensitivity was measured using an intravaginal pressure algometer, where 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 kg/cm 2 forces were applied digitally in random assignment by force and location to the right and left iliococcygeus muscle regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Both tender point tenderness and algometer pain intensity were reported on a 0 (no pain) to 10 (worse pain) numeric rating scale. Correlations were computed between the composite pain intensity (total of rating scale from each pressure threshold at specified site) of nongenital and those of iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Independent t tests were used to determine differences in iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal algometer pain ratings and presence or absence of fibromyalgia. The significance level was at P pain

  10. DNA barcodes and citizen science provoke a diversity reappraisal for the "ring" butterflies of Peninsular Malaysia (Ypthima: Satyrinae: Nymphalidae: Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jisming-See, Shi-Wei; Sing, Kong-Wah; Wilson, John-James

    2016-10-01

    The "rings" belonging to the genus Ypthima are amongst the most common butterflies in Peninsular Malaysia. However, the species can be difficult to tell apart, with keys relying on minor and often non-discrete ring characters found on the hindwing. Seven species have been reported from Peninsular Malaysia, but this is thought to be an underestimate of diversity. DNA barcodes of 165 individuals, and wing and genital morphology, were examined to reappraise species diversity of this genus in Peninsular Malaysia. DNA barcodes collected during citizen science projects-School Butterfly Project and Peninsular Malaysia Butterfly Count-recently conducted in Peninsular Malaysia were included. The new DNA barcodes formed six groups with different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) representing four species reported in Peninsular Malaysia. When combined with public DNA barcodes from the Barcode Of Life Datasystems, several taxonomic issues arose. We consider the taxon Y. newboldi, formerly treated as a subspecies of Y. baldus, as a distinct species. DNA barcodes also supported an earlier suggestion that Y. nebulosa is a synonym under Y. horsfieldii humei. Two BINs of the genus Ypthima comprising DNA barcodes collected during citizen science projects did not correspond to any species previously reported in Peninsular Malaysia.

  11. Effects of electrocautery to provoke endovascular thermal injury Efeitos do eletrocautério para provocar lesão térmica endovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Henrique Rossi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a new electrocautery device to provoke endovascular venous thermal injury. METHODS: An experimental endovascular electrocautery was placed inside eight ex-vivo bovine saphenous veins models. Each one was divided in eight segments and progressive intensities of electric energy liberated. The macroscopic and microscopic effects were analyzed. RESULTS: Forty bovine saphenous veins segments were studied. The higher the electric energy applied the greater the nuclear picnosis and more intense the cytoplasmatic shrinkage and electrocoagulation effects. CONCLUSION: The experimental endovascular electrocautery device demonstrated to be both capable of inducing the destruction of the intimal layers of the studied vein model and provoke endovascular thermal injury.OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos de um modelo experimental de eletrocautério em provocar lesão venosa térmica endovascular. MÉTODOS: O eletrocautério endovascular foi colocado dentro de oito modelos experimentais de veia safena bovina. Cada uma foi dividida em oito segmentos e intensidades progressivas de energia elétrica liberada. Os efeitos macroscópicos e microscópicos foram analisados. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados quarenta segmentos de veia safena bovina. Quanto maior a energia elétrica aplicada pelo eletrocauterizador endovascular maiores foram as alteraçoes de picnose nuclear e mais intensa a retração citoplasmática observada. CONCLUSÃO: O eletrocautério endovascular experimental demonstrou ser capaz de induzir a destruição da camada íntima e provocar lesão térmica endovascular.

  12. THE OPPOSITION ‘WEST/NON-WEST’ IN THE SOCIAL THOUGHT: PRO ET CONTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К В Радкевич

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the phenomenon of social science debates in the form of the opposi-tion ‘West/Non-West’ and its social-political and identification consequences. The authors focus on the histo-ry of this opposition, the ways to overcome the scientific and social confrontations that were determined by it, and on the methodological significance of the concept ‘Non-Western theories’. The authors study the features of social and political knowledge of the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America; compare social values of Western Europe, China and other countries to identify the ways for its integration in the course of postcolonial political and scientific development. In particular, the article compares the axio-logical triad of T. Heuss (democracy, Roman law, Christian ethics and the Chinese dyad - the will of the people (minxin suoxiang and three convents (sāngāng. Within the West/Non-West opposition, the Western European, Chinese, Japanese, Indian, African, Latin-American social-political constructs are considered to assess the productivity of some categorical oppositions and contaminations adopted in the sphere of social knowledge and to prove the theoretical inconsistency of multiculturalism. The authors also consider the issues of eurocentrism and Western-European messianism on the examples of their relation-ship with Sino-Centrism, and the ideas of African and Latin-American nationalism. Such comparisons prove the metatheoretical status of the ‘West/Non-West’ opposition that can be explained within the paradigm of the social construction of reality. The authors conclude that the concepts ‘West’ and ‘Non-West’ do not have a truly scientific status; they are rather markers of social values claiming a special identifica-tion value, i.e. having a direct relation to self-representation. The concepts ‘West’ and ‘Non-West’ are a kind of political declarations tather than an evidence of epistemological

  13. Phase behavior of mixtures of oppositely charged nanoparticles: Heterogeneous Poisson-Boltzmann cell model applied to lysozyme and succinylated lysozyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Lindhoud, S.; Vries, de R.J.; Stuart, M.A.C.

    2006-01-01

    We study the phase behavior of mixtures of oppositely charged nanoparticles, both theoretically and experimentally. As an experimental model system we consider mixtures of lysozyme and lysozyme that has been chemically modified in such a way that its charge is nearly equal in magnitude but opposite

  14. Oppositional Behavior and Anxiety in Boys and Girls: A Cross-Sectional Study in Two Community Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireault, Gina; Rooney, Siri; Kouwenhoven, Kristen; Hannan, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Studies have repeatedly shown that oppositional behavior is linked to anxiety in clinical samples of children. This study explored whether these variables were similarly related in nonclinical samples of elementary and middle school students (N = 302). Despite greater self-reported oppositional behavior among boys in these samples, anxiety…

  15. The Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation at 25: a pioneering success in safety, 25th anniversary provokes reflection, anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, John H

    2012-04-01

    The Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation (APSF) was created in 1985. Its founders coined the term "patient safety" in its modern public usage and created the very first patient safety organization, igniting a movement that is now universal in all of health care. Driven by the vision "that no patient shall be harmed by anesthesia," the APSF has worked tirelessly for more than a quarter century to promote safety education and communication through its widely read Newsletter, its programs, and its presentations. The APSF's extensive research grant program has supported a great many projects leading to key safety improvements and, in particular, was central in the development of high-fidelity mannequin simulation as a research and teaching tool. With its pioneering collaboration, the APSF is unique in incorporating the talents and resources of anesthesia professionals of all types, safety scientists, pharmaceutical and equipment manufacturers, regulators, liability insurance companies, and also surgeons. Specific alerts, campaigns, discussions, and projects have targeted a host of safety issues and dangers over the years, starting with minimal intraoperative monitoring in 1986 and all the way up to beach-chair position cerebral perfusion pressure, operating room medication errors, and the extremely popular DVD on operating room fire safety in 2010; the list is long and expansive. The APSF has served as a model and inspiration for subsequent patient safety organizations and has been recognized nationally as having a dramatic positive impact on the safety of anesthesia care. Recognizing that the work is not over, that systems, organizations, and equipment still at times fail, that basic preventable human errors still do sometimes occur, and that "production pressure" in anesthesia practice threatens past safety gains, the APSF is firmly committed and continues to work hard both on established tenets and new patient safety principles.

  16. Long-term exposure to microwave radiation provokes cancer growth: evidences from radars and mobile communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymenko, I; Sidorik, E; Kyrylenko, S; Chekhun, V

    2011-06-01

    In this review we discuss alarming epidemiological and experimental data on possible carcinogenic effects of long term exposure to low intensity microwave (MW) radiation. Recently, a number of reports revealed that under certain conditions the irradiation by low intensity MW can substantially induce cancer progression in humans and in animal models. The carcinogenic effect of MW irradiation is typically manifested after long term (up to 10 years and more) exposure. Nevertheless, even a year of operation of a powerful base transmitting station for mobile communication reportedly resulted in a dramatic increase of cancer incidence among population living nearby. In addition, model studies in rodents unveiled a significant increase in carcinogenesis after 17-24 months of MW exposure both in tumor-prone and intact animals. To that, such metabolic changes, as overproduction of reactive oxygen species, 8-hydroxi-2-deoxyguanosine formation, or ornithine decarboxylase activation under exposure to low intensity MW confirm a stress impact of this factor on living cells. We also address the issue of standards for assessment of biological effects of irradiation. It is now becoming increasingly evident that assessment of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation based on physical (thermal) approach used in recommendations of current regulatory bodies, including the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guidelines, requires urgent reevaluation. We conclude that recent data strongly point to the need for re-elaboration of the current safety limits for non-ionizing radiation using recently obtained knowledge. We also emphasize that the everyday exposure of both occupational and general public to MW radiation should be regulated based on a precautionary principles which imply maximum restriction of excessive exposure.

  17. Measurement of Bitumen Viscosity in a Room-Temperature Drop Experiment: Student Education, Public Outreach and Modern Science in One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdicombe, A. T.; Ravindrarajah, P.; Sapelkin, A.; Phillips, A. E.; Dunstan, D.; Dove, M. T.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-01-01

    The slow flow of a viscous liquid is a thought-provoking experiment that challenges students, academics and the public to think about some fundamental questions in modern science. In the Queensland demonstration--the world's longest-running experiment, which has earned the Ig Nobel prize--one drop of pitch takes about ten years to fall, leading to…

  18. Public opinion and the politics of the killer robots debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Horowitz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility that today’s drones could become tomorrow’s killer robots has attracted the attention of people around the world. Scientists and business leaders, from Stephen Hawking to Elon Musk, recently signed a letter urging the world to ban autonomous weapons. Part of the argument against these systems is that they violate the public conscience provision of the Martens Clause due to public opposition, making them illegal under international law. What, however, does the US public think of these systems? Existing research suggests widespread US public opposition, but focused on support for autonomous weapons in a vacuum. This paper uses two survey experiments to test the conditions in which public opposition rises and falls. The results demonstrate that public opposition to autonomous weapons is contextual. Fear of other countries or non-state actors developing these weapons makes the public significantly more supportive of developing them. The public also becomes much more willing to actually use autonomous weapons when their use would protect US forces. Beyond contributing to ongoing academic debates about casualty aversion, the microfoundations of foreign policy, and weapon systems, these results suggest the need for modesty when making claims about how the public views new, unknown technologies such as autonomous weapons.

  19. Long-Ranged Oppositely Charged Interactions for Designing New Types of Colloidal Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Faik Demirörs

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Getting control over the valency of colloids is not trivial and has been a long-desired goal for the colloidal domain. Typically, tuning the preferred number of neighbors for colloidal particles requires directional bonding, as in the case of patchy particles, which is difficult to realize experimentally. Here, we demonstrate a general method for creating the colloidal analogs of molecules and other new regular colloidal clusters without using patchiness or complex bonding schemes (e.g., DNA coating by using a combination of long-ranged attractive and repulsive interactions between oppositely charged particles that also enable regular clusters of particles not all in close contact. We show that, due to the interplay between their attractions and repulsions, oppositely charged particles dispersed in an intermediate dielectric constant (4<ϵ<10 provide a viable approach for the formation of binary colloidal clusters. Tuning the size ratio and interactions of the particles enables control of the type and shape of the resulting regular colloidal clusters. Finally, we present an example of clusters made up of negatively charged large and positively charged small satellite particles, for which the electrostatic properties and interactions can be changed with an electric field. It appears that for sufficiently strong fields the satellite particles can move over the surface of the host particles and polarize the clusters. For even stronger fields, the satellite particles can be completely pulled off, reversing the net charge on the cluster. With computer simulations, we investigate how charged particles distribute on an oppositely charged sphere to minimize their energy and compare the results with the solutions to the well-known Thomson problem. We also use the simulations to explore the dependence of such clusters on Debye screening length κ^{−1} and the ratio of charges on the particles, showing good agreement with experimental observations.

  20. Influence of political opposition and compromise on conservation outcomes in the Tongass National Forest, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M

    2008-12-01

    To understand how a highly contentious policy process influenced a major conservation effort, I examined the origins, compromises, and outcomes of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 (ANILCA) for the Tongass National Forest. Tongass wilderness designation was among the most controversial issues in the ANILCA debate, and it faced strong opposition from influential lawmakers, land managers, and Alaska residents. To investigate the influence of this opposition on Tongass conservation outcomes, I conducted a gap analysis of Tongass reserves and a policy analysis of the ANILCA debate and traced the influence of specific interests through the amendments, negotiations, and resulting compromises needed to enact ANILCA. Overall, I found that Tongass reserves comprise a broadly representative cross-section of ecosystems and species habitats in southeastern Alaska. Redrawn reserve boundaries, industry subsidies, and special access regulations reflected compromises to minimize the impact of wilderness conservation on mining, timber, and local stakeholder interests, respectively. Fragmentation of the Admiralty Island National Monument-the most ecologically valuable and politically controversial reserve-resulted from compromises with Alaskan Native (indigenous peoples of Alaska) corporations and timber interests. Despite language to accommodate "reasonable access" to wilderness reserves, ongoing access limitations highlight the concerns of Alaska residents that opposed ANILCA several decades ago. More broadly, the Tongass case suggests that early and ambitious conservation action may offset strong political opposition; compromises needed to establish key reserves often exacerbate development impacts in unprotected areas; and efforts to minimize social conflicts are needed to safeguard the long-term viability of conservation measures.

  1. Telomere length is associated with oppositional defiant behavior and maternal clinical depression in Latino preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, J M; Heyman, M B; Elwan, D; Shiboski, S; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Epel, E

    2015-06-16

    Exposure to psychological stress and depression are associated with shorter white blood cell telomere length (TL) in adults, possibly via associated lifelong oxidative stressors. Exposure to maternal depression increases risk for future depression and behavior problems in children, and Latino youth are at high risk. Few studies have evaluated the role of exposure to maternal depression or child behavior in relation to TL in children. We assessed early-childhood exposures to maternal depression from birth to the age of 5 years and child behavior from ages 3-5 years in a cohort of Latino children in relation to child leukocyte TL at ages 4 and 5 years. Children who had oppositional defiant behavior at 3, 4 or 5 years had shorter TL than those without by ~450 base pairs (P maternal clinical depression at 3 years of age (β = -363.99, 95% CI -651.24 to 764.74; P = 0.01), shorter maternal TL (β = 502.92, 95% CI 189.21-816.63) and younger paternal age at the child's birth (β = 24.63, 95% CI 1.14-48.12). Thus, exposure to maternal clinical depression (versus depressive symptoms) in early childhood was associated with deleterious consequences on child cellular health as indicated by shorter TL at 4 and 5 years of age. Similarly, children with oppositional defiant behavior also had shorter TL, possibly related to early exposures to maternal clinical depression. Our study is the first to link maternal clinical depression and oppositional defiant behavior with shorter TL in the preschool years in a relatively homogenous population of low-income Latino children.

  2. Synthesis and binding properties of new selective ligands for the nucleobase opposite the AP site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yukiko; Nakagawa, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Rie; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2012-06-01

    DNA is continuously damaged by endogenous and exogenous factors such as oxidative stress or DNA alkylating agents. These damaged nucleobases are removed by DNA N-glycosylase and form apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) as intermediates in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. AP sites are also representative DNA damages formed by spontaneous hydrolysis. The AP sites block DNA polymerase and a mismatch nucleobase is inserted opposite the AP sites by polymerization to cause acute toxicities and mutations. Thus, AP site specific compounds have attracted much attention for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. In this study, we have developed nucleobase-polyamine conjugates as the AP site binding ligand by expecting that the nucleobase part would play a role in the specific recognition of the nucleobase opposite the AP site by the Watson-Crick base pair formation and that the polyamine part should contribute to the access of the ligand to the AP site by a non-specific interaction to the DNA phosphate backbone. The nucleobase conjugated with 3,3'-diaminodipropylamine (A-ligand, G-ligand, C-ligand, T-ligand and U-ligand) showed a specific stabilization of the duplex containing the AP site depending on the complementary combination with the nucleobase opposite the AP site; that is A-ligand to T, G-ligand to C, C-ligand to G, T- and U-ligand to A. The thermodynamic binding parameters clearly indicated that the specific stabilization is due to specific binding of the ligands to the complementary AP site. These results have suggested that the complementary base pairs of the Watson-Crick type are formed at the AP site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Political and Public Acceptability of Congestion Pricing: Ideology and Self-Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsman, Bjorn; Quigley, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the "stated preferences" of households generally report public and political opposition by urban commuters to congestion pricing. It is thought that this opposition inhibits or precludes tolls and pricing systems that would enhance efficiency in the use of scarce roadways. This paper analyzes the only case in which road…

  4. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  5. Oppositional banality: Watching ordinary Muslims in ‘Little Mosque on the Prairie’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer Chao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay interrogates how the globally-syndicated series Little Mosque on the Prairie (2007-2012 mobilises one of the most beloved television formats – the situation comedy – to insert a banal and normalised gaze toward Muslims and contest hostile representations of Islam in Western media. Through what I have termed ‘oppositional banality’ the show relocates Muslim identities to the realm of everyday life and out of the confines of global terrorism. Rather than being under the scrutiny of news cameras and viewed through cataclysmic international events the Muslims in Little Mosque are made comical and timeless, subjected to the emotional entanglements of ordinary life.

  6. Zhong-Yong as Dynamic Balancing Between Yin-Yang Opposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to comment on Peter Ping Li’s understanding of Zhong-Yong balancing, presented in his article titled “Global implications of the indigenous epistemological system from the East: How to apply Yin-Yang balancing to paradox management.” Seeing his understanding....... Originality/value This commentary contributes to the “West meets East” discourse by debunking Peter P. Li’s assertion that Yin-Yang balancing is superior as a solution to paradox management and his prescription that balancing between Yin-Yang opposites must be asymmetric. It also contributes to the Chinese...

  7. Combination of same-side with opposite-side flavour tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Calvo, M; Musy, M

    2010-01-01

    A considerable number of CP violation measurements require the most possible accurate knowledge of the flavour at production of the reconstructed $B$ meson. The performance of different flavour tagging methods will be measured from control channels. One of the possible tagging methods that can be used is the one known as $Same Side kaon$. In this note we present how to calibrate the response of the tagging algorithms using the data and combine the result with the so called $Opposite Side tagging$. Also trigger and selection effects are briefly discussed.

  8. Direct measurement of sub-Debye-length attraction between oppositely charged surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Nir; Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Andelman, David; Safran, S A; Klein, Jacob

    2009-09-11

    Using a surface force balance with fast video analysis, we have measured directly the attractive forces between oppositely charged solid surfaces (charge densities sigma(+), sigma(-)) across water over the entire range of interaction, in particular, at surface separations D below the Debye screening length lambda(S). At very low salt concentration we find a long-ranged attraction between the surfaces (onset ca. 100 nm), whose variation at D

  9. Opposition Policy Influence Through Agenda-Setting: The Environment in Denmark, 1993–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Henrik Bech

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the opposition’s opportunities to influence policy; a topic that has been neglected in existing party-policy research. The idea that is developed is applied to a remarkable policy development on the environment during the Danish right-wing government in the 2000s. Contrary...... opinion, carbon dioxide emissions, and the government’s approval ratings into account, the empirical estimation based on unique quarterly data shows that opposition criticism had a systematic impact on the pro-environmental policy development. The implications for party-policy research are important...

  10. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: prevalence based on parent and teacher ratings of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina; Gomez, Rashika Miranjani

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Malaysian primary school children. In all 934 Malaysian parents and teachers completed ratings of their children using a scale comprising DSM-IV-TR ODD symptoms. Results showed rates of 3.10%, 3.85%, 7.49% and 0.64% for parent, teacher, parent or teacher ("or-rule"), and parent and teacher ("and-rule") ratings, respectively. When the functional impairment criterion was not considered, the rate reported by parents was higher at 13.28%. The theoretical, diagnostic and cultural implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören

    2016-01-01

    (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were......Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho...

  12. Phase behaviour and structure of stable complexes of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengarelli, V.; Auvray, L.; Zeghal, M.

    2009-03-01

    We study the formation and structure of stable electrostatic complexes between oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, a long polymethacrylic acid and a shorter polyethylenimine, at low pH, where the polyacid is weakly charged. We explore the phase diagram as a function of the charge and concentration ratio of the constituents. In agreement with theory, turbidity and ζ potential measurements show two distinct regimes of weak and strong complexation, which appear successively as the pH is increased and are separated by a well-defined limit. Weak complexes observed by neutron scattering and contrast matching have an open, non-compact structure, while strong complexes are condensed.

  13. Graphene surface plasmon polaritons with opposite in-plane electron oscillations along its two surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Huawei; Ruan, Shuangchen; Zhang, Min; Su, Hong; Li, Irene Ling

    2015-01-01

    We predict the existence of a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode that can be guided by a graphene monolayer, regardless of the sign of the imaginary part of its conductivity. In this mode, in-plane electron oscillations along two surfaces of graphene are of opposite directions, which is very different from conventional SPPs on graphene. Significantly, coating graphene with dielectric films yields a way to guide the SPPs with both sub-wavelength mode widths and ultra-long propagation distances. In particular, the mode characteristics are very sensitive to the chemical potential of graphene, so the graphene-based waveguide can find applications in many optoelectronic devices

  14. Graphene surface plasmon polaritons with opposite in-plane electron oscillations along its two surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Huawei; Ruan, Shuangchen, E-mail: scruan@szu.edu.cn; Zhang, Min; Su, Hong; Li, Irene Ling [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Laser Engineering, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-08-31

    We predict the existence of a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode that can be guided by a graphene monolayer, regardless of the sign of the imaginary part of its conductivity. In this mode, in-plane electron oscillations along two surfaces of graphene are of opposite directions, which is very different from conventional SPPs on graphene. Significantly, coating graphene with dielectric films yields a way to guide the SPPs with both sub-wavelength mode widths and ultra-long propagation distances. In particular, the mode characteristics are very sensitive to the chemical potential of graphene, so the graphene-based waveguide can find applications in many optoelectronic devices.

  15. Variables that Predict Serve Efficacy in Elite Men’s Volleyball with Different Quality of Opposition Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, Álvaro; Fernández-Echeverría, Carmen; González-Silva, Jara; Claver, Fernando; Moreno, M. Perla

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the variables that predicted serve efficacy in elite men’s volleyball, in sets with different quality of opposition. 3292 serve actions were analysed, of which 2254 were carried out in high quality of opposition sets and 1038 actions were in low quality of opposition sets, corresponding to a total of 24 matches played during the Men’s European Volleyball Championships held in 2011. The independent variables considered in this study were the serve zone, serve type, serving player, serve direction, reception zone, receiving player and reception type; the dependent variable was serve efficacy and the situational variable was quality of opposition sets. The variables that acted as predictors in both high and low quality of opposition sets were the serving player, reception zone and reception type. The serve type variable only acted as a predictor in high quality of opposition sets, while the serve zone variable only acted as a predictor in low quality of opposition sets. These results may provide important guidance in men’s volleyball training processes. PMID:29599869

  16. Public sphere proof against antinuclear phenomenon in France (1962-2012)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambru, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    By using the concept of public sphere this article analyzes the dynamics of publicization the French nuclear power controversy by social movement. I recount the emergence of the antinuclear phenomenon since the sixties, its deployment across multiple oppositional public spheres, and its repercussions on the dynamics of public sphere until the year 2010. I highlight the ongoing interaction, over the decades, between oppositional public spheres and the established public sphere. This interaction results in a crossed process of empowerment and institutionalization of the action of social movements. (author)

  17. Sexual imprinting on facial traits of opposite-sex parents in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Rantala, Markus J

    2012-09-05

    Positive sexual imprinting is a process by which individuals use the phenotype of their opposite-sex parent as a template for acquiring mates. Recent studies in humans have concluded that an imprinting-like mechanism influences human mate choice in facial traits. However, some of the previous studies have had methodological problems or flaws which might have invalidated or led to an overgeneralization of the original interpretation of their results. In this study, 70 heterosexual adults were used to test if their partners resembled facially their opposite-sex parent as the sexual imprinting hypothesis predicts. Judges assessed the subjective facial similarity between each participant's partner and their parent. We found that there was no perceived facial similarity between women's partners and their fathers. However, men tended to pair more often with women that were perceived as resembling the men's own mothers. In contrast to previous studies, the quality of the relationship between participants and their parents did not predict the level of facial resemblance between the participant's spouse and their parent.

  18. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder(ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within families, poor peer relationships, peer rejection, and academic difficulties. Little examination of functional outcomes in adulthood associated with ODD has been undertaken. Data for the present analyses come from a clinic referred sample of 177 boys aged 7-12 followed up annually to age 18 and again at age 24. Annual parental report of psychopathology through adolescence was used to predict self-reported functional outcomes at 24. Controlling for parent reported symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Conduct disorder (CD), depression and anxiety, ODD symptoms from childhood through adolescence predicted poorer age 24 functioning with peers, poorer romantic relationships, a poorer paternal relationship, and having nobody who would provide a recommendation for a job. CD symptoms predicted workplace problems, poor maternal relationship, lower academic attainment, and violent injuries. Only parent reported ODD symptoms and child reported CD symptoms predicted a composite of poor adult outcomes. Oppositional defiant disorder is a disorder that significantly interferes with functioning, particularly in social or interpersonal relationships. The persistence of impairment associated with ODD into young adulthood calls for a reconsideration of ODD as a disorder limited to childhood. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. From heresy to dogma in accounts of opposition to Howard Temin's DNA provirus hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, James A

    2002-01-01

    In 1964 the Wisconsin virologist Howard Temin proposed the DNA provirus hypothesis to explain the mechanism by which a cancer-producing virus containing only RNA infects and transforms cells. His hypothesis reversed the flow of genetic information, as ordained by the central dogma of molecular biology. Although there was initial opposition to his hypothesis it was widely accepted, after the discovery of reverse transcriptase in 1970. Most accounts of Temin's hypothesis after the discovery portray the hypothesis as heretical, because it challenged the central dogma. Temin himself in his Nobel Prize speech of 1975 narrates a similar story about its reception. But are these accounts warranted? I argue that members of the virology community opposed Temin's provirus hypothesis not simply because it was a counterexample to the central dogma, but more importantly because his experimental evidence for supporting it was inconclusive. Furthermore, I propose that these accounts of opposition to the DNA provirus hypothesis as heretical, written by Temin and others after the discovery of reverse transcriptase, played a significant role in establishing retrovirology as a specialized field.

  20. The neurobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: altered functioning in three mental domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2013-02-01

    This review discusses neurobiological studies of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder within the conceptual framework of three interrelated mental domains: punishment processing, reward processing, and cognitive control. First, impaired fear conditioning, reduced cortisol reactivity to stress, amygdala hyporeactivity to negative stimuli, and altered serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission suggest low punishment sensitivity, which may compromise the ability of children and adolescents to make associations between inappropriate behaviors and forthcoming punishments. Second, sympathetic nervous system hyporeactivity to incentives, low basal heart rate associated with sensation seeking, orbitofrontal cortex hyporeactiviy to reward, and altered dopamine functioning suggest a hyposensitivity to reward. The associated unpleasant emotional state may make children and adolescents prone to sensation-seeking behavior such as rule breaking, delinquency, and substance abuse. Third, impairments in executive functions, especially when motivational factors are involved, as well as structural deficits and impaired functioning of the paralimbic system encompassing the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortex, suggest impaired cognitive control over emotional behavior. In the discussion we argue that more insight into the neurobiology of oppositional defiance disorder and conduct disorder may be obtained by studying these disorders separately and by paying attention to the heterogeneity of symptoms within each disorder.

  1. Executive Function Features in Drug-naive Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Manfei; Jiang, Wenqing; DU, Yasong; Li, Yan; Fan, Juan

    2017-08-25

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) that is characterized by markedly defiant, disobedient, and disruptive behavior in younger children has been regarded as disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), together with conduct disorder (CD). However, in contrast to CD, ODD does not include severe aggressive or antisocial behavior. This study aimed to examine executive function (EF) features of children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Cross sectional design was used in this study. The EF of children with ODD and pure attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were compared with children without a psychiatric disorder, using the Stroop Color-Word Tests A and B, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Fourth Edition; WISC-IV), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) corrected for age. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for EF deficits characteristic of ODD and ADHD. The ODD group exhibited significantly lower scores in both Stroop Color-Word Tests, the backwards digital span of the WISC-IV, and the categories completed and perseverative responses of the WCST, and significantly higher scores in spatial working memory (SWM) between errors, and the strategy in SWM of the CANTAB compared with the control group. When the ODD group was designated as 1 and the ADHD group was designated as 0, digital span (X1) fit the regression equation very well. Children with ODD perform substantially worse in EF tasks. Responsive inhibition appears to be uniquely associated with ODD development, while responsive inhibition and working memory appear to be associated with ADHD.

  2. Possible connections of the opposite trends in Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lejiang; Zhong, Shiyuan; Winkler, Julie A; Zhou, Mingyu; Lenschow, Donald H; Li, Bingrui; Wang, Xianqiao; Yang, Qinghua

    2017-04-05

    Sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and a key indicator of climate change. A decreasing trend in Arctic sea-ice concentration is evident in recent years, whereas Antarctic sea-ice concentration exhibits a generally increasing trend. Various studies have investigated the underlying causes of the observed trends for each region, but possible linkages between the regional trends have not been studied. Here, we hypothesize that the opposite trends in Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice concentration may be linked, at least partially, through interdecadal variability of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Although evaluation of this hypothesis is constrained by the limitations of the sea-ice cover record, preliminary statistical analyses of one short-term and two long-term time series of observed and reanalysis sea-ice concentrations data suggest the possibility of the hypothesized linkages. For all three data sets, the leading mode of variability of global sea-ice concentration is positively correlated with the AMO and negatively correlated with the PDO. Two wave trains related to the PDO and the AMO appear to produce anomalous surface-air temperature and low-level wind fields in the two polar regions that contribute to the opposite changes in sea-ice concentration.

  3. Opposition-Based Memetic Algorithm and Hybrid Approach for Sorting Permutations by Reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncco-Álvarez, José Luis; Muñoz, Daniel M; Ayala-Rincón, Mauricio

    2018-02-21

    Sorting unsigned permutations by reversals is a difficult problem; indeed, it was proved to be NP-hard by Caprara (1997). Because of its high complexity, many approximation algorithms to compute the minimal reversal distance were proposed until reaching the nowadays best-known theoretical ratio of 1.375. In this article, two memetic algorithms to compute the reversal distance are proposed. The first one uses the technique of opposition-based learning leading to an opposition-based memetic algorithm; the second one improves the previous algorithm by applying the heuristic of two breakpoint elimination leading to a hybrid approach. Several experiments were performed with one-hundred randomly generated permutations, single benchmark permutations, and biological permutations. Results of the experiments showed that the proposed OBMA and Hybrid-OBMA algorithms achieve the best results for practical cases, that is, for permutations of length up to 120. Also, Hybrid-OBMA showed to improve the results of OBMA for permutations greater than or equal to 60. The applicability of our proposed algorithms was checked processing permutations based on biological data, in which case OBMA gave the best average results for all instances.

  4. Opposite effects of capacity load and resolution load on distractor processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Luck, Steven J

    2015-02-01

    According to the load theory of attention, an increased perceptual load reduces distractor processing whereas an increased working memory load facilitates distractor processing. Here we raise the possibility that the critical distinction may instead be between an emphasis on resolution and an emphasis on capacity. That is, perceptual load manipulations typically emphasize resolution (fine-grained discriminations), whereas working memory load manipulations typically emphasize capacity (simultaneous processing of multiple relevant stimuli). To test the plausibility of this hypothesis, we used a visual working memory task that emphasized either the number of items to be stored (capacity load, retaining 2 vs. 4 colors) or the precision of the representations (resolution load, detecting small vs. large color changes). We found that an increased capacity load led to increased flanker interference (a measure of distractor processing), whereas an increased resolution load led to reduced flanker interference. These opposite effects of capacity load and resolution load on distractor processing mirror the previously described opposite effects of perceptual load and working memory load.

  5. Opposite effect of ATP on contraction force of tonic and phasic skeletal muscles in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, S N; Kamaliev, R R; Teplov, A Yu; Ziganshin, A U

    2011-07-01

    Experiments in vitro showed that ATP and adenosine equally suppressed contractions of frog m. sartorius, which belongs to the phasic type muscles. Adenosine receptors antagonist 8-SPT abolished the effect of adenosine, but did not change the effect of ATP. This fact proves the independence of signaling pathways of these purines. ATP produced an opposite effect on the tonic muscle m. cruralis and increased the force of its contraction. Adenosine produced an inhibitory effect on the force of m. cruralis contration. In this case, 8-SPT also eliminated the effect of adenosine, but did not change the effect of ATP. The potentiating effect of ATP was blocked by suramin, a nonselective antagonist of P2 receptors, which attests to their involvement into the effects of this purine. The opposite effects of purinergic regulation reflect fundamental differences in functional organization of phasic and tonic muscular systems. It was hypothesized that the increase in contraction force under the effect of ATP is a mechanism providing maitenance of the contracted state of tonic muscle without appreciable metabolic costs.

  6. Oppositional Identities: Dissimilarities in How Women and Men Experience Parent versus Professional Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    As stereotypes of social groups undergo change, group members gain access to previously denied social and cultural roles. Although such access is desirable, to the extent that the behavior, traits, and attitudes required to succeed in a new role are in opposition to those required to do well in a still-valued old role, conflict in the self-concept may ensue. Specifically, the individual must necessarily fall short in social comparisons of the self to the ideal group member in one or both roles, threatening self-integrity. Examining the specific case of oppositional identities between career and mom roles, we argue that women respond to this conflict by shifting back and forth between activation of whichever identity is relevant in a given situational context in a way that men do not. This shifting of self-associations is hypothesized to deplete scarce cognitive resources, interfering with performance on a task that requires executive function capacity. In addition, to the extent the identities are viewed as trading off against one another, failure in one domain may be responded to by activating the alternate identity in an effort to restore self-integrity, again in a way that is not true for men. These hypotheses are explored across four studies, utilizing both college students in the midst of formulating – and working parents in the midst of negotiating – these PMID:23713699

  7. Electrostatic self-assembly in polyelectrolyte-neutral block copolymers and oppositely charged surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berret, J.-F.Jean-Francois; Oberdisse, Julian

    2004-01-01

    We report on small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) of colloidal complexes resulting from the electrostatic self-assembly of polyelectrolyte-neutral copolymers and oppositely charged surfactants. The polymers are double hydrophilic block copolymers of low molecular weight (between 5000 and 50 000 g/mol). One block is a polyelectrolyte chain, which can be either positively or negatively charged, whereas the second block is neutral and in good solvent conditions. In aqueous solutions, surfactants with an opposite charge to that of the polyelectrolyte interact strongly with these copolymers. The two species associate into stable 100 nm-colloidal complexes which exhibit a core-shell microstructure. For different polymer/surfactant couples, we have shown that the core is constituted from densely packed surfactant micelles connected by the polyelectrolyte chains. The outer part of the complex is a corona formed by the neutral soluble chains. Using a model of aggregation based on a Monte-Carlo algorithm, we have simulated the internal structure of the aggregates. The model assumes spherical cages containing one to several hundreds of micelles in a closely packed state. The agreement between the model and the data is remarkable

  8. Polarized Couples in Therapy: Recognizing Indifference as the Opposite of Love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Irum Saeed; Alghamdi, Nawal G

    2017-01-02

    How can a couple "fall in love" and then subsequently "stumble out of love"? For centuries, this question has perplexed partners, researchers, and therapists alike. Unlike falling out of love, which may be a long-term gradual decline in love, falling in love may occur without much deliberation like the famous "love at first sight." During a developing love relationship, couples are more susceptible to ignoring a myriad of factors that will eventually influence their relationship. These ignored personal and general factors become increasingly conspicuous after the relationship is established. When facing relationship difficulties, the presence or absence of mutual love and intimacy steers the couple's relationship toward continuity or termination. Emotional indifference (which is the opposite of love) diminishes love and care; the terms marital disaffection and romantic disengagement are used synonymously to represent emotional indifference in couples. Marital disaffection is one of the central concerns of couples entering therapy. Nevertheless, spouses may enter therapy with divergent goals that may be polar opposites. Therefore, treatment of polarized or different agenda couples is challenging because disaffected spouses may be seeking counseling to break the bond at a safe venue, while their partners may still be obliviously hoping for the rebirth of their lost love. This article reviews marital disaffection/romantic disengagement and discusses counseling options for polarized couples.

  9. Opposite effects of the gap junction blocker octanol on focal cerebral ischemia occluded for different durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenting; Zhou, Lequan; Liu, Wei; Guan, Li; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Haimei; Yan, Fuman; Xu, Jinwen; Zeng, Weiyong; Qiu, Min

    2014-06-01

    Protectants and executioners have been demonstrated to be used by gap junctions in focal cerebral ischemia. Certain researchers hypothesized that the opposite role of gap junctions may be associated with the injury extent, which has been demonstrated to be highly correlated with occlusion duration. In order to examine this hypothesis directly, the effects of octanol, a frequently used drug, were examined to investigate the role of gap junctions, in rats following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 30 min/2 h and 24 h reperfusion, respectively. Octanol significantly reduced the infarct volume following 2 h of occlusion concomitant with lower neurological deficits, whereas it enlarged the infarct volume following 30 min of occlusion. Consistently, octanol attenuated the number of transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region following 2 h of occlusion, while opposite effects were observed for 30 min of occlusion. Further immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that the expression of B-cell leukemia-2 (Bcl-2, anti-apoptotic protein) was upregulated and that Bcl-2-associated X (Bax, proapoptotic protein) was downregulated following 2 h of occlusion in the octanol group compared with the ischemic group. Conversely, octanol downregulated the expression of the Bcl-2 protein concomitant with increased Bax protein following 30 min of occlusion. These results indicated that the gap junction blocker octanol can protect against ischemic injury following long-term occlusion, however, can aggravate ischemic injury following short-term occlusion.

  10. Optimization of submerged arc welding process parameters using quasi-oppositional based Jaya algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, R. Venkata; Rai, Dhiraj P. [Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Gujarat (India)

    2017-05-15

    Submerged arc welding (SAW) is characterized as a multi-input process. Selection of optimum combination of process parameters of SAW process is a vital task in order to achieve high quality of weld and productivity. The objective of this work is to optimize the SAW process parameters using a simple optimization algorithm, which is fast, robust and convenient. Therefore, in this work a very recently proposed optimization algorithm named Jaya algorithm is applied to solve the optimization problems in SAW process. In addition, a modified version of Jaya algorithm with oppositional based learning, named “Quasi-oppositional based Jaya algorithm” (QO-Jaya) is proposed in order to improve the performance of the Jaya algorithm. Three optimization case studies are considered and the results obtained by Jaya algorithm and QO-Jaya algorithm are compared with the results obtained by well-known optimization algorithms such as Genetic algorithm (GA), Particle swarm optimization (PSO), Imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) and Teaching learning based optimization (TLBO).

  11. Left and right brain-oriented hemisity subjects show opposite behavioral preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Bruce E

    2012-01-01

    Recently, three independent, intercorrelated biophysical measures have provided the first quantitative measures of a binary form of behavioral laterality called "Hemisity," a term referring to inherent opposite right or left brain-oriented differences in thinking and behavioral styles. Crucially, the right or left brain-orientation of individuals assessed by these methods was later found to be essentially congruent with the thicker side of their ventral gyrus of the anterior cingulate cortex (vgACC) as revealed by a 3 min MRI procedure. Laterality of this putative executive structural element has thus become the primary standard defining individual hemisity. Here, the behavior of 150 subjects, whose hemisity had been calibrated by MRI, was assessed using five MRI-calibrated preference questionnaires, two of which were new. Right and left brain-oriented subjects selected opposite answers (p > 0.05) for 47 of the 107 "either-or," forced choice type preference questionnaire items. The resulting 30 hemisity subtype preference differences were present in several areas. These were: (1) in logical orientation, (2) in type of consciousness, (3) in fear level and sensitivity, (4) in social-professional orientation, and (5) in pair bonding-spousal dominance style. The right and left brain-oriented hemisity subtype subjects, sorted on the anatomical basis of upon which brain side their vgACC was thickest, showed 30 significant differences in their "either-or" type of behavioral preferences.

  12. Left and right brain-oriented hemisity subjects show opposite behavioral preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Eldine Morton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, three independent, intercorrelated biophysical measures have provided the first quantitative measures of a binary form of behavioral laterality called Hemisity, a term referring to inherent opposite right or left brain-oriented differences in thinking and behavioral styles. Crucially, the right or left brain-orientation of individuals assessed by these methods was later found to be essentially congruent with the thicker side of their ventral gyrus of the anterior cingulate cortex (vgACC as revealed by a 3 minute MRI procedure. Laterality of this putative executive structural element has thus become the primary standard defining individual hemisity. Methods: Here, the behavior of 150 subjects, whose hemisity had been calibrated by MRI, was assessed using five MRI-calibrated preference questionnaires, two of which were new.Results: Right and left brain-oriented subjects selected opposite answers (p > 0.05 for 47 of the 107 either-or, forced choice type preference questionnaire items. Hemisity subtype preference differences were present in several areas. They were in: a. logical orientation, b. type of consciousness, c. fear level and sensitivity, d. social-professional orientation, and e. pair bonding-spousal dominance style.Conclusions: The right and left brain-oriented hemisity subtype subjects, sorted on the anatomical basis of upon which brain side their vgACC was thickest, showed numerous significant differences in their either-or type of behavioral preferences.

  13. Oppositional identities: dissimilarities in how women and men experience parent versus professional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Allegra J; Park, Bernadette

    2013-08-01

    As stereotypes of social groups undergo change, group members gain access to previously denied social and cultural roles. Although such access is desirable, to the extent that the behavior, traits, and attitudes required to succeed in a new role are in opposition to those required to do well in a still-valued old role, conflict in the self-concept may ensue. Specifically, the individual must necessarily fall short in social comparisons of the self to the ideal group member in 1 or both roles, threatening self-integrity. Examining the specific case of oppositional identities between career and mom roles, we argue that women respond to this conflict by shifting back and forth between activation of whichever identity is relevant in a given situational context in a way that men do not. This shifting of self-associations is hypothesized to deplete scarce cognitive resources, interfering with performance on a task that requires executive function capacity. In addition, to the extent the identities are viewed as trading off against one another, failure in 1 domain may be responded to by activating the alternate identity in an effort to restore self-integrity, again in a way that is not true for men. These hypotheses are explored across 4 studies, utilizing both college students in the midst of formulating--and working parents in the midst of negotiating--these identities.

  14. Optimization of submerged arc welding process parameters using quasi-oppositional based Jaya algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R. Venkata; Rai, Dhiraj P.

    2017-01-01

    Submerged arc welding (SAW) is characterized as a multi-input process. Selection of optimum combination of process parameters of SAW process is a vital task in order to achieve high quality of weld and productivity. The objective of this work is to optimize the SAW process parameters using a simple optimization algorithm, which is fast, robust and convenient. Therefore, in this work a very recently proposed optimization algorithm named Jaya algorithm is applied to solve the optimization problems in SAW process. In addition, a modified version of Jaya algorithm with oppositional based learning, named “Quasi-oppositional based Jaya algorithm” (QO-Jaya) is proposed in order to improve the performance of the Jaya algorithm. Three optimization case studies are considered and the results obtained by Jaya algorithm and QO-Jaya algorithm are compared with the results obtained by well-known optimization algorithms such as Genetic algorithm (GA), Particle swarm optimization (PSO), Imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) and Teaching learning based optimization (TLBO).

  15. Binary Opposition Sociolinguistic Picture of the World (on the Material of Modern English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia B. Boyeva-Omelechko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is topical due to the interest of scientists to the problems of interaction of society and language and the role of language in constructing and reconstructing political reality. The authors of the article introduce the notion of the sociolinguistic picture of the world. This picture reflects different aspects of the phenomenon «society» with the help of words which may be called «sociolinguisms». The words in question cover such spheres of society as economical, social, political and spiritual ones. The authors put forward the idea that binary oppositions are typical of the sociolinguistic picture of the world because social phenomena usually contain interdependent and at the same time mutually excluding each other sides which are revealed by the conscience and reflecteded in the language. Unfortunately only some of these oppositions are represented in the dictionaries of synonyms and antonyms. The authors stress that their range is much wider and can be described on the basis of different types of general and explanatory dictionaries with the help of linguistic methods of investigation. Special attention is paid to national peculiarities and axiological properties of antonyms-sociolinguisms.

  16. EVOLUTION OF CURRENTS OF OPPOSITE SIGNS IN THE FLARE-PRODUCTIVE SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, B.; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Bhattacharyya, R.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of a time series of high spatial resolution vector magnetograms of the active region NOAA 10930 available from the Solar Optical Telescope SpectroPolarimeter on board Hinode revealed that there is a mixture of upward and downward currents in the two footpoints of an emerging flux rope. The flux emergence rate is almost the same in both the polarities. We observe that along with an increase in magnetic flux, the net current in each polarity increases initially for about three days after which it decreases. This net current is characterized by having exactly opposite signs in each polarity while its magnitude remains almost the same most of the time. The decrease of the net current in both the polarities is due to the increase of current having a sign opposite to that of the net current. The dominant current, with the same sign as the net current, is seen to increase first and then decreases during the major X-class flares. Evolution of non-dominant current appears to be a necessary condition for flare initiation. The above observations can be plausibly explained in terms of the superposition of two different force-free states resulting in a non-zero Lorentz force in the corona. This Lorentz force then pushes the coronal plasma and might facilitate the magnetic reconnection required for flares. Also, the evolution of the net current is found to follow the evolution of magnetic shear at the polarity inversion line.

  17. Sexual Imprinting on Facial Traits of Opposite-Sex Parents in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula M Marcinkowska

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Positive sexual imprinting is a process by which individuals use the phenotype of their opposite-sex parent as a template for acquiring mates. Recent studies in humans have concluded that an imprinting-like mechanism influences human mate choice in facial traits. However, some of the previous studies have had methodological problems or flaws which might have invalidated or led to an overgeneralization of the original interpretation of their results. In this study, 70 heterosexual adults were used to test if their partners resembled facially their opposite-sex parent as the sexual imprinting hypothesis predicts. Judges assessed the subjective facial similarity between each participant's partner and their parent. We found that there was no perceived facial similarity between women's partners and their fathers. However, men tended to pair more often with women that were perceived as resembling the men's own mothers. In contrast to previous studies, the quality of the relationship between participants and their parents did not predict the level of facial resemblance between the participant's spouse and their parent.

  18. How do Major, Violent and Nonviolent Opposition Campaigns, Impact Predicted Life Expectancy at birth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Stoddard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of major violent and nonviolent opposition campaigns for regime change, on predicted life expectancy at birth. The study measured life expectancy five and ten years after the campaign ended, so that deaths which occurred during the campaign would not be included in the metric, and thus enabling the study of changes made in the state on the social determinants affecting longevity, after the campaign was over. Life expectancy is one of the best reported World Development Indicators and is considered to be a good indication of the overall health and general living conditions of the state and therefore is an ideal indicator to reflect the changes made in the state following a major campaign. The results of this analysis showed that states have a hard time recovering from a major opposition campaign and initially drop behind the growth trend in the world average for predicted life expectancy at birth. But, the type of campaign that was waged and whether it was successful, greatly affects the state’s ability to recover. Encouragingly by a decade after the campaign ends, states that experienced a nonviolent campaign that was successful had caught up to the world average and inched ahead of it. This shows that on this important development indicator, new governments that were ushered into power by nonviolent social movements, had made positive changes in the state that enabled it to surpass world averages.

  19. Social aspects of the nuclear energy. Public acceptance. Preliminary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report approaches the social aspects of the nuclear energy an public acceptance. It presents the following main topics: historical of the public opposition to the nuclear energy; emergency planning; legislation related to the popular participation; best strategies to acceptance; insurance of nuclear risks; protection of the population and the environment in the licensing; and organization of the licensing system

  20. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.

  1. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government's decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state's opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE's progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada's opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE's activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE's radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE's low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department's past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials

  2. Tris-(2,3-Dibromopropyl Isocyanurate, a New Emerging Pollutant, Impairs Cognition and Provokes Depression-Like Behaviors in Adult Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ye

    Full Text Available Tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl isocyanurate (TDBP-TAZTO, an emerging brominated flame retardant, possesses the characteristics of candidate persistent organic pollutants and has displayed toxicity to fish and rodents. TDBP-TAZTO can pass through the blood brain barrier and accumulate in brain. However, the neurotoxicity of TDBP-TAZTO has not yet studied in rodents. We hypothesize that TDBP-TAZTO could induce the neurotoxicity in rat hippocampal neurons. The male adult rats were exposed to TDBP-TAZTO of 5 and 50 mg/kg by gavage, daily for 6 months. TDBP-TAZTO resulted in cognitive impairment and depression-like behaviors, which may be related with TDBP-TAZTO-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivation, upregulation of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, overexpression of pro-apoptotic proteins, downexpression of neurogenesis-related proteins in hippocampus, and hippocampal neurons damage in DG, CA1 and CA3 areas. Our findings suggested that TDBP-TAZTO induces significant hippocampal neurotoxicity, which provokes cognitive impairment and depression-like behaviors in adult rats. Therefore, this research will contribute to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of TDBP-TAZTO in human.

  3. Talking About Sex When Sex Is Painful: Dyadic Sexual Communication Is Associated With Women's Pain, and Couples' Sexual and Psychological Outcomes in Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Kate M; Rosen, Natalie O; Bergeron, Sophie; Nealis, Logan J

    2016-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a recurrent vulvovaginal pain condition associated with psychological and sexual consequences for affected women and their partners, including lower quality of dyadic sexual communication compared to pain-free couples. Although greater sexual communication is associated with positive sexual and relational outcomes for both pain-free couples and couples experiencing painful sex, little is known about its role in women's pain and psychological outcomes, especially in a relational context. The present study examined associations between dyadic sexual communication and pain, sexual satisfaction, sexual functioning, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 107 couples in which the woman was diagnosed with PVD via a standardized gynecological assessment. Women completed a measure of pain intensity, and both members of the couple completed measures of their dyadic sexual communication, sexual satisfaction, sexual functioning, and depressive symptoms. Analyses were guided by the actor-partner interdependence model. Women and partners' own perceptions of greater dyadic sexual communication were associated with their own greater sexual satisfaction and sexual functioning, and lower depressive symptoms. Partners' perceptions of greater dyadic sexual communication were also associated with women's lower pain and greater sexual satisfaction. Results point to the importance of dyadic coping conceptualizations for both individual and interpersonal outcomes in PVD. Dyadic sexual communication may be a key treatment target for interventions aimed at improving the pain and psychological and sexual impairments of women with PVD and their partners.

  4. Use of X - Rays for the evaluation of internal damages provoked by corn seed drying and the effect of those damages upon the seeds quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando Flor, Ebert Pepe; Moreira de Carvalho, Maria Laene

    2002-01-01

    The work was conducted in the seed analysis laboratory of the department of agriculture and forest sciences of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (Federal University of Lavras. MG), over the period 1999 - 2000. Aiming to evaluate the efficiency of utilization of X - rays in the identification of the several types of internal damages provoked by corn seed drying to high temperatures as well as the effect of those damages upon the physiological quality of stored seeds, lots of the cultivars AG1143 and BR 106 were submitted to drying at the temperature of 50 degrades Celsius. The lots were divided into two categories according to the presence or not of internal damages visible with the naked eye submitted to the X - ray test (for 45 at 25 Kvp of radiation intensity) afterwards. They were separated into three sub lots. CDVCDRX (with visual damages and detected by X - ray) SDVSDRX (without visual damages and with damages detected by X ray). The sub lots were evaluated in their physiological quality by viability and vigor tests. The results showed the efficiency of X ray in detecting internal damages of drying not observed by visual analysis. The vigor of corn seeds with internal drying damages is affected in several manners, depending on the cultivars, evaluation time and sort of damage internal damages of drying detected by the radiographical analysis in spite of not affecting early viability, when they occurs in the two directions horizontal and vertical (Double damage) decrease the vigor of seeds after storage

  5. Acute, but not Chronic, Exposure to Arsenic Provokes Glucose Intolerance in Rats: Possible Roles for Oxidative Stress and the Adrenergic Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohsen; Khodayar, Mohammd Javad; Seydi, Enayatollah; Soheila, Alboghobeish; Parsi, Isa Kazemzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Health problems due to heavy metals have become a worldwide concern. Along with its carcinogenicity, arsenic exposure results in impairment of glucose metabolism and insulin secretion as well as altered gene expression and signal transduction. However, the exact mechanism behind the behaviour of arsenic on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion has not yet been fully understood. Fasting blood sugar and glucose tolerance tests were evaluated. In this study, we demonstrated that arsenic, when acutely administered, induced glucose intolerance in rats, although its chronic oral exposure did not provoke any glucose intolerance or hyperglycemia in rats. The protective activity of N-acetylcysteine, carvedilol and propranolol in male rats exposed to arsenic were also assessed, and N-acetylcysteine, particularly at 40 and 80 mg/kg, prevented the glucose intolerance induced in rats by arsenic. The present study showed that acute, but not chronic, contact with arsenic generates significant changes in the normal glucose tolerance pattern that may be due fundamentally to overproduction of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress and is preventable by using N-acetylcysteine, a thiol-containing antioxidant. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Perceiving the target's state or state provoked by the target? An analysis of the descriptive and evaluative knowledge in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon, Astrid; Mollaret, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    In line with the theory of traits as generalized affordances, the present article argues that target's states (TSs) and states provoked by a target (other's states (OSs) towards target) are two components of the meaning of traits referring, respectively, to a descriptive and to an evaluative knowledge of people. A preliminary study confirmed that TS and OS were equally representative of a trait. Two studies were designed to study the effects of practising the use of traits as either TS or OS categories (an induction procedure) on a subsequent person perception task, requiring participants to rate photographed targets on a series of traits. Results show that both the differentiation between targets and evaluative consistency of ratings were enhanced under the OS condition compared to TS and control (with no practice of traits) conditions. Importantly, Study 2 tends to show that the effects of the induction procedure are not limited to the practised traits but also generalize to unpractised traits. Implications of these findings for social perception research are discussed. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Ciprofloxacin provokes SOS-dependent changes in respiration and membrane potential and causes alterations in the redox status of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Galina V; Tyulenev, Aleksey V; Muzyka, Nadezda G; Peters, Mikhail A; Oktyabrsky, Oleg N

    2017-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of the physiological response of bacteria to antibiotic-induced stress is needed for development of new approaches to combatting microbial infections. Fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin causes phase alterations in Escherichia coli respiration and membrane potential that strongly depend on its concentration. Concentrations lower than the optimal bactericidal concentration (OBC) do not inhibit respiration during the first phase. A dose higher than the OBC provokes immediate SOS-independent inhibition of respiration and growth that can contribute to a decreased SOS response and lowered susceptibility to high concentrations of ciprofloxacin. Cells retain their metabolic activity, membrane potential and accelerated K + uptake and produce low levels of superoxide and H 2 O 2 during the first phase. The time before initiation of the second phase is inversely correlated with the ciprofloxacin concentration. The second phase is SOS-dependent and characterized by respiratory inhibition, membrane depolarization, K + and glutathione leakage and cessation of glucose consumption and may be considered as cell death. atpA, gshA and kefBkefC knockouts, which perturb fluxes of protons and K + , can modify the degree and duration of respiratory inhibition and potassium retention. Loss of K + efflux channels KefB and KefC enhances the susceptibility of E. coli to ciprofloxacin. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. To say or not to say: Dyadic ambivalence over emotional expression and its associations with pain, sexuality, and distress in couples coping with provoked vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, Nayla; Bergeron, Sophie; Steben, Marc; Hainault, Victoria-Ann; McDuff, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent and taxing female genital pain condition. Despite the intimate nature of this pain and the fact that affective factors such as anxiety have been shown to modulate its manifestations, no study has yet explored the emotional regulation of couples in which the woman suffers from PVD. Ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) is an emotional regulation variable that quantifies the extent to which a person is comfortable with the way she or he expresses emotions. We examined whether the dyadic AEE of couples in which the woman suffers from PVD was differentially associated with women's pain and couples' psychological, sexual, and relational functioning. Couples (N = 254), in which the woman suffered from PVD, completed the AEE questionnaire. A couple typology of dyadic AEE was created. Dependent measures for both members of the couple were the global measure of sexual satisfaction scale, the Beck depression inventory II, and the revised dyadic adjustment scale. The female sexual function index and the sexual history form were used to assess the sexual function of women and men, respectively. Women also completed the pain rating index of the McGill pain questionnaire. Couples, in which both partners were considered low on AEE, had the highest scores on sexual satisfaction (P = 0.02) and function (P sexual, and relational outcomes. Results indicate that emotional regulation may be important to consider in the assessment and treatment of couples coping with PVD. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Recovery following Thyroxine Treatment Withdrawal, but Not Propylthiouracil, Averts In Vivo and Ex Vivo Thyroxine-Provoked Cardiac Complications in Adult FVB/N Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy S. Saad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent cardiovascular pathology has been described in hyperthyroid patients even with effective antithyroid treatment. Here, we studied the effect of a well-known antithyroid drug, propylthiouracil (PTU; 20 mg/kg/day, on thyroxine (T4; 500 µg/kg/day-induced increase in blood pressure (BP, cardiac hypertrophy, and altered responses of the contractile myocardium both in vivo and ex vivo after 2 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, the potential recovery through 2 weeks of T4 treatment discontinuation was also investigated. PTU and T4 recovery partially reduced the T4-prompted increase in BP. Alternatively, PTU significantly improved the in vivo left ventricular (LV function with no considerable effects on cardiac hypertrophy or ex vivo right ventricular (RV contractile alterations subsequent to T4 treatment. Conversely, T4 recovery considerably enhanced the T4-provoked cardiac changes both in vivo and ex vivo. Altogether, our data is in agreement with the proposal that hyperthyroidism-induced cardiovascular pathology could persevere even with antithyroid treatments, such as PTU. However, this cannot be generalized and further investigation with different antithyroid treatments should be executed. Moreover, we reveal that recovery following experimental hyperthyroidism could potentially ameliorate cardiac function and decrease the risk for additional cardiac complications, yet, this appears to be model-dependent and should be cautiously construed.

  10. Assessment of changes in energy metabolism parameters provoked by carbon tetrachloride in Wistar rats and the protective effect of white grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Gabardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and conventional grape juices consumption on the behavior of rats and their neuroprotective effect on the activity of brain energy metabolism enzymes in different brain areas of adult rats on the experimental model of hepatic encephalopathy. Male Wistar rats (90-days-old were treated once a day with conventional or organic white grape juice by gavage for 14 days (7 μL/g. On the 15th day the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in a single dose of 3.0 mL/kg. Cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected to measure the activity of creatine kinase (CK and pyruvate kinase (PK. No changes in feeding behavior were observed after the treatment with the grapes juices. However, there was an increase in grooming behavior in the open field test provoked by both juices. CCl4 inhibited CK activity in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the rats and CCl4 also reduced PK activity in all brain structures studied. Furthermore, both white grape juices prevented the decrease in the activity of CK and PK. Therefore, we can suggest that organic and conventional white grape juices could restore the activity of enzymes with a central role in brain energy metabolism.

  11. A Dyadic Perspective on Childhood Maltreatment for Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia and Their Partners: Associations With Pain and Sexual and Psychosocial Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini-Munt, Serena; Bergeron, Sophie; Rosen, Natalie O; Beaulieu, Noémie; Steben, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is robustly associated with adult-onset vulvodynia, a common form of female genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder. However, little is known about the impact of childhood maltreatment on current sexual, psychological, and relationship adaptation for couples with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). This study examined the associations between childhood maltreatment and sexual and psychosocial functioning and pain in women with PVD, the most common subtype of vulvodynia, and their partners. A total of 49 couples (M age women = 27.80, SD = 6.05; M age men = 30.04; SD = 6.48) with PVD completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), as well as measures of sexual functioning, couple satisfaction, and anxiety. Women also reported on their pain during intercourse. Analyses were guided by the actor-partner interdependence model. Women's higher reports of childhood maltreatment were associated with their lower sexual functioning and higher anxiety. Partners' higher reports of childhood maltreatment were associated with their lower sexual functioning, lower couple satisfaction, and higher anxiety, as well as women's lower couple satisfaction and higher anxiety. Both women's and partners' higher reports of childhood maltreatment were associated with higher affective pain for women. Findings suggest childhood maltreatment experienced by women with PVD and their partners should be considered as part of treatment planning.

  12. The wandering mind of men: ERP evidence for gender differences in attention bias towards attractive opposite sex faces

    OpenAIRE

    van Hooff, Johanna C.; Crawford, Helen; van Vugt, Mark

    2010-01-01

    To examine the time course and automaticity of our attention bias towards attractive opposite sex faces, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 20 males and 20 females while they carried out a covert orienting task. Faces that were high, low or average in attractiveness, were presented in focus of attention, but were unrelated to task goals. Across the entire sample larger P2 amplitudes were found in response to both attractive and unattractive opposite sex faces, presumably refle...

  13. Trades Between Opposition and Conjunction Class Trajectories for Early Human Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Shyface, Hilary; Komar, David R.; Cirillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2014-01-01

    Candidate human missions to Mars, including NASA's Design Reference Architecture 5.0, have focused on conjunction-class missions with long crewed durations and minimum energy trajectories to reduce total propellant requirements and total launch mass. However, in order to progressively reduce risk and gain experience in interplanetary mission operations, it may be desirable that initial human missions to Mars, whether to the surface or to Mars orbit, have shorter total crewed durations and minimal stay times at the destination. Opposition-class missions require larger total energy requirements relative to conjunction-class missions but offer the potential for much shorter mission durations, potentially reducing risk and overall systems performance requirements. This paper will present a detailed comparison of conjunction-class and opposition-class human missions to Mars vicinity with a focus on how such missions could be integrated into the initial phases of a Mars exploration campaign. The paper will present the results of a trade study that integrates trajectory/propellant analysis, element design, logistics and sparing analysis, and risk assessment to produce a comprehensive comparison of opposition and conjunction exploration mission constructs. Included in the trade study is an assessment of the risk to the crew and the trade offs between the mission duration and element, logistics, and spares mass. The analysis of the mission trade space was conducted using four simulation and analysis tools developed by NASA. Trajectory analyses for Mars destination missions were conducted using VISITOR (Versatile ImpulSive Interplanetary Trajectory OptimizeR), an in-house tool developed by NASA Langley Research Center. Architecture elements were evaluated using EXploration Architecture Model for IN-space and Earth-to-orbit (EXAMINE), a parametric modeling tool that generates exploration architectures through an integrated systems model. Logistics analysis was conducted using

  14. [Nature and severity of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder as they occur together or separately in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapalme, Mélanie; Déry, Michèle

    2009-09-01

    Co-occurring oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder symptoms are particularly common, which could be related to the greater severity (number and nature of symptoms) of each disorder. Our study aims to determine if oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder symptoms vary when they occur together or separately in children. Our study was conducted with 406 children (aged 6 to 13 years) divided in 4 groups (oppositional disorder only, conduct disorder only, oppositional disorder and conduct disorder, control) with no age or sex difference. Structured diagnostic interviews conducted with one parent and each child separately led to assessing the average number of symptoms for each disorder as well as the onset frequency of each symptom. When occurring together, oppositional disorder and conduct disorder appear more severe than when they occur separately, considering the number and nature of symptoms shown. Further, children with an oppositional disorder only or a conduct disorder only also have more frequent symptoms of the other disorder, compared with children in the control group. These results suggest taking into account, at the time of assessment and potential intervention, the presence of both disorders.

  15. Nuclear power: the question of public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.; Maurer, D.; Thomas, K.

    1978-01-01

    Technologists have been surprised - in view of the persuasive technical arguments - at the strength of public opposition to nuclear power. But their assumption that information and argument can, by their rational force, change public opinion on sensitive issues, rests on oversimplified theories about attitude formation. When the grounds for opposition to or approval of a controversial programme are investigated - as the authors of this article have done, on the issue of nuclear power - it becomes apparent that attitude formation is not, in the technologists' sense, a 'rational' process. Here the authors describe an attitude model, and present the results of its application to the question of public attitudes to nuclear power - including the discovery of the relatively minor role that technical and environmental questions play in determining those attitudes. (author)

  16. ADHD with comorbid oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder: discrete or nondistinct disruptive behavior disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; Doerfler, Leonard A

    2008-09-01

    In children with ADHD who have comorbid disruptive behavior diagnoses distinctions between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) remain unclear. The authors investigate differences between ODD and CD in a large clinical sample of children with ADHD. Consecutively referred and systematically assessed male children and adolescents with either ADHD (n = 65), ADHD with ODD (n = 85), or ADHD with CD (n = 50) were compared using structured diagnostic interviews and parent, teacher, and clinician rating scales. In children with ADHD, significant differences emerged between ODD and CD in the domains of delinquency, overt aggression, and ADHD symptom severity; ADHD with CD was most severe, followed by ADHD with ODD, and ADHD had the least severe symptoms. Distinctions between ADHD with CD and the other two groups were found for parenting, treatment history, and school variables. Within the limits of a cross-sectional methodology, results support clinically meaningful distinctions between ODD and CD in children with ADHD.

  17. Anomalous Coronary Artery From the Opposite Sinus (ACAOS): Technical Challenges During Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Razi, Mahmodula; Mahrotra, Anupam; Aggarwal, Puneet; Singh, Anupam; Rekwal, Lokendra; Tripathi, Sunil; Abhishekh, Nishant Kumar; Krishna, Vinay

    2018-04-01

    Anomalies of the coronary arteries are reported in 1-2% of patients among diagnostic angiogram. Ectopic origin of right coronary artery (RCA) from opposite sinus is one of the most common and they are mainly benign, but at times may be malignant. We report a case of a 69-year-old male who underwent early invasive percutaneous coronary intervention for non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) where RCA arising from left sinus at the root of left main artery was culprit and various technical challenges were encountered while intervening in form of cannulation to tracking of hardwares. RCA was cannulated with floating wire technique using hockey stick guide catheter and revascularized by deployment of 3.5 × 38 mm Promus Premier Everolimus eluting stent (Boston Scientific, USA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever report of ectopic RCA being revascularized by using hockey stick catheter.

  18. Zhong-Yong as Dynamic Balancing Between Yin-Yang Opposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2018-01-01

    of Zhong-Yong balancing being incorrect and incomplete, the author proposes an alternative perspective on Zhong-Yong as dynamic balancing between Yin-Yang opposites. Design/methodology/approach: The author first explain why Peter P. Li’s “asymmetry” and “superiority” arguments are flawed by referring...... to the original text of the classical book of Zhong-Yong (中庸) and a comparison between Zhong-Yong and Aristotle’s doctrine of the mean. The author then propose an alternative approach to Zhong-Yong balancing that is embedded in the original text Zhong-Yong but somehow has been neglected by many Chinese scholars...

  19. Mass Spectrometry Imaging Shows Cocaine and Methylphenidate Have Opposite Effects on Major Lipids in Drosophila Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Mai H; Phan, Nhu T N; Fletcher, John S; Malmberg, Per; Ewing, Andrew G

    2018-03-20

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to study the effects of cocaine versus methylphenidate administration on both the localization and abundance of lipids in Drosophila melanogaster brain. A J105 ToF-SIMS with a 40 keV gas cluster primary ion source enabled us to probe molecular ions of biomolecules on the fly with a spatial resolution of ∼3 μm, giving us unique insights into the effect of these drugs on molecular lipids in the nervous system. Significant changes in phospholipid composition were observed in the central brain for both. Principal components image analysis revealed that changes occurred mainly for phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, and phosphatidylinositols. When the lipid changes caused by cocaine were compared with those induced by methylphenidate, it was shown that these drugs exert opposite effects on the brain lipid structure. We speculate that this might relate to the molecular mechanism of cognition and memory.

  20. Resonant magnetoelectric response of cantilevers with magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers on opposite sides of the substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C. Krantz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory is derived for the bending-mode magnetoelectric coefficients at resonance for magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers on opposite sides of a substrate. Results are given for the transverse ME coefficient in the Metglas-Si-AlN system with magnetic field excitation parallel and electric polarization perpendicular to the cantilever. The center-substrate layer sequence is found to produce about 50 % enhancement of the magnetoelectric effect compared to magnetoelectric bilayers on one side of a substrate. Up to about 10 % additional enhancement of the ME effect is predicted if the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers are separated from the substrate by spacer layers with lower Youngs modulus. Lowest order bending mode resonance frequencies are given.

  1. Oppositional Defiant Disorder Is Better Conceptualized as a Disorder of Emotional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Monica; Quinn, Declan; Duncan, Don; Graham, Tom; Balbuena, Lloyd

    2017-03-01

    It has been reported that Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) can be differentiated into distinct subtypes associated with different outcomes in adulthood. We examined whether ODD is conceptually independent and coherent, and whether ODD and Conduct Disorder (CD) are expressions of the same core deficit. The data come from a sample of 4,380 children for whom SNAP rating scales were available. Parallel analysis was performed on the eight-item ODD diagnostic items and on the SNAP-90 scale. These were factor analyzed and the components were correlated. ODD has one underlying factor, whereas the parent-rated SNAP has nine underlying factors. ODD items grouped together with emotional lability and irritability items, which did not group with CD. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the separation of ODD and CD but not ODD and emotion dysregulation. The expanded ODD factor more likely captures a disorder of emotion regulation, rather than a disruptive behavior disorder.

  2. Risk of epilepsy in opposite-sex and same-sex twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Yanyan; Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Christensen, Kaare

    2018-01-01

    Background: There is a complex interaction between female and male sex hormones and the risk of epilepsy. Whether prenatal exposure to higher levels of sex hormones affects the development of epilepsy in childhood or later in life is not well known. The sex hormone environment of fetuses may...... be affected by the sex of the co-twin. We estimated the risk of epilepsy for twins with an opposite-sex (OS) co-twin compared with twins with a same-sex (SS) co-twin. Methods: From the Danish Twin Registry, we identified OS female twins (n = 11,078), SS female twins (n = 19,186), OS male twins (n = 11...

  3. Beyond the hypothesis: Theory's role in the genesis, opposition, and pursuit of the Higgs boson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James D.

    2018-05-01

    The centrally recognized theoretical achievement that enabled the Higgs boson discovery in 2012 was the hypothesis of its existence, made by Peter Higgs in 1964. Nevertheless, there is a significant body of comparably important theoretical work prior to and after the Higgs boson hypothesis. In this article we present an additional perspective of how crucial theory work was to the genesis of the Higgs boson hypothesis, especially emphasizing its roots in Landau's theory of phase transitions and subsequent theoretical work on superconductivity. A detailed description is then given of the opposition to the Higgs boson hypothesis by many researchers, giving evidence to its speculative nature. And finally, it is discussed the importance of theory work in the decades after the hypothesis in order to make possible the experimental discovery of the Higgs boson.

  4. Differential brain responses to social exclusion by one's own versus opposite-gender peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Vander Wyk, Brent C

    2012-07-01

    Human peer relations provide tangible benefits, including food and protection, as well as emotional benefits. While social exclusion poses a threat to all of these benefits, the psychological threat is particularly susceptible to modulation by the relation of the excluders to the excluded person. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the effects of manipulating the gender relation of participants to their excluders during an interactive ball-toss game. Ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation was higher during exclusion by same-gender peers, while right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation negatively correlated with self-reported distress in other-gender exclusion. Results imply that exclusion by one's own gender is fundamentally different from exclusion by the opposite gender, and suggest a regulatory role for ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in response to out-group exclusion. Individual differences in implicit gender attitudes modulated neural responses to exclusion. The importance of these findings to investigations of social cognition is discussed.

  5. Intrinsic potential of cell membranes: opposite effects of lipid transmembrane asymmetry and asymmetric salt ion distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurtovenko, Andrey A; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    Using atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we consider the intrinsic cell membrane potential that is found to originate from a subtle interplay between lipid transmembrane asymmetry and the asymmetric distribution of monovalent salt ions on the two sides of the cell membrane. It turns out......Cl saline solution and the PE leaflet is exposed to KCl, the outcome is that the effects of asymmetric lipid and salt ion distributions essentially cancel one another almost completely. Overall, our study highlights the complex nature of the intrinsic potential of cell membranes under physiological...... that both the asymmetric distribution of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids across a membrane and the asymmetric distribution of NaCl and KCl induce nonzero drops in the transmembrane potential. However, these potential drops are opposite in sign. As the PC leaflet faces a Na...

  6. TCSC based automatic generation control of deregulated power system using quasi-oppositional harmony search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Nandi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In present aspect, automatic generation control (AGC of deregulated power system with thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC device is investigated. The objective is to discuss bilateral power transaction issue with the TCSC effect. A deregulated two-area power system model having two thermal units in each control area is considered for this act. A quasi-oppositional harmony search (QOHS algorithm is being applied for the constrained optimization problem. Three cases, commonly studied in deregulation, are discussed for the effectiveness of the proposed technique. Further, sensitivity analysis is studied by varying the test system parameters up to ±25% from their rated values. The obtained simulation plots are analytically discussed with the calculation of oscillatory modes, transient details and the studied performance indices. Sugeno fuzzy logic control technique is also investigated to the studied test system. The simulation results show that the proposed QOHS based TCSC controller is quite effective in deregulated environment.

  7. Search for supersymmetry in opposite-sign dilepton final states with the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Niklar

    2011-01-01

    A search for physics beyond the standard model in final states with opposite-sign isolated lepton pairs accompanied by hadronic jets and missing transverse energy is presented. This signature is a typical signature in many supersymmetric models. In a study based on simulation the discovery potential and possible parameter extraction of a specific supersymmetric model is evaluated. The search is then performed using hadron-hadron data from the LHC recorded with the CMS detector during 2010, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb -1 . No evidence for an anomalous event yield beyond Standard Model expectations is found. An upper limit on the non Standard Model contribution in the signal region is deduced from the experimental results. This limit is interpreted in the constrained minimal supersymmetric model. Additional information is provided to allow testing the exclusion of other specific models of physics beyond the SM.

  8. Beyond Symptom Counts for Diagnosing Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B; Hipwell, Alison E; Pardini, Dustin A

    2015-10-01

    Conduct Disorder (CD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) are among the most commonly diagnosed childhood behavioral health disorders. Although there is substantial evidence of heterogeneity of symptom presentations, DSM diagnoses of CD and ODD are formally diagnosed on the basis of symptom counts without regard to individual symptom patterns. We used unidimensional item response theory (IRT) two-parameter logistic (2PL) models to examine item parameters for the individual symptoms of CD and ODD using data on 6,491 adolescents (ages 13-17) from the National Comorbidity Study: Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). For each disorder, the symptoms differed in terms of severity and discrimination parameters. As a result, some adolescents who were above DSM diagnostic thresholds for disruptive behavior disorders exhibited lower levels of the underlying construct than others below the thresholds, based on their unique symptom profile. In terms of incremental benefit, our results suggested an advantage of latent trait scores for CD but not ODD.

  9. Search for supersymmetry in opposite-sign dilepton final states with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Niklar

    2011-10-11

    A search for physics beyond the standard model in final states with opposite-sign isolated lepton pairs accompanied by hadronic jets and missing transverse energy is presented. This signature is a typical signature in many supersymmetric models. In a study based on simulation the discovery potential and possible parameter extraction of a specific supersymmetric model is evaluated. The search is then performed using hadron-hadron data from the LHC recorded with the CMS detector during 2010, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb{sup -1}. No evidence for an anomalous event yield beyond Standard Model expectations is found. An upper limit on the non Standard Model contribution in the signal region is deduced from the experimental results. This limit is interpreted in the constrained minimal supersymmetric model. Additional information is provided to allow testing the exclusion of other specific models of physics beyond the SM.

  10. Solitary Waves in Space Dusty Plasma with Dust of Opposite Polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwakil, S.A.; Zahran, M.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.; Abdelwahed, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of small but finite amplitude dust-acoustic solitary waves (DAWs) in an unmagnetized, collisionless dusty plasma has been investigated. The fluid model is a generalize to the model of Mamun and Shukla to a more realistic space dusty plasma in different regions of space viz.., cometary tails, mesosphere, Jupiter s magnetosphere, etc., by considering a four component dusty plasma consists of charged dusty plasma of opposite polarity, isothermal electrons and vortex like ion distributions in the ambient plasma. A reductive perturbation method were employed to obtain a modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation for the first-order potential and a stationary solution is obtained. The effect of the presence of positively charged dust fluid, the specific charge ratioμ, temperature of the positively charged dust fluid, the ratio of constant temperature of free hot ions and the constant temperature of trapped ions and ion temperature are also discussed.

  11. Like Mother, Like Daughter?: Matrilineal Opposition in African American Mulatta Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pochmara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article juxtaposes representations of mothers and daughters in selected African American novels that feature near-white female protagonists: W. W. Brown’s Clotel, Or the President’s Daughter (1853, Frances E. W. Harper’s Iola Leroy (1892, Charles Chesnutt’s The House behind the Cedars (1900, and Pauline Hopkins’s Hagar’s Daughter (1902. It explores the matrilineal opposition through a formalist close analysis of the melodramatic poetics of the texts and examines the political significance of such aesthetic choices. The novels expose the American history of interracial relations through their foregrounding of the mulatta protagonists and numerous scenes of anagnorisis of their multiracial identities. Simultaneously, their “erotics of politics” rewards the choice of a black spouse and thus celebrates the emergence of the self-determined black community.

  12. Associative cortico-cortical plasticity may affect ipsilateral finger opposition movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzo, V; Bove, M; Naro, A

    2011-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that cortico-cortical paired associative stimulation (cc-PAS) can modulate interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) in the human brain. Here we further explored the after effects of cc-PAS on fine hand movements. Ten healthy right-handed volunteers received 90 paired...... transcranial stimuli to the right and left primary motor hand area (M1(HAND)) at an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 8 ms. We studied the after effects of cc-PAS on the performance of repetitive finger opposition movements of different complexity on both hands using a sensor-engineered glove. A quantitative...... evaluation of the following parameters was performed: Touch Duration (TD), Inter Tapping Interval (ITI) and Number of Errors (NE). We confirmed previous data by showing that left-to-right and right-to-left cc-PAS attenuated IHI. The new finding is that both left-to-right and right-to-left cc-PAS were able...

  13. Optimization of Tungsten Carbide Opposite Anvils Used in the In Situ High-Pressure Loading Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ying

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the structure of anvils, finite element method is used to simulate two kinds of structures, one of which has a support ring but the other one does not. According to the simulated results, it is found that the maximum value of pressure appears at the center of culet when the bevelled angle is about 20°. Comparing the results of these two kinds of structures, we find that the efficiency of pressure transformation for the structure without support ring is larger than that for the structure with support ring. Considering the effect of von Mises stress, two kinds of tungsten carbide opposite anvils have been manufactured with bevelled angle of 10°. The experimental results for these two anvils are in good agreement with the simulation.

  14. What is the opposite of cat? A gentle introduction to group theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leron, Uri; Rye Ejersbo, Lisser

    2016-01-01

    This paper has originated from our interest in approaching mathematical concepts starting from people's common-sense intuitions and building up from there. This goal is challenging both in designing the didactical transposition and sequencing of the mathematical subject matter, and in adopting the open and interactive teaching approach needed to achieve students' active participation and reflection. To demonstrate these challenges, and our experience of trying to cope with them, we have chosen the concept of 'inverses' as used in group theory, and its common-sense precursor 'opposites'. We present our approach via a series of workshop iterations, which summarizes our experience in the many actual workshops we ran in Israel and in Denmark.

  15. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  16. NMR studies of abasic sites in DNA duplexes: Deoxyadenosine stacks into the helix opposite acyclic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnik, M.W.; Chang, Chienneng; Johnson, F.; Grollman, A.P.; Patel, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proton and phosphorus NMR studies are reported for two complementary nonanucleotide duplexes containing acyclic abasic sites. The first duplex, d(C-A-T-G-A-G-T-A-C)·d(G-T-A-C-P-C-A-T-G), contains an acyclic propanyl moiety, P, located opposite a deoxyadenosine at the center of the helix (designated AP P 9-mer duplex). The second duplex, d(C-A-T-G-A-G-T-A-C-)·d(G-T-A-C-E-C-A-T-G), contains a similarly located acyclic ethanyl moiety, E (designated AP E 9-mer duplex). The ethanyl moiety is one carbon shorter than the natural carbon-phosphodiester backbone of a single nucleotide unit of DNA. The majority of the exchangeable and nonexchangeable base and sugar protons in both the AP P 9-mer and AP E 9-mer duplexes, including those at the abasic site, have been assigned by recording and analyzing two-dimensional phase-sensitive NOESY data sets in H 2 O and D 2 O solution between -5 and 5 degree C. These spectroscopic observations establish that A5 inserts into the helix opposite the abasic site (P14 and El14) and stacks between the flanking G4·C15 and G6·C13 Watson-Crick base pairs in both the AP P 9-mer and AP E 9-mer duplexes. Proton NMR parameters for the Ap P 9-mer and AP E 9-mer duplexes are similar to those reported previously. These proton NMR experiments demonstrate that the structures at abasic sites are very similar whether the five-membered ring is open or closed or whether the phosphodiester backbone is shortened by one carbon atom. Phosphorus spectra of the AP P 9-mer and AP E 9-mer duplexes (5 degree C) indicate that the backbone conformation is similarly perturbed at three phosphodiester backbone torsion angles

  17. Structural features of an exocyclic adduct positioned opposite an abasic site in a DNA duplex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchakdjian, M.; Patel, D.J.; Eisenberg, M.; Johnson, F.; Grollman, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Structural studies have been extended to dual lesions where an exocyclic adduct is positioned opposite an abasic site in the center of a DNA oligomer duplex. NMR and energy minimization studies were performed on the 1,N 2 -propanodeoxyguanosine exocyclic adduct (X) positioned opposite a tetrahydrofuran abasic site (F) with the dual lesions located in the center of the (C1-A2-T3-G4-X5-G6-T7-A8-C9)·(G10-T11-A12-C13-F14-C15-A16-T17-G18) X·F 9-mer duplex. Two-dimensional NMR experiments establish that the X·F 9-mer helix is right-handed with Watson-Crick A·T and G·C base pairing on either side of the lesion site. NOEs are detected from the methylene protons of the exocyclic ring of X5 to the imino protons of G4·C15 and G6·C13 which flank the lesion site, as well as to the H1' and H1 double-prime protons of the cross strand F14 tetrahydrofuran moiety. These NMR results establish that the exocyclic adduct X5 is positioned between flanking G4·C15 and G6·C13 base pairs and directed toward the abasic lesion F14 on the partner strand. These studies establish that the exocyclic ring of the 1,N 2 -propanodeoxyguanosine adduct fits into the cavity generated by the abasic site

  18. Goldstone Radar Observations of the 1999 Mars Opposition and other Observing Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, M. A.

    1997-07-01

    As part of the International Mars Watch, Goldstone radar observations of Mars are planned during the 1999 Opposition ( Feb.'99-Aug'99). While some observing time is already allocated, a number of tracks could be made available for well-focused scientific objectives. Since the Deep Space Network plans far in advance, now is the time to develop your plans. During the next Mars opposition, the sub-Earth latitudes are in Mars' Northern hemisphere over the most northerly terrain accessible, which has not been previously examined with current sensitivity. The North residual ice cap is of particular interest. As a reminder to the Planetary Science community, observing proposals from any scientist with peer-reviewed planetary funding are solicited and should be forwarded to Martin.A.Slade@jpl.nasa.gov by email. Data reduction can, in principle, be carried out over the Internet. A graduate student or postdoctoral fellow resident at JPL for short period is recommended, however, to become familiar with suite of software for data analysis. Unfortunately, JPL cannot guarantee travel reimbursement due to funding limitations. We urge your consideration of becoming involved with the acquisition and analysis of Goldstone radar data. In the recent past, P.I.'s or co-I.s from Cornell, Arecibo/NAIC, Washington State University, Univ. Cal. Berkeley, Harvard -Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Univ. of Chicago, the DLR, Kashima SRC, ISAS, the Russian Academy of Science, the Russian Space Agency, and the USGS, have participated in radar experiments with Goldstone transmitting. This work is supported by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA.

  19. Does oppositional defiant disorder have temperament and psychopathological profiles independent of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Won; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Yeo, Jin-Young

    2010-01-01

    Most studies on temperamental and behavioral/emotional characteristics of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) did not rule out the effect of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The main objective of this study was to identify the temperamental and psychopathological patterns of ODD independent of comorbid ADHD. We also aimed to compare the patterns of temperament and psychopathology between ODD with and without ADHD. Parents of 2673 students, randomly selected from 19 representative schools in Seoul, Korea, completed the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV. Among 118 children and adolescents with ODD diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV, the parents of 94 subjects (mean age, 10.4 +/- 3.0 years) and the parents of a random sample of 94 age- and gender-matched non-ODD/non-ADHD children and adolescents completed the parent's version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. Subjects with ODD showed temperament and character profiles of high Novelty Seeking, low Self-directedness, and low Cooperativeness, a distinct pattern on the CBCL, and were at increased risk for anxiety and mood disorders compared to the controls after controlling for the effect of comorbid ADHD. The children and adolescents with both ODD and ADHD showed decreased levels of Persistence and Self-directedness and higher scores on 4 subscales of the CBCL (Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, Delinquent Behaviors, and Aggressive Behaviors) compared to those with ODD only. Oppositional defiant disorder is associated with specific temperamental and behavioral/emotional characteristics, independent of ADHD. Moreover, the results of this study support that co-occurring ADHD and ODD have differentially higher levels of behavioral and emotional difficulties. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural evaluation of fast reactor core restraint with irradiation creep-swelling opposition effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiation creep and swelling correlations are derived from primary loading in-reactor experiments in which irradiation creep and swelling act in the same direction. When correlation uncertainty bands are applied in core restraint evaluations, significant variability in sub-assembly behavior is predicted. For example, sub-assemblies in the outer core region where neutron flux and duct temperature gradients are significant exhibit bowing responses ranging from a creep dominated outward bow to a swelling dominated inward bow. Furthermore, solutions based on upper bound and lower bound correlation uncertainty combinations are observed to cross-over indicating that such combinations are physically unrealistic in the assessment of creep-swelling opposition effects. In order to obtain realistic upper and lower bound sub-assembly responses, judgement must be applied in the selection of creep-swelling equation uncertainty combinations. Experimental programs have been defined which will provide the needed basic as well as prototypic creep-swelling opposition data for reference and advanced sub-assembly duct alloys. The first of these is an irradiation of cylindrical capsules subjected to a through-wall temperature gradient. This test which is presently underway in the EBR-II reactor will provide the data needed to refine irradiation creep and swelling correlations and their associated uncertainties when applied to core restraint evaluations. Restrained pin and duct bowing experiments in FFTF have also been defined. These will provide the prototypic data necessary to verify irradiated duct bowing methodology. The results of this experimental program are expected to reduce creep and swelling uncertainties and permit better definition of the design window for load plane gaps. (orig.)

  1. Opposite effects of ketamine and deep brain stimulation on rat thalamocortical information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Sofya P; Tolmacheva, Elena A; Anderson, Paul; Gaudias, Julien; Adams, Brendan E; Zheng, Thomas; Pinault, Didier

    2012-11-01

    Sensory and cognitive deficits are common in schizophrenia. They are associated with abnormal brain rhythms, including disturbances in γ frequency (30-80 Hz) oscillations (GFO) in cortex-related networks. However, the underlying anatomofunctional mechanisms remain elusive. Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that these deficits result from a hyporegulation of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Here we modeled these deficits in rats with ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist and a translational psychotomimetic substance at subanesthetic doses. We tested the hypothesis that ketamine-induced sensory deficits involve an impairment of the ability of the thalamocortical (TC) system to discriminate the relevant information from the baseline activity. Furthermore, we wanted to assess whether ketamine disrupts synaptic plasticity in TC systems. We conducted multisite network recordings in the rat somatosensory TC system, natural stimulation of the vibrissae and high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of the thalamus. A single systemic injection of ketamine increased the amount of baseline GFO, reduced the amplitude of the sensory-evoked TC response and decreased the power of the sensory-evoked GFO. Furthermore, cortical application of ketamine elicited local and distant increases in baseline GFO. The ketamine effects were transient. Unexpectedly, HFS of the TC pathway had opposite actions. In conclusion, ketamine and thalamic HFS have opposite effects on the ability of the somatosensory TC system to discriminate the sensory-evoked response from the baseline GFO during information processing. Investigating the link between the state and function of the TC system may conceptually be a key strategy to design innovative therapies against neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Lateralization of eye use in cuttlefish: opposite direction for anti-predatory and predatory behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kerstin Schnell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e. vigilant scanning. To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional

  3. Lateralization of Eye Use in Cuttlefish: Opposite Direction for Anti-Predatory and Predatory Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Alexandra K; Hanlon, Roger T; Benkada, Aïcha; Jozet-Alves, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis , to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory, and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e., vigilant scanning). To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional specialization of

  4. [Effect of rehabilitation for prelingual deaf children who use cochlear implants in conjunction with hearing aids in the opposite ears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yanjing; Zhou, Huifang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Dong; Xu, Yi; Guo, Yuxi

    2012-10-01

    To compare the effect of rehabilitation of prelingual deaf children who used a cochlear implant (CI) in one ear and a hearing aids in the opposite ear while the hearing level of the opposite ears are different. Hearing ability, language ability and learning ability was included in the content. The aim of this research is to investigate better style of rehabilitation, and to offer the best help to the prelingual deaf children. Accord ing to the hearing level of the ear opposite to the one wearing a cochlear implant and whether the opposite ear wear a hearing aid or not, 30 prelingual deaf children were divided into three groups, including cochlear implant with opposite severe hearing loss and hearing aid ear (CI+SHA), cochlear implant with opposite profound hearing loss and hearing aid ear (CI+PHA), cochlear implant only (CI). The effect of rehabilitation was assessed in six different times (3,6,9,12,15 and 18 months after the cochlear implants and hearing aids began to work). The longer time the rehabilitation spends, the better the hearing ability,language ability and the learning ability were. The hearing ability of CI+SHA was better than those of CI+PHA (Pdeaf children should take much more time on rehabilitation. The effect of rehabilitation for prelingual deaf children who used cochlear implant in one ear and hearing aid in the other depend on the residual hearing level of the other ear. If a prelingual deaf children still has any residual hearing level in the ear opposite to the cochlear implant ear, it is better for him/her to wear a hearing aid in the ear.

  5. Learning to Argue as a Biotechnologist: Disprivileging Opposition to Genetically Modified Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Anne; Bach, Frank; Åkerman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    In the public discussion of genetically modified (GM) food the representations of science as a social good, conducted in the public interest to solve major problems are being subjected to intense scrutiny and questioning. Scientists working in these areas have been seen to struggle for the position of science in society. However few in situ…

  6. Active and Passive Components of Pelvic Floor Muscle Tone in Women with Provoked Vestibulodynia: A Perspective Based on a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault-Gagnon, Stéphanie; Morin, Mélanie

    2015-11-01

    Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunctions, especially elevated tone or tension, are suggested to play an important role in the pathophysiology of provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). However, the involvement of the PFMs remains misunderstood as the assessment of muscle tone is complex and requires a thorough understanding of muscle physiology in relation to the characteristics and limitations of current PFM assessment tools. The aim of this review was to describe the structures and mechanisms involved in muscle tone in normally innervated muscle, and to discuss and relate these concepts to the PFM findings in women with PVD. A narrative overview of the literature retrieved from searches of electronic databases and hand searches. Muscle tone in a normally innervated muscle comprises both active (contractile) and passive (viscoelastic) components. Current methods for evaluating PFM tone such as digital palpation, ultrasound imaging, pressure perineometry, dynamometry, and electromyography may evaluate different components. Research findings suggestive of PFM hypertonicity in women with PVD include elevated general PFM tone, changes in viscoelastic properties, and at least in some women, abnormal increases in electrogenic activity. There is a growing body of evidence to support the involvement of PFM hypertonicity in the pathophysiology of PVD. Limitations of the instruments as well as their properties should be considered when evaluating PFM tone in order to obtain better insight into which component of PFM tone is assessed. Future research is required for further investigating the underlying mechanisms of PFM hypertonicity, and studying the specific effects of physiotherapeutic interventions on PFM tone in women with PVD. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Can Fear, Pain, and Muscle Tension Discriminate Vaginismus from Dyspareunia/Provoked Vestibulodynia? Implications for the New DSM-5 Diagnosis of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaie, Marie-Andrée; Amsel, Rhonda; Khalifé, Samir; Boyer, Stephanie; Faaborg-Andersen, Marie; Binik, Yitzchak M

    2015-08-01

    Fear has been suggested as the crucial diagnostic variable that may distinguish vaginismus from dyspareunia. Unfortunately, this has not been systematically investigated. The primary purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate whether fear as evaluated by subjective, behavioral, and psychophysiological measures could differentiate women with vaginismus from those with dyspareunia/provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) and controls. A second aim was to re-examine whether genital pain and pelvic floor muscle tension differed between vaginismus and dyspareunia/PVD sufferers. Fifty women with vaginismus, 50 women with dyspareunia/PVD, and 43 controls participated in an experimental session comprising a structured interview, pain sensitivity testing, a filmed gynecological examination, and several self-report measures. Results demonstrated that fear and vaginal muscle tension were significantly greater in the vaginismus group as compared to the dyspareunia/PVD and no-pain control groups. Moreover, behavioral measures of fear and vaginal muscle tension were found to discriminate the vaginismus group from the dyspareunia/PVD and no-pain control groups. Genital pain did not differ significantly between the vaginismus and dyspareunia/PVD groups; however, genital pain was found to discriminate both clinical groups from controls. Despite significant statistical differences on fear and vaginal muscle tension variables between women suffering from vaginismus and dyspareunia/PVD, a large overlap was observed between these conditions. These findings may explain the great difficulty health professionals experience in attempting to reliably differentiate vaginismus from dyspareunia/PVD. The implications of these data for the new DSM-5 diagnosis of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder are discussed.

  8. Women with provoked vestibulodynia experience clinically significant reductions in pain regardless of treatment: results from a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Seth N P; Bergeron, Sophie; Binik, Yitzchak M; Lambert, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent genital pain syndrome that has been assumed to be chronic, with little spontaneous remission. Despite this assumption, there is a dearth of empirical evidence regarding the progression of PVD in a natural setting. Although many treatments are available, there is no single treatment that has demonstrated efficacy above others. The aims of this secondary analysis of a prospective study were to (i) assess changes over a 2-year period in pain, depressive symptoms, and sexual outcomes in women with PVD; and (ii) examine changes based on treatment(s) type. Participants completed questionnaire packages at Time 1 and a follow-up package 2 years later. Visual analog scale of genital pain, Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, Female Sexual Function Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and sexual intercourse attempts over the past month. Two hundred thirty-nine women with PVD completed both time one and two questionnaires. For the sample as a whole, there was significant improvement over 2 years on pain ratings, sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and depressive symptoms. The most commonly received treatments were physical therapy, sex/psychotherapy, and medical treatment, although 41.0% did not undergo any treatment. Women receiving no treatment also improved significantly on pain ratings. No single treatment type predicted better outcome for any variable except depressive symptoms, in which women who underwent surgery were more likely to improve. These results suggest that PVD may significantly reduce in severity over time. Participants demonstrated clinically significant pain improvement, even when they did not receive treatment. Furthermore, the only single treatment type predicting better outcomes was surgery, and only for depressive symptoms, accounting for only 2.3% of the variance. These data do not demonstrate the superiority of any one treatment and underscore the need to have control groups in

  9. Harmful or helpful: perceived solicitous and facilitative partner responses are differentially associated with pain and sexual satisfaction in women with provoked vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Bergeron, Sophie; Glowacka, Maria; Delisle, Isabelle; Baxter, Mary Lou

    2012-09-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that negatively affects women's emotional, sexual, and relationship well-being. Recent studies have investigated the role of interpersonal variables, including partner responses. We examined whether solicitous and facilitative partner responses were differentially associated with vulvovaginal pain and sexual satisfaction in women with PVD by examining each predictor while controlling for the other. One hundred twenty-one women (M age = 30.60, SD = 10.53) with PVD or self-reported symptoms of PVD completed the solicitous subscale of the spouse response scale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, and the facilitative subscale of the Spouse Response Inventory. Participants also completed measures of pain, sexual function, sexual satisfaction, trait anxiety, and avoidance of pain and sexual behaviors (referred to as "avoidance"). Dependent measures were the (i) Pain Rating Index of the McGill Pain Questionnaire with reference to pain during vaginal intercourse and (ii) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. Controlling for trait anxiety and avoidance, higher solicitous partner responses were associated with higher vulvovaginal pain intensity (β = 0.20, P = 0.03), and higher facilitative partner responses were associated with lower pain intensity (β = -0.20, P = 0.04). Controlling for sexual function, trait anxiety, and avoidance, higher facilitative partner responses were associated with higher sexual satisfaction (β = 0.15, P = 0.05). Findings suggest that facilitative partner responses may aid in alleviating vulvovaginal pain and improving sexual satisfaction, whereas solicitous partner responses may contribute to greater pain. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Male partners of women with provoked vestibulodynia: attributions for pain and their implications for dyadic adjustment, sexual satisfaction, and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Mélanie; Bergeron, Sophie; Khalifé, Samir; Dupuis, Marie-José; Desrochers, Geneviève; Leclerc, Bianca

    2008-12-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia is a female genital pain condition that results in sexual dysfunction and impacts negatively on the couple. Although patients' causal attributions have been linked to worse psychosexual outcomes, no study has documented the male partners' perspective of this distressing problem and its potential influence on their psychosexual adaptation. To identify whether male partners' attributions for vestibulodynia are possible predictors of their dyadic adjustment, sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, and psychological distress, as well as of women's pain and sexual functioning. Thirty-eight women with vestibulodynia first completed measures of pain intensity and sexual functioning. Male partners responded to mailed questionnaires assessing their own attributions for genital pain as well as their psychological distress, relationship adjustment, sexual functioning, and sexual satisfaction. Women completed the McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Attributions of male partners were measured using an adapted version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ)-Partner Version. Men also filled out the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), the Sexual History Form (SHF), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (GMSEX). All four negative attribution dimensions and higher levels of women's pain intensity successfully predicted increased psychological distress in male partners. Higher levels of both internal and global attributions were associated with men's poorer dyadic adjustment, whereas global and stable attributions were related to their lower sexual satisfaction. Attributions failed to significantly predict sexual functioning in male partners and women's pain and sexual functioning. Evaluation and treatment of sexual pain problems should involve both partners and should explore the role of negative attributions.

  11. Experimental Evidence that In Vivo Intracerebral Administration of L-2-Hydroxyglutaric Acid to Neonatal Rats Provokes Disruption of Redox Status and Histopathological Abnormalities in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rafael Teixeira; Zanatta, Ângela; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Leipnitz, Guilhian; de Oliveira, Francine Hehn; Seminotti, Bianca; Wajner, Moacir

    2018-04-01

    Tissue accumulation of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid (L-2-HG) is the biochemical hallmark of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA), a rare neurometabolic inherited disease characterized by neurological symptoms and brain white matter abnormalities whose pathogenesis is not yet well established. L-2-HG was intracerebrally administered to rat pups at postnatal day 1 (P1) to induce a rise of L-2-HG levels in the central nervous system (CNS). Thereafter, we investigated whether L-2-HG in vivo administration could disturb redox homeostasis and induce brain histopathological alterations in the cerebral cortex and striatum of neonatal rats. L-2-HG markedly induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (increase of 2',7'-dichloroflurescein-DCFH-oxidation), lipid peroxidation (increase of malondialdehyde concentrations), and protein oxidation (increase of carbonyl formation and decrease of sulfhydryl content), besides decreasing the antioxidant defenses (reduced glutathione-GSH) and sulfhydryl content in the cerebral cortex. Alterations of the activities of various antioxidant enzymes were also observed in the cerebral cortex and striatum following L-2-HG administration. Furthermore, L-2-HG-induced lipid peroxidation and GSH decrease in the cerebral cortex were prevented by the antioxidant melatonin and by the classical antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptor MK-801, suggesting the involvement of reactive species and of overstimulation of NMDA receptor in these effects. Finally, L-2-HG provoked significant vacuolation and edema particularly in the cerebral cortex with less intense alterations in the striatum that were possibly associated with the unbalanced redox homeostasis caused by this metabolite. Taken together, it is presumed that these pathomechanisms may underlie the neurological symptoms and brain abnormalities observed in the affected patients.

  12. The Effectiveness of the Process of Socialisation to Behavioural Conformity Within the Public Schools Is Their Strength and also their Weakness: Some Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    Analyzes the effectiveness of the process of socialization within the public schools (known as private schools in the United States) and seeks to provoke a reappraisal of their function in Australia. Available from: Australian College of Education, 916 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia, $2.50 single copy. (Author/MLF)

  13. Engagement militant et politisation des mobilisations au sein des oppositions urbaines à Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Petit

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La Municipalité du Grand Istanbul met en œuvre depuis quelques années une « politique de transformation urbaine » pour faire d’Istanbul une ville moderne et compétitive sur la scène mondiale. Les mobilisations locales et les mouvements protestataires se multiplient pour infléchir une politique qui domine aujourd’hui l’agenda urbain « néolibéral » et empêcher les démolitions et déplacements de population escomptés. Au-delà de la distance au politique généralement affichée – condition de légitimité dans le système sécuritaire mis en place en Turquie après le coup d’État de 1980 – ces « oppositions urbaines » sont traversées par des débats sur la place du politique dans la mobilisation. À partir de l’étude sociologique de deux associations de quartiers et de deux mouvements de « professionnels urbains », cette contribution analyse le travail de définition des cadrages et répertoires d’action propres à chaque mouvement. Elle fait apparaître le rôle de ces professionnels urbains dans la requalification politique du désaccord qui divise les oppositions urbaines entre une stratégie « experte » et une stratégie plus politique. L’analyse met néanmoins en évidence le caractère dynamique et relatif – en termes de contextes et d’échelles – des stratégies d’appropriation des politiques publiques locales et des processus de politisation des « mouvements urbains ».The Istanbul Greater Municipality has been implementing for a few years numerous ‘urban renewal projects’ to change Istanbul into a modern and competitive city on the global scene. Reacting to the demolitions and evictions of entire neighbourhoods caused by these projects, some inhabitants and ‘urban professionals’ mobilize within new movements and neighbourdhood associations. Beyond the distance they usually show towards politics – a condition of legitimacy in the securitarian system introduced in

  14. Conflict between public perceptions and technical processes in site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avant, R.V. Jr.; Jacobi, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations and guidance on site selection are based on sound technical reasoning. Geology, hydrology, flora and fauna, transportation, demographics, and sociopolitical concerns, to name a few, have been factored into the process. Regardless of the technical objectivity of a site selection process, local opposition groups will challenge technical decisions using technical, nontechnical, and emotional arguments. This paper explores the many conflicts between public perceptions, technical requirements designed to protect the general public, and common arguments against site selection. Ways to deal with opposition are also discussed with emphasis placed on developing effective community relations

  15. Public opinion and the politics of the killer robots debate

    OpenAIRE

    Michael C Horowitz

    2016-01-01

    The possibility that today’s drones could become tomorrow’s killer robots has attracted the attention of people around the world. Scientists and business leaders, from Stephen Hawking to Elon Musk, recently signed a letter urging the world to ban autonomous weapons. Part of the argument against these systems is that they violate the public conscience provision of the Martens Clause due to public opposition, making them illegal under international law. What, however, does the US public think o...

  16. Two MYB-related transcription factors play opposite roles in sugar signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Shih; Chao, Yi-Chi; Tseng, Tzu-Wei; Huang, Chun-Kai; Lo, Pei-Ching; Lu, Chung-An

    2017-02-01

    Sugar regulation of gene expression has profound effects at all stages of the plant life cycle. Although regulation at the transcriptional level is one of the most prominent mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated, only a few transcription factors have been identified and demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of sugar-regulated gene expression. OsMYBS1, an R1/2-type MYB transcription factor, has been demonstrated to be involved in sugar- and hormone-regulated α-amylase gene expression in rice. Arabidopsis contains two OsMYBS1 homologs. In the present study, we investigate MYBS1 and MYBS2 in sugar signaling in Arabidopsis. Our results indicate that MYBS1 and MYBS2 play opposite roles in regulating glucose and ABA signaling in Arabidopsis during seed germination and early seedling development. MYB proteins have been classified into four subfamilies: R2R3-MYB, R1/2-MYB, 3R-MYB, and 4R-MYB. An R1/2-type MYB transcription factor, OsMYBS1, has been demonstrated to be involved in sugar- and hormone-regulated α-amylase genes expression in rice. In this study, two genes homologous to OsMYBS1, MYBS1 and MYBS2, were investigated in Arabidopsis. Subcellular localization analysis showed that MYBS1 and MYBS2 were localized in the nucleus. Rice embryo transient expression assays indicated that both MYBS1 and MYBS2 could recognize the sugar response element, TA-box, in the promoter and induced promoter activity. mybs1 mutant exhibited hypersensitivity to glucose, whereas mybs2 seedlings were hyposensitive to it. MYBS1 and MYBS2 are involved in the control of glucose-responsive gene expression, as the mybs1 mutant displayed increased expression of a hexokinase gene (HXK1), chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene (CAB1), ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (APL3), and chalcone synthase gene (CHS), whereas the mybs2 mutant exhibited decreased expression of these genes. mybs1 also showed an enhanced response to abscisic acid (ABA) in the seed germination and seedling

  17. Modelling the Effects of Public Support to Small Firms in the UK - Paradise Gained?

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Hart; Stephen Roper

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of the impact of public policies to improve the performance of the small business sector has provoked a great deal of debate and research activity in recent years. The debate can be categorised in two broad ways. First, it can be seen in terms of the actual impact measures and schemes of small business support may have in terms of enhanced growth performance of SMEs. Second, the search for appropriate evaluation methodologies which reflect the range of problems associated with ...

  18. WPPSS, now in technical default, moves to mothball nuclear unit 3 amidst opposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utroska, D.

    1983-01-01

    Involved in a number of lawsuits and court challenges, the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) executive board voted in late May to suspend construction on nuclear unit 3 (underwritten by Bonneville Power Administration) unless additional funding were obtained. (Unit 1 previously was mothballed, and units 4 and 5 are canceled.) WPPSS also failed to pay its $15.6 million May bill to the bond trustee of units 4 and 5. With this monthly amount, the trustee aggregates funds to pay investor's interest of $93.6 million twice a year. Some of the 88 public power participants oppose paying the bond interest of $93.6 million twice a year. Some of the 88 public power participants oppose paying the bond interest and have gone to court. The trustee has been restrained from declaring WPPSS in default. The future of the units will be affected by the Washington Supreme Court decision on the contracts between public utility participants and WPPSS

  19. Longing for the country's good old days: National nostalgia, autochthony beliefs, and opposition to Muslim expressive rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekes, Anouk; Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2015-09-01

    Four studies tested the prediction that feelings of national nostalgia (i.e. nostalgia on the basis of one's national ingroup membership) result in more opposition towards expressive rights for Muslim immigrants, because they strengthen the belief that a place belongs to its original inhabitants, and that they are therefore more entitled (i.e. autochthony). Study 1 found that national nostalgia can be distinguished from personal nostalgia, and that national (rather than personal) nostalgia was related to more opposition to Muslim rights via stronger endorsement of autochthony. This latter result was replicated in another survey study (Study 2) and in an experiment (Study 3) in which national nostalgia was manipulated. Study 4 provided preliminary evidence that the salience of autochthony increases opposition to Muslim rights. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Optimal allocation of SVC and TCSC using quasi-oppositional chemical reaction optimization for solving multi-objective ORPD problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Dutta

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient quasi-oppositional chemical reaction optimization (QOCRO technique to find the feasible optimal solution of the multi objective optimal reactive power dispatch (RPD problem with flexible AC transmission system (FACTS device. The quasi-oppositional based learning (QOBL is incorporated in conventional chemical reaction optimization (CRO, to improve the solution quality and the convergence speed. To check the superiority of the proposed method, it is applied on IEEE 14-bus and 30-bus systems and the simulation results of the proposed approach are compared to those reported in the literature. The computational results reveal that the proposed algorithm has excellent convergence characteristics and is superior to other multi objective optimization algorithms. Keywords: Quasi-oppositional chemical reaction optimization (QOCRO, Reactive power dispatch (RPD, TCSC, SVC, Multi-objective optimization

  1. Adaptive Allocation of Attention: Effects of Sex and Sociosexuality on Visual Attention to Attractive Opposite-Sex Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lesley A; Park, Justin H; Faulkner, Jason; Schaller, Mark; Neuberg, Steven L; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2007-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, compared with sociosexually restricted individuals, those with an unrestricted approach to mating would selectively allocate visual attention to attractive opposite-sex others. We also tested for sex differences in this effect. Seventy-four participants completed the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, and performed a computer-based task that assessed the speed with which they detected changes in attractive and unattractive male and female faces. Differences in reaction times served as indicators of selective attention. Results revealed a Sex X Sociosexuality interaction: Compared with sociosexually restricted men, unrestricted men selectively allocated attention to attractive opposite-sex others; no such effect emerged among women. This finding was specific to opposite-sex targets and did not occur in attention to same-sex others. These results contribute to a growing literature on the adaptive allocation of attention in social environments.

  2. From Situation to opposition: the welfare reform of the Lula’s government from the perspective of the PSDB deputies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Corral de Freitas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the defeat in the 2002 elections, the PSDB was characterized as the "strong opposition" to the government of the PT. He reached the command of the Executive in 2003, implemented a reform in Social Security, thus constituting the first time the opposition PSDB. Thus, the objective of this work is to understand the discursive behavior of federal PSDB deputies, held during the sessions of the Great Expedient of the Federal Chamber, when dealing with this reform. For the analysis, the theoretical and methodological aspects of discourse theory of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe were used. It was possible to identify that the new political context has changed the identities of PT and PSDB, but kept the antagonistic relationship. Moreover, because it is the first time opposition, the PSDB did not build hegemonic discourse against the reform, but critical of its formatting.

  3. Dynamical behaviour of FEL devices operating with two undulators having opposite circular polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy); Ottaviani, P.L. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche, Bologna (Italy); Bucci, L. [ENEA, Guest Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Optical-Klystron FELs operating with undulators having opposite circular polarizations are characterized by a spontaneous emission spectrum which does not exhibit the characteristic interference pattern. The use of the Madey theorem may allow the conclusion that, for such configuration, the dispersive section does not provide any gain enhancement. In this paper it has been analyzed the problem from a dynamical point of view and clarify how the optical field evolve, what is the role of the bunching and how the consequences of the Madey theorem should be correctly understood. [Italian] Klystron ottici operanti con ondulatori aventi polarizzazione elicoidali opposte, sono caratterizzati da uno spettro di emissione spontanea senza il termine interferenziale dovuto alla sezione dispersiva. L'uso del teorema di Madey indurrebbe alla conclusione che, per una tale configurazione, la sezione dispersiva non induce nessun aumento del guadagno. In questo lavoro analizziamo il problema da un punto di vista dinamico che chiarisce l'evoluzione del campo ottico, quale e' il ruolo del bunching e come le conseguenze del teorema di Madey debbano essere interpretate.

  4. Understanding 'local' opposition to wind development in the UK: How big is a backyard?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Christopher R.; Richard Eiser, J.

    2010-01-01

    In recognition of the environmental and economic threats posed by climate change; decisive steps are now being taken to stabilise greenhouse gas emissions. One sector receiving particular attention within the UK is that of electricity generation. As such, the government has introduced ambitious targets for increasing renewable generating capacity within the country. Wind turbines are expected to play a significant role in meeting these targets; however, despite high levels of support for the technology in principle, specific projects are often delayed or rejected on account of local opposition. This study aimed to establish how attitudes towards development might vary with respect to increasing distance from the identified sites. Participants were required to register their opinion towards development at a number of on- and off-shore locations in the UK. The results indicated that participants were most favourable to offshore development and least favourable to development at the identified sites. Attitudes to onshore development indicated that so long as a proposed location was anticipated to be 'out of sight' it was considered in relatively general terms. The results are discussed with reference to site visibility and landscape concerns and clearly support calls for a shift towards community-focussed development strategies.

  5. Community inflamed: Passionate opposition mounted to sour-gas drilling plan upwind of Canada's energy capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1998-01-01

    Residents of Bearspaw and Glendale, two small communities near Calgary are up in arms in opposition to the plans of Canadian 88 Energy Company to drill a 'level four' sour gas well in the area. The target gas contains 33.9 per cent hydrogen sulfide, a substance rated as lethal in much lower doses. Since the well is slated to be drilled on high ground upwind of Calgary, an accident causing a leak could expose community residents and thousands of Calgarians within half hour distance from the well to hydrogen sulfide concentrations several times higher than the Alberta Energy Board considers safe. Seepage into the water system poses yet another danger. For reasons that are not too well understood the Alberta Energy Board relaxed the size of the area for which the company must provide an emergency response plan from a radius of 18 km to a radius of 4 km, considered by experts to be totally unacceptable in a populated area. The Board granted the relaxation of the area covered by the emergency response plan on the assurances of the Company that it would substantially increase the criteria needed to make the plan manageable. However, the community is not convinced that the emergency response plan comes near to addressing the problem, and is prepared to oppose drilling of the well by all available means

  6. Family routine moderates the relation between child impulsivity and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H Isabella; Drabick, Deborah A G

    2011-01-01

    Although child impulsivity is associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, few studies have examined whether family processes moderate this association. To address this gap, we tested whether child-reported family routine moderated the relation between child hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) and ODD symptoms among a sample of low-income, urban, ethnic-minority children (N = 87, 51% male). Child HI and ODD symptoms were assessed using parent and teacher reports. HI also was indexed by a laboratory task. Family routine was assessed using child self-report. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that family routine moderated child HI. Among children with higher levels of teacher-reported HI symptoms, lower levels of family routine were associated with higher levels of teacher-reported ODD symptoms compared to children with lower levels of teacher-reported HI symptoms. Children who self-reported higher levels of family routine were rated as low on teacher-reported ODD symptoms, regardless of teacher-reported HI levels. Parent report and laboratory measures of child HI did not produce significant interactions. Lower levels of family routine may confer risk for ODD symptoms among low-income, urban, ethnic-minority children experiencing higher levels of HI.

  7. Minimum time control of a pair of two-level quantum systems with opposite drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Raffaele; D’Alessandro, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we solve two equivalent time optimal control problems. On one hand, we design the control field to implement in minimum time the SWAP (or equivalent) operator on a two-level system, assuming that it interacts with an additional, uncontrollable, two-level system. On the other hand, we synthesize the SWAP operator simultaneously, in minimum time, on a pair of two-level systems subject to opposite drifts. We assume that it is possible to perform three independent control actions, and that the total control strength is bounded. These controls either affect the dynamics of the target system, under the first perspective, or, simultaneously, the dynamics of both systems, in the second view. We obtain our results by using techniques of geometric control theory on Lie groups. In particular, we apply the Pontryagin maximum principle, and provide a complete characterization of singular and nonsingular extremals. Our analysis shows that the problem can be formulated as the motion of a material point in a central force, a well known system in classical mechanics. Although we focus on obtaining the SWAP operator, many of the ideas and techniques developed in this work apply to the time optimal implementation of an arbitrary unitary operator. (paper)

  8. Bifurcation structure and stability in models of opposite-signed vortex pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo, E-mail: Paolo.Luzzatto-Fegiz@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Churchill College, Cambridge CB3 0DS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    We employ a recently developed numerical method to examine in detail the properties of opposite-signed, translating vortex pairs. We first consider a uniform-vortex approximation; for this flow, previous studies have found essential differences between rotating and translating configurations, and have encountered numerical difficulties at the boundary between the two types of equilibria. Recently, Luzzatto-Fegiz and Williamson (2012 J. Fluid Mech. 706 323–50) used an imperfect velocity-impulse (IVI) diagram to show that the rotating pairs have a translating counterpart, arising from a bifurcation of the classical translating configurations. In this paper, we expand this IVI diagram to find two new branches of steady vortices, including antisymmetric pairs, as well as vortices without any symmetry. We next consider more realistic models for flows at moderate Reynolds number Re, by computing solution families based on a discretized Chaplygin–Lamb dipole. We find that, as the accuracy of the discretization improves, the bifurcated branches shrink rapidly, while the unstable portion of the basic solution family becomes smaller. These results indicate that the bifurcation structure of moderate-Re flows can be very different from that of solutions that use a single patch per vortex. (papers)

  9. Selective adsorption of oppositely charged PNIPAAM on halloysite surfaces: a route to thermo-responsive nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Lisuzzo, Lorenzo; Milioto, Stefana; Parisi, Filippo

    2018-05-17

    Halloysite nanotubes were functionalized with stimuli-responsive macromolecules to generate smart nanohybrids. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-methacrylic acid (PNIPAAM-co-MA) was selectively adsorbed into halloysite lumen by exploiting electrostatic interactions. Amine-terminated PNIPAAM polymer was also investigated that selectively interacts with the outer surface of the nanotubes. The adsorption site has a profound effect on the thermodynamic behavior and therefore temperature responsive features of the hybrid material. The drug release kinetics was investigated by using Diclofenac as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug model. The release kinetics depends on the nanoarchitecture of the PNIPAAM/Halloysite based material. In particular, diclofenac release was slowed down above the LCST for PNIPAAM-co-MA/Halloysite. Opposite trends occurred for Halloysite functionalized with PNIPAAM at the outer surface. This work represents a further step toward the opportunity to extend and control the delivery conditions of active species, which represent a key point in technological applications. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. Linking two opposites of pregnancy loss: Induced abortion and infertility in Yoruba society, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Winny

    2010-11-01

    Involuntary infertility and induced abortion exist on opposite sides of the spectrum: the first being the unwanted loss of childbearing potential while the second is the intentional termination of pregnancy. However, this paper proposes that these two poles of pregnancy loss are in fact related in Yoruba society, Nigeria. This argument is supported by qualitative and quantitative data drawn from an applied research project in communities and health institutions of Lagos State, from 1996 to 1999, where a total of 693 women recounted 1114 personal abortion experiences, and 233 women shared their experiences of fertility problems. Study statistics show that 37% of secondary infertility was most probably the result of induced abortion and that half of women with abortion complications interviewed in a referral hospital will have fertility problems. This paper provides insight into the reasons why single and married women decide to abort, and use unsafe methods, despite awareness of the serious health risks, including infertility. This is paradoxical given that fear of infertility is a major reason why women do not use modern contraceptives when trying to prevent unwanted pregnancy. By analysing the relations between infertility and abortion within the socio-cultural, economic, and services-related structures that influence women's decisions, this paper suggests ways of addressing the problems related to both types of pregnancy loss. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Do workaholism and work engagement predict employee well-being and performance in opposite directions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihito; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Kubota, Kazumi; Kawakami, Norito

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the distinctiveness between workaholism and work engagement by examining their longitudinal relationships (measurement interval=7 months) with well-being and performance in a sample of 1,967 Japanese employees from various occupations. Based on a previous cross-sectional study (Shimazu & Schaufeli, 2009), we expected that workaholism predicts future unwell-being (i.e., high ill-health and low life satisfaction) and poor job performance, whereas work engagement predicts future well-being (i.e., low ill-health and high life satisfaction) and superior job performance. T1-T2 changes in ill-health, life satisfaction and job performance were measured as residual scores that were then included in the structural equation model. Results showed that workaholism and work engagement were weakly and positively related to each other. In addition, workaholism was related to an increase in ill-health and to a decrease in life satisfaction. In contrast, work engagement was related to a decrease in ill-health and to increases in both life satisfaction and job performance. These findings suggest that workaholism and work engagement are two different kinds of concepts that are oppositely related to well-being and performance.

  12. An identity of opposition against urban cosmopolitan setting in Yasmina Khadra’s The attack (2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Sukardan Mamoto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Yasmina Khadra, a female name, pseudonym of Muhammed Moulessehoul,an Algerian military officer for 25 years is now a French citizen. John Cullentranslates The attack (2006 from French. Rosenau’s post-modernist perspectiveplaces the Israel-Palestine conflict in a context of social gap. Israel, a First World,whereas Palestine Third World, are both in the Middle East region. Amin Jaafariand his wife, Sihem, a couple of Arab naturalized citizens of Israel, live in urbancosmopolitan city of Tel Aviv. Opposing Amin’s success as a surgeon, Sihemis more attracted to fight for the Palestinian liberation for a homeland. Sihemcamouflaged herself with prosthetic pregnancy, blew bombs in a Tel Avivcafé, and died. McLeod’s postcolonial point of view places Sihem as a hero.Woodward’s concept of identity addresses the Jaafaris’ troubled identity. Thus,opposition against urban cosmopolitan setting is the central theme as a notionof identity of that of the protagonists responding to their set situation.

  13. Deconstructing oppositional defiant disorder: clinic-based evidence for an anger/irritability phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabick, Deborah A G; Gadow, Kenneth D

    2012-04-01

    To examine risk factors and co-occurring symptoms associated with mother-reported versus teacher-reported anger/irritability symptoms (AIS) of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in a clinic-based sample of 1,160 youth aged 6 through 18 years. Participants completed a background history questionnaire (mothers), school functioning questionnaire (mothers, teachers), and DSM-IV-referenced symptom checklists (mothers, teachers). Youth meeting AIS criteria for ODD were compared to youth with ODD who met criteria for noncompliant symptoms (NS) but not AIS and to clinic controls. Compared with NS youth, youth with AIS were rated as exhibiting higher levels of anxiety and mood symptoms for both mother- and teacher-defined groups, and higher levels of conduct disorder symptoms for mother-defined younger and older youth. The remaining group differences for developmental, psychosocial, and psychiatric correlates varied as a function of informant and youth's age. Evidence suggests that AIS may constitute a more severe and qualitatively different ODD clinical phenotype, but informant and age of youth appear to be important considerations. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical Characteristics of Preschool Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Domènech, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to know whether callous-unemotional (CU) traits identify a more severe group of oppositional defiant children (ODD). The aim of this study is to ascertain cross-sectionally and longitudinally the specific contribution of CU levels and the presence of ODD in the psychological state of preschool children from the general population. A total of 622 children were assessed longitudinally at ages 3 and 5 with a semi-structured diagnostic interview and questionnaires filled out by parents and teachers. In multivariate models simultaneously including ODD diagnosis and CU levels, controlling by socioeconomic status, ethnicity, sex, severity of conduct disorder symptoms and other comorbidity, high CU scores were related to higher levels of aggression, withdrawn, externalizing and global symptomatology, functional impairment and higher probability of comorbid disorders and use of services. The contribution of CU traits on children's psychological state was not moderated by the presence/absence of ODD. Stability for CU traits and number of ODD-symptoms between ages 3 and 5 was statistically significant but moderate-low (intra-class correlation under .40). Assessment and identification of CU traits from preschool might help to identify a subset of children who could have socialization problems, not only among those with ODD but also among those without a diagnosis of conduct problems.

  15. Current issues in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J; Nigg, Joel T

    2012-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification.

  16. The latent structure of oppositional defiant disorder in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tammy D; Marcus, David K; Barry, Christopher T; Coccaro, Emil F

    2013-12-01

    An understanding of the latent structure of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is essential for better developing causal models, improving diagnostic and assessment procedures, and enhancing treatments for the disorder. Although much research has focused on ODD-including recent studies informing the diagnostic criteria for DSM-5-research examining the latent structure of ODD is sparse, and no known study has specifically undertaken a taxometric analysis to address the issue of whether ODD is a categorical or dimensional construct. To address this gap, the authors conducted two separate studies using a set of taxometric analyses with data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (child study; n = 969) and with data from a large mixed sample of adults, which included participants reporting psychiatric difficulties as well as healthy controls (adult study; n = 600). The results of a variety of non-redundant analyses across both studies revealed a dimensional latent structure for ODD symptoms among both children and adults. These findings are consistent with previous studies that have examined latent structure of related constructs (e.g., aggression, antisocial behavior) as well as studies that have examined the dimensional versus categorical structure of ODD using methods other than taxometric analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Parsing the familiality of oppositional defiant disorder from that of conduct disorder: a familial risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Carter R; Monuteaux, Michael C; Mick, Eric; Hughes, Samantha; Small, Jacqueline; Faraone, Stephen V; Biederman, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Family risk analysis can provide an improved understanding of the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attending to the comorbidity with conduct disorder (CD). We compared rates of psychiatric disorders in relatives of 78 control probands without ODD and CD (Control, N=265), relatives of 10 control probands with ODD and without CD (ODD, N=37), relatives of 19 ADHD probands without ODD and CD (ADHD, N=71), relatives of 38 ADHD probands with ODD and without CD (ADHD+ODD, N=130), and relatives of 50 ADHD probands with ODD and CD (ADHD+ODD+CD, N=170). Rates of ADHD were significantly higher in all three ADHD groups compared to the Control group, while rates of ODD were significantly higher in all three ODD groups compared to the Control group. Evidence for co-segregation was found in the ADHD+ODD group. Rates of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and addictions in the relatives were significantly elevated only in the ADHD+ODD+CD group. ADHD and ODD are familial disorders, and ADHD plus ODD outside the context of CD may mark a familial subtype of ADHD. ODD and CD confer different familial risks, providing further support for the hypothesis that ODD and CD are separate disorders.

  18. Negative parenting behavior and childhood oppositional defiant disorder: differential moderation by positive and negative peer regard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Lee, Steve S

    2014-01-01

    Although negative parenting behavior and peer status are independently associated with childhood conduct problems (e.g., oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)), relatively little is known about their interplay, particularly in relation to differentiated measures of positive and negative peer regard. To improve the specificity of the association of negative parenting behavior and peer factors with ODD, we explored the potential interaction of parenting and peer status in a sample of 169 five-to ten-year-old ethnically diverse children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed using multiple measures (i.e., rating scales, interview) and informants (i.e., parents, teachers). Controlling for children's age, sex, number of ADHD symptoms, and parents' race-ethnicity, peer acceptance inversely predicted and inconsistent discipline, harsh punishment, and peer rejection were each positively associated with ODD symptom severity. Interactive influences were also evident such that inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment each predicted elevated ODD but only among children experiencing low peer acceptance or high peer rejection. These findings suggest that supportive environments, including peer acceptance, may protect children from negative outcomes associated with inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment. Findings are integrated with theories of social support, and we additionally consider implications for intervention and prevention. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Innocent or Intentional?: Interpreting Oppositional Defiant Disorder in a Preschool Mental Health Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ouardani, Christine N

    2017-03-01

    Based on 9 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. mental health clinic focused on the treatment of preschool-aged children who exhibited extremely disruptive behavior, this article examines the contradictions clinicians faced when trying to identify and attribute "intentionality" to very young children. Disruptive, aggressive behavior is one of the central symptoms involved in a wide-range of childhood psychopathology and the number one reason young children are referred to mental health clinics in the United States. In the clinic where I conducted my research, clinicians were especially interested in diagnosing these children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), in order to identify those at risk for more serious mental illness later in the lifecourse. In this article, I look at the different strategies clinicians used in interpreting whether aggressive, defiant behavior was a part of the child's "self," a biologically driven symptom of a disease, or a legitimate reaction to problematic social environments. I argue that conceptualizing intentionality as a developmental, interpersonal process may help to make sense of the multiple discourses and practices clinicians used to try to reconcile the contradictions inherent in diagnosing ODD.

  20. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), the forerunner of alcohol dependence: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Malhotra, Savita; Basu, Debasish

    2014-10-01

    There are common genetic, neurobiological and psycho-social substrates for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and substance dependence. ODD can be regarded as the mildest and earliest form of disruptive behavioral disorder and also represents the threshold of vulnerability for substance dependence. But it is a less researched area. The aim of this research was to study any possible association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. Data are presented from a non probability sample of 100 adult alcohol dependent subjects and equal number of biologically unrelated control subjects. Assessment was conducted by the instrument Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism for both the assessment of ODD and alcohol dependence. The results of this study demonstrated significant association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. The association remained significant even after the exclusion of the possible confounding effects of the presence of conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Our study should encourage further research in this area and is expected to open up an opportunity for preventive research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex Differences in the Prevalence of Oppositional Defiant Disorder During Middle Childhood: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, David H; Hooley, Merrilyn; Sheen, Jade; McGillivray, Jane A; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2017-02-01

    This review provides a meta-analysed male:female prevalence ratio of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) during middle childhood in non-referred children. It also analyses sex differences in prevalence across cultures and over time. A systematic search for studies via the following sources was conducted: PsycInfo, Web of Knowledge, Medline Complete, Scopus, EMBASE, InfoRMIT, Psychological and Behavioural Sciences Collection, Cochrane Library, PubMed and ProQuest Health. The studies presented in two previous systematic reviews were also added to the search results. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were then applied and final studies were appraised for their methodological quality. Nineteen independent effect sizes met full inclusion criteria (aggregated sample N = 44,107). Overall, the prevalence of ODD was significantly higher in boys than girls (RR = 1.59, 95 % CI [1.36, 1.86], p  0.05). Sex differences in prevalence were significant in studies published prior to and post the year 2000 (RR = 1.57, 95 % CI [1.22, 2.02], p  0.05). The sex differences in ODD prevalence are discussed within the context of (i) predominant theories of sex differences in externalising behaviours, and (ii) departure from the sex-differences pattern found for other disruptive behavioural disorders.

  2. Existential neuroscience: effects of mortality salience on the neurocognitive processing of attractive opposite-sex faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Sarita; Graupmann, Verena; Agthe, Maria; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Blautzik, Janusch; Demirçapa, Idil; Berndt, Andrea; Pöppel, Ernst; Frey, Dieter; Reiser, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Being reminded of the inherently finite nature of human existence has been demonstrated to elicit strivings for sexual reproduction and the formation and maintenance of intimate relationships. Recently, it has been proposed that the perception of potential mating partners is influenced by mortality salience. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neurocognitive processing of attractive opposite-sex faces after priming with death-related words for heterosexual men and women. Significant modulations of behavioral and neural responses were found when participants were requested to decide whether they would like to meet the presented person. Men were more in favor of meeting attractive women after being primed with death-related words compared to a no-prime condition. Increased neural activation could be found under mortality salience in the left anterior insula and the adjacent lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) for both men and women. As previously suggested, we believe that the lPFC activation reflects an approach-motivated defense mechanism to overcome concerns that are induced by being reminded of death and dying. Our results provide insight on a neurocognitive level that approach motivation in general, and mating motivation in particular is modulated by mortality salience. PMID:24078106

  3. Emotional Regulation and Executive Function Deficits in Unmedicated Chinese Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenqing; Li, Yan; Du, Yasong; Fan, Juan

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to explore the feature of emotional regulation and executive functions in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) children. The emotional regulation and executive functions of adolescents with ODD, as well as the relationship between the two factors were analyzed using tools including Adolescent Daily Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ADERQ), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), in comparison with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children without behavioral problem and healthy children; the ADERQ assessed emotional regulation ability and others were used to assess executive function. Compared to normal children, the ODD group displayed significant differences in the scores of cognitive reappraisal, rumination, expressive suppression, and revealing of negative emotions, as well as in the score of cognitive reappraisal of positive emotions. WCST perseverative errors were well correlated with rumination of negative emotions (r=0.47). Logistic regression revealed that the minimum number of moves in the Stocking of Cambridge (SOC) test (one test in CANTAB) and negative emotion revealing, were strongly associated with ODD diagnosis. Children with ODD showed emotion dysregulation, with negative emotion dysregulation as the main feature. Emotion dysregulation and the lack of ability to plan lead to executive function deficits. The executive function deficits may guide us to understand the deep mechanism under ODD.

  4. Differential brain responses to social exclusion by one’s own versus opposite gender peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Wyk, Brent C. Vander

    2015-01-01

    Human peer relations provide tangible benefits including food and protection, as well as emotional benefits. While social exclusion poses a threat to all of these benefits, the psychological threat is particularly susceptible to modulation by the relation of the excluders to the excluded person. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the effects of manipulating the gender relation of participants to their excluders during an interactive ball toss game. Ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation was higher during exclusion by same-gender peers, while right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation negatively correlated with self-reported distress in other-gender exclusion. Results imply that exclusion by one’s own gender is fundamentally different from exclusion by the opposite gender, and suggest a regulatory role for ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in response to out-group exclusion. Individual differences in implicit gender attitudes modulated neural responses to exclusion. The importance of these findings to investigations of social cognition is discussed. PMID:21981758

  5. Opposite replication polarities of transcribed and nontranscribed histone H5 genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trempe, J.P.; Lindstrom, Y.I.; Leffak, M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors used an in vitro nuclear runoff replication assay to analyze the direction of replication of the active and inactive histone H5 genes in avian cells. In embryonic erythrocytes the transcribed histone H5 gene displayed sensitivity to endogenous nuclease cleavage. In contrast, this gene was insensitive to endogenous nuclease digestion under the same conditions in nuclei of the lymphoblastoid cell line MSB-1, and histone H5 gene transcripts were not detectable by dot-blot analysis of MSB-1 cell RNA. When nuclei were isolated from embryonic erythrocyctes and incubated with bromodeoxyuridine triphosphate, runoff replication from endogenous nuclease cleavage sites led to a relative enrichment for fragments near the 3' end of the histone H5 gene in the density-labeled DNA. In nuclei of MSB-1 cells or chicken embryo fibroblasts, however, runoff replication from restriction enzyme-cut sites (or induced endogenous nuclease-cut sites in MSB-1 nuclei) led to a relative enrichment for fragments near the 5' end of the H5 gene in dense DNA. Based on the enhanced incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into origin-distal regions of DNA during the in vitro runoff replication assay, the authors conclude that the active histone H5 gene in embryonic erythrocytes is preferentially replicated in the transcriptional direction from an origin in the 5'-flanking DNA, whereas its inactive counterparts in MSB-1 cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts are preferentially replicated in the opposite direction

  6. Normative social morphogenesis and the opposition “agency-structure”: From individual to institutions, and back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D G Podvoyskiy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sociological theory at any stage of development requires permanent reflection and comprehension of its own conceptual bases including its terminological axiomatic, which incorporates both the antinomy “subject (action, agency and structure” and concepts of order, norms and rules, standards, cultural patterns and values, institutions, social control, power and coercion, conformism, deviation, etc. Conceptual descriptions of the opposition “agency-structure”, the problems of social order and mechanisms of normative and institutional “morphogenesis” traditionally act as one of the main “paradigmatic” axes for the development of sociological theory, and their critical analysis and comparison clarify the general methodological basis of social knowledge as a whole and highlight the fundamental demarcation lines between different schools and branches of sociological thought. The author attempts to provide a preliminary reconstruction and revision of the general argumentation used in social theory to explain how normative orders emerge from the internal logic of social interaction that takes place at different levels including everyday life. The article aims to assist in producing a clear and prominent vision of the issues of the dualism of agency-structure in social relations and of their normative, “rule-oriented” nature.

  7. Electrocatalytic glucose oxidation at gold and gold-carbon nanoparticulate film prepared from oppositely charged nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Celebanska, Anna; Nogala, Wojciech; Sashuk, Volodymyr; Chernyaeva, Olga; Opallo, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticulate film electrodes were prepared by layer-by-layer method from oppositely charged nanoparticles. • Positively charged nanoparticles play dominant role in glucose oxidation in alkaline solution. • Gold and gold-carbon nanoparticulate film electrodes exhibit similar glucose oxidation current and onset potential. - Abstract: Electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose was studied at nanoparticulate gold and gold-carbon film electrodes. These electrodes were prepared by a layer-by-layer method without application of any linker molecules. Gold nanoparticles were stabilized by undecane thiols functionalized by trimethyl ammonium or carboxylate groups, whereas the carbon nanoparticles were covered by phenylsulfonate functionalities. The gold nanoparticulate electrodes were characterized by UV-vis and XPS spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and voltammetry, before and after heat-treatment. Heat-treatment facilitates the aggregation of the nanoparticles and affects the structure of the film. The comparison of the results obtained with film electrodes prepared from gold nanoparticles with the same charge and with gold-carbon nanoparticulate electrodes, proved that positively charged nanoparticles are responsible for the high electrocatalytic activity, whereas negatively charged ones act rather as a linker of the film

  8. Bifurcation structure and stability in models of opposite-signed vortex pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    We employ a recently developed numerical method to examine in detail the properties of opposite-signed, translating vortex pairs. We first consider a uniform-vortex approximation; for this flow, previous studies have found essential differences between rotating and translating configurations, and have encountered numerical difficulties at the boundary between the two types of equilibria. Recently, Luzzatto-Fegiz and Williamson (2012 J. Fluid Mech. 706 323–50) used an imperfect velocity-impulse (IVI) diagram to show that the rotating pairs have a translating counterpart, arising from a bifurcation of the classical translating configurations. In this paper, we expand this IVI diagram to find two new branches of steady vortices, including antisymmetric pairs, as well as vortices without any symmetry. We next consider more realistic models for flows at moderate Reynolds number Re, by computing solution families based on a discretized Chaplygin–Lamb dipole. We find that, as the accuracy of the discretization improves, the bifurcated branches shrink rapidly, while the unstable portion of the basic solution family becomes smaller. These results indicate that the bifurcation structure of moderate-Re flows can be very different from that of solutions that use a single patch per vortex. (papers)

  9. Multiple Levels of Family Factors and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms Among Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Longfeng; Heath, Melissa A; Chi, Peilian; Xu, Shousen; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2018-03-01

    Family factors are closely associated with child developmental outcomes. This study examined the relationship of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and factors at whole family, dyadic, and individual levels in Chinese children. Participants, who were recruited from 14 primary schools in north, east, and south-west China, included 80 father-child dyads and 169 mother-child dyads. Children in the participating dyads were previously diagnosed with ODD. Results revealed that family cohesion/adaptability was indirectly associated with ODD symptoms via parent-child relationship and child emotion regulation. Parent-child relationship affected ODD symptoms directly and indirectly through child emotion regulation. In addition, the effects of family cohesion/adaptability on parent emotion regulation and child emotion regulation were mediated by the parent-child relationship. The tested model provides a comprehensive framework of how family factors at multiple levels are related to child ODD symptoms and highlights the importance of understanding child emotional and behavioral problems within the family context, more specifically within the multiple levels of family relationships. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  10. Energy and exergy analysis of an annular shaft kiln with opposite burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Wenjie; Li, Baokuan; Qi, Fengsheng; Cheung, Sherman C.P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An OBASK is investigated for the energy and exergy performance. • The energy and exergy efficiency of the OBASK is of 63.6% and 35.7%, respectively. • The exergy destruction accounts for 44.5% of the total exergy input. - Abstract: Annular shaft kilns with opposite burners (OBASK) has been widely adopted due to the advantages of cost saving and easy controlling. Nonetheless, compared with the traditional annular shaft kiln, the OBASK is not favorable in terms of thermal performance and energy efficiency. Aiming to improve the thermal performance, a comprehensive energy and exergy analysis of an OBASK has been conducted based on the actual operational data obtained from on-site measurements. For making a thorough thermal analysis of the OBASK, special attentions have been focused in considering magnesium decomposition reaction and moisture in limestone in the methodology. The energy and exergy efficiencies are determined to be 63.6% and 35.7%, respectively. The exergy destruction is 44.0% of total exergy input of which fuel combustion causes 56.6% of the exergy destruction. Furthermore, the effects of CaO and moisture contents in limestone on energy and exergy efficiencies are analyzed. The results have demonstrated the potential energy saving of the OBASK and identified three proposed energy conservation measures. Improvement and effect of the three proposed measures on the thermal performance are verified via further analysis.

  11. Co-precipitation of oppositely charged nanoparticles: the case of mixed ligand nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moglianetti, Mauro; Ponomarev, Evgeniy; Szybowski, Maxime; Stellacci, Francesco; Reguera, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Colloid stability is of high importance in a multitude of fields ranging from food science to biotechnology. There is strong interest in studying the stability of small particles (of a size of a few nanometres) with complex surface structures, that make them resemble the complexity of proteins and other natural biomolecules, in the presence of oppositely charged nanoparticles. While for nanoparticles with homogeneously charged surfaces an abrupt precipitation has been observed at the neutrality of charges, data are missing about the stability of nanoparticles when they have more complex surface structures, like the presence of hydrophobic patches. To study the role of these hydrophobic patches in the stability of nanoparticles a series of negatively charged nanoparticles has been synthesized with different ratios of hydrophobic content and with control on the structural distribution of the hydrophobic moiety, and then titrated with positively charged nanoparticles. For nanoparticles with patchy nanodomains, the influence of hydrophobic content was observed together with the influence of the size of the nanoparticles. By contrast, for nanoparticles with a uniform distribution of hydrophobic ligands, size changes and hydrophobic content did not play any role in co-precipitation behaviour. A comparison of these two sets of nanoparticles suggests that nanodomains present at the surfaces of nanoparticles are playing an important role in stability against co-precipitation. (paper)

  12. Reciprocity Between Parental Psychopathology and Oppositional Symptoms From Preschool to Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Zayra; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2018-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a common disorder in preschool children. Evidence indicates that maternal and paternal psychopathology, particularly aggressive behavior and anxious and depressed symptoms, contributes to the development of this disorder. The latest research also suggests that ODD symptoms may exacerbate the mental health problems of parents. Our aim was to establish the existence of a reciprocal association between paternal and maternal psychopathology (aggression, depression, and anxiety) and child ODD at ages 3 and 8, using a longitudinal design in a community sample of preschoolers. The sample included 331 children evaluated at ages 3 and 8 through questionnaires and a semistructured diagnostic interview with parents. Parents also informed about their own psychopathology. At 3 years of age, higher levels of ODD symptoms in girls were concurrently associated with maternal anxious and depressed symptoms and paternal aggressive behavior, and higher levels of ODD symptoms in boys were concurrently associated with maternal aggressive behavior. Longitudinally, for boys, higher levels of maternal anxious and depressed symptoms at child age 3 predicted increases in ODD symptoms from 3 to 8 years of age. In addition, higher levels of ODD symptoms in boys aged 3-8 years predicted increases in fathers' anxious and depressive symptoms. Children with ODD should be evaluated and treated promptly, but efforts should be extended to their parents. Mothers' and fathers' mental health must be explored because the psychopathologies of children and parents reciprocally affect each other. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Les Antigones espagnoles contemporaines, figures mythiques de l’opposition au pouvoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Blin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose de mettre en lumière les dimensions idéologiques des réécritures du mythe d’Antigone par les dramaturges espagnols, de la Guerre civile à la Transition démocratique. L’omniprésence de la figure mythique d’Antigone dans leur dramaturgie entre 1939 et la décennie 1980 révèle que la période de crise historique est allée de pair avec une mise en cause du pouvoir, qui a été représentée à travers le recours au mythe. Le personnage d’Antigone symbolise en effet la résistance, l’opposition sans concession au pouvoir tyrannique incarné par Créon. C’est pourquoi tant de dramaturges espagnols ont choisi ce mythe pour lire et relire leur époque troublée au prisme d’un récit séculaire.

  14. Predictive validity of childhood oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: implications for the DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Waldman, Irwin; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2010-11-01

    Data are presented from 3 studies of children and adolescents to evaluate the predictive validity of childhood oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and the International Classification of Diseases, Version 10 (ICD-10; World Health Organization, 1992). The present analyses strongly support the predictive validity of these diagnoses by showing that they predict both future psychopathology and enduring functional impairment. Furthermore, the present findings generally support the hierarchical developmental hypothesis in DSM-IV that some children with ODD progress to childhood-onset CD, and some youth with CD progress to antisocial personality disorder (APD). Nonetheless, they reveal that CD does not always co-occur with ODD, particularly during adolescence. Importantly, the present findings suggest that ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for ODD, which treat CD symptoms as ODD symptoms when diagnostic criteria for CD are not met, identify more functionally impaired children than the more restrictive DSM-IV definition of ODD. Filling this "hole" in the DSM-IV criteria for ODD should be a priority for the DSM-V. In addition, the present findings suggest that although the psychopathic trait of interpersonal callousness in childhood independently predicts future APD, these findings do not confirm the hypothesis that callousness distinguishes a subset of children with CD with an elevated risk for APD. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Interoceptive and exteroceptive attention have opposite effects on subsequent somatosensory perceptual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Brown, Richard J; Lloyd, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that interoceptive and exteroceptive attention might have different perceptual effects. However, the effects of these different types of body-focused attention have never been directly compared. The current research investigated how interoceptive and exteroceptive attention affect subsequent performance on the somatic signal detection task (SSDT). In Experiment 1, 37 participants completed the SSDT under usual testing conditions and after performing an interoceptive heartbeat perception task. This task led to a more liberal response criterion, leading to increased touch reports in the presence and absence of a target vibration. This finding is consistent with suggestions that attending internally contributes to physical symptom reporting in patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS). In Experiment 2, 40 participants completed the SSDT before and after an exteroceptive grating orientation task. This task led to a more stringent response criterion, leading to decreased touch reports in the presence and absence of the target, possibly via a reduction in sensory noise. This work demonstrates that internal and external body-focused attention can have opposite effects on subsequent somatic perceptual decision making and suggests that attentional training could be useful for patients reporting MUS.

  16. Clinical Characteristics of Preschool Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available There is a need to know whether callous-unemotional (CU traits identify a more severe group of oppositional defiant children (ODD. The aim of this study is to ascertain cross-sectionally and longitudinally the specific contribution of CU levels and the presence of ODD in the psychological state of preschool children from the general population. A total of 622 children were assessed longitudinally at ages 3 and 5 with a semi-structured diagnostic interview and questionnaires filled out by parents and teachers. In multivariate models simultaneously including ODD diagnosis and CU levels, controlling by socioeconomic status, ethnicity, sex, severity of conduct disorder symptoms and other comorbidity, high CU scores were related to higher levels of aggression, withdrawn, externalizing and global symptomatology, functional impairment and higher probability of comorbid disorders and use of services. The contribution of CU traits on children's psychological state was not moderated by the presence/absence of ODD. Stability for CU traits and number of ODD-symptoms between ages 3 and 5 was statistically significant but moderate-low (intra-class correlation under .40. Assessment and identification of CU traits from preschool might help to identify a subset of children who could have socialization problems, not only among those with ODD but also among those without a diagnosis of conduct problems.

  17. Structural Brain Abnormalities of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordermeer, Siri D S; Luman, Marjolein; Greven, Corina U; Veroude, Kim; Faraone, Stephen V; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (comorbidity rates up to 60%) on these neuroanatomical differences is scarcely studied, while ODD (in combination with conduct disorder) has been associated with structural abnormalities of the frontal lobe, amygdala, and insula. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of comorbid ODD on cerebral volume and cortical thickness in ADHD. Three groups, 16 ± 3.5 years of age (mean ± SD; range 7-29 years), were studied on volumetric and cortical thickness characteristics using structural magnetic resonance imaging (surface-based morphometry): ADHD+ODD (n = 67), ADHD-only (n = 243), and control subjects (n = 233). Analyses included the moderators age, gender, IQ, and scan site. ADHD+ODD and ADHD-only showed volumetric reductions in total gray matter and (mainly) frontal brain areas. Stepwise volumetric reductions (ADHD+ODD attention, (working) memory, and decision-making. Volumetric reductions of frontal lobes were largest in the ADHD+ODD group, possibly underlying observed larger impairments in neurocognitive functions. Previously reported striatal abnormalities in ADHD may be caused by comorbid conduct disorder rather than ODD. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cortisol increases in response to brief social exchanges with opposite sex partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M; Collins, Nancy L

    2017-03-01

    Researchers recently demonstrated that cortisol increases in response to mating-relevant social interactions. An important next step is investigating factors that explain individual differences in cortisol reactivity within these contexts. The current study examined demographic, situational, and individual difference predictors of cortisol reactivity following brief, non-face-to-face interactions with potential dating partners. College students made a video introducing themselves to another participant. During another appointment, they watched a short video of an opposite-sex confederate introducing himself/herself, and believed the other person was watching their video. Participants were told they would get to know the confederate more during a web-chat, which never took place. Participants received either rejection, acceptance, or no feedback from the confederate. Cortisol levels increased over baseline in all feedback conditions. Cortisol increases were particularly strong for participants who perceived the confederate as a more desirable dating partner, participants who were independently rated as a less desirable partner, and men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Oppositional behavior and longitudinal predictions of early adulthood mental health problems in chronic tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Marie-Claude G; Bécue, Jean-Cyprien; Lespérance, Paul; Chouinard, Sylvain; Rouleau, Guy A; Richer, Francois

    2018-03-16

    Chronic tic disorders (TD) are associated with a number of psychological problems such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) as well as anxious and depressive symptoms. ODD is often considered a risk factor for many psychological symptoms and recent work suggests that different ODD dimensions show independent predictions of later psychological problems. This study examined the longitudinal predictions between ODD dimensions of Irritability and Defiance and the most frequent comorbidities in TD from childhood to early adulthood. From an initial sample of 135, parent reports were obtained on 58 participants with TD using standard clinical questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Defiance symptoms decreased from baseline to follow-up whereas Irritability symptoms were more stable over time. In multiple regressions, Irritability in childhood predicted anxiety and OCB in early adulthood while Defiance in childhood predicted ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms in early adulthood. No developmental link was found for depressive symptoms. Results indicate that ODD dimensions are developmentally linked to both internalizing and externalizing adult mental health symptoms in TD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Child maltreatment and interpersonal relationship among Chinese children with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Longfeng; Chi, Peilian; Wang, Zhonghui; Heath, Melissa Allen; Du, Hongfei; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment negatively affects children's development and wellbeing. This study investigated the associations between child maltreatment (i.e., emotional neglect, emotional abuse, and physical abuse) and interpersonal functioning, including parent-child relationship, teacher-student relationship, and peer relationships among children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). A total of 256 children with ODD and their parents and class master teachers from Mainland China completed questionnaires. Results showed a negative correlation between emotional abuse (parent-reported) and children's interpersonal relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. Emotional neglect and physical abuse were related to poor parent-child relationships. Latent profile analysis revealed three profiles of child maltreatment among children with ODD. ODD children with more severe levels of one type of maltreatment were also more likely to have experienced severe levels of other types of maltreatment. Children with ODD who were in the group of high maltreatment had the poorest quality of interpersonal relationships. Our findings highlight the urgent need to prevent child maltreatment and promote more positive parenting in families with ODD children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Current Issues in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification. PMID:22035245

  2. Modified Bat Algorithm Based on Lévy Flight and Opposition Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bat Algorithm (BA is a swarm intelligence algorithm which has been intensively applied to solve academic and real life optimization problems. However, due to the lack of good balance between exploration and exploitation, BA sometimes fails at finding global optimum and is easily trapped into local optima. In order to overcome the premature problem and improve the local searching ability of Bat Algorithm for optimization problems, we propose an improved BA called OBMLBA. In the proposed algorithm, a modified search equation with more useful information from the search experiences is introduced to generate a candidate solution, and Lévy Flight random walk is incorporated with BA in order to avoid being trapped into local optima. Furthermore, the concept of opposition based learning (OBL is embedded to BA to enhance the diversity and convergence capability. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, 16 benchmark functions have been employed. The results obtained by the experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of OBMLBA for global optimization problems. Comparisons with some other BA variants and other state-of-the-art algorithms have shown the proposed approach significantly improves the performance of BA. Performances of the proposed algorithm on large scale optimization problems and real world optimization problems are not discussed in the paper, and it will be studied in the future work.

  3. Should Organic Agriculture Maintain Its Opposition to GM? New Techniques Writing the Same Old Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fern Wickson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is diversifying rapidly through the development and application of new approaches to genome editing and ongoing research into synthetic biology. Proponents of biotechnology are enthusiastic about these new developments and have recently begun calling for environmental movements to abandon their campaigns against Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs and for organic agriculture to reconsider its exclusion of Genetic Modification (GM. In this article, we begin by describing the diversity of practices that cluster under both the terms GM and organic and show that although there is a clash of different cultures of agriculture at stake, there is also a spectrum of practices existing between these two poles. Having established the terms of the debate, we then go on to analyse whether the organic movement should reconsider its position on GM in light of new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs, using the criteria highlighted as important by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM in their 2016 draft revised position on GMOs. Through this analysis, we suggest that given the in-context-trajectory of biotechnology development, the continued narrow framing of agricultural problems and the ongoing exclusion of important socio-economic, political and cultural dimensions, the organic movement is justified in maintaining its opposition to GM in the face of NPBTs.

  4. Fear and Anger have Opposite Effects on Risk Seeking in the Gain Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eHabib

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotions strongly influence our decisions, particularly those made under risk. A classic example of the effect of emotion on decision making under risk is the framing effect, which involves predictable shifts in preferences when the same problem is formulated in different ways. According to dual process theories, this bias could stem from an affective heuristic belonging to an intuitive type of reasoning. In this study, we examined whether specific incidental negative emotions (i.e., fear and anger influence framing susceptibility and risk-taking identically. In each trial, participants received an initial amount of money, and pictures of angry or fearful faces were presented to them. Finally, participants chose between a sure option and a gamble option of equally expected value in a gain or loss frame. Risk-taking was modulated by emotional context: fear and anger influenced risk-taking specifically in the gain frame and had opposite effects. Fear increased risk-averse choices, whereas anger decreased risk-averse choices, leading to a suppression of the framing effect. These results confirm that emotions play a key role in framing susceptibility.

  5. Fear and anger have opposite effects on risk seeking in the gain frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Marianne; Cassotti, Mathieu; Moutier, Sylvain; Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    Emotions strongly influence our decisions, particularly those made under risk. A classic example of the effect of emotion on decision making under risk is the "framing effect," which involves predictable shifts in preferences when the same problem is formulated in different ways. According to dual process theories, this bias could stem from an affective heuristic belonging to an intuitive type of reasoning. In this study, we examined whether specific incidental negative emotions (i.e., fear and anger) influence framing susceptibility and risk-taking identically. In each trial, participants received an initial amount of money, and pictures of angry or fearful faces were presented to them. Finally, participants chose between a sure option and a gamble option of equally expected value in a gain or loss frame. Risk-taking was modulated by emotional context: fear and anger influenced risk-taking specifically in the gain frame and had opposite effects. Fear increased risk-averse choices, whereas anger decreased risk-averse choices, leading to a suppression of the framing effect. These results confirm that emotions play a key role in framing susceptibility.

  6. Repetitive heterocoagulation of oppositely charged particles for enhancement of magnetic nanoparticle loading into monodisperse silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Nagao, Daisuke; Konno, Mikio

    2010-03-16

    Oppositely charged particles were repetitively heterocoagulated to fabricate highly monodisperse magnetic silica particles with high loading of magnetic nanoparticles. Positively charged magnetic nanoparticles prepared by surface modification with N-trimethoxysilylpropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (TSA) were used to heterocoagulate with silica particles under basic conditions to give rise to negative silica surface charge and prevent the oxidation of the magnetic nanoparticles. The resultant particles of silica core homogeneously coated with the magnetic nanoparticles were further coated with thin silica layer with sodium silicate in order to enhance colloidal stability and avoid desorption of the magnetic nanoparticles from the silica cores. Five repetitions of the heterocoagulation and the silica coating could increase saturation magnetization of the magnetic silica particles to 27.7 emu/g, keeping the coefficient of variation of particle sizes (C(V)) less than 6.5%. Highly homogeneous loading of the magnetic component was confirmed by measuring Fe-to-Si atomic ratios of individual particles with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  7. Posed versus spontaneous facial expressions are modulated by opposite cerebral hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elliott D; Pulusu, Vinay K

    2013-05-01

    Clinical research has indicated that the left face is more expressive than the right face, suggesting that modulation of facial expressions is lateralized to the right hemisphere. The findings, however, are controversial because the results explain, on average, approximately 4% of the data variance. Using high-speed videography, we sought to determine if movement-onset asymmetry was a more powerful research paradigm than terminal movement asymmetry. The results were very robust, explaining up to 70% of the data variance. Posed expressions began overwhelmingly on the right face whereas spontaneous expressions began overwhelmingly on the left face. This dichotomy was most robust for upper facial expressions. In addition, movement-onset asymmetries did not predict terminal movement asymmetries, which were not significantly lateralized. The results support recent neuroanatomic observations that upper versus lower facial movements have different forebrain motor representations and recent behavioral constructs that posed versus spontaneous facial expressions are modulated preferentially by opposite cerebral hemispheres and that spontaneous facial expressions are graded rather than non-graded movements. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Film Self-Assembly of Oppositely Charged Macromolecules Triggered by Electrochemistry through a Morphogenic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochter, Alexandre; Garnier, Tony; Pardieu, Elodie; Chau, Nguyet Trang Thanh; Maerten, Clément; Senger, Bernard; Schaaf, Pierre; Jierry, Loïc; Boulmedais, Fouzia

    2015-09-22

    The development of new surface functionalization methods that are easy to use, versatile, and allow local deposition represents a real scientific challenge. Overcoming this challenge, we present here a one-pot process that consists in self-assembling, by electrochemistry on an electrode, films made of oppositely charged macromolecules. This method relies on a charge-shifting polyanion, dimethylmaleic-modified poly(allylamine) (PAHd), that undergoes hydrolysis at acidic pH, leading to an overall switching of its charge. When a mixture of the two polyanions, PAHd and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS), is placed in contact with an electrode, where the pH is decreased locally by electrochemistry, the transformation of PAHd into a polycation (PAH) leads to the continuous self-assembly of a nanometric PAH/PSS film by electrostatic interactions. The pH decrease is obtained by the electrochemical oxidation of hydroquinone, which produces protons locally over nanometric distances. Using a negatively charged enzyme, alkaline phosphatase (AP), instead of PSS, this one-pot process allows the creation of enzymatically active films. Under mild conditions, self-assembled PAH/AP films have an enzymatic activity which is adjustable simply by controlling the self-assembly time. The selective functionalization of microelectrode arrays by PAH/AP was achieved, opening the route toward miniaturized biosensors.

  9. Socioeconomic status and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Louwaars, Leonie; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES) as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children's executive functioning (EF) as the mediating factors. The sample included 622 three-year-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed. Structural Equation Modeling showed that the associations between SES, EF, parenting style and ODD levels differed by children's gender: (a) for girls, the association of low SES and high ODD scores was partially mediated by difficulties in EF inhibition, and parenting practices defined by corporal punishment and inconsistent discipline obtained a quasi-significant indirect effect into the association between SES and ODD; (b) for boys, SES and EF (inhibition and emotional control) had a direct effect on ODD with no mediation. SES seems a good indicator to identify children at high-risk for prevention and intervention programs for ODD. Girls with ODD in families of low SES may particularly benefit from parent training practices and training in inhibition control.

  10. Socioeconomic status and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser eGranero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children’s executive functioning (EF as the mediating factors.Method. Sample included 622 three years-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed.Results. Structural Equation Modeling showed that children’s gender achieved a moderating role into the pathways valuing the underlying process between SES, EF, parenting style and ODD levels: a for girls, the association of low SES and high ODD scores was mediated by parenting practices (punishment and inconsistent discipline and by difficulties in EF inhibition, and a direct predictive effect on ODD level was achieved for SES, punishment and inconsistence in rearing style and inhibition; b for boys, SES and EF (inhibition and emotional control had a direct effect on ODD with no mediation.Conclusion. SES seems a good indicator to identify at high-risk children for prevention and intervention programs for ODD. Girls with ODD in families of low SES may particularly benefit from parent training practices and training in inhibition control.

  11. [Relationship between opposite acupoints and acupoint effect from acupoint effect of Sanyinjiao (SP 6)-Xuanzhong (GB 39)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Siyuan; Yang, Zhixin; Guo, Jianen; Lu, Hongtong; Wang, Pei; Pang, Jia; Zhang, Huan

    2017-10-12

    The acupoint effect of Sanyinjiao (SP 6) and Xuanzhong (GB 39) as well as the internal relation of Sanyinjiao (SP 6)-Xuanzhong (GB 39) were analyzed in this paper to explore the relationship between opposite acupoints and acupoint effect. It was found both Sanyinjiao (SP 6) and Xuanzhong (GB 39) had acupoint effects, and the two acupoints had close relationship in acupoint effects (specificity along meridian and specificity of acupoints), acupoint-meridian relationship (anatomical locations, meridians and organs, indications). It is indicated the opposite acupoint of Sanyinjiao (SP 6)-Xuanzhong (GB 39) had related aspects in acupoint effects, which is related with acupoint effect through specificity and relationship of acupoint-meridian.

  12. Chronic exposure to low environmental concentrations and legal aquaculture doses of antibiotics cause systemic adverse effects in Nile tilapia and provoke differential human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Samwel M; Zhou, Li; Sun, Sheng-Xiang; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2018-06-01

    while halted aerobic glycolysis, increased hepatic fat catabolism, and induced DNA damage in liver. The hazard risk quotient in children for fish treated with OTCD was >1 indicating human health risk. Overall, both LECAs and LADAs impair general physiological functions, nutritional metabolism, and compromise fish immune system. Consumption of fish fed with legal OTC provokes health risk in children. Global stringent prohibition policy for use of antibiotics in aquaculture production and strategies to limit their release into the environment are urgently required to protect human health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexual and relationship intimacy among women with provoked vestibulodynia and their partners: associations with sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, Katy; Bergeron, Sophie; Rosen, Natalie O; McDuff, Pierre; Grégoire, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is the most frequent subtype of vulvodynia. Women report negative consequences of PVD on their sexual and romantic relationships. Researchers have recently highlighted the importance of examining interpersonal factors such as intimacy, and of including both women and their partners in study designs. The aim of this study was to investigate sexual and relationship intimacy as defined by the Interpersonal Process Model of Intimacy and their associations with sexual satisfaction, sexual function, pain self-efficacy, and pain intensity among women with PVD and their partners. Ninety-one heterosexual women (M age = 27.38, SD = 6.04) diagnosed with PVD and their partners (M age = 29.37, SD = 7.79) completed measures of sexual and relationship intimacy, sexual satisfaction, sexual function, pain self-efficacy, and pain intensity. Dependent measures were the (i) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale; (ii) Female Sexual Function Index; (iii) Painful Intercourse Self-Efficacy Scale; and (iv) visual analog scale of pain intensity during intercourse. After controlling for women's age, women's greater sexual intimacy (β = 0.49, P sexual satisfaction and higher pain self-efficacy (β = 0.39, P = 0.001), beyond the effects of partners' sexual intimacy. Also, women's greater sexual intimacy (β = 0.24, P = 0.05) and women's greater relationship intimacy (β = 0.54, P = 0.003) were associated with greater women's sexual function, beyond the effects of partners' sexual and relationship intimacy. Women's self-reported sexual and relationship intimacy in the couple relationship may promote higher sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain self-efficacy, as well as possibly foster greater sexual well-being among women with PVD. The authors discuss implications for the inclusion of emotional and interpersonal aspects of the couple's dynamic in clinical interventions and future research in PVD. © 2013

  14. A low protein diet during pregnancy provokes a lasting shift of hepatic expression of genes related to cell cycle throughout ontogenesis in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oster Michael

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. Adverse environmental conditions during fetal development provoke an intrauterine adaptive response termed 'fetal programming', which may lead to both persistently biased responsiveness to extrinsic factors and permanent consequences for the organismal phenotype. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptome exhibits short-term and long-term changes, depending on the maternal diet. In order to contribute to a comprehensive inventory of genes and functional networks that are targets of nutritional programming initiated during fetal life, we applied whole-genome microarrays for expression profiling in a longitudinal experimental design covering prenatal, perinatal, juvenile, and adult ontogenetic stages in a porcine model. Pregnant sows were fed either a gestational low protein diet (LP, 6% CP or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP. All offspring was nursed by foster sows receiving standard diets. After weaning, all offspring was fed standard diets ad libitum. Results Analyses of the hepatic gene expression of the offspring at prenatal (94 dies post conceptionem, dpc and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dies post natum, dpn included comparisons between dietary groups within stages as well as comparisons between ontogenetic stages within diets to separate diet-specific transcriptional changes and maturation processes. We observed differential expression of genes related to lipid metabolism (e.g. Fatty acid metabolism, Biosynthesis of steroids, Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, FA elongation in mitochondria, Bile acid synthesis and cell cycle regulation (e.g. Mitotic roles of PLK, G1/S checkpoint regulation, G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation. Notably, at stage 1 dpn no regulation of a distinct pathway was found in LP offspring. Conclusions The transcriptomic

  15. Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza A Virus Strains Provoke Heterogeneous IFN-α/β Responses That Distinctively Affect Viral Propagation in Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, Markus; Budt, Matthias; Wolff, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    The fatal transmissions of highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAV) of the H5N1 subtype to humans and high titer replication in the respiratory tract indicate that these pathogens can overcome the bird-to-human species barrier. While type I interferons (IFN-α/β) are well described to contribute to the species barrier of many zoonotic viruses, current data to the role of these antiviral cytokines during human H5N1 IAV infections is limited and contradictory. We hypothesized an important role for the IFN system in limiting productive infection of avian H5N1 strains in human cells. Hence, we examined IFN-α/β gene activation by different avian and human H5N1 isolates, if the IFN-α/β response restricts H5N1 growth and whether the different strains were equally capable to regulate the IFN-α/β system via their IFN-antagonistic NS1 proteins. Two human H5N1 isolates and a seasonal H3N2 strain propagated efficiently in human respiratory cells and induced little IFN-β, whereas three purely avian H5N1 strains were attenuated for replication and provoked higher IFN secretion. Replication of avian viruses was significantly enhanced on interferon-deficient cells, and exogenous IFN potently limited the growth of all strains in human cells. Moreover, IFN-α/β activation by all strains depended on retinoic acid-inducible gene I excluding principal differences in receptor activation between the different viruses. Interestingly, all H5N1 NS1 proteins suppressed IFN-α/β induction comparably well to the NS1 of seasonal IAV. Thus, our study shows that H5N1 strains are heterogeneous in their capacity to activate human cells in an NS1-independent manner. Our findings also suggest that H5N1 viruses need to acquire adaptive changes to circumvent strong IFN-α/β activation in human host cells. Since no single amino acid polymorphism could be associated with a respective high- or low induction phenotype we propose that the necessary adaptations to overcome the human IFN

  16. Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus strains provoke heterogeneous IFN-α/β responses that distinctively affect viral propagation in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Matthaei

    Full Text Available The fatal transmissions of highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAV of the H5N1 subtype to humans and high titer replication in the respiratory tract indicate that these pathogens can overcome the bird-to-human species barrier. While type I interferons (IFN-α/β are well described to contribute to the species barrier of many zoonotic viruses, current data to the role of these antiviral cytokines during human H5N1 IAV infections is limited and contradictory. We hypothesized an important role for the IFN system in limiting productive infection of avian H5N1 strains in human cells. Hence, we examined IFN-α/β gene activation by different avian and human H5N1 isolates, if the IFN-α/β response restricts H5N1 growth and whether the different strains were equally capable to regulate the IFN-α/β system via their IFN-antagonistic NS1 proteins. Two human H5N1 isolates and a seasonal H3N2 strain propagated efficiently in human respiratory cells and induced little IFN-β, whereas three purely avian H5N1 strains were attenuated for replication and provoked higher IFN secretion. Replication of avian viruses was significantly enhanced on interferon-deficient cells, and exogenous IFN potently limited the growth of all strains in human cells. Moreover, IFN-α/β activation by all strains depended on retinoic acid-inducible gene I excluding principal differences in receptor activation between the different viruses. Interestingly, all H5N1 NS1 proteins suppressed IFN-α/β induction comparably well to the NS1 of seasonal IAV. Thus, our study shows that H5N1 strains are heterogeneous in their capacity to activate human cells in an NS1-independent manner. Our findings also suggest that H5N1 viruses need to acquire adaptive changes to circumvent strong IFN-α/β activation in human host cells. Since no single amino acid polymorphism could be associated with a respective high- or low induction phenotype we propose that the necessary adaptations to

  17. Nuclear Energy and Public Acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daifuku, K.

    2002-01-01

    The continued use of nuclear power in the European Union and elsewhere requires an adequate level of public and political acceptance. A lack of acceptance is often mistakenly cited as a reason for the slowdown in nuclear power plant construction in Western Europe and as a justification for abandoning nuclear power. In fact, the reasons for the slowdown have more to do with the following two factors: Plentiful supplies of low-priced natural gas, making gas-fired power plants a more attractive investment choice; more than adequate supplies of electricity which have curbed the need for the construction of new plant of any kind. In general, moves towards a withdrawal from nuclear in certain Community countries have been due to party political pressures and have not been a response to public opposition to nuclear. In addition, opinion polls do not show widespread public opposition to the use of nuclear power. Figures consistently indicate that the use of nuclear power does not come high on the list of most people's main worries. Their main concerns focus on other issues such as crime and financial problems. In the main, electricity is taken for granted in the industrialised world. Electric power only becomes an issue when there is a threat of shortages. So if public acceptance is not the main obstacle, what is? Political acceptance is an integral part of the process in which nuclear becomes acceptable or not. The relationship between public and political acceptance and the role of the industry in this context, on how to foster a better trialogue, will be examined. (author)

  18. Public Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  19. Public acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolter, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    An urgent need to rebuild public confidence after an incident attracting widespread adverse publicity led to the development by British Nuclear Fuels plc of a completely new approach to public relations. The Company's experience suggests that impressions count more than sheer information, provided the impressions have a firm base in reality. (author)

  20. Global health in conflict. Understanding opposition to vitamin A supplementation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sarah K

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin A supplementation is a public health intervention that clinical trials have suggested can significantly improve child survival in the developing world. Yet, prominent scientists in India have questioned its scientific validity, opposed its implementation, and accused its advocates of corruption and greed. It is ironic that these opponents were among the pioneers of populationwide vitamin A supplementation for ocular health. Historically, complex interests have shaped vitamin A supplementation resistance in India. Local social and nutritional revolutions and shifting international paradigms of global health have played a role. Other resistance movements in Indian history, such as those in response to campaigns for bacillus Calmette-Guérin and novel vaccines, have been structured around similar themes. Public health resistance is shaped by the cultural and political context in which it develops. Armed with knowledge of the history of a region and patterns of past resistance, public health practitioners can better understand how to negotiate global health conflicts.