Sample records for provisions legalization h-2

  1. 24 CFR 107.25 - Provisions in legal instruments. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provisions in legal instruments. 107.25 Section 107.25 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Provisions in legal instruments. (a) The following documents shall contain provisions or statements requiring...

  2. The accountability of European agencies: legal provisions and ongoing practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busuioc, E.M.


    The book ''The Accountability of European Agencies: Legal Provisions and Ongoing Practices '' addresses one of the most relevant yet under- researched topic in current European governance: the accountability of European agencies. European agencies have been created at a rapid pace in recent years,

  3. Genesis of regulatory and legal provision of financial safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Pataridze-Vyshynska


    Full Text Available The article describes the main problems that concern regulatory and legal provision of financial safety. The scientific groundwork of researchers of this matter in Ukraine is analyzed and its gaps are revealed. The state competences concerning the regulation of financial safety are investigated. The legal provision of financial safety in a retrospective section is considered. The short characteristic of the main legal instruments that make the subsoil for formation of financial safety environment is provided. The main stages of legislative process of ensuring financial safety are found out. The paradigm of financial safety formation is generalized. The possibilities of ensuring financial safety in different areas of the state financial policy through the definition of problem aspects and ways of their decision are defined. It is certain that the problem of protection of national interests in the economic sphere is rather actual, especially in formation of financial safety environment in modern conditions. This problem is subject to further investigation of both lawmakers and scientists-economists.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuliza Mohd Kusrin; Zaini Nasohah; Mohd al-Adib Samuri; Mat Noor Mat Zain


    .... This article aims to discuss both the justifications and the legal restrictions - that is, the legal provisions - that restrict and control the propagation of non-Islamic religions among Muslims in Malaysia...

  5. 22 CFR 92.92 - Service of legal process under provisions of State law. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service of legal process under provisions of State law. 92.92 Section 92.92 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Quasi-Legal Services § 92.92 Service of legal process under provisions of State law. It may be found that a State statue...

  6. 45 CFR 1626.11 - H-2 agricultural workers. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false H-2 agricultural workers. 1626.11 Section 1626.11... ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural workers. (a) Nonimmigrant agricultural workers admitted under the provisions of 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(h)(ii), commonly called H-2 workers, may be...

  7. Ordinary legal remedies according to provisions of legislation from 1853 and 1860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulauzov Maša M.


    Full Text Available The article sheds light on provisions of Codes of Civil Procedure of 1853 and 1860 concerning ordinary legal remedies. As this matter was codified for the first time, a necessity of amending and supplementing some provisions soon emerged. Those amendments and supplements, along with original provisions were examined in this paper. The author also deals with regulations on jurisdiction of Court of Appeal, Court of Cassation and Supreme court. Types and categories of ordinary legal remedies were scrutinized, as well as strict time limits within one should lodge an appeal and proper grounds for making an appeal. The author also responds to questions under which circumstances are ordinary legal remedies allowed, and what types of decisions a higher court can make after reviewing the correctness and reasonableness of a decision issued by a lower court. Shortly after enactment of the Code of 1853 it appeared that judicial procedure is too complicated, expensive and ineffective due to too many legal remedies and legal jurisdictions. That is the reason why the Supreme court as the highest court within the hierarchy of legal jurisdictions and as final court of appeal was abolished in 1860, when new Code of Civil Procedure had been passed. New codification envisaged Court of Appeal as second instance court and, at the same time, court of last resort. Regarding legal remedies, Code of 1860 introduced appeal as sole ordinary legal remedy.

  8. Legal Deposit provision of the National Library Act: implementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Legal Deposit Act of the National Library of Nigeria is critically examined with regard to its implementation, presentation and benefits. A historical overview is presented with clear delineation and description of the Act's components. Types of materials and number of copies to be deposited with categories of publishers ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The relatively short period of the new Romainian Civil Code implementation highlights the existence of some controversial law issues regarding the legal provisions contained in Book II, entitled “About family”. Apart from the theoretical disputes, there are also court decisions that contain different solutions in the enforcement of the same legal provisions. Controversy exists not only in relation to the newly introduced institutions in our legal landscape, but also regarding the ones taken over from the old regulation, institutions that have undergone some changes. The examples are most varied and they do not bypass almost any matter. Thus, we signal the presence of different interpretations of regulations regarding: engagement, marriage, divorce, parentage, adoption, the legal duty to maintain, the parental authority, etc. The present study highlights such controversy’s by presenting the views expressed and the arguments invoked in their support and also some propositions of Ferenda Law.

  10. [Legal provisions regarding the repeal and annulment of disability pensions]. (United States)

    Valli, P


    The rapporteur after hawing having illustrated the significance of the revocation and the annulment of the invalid pension legislative measures much are not of a discretional nature, but an obliged legislative power of the public administration--has underlined that they must be used when the qualifications which x caused the recognition of the state of invalidity no longer exists or when it has been ascertained that they have never existed. It is discussed the role which the improvement in the psyco-physical conditions, the fact of the re-occupation of the invalid, the moment of the arisal of the infirmities, and of the physical mental defects and the charged attitude of the worker in the different and new occupations can play in judging the revocation. During the course of the lawful revision, the criteria of the judgement of the legal doctor must be the same as those adopted at the moment of the concession of the invalidity, without the need to proceed in comparing with the previous situation.

  11. BOT Contract through the optics of Albanian legal provisions - Issues of the implementation and transfer framework

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    Entela Prifti


    Full Text Available The last years have resulted in an increase of concession contracts in Albania, followed by a revised modern legal framework. Beside the debate on whether the government should perform most of the activities itself instead of giving them to the private sector through a concession contract, the concession contracts are nowadays a reality and as such they should be studied and analysed carefully. The scope of this article is limited to the provisions of the Albanian legislation and its approach to the international provisions regarding BOT (build – operate - transfer concession contract. A detailed analyse will drive to the conclusionas to what extent the Albanian concession legislation does compile with the international accepted principles of Public Private Partnership concerning mainly implementation and transfer phase of a BOT contract. Albanian Public Private Partnershiplegislation has gone through many revisions and amendments during the last twenty years, resulting in a challenging situation for everybody that deals with any aspects of a concession. Having a detailed understanding of the legal provisions is indeed the core element toward a successful implementation process of any concession, resulting in the highest profitability for concession parties, the public entity and the private investor, and consequently culminating to the best interest of the population.

  12. Should Employers Be Permitted not to Hire Smokers? A Review of US Legal Provisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi R. Patel


    Full Text Available Background Increasingly, healthcare and non-healthcare employers prohibit or penalize the use of tobacco products among current and new employees in the United States. Despite this trend, and for a range of different reasons, around half of states currently legally protect employees from being denied positions, or having employment contracts terminated, due to tobacco use. Methods We undertook a conceptual analysis of legal provisions in all 50 states. Results We found ethically relevant variations in terms of how tobacco is defined, which employee populations are protected, and to what extent they are protected. Furthermore, the underlying ethical rationales for smoker protection differ, and can be grouped into two main categories: prevention of discrimination and protection of privacy. Conclusion We critically discuss these rationales and the role of their advocates and argue that enabling equality of opportunity is a more adequate overarching concept for preventing employers from disadvantaging smokers.

  13. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting... (United States)


    ... to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or in...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Holness


    Full Text Available SUMMARYThis paper focuses on legal service delivery for the indigent by attorneys in private practice acting pro bono in civil rather than criminal matters. In this regard there have been and continue to be considerable gaps between the proper access to civil justice imperatives of constitutional South Africa and the status quo which has existed from the advent of a democratic South Africa until the present. Law as a vehicle for necessary positive change in the daily lives of South African residents is pertinently considered within the country’s woefully unequal socio-economic climate. This paper considers the role which pro bono work by private attorneys is playing and should play in promoting a more just and equitable society through proper access to justice. It explores the current position in South Africa as well as the position in selected foreign jurisdictions regarding pro bono services by attorneys in private practice in civil matters. Part of the discussion focuses on the question of whether pro bono work should be voluntary or mandatory. The merits of introducing a pro bono obligation are critically analysed by looking at the effect on both legal practitioners as well as those receiving the pro bono services. Having defined pro bono work, the practical need for pro bono work by lawyers in private practice is highlighted due to the dearth of legal aid in civil matters for indigent South Africans. Possible constitutional imperatives for the provision of free legal services in civil matters are highlighted. An important part of the paper is a reflection on some of the pro bono work being conducted by private firms of attorneys. The paper concludes with suggestions on means for establishing a more effective pro bono system in South Africa.

  15. Rights, Equality, Educational Provisions and Facilities for Students with Disabilities in Thailand: Legal and Practical Perspectives over the Past Decade

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    Chomanad Cheausuwantavee


    Full Text Available This review aims to critically examine the present status of educational provisions and facilities for students with disabilities in Thailand, in accordance with the enforcement of various laws over the past decade (1992-2008. The legal essence of laws such as the Constitution of The Kingdom of Thailand 1997, the Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons Act 1991, and the National Education Act 1999, was typologically compared to actual situations, in terms of educational provisions and facilities, by reviewing a total of 25 research papers.The findings showed that there had been no further educational provisions and facilities for students with disabilities, despite indications within the laws. There are discrepancies between legislations and practices due to the ineffectiveness of law enforcement, and the negative attitudes of service providers and society towards students with disabilities. Therefore, positive attitudes of stakeholders have to be promoted, alongside the new laws.

  16. Searching the Future for the Legal Regime of Space Activities: the Need for Unification of National Space Legislation' Provisions (United States)

    Negoda, S. A.


    space activities. For the future legal regime of space activities it is vital to preserve the existed principles and main provisions of the international space law. related legislations are developing rapidly. They become serious instrument for legal regulation of space activities. those projects with a foreign party involvement. Quite often partners in international space projects agree to choice a domestic law of one of them. They do this for defining a certain organizational and/or contractual issue (disputes settlement, for example) of the project. that such practice will spread widely. could help to preserve the existed important provisions of international space law (responsibility of states for their national activities, for instance). development of international space private law. We believe that solely special laws and regulations of national legislations could not regulate modern space activities. Being more and more commercial, space activities are becoming a real part of "downed to Earth" commercial activities. Therefore, in many countries provisions of civil, commercial, investment and other branches of national law are applied to such activities. which could low possible risks of such activities and to control them. Such unification seems to be suitable in the following fields: 1)implementation of provisions of international space law in national space laws; 2)definition of unified terminology, accepted by national laws of all parties; 3)unification in national legislations of a certain standards (insurance rates and rules, for instance); 4)unification in national laws of issues related to liability (for instance, a mutual wave of liability in certain types of 5)implementation in national laws of unified rules and procedures of space-related commercial disputes settlement; 6)unification of mechanisms for protection of space-related intellectual property. unification of their provisions. Special attention is paid to provisions of private law


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merran Lawler


    Full Text Available This article considers the utility of resources designed to assist people undertaking their own legal work. Four in-depth case studies are used to explore the tensions inherent in providing coherent and user-oriented resources to legal self-helpers in environments where service providers attempt to convey complex legal information, knowledge and skills to people at the point of legal exigency. The needs of the consumer for basic process oriented and solutions focused resources do not always coincide with the objectives of providers to impart sufficient legal knowledge, information and skills to allow the consumer to work through those processes as an informed citizen. Cet article porte sur l’utilité des ressources conçues pour aider les gens à effectuer eux-mêmes le travail juridique qu’ils requièrent. Quatre études de cas approfondies servent à examiner les tensions inhérentes à la distribution de ressources d’auto-assistance juridique cohérentes axées sur l’utilisateur dans des milieux où les fournisseurs de services cherchent à transmettre des connaissances, de l’information et des compétences juridiques complexes, selon les exigences de la loi. La nécessité pour le client d’obtenir des ressources axées sur les solutions et les procédures de base ne va pas toujours dans le sens de l’objectif des fournisseurs de services, qui consiste à lui transmettre des connaissances, de l’information et des compétences juridiques suffisantes pour qu’il puisse mener à bien ces procédures en tant que citoyen informé.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Nowadays, on a rise of cybersecurity incidents and a very complex IT&C environment, the national legal systems must adapt in order to properly address the new and modern forms of criminality in cyberspace. The illegal access to a computer system remains one of the most important cyber-related crimes due to its popularity but also from the perspective as being a door opened to computer data and sometimes a vehicle for other tech crimes. In the same time, the information society services slightly changed the IT paradigm and represent the new interface between users and systems. Is true that services rely on computer systems, but accessing services goes now beyond the simple accessing computer systems as commonly understood by most of the legislations. The article intends to explain other sides of the access related to computer systems and services, with the purpose to advance possible legal solutions to certain case scenarios.

  19. Sex trade, social and legal aspect of the phenomena and the Albanian criminal legislation provisions

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    Aurela Bozo


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of Article 113 of the Albanian Criminal Code on women. This article appears to be gender neutral, but it’s enforcement affects women disproportionately and face them with forms of indirect gender discrimination. Through monitoring of Tirana Judicial District Court’s decisions, with object article 113 of the ACC, “Prostitution”, for a four year period from 2010 through 2013 and interviews with women who have exercised prostitution, there are brought in attention the profiles of the individuals who exercise prostitution and also social aspects of this phenomena. The hypothesis raised in this paper is that the profile of an individual who exercises prostitution is a vulnerable woman, with low education, unemployed, with low income, who is faced with family and social problems. This paper analyses the relation between the social aspects and legal dynamics of article 113 of ACC. The changes of 2012 introduced in the article 113 of the ACC brought sanctions for persons who buy the service of prostitution reflecting the process of social changes and understanding of gender equality. The issue of the next steps to address this phenomenon is analysed in this article too.

  20. 7 CFR 1400.201 - General provisions for determining whether a person or legal entity is actively engaged in farming. (United States)


    ... or legal entity is actively engaged in farming. 1400.201 Section 1400.201 Agriculture Regulations of... person or legal entity is actively engaged in farming. (a) To be considered eligible to receive payments with respect to a particular farming operation, a person or legal entity must be actively engaged in...

  1. Shaping legal abortion provision in Ghana: using policy theory to understand provider-related obstacles to policy implementation. (United States)

    Aniteye, Patience; Mayhew, Susannah H


    Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in Ghana; despite its liberal abortion law, access to safe, legal abortion in public health facilities is limited. Theory is often neglected as a tool for providing evidence to inform better practice; in this study we investigated the reasons for poor implementation of the policy in Ghana using Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucracy to better understand how providers shape and implement policy and how provider-level barriers might be overcome. In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 health professionals of different levels (managers, obstetricians, midwives) at three hospitals in Accra, as well as staff from smaller and private sector facilities. Relevant policy and related documents were also analysed. Findings confirm that health providers' views shape provision of safe-abortion services. Most prominently, providers experience conflicts between their religious and moral beliefs about the sanctity of (foetal) life and their duty to provide safe-abortion care. Obstetricians were more exposed to international debates, treaties, and safe-abortion practices and had better awareness of national research on the public health implications of unsafe abortions; these factors tempered their religious views. Midwives were more driven by fundamental religious values condemning abortion as sinful. In addition to personal views and dilemmas, 'social pressures' (perceived views of others concerning abortion) and the actions of facility managers affected providers' decision to (openly) provide abortion services. In order to achieve a workable balance between these pressures and duties, providers use their 'discretion' in deciding if and when to provide abortion services, and develop 'coping mechanisms' which impede implementation of abortion policy. The application of theory confirmed its utility in a lower-middle income setting and expanded its scope by showing that provider values and attitudes (not just resource

  2. H2 Reconstitution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skipper, Mike


    .... The H2 source is an existing wideband source that was developed at the AFRL. A recent AFRL requirement for a wideband impulse generator to use in materials tests has provided the need to update the H2 source for the current test requirements...

  3. Apology and Spanish Criminal Law at the Post-Sentencing Level: the Gap Between Legal Provisions and Victims and Offenders’ Experiences in Cases of Terrorism

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    Gema Varona


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Spanish provisions in criminal law requesting apology by offenders in organized crime, including terrorism. In order to grant parole, apology is required, among other possible means provided by law, to accredit the abandonment of the ends and means of the terrorist activity. Those legal provisions will be contrasted with the experience and narratives of victims and offenders in cases of terrorism. Final conclusions will be derived in relation to the possibility of restorative apologies in these contexts.Este artículo aborda las provisiones españolas en materia de derecho penal que solicitan la petición de perdón de los delincuentes del crimen organizado, incluyendo el terrorismo. Entre otras medidas posibles que plantea la ley, para obtener la libertad condicional se requiere una disculpa, para acreditar el abandono de los fines y los medios de la actividad terrorista. Estas provisiones legales se contrastarán con la experiencia y las narraciones de víctimas y delincuentes en casos de terrorismo. Se ofrecen conclusiones finales en relación con la posibilidad de disculpas restaurativas en estos contextos.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN:

  4. Training and Regulating those providing Publicly Funded Legal Advice Services\\ud \\ud A Case Study of Civil Provision


    Sanderson, Pete; Sommerlad, Hilary


    This report summarises the results of a two year project funded by the Ministry of Justice, evaluating the impact of regulatory and training regimes on the front line experiences of solicitors and advice agency staff involved in the delivery of publicly funded legal advice. The findings shed light on the impact of contractual regulation on the organization and objectives of private firms and voluntary organizations, and rpovide insight into the nature of work-based learning.

  5. Legal Provisions, Discrimination and Uncertainty on LGBT community in Albania. Laws on human rights vs exerted rights of LGBT persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urjana Curi


    On March 13, 2010, the Anti-Discrimination Law, one of the essential legal instruments that protects human rights in Albania, and also includes the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, came into force. Albania has already the Commissioner for Protection from Discrimination. Two LGBT organizations have already been established in Albania: the Alliance against Discrimination LGBT and LGBT Pro Albania. They aim to protect the rights of sexual minorities in Albania and promote a national movement of social mobilization to protect and promote the rights of this community in Albania

  6. H2@Scale Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark


    'H2@Scale' is a concept based on the opportunity for hydrogen to act as an intermediate between energy sources and uses. Hydrogen has the potential to be used like the primary intermediate in use today, electricity, because it too is fungible. This presentation summarizes the H2@Scale analysis efforts performed during the first third of 2017. Results of technical potential uses and supply options are summarized and show that the technical potential demand for hydrogen is 60 million metric tons per year and that the U.S. has sufficient domestic resources to meet that demand. A high level infrastructure analysis is also presented that shows an 85% increase in energy on the grid if all hydrogen is produced from grid electricity. However, a preliminary spatial assessment shows that supply is sufficient in most counties across the U.S. The presentation also shows plans for analysis of the economic potential for the H2@Scale concept. Those plans involve developing supply and demand curves for potential hydrogen generation options and as compared to other options for use of that hydrogen.

  7. H2 Reconstitution (United States)


    AFRL-DE-TR-2002-1033 AFRL-DE-TR- 2002-1033 H2 RECONSTITUTION Mike Skipper et al. ASR Corporation 7817 Bursera NW Albuquerque, NM 87120 February 2002...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ASR Corporation 7817 Bursera NW Albuquerque, NM 87120 DC-TR-0328.008-1 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME...Albuquerque, NM 87110 1 cy ASR Corporation 7817 Bursera NW Albuquerque, NM 87120 1 cy Jeff Berger AFRL/DEHP Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 1 cy Tyrone Tran AFRL/DEHP Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 1 cy 40


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    Alexander Ponomarev


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the legal model of mediation agreements in Russian and international legislation. The authors consider the main provisions of the mediation agreements in civil matters, in particular, is defined by such features of the legal model as the requirements for this type of agreements. In addition, the article discusses the problematic issues of implementation of mediation agreements.

  9. 75 FR 62429 - Notice of Intent to Award-Grant Awards for the Provision of Civil Legal Services to Eligible Low... (United States)


    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-25245] LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION Notice of Intent to Award--Grant Awards for the... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to LSC's announcement of funding availability on March 17, 2010 (75 FR 12802... Metropolitan 7,439,083 Chicago. MIL Legal Assistance Foundation of Metropolitan 287,402 Chicago. IL-3 Land of...

  10. H2@Scale Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovar, Bryan


    Final report from the H2@Scale Workshop held November 16-17, 2016, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory hosted a technology workshop to identify the current barriers and research needs of the H2@Scale concept. H2@Scale is a concept regarding the potential for wide-scale impact of hydrogen produced from diverse domestic resources to enhance U.S. energy security and enable growth of innovative technologies and domestic industries. Feedback received from a diverse set of stakeholders at the workshop will guide the development of an H2@Scale roadmap for research, development, and early stage demonstration activities that can enable hydrogen as an energy carrier at a national scale.

  11. An Investigation into the Certainty of Provisions Based on Confession and Experts’ Consensual Judgments and Perspectives in Legal Lawsuits in Iranian Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysam Taram


    Full Text Available In legal disputes, in some cases which judges cannot issue verdict due to the specialty of the matter, an expert or more are assigned by court as requested by parties to issue verdict. Now this question arises is that can the verdict issued based on confession and experts’ perspectives be objected by parties? This study seeks an answer to this question by examining Civil Code and verdicts of Supreme Court as well as current literature.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlingher Remus Daniel


    Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.

  13. 36 CFR 1275.14 - Legal custody. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal custody. 1275.14... THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 1275.14 Legal custody. The Archivist of the United States has or will obtain exclusive legal custody and control of all Presidential historical materials of...

  14. Consent: statutory Provisions in Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appreciate the legal significance of consent. "Every human being ... {2} Nothing in this article shall affect the provisions of laws ... (1 A court may, at any stage of a case, order that the accused .... undue influence, incapacitated person is invalid.

  15. Legal education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, A.W.


    This book on Legal Education was written based upon many of the author's experiences as professor and dean. The author noted that there is relatively few literature and research about legal education and felt it was necessary to discuss legal education in present times. The book focuses on many

  16. Test summary for advanced H2 cycle NI-CD cell (United States)

    Miller, Lee


    To improve operational tolerances and mass, the H2 gas recombination design provisions of the Ni-H2 system were incorporated into the sealed Ni-Cd system. Produced is a cell design capable of operating on the H2 cycle versus the normal O2 cycle. Three test cells have now completed approximately 4,330 LEO (90 minute) cycles at 20 percent depth of discharge (DOD). Performance remains stable although one cell exhibited a temporary pressure anomaly.

  17. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar


    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  18. Photolysis of H2O-H2O2 Mixtures: The Destruction of H2O2 (United States)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Fama, M.; Baragiola, R. A.; Carlson, R. W.


    We present laboratory results on the loss of H2O2 in solid H2O + H2O2 mixtures at temperatures between 21 and 145 K initiated by UV photolysis (193 nm). Using infrared spectroscopy and microbalance gravimetry, we measured the decrease of the 3.5 micrometer infrared absorption band during UV irradiation and obtained a photodestruction cross section that varies with temperature, being lowest at 70 K. We use our results, along with our previously measured H2O2 production rates via ionizing radiation and ion energy fluxes from the spacecraft to compare H2O2 creation and destruction at icy satellites by ions from their planetary magnetosphere and from solar UV photons. We conclude that, in many cases, H2O2 is not observed on icy satellite surfaces because the H2O2 photodestruction rate is much higher than the production rate via energetic particles, effectively keeping the H2O2 infrared signature at or below the noise level.

  19. H2A and H2B tails are essential to properly reconstitute nucleosome core particles. (United States)

    Bertin, Aurélie; Durand, Dominique; Renouard, Madalena; Livolant, Françoise; Mangenot, Stéphanie


    The conformation of recombinant Nucleosome Core Particles (NCPs) lacking H2A and H2B histone tails (gH2AgH2B) are studied. The migration of these particles in acrylamide native gels is slowed down compared to intact reconstituted NCPs. gH2AgH2B NCPs are also much more sensitive to nuclease digestion than intact NCPs. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments point out that the absence of H2A and H2B tails produces small but significant conformational changes of the octamers conformation (without wrapped DNA), whereas gH2AgH2B NCP conformations are significantly altered. A separation of about 25-30 bp from the core could account for the experimental curves, but other types of DNA superhelix deformation cannot be excluded. The distorted gH2AgH2B octamer may not allow the correct winding of DNA around the core. The absence of the H2A and H2B tails would further prevent the secondary sliding of the DNA around the core and therefore impedes the stabilisation of the particle. Cryo-electron microscopy on the same particles also shows a detachment of DNA portions from the particle core. The effect is even stronger because the vitrification of the samples worsens the instability of gH2AgH2B NCPs.

  20. H2O2: A Dynamic Neuromodulator (United States)

    Rice, Margaret E.


    Increasing evidence implicates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an intra- and intercellular signaling molecule that can influence processes from embryonic development to cell death. Most research has focused on relatively slow signaling, on the order of minutes to days, via second messenger cascades. However, H2O2 can also mediate subsecond signaling via ion channel activation. This rapid signaling has been examined most thoroughly in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway, which plays a key role in facilitating movement mediated by the basal ganglia. In DA neurons of the substantia nigra, endogenously generated H2O2 activates ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels that inhibit DA neuron firing. In the striatum, H2O2 generated downstream from glutamatergic AMPA receptor activation in medium spiny neurons acts as a diffusible messenger that inhibits axonal DA release, also via KATP channels. The source of dynamically generated H2O2 is mitochondrial respiration; thus, H2O2 provides a novel link between activity and metabolism via KATP channels. Additional targets of H2O2 include transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of H2O2 acting via KATP channels, TRP channel activation is excitatory. This review describes emerging roles of H2O2 as a signaling agent in the nigrostriatal pathway and other basal ganglia neurons. PMID:21666063

  1. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis. (United States)


    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and to implement a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... implementation of its HACCP system. ...

  2. Competition Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: How to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    specific experiences. It addresses issues and makes recommendations of relevance to competition authorities in developing countries, including legal and economic aspects of implementation of regional competition provisions.

  3. The 2014 Budget Act: Selected Legal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo


    Full Text Available The Budget Act for the year 2014 raises legal questions in the context of the provisions of the Constitution as well as the Public Finance Act from 2009. Polish constitutional provisions relating to the state budget may be described as too general. They specify the requirements with regard to the Budget Act only to a limited extent.

  4. Oxygen sensitivity of algal H2- production. (United States)

    Ghirardi, M L; Togasaki, R K; Seibert, M


    Photoproduction of H2 by green algae utilizes electrons originating from the photosynthetic oxidation of water and does not require metabolic intermediates. However, algal hydrogenases are extremely sensitive to O(2), which limits their usefulness in future commercial H2-production systems. We designed an experimental technique for the selection of O2-tolerant, H2-producing variants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii based on the ability of wild-type cells to survive a short (20 min) exposure to metronidazole in the presence of controlled concentrations of O2. The number of survivors depends on the metronidazole concentration, light intensity, preinduction of the hydrogenase, and the presence or absence of O2. Finally, we demonstrate that some of the selected survivors in fact exhibit H2-production capacity that is less sensitive to O2 than the original wild-type population.

  5. Variations in H2O+/H2O ratios toward massive star-forming regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyrowski, F.; van der Tak, F.; Herpin, F.; Baudry, A.; Bontemps, S.; Chavarria, L.; Frieswijk, W.; Jacq, T.; Marseille, M.; Shipman, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Benz, A. O.; Caselli, P.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Liseau, R.; Bachiller, R.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G.; Braine, J.; Bruderer, S.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Doty, S. D.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; de Graauw, Th; Helmich, F.; Herczeg, G. J.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Kristensen, L. E.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago, J.; Saraceno, P.; Tafalla, M.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S.; Yıldız, U. A.; Black, J. H.; Falgarone, E.; Gerin, M.; Roelfsema, P.; Dieleman, P.; Beintema, D.; de Jonge, A.; Whyborn, N.; Stutzki, J.; Ossenkopf, V.


    Early results from the Herschel Space Observatory revealed the water cation H2O+ to be an abundant ingredient of the interstellar medium. Here we present new observations of the H2O and H2O+ lines at 1113.3 and 1115.2 GHz using the Herschel Space Observatory toward a sample of high-mass star-forming

  6. An H2A Histone Isotype, H2ac, Associates with Telomere and Maintains Telomere Integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsin Su

    Full Text Available Telomeres are capped at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and are composed of TTAGGG repeats bound to the shelterin complex. Here we report that a replication-dependent histone H2A isotype, H2ac, was associated with telomeres in human cells and co-immunoprecipitates with telomere repeat factor 2 (TRF2 and protection of telomeres protein 1 (POT1, whereas other histone H2A isotypes and mutations of H2ac did not bind to telomeres or these two proteins. The amino terminal basic domain of TRF2 was necessary for the association with H2ac and for the recruitment of H2ac to telomeres. Depletion of H2ac led to loss of telomeric repeat sequences, the appearance of dysfunctional telomeres, and chromosomal instability, including chromosomal breaks and anaphase bridges, as well as accumulation of telomere-associated DNA damage factors in H2ac depleted cells. Additionally, knockdown of H2ac elicits an ATM-dependent DNA damage response at telomeres and depletion of XPF protects telomeres against H2ac-deficiency-induced G-strand overhangs loss and DNA damage response, and prevents chromosomal instability. These findings suggest that the H2A isotype, H2ac, plays an essential role in maintaining telomere functional integrity.

  7. H2SO4-HNO3-H2O ternary system in the stratosphere (United States)

    Kiang, C. S.; Hamill, P.


    Estimation of the equilibrium vapor pressure over the ternary system H2SO4-HNO3-H2O to study the possibility of stratospheric aerosol formation involving HNO3. It is shown that the vapor pressures for the ternary system H2SO4-HNO3-H2O with weight composition around 70-80% H2SO4, 10-20% HNO3, 10-20% H2O at -50 C are below the order of 10 to the minus 8th mm Hg. It is concluded that there exists more than sufficient nitric acid and water vapor in the stratosphere to participate in ternary system aerosol formation at -50 C. Therefore, HNO3 should be present in stratospheric aerosols, provided that H2SO4 is also present.

  8. Exciting H2 Molecules for Graphene Functionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Line; Bisson, Regis; Balog, Richard


    Hydrogen functionalization of graphene by exposure to vibrationally excited H2 molecules is investigated by combined scanning tunneling microscopy, high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements and density functional theory calculations. The meas......Hydrogen functionalization of graphene by exposure to vibrationally excited H2 molecules is investigated by combined scanning tunneling microscopy, high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements and density functional theory calculations....... The measurements reveal that vibrationally excited H2 molecules dissociatively adsorb on graphene on Ir(111) resulting in nano-patterned hydrogen functionalization structures. Calculations demonstrate that the presence of the Ir surface below the graphene lowers the H2 dissociative adsorption barrier and allows...... for the adsorption reaction at energies well below the dissociation threshold of the H-H bond. The first reacting H2 molecule must contain considerable vibrational energy to overcome the dissociative adsorption barrier. However, this initial adsorption further activates the surface resulting in reduced barriers...

  9. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan


    The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study tw...

  10. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov


    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  11. H2@Scale Resource and Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark


    The 'H2@Scale' concept is based on the potential for wide-scale utilization of hydrogen as an energy intermediate where the hydrogen is produced from low cost energy resources and it is used in both the transportation and industrial sectors. H2@Scale has the potential to address grid resiliency, energy security, and cross-sectoral emissions reductions. This presentation summarizes the status of an ongoing analysis effort to quantify the benefits of H2@Scale. It includes initial results regarding market potential, resource potential, and impacts of when electrolytic hydrogen is produced with renewable electricity to meet the potential market demands. It also proposes additional analysis efforts to better quantify each of the factors.

  12. H2 MAGIE: H2 as a Major Agent to Galaxy Interaction and Evolution (United States)

    Guillard, Pierre


    Spitzer space telescope spectroscopy reveal a new class of H2-luminous galaxies with enhanced H2 line emission, but where star formation is strongly suppressed. This is in sharp contrast with what is observed in standard star forming galaxies. These sources are all in active phases of galaxy evolution (galaxy interactions, AGN feedback, gas accretion in galaxy clusters, etc.). Why is H2 present in violent phases of galaxy evolution? How is the H2 emission powered? Why is the H2 gas inefficient at forming stars? What can we learn from these "H2 galaxies" about galaxy formation? This thesis addresses these questions, and discuss the theoretical and observational perspectives of this work (in particular Herschel and JWST).

  13. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2) (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Chmiel, Alan J.; Eustace, John; LaBarbera, Melissa


    Increment 43 - 44 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  14. EPA H2O Software Tool (United States)

    EPA H2O allows user to: Understand the significance of EGS in Tampa Bay watershed; visually analyze spatial distribution of the EGS in Tampa Bay watershed; obtain map and summary statistics of EGS values in Tampa Bay watershed; analyze and compare potential impacts of development...

  15. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  16. Collisional Quenching of Highly-Excited H2 due to H2 Collisions (United States)

    Wan, Yier; Yang, Benhui H.; Stancil, Phillip C.; Naduvalath, Balakrishnan; Forrey, Robert C.; This work was partially support by Hubble grant HST-AT-13899. We thank Kyle Walkerassistance with vrrmm.


    Collision-induced energy transfer involving H2 molecules are of significant interest, since H2 is the most abundant molecular species in the universe. Collisional de-excitation rate coefficients of the H2-H2 system are necessary to produce accurate models of astrophysical environments. However, accurate calculations of collisional energy transfer are still a challenging problem, especially for highly-excited H2 because a large number of levels must be included in the calculation.Currently, most data are limited to initial rotational levels j up to 8 or initial vibrational levels up to 3. The vast majority of these results involve some form of a reduced-dimensional approach which may be of questionable accuracy. A reliable and accurate four-dimensional PES computed by Patkowski et al. is used in this work along with two quantum scattering programs (MOLSCAT and vrrmm). Another accurate full-dimensional PES has been reported for the H2-H2 system by Hinde.Not all transitions will be explicitly calculated. A zero-energy scaling technique (ZEST) is used to estimate some intermediate transitions from calculated rate coefficients. New inelastic quenching cross section for para-H2+para-H2 collisions with initial level j= 10, 12, 14, 18, 24 are calculated. Calculations for other de-excitation transitions from higher initial levels and collisions involving other spin isomer of hydrogen, ortho-H2+para-H2, ortho-H2+ortho-H2 and para-H2+ortho-H2 are in progress. The coupled- states approximation is also applied to obtain cross sections at high energy.K. Patkowski, et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 094304 (2008).J. M. Hutson and S. Green, MOLSCAT Computer code, v14 (1994).K. Walker, 2013, VRRMM: Vibrational/Rotational Rich Man’s MOLSCAT v3.1.K. Walker, Song, L., Yang, B. H.,et al. 2015, ApJ, \\811,27.S. Green, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 2271 (1975).Flower, D. R., Roueff, E. 1998, J. Phys. B, 31, 2935.T. -G. Lee, N. Balakrishnan, R. C. Forrey, P. C. Stancil, G. Shaw, D. R. Schultz, and G. J

  17. Labour Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants


    Epstein, Gil S


    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  18. Labor Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants


    Epstein, Gil S.


    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  19. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer


    time the work substantiates that law is reluctant to take account of the past decisions of the individuals and institutions they are reviewing. By looking only at the particular decision under review and not calibrating the posture of review on the basis of a history of decisions reviewing courts and other reviewing institutions embody the particularism that is a large part of the American legal tradition. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and educational activity when viewing the issues of legal judgments calibration.

  20. Interactions between metal cations with H 2 in the M-H 2 complexes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interactions between metal cations with H2 in the M+- H2 complexes: Performance of DFT and DFT-D methods ... Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Chukusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Aichi, Japan; Department of Spectroscopy, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 ...

  1. High purity H2/H2O/Ni/SZ electrodes at 500º C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Hansen, Karin Vels; Norrman, Kion


    of stabilized zirconia (SZ) with 10, 13 and 18 mol% yttria and one with 6 mol% scandia plus 4 mol% yttria were studied at open circuit voltage at 400-500 C in mixtures of H2/H2O over 46 days. The polarization resistances (Rp) for all samples increased significantly during the first 10-20 days at 500 C...

  2. H2O Paradox and its Implications on H2O in Moon (United States)

    Zhang, Youxue


    The concentration of H2O in the mantle of a planetary body plays a significant role in the viscosity and partial melting and hence the convection and evolution of the planetary body. Even though the composition of the primitive terrestrial mantle (PTM) is thought to be well known [1-2], the concentration of H2O in PTM remains paradoxial because different methods of estimation give different results [3]: Using H2O/Ce ratio in MORB and OIB and Ce concentration in PTM, the H2O concentration in PTM would be (300÷×1.5) ppm; using mass balance by adding surface water to the mantle [3-4], H2O concentration in PTM would be (900÷×1.3) ppm [2-3]. The inconsistency based on these two seemingly reliable methods is referred to as the H2O paradox [3]. For Moon, H2O contents in the primitive lunar mantle (PLM) estimated from H2O in plagioclase in lunar anorthosite and that from H2O/Ce ratio in melt inclusions are roughly consistent at ˜110 ppm [5-6] even though there is still debate about the volatile depletion trend [7]. One possible solution to the H2O paradox in PTM is to assume that early Earth experienced whole mantle degassing, which lowered the H2O/Ce ratio in the whole mantle but without depleting Ce in the mantle. The second possible solution is that some deep Earth reservoirs with high H2O/Ce ratios have not been sampled by MORB and OIB. Candidates include the transition zone [8] and the D" layer. The third possible solution is that ocean water only partially originated from mantle degassing, but partially from extraterrestrial sources such as comets [9-10]. At present, there is not enough information to determine which scenario is the answer to the H2O paradox. On the other hand, each scenario would have its own implications to H2O in PLM. If the first scenario applies to Moon, because degassed H2O or H2 would have escaped from the lunar surface, the very early lunar mantle could have much higher H2O [11] than that obtained using the H2O/Ce ratio method. The

  3. Electron mass stopping power in H2 (United States)

    Fursa, Dmitry V.; Zammit, Mark C.; Threlfall, Robert L.; Savage, Jeremy S.; Bray, Igor


    Calculations of electron mass stopping power (SP) of electrons in H2 have been performed using the convergent close-coupling method for incident electron energies up to 2000 eV. Convergence of the calculated SP has been established by increasing the size of the close-coupling expansion from 9 to 491 states. Good agreement was found with the SP measurements of Munoz et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 433, 253 (2007), 10.1016/j.cplett.2006.10.114].

  4. Constitutionalism, pluralism and the role of human rights in shaping the relations between legal orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cebulak, Pola


    legal orders. In fact, judges are more and more often faced with cases involving legal provisions that are foreign to their legal orders. Hans Kelsen pointed out that “the power of state is no mystical force concealed behind the state or its law; it is only the effectiveness of the national legal order...

  5. The Polish Budget Act for 2016: Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo


    Full Text Available The article presents the legal content and system of the 2016 Budget Act and the legal significance of its regulations. The Budget Act for 2016 contains three parts: the state budget (general budget, complementary budgets, other legal provisions. The state revenues, expenditure, expenses, salaries, rates of some state levies are determined in the Budget Act. The regulations of the Budget Act relate to the financial activity of government and other parts of the state. The complex Budget Act contains provisions resulting from the many legal acts.

  6. H2@Scale Resource and Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark


    This presentation overviews progress to date on the H2@Scale resource and market analysis work. The work finds, for example, that hydrogen demand of 60 MMT/yr is possible when transportation and industry are considered; resources are available to meet that demand; using renewable resources would reduce emissions and fossil use by over 15%; further impacts are possible when considering synergistic benefits; additional analysis is underway to improve understanding of potential markets and synergistic impacts; and further analysis will be necessary to estimate impacts due to spatial characteristics, feedback effects in the economy, and inertia characteristics.

  7. Refinements in an Mg/MgH2/H2O-Based Hydrogen Generator (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew; Huang, Yuhong


    Some refinements have been conceived for a proposed apparatus that would generate hydrogen (for use in a fuel cell) by means of chemical reactions among magnesium, magnesium hydride, and steam. The refinements lie in tailoring spatial and temporal distributions of steam and liquid water so as to obtain greater overall energy-storage or energy-generation efficiency than would otherwise be possible. A description of the prior art is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the present refinements. The hydrogen-generating apparatus in question is one of two versions of what was called the "advanced hydrogen generator" in "Fuel-Cell Power Systems Incorporating Mg-Based H2 Generators" (NPO-43554), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 1 (January 2009), page 52. To recapitulate: The apparatus would include a reactor vessel that would be initially charged with magnesium hydride. The apparatus would exploit two reactions: The endothermic decomposition reaction MgH2-->Mg + H2, which occurs at a temperature greater than or equal to 300 C, and The exothermic oxidation reaction MgH2 + H2O MgO + 2H2, which occurs at a temperature greater than or equal to 330 C.



    Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ


    The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.

  9. The H2O2-H2O Hypothesis: Extremophiles Adapted to Conditions on Mars? (United States)

    Houtkooper, Joop M.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk


    The discovery of extremophiles on Earth is a sequence of discoveries of life in environments where it had been deemed impossible a few decades ago. The next frontier may be the Martian surface environment: could life have adapted to this harsh environment? What we learned from terrestrial extremophiles is that life adapts to every available niche where energy, liquid water and organic materials are available so that in principle metabolism and propagation are possible. A feasible adaptation mechanism to the Martian surface environment would be the incorporation of a high concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the intracellular fluid of organisms. The H2O2-H2O hypothesis suggests the existence of Martian organisms that have a mixture of H2O2 and H2O instead of salty water as their intracellular liquid (Houtkooper and Schulze-Makuch, 2007). The advantages are that the freezing point is low (the eutectic freezes at 56.5°C) and that the mixture is hygroscopic. This would enable the organisms to scavenge water from the atmosphere or from the adsorbed layers of water molecules on mineral grains, with H2O2 being also a source of oxygen. Moreover, below its freezing point the H2O2-H2O mixture has the tendency to supercool. Hydrogen peroxide is not unknown to biochemistry on Earth. There are organisms for which H2O2 plays a significant role: the bombardier beetle, Brachinus crepitans, produces a 25% H2O2 solution and, when attacked by a predator, mixes it with a fluid containing hydroquinone and a catalyst, which produces an audible steam explosion and noxious fumes. Another example is Acetobacter peroxidans, which uses H2O2 in its metabolism. H2O2 plays various other roles, such as the mediation of physiological responses such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Moreover, most eukaryotic cells contain an organelle, the peroxisome, which mediates the reactions involving H2O2. Therefore it is feasible that in the course of evolution, water-based organisms

  10. Kinetic Energy Distribution of H(2p) Atoms from Dissociative Excitation of H2 (United States)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; Ahmed, Syed M.; Kanik, Isik; Multari, Rosalie


    The kinetic energy distribution of H(2p) atoms resulting from electron impact dissociation of H2 has been measured for the first time with uv spectroscopy. A high resolution uv spectrometer was used for the measurement of the H Lyman-alpha emission line profiles at 20 and 100 eV electron impact energies. Analysis of the deconvolved 100 eV line profile reveals the existence of a narrow line peak and a broad pedestal base. Slow H(2p) atoms with peak energy near 80 meV produce the peak profile, which is nearly independent of impact energy. The wings of H Lyman-alpha arise from dissociative excitation of a series of doubly excited Q(sub 1) and Q(sub 2) states, which define the core orbitals. The fast atom energy distribution peaks at 4 eV.

  11. FLYING-WATER Renewables-H2-H2O TERRAFORMING: PERMANENT Drought(s)-Elimination FOREVER!!! (United States)

    Ertl, G.; Alefeld, G.; Youdelis, W.; Radd, H.; Oertle, G.; Siegel, Edward


    "H2O H2O everywhere; ne'er a drop to drink"[Coleridge(1798)]; now: "H2 H2 everywhere; STILL ne'er a drop to drink": ONLY H2 (or methane CH4) can be FLYING-WATER(F-W) chemical-rain-in-pipelines Hindenberg-effect (H2-UP;H2O-DOWN): {O/H2O}=[16]/[18] 90 % ; O already in air uphill; NO H2O pumping need! In global-warming driven H2O-starved glacial-melting world, rescue is possible ONLY by Siegel [{3rd Intl. Conf. Alt.-Energy }(1980)-vol.5/p.459!!!] Renewables-H2-H2O purposely flexible versatile agile customizable scaleable retrofitable integrated operating-system. Rosenfeld[Science 315,1396(3/9/2007)]-Biello [Sci.Am.(3/9/2007)] crucial geomorph-ology which ONLY maximal-buoyancy H2 can exploit, to again make "Mountains into Fountains", ``upthrust rocks trapping the clouds to precipitate their rain/snow/H2O'': "terraforming"(and ocean-rebasificaton!!!) Siegel proprietary magnetic-hydrogen-valve (MHV) permits H2 flow in already in-ground dense BCC/ferritic-steels pipelines-network (NO new infrastructure) counters Tromp[Science 300,1740(2003)] dire warning of global-pandemics (cancers/ blindness/famine) Hydrogen-economy CATASTROPHIC H2 ozone-layer destruction sobering cavat to dangerous H2-automotion-economy panacea hype!!!

  12. 20 CFR 655.132 - H-2A labor contractor (H-2ALC) filing requirements. (United States)


    ... LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Application for Temporary Employment... applicable Federal, State, or local laws and regulations and must provide, at a minimum, the same vehicle...

  13. Interactions between metal cations with H2 in the M - H2 complexes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cu. +. , Zn. +. ) and H2 molecule have been investigated in detail using dispersion-corrected and -uncorrected double hybrid density functional (DHDF), gradient cor- rected density ... works (MOFs) and zeolites.5 In a recent article6 we have studied the .... term is swapped by the modified Perdew-Wang (mPW) functional of ...

  14. H2O2 space shuttle APU (United States)


    A cryogenic H2-O2 auxiliary power unit (APU) was developed and successfully demonstrated. It has potential application as a minimum weight alternate to the space shuttle baseline APU because of its (1) low specific propellant consumption and (2) heat sink capabilities that reduce the amount of expendable evaporants. A reference system was designed with the necessary heat exchangers, combustor, turbine-gearbox, valves, and electronic controls to provide 400 shp to two aircraft hydraulic pumps. Development testing was carried out first on the combustor and control valves. This was followed by development of the control subsystem including the controller, the hydrogen and oxygen control valves, the combustor, and a turbine simulator. The complete APU system was hot tested for 10 hr with ambient and cryogenic propellants. Demonstrated at 95 percent of design power was 2.25 lb/hp-hr. At 10 percent design power, specific propellant consumption was 4 lb/hp-hr with space simulated exhaust and 5.2 lb/hp-hr with ambient exhaust. A 10 percent specific propellant consumption improvement is possible with some seal modifications. It was demonstrated that APU power levels could be changed by several hundred horsepower in less than 100 msec without exceeding allowable turbine inlet temperatures or turbine speed.

  15. Provisions distributed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin Olsthoorn; Evert Pommer; Michiel Ras; Ab van der Torre; Jean Marie Wildeboer Schut


    Original title: Voorzieningen verdeeld Citizens ‘profit’ from the government when they receive income support because they are unable to generate an income themselves. They also profit when they make use of provisions such as care, support, education, public transport, sport, culture

  16. Legal Coordinator | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Information and Privacy Acts, the provision of ATIP services, and various other activities relating to the management, release and disclosure of sensitive information under the control of IDRC. Also, administering the budget for costs related to the Board, Senior Management, and Legal services is also a key responsibility.

  17. Methodological aspects of breath hydrogen (H2) analysis. Evaluation of a H2 monitor and interpretation of the breath H2 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Kokholm, G; Gudmand-Høyer, E


    The reliability of end-expiratory hydrogen (H2) breath tests were assessed and the significance of some important pitfalls were studied, using a compact, rapid H2-monitor with electrochemical cells. The H2 response was shown to be linear and stable. The reproducibility of the breath collection...... were studied in 10 healthy adults during a 4-month period and they showed very marked inter- and intra-individual variability (16% above 40 p.p.m.). Initial peaks (early, short-lived H2 rises unrelated to carbohydrate malabsorption) were identified in 25% of the breath tests (in 4% above 20 p.......p.m). It is concluded that the technique used for interval sampling of end-expiratory breath samples for H2 concentration gives reliable results. The biological significance of H2 concentration increments can only be evaluated if the limitations of the technical procedures and the individual ability to produce H2...

  18. Phase transition and optoelectronic properties of MgH2 (United States)

    Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.


    In this article, structural and electronic properties of MgH2 have been studied. The aim behind this study was to find out the ground state crystal structure of MgH2. For the purpose, density functional theory (DFT)-based full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) calculations have been performed in three different space groups: P42/mnm (α-MgH2), Pa3 (β-MgH2) and Pbcn (γ-MgH2). It has been found that the ground state structure of MgH2 is α-MgH2. The present study shows that α-MgH2 transforms into γ-MgH2 at a pressure of 0.41 GPa. After further increase in pressure, γ-MgH2 transforms into β-MgH2 at a pressure of 3.67 GPa. The obtained results are in good agreement with previously reported experimental data. In all the studied phases, the behavior of MgH2 is insulating and its optical conductivity is around 6.0 eV. The α-MgH2 and γ-MgH2 are anisotropic materials while β-MgH2 is isotropic in nature.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Bernd SĂULEANU


    Full Text Available The new Civil Code sets provisions regarding the liability of shareholders, organization and functioning of legal entity, annulment of documents issued by the management bodies of the legal entity, company contract, regime of contributions, company types, simple partnership, unlimited, simple limited partnership, with limited liability, joint stock, partnership limited by shares, cooperatives, other type of company.

  20. Political and legal approach to contemporary local democracies collisions` studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Burya


    It has been underlined that heuristic potential of political and legal approach in political science research is based on the possibility to solve genuine issues that contain the means of the legal provision of political institutions and the impact of these institutions on the normative context.

  1. A Transformative Approach to Work Integrated Learning in Legal Education (United States)

    Babacan, Alperhan; Babacan, Hurriyet


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current context, scope and problems in the provision of work-integrated learning (WIL) in legal education and how the adoption transformative pedagogies in WIL which is offered in legal education can foster personal and social transformation in addition to enhancing lawyering skills. The paper…

  2. Histone H2A and H2B are monoubiquitinated at AID-targeted loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen M Borchert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Somatic hypermutation introduces base substitutions into the rearranged and expressed immunoglobulin (Ig variable regions to promote immunity. This pathway requires and is initiated by the Activation Induced Deaminase (AID protein, which deaminates cytidine to produce uracils and UG mismatches at the Ig genes. Subsequent processing of uracil by mismatch repair and base excision repair factors contributes to mutagenesis. While selective for certain genomic targets, the chromatin modifications which distinguish hypermutating from non-hypermutating loci are not defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that AID-targeted loci in mammalian B cells contain ubiquitinated chromatin. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis of a constitutively hypermutating Burkitt's B cell line, Ramos, revealed the presence of monoubiquitinated forms of both histone H2A and H2B at two AID-associated loci, but not at control loci which are expressed but not hypermutated. Similar analysis using LPS activated primary murine splenocytes showed enrichment of the expressed V(H and Sgamma3 switch regions upon ChIP with antibody specific to AID and to monoubiquitinated H2A and H2B. In the mechanism of mammalian hypermutation, AID may interact with ubiquitinated chromatin because confocal immunofluorescence microscopy visualized AID colocalized with monoubiquitinated H2B within discrete nuclear foci. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that monoubiquitinated histones accompany active somatic hypermutation, revealing part of the histone code marking AID-targeted loci. This expands the current view of the chromatin state during hypermutation by identifying a specific nucleosome architecture associated with somatic hypermutation.

  3. Full-dimensional, high-level ab initio potential energy surfaces for H2(H2O) and H2(H2O)2 with application to hydrogen clathrate hydrates. (United States)

    Homayoon, Zahra; Conte, Riccardo; Qu, Chen; Bowman, Joel M


    New, full-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs), obtained using precise least-squares fitting of high-level electronic energy databases, are reported for intrinsic H2(H2O) two-body and H2(H2O)2 three-body potentials. The database for H2(H2O) consists of approximately 44 000 energies at the coupled cluster singles and doubles plus perturbative triples (CCSD(T))-F12a/haQZ (aug-cc-pVQZ for O and cc-pVQZ for H) level of theory, while the database for the three-body interaction consists of more than 36 000 energies at the CCSD(T)-F12a/haTZ (aug-cc-pVTZ for O, cc-pVTZ for H) level of theory. Two precise potentials are based on the invariant-polynomial technique and are compared to computationally faster ones obtained via "purified" symmetrization. All fits use reduced permutational symmetry appropriate for these non-covalent interactions. These intrinsic potentials are employed together with existing ones for H2, H2O, and (H2O)2, to obtain full PESs for H2(H2O) and H2(H2O)2. Properties of these full PESs are presented, including a diffusion Monte Carlo calculation of the zero-point energy and wavefunction, and dissociation energy of the H2(H2O) dimer. These PESs together with an existing one for water clusters are used in a many-body representation of the PES of hydrogen clathrate hydrates, illustrated for H2@(H2O)20. An analysis of this hydrate is presented, including the electronic dissociation energy to remove H2 from the calculated equilibrium structure.

  4. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  5. Hydrogen constituents of the mesosphere inferred from positive ions - H2O, CH4, H2CO, H2O2, and HCN (United States)

    Kopp, E.


    The concentrations in the mesosphere of H2O, CH4, H2CO, H2O2, and HCN were inferred from data on positive ion compositions, obtained from one mid-latitude and four high-latitude rocket flights. The inferred concentrations were found to agree only partially with the ground-based microwave measurements and/or model prediction by Garcia and Solomon (1985). The CH4 concentration was found to vary between 70 and 4 ppb in daytime and 900 and 100 ppbv at night, respectively. Unexpectedly high H2CO concentrations were obtained, with H2CO/H2O ratios between 0.0006 and 0.1, and a mean HCN volume mixing ratio of 6 x 10 to the -10th was inferred.

  6. Analysis list: Suv39h2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Suv39h2 Pluripotent stem cell + mm9

  7. Characterization of the histone H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 isoforms in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helbing Caren C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within chromatin, the histone variant H2A.Z plays a role in many diverse nuclear processes including transcription, preventing the spread of heterochromatin and epigenetic transcriptional memory. The molecular mechanisms of how H2A.Z mediates its effects are not entirely understood. However, it is now known that H2A.Z has two protein isoforms in vertebrates, H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2, which are encoded by separate genes and differ by 3 amino acid residues. Results We report that H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 are expressed across a wide range of human tissues, they are both acetylated at lysine residues within the N-terminal region and they exhibit similar, but nonidentical, distributions within chromatin. Our results suggest that H2A.Z-2 preferentially associates with H3 trimethylated at lysine 4 compared to H2A.Z-1. The phylogenetic analysis of the promoter regions of H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 indicate that they have evolved separately during vertebrate evolution. Conclusions Our biochemical, gene expression, and phylogenetic data suggest that the H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 variants function similarly yet they may have acquired a degree of functional independence.

  8. EERE-SBIR technology transfer opportunity. H2 Safety Sensors for H2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Mariann R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) works in partnership with industry (including small businesses), academia, and DOE's national laboratories to establish fuel cell and hydrogen energy technologies as economically competitive contributors to U.S. transportation needs. The work that is envisioned between the SBIR/STTR grantee and Los Alamos National Laboratory would involve Technical Transfer of Los Alamos Intellectual Property (IP) on Thin-film Mixed Potential Sensor (U.S. Patent 7,264,700) and associated know-how for H2 sensor manufacturing and packaging.

  9. Photo-induced H2 production from a CH3OH-H2O solution at insulator surface

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Rengui; Wang, Xiuli; Jin, Shaoqing; Zhou, Xin; Feng, Zhaochi; Li, Zheng; Shi, Jingying; Zhang, Qiao; Li, Can


    .... However, in this work, we found that a considerable amount of H2 can be generated from a CH3OH-H2O solution at a quartz surface using light with energy far outside the electronic absorbance range...

  10. The Role of Endogenous H(2)S in Cardiovascular Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Nini; Gouliaev, Anja; Aalling, Mathilde


    Recent research has shown that the endogenous gas hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a signalling molecule of considerable biological potential and has been suggested to be involved in a vast number of physiological processes. In the vascular system, H(2)S is synthesized from cysteine by cystathionine......-γ-lyase (CSE) in smooth muscle cells (SMC) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfuresterase (3MST) and CSE in the endothelial cells. In pulmonary and systemic arteries, H(2)S induces relaxation and/or contraction dependent on the concentration of H(2)S, type of vessel and species. H(2)S relaxes SMC through a direct...

  11. Dynamic investigation of the diffusion absorption refrigeration system NH3-H2O-H2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Izzedine Serge Adjibade


    Full Text Available This paper reports on a numerical and experimental study of a diffusion absorption refrigerator. The performance of the system is examined by computer simulation using MATLAB software and Engineering Equations Solver. A dynamic model is developed for each component of the system and solved numerically in order to predict the transient state of the diffusion absorption refrigeration. The experiment set included 0.04 m3 commercial absorption diffusion refrigerator working with the ammonia-water-hydrogen (NH3-H2O-H2 solution. The transient numerical results were validated with the experimental data. The investigations are focused on the dynamic profile of the temperature of each component. The results obtained agree with the experiment; the relative error between numerical and experimental models doesn’t exceed 15% for all temperatures of each component. The increase of the average ambient temperature from 23.04 °C to 32.56 °C causes an increase of the condensation temperature from 29.46 °C to 37.51 °C, and the best evaporation temperature obtained was 3 °C, with an ambient temperature of 23.04 °C. The results show that a minimum starting temperature of 152 °C and 63.8 W electric power are required to initiate the decrease of evaporation temperature.

  12. FLYING-WATER Renewables-H2-H2O TERRAFORMING: PERMANENT ETERNAL Drought(s)-Elimination FOREVER!!! (United States)

    Wignall, J.; Lyons, Marv; Ertl, G.; Alefeld, Georg; Youdelis, W.; Radd, H.; Oertle, G.; Siegel, Edward


    ''H2O H2O everywhere; ne'er a drop to drink''[Coleridge(1798)] now: ''H2 H2 everywhere; STILL ne'er a drop to drink'': ONLY H2 (or methane CH4) can be FLYING-WATER(F-W) chemical-rain-in-pipelines Hindenberg-effect (H2-UP;H2O-DOWN): { ∖{}O/H2O{ ∖}} =[16]/[18] ∖sim 90{ ∖%} O already in air uphill; NO H2O pumping need! In global-warming driven H2O-starved glacial-melting world, rescue is possible ONLY by Siegel [ ∖underline {3rd Intl. Conf. Alt.-Energy }(1980)-vol.5/p.459!!!] Renewables-H2-H2O purposely flexible versatile agile customizable scaleable retrofitable integrated operating-system. Rosenfeld[Science 315,1396(3/9/2007)]-Biello [Sci.Am.(3/9 /2007)] crucial geomorphology which ONLY maximal-buoyancy H2 can exploit, to again make ''Mountains into Fountains'', ``upthrust rocks trapping the clouds to precipitate their rain/snow/H2O'': ''terraforming''(and ocean-rebasificaton!!!) ONLY VIA Siegel[APS March MTGS.:1960s-2000ss) DIFFUSIVE-MAGNETORESISTANCE (DMR) proprietary MAGNETIC-HYDROGEN-VALVE(MHV) ALL-IMPORTANT PRECLUDED RADIAL-diffusion, permitting ONLY AXIAL-H2-BALLISTIC-flow (``G.A''.''/DoE''/''Terrapower''/''Intellectual-Ventures''/ ''Gileland''/ ''Myhrvold''/''Gates'' ``ARCHIMEDES'') in ALREADY IN-ground dense BCC/ferritic-steels pipelines-network (NO new infrastructure) counters Tromp[Science 300,1740(2003)] dire warning of global-pandemics (cancers/ blindness/ famine)

  13. The provision of education for minorities in South Africa | Mothata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of minority rights in education is particularly sensitive in South Africa where members of previously disadvantaged groups regard the demand for minority protection with suspicion. An overview of the literature on the concept minority, legal provisions in international law and the main provisions in South African law ...

  14. 12 CFR 229.51 - General provisions governing substitute checks. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions governing substitute checks... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Substitute Checks § 229.51 General provisions governing substitute checks. (a) Legal equivalence. A substitute check for...

  15. The provision of education for minorities in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    legal provisions relevant to education. Unstructured interviews with a small sample of key informants selected by purposeful sampling elicited additional data to the document analysis. Finally, findings are presented and brief recommendations for educational provision are made. Defining the concept: minority. The issue of ...

  16. Hydrogen polysulfide (H2S n ) signaling along with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO). (United States)

    Kimura, Hideo


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a physiological mediator with various roles, including neuro-modulation, vascular tone regulation, and cytoprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, angiogenesis, and oxygen sensing. Hydrogen polysulfide (H2S n ), which possesses a higher number of sulfur atoms than H2S, recently emerged as a potential signaling molecule that regulates the activity of ion channels, a tumor suppressor, transcription factors, and protein kinases. Some of the previously reported effects of H2S are now attributed to the more potent H2S n . H2S n is produced by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) from 3-mercaptopyruvate (3MP) and is generated by the chemical interaction of H2S with nitric oxide (NO). H2S n sulfhydrates (sulfurates) cysteine residues of target proteins and modifies their activity, whereas H2S sulfurates oxidized cysteine residues as well as reduces cysteine disulfide bonds. This review focuses on the recent progress made in studies concerning the production and physiological roles of H2S n and H2S.

  17. Detectability of H2-Ar and H2-Ne Dimers in Jovian Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Key Minn


    Full Text Available The detection of jovian hydrogen-hydrogen dimers through the clear telluric 2-micron window(Kim et al. 1995, Trafton et al. 1997 suggests possibility to detect noble gases in the form of dimer with hydrogen in jovian atmospheres. Since noble gases do not have spectral structures in the infrared, it has been difficult to derive their abundances in the atmospheres of jovian planets. If there is a significant component of noble gases other than helium in the jovian atmospheres. it might be detected through its dimer spectrum with hydrogen molecule. The relatively sharp spectral structures of hydrogen-argon and hydrogen-neon dimers compared with those of hydrogen-hydrogen dimers are useful for the detection, if an adequate signal-to-noise (S/N is obtained. If we use a large telescope, such as the Keck telescope, with a long exposure time (>24 hours, then H2-Ar spectral structure may be detected.

  18. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard


    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...

  19. Legal and Administrative Language (United States)

    Schwarz, Hans


    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  20. Legally high? Legal considerations of Salvia divinorum. (United States)

    Griffin, O Hayden; Miller, Bryan Lee; Khey, David N


    The legal status of the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum has been rapidly changing. Legal prohibitions on this plant native to Oaxaca, Mexico have emerged at the state level, a phenomenon that has not occurred since the passage of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Included will be a brief description of the plant that has only recently crept into the popular American consciousness, and a review of the different legal mechanisms through which states have controlled the plant and the pending legislation proposing controls. Lastly, the implications of various state laws are discussed.

  1. A potential energy surface for the process H2 + H2O yielding H + H + H2O - Ab initio calculations and analytical representation (United States)

    Schwenke, David W.; Walch, Stephen P.; Taylor, Peter R.


    Extensive ab initio calculations on the ground state potential energy surface of H2 + H2O were performed using a large contracted Gaussian basis set and a high level of correlation treatment. An analytical representation of the potential energy surface was then obtained which reproduces the calculated energies with an overall root-mean-square error of only 0.64 mEh. The analytic representation explicitly includes all nine internal degrees of freedom and is also well behaved as the H2 dissociates; it thus can be used to study collision-induced dissociation or recombination of H2. The strategy used to minimize the number of energy calculations is discussed, as well as other advantages of the present method for determining the analytical representation.

  2. Electron scattering and ionization of H2O; OH, H2O2, HO2 radicals and (H2O)2 dimer (United States)

    Joshipura, Kamalnayan N.; Pandya, Siddharth H.; Mason, Nigel J.


    Water, its dimer and their dissociative products (OH, H2O2, HO2) play an important role in several diverse processes including atmospheric chemistry, radiation induced damage within cellular systems and atmospheric plasmas used in industry. The interaction of electrons with these species is therefore an important collision process but since OH, H2O2 and HO2 are difficult to prepare as isolated experimental targets to date, electron scattering cross sections from such species are lacking in the literature. In this paper we report the results of a semi-empirical method to estimate such cross sections, benchmarking these cross sections against our knowledge of electron scattering from the water monomer. Calculations on HO2, H2O2 and (H2O2)2 are performed with improved Additivity Rules.

  3. Relaxation of H2O from its |04>- vibrational state in collisions with H2O, Ar, H2, N2, and O2 (United States)

    Barnes, Peter W.; Sims, Ian R.; Smith, Ian W. M.


    We report rate coefficients at 293 K for the collisional relaxation of H2O molecules from the highly excited |04>± vibrational states in collisions with H2O, Ar, H2, N2, and O2. In our experiments, the |04>- state is populated by direct absorption of radiation from a pulsed dye laser tuned to ˜719 nm. Evolution of the population in the (|04>±) levels is observed using the combination of a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser, which selectively photolyses H2O(|04>±), and a frequency-doubled dye laser, which observes the OH(v=0) produced by photodissociation via laser-induced fluorescence. The delay between the pulse from the pump laser and those from the photolysis and probe lasers was systematically varied to generate kinetic decays. The rate coefficients for relaxation of H2O(|04>±) obtained from these experiments, in units of cm3 molecule-1 s-1, are: k(H2O)=(4.1±1.2)×10-10, k(Ar)=(4.9±1.1)×10-12, k(H2)=(6.8±1.1)×10-12, k(N2)=(7.7±1.5)×10-12, k(O2)=(6.7±1.4)×10-12. The implications of these results for our previous reports of rate constants for the removal of H2O molecules in selected vibrational states by collisions with H atoms (P. W. Barnes et al., Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 113, 167 (1999) and P. W. Barnes et al., J. Chem. Phys. 115, 4586 (2001).) are fully discussed.

  4. DFT Calculation of IR Absorption Spectra for PCE-nH2O, TCE-nH2O, DCE-nH2O, VC-nH2O for Small and Water-Dominated Molecular Clusters (United States)


    202) 767-2601 Calculations are presented of vibrational absorption spectra for energy minimized structures of PCE-nH2O, TCE-nH2O, DCE-nH2O, and VC...2 Energy- Minimized Structures and Their IR Spectra………………. ………………………...….4 Conclusion...for calculation of absorption spectra is presented. Second, DFT calculations of energy- minimized structures and vibration resonance structure for

  5. Development of immunoaffinity chromatographic method for Ara h 2 isolation. (United States)

    Wu, Zhihua; Zhang, Ying; Zhan, Shaode; Lian, Jun; Zhao, Ruifang; Li, Kun; Tong, Ping; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Chen, Hongbing


    Ara h 2 is considered a major allergen in peanut. Due to the difficulty of separation, Ara h 2 had not been fully studied. Immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column can separate target protein with high selectivity, which made it possible to purify Ara h 2 from different samples. In this study, IAC method was developed to purify Ara h 2 and its effect was evaluated. By coupling polyclonal antibody (pAb) on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B, the column for specific extraction was constructed. The coupling efficiency of the IAC column was higher than 90%, which made the capacity of column reached 0.56 mg per 0.15 g medium (dry weight). The recovery of Ara h 2 ranged from 93% to 100% for different concentrations of pure Ara h 2 solutions in 15 min. After using a column 10 times, about 88% of the column capacity remained. When applied to extract Ara h 2 from raw peanut protein extract and boiled peanut protein extract, the IAC column could recovery 94% and 88% target protein from the mixture. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis confirmed the purified protein was Ara h 2, its purity reached about 90%. Significantly, the IAC column could capture dimer of Ara h 2, which made it feasible to prepared derivative of protein after processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Particulate filtration for sorbent-based H2 storage (United States)

    van Hassel, Bart A.; Karra, Jagadeswara R.


    A method was developed for sizing the particulate filter that can be used inside a sorption-based onboard hydrogen storage system for light-duty vehicles. The method is based on a trade-off between the pressure drop across the particulate filter (during the fill of the H2 storage tank or during its discharge while driving) and the effect of this pressure drop on the usable amount of H2 gas from the H2 storage system. The permeability and filtration efficiency of the particulate filters (in the absence and presence of MOF-5 particulates) was quantified in this study, with an emphasis on meeting DOE's H2 purity requirements.

  7. Relative importance of H2 and H2S as energy sources for primary production in geothermal springs. (United States)

    D'Imperio, Seth; Lehr, Corinne R; Oduro, Harry; Druschel, Greg; Kühl, Michael; McDermott, Timothy R


    Geothermal waters contain numerous potential electron donors capable of supporting chemolithotrophy-based primary production. Thermodynamic predictions of energy yields for specific electron donor and acceptor pairs in such systems are available, although direct assessments of these predictions are rare. This study assessed the relative importance of dissolved H(2) and H(2)S as energy sources for the support of chemolithotrophic metabolism in an acidic geothermal spring in Yellowstone National Park. H(2)S and H(2) concentration gradients were observed in the outflow channel, and vertical H(2)S and O(2) gradients were evident within the microbial mat. H(2)S levels and microbial consumption rates were approximately three orders of magnitude greater than those of H(2). Hydrogenobaculum-like organisms dominated the bacterial component of the microbial community, and isolates representing three distinct 16S rRNA gene phylotypes (phylotype = 100% identity) were isolated and characterized. Within a phylotype, O(2) requirements varied, as did energy source utilization: some isolates could grow only with H(2)S, some only with H(2), while others could utilize either as an energy source. These metabolic phenotypes were consistent with in situ geochemical conditions measured using aqueous chemical analysis and in-field measurements made by using gas chromatography and microelectrodes. Pure-culture experiments with an isolate that could utilize H(2)S and H(2) and that represented the dominant phylotype (70% of the PCR clones) showed that H(2)S and H(2) were used simultaneously, without evidence of induction or catabolite repression, and at relative rate differences comparable to those measured in ex situ field assays. Under in situ-relevant concentrations, growth of this isolate with H(2)S was better than that with H(2). The major conclusions drawn from this study are that phylogeny may not necessarily be reliable for predicting physiology and that H(2)S can dominate over H(2

  8. CFD Recombiner Modelling and Validation on the H2-Par and Kali-H2 Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Mimouni


    Full Text Available A large amount of Hydrogen gas is expected to be released within the dry containment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR, shortly after the hypothetical beginning of a severe accident leading to the melting of the core. According to local gas concentrations, the gaseous mixture of hydrogen, air and steam can reach the flammability limit, threatening the containment integrity. In order to prevent mechanical loads resulting from a possible conflagration of the gas mixture, French and German reactor containments are equipped with passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs which preventively oxidize hydrogen for concentrations lower than that of the flammability limit. The objective of the paper is to present numerical assessments of the recombiner models implemented in CFD solvers NEPTUNE_CFD and Code_Saturne. Under the EDF/EPRI agreement, CEA has been committed to perform 42 tests of PARs. The experimental program named KALI-H2, consists checking the performance and behaviour of PAR. Unrealistic values for the gas temperature are calculated if the conjugate heat transfer and the wall steam condensation are not taken into account. The combined effects of these models give a good agreement between computational results and experimental data.

  9. Improved photobiological H2 production in engineered green algal cells. (United States)

    Kruse, Olaf; Rupprecht, Jens; Bader, Klaus-Peter; Thomas-Hall, Skye; Schenk, Peer Martin; Finazzi, Giovanni; Hankamer, Ben


    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms use solar energy to split water (H2O) into protons (H+), electrons (e-), and oxygen. A select group of photosynthetic microorganisms, including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, has evolved the additional ability to redirect the derived H+ and e- to drive hydrogen (H2) production via the chloroplast hydrogenases HydA1 and A2 (H2 ase). This process occurs under anaerobic conditions and provides a biological basis for solar-driven H2 production. However, its relatively poor yield is a major limitation for the economic viability of this process. To improve H2 production in Chlamydomonas, we have developed a new approach to increase H+ and e- supply to the hydrogenases. In a first step, mutants blocked in the state 1 transition were selected. These mutants are inhibited in cyclic e- transfer around photosystem I, eliminating possible competition for e- with H2ase. Selected strains were further screened for increased H2 production rates, leading to the isolation of Stm6. This strain has a modified respiratory metabolism, providing it with two additional important properties as follows: large starch reserves (i.e. enhanced substrate availability), and a low dissolved O2 concentration (40% of the wild type (WT)), resulting in reduced inhibition of H2ase activation. The H2 production rates of Stm6 were 5-13 times that of the control WT strain over a range of conditions (light intensity, culture time, +/- uncoupler). Typically, approximately 540 ml of H2 liter(-1) culture (up to 98% pure) were produced over a 10-14-day period at a maximal rate of 4 ml h(-1) (efficiency = approximately 5 times the WT). Stm6 therefore represents an important step toward the development of future solar-powered H2 production systems.

  10. Dementia and legal competency. (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven


    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  11. Molecular adsorption of H2 on small cationic nickel clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837652; Gruene, P.; Fielicke, A.; Meijer, G.; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397; de Groot, F.M.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X


    The adsorption of H2 on metal clusters is of interest in several fields, including metallurgy, catalysis and hydrogen storage. Hydrogen interacting with small Ni clusters is of special interest, as Ni is widely used as a hydrogenation catalyst. In general, reactions of H2 with extended Ni surfaces

  12. H2O Formation in C-rich AGB Winds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, R.; Decin, L.; Royer, P.; de Koter, A.; Cox, N.L.J.; De Ridder, J.; Khouri, T.; Agúndez, M.; Blommaert, J.A.D.L.; Gernicharo, J.; González-Alfonso, E.; Groenewegen, M.A.T.; Kerschbaum, F.; Neufeld, D.; Vandenbussche, B.; Waelkens, C.


    The Herschel detection of warm H2O vapor emission from C-rich winds of AGB stars challenges the current understanding of circumstellar chemistry. Two mechanisms have been invoked to explain warm H2O formation. In the first, penetration of UV interstellar radiation through a clumpy circumstellar

  13. Reining in H2O2 for Safe Signaling


    Planson, Anne-Gaëlle; Delaunay‐Moisan, Agnès


    Mammalian cells use hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) not only to kill invading pathogens, but also as a signaling modulator. Woo et al. (2010) now show that the local inactivation of a H(2)O(2)-degrading enzyme ensures that the production of this oxidant is restricted to the signaling site.

  14. Dissociation path for H2 on Al(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    The minimum energy path is calculated for an H2 molecule dissociating on an Al(110) surface within local density functional theory. The properties of the potential energy surface along the five H2 ionic coordinates perpendicular to the reaction path are also determined and shown to be essential f...

  15. Hormetic Effect of H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna M. Semchyshyn PhD


    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relationship between target of rapamycin (TOR and H2O2-induced hormetic response in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose or fructose. In general, our data suggest that: (1 hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 induces hormesis in a TOR-dependent manner; (2 the H2O2-induced hormetic dose–response in yeast depends on the type of carbohydrate in growth medium; (3 the concentration-dependent effect of H2O2 on yeast colony growth positively correlates with the activity of glutathione reductase that suggests the enzyme involvement in the H2O2-induced hormetic response; and (4 both TOR1 and TOR2 are involved in the reciprocal regulation of the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glyoxalase 1.

  16. Allogeneic H-2 antigen expression is insufficient for tumor rejection. (United States)

    Cole, G A; Cole, G A; Clements, V K; Garcia, E P; Ostrand-Rosenberg, S


    Murine A strain (KkDdLd) sarcoma I (SaI) tumor cells have been transfected with a cloned H-2Kb gene. The resulting clones (SKB clones) stably express high levels of a molecule that is serologically and biochemically indistinguishable from the H-2Kb antigen. SKB clones are not susceptible to cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated lysis by H-2Kb-specific bulk, cloned, or H-2Kb-restricted lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-specific effectors. Survival times of A/J and B10.A mice challenged i.p. with the H-2Kb-expressing transfectants and the parental SaI cells are similar, suggesting that the presence of an allogeneic major histocompatibility complex class I antigen on the surface of this tumor line is insufficient for tumor rejection.

  17. H2, CO, and dust absorption through cold molecular clouds (United States)

    Lacy, John H.; Sneden, Chris; Kim, Hwihyun; Jaffe, Daniel Thomas


    We have made observations with IGRINS on the Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory of near-infrared absorption by H2, CO, and dust toward stars behind molecular clouds, primarily the TMC. Prior to these observations, the abundance of H2 in molecular clouds, relative to the commonly used tracer CO, had only been measured toward a few embedded stars, which may be surrounded by atypical gas. The new observations provide a representative sample of these molecules in cold molecular gas. We find N(H2)/Av ~ 0.9e+21, N(CO)/Av ~ 1.6e+17, and H2/CO ~ 6000. The measured H2/CO ratio is consistent with that measured toward embedded stars in various molecular clouds, but half that derived from mm-wave observations of CO emission and star counts or other determinations of Av.

  18. Polysulfides Link H2S to Protein Thiol Oxidation (United States)

    Greiner, Romy; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Bäsell, Katrin; Becher, Dörte; Antelmann, Haike; Nagy, Péter


    Abstract Aims: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is suggested to act as a gaseous signaling molecule in a variety of physiological processes. Its molecular mechanism of action was proposed to involve protein S-sulfhydration, that is, conversion of cysteinyl thiolates (Cys-S−) to persulfides (Cys-S-S−). A central and unresolved question is how H2S—that is, a molecule with sulfur in its lowest possible oxidation state (−2)—can lead to oxidative thiol modifications. Results: Using the lipid phosphatase PTEN as a model protein, we find that the “H2S donor” sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) leads to very rapid reversible oxidation of the enzyme in vitro. We identify polysulfides formed in NaHS solutions as the oxidizing species, and present evidence that sulfane sulfur is added to the active site cysteine. Polysulfide-mediated oxidation of PTEN was induced by all “H2S donors” tested, including sodium sulfide (Na2S), gaseous H2S, and morpholin-4-ium 4-methoxyphenyl(morpholino) phosphinodithioate (GYY4137). Moreover, we show that polysulfides formed in H2S solutions readily modify PTEN inside intact cells. Innovation: Our results shed light on the previously unresolved question of how H2S leads to protein thiol oxidation, and suggest that polysulfides formed in solutions of H2S mediate this process. Conclusion: This study suggests that the effects that have been attributed to H2S in previous reports may in fact have been mediated by polysulfides. It also supports the notion that sulfane sulfur rather than sulfide is the actual in vivo agent of H2S signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1749–1765. PMID:23646934

  19. A novel H2S/H2O2 fuel cell operating at the room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanli, Ayse Elif [Gazi University (Turkey)], email:; Aytac, Aylin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Gazi University, Teknikokullar (Turkey)], email:


    This study concerns the oxidation mechanism of hydrogen sulfide and a fuel cell; acidic peroxide is used as the oxidant and basic hydrogen sulfide is the fuel. A solid state H2S/H2O2 stable fuel cell was produced at room temperature. A cell potential of 0.85 V was reached; this is quite remarkable in comparison to the H2S/O2 fuel cell potential of 0.85 V obtained at 850-1000 degree celsius. The hydrogen sulfide goes through an oxidation reaction in the alkaline fuel cell (H2S/H2O2 fuel cell) which opens up the possibility of using the cheaper nickel as a catalyst. As a result, the fuel cell becomes a potentially low cost technology. A further benefit from using H2S as the alkaline liquid H2S/H2O2 fuel cell, is that sulfide ions are oxidized at the anode, releasing electrons. Sulfur produced reacts with the other sulfide ions and forms disulfide and polysulfide ions in basic electrolytes (such as Black Sea water).

  20. H2 separation using defect-free, inorganic composite membranes. (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Funke, Hans H; Noble, Richard D; Falconer, John L


    Defect-free, microporous Al(2)O(3)/SAPO-34 zeolite composite membranes were prepared by coating hydrothermally grown zeolite membranes with microporous alumina using molecular layer deposition. These inorganic composite membranes are highly efficient for H(2) separation: their highest H(2)/N(2) mixture selectivity was 1040, in contrast with selectivities of 8 for SAPO-34 membranes. The composite membranes were selective for H(2) for temperatures up to at least 473 K and feed pressures up to at least 1.5 MPa; at 473 K and 1.5 MPa, the H(2)/N(2) separation selectivity was 750. The H(2)/CO(2) separation selectivity was lower than the H(2)/N(2) selectivity and decreased slightly with increasing pressure; the selectivity was 20 at 473 K and 1.5 MPa. The high H(2) selectivity resulted either because most of the pores in the Al(2)O(3) layer were slightly smaller than 0.36 nm (the kinetic diameter of N(2)) or because the Al(2)O(3) layer slightly narrowed the SAPO-34 pore entrance. These composite membranes may represent a new class of inorganic membranes for gas separation.

  1. Pyruvate Protects Pathogenic Spirochetes from H2O2 Killing (United States)

    Troxell, Bryan; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Bourret, Travis J.; Zeng, Melody Yue; Blum, Janice; Gherardini, Frank; Hassan, Hosni M.; Yang, X. Frank


    Pathogenic spirochetes cause clinically relevant diseases in humans and animals, such as Lyme disease and leptospirosis. The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the causative agent of leptospirosis, Leptospria interrogans, encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their enzootic cycles. This report demonstrated that physiologically relevant concentrations of pyruvate, a potent H2O2 scavenger, and provided passive protection to B. burgdorferi and L. interrogans against H2O2. When extracellular pyruvate was absent, both spirochetes were sensitive to a low dose of H2O2 (≈0.6 µM per h) generated by glucose oxidase (GOX). Despite encoding a functional catalase, L. interrogans was more sensitive than B. burgdorferi to H2O2 generated by GOX, which may be due to the inherent resistance of B. burgdorferi because of the virtual absence of intracellular iron. In B. burgdorferi, the nucleotide excision repair (NER) and the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathways were important for survival during H2O2 challenge since deletion of the uvrB or the mutS genes enhanced its sensitivity to H2O2 killing; however, the presence of pyruvate fully protected ΔuvrB and ΔmutS from H2O2 killing further demonstrating the importance of pyruvate in protection. These findings demonstrated that pyruvate, in addition to its classical role in central carbon metabolism, serves as an important H2O2 scavenger for pathogenic spirochetes. Furthermore, pyruvate reduced ROS generated by human neutrophils in response to the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist zymosan. In addition, pyruvate reduced neutrophil-derived ROS in response to B. burgdorferi, which also activates host expression through TLR2 signaling. Thus, pathogenic spirochetes may exploit the metabolite pyruvate, present in blood and tissues, to survive H2O2 generated by the host antibacterial response generated during infection. PMID:24392147

  2. H2 metabolism in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas capsulata: production and utilization of H2 by resting cells. (United States)

    Hillmer, P; Gest, H


    Photoproduction of H2 and activation of H2 for CO2 reduction (photoreduction) by Rhodopseudomonas capsulata are catalyzed by different enzyme systems. Formation of H2 from organic compounds is mediated by nitrogenase and is nto inhibited by an atmosphere of 99% H2. Cells grown photoheterotrophically on C4 dicarboxylic acids (with glutamate as N source) evolve H2 from the C4 acids and also from lactate and pyruvate; cells grown on C3 carbon sources, however, are inactive with the C4 acids, presumably because they lack inducible transport systems. Ammonia is known to inhibit N2 fixation by photosynthetic bacteria, and it also effectively prevents photoproduction of H2; these effects are due to inhibition and, in part, inactivation of nitrogenase. Biosynthesis of the latter, as measured by both H2 production and acetylene reduction assays, is markedly increased when cells are grown at high light intensity; synthesis of the photoreduction system, on the other hand, is not appreciably influenced by light intensity during photoheterotrophic growth. The photoreduction activity of cells grown on lactate + glutamate (which contain active nitrogenase) is greatly activated by NH4+, but this effect is not observed in cells grown with NH4+ as N source (nitrogenase repressed) or in a Nif- mutant that is unable to produce H2. Lactate, malate, and succinate, which are readily used as growth substrates by R. capsulata and are excellent H donors for photoproduction of H2, abolish photoreduction activity. The physiological significances of this phenomenon and of the reciprocal regulatory effects of NH4+ on H2 production and photoreduction are discussed.

  3. Histamine H2 receptor - Involvement in gastric ulceration (United States)

    Brown, P. A.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Brown, T. H.


    The involvement of the H1 and H2 receptors for histamine in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers was investigated in rats. Metiamide, an H2 receptor antagonist, reliably reduced ulceration produced by stress alone or by a combination of stress and aspirin. In contrast, pyrilamine, which blocks only the H1 receptor, was without effect under these same conditions. The results support the hypothesis that histamine mediates both stress and stress plus aspirin induced ulceration by a mechanism involving the H2 receptor.

  4. The role of H2 antagonists in perennial allergic rhinitis. (United States)

    Testa, B; Mesolella, C; Filippini, P; Campagnano, N; Testa, D; Mesolella, M; Sagnelli, E


    The biological effects of anti-H2 in allergic reactions are dose dependent: low doses enhance, and high doses significantly decrease the reaction of hypersensitivity. The administration of cimetidine H2 antagonist to 20 perennial allergic rhinitis patients brought about an abatement in the symptoms and a decrease in the total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in 72% of treated patients, but no variation was perceived in placebo-treated patients. These results strengthen the hypothesis of anti-H2-induced immunoregulatory effects and suggest a possible way of inhibiting IgE synthesis in vivo.

  5. A global potential energy surface for ArH2 (United States)

    Schwenke, David W.; Walch, Stephen P.; Taylor, Peter R.


    We describe a simple analytic representation of the ArH2 potential energy surface which well reproduces the results of extensive ab initio electronic structure calculations. The analytic representation smoothly interpolates between the dissociated H2 and strong bonding limits. In the fitting process, emphasis is made on accurately reproducing regions of the potential expected to be important for high temperature (ca. 3000 K) collision processes. Overall, the anisotropy and H2 bond length dependence of the analytic representation well reproduce the input data.

  6. A comparison of ice VII formed in the H2O, NaCl-H2O, and CH3OH-H2O systems: Implications for H2O-rich planets (United States)

    Frank, Mark R.; Aarestad, Elizabeth; Scott, Henry P.; Prakapenka, Vitali B.


    High-pressure H2O polymorphs, namely ice VI, ice VII, and ice X, are hypothesized to make up a considerable portion of the interiors of large icy satellites and select extra-solar planets. The incorporation of foreign ions or molecules into these high-pressure phases is possible through ocean-ice interaction, rock-ice interaction at depth, or processes that occurred during accretion. Recent research concerning the effects charged ions have on ice VII has shown that these ions notably affect the structure of ice VII (Frank et al., 2006; Klotz et al., 2009). This study was designed to determine the effects of a molecular impurity on ice VII and compare those effects to both pure H2O ice and ice with an ionic impurity. Ice samples were formed in this study via compression in a diamond anvil cell from either H2O, a 1.60 mol% NaCl aqueous solution, a 1.60 mol% CH3OH aqueous solution, or a 5.00 mol% CH3OH aqueous solution and were compressed up to 71 GPa at room temperature. Ice formed from pure H2O had no impurities whereas ices formed in the NaCl-H2O and CH3OH-H2O systems contained the impurities Na+ and Cl- and CH3OH, respectively. Pressure-volume relations were observed in situ by using synchrotron based X-ray diffraction and were used to determine the equations of state for ices formed in the H2O, NaCl-H2O and CH3OH-H2O systems. The data illustrate that ice VII formed from a NaCl-bearing aqueous solution exhibited a depressed volume when compared to that of H2O-only ice VII at any given pressure, whereas ice VII formed from CH3OH-bearing aqueous solutions showed an opposite trend, with an increase in volume relative to that of pure ice VII. The ices within planetary bodies will most likely have both ionic and molecular impurities and the trends outlined in this study can be used to improve density profiles of H2O-rich planetary bodies.

  7. Consequences of legalizing marijuana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorman, Linda


    ... states to examine the effect of legalizing medical marijuana. They find that legalization increased both marijuana use and marijuana abuse/ dependence in people 21 or older. It was also associated with an increase in adult binge drinking, defined as the number of days on which an individual had five or more drinks on the same occasion in the l...

  8. Spatial H2O2 signaling specificity: H2O2 from chloroplasts and peroxisomes modulates the plant transcriptome differentially. (United States)

    Sewelam, Nasser; Jaspert, Nils; Van Der Kelen, Katrien; Tognetti, Vanesa B; Schmitz, Jessica; Frerigmann, Henning; Stahl, Elia; Zeier, Jürgen; Van Breusegem, Frank; Maurino, Veronica G


    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) operates as a signaling molecule in eukaryotes, but the specificity of its signaling capacities remains largely unrevealed. Here, we analyzed whether a moderate production of H2O2 from two different plant cellular compartments has divergent effects on the plant transcriptome. Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing glycolate oxidase in the chloroplast (Fahnenstich et al., 2008; Balazadeh et al., 2012) and plants deficient in peroxisomal catalase (Queval et al., 2007; Inzé et al., 2012) were grown under non-photorespiratory conditions and then transferred to photorespiratory conditions to foster the production of H2O2 in both organelles. We show that H2O2 originating in a specific organelle induces two types of responses: one that integrates signals independently from the subcellular site of H2O2 production and another that is dependent on the H2O2 production site. H2O2 produced in peroxisomes induces transcripts involved in protein repair responses, while H2O2 produced in chloroplasts induces early signaling responses, including transcription factors and biosynthetic genes involved in production of secondary signaling messengers. There is a significant bias towards the induction of genes involved in responses to wounding and pathogen attack by chloroplastic-produced H2O2, including indolic glucosinolates-, camalexin-, and stigmasterol-biosynthetic genes. These transcriptional responses were accompanied by the accumulation of 4-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate and stigmasterol. © The Author 2014. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  9. The interstellar chemistry of H2C3O isomers. (United States)

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Agúndez, Marcelino; Marcelino, Núria; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M; Cernicharo, José; Gerin, Maryvonne; Roueff, Evelyne; Guélin, Michel


    We present the detection of two H2C3O isomers, propynal and cyclopropenone, toward various starless cores and molecular clouds, together with upper limits for the third isomer propadienone. We review the processes controlling the abundances of H2C3O isomers in interstellar media showing that the reactions involved are gas-phase ones. We show that the abundances of these species are controlled by kinetic rather than thermodynamic effects.

  10. The issue of euthanasia in Greece from a legal viewpoint. (United States)

    Voultsos, Polichronis; Njau, Samuel N; Vlachou, Maria


    Modern Greek society appears to be split regarding the legalization of euthanasia. The Greek Orthodox Church maintains a negative attitude. Research shows that some forms of euthanasia are carried out "behind closed doors". There is no specific legal provision. The government avoids bearing the political cost of regulating this marginal issue. According to the dominant view of Criminal Law jurists, some forms of euthanasia are considered permissible de lege lata, under certain conditions. The safety of the concurrence of these conditions, safeguarding of the acceptability of forms that are considered permissible and - mostly - the need to regulate the prohibited forms in exceptional cases, all force the legislators to promptly fill any legal vacuums.

  11. Double strand break repair functions of histone H2AX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scully, Ralph, E-mail:; Xie, Anyong


    Chromosomal double strand breaks provoke an extensive reaction in neighboring chromatin, characterized by phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine 139 of its C-terminal tail (to form “γH2AX”). The γH2AX response contributes to the repair of double strand breaks encountered in a variety of different contexts, including those induced by ionizing radiation, physiologically programmed breaks that characterize normal immune cell development and the pathological exposure of DNA ends triggered by telomere dysfunction. γH2AX also participates in the evolutionarily conserved process of sister chromatid recombination, a homologous recombination pathway involved in the suppression of genomic instability during DNA replication and directly implicated in tumor suppression. At a biochemical level, the γH2AX response provides a compelling example of how the “histone code” is adapted to the regulation of double strand break repair. Here, we review progress in research aimed at understanding how γH2AX contributes to double strand break repair in mammalian cells.

  12. H2S Hazard on ODP Leg 146 (United States)

    Francis, T. J. G.; Olivas, R. E.

    On the Ocean Drilling Program's Leg 146, extremely high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were encountered in cores acquired from the top 17 m of the sedimentary section at Site 892, in 674-m water depth off the coast of Oregon. The amount of H2S given off by these cores on the deck of the drill ship was sufficient to create a safety hazard and, if improperly handled, could have administered a lethal dose. The purpose of this article is to warn the scientific community of the dangers of handling this naturally occurring material.The cores were several orders of magnitude richer in H2S than any previously recovered by DSDP/ODP in 25 years of scientific ocean drilling. Gas hydrates were recovered from the same interval, and it is possible that the H2S may have been stored in a hydrate structure. The cores were split and allowed to degas in the open air before being taken into the ship's laboratory. ODP technical staff handling the cores wore breathing apparatus and used hand-held H2S detector instruments. Key personnel on the drill ship are regularly trained in the hazards of H2S, which is commonly encountered in oil and gas drilling.

  13. Prohibition as ontological basis of the Russian legal reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov


    Full Text Available Objective to identify characteristics of the nature content and functioning of prohibition in the legal reality of Russia. nbsp Methods the methodological basis of research is the dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors as well as a postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutic discursive. Results the paper proposes a definition of prohibition as a state socio volitional constraining limiting means that under the threat of legal liability is intended to prevent the wrongful act of the subject physical or legal entity and ensure the maintenance of law and order. Prohibition is a necessary means of ensuring the discipline of public relations and the consolidation of legal values designed to assure the effectiveness of legal regulation. Scientific novelty for the first time the article shows that prohibition as a legal category is the ontological basis of legal reality and acts as a determining factor in the content and focus not only of lawmaking and law enforcement but legal behavior as well. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching when considering questions about the nature content and functioning of prohibitions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Gołaś


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to present legal basis and guarantees of the farmers’ trade unions’ functioning in Poland. The presented research was based on a thorough examination of national legal acts, which constitute both legal background and foundation of farmer’s unions’ activities and internal structure. The author tries to introduce both the individual legal and system guarantees which are dedicated to farmers’ organization and which exact acts shall be considered as the direct legal basis of the guarantees. Having regard to the fact that even the Polish Constitution introduces transparent and direct legal frameworks for functioning of farmers’ trade unions, the author intends to prove that individual farmers’ unions’ operations should be considered as a fundamental and basic feature of the national agricultural system. The presented work should be also considered as thorough examination of legal provisions presented in the Act on individual farmers’ trade unions of 7th April 1989 (Ustawa…, 2015b, which is direct legal basis for functioning guarantees of the agricultural unions. The author shows how the Act is governing such fundamental issues as creation, registration, liquidation or legal operational guarantees of each individual farmers’ trade unions operating under the Act.

  15. Molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles. (United States)

    Bond, S W; Alvarez, R; Vollmer, M K; Steinbacher, M; Weilenmann, M; Reimann, S


    This study assesses individual-vehicle molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions in exhaust gas from current gasoline and diesel vehicles measured on a chassis dynamometer. Absolute H2 emissions were found to be highest for motorcycles and scooters (141+/-38.6 mg km(-1)), approximately 5 times higher than for gasoline-powered automobiles (26.5+/-12.1 mg km(-1)). All diesel-powered vehicles emitted marginal amounts of H2 ( approximately 0.1 mg km(-1)). For automobiles, the highest emission factors were observed for sub-cycles subject to a cold-start (mean of 53.1+/-17.0 mg km(-1)). High speeds also caused elevated H2 emission factors for sub-cycles reaching at least 150 km h(-1) (mean of 40.4+/-7.1 mg km(-1)). We show that H2/CO ratios (mol mol(-1)) from gasoline-powered vehicles are variable (sub-cycle means of 0.44-5.69) and are typically higher (mean for automobiles 1.02, for 2-wheelers 0.59) than previous atmospheric ratios characteristic of traffic-influenced measurements. The lowest mean individual sub-cycle ratios, which correspond to high absolute emissions of both H2 and CO, were observed during cold starts (for automobiles 0.48, for 2-wheelers 0.44) and at high vehicle speeds (for automobiles 0.73, for 2-wheelers 0.45). This finding illustrates the importance of these conditions to observed H2/CO ratios in ambient air. Overall, 2-wheelers displayed lower H2/CO ratios (0.48-0.69) than those from gasoline-powered automobiles (0.75-3.18). This observation, along with the lower H2/CO ratios observed through studies without catalytic converters, suggests that less developed (e.g. 2-wheelers) and older vehicle technologies are largely responsible for the atmospheric H2/CO ratios reported in past literature. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemistry of energetically activated cumulenes - from allene (H2CCCH2) to hexapentaene (H2CCCCCCH2). (United States)

    Gu, Xibin; Kaiser, Ralf I; Mebel, Alexander M


    During the last decade, experimental and theoretical studies on the unimolecular decomposition of cumulenes (H(2)C(n)H(2)) from propadiene (H(2)CCCH(2)) to hexapentaene (H(2)CCCCCCH(2)) have received considerable attention due to the importance of these carbon-bearing molecules in combustion flames, chemical vapor deposition processes, atmospheric chemistry, and the chemistry of the interstellar medium. Cumulenes and their substituted counterparts also have significant technical potential as elements for molecular machines (nanomechanics), molecular wires (nano-electronics), nonlinear optics, and molecular sensors. In this review, we present a systematic overview of the stability, formation, and unimolecular decomposition of chemically, photo-chemically, and thermally activated small to medium-sized cumulenes in extreme environments. By concentrating on reactions under gas phase thermal conditions (pyrolysis) and on molecular beam experiments conducted under single-collision conditions (crossed beam and photodissociation studies), a comprehensive picture on the unimolecular decomposition dynamics of cumulenes transpires.

  17. Kinetics of oxidation of H2 and reduction of H2O in Ni-YSZ based solid oxide cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    Reduction of H2O and oxidation of H2 was studied in a Ni-YSZ electrode supported Solid Oxide Cells produced at DTU Energy conversion (former Risø DTU). Polarisation (i-V) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic characterisation show that the kinetics for reduction of H 2O is slower compared...... to oxidation of H2. The kinetic differences cannot be explained by the reaction mechanisms which are similar in the two cases but are rather an effect of the thermodynamics. The preliminary analysis performed in this study show that the slow kinetic for reduction is partly related to the endothermic nature...... of the reaction, cooling the active electrode, thereby leading to slower kinetics at low current densities. Likewise, the increased kinetic for oxidation was found to be related to the exothermic nature of the reaction, heating the active electrode, and thereby leading to faster kinetics. At higher current...

  18. 13 CFR 107.20 - Legal basis and applicability of this part 107. (United States)


    ... BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Introduction to Part 107 § 107.20 Legal basis and applicability of this part... valuation guidelines for Licensees. (b) Provisions of this part which are not mandated by the Act shall not...

  19. Destruction and Sequestration of H2O on Mars (United States)

    Clark, Benton


    The availability of water in biologically useable form on any planet is a quintessential resource, even if the planet is in a zone habitable with temperature regimes required for growth of organisms (above -18 °C). Mars and most other planetary objects in the solar system do not have sufficient liquid water at their surfaces that photosynthesis or chemolithoautotrophic metabolism could occur. Given clear evidence of hydrous mineral alteration and geomorphological constructs requiring abundant supplies of liquid water in the past, the question arises whether this H2O only became trapped physically as ice, or whether there could be other, more or less accessible reservoirs that it has evolved into. Salts containing S or Cl appear to be ubiquitous on Mars, having been measured in soils by all six Mars landed missions, and detected in additional areas by orbital investigations. Volcanoes emit gaseous H2S, S, SO2, HCl and Cl2. A variety of evidence indicates the geochemical fate of these gases is to be transformed into sulfates, chlorides, chlorates and perchlorates. Depending on the gas, the net reaction causes the destruction of between one and up to eight molecules of H2O per atom of S or Cl (although hydrogen atoms are also released, they are lost relatively rapidly to atmospheric escape). Furthermore, the salt minerals formed often incorporate H2O into their crystalline structures, and can result in the sequestration of up to yet another six (sometimes, more) molecules of H2O. In addition, if the salts are microcrystalline or amorphous, they are potent adsorbents for H2O. In certain cases, they are even deliquescent under martian conditions. Finally, the high solubility of the vast majority of these salts (with notable exception of CaSO4) can result in dense brines with low water activity, aH, as well as cations which can be inimical to microbial metabolism, effectively "poisoning the well." The original geologic materials on Mars, igneous rocks, also provide some

  20. Evaluation of multivalent H2 influenza pandemic vaccines in mice. (United States)

    Lenny, Brian J; Sonnberg, Stephanie; Danner, Angela F; Friedman, Kimberly; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Jones, Jeremy C


    Subtype H2 Influenza A viruses were the cause of a severe pandemic in the winter of 1957. However, this subtype no longer circulates in humans and is no longer included in seasonal vaccines. As a result, individuals under 50years of age are immunologically naïve. H2 viruses persist in aquatic birds, which were a contributing source for the 1957 pandemic, and have also been isolated from swine. Reintroduction of the H2 via zoonotic transmission has been identified as a pandemic risk, so pre-pandemic planning should include preparation and testing of vaccine candidates against this subtype. We evaluated the immunogenicity of two inactivated, whole virus influenza vaccines (IVV) in mice: a monovalent IVV containing human pandemic virus A/Singapore/1/1957 (H2N2), and a multivalent IVV containing human A/Singapore/1/1957, avian A/Duck/HongKong/319/1978 (H2N2), and swine A/Swine/Missouri/2124514/2006 (H2N3) viruses. While both vaccines induced protective immunity compared to naïve animals, the multivalent formulation was advantageous over the monovalent in terms of level and breadth of serological responses, neutralization of infectious virus, and reduction of clinical disease and respiratory tissue replication in mice. Therefore, multivalent pandemic H2 vaccines containing diverse viruses from animal reservoirs, are a potential option to improve the immune responses in a pre-pandemic scenario where antigenic identity cannot be predicted. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Calculation of intermolecular potentials for H2sbnd H2 and H2sbnd O2 dimers ab initio and prediction of second virial coefficients (United States)

    Pham Van, Tat; Deiters, Ulrich K.


    The intermolecular interaction potentials of the dimers H2sbnd H2 and H2sbnd O2 were calculated from quantum mechanics, using coupled-cluster theory CCSD(T) and correlation-consistent basis sets aug-cc-pVmZ (m = 2, 3); the results were extrapolated to the basis set limit aug-cc-pV23Z. The interaction energies were corrected for the basis set superposition error with the counterpoise scheme. For comparison also Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (at levels 2-4) with the basis sets aug-cc-pVTZ were considered, but the results proved inferior. The quantum mechanical results were used to construct analytical pair potential functions. From these functions the second virial coefficients of hydrogen and the cross virial coefficients of the hydrogen-oxygen system were obtained by integration; in both cases corrections for quantum effects were included. The results agree well with experimental data, if available, or with empirical correlations.

  2. Electrochemical, H2O2-Boosted Catalytic Oxidation System (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Thompson, John O.; Schussel, Leonard J.


    An improved water-sterilizing aqueous-phase catalytic oxidation system (APCOS) is based partly on the electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This H2O2-boosted system offers significant improvements over prior dissolved-oxygen water-sterilizing systems in the way in which it increases oxidation capabilities, supplies H2O2 when needed, reduces the total organic carbon (TOC) content of treated water to a low level, consumes less energy than prior systems do, reduces the risk of contamination, and costs less to operate. This system was developed as a variant of part of an improved waste-management subsystem of the life-support system of a spacecraft. Going beyond its original intended purpose, it offers the advantage of being able to produce H2O2 on demand for surface sterilization and/or decontamination: this is a major advantage inasmuch as the benign byproducts of this H2O2 system, unlike those of systems that utilize other chemical sterilants, place no additional burden of containment control on other spacecraft air- or water-reclamation systems.

  3. Legal Services: The Army Legal Assistance Program (United States)


    legal services providedpro bono publico are not always on a no-fee basis because a reduced fee for professional services may be permissible in such...y f o u n d w i t h i n a p r i n c i p a l residence. Pro bono publico Legal services provided by civilian attorneys “for the public good or activities, 3–6, 3–8 P r i v i l e g e , a t t o r n e y - c l i e n t , 3 – 8 , 4 – 3 , 4 – 8 , 5–5 Prisoners, 2–5 Pro bono publico , 3–7

  4. Psychiatric social workers in legal aid services in hospitals: Exploring roles in Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Treesa Thomas


    Full Text Available Mental health and legal problems are interlinked in many ways. People facing legal issues may develop mental health problems, and people with mental illness and family also face legal issues. In India, Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 gives provision for free legal aid services for the poor sections of society. Authors explain the roles of psychiatric social workers in legal aid services in hospitals. Social case work as a method of social work is suitable in legal aid services. Counseling, referrals, collateral contacts, advocacy and networking are major services from the social work perspective. Knowledge about laws and mental illness is essential for social workers to work in legal aid clinics (LACs.

  5. Legal System and Legal Chaos Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syarifudin


    Full Text Available Order of the universe and other objects can be described either by cosmology and physics. But from of the regularity of the object there in terms or aspect of irregularity or fractal (broken that difficult to describe by Auklides and Calculus mathematical models. Benoit Medelbrot tried to explain the chaotic objects with fractal theory which basically a branch of mathematics. The fractal theory affect the view of the law that inspired Charles Sampford which then sparked a legal chaos theory. The core of legal chaos theory is (1 social relationships , including the relationship established based on the relationship of forces (power relation, (2 the parties who make that relationship does not have the same strength or balance, and (3 at the time of execution of the respective relations based on their subjective opinions. Those three thing that is causing chaos. But the atmosphere of chaos that would eventually return to the regularity, because of the strength towing (strange attractor that in the area of law is the law and the power of the state. Chaos basically contained in the freedom -based relationship beyond the confines of order. When the towing force managed to recover the chaos so as to create harmony between order and freedom, the peace that one of the legal goal is achieved.

  6. H∞ /H2 model reduction through dilated linear matrix inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob


    This paper presents sufficient dilated linear matrix inequalities (LMI) conditions to the $H_{infty}$ and $H_{2}$ model reduction problem. A special structure of the auxiliary (slack) variables allows the original model of order $n$ to be reduced to an order $r=n/s$ where $n,r,s in field{N}$. Arb......This paper presents sufficient dilated linear matrix inequalities (LMI) conditions to the $H_{infty}$ and $H_{2}$ model reduction problem. A special structure of the auxiliary (slack) variables allows the original model of order $n$ to be reduced to an order $r=n/s$ where $n,r,s in field...... not satisfactorily approximates the original system, an iterative algorithm based on dilated LMIs is proposed to significantly improve the approximation bound. The effectiveness of the method is accessed by numerical experiments. The method is also applied to the $H_2$ order reduction of a flexible wind turbine...

  7. Data-Driven Controller Design The H2 Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sanfelice Bazanella, Alexandre; Eckhard, Diego


    Data-driven methodologies have recently emerged as an important paradigm alternative to model-based controller design and several such methodologies are formulated as an H2 performance optimization. This book presents a comprehensive theoretical treatment of the H2 approach to data-driven control design. The fundamental properties implied by the H2 problem formulation are analyzed in detail, so that common features to all solutions are identified. Direct methods (VRFT) and iterative methods (IFT, DFT, CbT) are put under a common theoretical framework. The choice of the reference model, the experimental conditions, the optimization method to be used, and several other designer’s choices are crucial to the quality of the final outcome, and firm guidelines for all these choices are derived from the theoretical analysis presented. The practical application of the concepts in the book is illustrated with a large number of practical designs performed for different classes of processes: thermal, fluid processing a...

  8. A Global PLASIMO Model for H2O Chemistry (United States)

    Tadayon Mousavi, Samaneh; Koelman, Peter; Graef, Wouter; Mihailova, Diana; van Dijk, Jan; EPG/ Applied Physics/ Eindhoven University of Technology Team; Plasma Matters B. V. Team


    Global warming is one of the critical contemporary problems for mankind. Transformation of CO2 into fuels, like CH4, that are transportable with the current infrastructure seems a promising idea to solve this threatening issue. The final aim of this research is to produce CH4 by using microwave plasma in CO2 -H2 O mixture and follow-up catalytic processes. In this contribution we present a global model for H2 O chemistry that is based on the PLASIMO plasma modeling toolkit. The time variation of the electron energy and the species' densities are calculated based on the source and loss terms in plasma due to chemical reactions. The short simulation times of such models allow an efficient assessment and chemical reduction of the H2O chemistry, which is required for full spatially resolved simulations.

  9. Physicochemical characteristics of anaerobic H2-producing granular sludge. (United States)

    Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing


    Granule-based biological H2 production processes are gaining great popularity in recent years. An efficient and stable operating of such systems relies heavily on the performance of the H2-producing granules (HPGs), which possess many unique properties compared with floc sludge and methanogenic granules. Hence, a full understanding of the sludge characteristics is essential. Especially, the physicochemical properties of HPGs may provide useful information for effective evaluation of system status. This review offers a systematical introduction of the physicochemical properties of HPGs, including size, morphology, settling velocity, permeability, rheology, surface charge, hydrophobicity and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). We also analyze the relationships between these physicochemical factors and the system performance, and discuss the remaining challenges and future implications for sludge characterization and process monitoring. This work may facilitate a better understanding of granule-based biological H2 production processes and offer a basis for timely process monitoring and manipulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The legal dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    of a series of letters. The group consisted of the project leader, the section’s head, and five staff members. The staff members went through the letters that they send out to citizens in order to edit them to plain language principles. I followed the process from beginning to end by observing meetings......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members...

  11. 31 CFR 560.525 - Exportation of certain legal services. (United States)


    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN TRANSACTIONS REGULATIONS...) Provision of legal advice and counselling on the requirements of and compliance with the laws of any... Government of Iran or an Iranian national and the United States or a United States national; (ii) Where the...

  12. A South African perspective on mutual legal assistance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It does however appear that existing criminal justice responses are experiencing challenges to meet the demands of sophisticated international criminal conduct. Mutual legal assistance and extradition provisions may show that the world is becoming smaller for fugitives and criminals, but the processes are far from ...

  13. The Dutch Crisis and Recovery Act: Economic Recovery and Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    had a rather "soft" legal status. In the explanatory memorandum that accompanies the Dutch Constitution and in the literature, it is argued that one of the functions of. Article 21 is to prevent the government from reducing the standard of environmental protection. 50. On the contrary, the provision rather aims at a constant ...

  14. Right to life under legal and jurisprudential standards: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, despite the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 1948, and other domestic and international legal provisions for the protection of the right to life, the right to life has in practice remained under constant threat even by world leaders. This paper discusses jurisprudence of life bringing to fore the historical ...

  15. Doctors and Witches, Conscience and Violence: Abortion Provision on American Television. (United States)

    Sisson, Gretchen; Kimport, Katrina


    Popular entertainment may reflect and produce-as well as potentially contest-stigma regarding abortion provision. Knowledge of how providers are portrayed on-screen is needed to improve understanding of how depictions may contribute to the stigmatization of real providers. All abortion provision plotlines on American television from 2005 to 2014 were identified through Internet searches. Plotlines were assessed in their entirety and coded for genre, abortion provision space, provider characteristics, method and efficacy of provision, and occurrence of violence. Inductive content analysis was used to identify themes in how these features were depicted. Fifty-two plotlines involving abortion provision were identified on 40 television shows; a large majority of plotlines appeared in dramas, particularly in the subgenre of medical dramas. Medical spaces were depicted as normal and safe for abortion provision, and nonmedical spaces were often portrayed as remote and unsafe. Legal abortion care using medical methods was depicted as effective and safe, and legal providers were presented as compassionate, while providers operating outside of medical and legal authority were depicted as ineffective, dangerous and uncaring. Fictional providers were largely motivated by the belief that abortion provision is a necessary and moral service. Plotlines linked abortion provision to violence. The differing ways in which legal and illegal abortion are portrayed reveal potential consequences regarding real-world abortion provision, and suggest that representations situated in medical contexts may work to legitimate and destigmatize such provision. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  16. H2O2_COD_EPA; MEC_acclimation (United States)

    H2O2_COD_EPA: Measurements of hydrogen peroxide and COD concentrations for water samples from the MEC reactors.MEC_acclimation: raw data for current and voltage of the anode in the MEC reactor.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Sim, J., J. An, E. Elbeshbishy, R. Hodon, and H. Lee. Characterization and optimization of cathodic conditions for H2O2 synthesis in microbial electrochemical cells. Bioresource Technology. Elsevier Online, New York, NY, USA, 195: 31-36, (2015).

  17. Reduction of nitrobenzene with H2 using a microbial consortium. (United States)

    Cao, Hong-Bin; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Gui-Feng; Zhang, Yi


    Proof of concept was obtained that nitrobenzene can be reduced to aniline by a mixed reductive microbial culture using H2 as the sole electron donor source. In a continuous-flow anaerobic bioreactor, both pH and temperature affected nitrobenzene reduction with optima of pH 6.5-6.8 and 30 degrees C. The efficiency of nitrobenzene degradation increased with H2 up to 10% (v/v). An increase in sulfate concentration decreased the removal rate of nitrobenzene.

  18. NASA Lewis H2-O2 MHD program (United States)

    Smith, M.; Nichols, L. D.; Seikel, G. R.


    Performance and power costs of H2-O2 combustion powered steam-MHD central power systems are estimated. Hydrogen gas is assumed to be transmitted by pipe from a remote coal gasifier into the city and converted to electricity in a steam MHD plant having an integral gaseous oxygen plant. These steam MHD systems appear to offer an attractive alternative to both in-city clean fueled conventional steam power plants and to remote coal fired power plants with underground electric transmission into the city. Status and plans are outlined for an experimental evaluation of H2-O2 combustion-driven MHD power generators at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  19. Proses Absorpsi Gas H2S Menggunakan Metildietanolamin


    W, Ririen; Bahruddin, Bahruddin; Zultiniar, Zultiniar


    H2S in the oil and gas industry is undesirable because it can lead to corrosion of pipes and equipment production. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of distance and the injection of absorbent flow rate. Absorption processes carried out continuously with free variables absorbent flow rate of 40 ml/min, 60 ml/min, 80 ml/min and 100 ml/min, with a distance of injection of 110 m, 140 m , and 170 m. The results of absorption H2S was measured by using a gas detector tube sys...

  20. Euthanasia: the legal issues. (United States)

    Chaloner, C; Sanders, K

    The legal status of euthanasia is frequently deliberated. It remains unlawful in Britain and advocates for a change in the law are vigorously opposed by those who argue that it should remain unchanged. An objective account, in which current law and arguments for and against change are exposed, is essential to inform the euthanasia debate. In this article the legal issues concerning euthanasia are examined and arguments raised by proposed changes in the law are considered.

  1. Development of legal expertise


    Glöckner, Andreas; Towfigh, Emanuel; Traxler, Christian


    In a comprehensive empirical investigation (N = 71,405) we analyzed the development of legal expertise in a critical 1-year period of academic legal training in which advanced law students start practicing to solve complex cases. We were particularly interested in the functional form of the learning curve and inter-individual differences in learning. Performance increases monotonically with the number of practice exams following a slightly concave learning curve without any considerable kinks...

  2. Old Assyrian Legal Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....

  3. Single Molecular Junction Study on H2 O@C60 : H2 O is "Electrostatically Isolated". (United States)

    Kaneko, Satoshi; Hashikawa, Yoshifumi; Fujii, Shintaro; Murata, Yasujiro; Kiguchi, Manabu


    A water molecule exhibits characteristic properties on the basis of hydrogen bonding. In the past decade, single water molecules placed in non-hydrogen-bonding environments have attracted growing attention. To reveal the fundamental properties of a single water molecule, endohedral fullerene H2 O@C60 is an ideal and suitable model. We examined the electronic properties of H2 O@C60 by performing single-molecule measurements. The conductance of a single molecular junction based on H2 O@C60 was found to be comparable to that of empty C60 . The observed values were remarkably higher than those obtained for conventional molecular junctions due to the effective hybridization of the π-conjugated system to the metal electrode. Additionally, the results undoubtedly exclude the possibility of electrostatic contact of entrapped H2 O with the carbon wall of C60 . We finally concluded that H2 O entrapped inside a C60 cage can be regarded as an electrostatically isolated molecule. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The H2 + CO ↔ H2CO Reaction: Rate Constants and Relevance to Hot and Dense Astrophysical Media (United States)

    Vichietti, R. M.; Spada, R. F. K.; da Silva, A. B. F.; Machado, F. B. C.; Haiduke, R. L. A.


    A theoretical thermochemical and kinetic investigation of the thermal H2 + CO ↔ H2CO reaction was performed for a temperature range from 200 to 4000 K. Geometries and vibrational frequencies of reactants, product, and transition state (TS) were obtained at CCSD/cc-pVxZ (x = T and Q) levels and scaling factors were employed to consider anharmonicity effects on vibrational frequencies, zero-point energies, and thermal corrections provided by these methodologies. Enthalpies Gibbs energies, and rate constants for this reaction were determined by including a complete basis set extrapolation correction for the electronic properties calculated at CCSD(T)/cc-pVyZ (y = Q and 5) levels. Our study indicates that enthalpy changes for this reaction are highly dependent on temperature. Moreover, forward and reverse (high-pressure limit) rate constants were obtained from variational TS theory with quantum tunneling corrections. Thus, modified Arrhenius’ equations were fitted by means of the best forward and reverse rate constant values, which provide very reliable estimates for these quantities within the temperature range between 700 and 4000 K. To our knowledge, this is the first kinetic study done for the forward H2 + CO \\to H2CO process in a wide temperature range. Finally, these results can be used to explain the formaldehyde abundance in hot and dense interstellar media, possibly providing data about the physical conditions associated with H2CO masers close to massive star-forming regions.

  5. Physical chemistry of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O system - Implications for polar stratospheric clouds (United States)

    Molina, M. J.; Zhang, R.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Mcmahon, J. R.; Kim, J. E.; Chang, H. Y.; Beyer, K. D.


    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a key role in stratospheric ozone depletion. Surface-catalyzed reactions on PSC particles generate chlorine compounds that photolyze readily to yield chlorine radicals, which in turn destroy ozone very efficiently. The most prevalent PSCs form at temperatures several degrees above the ice frost point and are believed to consist of HNO3 hydrates; however, their formation mechanism is unclear. Results of laboratory experiments are presented which indicate that the background stratospheric H2SO4/H2O aerosols provide an essential link in this mechanism: These liquid aerosols absorb significant amounts of HNO3 vapor, leading most likely to the crystallization of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT). The frozen particles then grow to form PSCs by condensation of additional amounts of HNO3 and H2O vapor. Furthermore, reaction probability measurements reveal that the chlorine radical precursors are formed readily at polar stratospheric temperatures not just on NAT and ice crystals, but also on liquid H2SO4 solutions and on solid H2SO4 hydrates. These results imply that the chlorine activation efficiency of the aerosol particles increases rapidly as the temperature approaches the ice frost point regardless of the phase or composition of the particles.

  6. Legal and ethical issues in robotic surgery. (United States)

    Mavroforou, A; Michalodimitrakis, E; Hatzitheo-Filou, C; Giannoukas, A


    With the rapid introduction of revolutionary technologies in surgical practice, such as computer-enhanced robotic surgery, the complexity in various aspects, including medical, legal and ethical, will increase exponentially. Our aim was to highlight important legal and ethical implications emerged from the application of robotic surgery. Search of the pertinent medical and legal literature. Robotic surgery may open new avenues in the near future in surgical practice. However, in robotic surgery, special training and experience along with high quality assessment are required in order to provide normal conscientious care and state-of-the-art treatment. While the legal basis for professional liability remains exactly the same, litigation with the use of robotic surgery may be complex. In case of an undesirable outcome, in addition to physician and hospital, the manufacturer of the robotic system may be sued. In respect to ethical issues in robotic surgery, equipment safety and reliability, provision of adequate information, and maintenance of confidentiality are all of paramount importance. Also, the cost of robotic surgery and the lack of such systems in most of the public hospitals may restrict the majority from the benefits offered by the new technology. While surgical robotics will have a significant impact on surgical practice, it presents challenges so much in the realm of law and ethics as of medicine and health care.

  7. A Critical Review of Models of the H-2/H2O/Ni/SZ Electrode Kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Hansen, Karin Vels


    sets, which do not fit the model. We have inspected some models in the literature, and problems (e.g. no quantitative model has explained the large variation in reported values of apparent activation energy of the electrode kinetics) as well as strengths of the models are discussed. We point out......Various models of the H-2/H2O/Ni/SZ (SZ = stabilized zirconia) electrode kinetics have been presented in the literature in order to explain the reported experimental data. However, there has been a strong tendency of using a limited set of data to "verify" a given model, disregarding other data...... experimental findings that a useful model must be able to explain such as difference in sensitivity to poisoning by H2S due to differences in the detailed composition of the SZ and large change in apparent activation energy by change in cermet preparation. Finally, we will point out some elements, which seem...

  8. Solar kerosene from H2O and CO2 (United States)

    Furler, P.; Marxer, D.; Scheffe, J.; Reinalda, D.; Geerlings, H.; Falter, C.; Batteiger, V.; Sizmann, A.; Steinfeld, A.


    The entire production chain for renewable kerosene obtained directly from sunlight, H2O, and CO2 is experimentally demonstrated. The key component of the production process is a high-temperature solar reactor containing a reticulated porous ceramic (RPC) structure made of ceria, which enables the splitting of H2O and CO2 via a 2-step thermochemical redox cycle. In the 1st reduction step, ceria is endo-thermally reduced using concentrated solar radiation as the energy source of process heat. In the 2nd oxidation step, nonstoichiometric ceria reacts with H2O and CO2 to form H2 and CO - syngas - which is finally converted into kerosene by the Fischer-Tropsch process. The RPC featured dual-scale porosity for enhanced heat and mass transfer: mm-size pores for volumetric radiation absorption during the reduction step and μm-size pores within its struts for fast kinetics during the oxidation step. We report on the engineering design of the solar reactor and the experimental demonstration of over 290 consecutive redox cycles for producing high-quality syngas suitable for the processing of liquid hydrocarbon fuels.

  9. Intermolecular Interactions in Ternary Glycerol–Sample–H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter; Rasmussen, Erik Lumby; Koga, Yoshikata


    We studied the intermolecular interactions in ternary glycerol (Gly)–sample (S)–H2O systems at 25 °C. By measuring the excess partial molar enthalpy of Gly, HGlyEHEGly, we evaluated the Gly–Gly enthalpic interaction, HGly-GlyEHEGly--Gly, in the presence of various samples (S). For S, tert...

  10. Selective effects of H2O2 on cyanobacterial photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabkova, M.; Matthijs, H.C.P.; Admiraal, W.; Marsalek, B.


    Abstract: The sensitivity of phytoplankton species for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was analyzed by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. The inhibition of photosynthesis was more severe in five tested cyanobacterial species than in three green algal species and one diatom species. Hence the

  11. Robust H2 performance for sampled-data systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind


    Robust H2 performance conditions under structured uncertainty, analogous to well known methods for H∞ performance, have recently emerged in both discrete and continuous-time. This paper considers the extension into uncertain sampled-data systems, taking into account inter-sample behavior. Convex...

  12. PEM Electrolysis H2A Production Case Study Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian [Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA), Arlington, Virginia; Colella, Whitney [Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA), Arlington, Virginia; Moton, Jennie [Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA), Arlington, Virginia; Saur, G. [Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA), Arlington, Virginia; Ramsden, T. [Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA), Arlington, Virginia


    This report documents the development of four DOE Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) case studies for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) electrolysis. The four cases characterize PEM electrolyzer technology for two hydrogen production plant sizes (Forecourt and Central) and for two technology development time horizons (Current and Future).

  13. Ultrafast Librational Relaxation of H2O in Liquid Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Rey, Rossend


    The ultrafast librational (hindered rotational) relaxation of a rotationally excited H2O molecule in pure liquid water is investigated by means of classical nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and a power and work analysis. This analysis allows the mechanism of the energy transfer from...

  14. Inelastic scattering in metal-H-2-metal junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, I. S.; Paulsson, Magnus; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer


    of longitudinal vibrations of the H-2 molecule. In the case of Pt electrodes, the transverse vibrations can mediate transport through otherwise nontransmitting Pt d channels leading to an increase in the differential conductance even though the hydrogen junction is characterized predominately by a single almost...

  15. Atmospheric photochemical loss of H and H2 from formaldehyde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jens Bæk; Rusteika, Nerijus; Johnson, Matthew Stanley


    We have performed ab initio calculations to examine the potential energy along the normal modes of ground-state HCHO and along the reaction coordinates for loss of H2 and atomic hydrogen, respectively. This exploration showed that there are no specific features that will lead to reaction on the e...

  16. Hot hydrogen atom reactions moderated by H2 and He (United States)

    Aronowitz, S.; Scattergood, T.; Flores, J.; Chang, S.


    Photolysis experiments were performed on the H2-CD4-NH3 and He-CD4-NH3 systems. The photolysis (1849 A) involved only NH3. Mixtures of H2:CD4:NH3 included all combinations of the ratios (200,400,800):(10,20,40):4. Two He:CD4:NH3 mixtures were examined where the ratios equalled the combinations 100:(10,20):4. Abstraction of a D from CD4 by the photolytically produced hot hydrogen from ammonia was monitored by mass spectrometric determination of HD. Both experiment and semiempirical hot-atom theory show that H2 is a very poor thermalizer of hot hydrogens with excess kinetic energy of about 2 eV. Applications of the hard-sphere collision model to the H2-CD4-NH3 system resulted in predicted ratios of net HD production to NH3 decomposition that were two orders of magnitude smaller than the experimental ratios. On the other hand, helium is found to be a very efficient thermalizer; here, the classical model yields reasonable agreement with experiments. Application of a semiempirical hot-atom program gave quantitative agreement with experiment for either system.

  17. ISO Spectroscopy of H2 in Star Forming Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ancker, M. E.; Wesselius, P. R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.


    Abstract: We have studied molecular hydrogen emission in a sample of 21 YSOs using spectra obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). H2 emission was detected in 12 sources and can be explained as arising in either a shock, caused by the interaction of an outflow from an embedded YSO with

  18. submitter Thermodynamics of the formation of sulfuric acid dimers in the binary (H2SO4–H2O) and ternary (H2SO4–H2O–NH3) system

    CERN Document Server

    Kürten, A; Rondo, L; Bianchi, F; Duplissy, J; Jokinen, T; Junninen, H; Sarnela, N; Schobesberger, S; Simon, M; Sipilä, M; Almeida, J; Amorim, A; Dommen, J; Donahue, N M; Dunne, E M; Flagan, R C; Franchin, A; Kirkby, J; Kupc, A; Makhmutov, V; Petäjä, T; Praplan, A P; Riccobono, F; Steiner, G; Tomé, A; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Wagner, P E; Wimmer, D; Baltensperger, U; Kulmala, M; Worsnop, D R; Curtius, J


    Sulfuric acid is an important gas influencing atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). Both the binary $(H_2SO_4–H_2O)$ system and the ternary system involving ammonia $(H_2SO_4–H_2O–NH_3)$ may be important in the free troposphere. An essential step in the nucleation of aerosol particles from gas-phase precursors is the formation of a dimer, so an understanding of the thermodynamics of dimer formation over a wide range of atmospheric conditions is essential to describe NPF. We have used the CLOUD chamber to conduct nucleation experiments for these systems at temperatures from 208 to 248 K. Neutral monomer and dimer concentrations of sulfuric acid were measured using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). From these measurements, dimer evaporation rates in the binary system were derived for temperatures of 208 and 223 K. We compare these results to literature data from a previous study that was conducted at higher temperatures but is in good agreement with the present study. For the ternary sys...

  19. Dynamics of H2 on Ti/Al(100) surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jian-Cheng


    What is the catalytic role played by titanium in the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4? This thesis aims at unraveling the dynamics of an elementary reaction: H2 dissociation on Ti/Al(100) surfaces. Although this reaction is not the rate limiting step in the hydrogen storage of NaAlH4, it is an

  20. Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc


    This presentation describes the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool, H2FAST, and provides an overview of each of the three H2FAST formats: the H2FAST web tool, the H2FAST Excel spreadsheet, and the H2FAST Business Case Scenario (BCS) tool. Examples are presented to illustrate the types of questions that H2FAST can help answer.

  1. Legal protection of pet animals in domestic legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić-Trninić Jelena


    Full Text Available The subject of the author's analysis is the issue of legal protection of pet animals. Through analysis of applicable provisions contained in the Act on Animal Welfare of Serbia, on one hand, and the fundamental principles and provisions set out in the European Convention for the Protection of Pet animals, on the other hand, this paper attempts to point out the degree of legal protection that pet animals are awarded under domestic legal regulations, as well as to answer the question of compatibility of the national legislation with the international standards set out in the mentioned European Convention regarding the above mentioned question. In addition, since the legal protection of pet animals is also regulated by relevant by-laws in our law, the analysis of certain aspects of protection provided to pet animals, specifically the Decision of the city of Novi Sad on keeping of domesticated animals, the paper attempts to draw attention to compliance of the solutions adopted in this legal act, with the fundamental principles of protection, provided to pets by laws or the Act on Animal Welfare of Serbia. Finally, in order to provide a more comprehensive insight in terms of achievement of the legal protection of pets in Serbian law, the paper analyzes the types of unlawful conduct of the owner or the holder of the animals, as well as their respective sanctioning prescribed in specific laws or bylaws.

  2. Vibrational investigations of CO2-H2O, CO2-(H2O)2, and (CO2)2-H2O complexes isolated in solid neon. (United States)

    Soulard, P; Tremblay, B


    The van der Waals complex of H2O with CO2 has attracted considerable theoretical interest as a typical example of a weak binding complex with a dissociation energy less than 3 kcal/mol. Up to now, experimental vibrational data are sparse. We have studied by FTIR the complexes involving CO2 and water molecules in solid neon. Many new absorption bands close to the well known monomers fundamentals give evidence for at least three (CO2)n-(H2O)m complexes, noted n:m. Concentration effects combined with a detailed vibrational analysis allow for the identification of sixteen, twelve, and five transitions for the 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 complexes, respectively. Careful examination of the far infrared spectral region allows the assignment of several 1:1 and 1:2 intermolecular modes, confirmed by the observation of combinations of intra + intermolecular transitions, and anharmonic coupling constants have been derived. Our results demonstrate the high sensibility of the solid neon isolation to investigate the hydrogen-bonded complexes in contrast with the gas phase experiments for which two quanta transitions cannot be easily observed.

  3. H2 emission from non-stationary magnetized bow shocks (United States)

    Tram, L. N.; Lesaffre, P.; Cabrit, S.; Gusdorf, A.; Nhung, P. T.


    When a fast moving star or a protostellar jet hits an interstellar cloud, the surrounding gas gets heated and illuminated: a bow shock is born that delineates the wake of the impact. In such a process, the new molecules that are formed and excited in the gas phase become accessible to observations. In this paper, we revisit models of H2 emission in these bow shocks. We approximate the bow shock by a statistical distribution of planar shocks computed with a magnetized shock model. We improve on previous works by considering arbitrary bow shapes, a finite irradiation field and by including the age effect of non-stationary C-type shocks on the excitation diagram and line profiles of H2. We also examine the dependence of the line profiles on the shock velocity and on the viewing angle: we suggest that spectrally resolved observations may greatly help to probe the dynamics inside the bow shock. For reasonable bow shapes, our analysis shows that low-velocity shocks largely contribute to H2 excitation diagram. This can result in an observational bias towards low velocities when planar shocks are used to interpret H2 emission from an unresolved bow. We also report a large magnetization bias when the velocity of the planar model is set independently. Our 3D models reproduce excitation diagrams in BHR 71 and Orion bow shocks better than previous 1D models. Our 3D model is also able to reproduce the shape and width of the broad H2 1-0S(1) line profile in an Orion bow shock (Brand et al. 1989).

  4. Tricyclic sesquiterpene copaene prevents H2O2-induced neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Turkez


    Full Text Available Aim: Copaene (COP, a tricyclic sesquiterpene, is present in several essential oils of medicinal and aromatic plants and has antioxidant and anticarcinogenic features. But, very little information is known about the effects of COP on oxidative stress induced neurotoxicity. Method: We used hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 exposure for 6 h to model oxidative stress. Therefore, this experimental design allowed us to explore the neuroprotective potential of COP in H2O2-induced toxicity in rat cerebral cortex cell cultures for the first time. For this purpose, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release assays were carried out to evaluate cytotoxicity. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total oxidative stress (TOS parameters were used to evaluate oxidative changes. In addition to determining of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG levels, the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or comet assay was also performed for measuring the resistance of neuronal DNA to H2O2-induced challenge. Result: The results of this study showed that survival and TAC levels of the cells decreased, while TOS, 8-OH-dG levels and the mean values of the total scores of cells showing DNA damage increased in the H2O2 alone treated cultures. But pre-treatment of COP suppressed the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress which were increased by H2O2. Conclusion: It is proposed that COP as a natural product with an antioxidant capacity in mitigating oxidative injuries in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 21-28

  5. Not just euthanasia: recognizing a legal positive right to palliative care. (United States)

    Colombo, Sylviane


    As jurists, doctors, and ethicists are increasingly engaged in the debate as to whether and how to legalize euthanasia as a matter of public policy, less debate takes place on what it is submitted ought naturally to come before, i.e. the affirmation of a legal right to palliative care. In Israel, the draft law The Terminally Ill Patient (2001) includes a palliative care provision. It is submitted that such provision, laudable as it is, appears within a euthanasia-oriented framework and is given too limited a scope. Hence the suggestion that palliative care be given an autonomous role, and be recognized as a positive legal right.

  6. Provision of clinical forensic medical services in Australia: a qualitative survey 2011/12. (United States)

    Stark, Margaret M; Payne-James, J Jason


    The provision of clinical forensic medicine services is dependent on jurisdiction and relevant legal instruments. A needs analysis was performed to understand the current service provision within NSW and compare and contrast the service with other jurisdictions in Australia. The aim of this study was therefore to identify the roles, functions and clinical forensic medical services currently provided in the different Australian jurisdictions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena


    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  8. Vibrational kinetics of electronically excited states in H2 discharges (United States)

    Colonna, Gianpiero; Pietanza, Lucia D.; D'Ammando, Giuliano; Celiberto, Roberto; Capitelli, Mario; Laricchiuta, Annarita


    The evolution of atmospheric pressure hydrogen plasma under the action of repetitively ns electrical pulse has been investigated using a 0D state-to-state kinetic model that self-consistently couples the master equation of heavy particles and the Boltzmann equation for free electrons. The kinetic model includes, together with atomic hydrogen states and the vibrational kinetics of H2 ground state, vibrational levels of singlet states, accounting for the collisional quenching, having a relevant role because of the high pressure. The mechanisms of excitations, radiative decay and collisional quenching involving the excited H2 states and the corresponding cross sections, integrated over the non-equilibrium electron energy distribution function (EEDF) to obtain kinetic rates, are discussed in the light of the kinetic simulation results, i.e. the time evolution during the pulse of the plasma composition, of the EEDF and of the vibrational distributions of ground and singlet excited states.

  9. Co3(PO42·4H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Kim


    Full Text Available Single crystals of Co3(PO42·4H2O, tricobalt(II bis[orthophosphate(V] tetrahydrate, were obtained under hydrothermal conditions. The title compound is isotypic with its zinc analogue Zn3(PO42·4H2O (mineral name hopeite and contains two independent Co2+ cations. One Co2+ cation exhibits a slightly distorted tetrahedral coordination, while the second, located on a mirror plane, has a distorted octahedral coordination environment. The tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ is bonded to four O atoms of four PO43− anions, whereas the six-coordinate Co2+ is cis-bonded to two phosphate groups and to four O atoms of four water molecules (two of which are located on mirror planes, forming a framework structure. In addition, hydrogen bonds of the type O—H...O are present throughout the crystal structure.

  10. Mixed H2/H∞ control of flexible structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. De Farias


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the design of full order linear dynamic output feedback controllers for flexible structures. Unstructured H∞ uncertainty models are introduced for systems in modal coordinates and in reduced order form. Then a controller is designed in order to minimize a given H2 performance function while keeping the maximum supported H∞ perturbation below some appropriate level. To solve this problem we develop an algorithm able to provide local optimal solutions to optimization problems with convex constraints and non-convex but differentiable objective functions. A controller design procedure based on a trade-off curve is proposed and a simple example is solved, providing a comparison between the proposed method and the usual minimization of an upper bound H2 to the norm. The method is applied to two different flexible structure theoretical models and the properties of the resulting controllers are shown in several simulations.

  11. Mixed H 2 / H ∞ control of flexible structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Farias D. P.


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the design of full order linear dynamic output feedback controllers for flexible structures. Unstructured H ∞ uncertainty models are introduced for systems in modal coordinates and in reduced order form. Then a controller is designed in order to minimize a given H 2 performance function while keeping the maximum supported H ∞ perturbation below some appropriate level. To solve this problem we develop an algorithm able to provide local optimal solutions to optimization problems with convex constraints and non-convex but differentiable objective functions. A controller design procedure based on a trade-off curve is proposed and a simple example is solved, providing a comparison between the proposed method and the usual minimization of an upper bound H 2 to the norm. The method is applied to two different flexible structure theoretical models and the properties of the resulting controllers are shown in several simulations.

  12. Ab initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2 (United States)

    Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene


    Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- (mu)E(sub h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(sub 0) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.

  13. H 2 guaranteed cost control of discrete linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colmenares W.


    Full Text Available This paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a quadratically stabilizing output feedback controller which also assures H 2 guaranteed cost performance on a discrete linear uncertain system where the uncertainty is of the norm bounded type. The conditions are presented as a collection of linear matrix inequalities.The solution, however requires a search over a scalar parameter space.

  14. Fast metastable hydrogen atoms from H2 molecules: twin atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimèche A.


    Full Text Available It is a difficult task to obtain “twin atoms”, i.e. pairs of massive particles such that one can perform experiments in the same fashion that is routinely done with “twin photons”. One possible route to obtain such pairs is by dissociating homonuclear diatomic molecules. We address this possibility by investigating the production of metastable H(2s atoms coming from the dissociation of cold H2 molecules produced in a Campargue nozzle beam crossing an electron beam from a high intensity pulsed electron gun. Dissociation by electron impact was chosen to avoid limitations of target molecular excited states due to selection rules. Detectors placed several centimeters away from the collision center, and aligned with respect to possible common molecular dissociation channel, analyze the neutral fragments as a function of their time-of-flight (TOF through Lyman-α detection. Evidence for the first time observed coincidence of pairs of H(2s atoms obtained this way is presented.

  15. H2 sensing properties of modified silicon nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latefa Baba Ahmed


    Full Text Available It has been found that the silicon nanowires modified with noble metals can be used to fabricate an effective H2 gas sensor in the present study. The preparation and surface modification of silicon nanowires (SiNWs were carried out by chemical methods. The morphology of the silicon nanowires unmodified and modified with nanoparticles of platinum, palladium, silver and gold was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The chemical composition of the silicon nanowire layers was studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX. The structures of type metal/SiNWs/p-Si/Al were fabricated. The electrical characterization (I–V was performed in primary vacuum and H2 at different concentrations. It was found that the metal type used to modify the SiNWs strongly influenced the I–V characteristics. The response of these structures toward H2 gas was studied as a function of the metal type. Finally, the sensing characteristics and performance of the sensors were investigated.

  16. Graphene oxide and H2 production from bioelectrochemical graphite oxidation. (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Zeng, Cuiping; Wang, Luda; Yin, Xiaobo; Jin, Song; Lu, Anhuai; Jason Ren, Zhiyong


    Graphene oxide (GO) is an emerging material for energy and environmental applications, but it has been primarily produced using chemical processes involving high energy consumption and hazardous chemicals. In this study, we reported a new bioelectrochemical method to produce GO from graphite under ambient conditions without chemical amendments, value-added organic compounds and high rate H2 were also produced. Compared with abiotic electrochemical electrolysis control, the microbial assisted graphite oxidation produced high rate of graphite oxide and graphene oxide (BEGO) sheets, CO2, and current at lower applied voltage. The resultant electrons are transferred to a biocathode, where H2 and organic compounds are produced by microbial reduction of protons and CO2, respectively, a process known as microbial electrosynthesis (MES). Pseudomonas is the dominant population on the anode, while abundant anaerobic solvent-producing bacteria Clostridium carboxidivorans is likely responsible for electrosynthesis on the cathode. Oxygen production through water electrolysis was not detected on the anode due to the presence of facultative and aerobic bacteria as O2 sinkers. This new method provides a sustainable route for producing graphene materials and renewable H2 at low cost, and it may stimulate a new area of research in MES.

  17. State Specific Stabilization of H+ + H2(j) Collision Complexes (United States)

    Gerlich, D.; Plašil, R.; Zymak, I.; Hejduk, M.; Jusko, P.; Mulin, D.; Glosík, J.


    Stabilization of H3+ collision complexes has been studied at nominal temperatures between 11 and 33 K using a 22-pole radio frequency (rf) ion trap. Apparent binary rate coefficients, k* = kr + k3[H2], have been measured for para- and normal-hydrogen at number densities between some 1011 and 1014 cm-3. The state specific rate coefficients extracted for radiative stabilization, kr(T;j), are all below 2 - 10-16 cm3 s-1. There is a slight tendency to decrease with increasing temperature. In contrast to simple expectations, kr(11 K;j) is for j = 0 a factor of 2 smaller than for j = 1. The ternary rate coefficients for p-H2 show a rather steep T-dependence; however, they are increasing with temperature. The state specific ternary rate coefficients, k3(T;j), measured for j = 0 and derived for j = 1 from measurements with n-H2, differ by an order of magnitude. Most of these surprising observations are in disagreement with predictions from standard association models, which are based on statistical assumptions and the separation of complex formation and competition between stabilization and decay. Most probably, the unexpected collision dynamics are due to the fact that, at the low translational energies of the present experiment, only a small number of partial waves participate. This should make exact quantum mechanical calculations of kr feasible. More complex is three-body stabilization, because it occurs on the H5+ potential energy surface.

  18. Thermodynamics and H2 Transfer in a Methanogenic, Syntrophic Community (United States)

    Hamilton, Joshua J.; Calixto Contreras, Montserrat; Reed, Jennifer L.


    Microorganisms in nature do not exist in isolation but rather interact with other species in their environment. Some microbes interact via syntrophic associations, in which the metabolic by-products of one species serve as nutrients for another. These associations sustain a variety of natural communities, including those involved in methanogenesis. In anaerobic syntrophic communities, energy is transferred from one species to another, either through direct contact and exchange of electrons, or through small molecule diffusion. Thermodynamics plays an important role in governing these interactions, as the oxidation reactions carried out by the first community member are only possible because degradation products are consumed by the second community member. This work presents the development and analysis of genome-scale network reconstructions of the bacterium Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans and the methanogenic archaeon Methanospirillum hungatei. The models were used to verify proposed mechanisms of ATP production within each species. We then identified additional constraints and the cellular objective function required to match experimental observations. The thermodynamic S. fumaroxidans model could not explain why S. fumaroxidans does not produce H2 in monoculture, indicating that current methods might not adequately estimate the thermodynamics, or that other cellular processes (e.g., regulation) play a role. We also developed a thermodynamic coculture model of the association between the organisms. The coculture model correctly predicted the exchange of both H2 and formate between the two species and suggested conditions under which H2 and formate produced by S. fumaroxidans would be fully consumed by M. hungatei. PMID:26147299

  19. Mesospheric H2O and H2O2 densities inferred from in situ positive ion composition measurement (United States)

    Kopp, E.


    A model for production and loss of oxonium ions in the high-latitude D-region is developed, based on the observed excess of 34(+) which has been interpreted as H2O2(+). The loss mechanism suggested in the study is the attachment of N2 and/or CO2 in three-body reactions. Furthermore, mesospheric water vapor and H2O2 densities are inferred from measurements of four high-latitude ion compositions, based on the oxonium model. Mixing ratios of hydrogen peroxide of up to two orders of magnitude higher than previous values were obtained. A number of reactions, reaction constants, and a block diagram of the oxonium ion chemistry in the D-region are given.

  20. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  1. A Legal Constant (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.


    The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…

  2. Legal Liabilities of Administrators. (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…

  3. Minimally legally invasive dentistry. (United States)

    Lam, R


    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  4. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations (United States)

    Koza, Pamela


    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  5. The role of legal translation in legal harmonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaij, C.J.W.


    Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).

  6. Effective potentials for H2O-He and H2O-Ar systems. Isotropic induction-dispersion potentials (United States)

    Starikov, Vitali I.; Petrova, Tatiana M.; Solodov, Alexander M.; Solodov, Alexander A.; Deichuli, Vladimir M.


    The vibrational and rotational dependence of the effective isotropic interaction potential of H2O-He and H2O-Ar systems, taken in the form of Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential has been analyzed. The analysis is based on the experimental line broadening (γ) and line shift (δ) coefficients obtained for different vibrational bands of H2O molecule perturbed by He and Ar. The first and second derivatives of the function C(1)(q) for the long-range part of the induction-dispersion potential with respect to the dimensionless normal coordinates q were calculated using literature information for the dipole moment and mean polarizability functions μ(q) and α(q), respectively. These derivatives have been used in the calculations of the quantities which determine the vibrational and rotational dependence of the long-range part of the effective isotropic potential. The optimal set of the derivatives for the function C(1)(q) is proposed. The comparison with the experimental data has been performed.

  7. Capture and dissociation in the complex-forming CH + H2 → CH2 + H, CH + H2 reactions. (United States)

    González, Miguel; Saracibar, Amaia; Garcia, Ernesto


    The rate coefficients for the capture process CH + H(2)→ CH(3) and the reactions CH + H(2)→ CH(2) + H (abstraction), CH + H(2) (exchange) have been calculated in the 200-800 K temperature range, using the quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method and the most recent global potential energy surface. The reactions, which are of interest in combustion and in astrochemistry, proceed via the formation of long-lived CH(3) collision complexes, and the three H atoms become equivalent. QCT rate coefficients for capture are in quite good agreement with experiments. However, an important zero point energy (ZPE) leakage problem occurs in the QCT calculations for the abstraction, exchange and inelastic exit channels. To account for this issue, a pragmatic but accurate approach has been applied, leading to a good agreement with experimental abstraction rate coefficients. Exchange rate coefficients have also been calculated using this approach. Finally, calculations employing QCT capture/phase space theory (PST) models have been carried out, leading to similar values for the abstraction rate coefficients as the QCT and previous quantum mechanical capture/PST methods. This suggests that QCT capture/PST models are a good alternative to the QCT method for this and similar systems.

  8. Genomic characterization and dynamic methylation of promoter facilitates transcriptional regulation of H2A variants, H2A.1 and H2A.2 in various pathophysiological states of hepatocyte. (United States)

    Tyagi, Monica; Reddy, Divya; Gupta, Sanjay


    Differential expression of homomorphous variants of H2A family of histone H2A.1 and H2A.2 have been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma and maintenance of undifferentiated state of hepatocyte. However, not much is known about the transcriptional regulation of these H2A variants. The current study revealed the presence of 43bp 5'-regulatory region upstream of translation start site and a 26bp 3' stem loop conserved region for both the H2A.1 and H2A.2 variants. However, alignment of both H2A.1 and H2A.2 5'-untranslated region (UTR) sequences revealed no significant degree of homology between them despite the coding exon being very similar amongst the variants. Further, transient transfection coupled with dual luciferase assay of cloned 5' upstream sequences of H2A.1 and H2A.2 of length 1.2 (-1056 to +144) and 1.379kb (-1160 to +219) from experimentally identified 5'UTR in rat liver cell line (CL38) confirmed their promoter activity. Moreover, in silico analysis revealed a presence of multiple CpG sites interspersed in the cloned promoter of H2A.1 and a CpG island near TSS for H2A.2, suggesting that histone variants transcription might be regulated epigenetically. Indeed, treatment with DNMT and HDAC inhibitors increased the expression of H2A.2 with no significant change in H2A.1 levels. Further, methyl DNA immunoprecipitation coupled with quantitative analysis of DNA methylation using real-time PCR revealed hypo-methylation and hyper-methylation of H2A.1 and H2A.2 respectively in embryonic and HCC compared to control adult liver tissue. Collectively, the data suggests that differential DNA methylation on histone promoters is a dynamic player regulating their expression status in different pathophysiological stages of liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The ultraviolet photochemistry of diacetylene - Direct detection of primary products of the metastable C4H2* + C4H2 reaction (United States)

    Bandy, Ralph E.; Lakshminarayan, Chitra; Frost, Rex K.; Zwier, Timothy S.


    The products of diacetylene's ultraviolet photochemistry over the 245-220 nm region were directly determined in experiments where C4H2 was excited within a small reaction tube attached to a pulsed nozzle. The products formed in the collisions of C4H2* with C4H2 were subsequently ionized by vacuum UV radiation (at 118 nm) in the ion source of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. It was found that the reaction of C4H2* with C4H2 produces C6H2 (+C2H2), C8H2 (+2H,H2), and C8H3 (+H), confirming the results of Glicker and Okabe (1987). Under certain conditions, secondary products were observed. Mechanisms for the observed reactions are proposed.

  10. X Chromosome Inactivation and Differentiation Occur Readily in ES Cells Doubly-Deficient for MacroH2A1 and MacroH2A2 (United States)

    Tanasijevic, Borko; Rasmussen, Theodore P.


    Macrohistones (mH2As) are unusual histone variants found exclusively in vertebrate chromatin. In mice, the H2afy gene encodes two splice variants, mH2A1.1 and mH2A1.2 and a second gene, H2afy2, encodes an additional mH2A2 protein. Both mH2A isoforms have been found enriched on the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in differentiated mammalian female cells, and are incorporated into the chromatin of developmentally-regulated genes. To investigate the functional significance of mH2A isoforms for X chromosome inactivation (XCI), we produced male and female embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines with stably-integrated shRNA constructs that simultaneously target both mH2A1 and mH2A2. Surprisingly, we find that female ESCs deficient for both mH2A1 and mH2A2 readily execute and maintain XCI upon differentiation. Furthermore, male and female mH2A-deficient ESCs proliferate normally under pluripotency culture conditions, and respond to several standard differentiation procedures efficiently. Our results show that XCI can readily proceed with substantially reduced total mH2A content. PMID:21738686

  11. A SAFT Equation of State for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl System and Applications for CO2 - H2S Transportation and Geological Storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ji, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Chen


    When H2S is co-injected with CO2, we need to know thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria for the CO2-H2S- H2O-NaCl system in order to evaluate the sequestration capacity, optimal transportation...

  12. Legal Issues in Clinical Supervision. ACA Legal Series, Volume 10. (United States)

    Disney, M. Janelle; Stephens, Anthony M.

    In recent decades, mental health professionals have expanded their role in the legal process. This monograph tries to help clinical supervisors avoid legal pitfalls by explaining some of the legal principles involved in their work. Although familiarity with relevant ethical standards is important, a discussion of these standards is presented only…

  13. Hydrogen Learning for Local Leaders – H2L3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfass, Patrick [Technology Transition Corporation, Washington, DC (United States)


    The Hydrogen Learning for Local Leaders program, H2L3, elevates the knowledge about hydrogen by local government officials across the United States. The program reaches local leaders directly through “Hydrogen 101” workshops and webinar sessions; the creation and dissemination of a unique report on the hydrogen and fuel cell market in the US, covering 57 different sectors; and support of the Hydrogen Student Design Contest, a competition for interdisciplinary teams of university students to design hydrogen and fuel cell systems based on technology that’s currently commercially available.

  14. First infrared investigations of OCS-H2O, OCS-(H2O)2, and (OCS)2-H2O complexes isolated in solid neon: Highlighting the presence of two isomers for OCS-H2O. (United States)

    Soulard, P; Madebène, B; Tremblay, B


    For the first time, complexes involving carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and water molecules are studied by FTIR in solid neon. Many new absorption bands close to the known fundamental modes for the monomers give evidence for at least three (OCS)n-(H2O)m complexes, noted n:m. With the help of theoretical calculations, two isomers of the 1:1 complex are clearly identified. Concentration effects combined with a detailed vibrational analysis allow for the identification of transitions for the 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 complexes. Anharmonic coupling constants have been derived from the observations of overtones and combinations.

  15. Periodic H-2 Synthesis for Spacecraft Attitude Control with Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Stoustrup, Jakob


    A control synthesis for a spacecraft equipped with a set of magnetorquer coils is addressed. The electromagnetic actuation is particularly attractive for small low-cost spacecraft missions, due to their relatively low price, high reliability, light weight, and low power consumption. The interaction...... between the Earth´s magnetic field and an artificial magnetic field generated by the coils produces a control torque. The magnetic attitude control is intrinsically periodic due to cyclic variation of the geomagnetic field in orbit. The control performance is specified by the generalized H2 operator norm...

  16. Legal rights and duties in the AIDS epidemic. (United States)

    Dickens, B M


    This article provides an overview of some major areas of legal concern in which the AIDS epidemic is having an impact. The rights of infected individuals to testing, treatment, and confidentiality are reviewed, and emphasis is given to their claims to nondiscrimination regarding access to health care, employment, housing, education, insurance, and related interests. Infected persons' duties to contain transmission of AIDS are outlined under principles of criminal and civil law, including liability for provision of contaminated blood products. Uninfected people's general rights to protection are considered, and health professionals' and authorities' rights and duties are given more detailed attention. In conclusion, some legal developments outside the United States are reviewed.

  17. Legal assumptions for private company claim for additional (supplementary payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šogorov Stevan


    Full Text Available Subject matter of analyze in this article are legal assumptions which must be met in order to enable private company to call for additional payment. After introductory remarks discussion is focused on existence of provisions regarding additional payment in formation contract, or in shareholders meeting general resolution, as starting point for company's claim. Second assumption is concrete resolution of shareholders meeting which creates individual obligations for additional payments. Third assumption is defined as distinctness regarding sum of payment and due date. Sending of claim by relevant company body is set as fourth legal assumption for realization of company's right to claim additional payments from member of private company.

  18. The Legalization of Higher Education (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.


    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  19. Legal philosophy as practical philosophy


    Vega, Jesús


    My purpose in this paper is to make a case for the strictly philosophical nature of our discipline, legal philosophy. I first take a prior stance on the issue of what philosophy is in general and outline some premises for the definition of philosophical rationality. This then leads me to critically examine Bobbio’s dichotomy between jurists’ legal philosophy and philosophers’ legal philosophy. It is essential to reformulate the relationships between legal philosophy as a “special” or “regiona...

  20. Obesity and asthma: beyond T(H)2 inflammation. (United States)

    Leiria, Luiz O S; Martins, Milton A; Saad, Mário J A


    Obesity is a major risk factor for asthma. Likewise, obesity is known to increase disease severity in asthmatic subjects and also to impair the efficacy of first-line treatment medications for asthma, worsening asthma control in obese patients. This concept is in agreement with the current understanding that some asthma phenotypes are not accompanied by detectable inflammation, and may not be ameliorated by classical anti-inflammatory therapy. There are growing evidences suggesting that the obesity-related asthma phenotype does not necessarily involve the classical T(H)2-dependent inflammatory process. Hormones involved in glucose homeostasis and in the pathogeneses of obesity likely directly or indirectly link obesity and asthma through inflammatory and non-inflammatory pathways. Furthermore, the endocrine regulation of the airway-related pre-ganglionic nerves likely contributes to airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in obese states. In this review, we focused our efforts on understanding the mechanism underlying obesity-related asthma by exploring the T(H)2-independent mechanisms leading to this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Proton ordering in tetragonal and monoclinic H2O ice

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, Fei; Berlie, Adam; Liu, Xiaodi; Goncharov, Alexander F


    H2O ice remains one of the most enigmatic materials as its phase diagram reveals up to sixteen solid phases. While the crystal structure of these phases has been determined, the phase boundaries and mechanisms of formation of the proton-ordered phases remain unclear. From high precision measurements of the complex dielectric constant, we probe directly the degree of ordering of the protons in H2O tetragonal ice III and monoclinic ice V down to 80 K. A broadened first-order phase transition is found to occur near 202 K we attribute to a quenched disorder of the protons which causes a continuous disordering of the protons during cooling and metastable behavior. At 126 K the protons in ice III become fully ordered, and for the case of ice V becoming fully ordered at 113 K forming ice XIII. Two triple points are proposed to exist: one at 0.35 GPa and 126 K where ices III, IX and V coexist; and another at 0.35 GPa and 113 K where ices V, IX and XIII coexist. Our findings unravel the underlying mechanism driving th...

  2. Geometric phase effects in the ultracold H + H2 reaction. (United States)

    Kendrick, B K; Hazra, Jisha; Balakrishnan, N


    The H3 system has served as a prototype for geometric phase (GP) effects in bimolecular chemical reactions for over three decades. Despite a large number of theoretical and experimental efforts, no conclusive evidence of GP effects in the integral cross section or reaction rate has been presented until recently [B. Kendrick et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 153201 (2015)]. Here we report a more detailed account of GP effects in the H + H2(v = 4, j = 0) → H + H2(v', j') (para-para) reaction rate coefficients for temperatures between 1 μK (8.6 × 10(-11) eV) and 100 K (8.6 × 10(-3) eV). The GP effect is found to persist in both vibrationally resolved and total rate coefficients for collision energies up to about 10 K. The GP effect also appears in rotationally resolved differential cross sections leading to a very different oscillatory structure in both energy and scattering angle. It is shown to suppress a prominent shape resonance near 1 K and enhance a shape resonance near 8 K, providing new experimentally verifiable signatures of the GP effect in the fundamental hydrogen exchange reaction. The GP effect in the D + D2 and T + T2 reactions is also examined in the ultracold limit and its sensitivity to the potential energy surface is explored.

  3. H2-saturation of high affinity H2-oxidizing bacteria alters the ecological niche of soil microorganisms unevenly among taxonomic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Piché-Choquette


    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities are continuously exposed to H2 diffusing into the soil from the atmosphere. N2-fixing nodules represent a peculiar microniche in soil where H2 can reach concentrations up to 20,000 fold higher than in the global atmosphere (0.530 ppmv. In this study, we investigated the impact of H2 exposure on soil bacterial community structure using dynamic microcosm chambers simulating soil H2 exposure from the atmosphere and N2-fixing nodules. Biphasic kinetic parameters governing H2 oxidation activity in soil changed drastically upon elevated H2 exposure, corresponding to a slight but significant decay of high affinity H2-oxidizing bacteria population, accompanied by an enrichment or activation of microorganisms displaying low-affinity for H2. In contrast to previous studies that unveiled limited response by a few species, the relative abundance of 958 bacterial ribotypes distributed among various taxonomic groups, rather than a few distinct taxa, was influenced by H2 exposure. Furthermore, correlation networks showed important alterations of ribotype covariation in response to H2 exposure, suggesting that H2 affects microbe-microbe interactions in soil. Taken together, our results demonstrate that H2-rich environments exert a direct influence on soil H2-oxidizing bacteria in addition to indirect effects on other members of the bacterial communities.

  4. Laboratory studies of H2SO4/H2O binary homogeneous nucleation from the SO2+OH reaction: evaluation of the experimental setup and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala


    Full Text Available Binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN of sulphuric acid and water (H2SO4/H2O is one of the most important atmospheric nucleation processes, but laboratory observations of this nucleation process are very limited and there are also large discrepancies between different laboratory studies. The difficulties associated with these experiments include wall loss of H2SO4 and uncertainties in estimation of H2SO4 concentration ([H2SO4] involved in nucleation. We have developed a new laboratory nucleation setup to study H2SO4/H2O BHN kinetics and provide relatively constrained [H2SO4] needed for nucleation. H2SO4 is produced from the SO2+OH→HSO3 reaction and OH radicals are produced from water vapor UV absorption. The residual [H2SO4] were measured at the end of the nucleation reactor with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS. Wall loss factors (WLFs of H2SO4 were estimated by assuming that wall loss is diffusion limited and these calculated WLFs were in good agreement with simultaneous measurements of the initial and residual [H2SO4] with two CIMSs. The nucleation zone was estimated from numerical simulations based on the measured aerosol sizes (particle diameter, Dp and [H2SO4]. The measured BHN rates (J ranged from 0.01–220 cm−3 s−1 at the initial and residual [H2SO4] from 108−1010 cm−3, a temperature of 288 K and relative humidity (RH from 11–23%; J increased with increasing [H2SO4] and RH. J also showed a power dependence on [H2SO4] with the exponential power of 3–8. These power dependences are consistent with other laboratory studies under similar [H2SO4] and RH, but different from atmospheric field observations which showed that particle number concentrations are often linearly dependent on [H2SO4]. These results, together with a higher [H2SO4] threshold (108–109 cm−3 needed to produce the unit J measured from the laboratory studies compared to the atmospheric conditions (106–107 cm−3, imply that H2SO4/H2O BHN alone is

  5. Legal implications of epilepsy. (United States)

    Beresford, H R


    Physicians who care for patients with epilepsy may function as agents or targets of social control. As agents, they may assist in the identification and control of epileptic drivers, may provide information that enables fair and appropriate job placements for epileptic persons, and give testimony that helps the legal system resolve issues relating to the liability of epileptic persons for harm attributed to seizures or interictal behavioral disturbances. As targets, they may be charged with negligent failure to diagnose, treat, or inform about epilepsy or its associated problems, with failure to exercise due care in protecting persons harmed by their patients, or with failure to preserve confidentiality of medical information. Although legislation and judicial decisions have defined some of the physician's legal duties with reasonable clarity, areas of uncertainty remain, particularly regarding the issue of violating medical confidentiality for the benefit of persons other than the patient.

  6. [Teenage pregnancies, legal aspects]. (United States)

    Rogue, Fanny


    Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Ni(dmgH)2 complex coupled with metal-organic frameworks MIL-101(Cr) for photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible light irradiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rong Wang; Li Wu; Bryant Chica; Lina Gu; Gengsheng Xu; Yupeng Yuan


    .... Lacking native active sites (so-called co-catalyst) for H2 generation motivates the incorporation of noble metals and their molecular complexes, hydrogenase active site mimics into MOFs to promote H2 generation...

  8. An exact calculation of the N2+ and H2+ influx at cathode surface in N2–H2 discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Suraj


    Full Text Available An exact calculation of N2+ and H2+ influx, at cathode surface in N2–H2 discharge, has been derived using electron impact ionization cross-section at plasma sheath boundary. The analytical formula is very convenient in practical applications. Through the analysis of experimental parameters for glow discharge plasma nitriding, the formula explains, why treatment in an N2–H2 mixture with H2 percentage ∼70% gives most enhanced result.

  9. Environmental regulation of H2 utilization ( (3)H 2 exchange) among natural and laboratory populations of N2 and non-N 2 fixing phytoplankton. (United States)

    Paerl, H W


    Regulation of H2 utilization, as monitored by the hydrogenase-mediated(3)H2 exchange reaction, was examined among phytoplankton communitiesin situ and populations in culture. During a 2-year study in the Chowan River, North Carolina, at least 2 major groups of phytoplankton dominated(3)H2 exchange rates. They included N2 fixing cyanobacteria and NO3 (})- utilizing genera. Utilization of(3)H2 by N2 fixers was mainly dark-mediated, whereas(3)H2 utilization associated with periods of NO3 (})- abundance revealed an increasing dependence on light. Inhibitors of N2 fixation (C2H2 and NH4 (+)) negatively affected(3)H2 utilization, substantiating previous findings that close metabolic coupling of both processes exists among N2 fixing cyanobacteria. Conversely, NO3 (})- stimulated(3)H2 utilization among N2 and non-N2 fixing genera, particularly under illuminated conditions. A variety of environmental factors were shown to control(3)H2 exchange. In addition to the nitrogen sources discussed above, dissolved O2, photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), temperature, and pH changes altered(3)H2 exchange rates. It is likely that other factors not addressed here could also affect(3)H2 exchange rates. At least 2 ecological benefits from H2 utilization in natural phytoplankton can be offered. They include the simultaneous generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and consumption of O2 during the oxidation of H2 via an oxyhydrogen or "Knallgas" reaction. Both processes could help sustain phytoplankton, and particularly cyanobacterial, bloom intensity under natural conditions when O2 supersaturation is common in surface waters. H2 utilization appeared to be a general feature of natural and laboratory phytoplankton populations. The magnitudes of(3)H2 utilization rates were directly related to community biomass. Although it can be shown that utilization rates are controlled by specific environmental factors, the potential relationships between H2 utilization and phytoplankton

  10. Reviem Of Legal Relevance Program School No Political Party Based On The Proportionality And Evidence And Justifiability Controls Applied By The Brazilian Supreme Court


    Baggenstoss, Grazielly Alessandra


    This research examines the legal context of bringing the School No Political Party Program, which aims to include legal provisions in the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education. Therefore, the problem of research is if the mentioned project has legal relevance to the Brazilian legal system , as well as the current pedagogical context. Thus, with deductive method, the question is examined from the proportionality test of Robert Alexy and Evidence and Justifiability Controls, applied...

  11. Cultural Dimensions Of Legal Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierocka Halina


    Full Text Available Despite the intention for precision and accuracy, legal discourse is oftentimes complex, archaic and ambiguous - which gives rise to contentious interpretation. Moreover, little or no attention is paid to the cultural dimension of legal discourse, which plays a critical role in the translation and interpretation of legal texts, as well as in the application of law. This paper endeavours to illustrate the impact the culture, or, more precisely, legal culture has on the way legal texts are construed or translated and to present problems which arise in the interpretation, translation and application of law as a result of cultural diversities

  12. Insecticidal Activity of [Cu(H2NTA2].2H2O in Aedes aegypti Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ramos Lima


    Full Text Available The demand for new insecticides and alternative strategies for the population control of Aedes aegypti has stimulated research to obtain new compounds with broad biological activity. Accordingly, the dihydrogen nitrilotriacetate complex of copper (II dihydrate, [Cu(H2NTA2].2H2O, was synthesized by the stoichiometric reaction of nitrilotriacetic acid (H3NTA hydroxide with basic copper carbonate (II (Cu2(OH2CO3 and characterized by the spectroscopic techniques UV-Vis and FT-IR. The biological toxicity in A. aegypti was determined by bioassay using concentrations ranging from 90.0 mg L−1 to 897.4 mg L−1. The LC50 obtained was 146.11 mg L−1 [132.18–160.10] and the LT50 obtained at a concentration of 897.4 mg L−1 was 70.61 min [38.21–94.90]. The results showed that the complex obtained in this work is a potential metal-insecticide. DOI: 

  13. Does residual H2O2 result in inhibitory effect on enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2 pretreatment process? (United States)

    Liu, Jibao; Jia, Ruilai; Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong; Zhang, Junya; Wang, Rui; Cai, Xing


    This study investigated the effects of residual H2O2 on hydrolysis-acidification and methanogenesis stages of anaerobic digestion after microwave-H2O2 (MW-H2O2) pretreatment of waste activated sludge (WAS). Results showed that high sludge solubilization at 35-45 % was achieved after pretreatment, while large amounts of residual H2O2 remained and refractory compounds were thus generated with high dosage of H2O2 (0.6 g H2O2/g total solids (TS), 1.0 g H2O2/g TS) pretreatment. The residual H2O2 not only inhibited hydrolysis-acidification stage mildly, such as hydrolase activity, but also had acute toxic effect on methanogens, resulting in long lag phase, low methane yield rate, and no increase of cumulative methane production during the 30-day BMP tests. When the low dosage of H2O2 at 0.2 g H2O2/g TS was used in MW-H2O2 pretreatment, sludge anaerobic digestion was significantly enhanced. The cumulative methane production increased by 29.02 %, but still with a lag phase of 1.0 day. With removing the residual H2O2 by catalase, the initial lag phase of hydrolysis-acidification stage decreased from 1.0 to 0.5 day.

  14. Evaluation of plasma H2S levels and H2S synthesis in streptozotocin induced Type-2 diabetes-an experimental study based on Swietenia macrophylla seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Dutta


    Conclusions: Although considering a small sample size, it can conclude that the fasting blood glucose levels are inversely related to plasma H2S levels as well as H2S synthesis activity in plasma and the extract of S. macrophylla is associated with increased plasma H2S levels with effective lowering of blood glucose in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  15. Ni(dmgH2 complex coupled with metal-organic frameworks MIL-101(Cr for photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible light irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang


    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs have been tremendously used as photocatalysts for H2 generation in recent years. Lacking native active sites (so-called co-catalyst for H2 generation motivates the incorporation of noble metals and their molecular complexes, hydrogenase active site mimics into MOFs to promote H2 generation. We herein report an noble-metal-free photocatalytic H2 generation system consisting of Erythrosin B dye-sensitized MIL-101(Cr as a light absorber and Ni(dmgH2 as a co-catalyst. It is found that Ni(dmgH2 can serve as an efficient co-catalyst to boost H2 generation in the presence of triethanolamine (TEOA as an electron donor under visible light irradiation. The optimal MIL-101(Cr/Ni(dmgH2 hybrid (5 wt% Ni(dmgH2 displays a hydrogen H2 rate of 45.5 μmol h−1, which is 10 times greater than the control sample without Ni(dmgH2 loading. This paper provides a novel design route for active H2 generation systems by combining molecular complexes of earth-abundant metal and MOFs photocatalysts.

  16. Legal Translator Training: Partnership between Teachers of English for Legal Purposes and Legal Specialists (United States)

    Northcott, Jill; Brown, Gillian


    Training legal English specialists is one area in which cooperation between discipline and language specialists is particularly valuable. Seven short excerpts from a short training course run jointly by teachers of English for legal purposes and legal specialists are presented and analysed to illustrate the contribution an ESP oriented approach,…

  17. H2A.Z: view from the top. (United States)

    Zlatanova, Jordanka; Thakar, Amit


    For a couple of decades the chromatin field has endured undeserved neglect. Indeed, what could be so exciting about a monotonous repeating structure whose purpose in life was to package DNA? Chromatin glamour is triumphantly back, due to the realization that chromatin is a major player in the regulation of gene expression and other nuclear processes that occur on the DNA template. The dynamics of the structure that regulates transcription is itself regulated by a variety of complex processes, including histone postsynthetic modifications, chromatin remodeling, and the use of nonallelic histone variants. This review is an attempt to understand the mechanisms of action of the evolutionarily conserved variant H2A.Z, a player with a variety of seemingly unrelated, even contrary, functions. This attempt was prompted by the recent avalanche of genome-wide studies that provide insights that were unthinkable until very recently.

  18. Utilization of membranes for H2O recycle system (United States)

    Ohya, H.; Oguchi, M.


    Conceptual studies of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) carried out at NAL in Japan for a water recycle system using membranes are reviewed. The system will treat water from shower room, urine, impure condensation from gas recycle system, and so on. The H2O recycle system is composed of prefilter, ultrafiltration membrane, reverse osmosis membrane, and distillator. Some results are shown for a bullet train of toilet-flushing water recycle equipment with an ultraviltration membrane module. The constant value of the permeation rate with a 4.7 square meters of module is about 70 1/h after 500th of operation. Thermovaporization with porous polytetrafluorocarbon membrane is also proposed to replce the distillator.

  19. Observation of Heavy Rydberg States in H_2 and HD (United States)

    Beyer, Maximilian; Merkt, Frederic


    The binding energies of the hydrogen atom are given by the Rydberg formula E_n = - {{R}_∞μ/m_e}/{(n-δ)^2}, where the quantum defect δ vanishes in the case of a pure Coulomb potential. Heavy Rydberg systems can be realized when the electron is replaced by an anion, which leads in the case of H^+H^- to an almost 1000 times larger Rydberg constant and to an infinite number of vibrational states. In the diabatic molecular basis, these ion-pair states are described by long-range Coulomb potentials with ^1Σ_g^+ and ^1Σ_u^+ symmetry. In this basis, the level energies are described by an almost energy-independent, nonzero quantum defect, reflecting the finite size of H^-. Strong interactions at small internuclear distances lead to strong variation of δ with n. Gerade [2] and ungerade [3] ion-pair states have been observed in H_2 with principal quantum numbers up to n=240. The quantum defects in this range were found to vary with energy, indicating the inadequacy of a pure diabatic picture. Spectra of ungerade heavy Rydberg states of H_2 with n=160-520 showing that the quantum defect only becomes energy independent for n>350 will be presented, supporting the description using a diabatic basis. I will also present first observations of ion-pair states in HD, showing two series of heavy Rydberg states, H^+D^- and H^-D^+, which have different series limits. The experimental results will be discussed and compared with calculations using both an adiabatic and a diabatic basis. [1] S. Pan, and F. H. Mies, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 3096 (1988). [2] M. O. Vieitez, T. I. Ivanov, E. Reinhold, C. A. de Lange, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 163001 (2008). [3] R. C. Ekey, and E. F. McCormack, Phys. Rev. A 84, 020501(R) (2011).

  20. Increasing extracellular H2O2 produces a bi-phasic response in intracellular H2O2, with peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation only triggered once the cellular H2O2-buffering capacity is overwhelmed. (United States)

    Tomalin, Lewis Elwood; Day, Alison Michelle; Underwood, Zoe Elizabeth; Smith, Graham Robert; Dalle Pezze, Piero; Rallis, Charalampos; Patel, Waseema; Dickinson, Bryan Craig; Bähler, Jürg; Brewer, Thomas Francis; Chang, Christopher Joh-Leung; Shanley, Daryl Pierson; Veal, Elizabeth Ann


    Reactive oxygen species, such as H2O2, can damage cells but also promote fundamental processes, including growth, differentiation and migration. The mechanisms allowing cells to differentially respond to toxic or signaling H2O2 levels are poorly defined. Here we reveal that increasing external H2O2 produces a bi-phasic response in intracellular H2O2. Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are abundant peroxidases which protect against genome instability, ageing and cancer. We have developed a dynamic model simulating in vivo changes in Prx oxidation. Remarkably, we show that the thioredoxin peroxidase activity of Prx does not provide any significant protection against external rises in H2O2. Instead, our model and experimental data are consistent with low levels of extracellular H2O2 being efficiently buffered by other thioredoxin-dependent activities, including H2O2-reactive cysteines in the thiol-proteome. We show that when extracellular H2O2 levels overwhelm this buffering capacity, the consequent rise in intracellular H2O2 triggers hyperoxidation of Prx to thioredoxin-resistant, peroxidase-inactive form/s. Accordingly, Prx hyperoxidation signals that H2O2 defenses are breached, diverting thioredoxin to repair damage. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transport of H2S and HS(-) across the human red blood cell membrane: rapid H2S diffusion and AE1-mediated Cl(-)/HS(-) exchange. (United States)

    Jennings, Michael L


    The rates of H2S and HS(-) transport across the human erythrocyte membrane were estimated by measuring rates of dissipation of pH gradients in media containing 250 μM H2S/HS(-). Net acid efflux is caused by H2S/HS(-) acting analogously to CO2/HCO3(-) in the Jacobs-Stewart cycle. The steps are as follows: 1) H2S efflux through the lipid bilayer and/or a gas channel, 2) extracellular H2S deprotonation, 3) HS(-) influx in exchange for Cl(-), catalyzed by the anion exchange protein AE1, and 4) intracellular HS(-) protonation. Net acid transport by the Cl(-)/HS(-)/H2S cycle is more efficient than by the Cl(-)/HCO3(-)/CO2 cycle because of the rapid H2S-HS(-) interconversion in cells and medium. The rates of acid transport were analyzed by solving the mass flow equations for the cycle to produce estimates of the HS(-) and H2S transport rates. The data indicate that HS(-) is a very good substrate for AE1; the Cl(-)/HS(-) exchange rate is about one-third as rapid as Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange. The H2S permeability coefficient must also be high (>10(-2) cm/s, half time <0.003 s) to account for the pH equilibration data. The results imply that H2S and HS(-) enter erythrocytes very rapidly in the microcirculation of H2S-producing tissues, thereby acting as a sink for H2S and lowering the local extracellular concentration, and the fact that HS(-) is a substrate for a Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger indicates that some effects of exogenous H2S/HS(-) may not result from a regulatory role of H2S but, rather, from net acid flux by H2S and HS(-) transport in a Jacobs-Stewart cycle.

  2. Ni(dmgH)2 complex coupled with metal-organic frameworks MIL-101(Cr) for photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible light irradiation


    Wang, Rong; Wu, Li; Chica, Bryant; Gu, Lina; Xu, Gengsheng; Yuan, Yupeng


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been tremendously used as photocatalysts for H2 generation in recent years. Lacking native active sites (so-called co-catalyst) for H2 generation motivates the incorporation of noble metals and their molecular complexes, hydrogenase active site mimics into MOFs to promote H2 generation. We herein report an noble-metal-free photocatalytic H2 generation system consisting of Erythrosin B dye-sensitized MIL-101(Cr) as a light absorber and Ni(dmgH)2 as a co-cat...

  3. Catalase activity is stimulated by H2O2 in rich culture medium and is required for H2O2 resistance and adaptation in yeast


    Dorival Martins; Ann M. English


    Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1) protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A) does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). This we attributed to...

  4. Towards Equity in Service Provision for Gay Men and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men in Repressive Contexts. (United States)

    Beyrer, Chris; Makofane, Keletso; Orazulike, Ifeanyi; Diouf, Daouda; Baral, Stefan D


    Chris Beyrer and colleagues reflect on an underappreciated trend in multiple African, Asian, and Caribbean settings, in which the provision of HIV and other essential health services for sexual and gender minorities is expanding despite challenging legal and social environments.

  5. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis


    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  6. Legal Network report calls for decriminalization of prostitution in Canada. (United States)

    Betteridge, Glenn


    In December 2005 the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network released Sex, work, rights: reforming Canadian criminal laws on prostitution. The report examines the ways in which the prostitution-related provisions of the Criminal Code, and their enforcement, have criminalized many aspects of sex workers' lives and have promoted their social marginalization. Evidence indicates that the criminal law has contributed to health and safety risks, including the risk of HIV infection, faced by sex workers. The Legal Network calls for the decriminalization of prostitution in Canada, and for other legal and policy reforms that respect the human rights and promote the health of sex workers. Despite the report's Canadian focus, its human rights analysis is relevant to the situation of sex workers in other countries where prostitution is illegal and sex workers face rights abuses. In this article, Glenn Betteridge, the principal author of the report, briefly sets out the case for law reform.

  7. Health telematics: towards harmonisation of the legal framework? (United States)

    Skouma, Georgia; Van Eecke, Patrick


    The use of telematics in medicine inaugurates a new era in the provision of healthcare services at a global level. The potential of improved quality of care, easy accessibility to innovative treatment and more efficient utilisation of resources are some of the challenges of health telematics applications. A sound legal basis is needed to boost the expansion of ICT systems in healthcare, which is also expected to enhance the confidence of patients and healthcare professionals in the use thereof. Because of the global nature of the Internet, the legal solutions that will be adopted cannot be fragmented on a per country basis. Solid legislation at the EU level that will frame the provision of Information Society services in general is now under construction. Some core EU directives have already been transposed into the national legal systems, while some others are under the way of implementation. It is highly likely that even after their implementation these acts will not secure an ideal harmonisation in the provision of services as far as healthcare is concerned. A flexible regulatory approach is therefore needed to complete the regulatory gaps that the everyday practice has been ascertaining. A remedy to this direction can be the preparation and adoption on an EU scale of self-regulatory instruments, insofar as they can be broadly recognised and enforced by the judge.

  8. Putrescine protects hulless barley from damage due to UV-B stress via H2S- and H2O2-mediated signaling pathways. (United States)

    Li, Qien; Wang, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Yanning; Zhang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Shuaijun; Bo, Letao; Wang, Yao; Ding, Yingfeng; An, Lizhe


    In hulless barley, H 2 S mediated increases in H 2 O 2 induced by putrescine, and their interaction enhanced tolerance to UV-B by maintaining redox homeostasis and promoting the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds. This study investigated the possible relationship between putrescence (Put), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as the underlying mechanism of their interaction in reducing UV-B induced damage. UV-B radiation increased electrolyte leakage (EL) and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and UV-absorbing compounds but reduced antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) contents. Exogenous application of Put, H2S or H2O2 reduced some of the above-mentioned negative effects, but were enhanced by the addition of Put, H2S and H2O2 inhibitors. Moreover, the protective effect of Put against UV-B radiation-induced damage to hulless barley was diminished by DL-propargylglycine (PAG, a H2S biosynthesis inhibitor), hydroxylamine (HT, a H2S scavenger), diphenylene iodonium (DPI, a PM-NADPH oxidase inhibitor) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU, a ROS scavenger), and the effect of Put on H2O2 accumulation was abolished by HT. Taken together, as the downstream component of the Put signaling pathway, H2S mediated H2O2 accumulation, and H2O2 induced the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds and maintained redox homeostasis under UV-B stress, thereby increasing the tolerance of hulless barley seedlings to UV-B stress.

  9. Increased H$_2$CO production in the outer disk around HD 163296


    Carney, M. T.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Loomis, R. A.; Salinas, V. N.; Öberg, K.I.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D. J.


    Three formaldehyde lines were observed (H$_2$CO 3$_{03}$--2$_{02}$, H$_2$CO 3$_{22}$--2$_{21}$, and H$_2$CO 3$_{21}$--2$_{20}$) in the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 with ALMA at 0.5 arcsecond (60 AU) spatial resolution. H$_2$CO 3$_{03}$--2$_{02}$ was readily detected via imaging, while the weaker H$_2$CO 3$_{22}$--2$_{21}$ and H$_2$CO 3$_{21}$--2$_{20}$ lines required matched filter analysis to detect. H$_2$CO is present throughout most of the gaseous disk, extending...

  10. High-Level ab initio electronic structure calculations of Water Clusters (H2O)16 and (H2O)17: a new global minimum for (H2O)16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Soohaeng; Apra, Edoardo; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.


    The lowest-energy structures of water clusters (H2O)16 and (H2O)17 were revisited at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory. A new global minimum structure for (H2O)16 was found at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory and the effect of zero-point energy corrections on the relative stability of the low-lying minimum energy structures was assessed. For (H2O)17 the CCSD(T) calculations confirm the previously found at the MP2 level of theory "interior" arrangement (fully coordinated water molecule inside a spherical cluster) as the global minimum.

  11. Aquifer-test data for wells H-1, H-2A, H-2B, H-2C, and H-3 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico (United States)

    Huff, G.F.; Gregory, Angela


    A series of aquifer tests was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey on geologic units of Permian age at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site between February 1979 and July 1980 in wells H-1, H-2 complex (H-2A, H-2B, and H-2C), and H-3. The tested geologic units included the Magenta Dolomite and Culebra Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation, and the contact zone between the Rustler and Salado Formations. Selected information on the tested formations, test dates, pre-test static water levels, test configurations, and raw data collected during these tests are tabulated in this report.

  12. Equalization of Legal Status with Respect to Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Tarusina


    Full Text Available This article discusses the current trends in Russian legal doctrine and legislation on aligning the legal status of women and men, taking into account the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and the European Court of Human Rights.It analyzes and critically reflects upon the gender aspects and content of those branches of Russian law in which such aspects are most clearly represented, either objectively or by tradition – techniques for gender neutralization of legal norms, the establishment of gender privileges and gender restrictions in legal status.Constitutional law: the basic premise of gender equality, preferential treatment for certain categories of citizens, gender limitations; problems of quotas for women’s representation in government, administration and other structures, provisions for women’s representation in party electoral lists, etc.Criminal Law: trends in the gender neutralization of crimes of a sexual nature while maintaining criminal responsibility for offenses against pregnant women, etc.; gender neutralization of preferential treatment in the punishment of persons with children.Family Law: Russia’s traditional view of marriage and parenthood; privileges for women in the divorce process, disputes about children, maintenance obligations; gender restrictions on adoption, assisted reproductive technologies; variants of gender neutralization of some family law norms.Labor law: the preservation of absolute protection of the rights and interests of pregnant women and mothers of young children; the trend for gender neutralization of the legal status of parents of young children; continued restrictions on women’s access to certain areas of work.Analysis of the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and the European Court of Human Rights shows that on a number of gender equality aspects in Russian legislation and law enforcement practice, the views of these

  13. [Legal empowerment and mental health: the legal subject in hospitals]. (United States)

    Yvon, Marianne; Festa, Carole; Hanen, Sylvie; Mercuel, Alain; Monteiro, Michel


    A social experiment and pilot project funded by the French Directorate General of Social Cohesion aimed at providing legal aid services ("legal empowerment and mental health") has been conducted since 2009 in three healthcare institutions in Paris (France): the Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, the Groupe Public de Santé Perray-Vaucluse, and the Hôpital Tenon (psychotraumatology unit). Lasting until 2012 and piloted by the NGO Droits d'Urgence, the initiative aims to promote the legal empowerment of socially excluded people suffering from psychiatric or mental disorders and to facilitate access to care. The initiative operates on two levels, providing legal support to vulnerable people and offering legal expertise and advice to medical and social staff. An ad-hoc intervention approach was designed to ensure the implementation of the initiative based on several combined tools: legal aid, technical committees, awareness-raising activities, and pooling of legal resources and information. Developed across the three institutions, this integrated and subsidiary initiative improves our understanding of the complex circumstances of disempowered people ? who are often faced with overlapping social, medical, administrative and legal difficulties ? and helps to take into account their vulnerabilities. The cross-professional and cross-boundary system promoted by this initiative involves medical staff, social workers and lawyers around patients viewed as both actors and legal subjects.

  14. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  15. Air Force NiH2 IPV storage testing (United States)

    Smellie, Shawn; Hill, Carole A.


    USAF Phillips Laboratory Nickel Hydrogen IPV storage test, performed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) at Crane Indiana, is discussed. The storage tests is just one component of the USAF Phillips Laboratory Nickel Hydrogen IPV Test Program. The plan was to store cells for a defined period and cycle matching cells to determine the effect on cycle life. The storage period was completed in April 95 and the cycling cells have achieved five years of real time LEO cycling. The two main objectives of the storage test are: to investigate various methods on NiH2 cells by using two different manufacturers and two different storage methods or conditions, and to determine the effect of storage method on cycle performance and cycle life by using matching cells cycling at 25% depth of discharge. The comparisons between individual cycle performance as well as cycle life are also reported. During the test the following variables has been considered: constant potential, cell current, open circuit voltage, and temperature. The results of the test are also discussed using charts and tables.

  16. An Accurate Potential Energy Surface for H2O (United States)

    Schwenke, David W.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)


    We have carried out extensive high quality ab initio electronic structure calculations of the ground state potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function (DMF) for H2O. A small adjustment is made to the PES to improve the agreement of line positions from theory and experiment. The theoretical line positions are obtained from variational ro-vibrational calculations using the exact kinetic energy operator. For the lines being fitted, the root-mean-square error was reduced from 6.9 to 0.08 /cm. We were then able to match 30,092 of the 30,117 lines from the HITRAN 96 data base to theoretical lines, and 80% of the line positions differed less than 0.1 /cm. About 3% of the line positions in the experimental data base appear to be incorrect. Theory predicts the existence of many additional weak lines with intensities above the cutoff used in the data base. To obtain results of similar accuracy for HDO, a mass dependent correction to the PH is introduced and is parameterized by simultaneously fitting line positions for HDO and D2O. The mass dependent PH has good predictive value for T2O and HTO. Nonadiabatic effects are not explicitly included. Line strengths for vibrational bands summed over rotational levels usually agree well between theory and experiment, but individual line strengths can differ greatly. A high temperature line list containing about 380 million lines has been generated using the present PES and DMF

  17. Non-BCS thermodynamic properties of H2 S superconductor (United States)

    Durajski, Artur P.; Szcze&şacute; niak, Radosław; Li, Yinwei


    The present paper determines the thermodynamic properties of the superconducting state in the H2S compound. The values of the pressure from 130 GPa to 180 GPa were taken into consideration. The calculations were performed in the framework of the Eliashberg formalism. In the first step, the experimental course of the dependence of the critical temperature on the pressure was reproduced: TC ∈ K, whereas the Coulomb pseudopotential equal to 0.15 was adopted. Next, the following quantities were calculated: the order parameter at the temperature of zero Kelvin (Δ (0)), the specific heat jump at the critical temperature (ΔC (TC) ≡CS (TC) -CN (TC)), and the thermodynamic critical field (HC (0)). It was found that the values of the dimensionless ratios: RΔ ≡ 2 Δ (0) /kBTC , RC ≡ ΔC(TC) /CN (TC) , and RH ≡TCCN (TC) / HC2(0) deviate from the predictions of the BCS theory: RΔ ∈ , RC ∈ , and RH ∈ . Generalizing the results on the whole family of the HnS -type compounds, it was shown that the maximum value of the critical temperature can be equal to ˜290 K, while RΔ,RC and RH adopt the following values: 6.53, 3.99, and 0.093, respectively.

  18. Use of H2(18)O2 to measure absolute rates of dark H2O2 production in freshwater systems. (United States)

    Vermilyea, Andrew W; Dixon, Taylor C; Voelker, Bettina M


    Photochemical production is usually considered to be the main source of H2O2 in freshwater systems; here we show that significant dark production also occurs. We used isotope-labeled H2O2 as a tracer to simultaneously determine H2O2 production and decay rates in incubations of unfiltered water samples. Our new technique for H2(18)O2 analysis, requiring only small sample volumes and simple field equipment, allows for preservation of samples in remote locations, followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis up to six days later. Dark H2O2 production rates of 29-122 nM/h were observed in several lakewater samples. Measured production and decay rates were consistent with pseudo steady-state, early morning [H2O2] measurements made in each water body. Dark H2O2 production is likely to be more important than photochemical production for the total H2O2 budget over 24 h in the freshwater systems we examined. Our results imply that processes usually assumed to be photochemically induced in freshwaters, such as metal redox cycling mediated by H2O2 and O2(-), and production of strong oxidants from the reaction of H2O2 with Fe(II) (Fenton's reaction) could also be occurring at significant rates in the absence of light.

  19. Catalase activity is stimulated by H2O2 in rich culture medium and is required for H2O2 resistance and adaptation in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorival Martins


    Full Text Available Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1 protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. This we attributed to our observation that catalase activity is depressed when yeast are challenged with H2O2 in nutrient-poor media. Hence, we performed a systematic comparison of catalase activity and cell viability of wild-type yeast and of the single catalase knockouts, ctt1∆ and cta1∆, following H2O2 challenge in nutrient-rich medium (YPD and in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. Ctt1 but not Cta1 activity is strongly induced by H2O2 when cells are challenged in YPD but suppressed when cells are challenged in buffer. Consistent with the activity results, exponentially growing ctt1∆ cells in YPD are more sensitive to H2O2 than wild-type or cta1∆ cells, whereas in buffer all three strains exhibit comparable H2O2 hypersensitivity. Furthermore, catalase activity is increased during adaptation to sublethal H2O2 concentrations in YPD but not in buffer. We conclude that induction of cytosolic Ctt1 activity is vital in protecting yeast against exogenous H2O2 but this activity is inhibited by H2O2 when cells are challenged in nutrient-free media.

  20. Catalase activity is stimulated by H2O2 in rich culture medium and is required for H2O2 resistance and adaptation in yeast☆ (United States)

    Martins, Dorival; English, Ann M.


    Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1) protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A) does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). This we attributed to our observation that catalase activity is depressed when yeast are challenged with H2O2 in nutrient-poor media. Hence, we performed a systematic comparison of catalase activity and cell viability of wild-type yeast and of the single catalase knockouts, ctt1∆ and cta1∆, following H2O2 challenge in nutrient-rich medium (YPD) and in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Ctt1 but not Cta1 activity is strongly induced by H2O2 when cells are challenged in YPD but suppressed when cells are challenged in buffer. Consistent with the activity results, exponentially growing ctt1∆ cells in YPD are more sensitive to H2O2 than wild-type or cta1∆ cells, whereas in buffer all three strains exhibit comparable H2O2 hypersensitivity. Furthermore, catalase activity is increased during adaptation to sublethal H2O2 concentrations in YPD but not in buffer. We conclude that induction of cytosolic Ctt1 activity is vital in protecting yeast against exogenous H2O2 but this activity is inhibited by H2O2 when cells are challenged in nutrient-free media. PMID:24563848

  1. Catalase activity is stimulated by H(2)O(2) in rich culture medium and is required for H(2)O(2) resistance and adaptation in yeast. (United States)

    Martins, Dorival; English, Ann M


    Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1) protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A) does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). This we attributed to our observation that catalase activity is depressed when yeast are challenged with H2O2 in nutrient-poor media. Hence, we performed a systematic comparison of catalase activity and cell viability of wild-type yeast and of the single catalase knockouts, ctt1∆ and cta1∆, following H2O2 challenge in nutrient-rich medium (YPD) and in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Ctt1 but not Cta1 activity is strongly induced by H2O2 when cells are challenged in YPD but suppressed when cells are challenged in buffer. Consistent with the activity results, exponentially growing ctt1∆ cells in YPD are more sensitive to H2O2 than wild-type or cta1∆ cells, whereas in buffer all three strains exhibit comparable H2O2 hypersensitivity. Furthermore, catalase activity is increased during adaptation to sublethal H2O2 concentrations in YPD but not in buffer. We conclude that induction of cytosolic Ctt1 activity is vital in protecting yeast against exogenous H2O2 but this activity is inhibited by H2O2 when cells are challenged in nutrient-free media.



    Stefania-Alina DUMITRACHE


    According to article 253 and 254 of Labor Code, both employers and employees are responsible under the rules and principles of contractual liability for damages to the other party of legal labor relationship and we emphasize that this is not purely civil liability, but a variety of it, determined by the specific peculiarities of legal labor relations. Thus, we highlight that labor law provisions which refer to liability for damages complement, unquestionably, with the common law relating to c...

  3. Possible means of legal protection for computer programs and perspectives of future development


    Toufar, Pavel


    This theses focuses on the possible legal protection of a computer program as well as on the legal nature of computer program as an intangible asset. Both copyright protection (as a standard and worldwide accepted means of protection) and also the other possibilities, i.e. patent protection and protection based on provisions regulating an unfair competition are discussed. Each means of protection is assessed based on its usability in relation with the computer program taking the overall impac...

  4. Legal Policy Of Indonesia's Air Transportations Human Resources Development In Facing ASEAN Economic Society 2015


    Lestari, Endang Puji


    Legal policy of development and the provision of law flight human resources belong to national transportation policy subs-system. Legal policy contained in Act No. 7 of 2007 about RPJP puts the development of air transportation as one of the parts of the national facilities and infrastructure development. In the regime of flight law, human resources management is arranged in separated sections that belong to the national system development. The scope of human resources development and setting...

  5. TLR agonists downregulate H2-O in CD8α− DCs1 (United States)

    Porter, Gavin W.; Yi, Woelsung; Denzin, Lisa K.


    Peptide loading of MHC class II (MHCII) molecules is catalyzed by the non-classical MHCII-related molecule, H2-M. H2-O, another MHCII-like molecule, associates with H2-M and modulates H2-M function. The MHCII presentation pathway is tightly regulated in dendritic cells (DCs); yet how the key modulators of MHCII presentation, H2-M and H2-O, are affected in different DC subsets in response to maturation is unknown. Here we show that H2-O is markedly downregulated in vivo in mouse CD8α− DCs in response to a broad array of TLR agonists. In contrast, CD8α+ DCs only modestly downregulated H2-O in response to TLR-agonists. H2-M levels were slightly down-modulated in both CD8α− and CD8α+ DCs. As a consequence, H2-M:H2-O ratios significantly increased for CD8α− but not CD8α+ DCs. The TLR-mediated downregulation was DC-specific, as B cells did not show significant H2-O and H2-M downregulation. TLR4 signaling was required to mediate DC H2-O downregulation in response to LPS. Finally, our studies showed that the mechanism of H2-O downregulation was likely due to direct protein degradation of H2-O as well as down regulation of H2-O mRNA levels. The differential H2-O and H2-M modulation after DC maturation support the proposed roles of CD8α− dendritic cells in initiating CD4-restricted immune responses by optimal MHCII presentation and CD8α+ DCs in promoting immune tolerance via presentation of low levels of MHCII-peptide. PMID:21918198

  6. TLR agonists downregulate H2-O in CD8alpha- dendritic cells. (United States)

    Porter, Gavin W; Yi, Woelsung; Denzin, Lisa K


    Peptide loading of MHC class II (MHCII) molecules is catalyzed by the nonclassical MHCII-related molecule H2-M. H2-O, another MHCII-like molecule, associates with H2-M and modulates H2-M function. The MHCII presentation pathway is tightly regulated in dendritic cells (DCs), yet how the key modulators of MHCII presentation, H2-M and H2-O, are affected in different DC subsets in response to maturation is unknown. In this study, we show that H2-O is markedly downregulated in vivo in mouse CD8α(-) DCs in response to a broad array of TLR agonists. In contrast, CD8α(+) DCs only modestly downregulated H2-O in response to TLR agonists. H2-M levels were slightly downmodulated in both CD8α(-) and CD8α(+) DCs. As a consequence, H2-M/H2-O ratios significantly increased for CD8α(-) but not for CD8α(+) DCs. The TLR-mediated downregulation was DC specific, as B cells did not show significant H2-O and H2-M downregulation. TLR4 signaling was required to mediate DC H2-O downregulation in response to LPS. Finally, our studies showed that the mechanism of H2-O downregulation was likely due to direct protein degradation of H2-O as well as downregulation of H2-O mRNA levels. The differential H2-O and H2-M modulation after DC maturation supports the proposed roles of CD8α(-) DCs in initiating CD4-restricted immune responses by optimal MHCII presentation and of CD8α(+) DCs in promoting immune tolerance via presentation of low levels of MHCII-peptide.

  7. Molecular analysis of an EL4 cell line that expresses H-2Db but not H-2Kb or beta 2-microglobulin. (United States)

    Potter, T A; Zeff, R A; Schmitt-Verhulst, A M; Rajan, T V


    EL4/Mar is a variant cell line that expresses H-2Db but neither H-2Kb nor beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m). Southern and RNA blot analysis and immunoprecipitation of metabolically labeled proteins established that the B2m gene(s), beta 2m mRNA, and beta 2m protein are normal in this cell line. Somatic cell hybridization showed that the defect in this cell line was in the synthesis of H-2Kb, and RNA blot analysis with an H-2Kb specific oligonucleotide established that the H-2Kb gene(s) in this cell line was not transcribed into a stable mRNA species. The apparent absence of beta 2m on the surface of this cell line suggests that there may be some feature of the H-2Db molecule that allows it to be expressed in the absence of detectable beta 2m. Images PMID:3887412

  8. A thermodynamic study of 1-propanol-glycerol-H2O at 25 degrees C: Effect of glycerol on molecular organization of H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parsons, M.T.; Westh, Peter; Davies, J.V.


    of H2O. The glycerol molecules do not exert a hydrophobic effect on H2O. Rather, the hydroxyl groups of glycerol, perhaps by forming clusters via its alkyl backbone with hydroxyl groups pointing outward, interact with H2O so as to reduce the characteristics of liquid H2O. The global hydrogen bond......The excess chemical potential, partial molar enthalpy, and volume of 1-propanol were determined in ternary mixtures of 1-propanol-glycerol-H2O at 25degreesC. The mole fraction dependence of all these thermodynamic functions was used to elucidate the effect of glycerol on the molecular organization...... probability and, hence, the percolation nature of the hydrogen bond network is reduced. In addition, the degree of fluctuation inherent in liquid H2O is reduced by glycerol perhaps by participating in the hydrogen bond network via OH groups. At infinite dilution, the pair interaction coefficients in enthalpy...

  9. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far


    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  10. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican


    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  11. Localization and expression of histone H2A variants during mouse oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development. (United States)

    Wu, B J; Dong, F L; Ma, X S; Wang, X G; Lin, F; Liu, H L


    Epigenetic modifications of the genome, such as histone H2A variants, ensure appropriate gene activation or silencing during oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development. We examined global localization and expression of the histone H2A variants, including H2A.Bbd, H2A.Z and H2A.X, during mouse oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development. Immunocytochemistry with specific antibodies against various histone H2A variants showed their localization and changes during oogenesis and preimplantation development. H2A.Bbd and H2A.Z were almost absent from nuclei of growing oocytes (except 5-day oocyte), whereas H2A.X was deposited in nuclei throughout oogenesis and in preimplantation embryos. In germinal vesicle (GV) oocyte chromatin, H2A.Bbd was detected as a weak signal, whereas no fluorescent signal was detected in GV breakdown (GVBD) or metaphase II (MII) oocytes; H2A.Z showed intense signals in chromatin of GV, GVBD and MII oocytes. H2A. Bbd showed very weak signals in both pronucleus and 2-cell embryo nuclei, but intense signals were detected in nuclei from 4-cell embryo to blastula. The H2A.Z signal was absent from pronucleus to morula chromatin, whereas a fluorescent signal was detected in blastula nuclei. Our results suggest that histone H2A variants are probably involved in reprogramming of genomes during oocyte meiosis or after fertilization.



    Aguado. A.; Roncero O.; Zanchet A.; Herrero V.J.; Agundez M.


    The Astrophysical Journal 146.5 (2013): 125, reproduced by permission of the AAS Specific rate constants for the S++H2 reaction are calculated using the ground quartet state potential energy surface and quasi-classical trajectories method. The calculations are performed for H 2 in different vibrational states v = 0-4 and thermal conditions for rotational and translational energies. The calculations lead to slow rate constants for the H2 vibrational levels v = 0, 1, but a significant enhanc...

  13. The study on single crystal structure of [Zn(Hpdc) 2(H 2O) 2]·2H 2O (Hpdc -=2,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid group) (United States)

    Haitao, Xu; Nengwu, Zheng; Hanhui, Xu; Yonggang, Wu; Ruyi, Yang; Enyi, Ye; Xianglin, Jin


    The hydrothermal synthesis and structure of a coordination polymer Zn(Hpdc)2(H2O)2]·2H2O were reported. The Zn2+ center was coordinated by two waters and two chelated Hpdc- to form units [Zn(Hpdc)2 (H2O)2] and the units were connected by hydrogen bonds to engender one-dimensional channels through the c axis. Especially, the two lattice waters play an important role in construction of these channels.

  14. The Legal Framework for Regionalization of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Popescu-Slăniceanu


    Full Text Available Deepening relationships and interdependencies today between states and other participants in international relations, globalization issues and solutions, acceleration of socio-political phenomena bring new problems to the people.Among the issues at the heart of contemporary research interest is public law and relative to new forms of international cooperation, development cooperation and regional integration at the state and sovereignty, the need for democratic values, the development of local autonomy, the rights human. In Romania, regional experiences, in different forms, dating back to the interwar period. Currently, the institutional framework, objectives, powers and instruments of regional development policy in Romania was established by Law no. 315/2004 on regional development in Romania, but not developing regions and municipalities have no legal personality and therefore be a reform aimed at regionalization of Romania. Under the provisions of article 3, 1 of the Constitution, republished, Romanian territory is organized administratively into communes, towns and counties. It is therefore necessary to amend the Constitution in order to create the legal framework for regionalization constitutional Romania and then passing bills related to regionalization and administrative decentralization to properly delineate the respective responsibilities of administrative units in Romania.

  15. Stable solid and aqueous H2CO3 from CO2 and H2O at high pressure and high temperature (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zeuschner, Janek; Eremets, Mikhail; Troyan, Ivan; Willams, Jonathan


    Carbonic acid (H2CO3) forms in small amounts when CO2 dissolves in H2O, yet decomposes rapidly under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Despite its fleeting existence, H2CO3 plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and in biological carbonate-containing systems. The short lifetime in water and presumed low concentration under all terrestrial conditions has stifled study of this fundamental species. Here, we have examined CO2/H2O mixtures under conditions of high pressure and high temperature to explore the potential for reaction to H2CO3 inside celestial bodies. We present a novel method to prepare solid H2CO3 by heating CO2/H2O mixtures at high pressure with a CO2 laser. Furthermore, we found that, contrary to present understanding, neutral H2CO3 is a significant component in aqueous CO2 solutions above 2.4 GPa and 110 °C as identified by IR-absorption and Raman spectroscopy. This is highly significant for speciation of deep C-O-H fluids with potential consequences for fluid-carbonate-bearing rock interactions. As conditions inside subduction zones on Earth appear to be most favorable for production of aqueous H2CO3, a role in subduction related phenomena is inferred.

  16. A neural network potential energy surface for the NaH2 system and dynamics studies on the H(2S) + NaH(X1Σ+) → Na(2S) + H2(X1Σg+) reaction. (United States)

    Wang, Shufen; Yuan, Jiuchuang; Li, Huixing; Chen, Maodu


    In order to study the dynamics of the reaction H(2S) + NaH(X1Σ+) → Na(2S) + H2(X1Σg+), a new potential energy surface (PES) for the ground state of the NaH2 system is constructed based on 35 730 ab initio energy points. Using basis sets of quadruple zeta quality, multireference configuration interaction calculations with Davidson correction were carried out to obtain the ab initio energy points. The neural network method is used to fit the PES, and the root mean square error is very small (0.00639 eV). The bond lengths, dissociation energies, zero-point energies and spectroscopic constants of H2(X1Σg+) and NaH(X1Σ+) obtained on the new NaH2 PES are in good agreement with the experiment data. On the new PES, the reactant coordinate-based time-dependent wave packet method is applied to study the reaction dynamics of H(2S) + NaH(X1Σ+) → Na(2S) + H2(X1Σg+), and the reaction probabilities, integral cross-sections (ICSs) and differential cross-sections (DCSs) are obtained. There is no threshold in the reaction due to the absence of an energy barrier on the minimum energy path. When the collision energy increases, the ICSs decrease from a high value at low collision energy. The DCS results show that the angular distribution of the product molecules tends to the forward direction. Compared with the LiH2 system, the NaH2 system has a larger mass and the PES has a larger well at the H-NaH configuration, which leads to a higher ICS value in the H(2S) + NaH(X1Σ+) → Na(2S) + H2(X1Σg+) reaction. Because the H(2S) + NaH(X1Σ+) → Na(2S) + H2(X1Σg+) reaction releases more energy, the product molecules can be excited to a higher vibrational state.

  17. The Military Commissions Act of 2009 (MCA 2009): Overview and Legal Issues (United States)


    as the legal basis for asserting detainees had no right to pursue writs of habeas corpus , but the Court’s opinion served as a warning that military...including pending cases,7 but the Supreme Court held that provision to be an unconstitutional suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus .8 President...otherwise provided in this chapter and notwithstanding any other provision of law (including section 2241 of title 28 or any other habeas corpus

  18. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian


    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  19. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  20. Legal, Ethical, and Policy Issues. (United States)

    Petersen, Rodney J.; Hodges, Marjorie W.


    Summarizes legal issues that pertain to the uses of information technology on campuses. Highlights privacy, freedom of expression, and intellectual property rights. Argues that understanding these legal and ethical issues is necessary in developing an appropriate campus policy. Provides guidance for developing a campus technology policy. (RJM)

  1. 75 FR 3893 - Legal Processes (United States)


    ... Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and...

  2. Legal Aspects of the Web. (United States)

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles


    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  3. 78 FR 14079 - Legal Processes (United States)


    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... Shirley Hassan, Office of General Law, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part...

  4. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  5. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne


    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...

  6. Legal Origin and Social Solidarity: The Continued Relevance of Durkheim to Comparative Institutional Analysis. (United States)

    Johnson, Phil; Brookes, Michael; Wood, Geoffrey; Brewster, Chris


    By using the classic works of Durkheim as a theoretical platform, this research explores the relationship between legal systems and social solidarity. We found that certain types of civil law system, most notably those of Scandinavia, are associated with higher levels of social capital and better welfare state provision. However, we found the relationship between legal system and societal outcomes is considerably more complex than suggested by currently fashionable economistic legal origin approaches, and more in line with the later writings of Durkheim, and, indeed, the literature on comparative capitalisms. Relative communitarianism was strongly affected by relative development, reflecting the complex relationship between institutions, state capabilities and informal social ties and networks.

  7. Phylogenomics of unusual histone H2A Variants in Bdelloid rotifers. (United States)

    Van Doninck, Karine; Mandigo, Morgan L; Hur, Jae H; Wang, Peter; Guglielmini, Julien; Milinkovitch, Michel C; Lane, William S; Meselson, Matthew


    Rotifers of Class Bdelloidea are remarkable in having evolved for millions of years, apparently without males and meiosis. In addition, they are unusually resistant to desiccation and ionizing radiation and are able to repair hundreds of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks per genome with little effect on viability or reproduction. Because specific histone H2A variants are involved in DSB repair and certain meiotic processes in other eukaryotes, we investigated the histone H2A genes and proteins of two bdelloid species. Genomic libraries were built and probed to identify histone H2A genes in Adineta vaga and Philodina roseola, species representing two different bdelloid families. The expressed H2A proteins were visualized on SDS-PAGE gels and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. We find that neither the core histone H2A, present in nearly all other eukaryotes, nor the H2AX variant, a ubiquitous component of the eukaryotic DSB repair machinery, are present in bdelloid rotifers. Instead, they are replaced by unusual histone H2A variants of higher mass. In contrast, a species of rotifer belonging to the facultatively sexual, desiccation- and radiation-intolerant sister class of bdelloid rotifers, the monogononts, contains a canonical core histone H2A and appears to lack the bdelloid H2A variant genes. Applying phylogenetic tools, we demonstrate that the bdelloid-specific H2A variants arose as distinct lineages from canonical H2A separate from those leading to the H2AX and H2AZ variants. The replacement of core H2A and H2AX in bdelloid rotifers by previously uncharacterized H2A variants with extended carboxy-terminal tails is further evidence for evolutionary diversity within this class of histone H2A genes and may represent adaptation to unusual features specific to bdelloid rotifers.

  8. NK Cell Receptor/H2-Dk–Dependent Host Resistance to Viral Infection Is Quantitatively Modulated by H2 q Inhibitory Signals (United States)

    Fodil-Cornu, Nassima; Loredo-Osti, J. Concepción; Vidal, Silvia M.


    The cytomegalovirus resistance locus Cmv3 has been linked to an epistatic interaction between two loci: a Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor gene and the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) locus. To demonstrate the interaction between Cmv3 and H2k, we generated double congenic mice between MA/My and BALB.K mice and an F2 cross between FVB/N (H-2q) and BALB.K (H2k) mice, two strains susceptible to mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). Only mice expressing H2k in conjunction with Cmv3MA/My or Cmv3FVB were resistant to MCMV infection. Subsequently, an F3 cross was carried out between transgenic FVB/H2-Dk and MHC-I deficient mice in which only the progeny expressing Cmv3FVB and a single H2-Dk class-I molecule completely controlled MCMV viral loads. This phenotype was shown to be NK cell–dependent and associated with subsequent NK cell proliferation. Finally, we demonstrated that a number of H2q alleles influence the expression level of H2q molecules, but not intrinsic functional properties of NK cells; viral loads, however, were quantitatively proportional to the number of H2q alleles. Our results support a model in which H-2q molecules convey Ly49-dependent inhibitory signals that interfere with the action of H2-Dk on NK cell activation against MCMV infection. Thus, the integration of activating and inhibitory signals emanating from various MHC-I/NK cell receptor interactions regulates NK cell–mediated control of viral load. PMID:21533075

  9. NK cell receptor/H2-Dk-dependent host resistance to viral infection is quantitatively modulated by H2q inhibitory signals. (United States)

    Fodil-Cornu, Nassima; Loredo-Osti, J Concepción; Vidal, Silvia M


    The cytomegalovirus resistance locus Cmv3 has been linked to an epistatic interaction between two loci: a Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor gene and the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) locus. To demonstrate the interaction between Cmv3 and H2(k), we generated double congenic mice between MA/My and BALB.K mice and an F(2) cross between FVB/N (H-2(q)) and BALB.K (H2(k)) mice, two strains susceptible to mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). Only mice expressing H2(k) in conjunction with Cmv3(MA/My) or Cmv3(FVB) were resistant to MCMV infection. Subsequently, an F(3) cross was carried out between transgenic FVB/H2-D(k) and MHC-I deficient mice in which only the progeny expressing Cmv3(FVB) and a single H2-D(k) class-I molecule completely controlled MCMV viral loads. This phenotype was shown to be NK cell-dependent and associated with subsequent NK cell proliferation. Finally, we demonstrated that a number of H2(q) alleles influence the expression level of H2(q) molecules, but not intrinsic functional properties of NK cells; viral loads, however, were quantitatively proportional to the number of H2(q) alleles. Our results support a model in which H-2(q) molecules convey Ly49-dependent inhibitory signals that interfere with the action of H2-D(k) on NK cell activation against MCMV infection. Thus, the integration of activating and inhibitory signals emanating from various MHC-I/NK cell receptor interactions regulates NK cell-mediated control of viral load.

  10. Decapado del acero inoxidable AISI 316L utilizando una mezcla ecológica de H2O2-H2SO4-HF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez, P. P.


    Full Text Available This study reports the pickling of austenitic AISI 316L stainless steel (SS using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, sulphuric acid (H2SO4 and hydrofluoric acid (HF at pH 2.0. The stability of H2O2 was also studied using different concentrations of ferric ion from 0 to 40 g/l and temperature from 25 to 60 °C. The pickling rate at 50 °C in the presence and absence of 40 g/l ferric ion was 2.6 and 0.2 mg/dm2 day (mdd, respectively. p-Toluene sulphonic acid was used as stabilizer of H2O2.En la presente investigación se estudia el decapado del acero inoxidable AISI 316L utilizando una mezcla de agua oxigenada (H2O2 y los ácidos sulfúrico (H2SO4 y fluorhídrico (HF a pH 2,0. La estabilidad de la mezcla H2O2-H2SO4-HF se ha ensayado variando el contenido de iones férrico de O a 40 g/l y la temperatura de 25 a 60 °C. La velocidad de decapado a 50 °C ha sido de 2,6 y 0,2 mg/dm2 día (mdd, en ausencia y presencia de 40 g/l de iones férrico, respectivamente. Se ha utilizado el ácido p-toluen sulfónico como estabilizante del H2O2.

  11. I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH Forward and Reverse Reactions. CCSD(T) Studies Including Spin-Orbit Coupling. (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Guoliang; Li, Qian-Shu; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F


    The potential energy profile for the atomic iodine plus water dimer reaction I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH has been explored using the "Gold Standard" CCSD(T) method with quadruple-ζ correlation-consistent basis sets. The corresponding information for the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 is also derived. Both zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVEs) and spin-orbit (SO) coupling are considered, and these notably alter the classical energetics. On the basis of the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ-PP results, including ZPVE and SO coupling, the forward reaction is found to be endothermic by 47.4 kcal/mol, implying a significant exothermicity for the reverse reaction. The entrance complex I···(H2O)2 is bound by 1.8 kcal/mol, and this dissociation energy is significantly affected by SO coupling. The reaction barrier lies 45.1 kcal/mol higher than the reactants. The exit complex HI···(H2O)OH is bound by 3.0 kcal/mol relative to the asymptotic limit. At every level of theory, the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 proceeds without a barrier. Compared with the analogous water monomer reaction I + H2O → HI + OH, the additional water molecule reduces the relative energies of the entrance stationary point, transition state, and exit complex by 3-5 kcal/mol. The I + (H2O)2 reaction is related to the valence isoelectronic bromine and chlorine reactions but is distinctly different from the F + (H2O)2 system.

  12. Formation of H2O+ and H3O+ Cations in Reactions of OH+ and H2O+ with H2: Experimental Studies of the Reaction Rate Coefficients from T = 15 to 300 K (United States)

    Dung Tran, Thuy; Rednyk, Serhiy; Kovalenko, Artem; Roučka, Štěpán; Dohnal, Petr; Plašil, Radek; Gerlich, Dieter; Glosík, Juraj


    {{OH}}+ and {{{H}}}2{{{O}}}+ cations play a significant role in the chemistry of the cold interstellar medium and hence their hydrogen abstraction reactions with {{{H}}}2 have to be included in ion chemical models. The reactions lead directly or indirectly to {{{H}}}3{{{O}}}+ ions that subsequently recombine with electrons and dissociate into H atoms and {{{H}}}2{{O}}. The experiments described in this paper provide rate coefficients ({k}{{OH}+} and {k}{{{H}}2{{{O}}}+}) for the reactions of {{OH}}+ and {{{H}}}2{{{O}}}+ with {{{H}}}2 over a wide temperature range (from 15 to 300 K). A cryogenic 22-pole RF ion trap instrument was employed for this purpose. It was found that {k}{{OH}+} increases from (0.76+/- 0.30)× {10}-9 {{cm}}3 {{{s}}}-1 at 17 K to (1.24+/- 0.25)× {10}-9 {{cm}}3 {{{s}}}-1 at 263 K while {k}{{{H}}2{{{O}}}+} is nearly constant, varying from (0.93+/- 0.35) × {10}-9 {{cm}}3 {{{s}}}-1 at 17 K to (1.00+/- 0.25)× {10}-9 {{cm}}3 {{{s}}}-1 at 218 K.

  13. Representation of Legal Knowledge for Conceptual Retrieval. (United States)

    Cross, George R.; deBessonet, Cary G.


    Describes traditional legal information retrieval systems--Juris, Lexis, Westlaw--and several new rule-based, knowledge-based, legal knowledge reasoning, and analytical legal information systems--Waterman and Peterson's Legal Decisionmaking System, Hafner's Legal Information Retrieval System, McCarty's TAXMAN, and the deBessonet representation of…

  14. A SAFT Equation of State for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system and applications for CO2 - H2S transportation and geological storage


    Ji, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Chen


    When H2S is co-injected with CO2, we need to know thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria for the CO2-H2S- H2O-NaCl system in order to evaluate the sequestration capacity, optimal transportation and injection conditions, potential for pipeline corrosion, and increased risk of storage and leakage. Here, we summarize the results of the phase equilibrium and densities for CO2-sequestration related systems from a thermodynamic model that is based on statistical associating fluid theory equa...

  15. The study of legal argumentation in argumentation theory and legal theory: approaches and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.


    This contribution provides an overview of how argumentation theorists, philosophers, legal theorists and legal philosophers approach questions about the standards for the correctness of legal argumentation. Ideas about the analysis and evaluation of legal argumentation, developed by influential

  16. The analysis and evaluation of legal argumentation: approaches from legal theory and argumentation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.; Kloosterhuis, H.


    In the past thirty years legal argumentation has become an important interdisciplinary field of interest. The study of legal argumentation draws its data, assumptions and methods from disciplines such as legal theory, legal philosophy, logic, argumentation theory, rhetoric, linguistics, literary

  17. A SAFT equation of state for the quaternary H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Chen


    Phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of the quaternary H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system were studied using a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) at temperatures from 0 to 200 °C (373.15-473.15 K), pressures up to 600 bar (60 MPa) and concentrations of NaCl up to 6 mol/kgH2O. The understanding of the physical-chemical properties of this system is critical for predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and H2S into geological formations (geological carbon sequestration) as an option for mitigating the global warming trend. Equation of state parameters were generated from regression of available and reliable experimental data and incorporation of existing parameters for some subsystems. Densities were predicted and compared with available experimental results. Using the EOS developed in this study, we predicted equilibrium compositions in both liquid and vapor phases, fugacity coefficients of components, the equilibrium pressures at a given composition of the H2O-rich phase in electrolyte solutions with NaCl varying from 0 to 4 mol/kgH2O, and the aqueous solution densities. These predicted values are tabulated and available as supplementary data in the electronic version online. These predictions provide information and guidance for future experiments regarding the thermodynamic properties and phase behaviors in the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system.

  18. Nanoparticle formation in H2O/N-2 and H2O/Ar mixtures under irradiation by 20 MeV protons and positive corona discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imanaka, M.; Tomita, S.; Kanda, S.


    To investigate the contribution of ions to gas nucleation, we have performed experiments on the formation of water droplets in H2O/N-2 and H2O/Ar gas mixtures by irradiation with a 20 MeV proton beam and by positive corona discharge. The size of the formed nanoparticles was measured using a diffe...

  19. Molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions and their isotopic signatures (H/D) from a motor vehicle : implications on atmospheric H2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollmer, M.K.; Walter, S.; Bond, S.W.; Soltic, P.; Röckmann, T.


    Molecular hydrogen (H2), its isotopic signature (deuterium/hydrogen, δD), carbon monoxide (CO) and other compounds were studied in the exhaust of a passenger car engine fuelled with gasoline or methane and run under variable air-fuel ratios and operating modes. H2 and CO concentrations were largely

  20. Soil carbon content and relative abundance of high affinity H2-oxidizing bacteria predict atmospheric H2 soil uptake activity better than soil microbial community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khdhiri, Mondher; Hesse, Laura; Popa, Maria Elena; Quiza, Liliana; Lalonde, Isabelle; Meredith, Laura K.; Röckmann, Thomas; Constant, Philippe


    Soil-atmosphere exchange of H2 is controlled by gas diffusion and the microbial production and oxidation activities in soil. Among these parameters, the H2 oxidation activity catalyzed by soil microorganisms harboring high affinity hydrogenase is the most difficult variable to parameterize because

  1. Decolorization and Mineralization of Reactive Dyes, by the H2O2/UV Process With Electrochemically Produced H2O2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeric, T.; Bisselink, R.J.M.; Tongeren, W. van; Marechal. A.M. Le


    Decolorization of Reactive Red 238, Reactive Orange 16, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Blue 4 was studied in the UV/H2O2 process with H2O2 being produced electrochemically. The experimental results show that decolorization increased considerably when switching on the electrochemical production of

  2. Self-sufficing H2O2-responsive nanocarriers through tumor-specific H2O2 production for synergistic oxidation-chemotherapy. (United States)

    Li, Junjie; Ke, Wendong; Wang, Lei; Huang, Mingming; Yin, Wei; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Qixian; Ge, Zhishen


    One of distinct features in tumor tissues is the elevated concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during tumor immortality, proliferation and metastasis. However, ROS-responsive materials are rarely utilized in the field of in vivo tumoral ROS-responsive applications due to the fact that the intrinsic ROS level in the tumors could not escalate to an adequate level that the developed materials can possibly respond. Herein, palmitoyl ascorbate (PA) as a prooxidant for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in tumor tissue is strategically compiled into a H2O2-responsive camptothecin (CPT) polymer prodrug micelle, which endowed the nanocarriers with self-sufficing H2O2 stimuli in tumor tissues. Molecular oncology manifests the hallmarks of tumoral physiology with deteriorating propensity in eliminating hazardous ROS. H2O2 production was demonstrated to specifically sustain in tumors, which not only induced tumor cell apoptosis by elevated oxidation stress but also served as autochthonous H2O2 resource to trigger CPT release for chemotherapy. Excess H2O2 and released CPT could penetrate into cells efficiently, which showed synergistic cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. Systemic therapeutic trial revealed potent tumor suppression of the proposed formulation via synergistic oxidation-chemotherapy. This report represents a novel nanomedicine platform combining up-regulation of tumoral H2O2 level and self-sufficing H2O2-responsive drug release to achieve novel synergistic oxidation-chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of macroH2A and H2A.Z on nucleosome structure and dynamics as elucidated by molecular dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bowerman, Samuel


    Eukaryotes tune the transcriptional activity of their genome by altering the nucleosome core particle through multiple chemical processes. In particular, replacement of the canonical H2A histone with the variants macroH2A and H2A.Z has been shown to affect DNA accessibility and nucleosome stability; however, the processes by which this occurs remain poorly understood. Here, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms of these variants with an extensive molecular dynamics study of the canonical nucleosome along with three variant-containing structures: H2A.Z, macroH2A, and an H2A mutant with macroH2A-like L1 loops. Simulation results show that variant L1 loops play a pivotal role in stabilizing DNA binding to the octamer through direct interactions, core structural rearrangements, and altered allosteric networks in the nucleosome. All variants influence dynamics; however, macroH2A-like systems have the largest effect on energetics. In addition, we provide a comprehensive analysis of allosteric networks in the nucleo...

  4. Investigation into complexing in ZrO2-H2SO4-Rb2SO4(RbCl)-H2O system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozinova, Yu.P.; Motov, D.L.; Rys' kina, M.P.


    Solubility method is used to study zirconium and rubidium sulfate complexing: Rb4Zr4O(OH)4(SO4)7x5H2O, RbZrOH(SO4)2x1.5H2O, Rb2Zr(SO4)3x2H2O and Rb4Zr(SO4)4 in ZrO2-H2SO4-Rb2SO4(RbCl)-H2O system at 75 deg C. Introduction of RbCl instead of Rb2SO4 in the system is shown to result in change of concentration boundaries of phase existence, in a less degree - their solubility, as well as in increase of crystal size.

  5. Water Radiolysis: Influence of Oxide Surfaces on H2 Production under Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Le Caër


    Full Text Available The radiolysis of water due to ionizing radiation results in the production of electrons, H· atoms, ·OH radicals, H3O+ ions and molecules (dihydrogen H2 and hydrogen peroxide H2O2. A brief history of the development of the understanding of water radiolysis is presented, with a focus on the H2 production. This H2 production is strongly modified at oxide surfaces. Different parameters accounting for this behavior are presented.

  6. Hydrogen purification by selective methanation of CO in CO/CO2/H2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Mette; Johannessen, Tue; Livbjerg, Hans

    : Methanation of CO and the reverse water gas shift reaction: (1) CO + 3H2 -> CH4 + H2O (2) CO2 + H2 -> CO + H2O In experiments with only CO2 and hydrogen in the feed gas there is a significant production of CO and methane. The concentration of CO in the reactor rapidly reaches a level, where it inhibits (or...

  7. Reassessing the variability in atmospheric H2 using the two-way nested TM5 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieterse, G.; Batenburg, A.M; Roeckmann, T. [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU), Utrecht (Netherlands); Krol, M.C. [Department of Meteorology and Air Quality at Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Air Chemistry Division, Mainz (Germany); Popa, M.E.; Vermeulen, A.T. [Department of Air Quality and Climate Research at the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); O' Doherty, S.; Grant, A. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Steele, L.P.; Krummel, P.B.; Langenfelds, R.L. [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Victoria (Austria); Wang, H.J. [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Schmidt, M.; Yver, C. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (LSCE), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jordan, A. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Biogeochemie, Jena (Germany); Engel, A. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Geophysik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Fisher, R.E.; Lowry, D.; Nisbet, E.G. [Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham (United Kingdom); Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M.K.; Steinbacher, M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Air Pollution/Environmental Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hammer, S. [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Heidelberg Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Forster, G.; Sturges, W.T. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)


    This work reassesses the global atmospheric budget of H2 with the TM5 model. The recent adjustment of the calibration scale for H2 translates into a change in the tropospheric burden. Furthermore, the ECMWF Reanalysis-Interim (ERA-Interim) data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) used in this study show slower vertical transport than the operational data used before. Consequently, more H2 is removed by deposition. The deposition parametrization is updated because significant deposition fluxes for snow, water, and vegetation surfaces were calculated in our previous study. Timescales of 1-2h are asserted for the transport of H2 through the canopies of densely vegetated regions. The global scale variability of H2 and {rho}({Delta}H2) is well represented by the updated model. H2 is slightly overestimated in the Southern Hemisphere because too little H2 is removed by dry deposition to rainforests and savannahs. The variability in H2 over Europe is further investigated using a high-resolution model subdomain. It is shown that discrepancies between the model and the observations are mainly caused by the finite model resolution. The tropospheric burden is estimated at 165{+-}8 Tg H2. The removal rates of H2 by deposition and photochemical oxidation are estimated at 53{+-}4 and 23{+-}2 Tg H2/yr, resulting in a tropospheric lifetime of 2.2{+-}0.2 year.

  8. Rapid desensitization of the histamine H2 receptor on the human monocytic cell line U937

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M J; Leurs, R; Shukrula, S R; Bast, A; Timmerman, H


    In the present study we have subjected the histamine H2 receptor on the monocytic cell line U937 to a thorough pharmacological characterization using a series of selective histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptor agonists and antagonists. Recent reports have demonstrated the existence of a histamine H2

  9. Overview of the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Bush, Brian; Penev, Michael


    This presentation provides an introduction to the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST) and includes an overview of each of the three versions of H2FAST: the Web tool, the Excel spreadsheet version, and the beta version of the H2FAST Business Case Scenario tool.

  10. Rotational quenching of H2CO by molecular hydrogen – Suggestion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Dec 5, 2016 ... Abstract. Wiesenfeld and Faure investigated rotational quenching of H2CO by molecular hydrogen where they considered 40 rotational levels of o-H2CO and 41 rotational levels of p-H2CO. Data on energies of rota- tional levels of the molecule are fundamental in the investigation. We have found that the ...

  11. 77 FR 65715 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submissions for OMB Review; Comment Request; H-2A... (United States)


    ... Foreign Workers, H-2B Foreign Labor Certification Program; and Application for Prevailing Wage... Certification Letter for H-2A Agricultural Foreign Workers, H-2B Foreign Labor Certification Program, and... Secretary of Labor to certify, among other things, that any foreign worker seeking to enter the United...

  12. 20 CFR 655.1305 - Assurances and obligations of H-2A employers. (United States)


    ... LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1305 Assurances and obligations of H-2A employers. An employer seeking to employ H-2A workers must attest as part of the Application...

  13. Quasi-classical trajectory study of the reaction N (4 S)+ H 2 and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To investigate the effects of reagent vibrational and rotational states on the stereodynamical properties of the N(4S) + H2(, )→NH + H reaction and its reverse reaction of H(2S) + NH(, )→N(4S) + H2, we reported a detailed quasiclassical trajectory study using the 4A" double many-body expansion potential energy ...

  14. 78 FR 4154 - Identification of Foreign Countries Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H... (United States)


    ... the H-2A and H-2B Nonimmigrant Worker Programs AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DHS. ACTION: Notice... Services (USCIS) may approve petitions for H-2A and H-2B nonimmigrant status only for nationals of... identifying 59 countries whose nationals are eligible to participate in the H-2A and H-2B programs for the...

  15. Topical legal aspects of corruption counteraction in public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Igorevich Zemlin


    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the current developments in the Russian legislation on corruption counteraction and the legislation on public procurement system on this basis to study legal conflicts and gaps and to develop proposals under the provisions of the National AntiCorruption Plan for 2014ndash2015. Methods historical formallegal logical and systemicfunctional structural and contextual approach to the study of law and theoretical propositions concerning the definition nature and characteristics of legal relations arising in the process of and relating to the corruption counteraction in the public procurement system. Results аn aggregate of theoretical conclusions and proposals aimed at perfection of anticorruption legislation and legislation on the contractual public procurement system is presented. Scientific novelty the results of the author39s interpretation of changes in the Russian anticorruption legislation and legislation on the contractual public procurement system existing legal conflicts and gaps. Practical significance developing proposals for improving the standards of anticorruption legislation and legislation on public procurement system under the provisions of the National AntiCorruption Plan for 2014ndash2015. nbsp

  16. Challenges in legal translation - revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Simonnæs


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss challenges in legal translation from the view of a teacher who evaluates the work of semi-professional translators in a special setting. Recurrent translation errors may subsequently be used as a pedagogical resource in specialised translator training. The observation of recurrent challenges confronting the candidates in legal translation and the absence of formal translator training programs are the reasons why NHH now offers an on-line course in legal translation, JurDist, focusing i.a. on useful translation strategies.

  17. Methanogenic H2 syntrophy among thermophiles: a model of metabolism, adaptation and survival in the subsurface (United States)

    Topcuoglu, B. D.; Stewart, L. C.; Butterfield, D. A.; Huber, J. A.; Holden, J. F.


    Approximately 1 giga ton (Gt, 1015 g) of CH4 is formed globally per year from H2, CO2 and acetate through methanogenesis, largely by methanogens growing in syntrophic association with anaerobic microbes that hydrolyze and ferment biopolymers. However, our understanding of methanogenesis in hydrothermal regions of the subseafloor and potential syntrophic methanogenesis at thermophilic temperatures (i.e., >50°C) is nascent. In this study, the growth of natural assemblages of thermophilic methanogens from Axial Seamount was primarily limited by H2 availability. Heterotrophs supported thermophilic methanogenesis by H2 syntrophy in microcosm incubations of hydrothermal fluids at 55°C and 80°C supplemented with tryptone only. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, only heterotrophic archaea that produce H2, H2-consuming methanogens, and sulfate reducing archaea were found in 80°C tryptone microcosms from Marker 113 vent. No bacteria were found. In 55°C tryptone microcosms, sequences were found from H2-producing bacteria and H2-consuming methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria. In order to model the impact of H2 syntrophy at hyperthemophilic temperatures, a co-culture was established consisting of the H2-producing hyperthermophilic heterotroph Thermococcus paralvinellae and a H2-consuming hyperthermophilic methanogen Methanocaldococcus bathoardescens. When grown alone in a chemostat, the growth rates and steady-state cell concentrations of T. paralvinellae decreased significantly when a high H2 (70 µM) background was present. H2 inhibition was ameliorated by the production of formate, but in silico modeling suggests less energetic yield for the cells. H2 syntrophy relieved H2 inhibition for both the heterotroph and the methanogenic partners. The results demonstrate that thermophilic H2 syntrophy can support methanogenesis within natural microbial assemblages and may be an important alternative energy source for thermophilic autotrophs in marine geothermal environments.

  18. H2O2 levels in rainwater collected in south Florida and the Bahama Islands (United States)

    Zika, R.; Saltzman, E.; Chameides, W. L.; Davis, D. D.


    Measurements of H2O2 in rainwater collected in Miami, Florida, and the Bahama Islands area indicate the presence of H2O2 concentration levels ranging from 100,000 to 700,000 M. No systematic trends in H2O2 concentration were observed during an individual storm, in marked contrast to the behavior of other anions for example, NO3(-), SO4(-2), and Cl(-). The data suggest that a substantial fraction of the H2O2 found in precipitation is generated by aqueous-phase reactions within the cloudwater rather than via rainout and washout of gaseous H2O2.

  19. Homotopy Algorithm for Fixed Order Mixed H2/H(infinity) Design (United States)

    Whorton, Mark; Buschek, Harald; Calise, Anthony J.


    Recent developments in the field of robust multivariable control have merged the theories of H-infinity and H-2 control. This mixed H-2/H-infinity compensator formulation allows design for nominal performance by H-2 norm minimization while guaranteeing robust stability to unstructured uncertainties by constraining the H-infinity norm. A key difficulty associated with mixed H-2/H-infinity compensation is compensator synthesis. A homotopy algorithm is presented for synthesis of fixed order mixed H-2/H-infinity compensators. Numerical results are presented for a four disk flexible structure to evaluate the efficiency of the algorithm.

  20. One-step synthesis of fullerene hydride C(60)H2 via hydrolysis of acylated fullerenes. (United States)

    Tzirakis, Manolis D; Alberti, Mariza N; Nye, Leanne C; Drewello, Thomas; Orfanopoulos, Michael


    The hitherto unexplored class of acylated fullerene compounds has been shown to be excellent C(60)H2 precursors. Upon a simple treatment with basic Al2O3, they are hydrolyzed quantitatively into C(60)H2. This key feature led to the development of a new, straightforward protocol for the selective synthesis of the simplest [60]fullerene hydride, C(60)H2. This protocol may offer an advantageous alternative to previously known methods for the synthesis of C(60)H2 allowing for a rapid access to C(60)H2 in good yield and high purity without tedious separating processes.

  1. Legal Aspects of Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dierks


    Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to

  2. Profiling of cytosolic and mitochondrial H2O2production using the H2O2-sensitive protein HyPer in LPS-induced microglia cells. (United States)

    Park, Junghyung; Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Sang-Rae; Lee, Dong-Seok


    Dysregulation of the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in microglia exacerbates the pathologic process of neurodegenerative disease. ROS actively affect microglia activation by regulating transcription factors that control the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. However, accurate information regarding the function of ROS in different subcellular organelles has not yet been established. Here, we analyzed the pattern of cytosolic and mitochondrial H 2 O 2 formation in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia using the H 2 O 2- sensitive protein HyPer targeted to specific subcellular compartments. Our results show that from an early time, cytosolic H 2 O 2 started increasing constantly, whereas mitochondrial H 2 O 2 rapidly increased later. In addition, we found that MAPK affected cytosolic H 2 O 2 , but not mitochondrial H 2 O 2 . Consequently, our study provides the basic information about subcellular H 2 O 2 generation in activated microglia, and a useful tool for investigating molecular targets that can modulate neuroinflammatory responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Polysulfides and products of H2S/S-nitrosoglutathione in comparison to H2S, glutathione and antioxidant Trolox are potent scavengers of superoxide anion radical and produce hydroxyl radical by decomposition of H2O2. (United States)

    Misak, Anton; Grman, Marian; Bacova, Zuzana; Rezuchova, Ingeborg; Hudecova, Sona; Ondriasova, Elena; Krizanova, Olga; Brezova, Vlasta; Chovanec, Miroslav; Ondrias, Karol


    Exogenous and endogenously produced sulfide derivatives, such as H 2 S/HS - /S 2- , polysulfides and products of the H 2 S/S-nitrosoglutathione interaction (S/GSNO), affect numerous biological processes in which superoxide anion (O 2 - ) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals play an important role. Their cytoprotective-antioxidant and contrasting pro-oxidant-toxic effects have been reported. Therefore, the aim of our work was to contribute to resolving this apparent inconsistency by studying sulfide derivatives/free radical interactions and their consequent biological effects compared to the antioxidants glutathione (GSH) and Trolox. Using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping technique and O 2 - , we found that a polysulfide (Na 2 S 4 ) and S/GSNO were potent scavengers of O 2 - and cPTIO radicals compared to H 2 S (Na 2 S), GSH and Trolox, and S/GSNO scavenged the DEPMPO-OH radical. As detected by the EPR spectra of DEPMPO-OH, the formation of OH in physiological solution by S/GSNO was suggested. All the studied sulfide derivatives, but not Trolox or GSH, had a bell-shaped potency to decompose H 2 O 2 and produced OH in the following order: S/GSNO > Na 2 S 4  ≥ Na 2 S > GSH = Trolox = 0, but they scavenged OH at higher concentrations. In studies of the biological consequences of these sulfide derivatives/H 2 O 2 properties, we found the following: (i) S/GSNO alone and all sulfide derivatives in the presence of H 2 O 2 cleaved plasmid DNA; (ii) S/GSNO interfered with viral replication and consequently decreased the infectivity of viruses; (iii) the sulfide derivatives induced apoptosis in A2780 cells but inhibited apoptosis induced by H 2 O 2 ; and (iv) Na 2 S 4 modulated intracellular calcium in A87MG cells, which depended on the order of Na 2 S 4 /H 2 O 2 application. We suggest that the apparent inconsistency of the cytoprotective-antioxidant and contrasting pro-oxidant-toxic biological effects of sulfide derivatives results from their time

  4. Single-Particle Laboratory Studies of Heterogeneous H2O and HCl Processing on Clean and H2SO4-Coated Aluminum Oxide Particles (United States)

    Hunter, A. J.; Sonnenfroh, D. M.; Rawlins, W. T.


    Aluminum oxide particles exhausted from solid rocket motors may affect tropospheric and stratospheric radiative balance through nucleation and growth of water ice clouds, both locally in launch corridors and globally. These particles also are active toward chemisorption of HCl and dissociative chemisorption of CFCs. Plume particle surfaces are likely to contain H2SO4, possibly altering their activities toward uptake and chemical processing of HCl and HNO3. We have investigated activities of different types of aluminum oxide particles for uptake of gas-phase H2O and HCl, using a single-particle electrodynamic levitation apparatus. The particle types investigated were clean and H2SO4-treated alpha-Al2O3 and gamma-Al2O3. We also investigated metastable Al2O3 particles formed by rapid cooling from molten particles in a shock tube, analogous to particle processing in a rocket exhaust nozzle. Particles were treated with H2SO4 by vapor deposition in an oven. The kinetic measurements consisted of independent, simultaneous observations of mass uptake and particle size increase upon exposure of single levitated particles to fixed concentrations of H2O or HCl in slowly flowing gas mixtures at 1 atm. Alpha and gamma Al2O3 were essentially inert toward H2O and HCl uptake, however they readily adsorbed monolayer-equivalent levels of H2SO4 vapor. H2SO4-coated and metastable particles were active toward H2O and HCl uptake. The measured uptake efficiencies imply fast reaction rates within rocket exhaust plumes, potentially leading to CCN behavior as well as heterogeneous chlorine activation by these particles. This research was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  5. Invited: Tailoring Platinum Group Metals Towards Optimal Activity for Oxygen Electroreduction to H2o and H2O2: From Extended Surfaces to Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan


    The slow kinetics of the 4-electron reduction of oxygen to H2O imposes a bottleneck against the widespread uptake of low temperature fuel cells in automotive vehicles. High loadings of platinum are required to drive the reaction; the limited supply of this precious metal limits the extent to which......, H2O2 is produced via the anthraquinone process, a complex, batch process, conducted in large scale facilities. The electrochemical production of H2O2 would enable on-site small scale production of hydrogen peroxide, closer to the point of consumption. The viability of the process would require...

  6. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro


    Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...... may provide the help needed. Beginners and intermediate learners are unlikely to be familiar with the syntactic structures used in legal language and which distinguish it from LGP and other LSPs, especially those structures that are unusual and complex. The optimal legal translation dictionary...

  7. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  8. Legal aspects of service robotics. (United States)

    Dreier, Thomas; Spiecker Genannt Döhmann, Indra


    The emergent use of service robots in more and more areas of social life raises a number of legal issues which have to be addressed in order to apply and adapt the existing legal framework to this new technology. The article provides an overview of law as a means to regulate and govern technology and discusses fundamental issues of the relationship between law and technology. It then goes on to address a number of relevant problems in the field of service robotics. In particular, these issues include the organization of administrative control and the legal liability regime which applies to service robots. Also, the issue of autonomy of service robots is discussed, which cannot easily be answered under the existing, human-centered legal regime.

  9. Mandatory Consent to Treatment by Students in Dental Education: Legal and Policy Considerations. (United States)

    Cameron, Cheryl A.


    The issue of mandatory dental student consent to provision of clinical services by student colleagues is discussed, particularly when a student seeks to avoid mandatory treatment requirements or refuses treatment from an assigned student care provider, or is denied enrollment based on refusal to consent to treatment. Legal and policy…

  10. Between Illegality and Legality: (In)security, crime and gangs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the informal security market in the Nairobi slums of Kibera and Mathare. It assesses how gangs manoeuvre between legality and illegality in the provision of security. This article argues that there is a need to move away from a traditional interpretation of crime and criminal groups so as to understand the ...

  11. 'Extreme' parents and sport: a socio-legal perspective | Singh | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an exploratory study that aims to determine the nature and scope of parental involvement and conduct in youth sport. It also seeks to determine the legal liability of the main stakeholders in their provision and administration of youth sport. A qualitative research design is utilised within an interpretive paradigm.

  12. Differential regulation of TRPV1 channels by H2O2: implications for diabetic microvascular dysfunction (United States)

    DelloStritto, Daniel J.; Connell, Patrick J.; Dick, Gregory M.; Fancher, Ibra S.; Klarich, Brittany; Fahmy, Joseph N.; Kang, Patrick T.; Chen, Yeong-Renn; Damron, Derek S.; Thodeti, Charles K.


    We demonstrated previously that TRPV1-dependent coupling of coronary blood flow (CBF) to metabolism is disrupted in diabetes. A critical amount of H2O2 contributes to CBF regulation; however, excessive H2O2 impairs responses. We sought to determine the extent to which differential regulation of TRPV1 by H2O2 modulates CBF and vascular reactivity in diabetes. We used contrast echocardiography to study TRPV1 knockout (V1KO), db/db diabetic, and wild type C57BKS/J (WT) mice. H2O2 dose-dependently increased CBF in WT mice, a response blocked by the TRPV1 antagonist SB366791. H2O2-induced vasodilation was significantly inhibited in db/db and V1KO mice. H2O2 caused robust SB366791-sensitive dilation in WT coronary microvessels; however, this response was attenuated in vessels from db/db and V1KO mice, suggesting H2O2-induced vasodilation occurs, in part, via TRPV1. Acute H2O2 exposure potentiated capsaicin-induced CBF responses and capsaicin-mediated vasodilation in WT mice, whereas prolonged luminal H2O2 exposure blunted capsaicin-induced vasodilation. Electrophysiology studies re-confirms acute H2O2 exposure activated TRPV1 in HEK293A and bovine aortic endothelial cells while establishing that H2O2 potentiate capsaicin-activated TRPV1 currents, whereas prolonged H2O2 exposure attenuated TRPV1 currents. Verification of H2O2-mediated activation of intrinsic TRPV1 specific currents were found in isolated mouse coronary endothelial cells from WT mice and decreased in endothelial cells from V1KO mice. These data suggest prolonged H2O2 exposure impairs TRPV1-dependent coronary vascular signaling. This may contribute to microvascular dysfunction and tissue perfusion deficits characteristic of diabetes. PMID:26907473

  13. Factors affecting temporal H2S emission at construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills. (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy


    Odor problems associated with H2S emissions often result in odor complaints from nearby residents of C&D debris landfills, especially in the early morning. As part of a field study conducted on H2S removal ability using different cover materials, daily and seasonal H2S emissions through a soil cover layer were monitored at a C&D debris landfill to investigate factors affecting H2S emissions. H2S emission rates were not a constant, but varied seasonally, with an average emission rate of 4.67×10(-6)mgm(-2)s(-1). During a the 10-month field study, as the H2S concentration increased from 140ppm to about 3500ppm underneath the cover soil in the testing cell, H2S emissions ranged from zero to a maximum emission rate of 1.24×10(-5)mgm(-2)s(-1). Continuous emission monitoring indicated that H2S emissions even changed over time throughout the day, generally increasing from morning to afternoon, and were affected by soil moisture and temperature. Laboratory experiments were also conducted to investigate the effects of H2S concentration and cover soil moisture content on H2S emissions. The results showed that increased soil moisture reduced H2S emissions by retarding H2S migration through cover soil and dissolving H2S into soil water. The field study also indicated that due to atmospheric dispersion, high H2S emissions may not cause odor problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. H2A/K pseudogene mutation may promote cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jisheng; Jing, Ruirui; Lv, Xin; Wang, Xiaoyue; Li, Junqiang; Li, Lin; Li, Cuiling; Wang, Daoguang; Bi, Baibing; Chen, Xinjun [Cancer Research Center, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan 250012 (China); Yang, Jing-Hua, E-mail: [Cancer Research Center, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Surgery, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston 510660, MA (United States)


    Highlights: • The mutant H2A/K pseudogene is active. • The mutant H2A/K pseudogene can promote cell proliferation. - Abstract: Little attention has been paid to the histone H2A/K pseudogene. Results from our laboratory showed that 7 of 10 kidney cancer patients carried a mutant H2A/K pseudogene; therefore, we were interested in determining the relationship between mutant H2A/K and cell proliferation. We used shotgun and label-free proteomics methods to study whether mutant H2A/K lncRNAs affected cell proliferation. Quantitative proteomic analysis indicated that the expression of mutant H2A/K lncRNAs resulted in the upregulation of many oncogenes, which promoted cell proliferation. Further interaction analyses revealed that a proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-protein interaction network, with PCNA in the center, contributes to cell proliferation in cells expressing the mutant H2A/K lncRNAs. Western blotting confirmed the critical upregulation of PCNA by mutant H2A/K lncRNA expression. Finally, the promotion of cell proliferation by mutant H2A/K lncRNAs (C290T, C228A and A45G) was confirmed using cell proliferation assays. Although we did not determine the exact mechanism by which the oncogenes were upregulated by the mutant H2A/K lncRNAs, we confirmed that the mutant H2A/K lncRNAs promoted cell proliferation by upregulating PCNA and other oncogenes. The hypothesis that cell proliferation is promoted by the mutant H2A/K lncRNAs was supported by the protein expression and cell proliferation assay results. Therefore, mutant H2A/K lncRNAs may be a new factor in renal carcinogenesis.

  15. Critical Thinking and Legal Culture


    Guido Pincione


    We often lack clear procedures for assessing statements and arguments advanced in everyday conversations, political campaigns, advertisements, and the other multifarious uses to which ordinary language can be put. Critical thinking is a method for evaluating arguments couched in ordinary, non-formal language. Legal education should foster this argumentative skill as an ability to assess the open-end variety of arguments that may arise in legal disputes. I will argue that the ability of critic...

  16. Anti-corruption policy in the system of legal measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Viktorovna Filonenko


    Full Text Available Objective to determine the scientificmethodological foundations of anticorruption policy. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allows to explore the combination of objective and subjective factors influencing the formation and implementation of anticorruption policy. The author39s model of anticorruption policy is based on the wide range of logical methods of information processing modeling abstraction analysis analogy. Scientific hypothesis and formal legal analysis were also used. Results basing on comparison of the recent theoreticallegal criminallegal and criminological research in the field of legal and anticorruption policy the scientificmethodological foundations of anticorruption policy are disclosed. The authors attempt to systematize the scientific interpretation of anticorruption policy. The concept of legal policy its forms tools subjects and typesare discussed. As a result it becomes possible to describe the current anticorruption policy using terminology from the theory of legal policy. This approach can increase the effectiveness of modern anticorruption policy as it allows to clearly see the gaps and shortcomings in lawmaking and law enforcement during the anticorruption policy implementation. Scientific novelty the article makes an attempt to describe the current anticorruption policy with the use of terminology and models developed in the theoretical and legal research for the characterization of legal policy and its particular directions. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical work when considering questions about the nature and trends of the modern anticorruption policy development. The applied approach allows to bring together criminal law criminology and theoreticallegal research of anticorruption policy. nbsp

  17. Rethinking knowledge provision for the marginalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schad, Iven; Thai Thi, Minh; Hoffmann, Volker


    The Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in Vietnam has undergone massive changes over the last decades. Initially triggered by an economic reform process (Doi Moi) initiated in 1986, the system was formalized by the first decree on agricultural extension in 1993 (GSRV (Government...... a growing plurification of knowledge system actors. However, the traditional orientation towards technology transfer was maintained. In the era of rapid growth since that time, an unprecedented experimentation with different approaches to extension has been set-up, with the government’s willingness to allow...... of this chapter are to (a) provide an overview of the historical development of rural advisory and knowledge provision in Vietnam, and how legal frameworks have changed over time, (b) demonstrate how more client-centered extension approaches can be translated and utilized at the field level, and (c) focus...

  18. "Ethics surrounding the provision of abortion care". (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Miranda, Laura


    The provision of abortion care represents a great ethical challenge to physicians, particularly in countries where the law states that abortion is a crime. The concept that it is a crime carries a stigma that is worse than that associated with other acts qualified by law as crimes. This stigma leads to at least two different kinds of unethical behavior. One is the refusal to provide safe abortion services to women who comply with the legal requirements, alleging conscientious objection, and the other is to discriminate against women with complications of induced abortion. Both unethical behaviors may be associated with severe consequences for the health of women whose care was refused or delayed. Less attention is given to the ethical obligation to prevent induced abortion from recurring by offering postabortion contraception to comply with the ethical obligation of preventing harm to the patients for whose care they are responsible. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Legal Assessment of the Legal Force Exclusion of the 1st Prudential Procedure in the Act on Public Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Tyniewicki


    Full Text Available By the amendment of the Act on Public Finance of 26 July 2013, Polish legislature made a temporary suspension – till the end of 2013 – of the application of the provisions governing the Ist prudential procedure. This procedure has a crucial meaning for reducing the growth of budget deficit and in consequence – reducing public debt growth. In case of such crucial provisions for public finance, any amendments should be carried out in situations really justified and exceptional as well as with careful respecting of principles of proper legislation. In these aspects mentioned amendment rises a number of objections. For example, rapid pace of parliamentary works causes doubts about correctness of the legislative process. Therefore, in this article the author tries to make a legal assessment of the amendment of the Act on Public Finance of 26 July 2013, both from the formal and legal point of view and taking into the consideration the importance of provisions governing the prudential procedure for whole sphere of Polish public finance.

  20. “Sometimes they used to whisper in our ears”: health care workers’ perceptions of the effects of abortion legalization in Nepal


    Puri Mahesh; Lamichhane Prabhat; Harken Tabetha; Blum Maya; Harper Cynthia C; Darney Philip D; Henderson Jillian T


    Abstract Background Unsafe abortion has been a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nepal. Since legalization in 2002, more than 1,200 providers have been trained and 487 sites have been certified for the provision of safe abortion services. Little is known about health care workers’ views on abortion legalization, such as their perceptions of women seeking abortion and the implications of legalization for abortion-related health care. Methods To complement a quantitative ...

  1. The thioredoxin and glutathione-dependent H2O2 consumption pathways in muscle mitochondria: Involvement in H2O2 metabolism and consequence to H2O2 efflux assays. (United States)

    Munro, Daniel; Banh, Sheena; Sotiri, Emianka; Tamanna, Nahid; Treberg, Jason R


    The most common methods of measuring mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production are based on the extramitochondrial oxidation of a fluorescent probe such as amplex ultra red (AUR) by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). These traditional HRP-based assays only detect H2O2 that has escaped the matrix, raising the potential for substantial underestimation of production if H2O2 is consumed by matrix antioxidant pathways. To measure this underestimation, we characterized matrix consumers of H2O2 in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria, and developed specific means to inhibit these consumers. Mitochondria removed exogenously added H2O2 (2.5µM) at rates of 4.7 and 5.0nmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) when respiring on glutamate+malate and succinate+rotenone, respectively. In the absence of respiratory substrate, or after disrupting membranes by cycles of freeze-thaw, rates of H2O2 consumption were negligible. We concluded that matrix consumers are respiration-dependent (requiring respiratory substrates), suggesting the involvement of either the thioredoxin (Trx) and/or glutathione (GSH)-dependent enzymatic pathways. The Trx-reductase inhibitor auranofin (2µM), and a pre-treatment of mitochondria with 35µM of 1-chloro-2,4-dintrobenzene (CDNB) to deplete GSH specifically compromise these two consumption pathways. These inhibition approaches presented no undesirable "off-target" effects during extensive preliminary tests. These inhibition approaches independently and additively decreased the rate of consumption of H2O2 exogenously added to the medium (2.5µM). During traditional HRP-based H2O2 efflux assays, these inhibition approaches independently and additively increased apparent efflux rates. When used in combination (double inhibition), these inhibition approaches allowed accumulation of (endogenously produced) H2O2 in the medium at a comparable rate whether it was measured with an end point assay where 2.5µM H2O2 is initially added to the medium or with traditional HRP-based efflux

  2. Tetradecacobalt(II)-containing 36-niobate [Co14(OH)16(H2O)8Nb36O106]20- and its photocatalytic H2 evolution activity. (United States)

    Niu, Jingyang; Li, Fang; Zhao, Junwei; Ma, Pengtao; Zhang, Dongdi; Bassil, Bassem; Kortz, Ulrich; Wang, Jingping


    A gigantic Co14-containing 36-niobate, Na12K8[Co14(OH)16(H2O)8Nb36O106]⋅71H2O (1), has been prepared by the hydrothermal method and structurally characterized. Polyanion [Co14(OH)16(H2O)8Nb36O106](20-) (1 a) comprises a central Co7 core, surrounded by another seven isolated Co(2+) ions and six Lindqvist-type (Nb6O19) hexaniobate fragments. This is the first example of a high-nuclear cobalt-cluster-containing polyoxoniobate. The photocatalytic H2 evolution activity of Pt-loaded 1 was observed in methanol solution under irradiation using a 300 W Xe lamp. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Angular dependence of dissociative electron attachment topolyatomic molecules: application to the 2B1 metastable state of the H2Oand H2S anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, Daniel J.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.


    The angular dependence of dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to polyatomic targets is formulated in the local complex potential model, under the assumption that the axial recoil approximation describes the dissociation dynamics. An additional approximation, which is found to be valid in the case of H2O but not in the case of H2S, makes it possible to describe the angular dependence of DEA solely from an analysis of the fixed-nuclei entrance amplitude, without carrying out nuclear dynamics calculations. For H2S, the final-vibrational-state-specific angular dependence of DEA is obtained by incorporating the variation of the angular dependence of the entrance amplitude with nuclear geometry into the nuclear dynamics. Scattering calculations using the complex Kohn method and, for H2S, full quantum calculations of the nuclear dynamics using the Multi-Configuration Time-Dependent Hartree method, are performed.

  4. Gibbs free energy of reactions involving SiC, Si3N4, H2, and H2O as a function of temperature and pressure (United States)

    Isham, M. A.


    Silicon carbide and silicon nitride are considered for application as structural materials and coating in advanced propulsion systems including nuclear thermal. Three-dimensional Gibbs free energy were constructed for reactions involving these materials in H2 and H2/H2O. Free energy plots are functions of temperature and pressure. Calculations used the definition of Gibbs free energy where the spontaneity of reactions is calculated as a function of temperature and pressure. Silicon carbide decomposes to Si and CH4 in pure H2 and forms a SiO2 scale in a wet atmosphere. Silicon nitride remains stable under all conditions. There was no apparent difference in reaction thermodynamics between ideal and Van der Waals treatment of gaseous species.

  5. Complementary version of fermion coupled coherent states method and gram-schmidt algorithm: Theory and applications for electronic states of H2 and H2. (United States)

    Eidi, Mohammadreza; Vafaee, Mohsen; Rooein, Mitra


    In our previous report, we introduced a new version of Fermion coupled coherent states method (FCCS) which was especially suited for simulating the first symmetric spatial electronic state of two-electron systems. In this manuscript, we report a complementary version for FCCS method to simulate both of the first symmetric and antisymmetric spatial electronic states of two-electron systems. Moreover, the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process is employed to reach the excited states of the system. We apply this FCCS method and the original coupled coherent state method to simulate the energy of different electronic states of H2 and H2+, respectively. The results for the energy of computed electronic states of H2 and H2+ show a pretty good consistency with the exact values. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Torsional excitation in the 2CH vibrational overtone of the C2H2-CO2 and C2H2-N2O van der Waals complexes (United States)

    Lauzin, C.; Didriche, K.; Földes, T.; Herman, M.


    Infrared spectra of the weakly-bound C2H2-CO2 and C2H2-N2O complexes in the region of the 2CH acetylene overtone band (∼1.52 µm) were recorded using CW-cavity ring down spectroscopy in a continuous supersonic expansion. A new, c-type combination band is observed in each case. The rotational analysis of low J, K lines is performed and rotational constants are obtained. The band origins are 40.491(2) and 40.778(2) cm-1 higher in energy than the 2CH excitation bands for C2H2-CO2 and C2H2-N2O, respectively. The combination band is assigned in each case as involving intermolecular torsional excitation combined to 2CH. The values of the torsional vibrational frequency and of the xCH/torsion anharmonicity constant are briefly discussed.

  7. Commercial sexual practices before and after legalization in Australia. (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Dunne, Michael P; Fischer, Jane; Najman, Jackob M


    The nature of sex work changes over time for many reasons. In recent decades around the world, there has been movement toward legalization and control of sex economies. Studies of the possible impact of legalization mainly have focused on sexually transmitted infections and violence, with little attention to change in the diversity of sexual services provided. This study examined the practices of sex workers before and after legalization of prostitution. Cross-sectional surveys of comparable samples of female sex workers were conducted in 1991 (N = 200, aged 16-46 years) and 2003 (N = 247, aged 18-57 years) in Queensland, Australia, spanning a period of major change in regulation of the local industry. In 2003, male clients at brothels and private sole operators (N = 161; aged 19-72 years) were also interviewed. Over time, there was a clear increase in the provision of "exotic" sexual services, including bondage and discipline, submission, fantasy, use of sex toys, golden showers, fisting, and lesbian double acts, while "traditional" services mostly remained at similar levels (with substantial decrease in oral sex without a condom). Based on comparisons of self-reports of clients and workers, the demand for anal intercourse, anal play, and urination during sex apparently exceeded supply, especially in licensed brothels. Within this population, legalization of sex work coincided with a substantial increase in diversity of services, but it appears that in the regulated working environments, clients who prefer high risk practices might not dictate what is available to them.

  8. First results of ISO-SWS observations of Saturn : Detection of CO2, CH3C2H, C4H2 and tropospheric H2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graauw, Th.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Bezard, B.; Drossart, P.; Encrenaz, T.; Beintema, D. A.; Griffin, M.; Heras, A.; Kessler, M.; Leech, K.; Lellouch, E.; Morris, P.; Roelfsema, P. R.; Roos-Serote, M.; Salama, A.; Vandenbussche, B.; Valentijn, E. A.; Davis, G. R.; Naylor, D. A.

    The spectrum of Saturn has been recorded between 4.5 and 16.0 mu m with the grating mode of the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of ISO. The resolving power is 1500. The main results of this observation are (1) the detection of CO2 CH3C2H and C4H2 in the stratosphere and (2) the detection of H2O

  9. Continuous and jumpwise reversal magnetization in [Mn(II)(HL)(H2O)][Mn(III)(CN)6].2H2O molecular ferrimagnet (United States)

    Kirman, M. V.; Vasiliev, L. A.; Morgunov, R. B.


    Magnetic jumps with the amplitudes of 0.01%-0.1% of the saturation magnetization were observed during the magnetization reversal of a [Mn(II)(HL)(H2O)][Mn(III)(CN)6].2H2O molecular ferrimagnet. Fourier transform of the time series of the magnetization jumps showed that its frequency spectrum is close to that of white noise. The distribution of the jump amplitudes versus time revealed that large jumps dominate at the onset of magnetization reversal.

  10. Nqrs Data for H4LiO5P [H2LiO4P·H2O] (Subst. No. 2280) (United States)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for H4LiO5P [H2LiO4P·H2O] (Subst. No. 2280)

  11. Influences of H2O mass fraction and chemical kinetics mechanism on the turbulent diffusion combustion of H2-O2 in supersonic flows (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhen-guo; Li, Shi-bin; Liu, Wei-dong


    Hydrogen is one of the most promising fuels for the airbreathing hypersonic propulsion system, and it attracts an increasing attention of the researchers worldwide. In this study, a typical hydrogen-fueled supersonic combustor was investigated numerically, and the predicted results were compared with the available experimental data in the open literature. Two different chemical reaction mechanisms were employed to evaluate their effects on the combustion of H2-O2, namely the two-step and the seven-step mechanisms, and the vitiation effect was analyzed by varying the H2O mass fraction. The obtained results show that the predicted mole fraction profiles for different components show very good agreement with the available experimental data under the supersonic mixing and combustion conditions, and the chemical reaction mechanism has only a slight impact on the overall performance of the turbulent diffusion combustion. The simple mechanism of H2-O2 can be employed to evaluate the performance of the combustor in order to reduce the computational cost. The H2O flow vitiation makes a great difference to the combustion of H2-O2, and there is an optimal H2O mass fraction existing to enhance the intensity of the turbulent combustion. In the range considered in this paper, its optimal value is 0.15. The initiated location of the reaction appears far away from the bottom wall with the increase of the H2O mass fraction, and the H2O flow vitiation quickens the transition from subsonic to supersonic mode at the exit of the combustor.

  12. The fiduciary guarantee in the Romanian and European legal context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Lefter


    Full Text Available The importance of the fiduciary guarantee has not reached its full potential in the Romanian market, nor in the European area. The ongoing “dispute” between the fiduciary operations (familiar to the continental law and the trust (with its common -law heritage seems to be won by the latter. However, considering the express provisions on the fiduciary operations in the Romanian Civil Code entered into force in 2011, similar to the introduction of the same legal instrument in the French Civil Code in 2007, could give a boost to this ancient tool, present from the Roman era. Even if the European legal framework do not provide many rules on this institution, however, the Financial Collateral Directive raised many questions on how the fiduciary guarantees can be used in practice, and contributed to the change that followed in this area.

  13. The interstellar chemistry of C3H and C3H2 isomers (United States)

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Agúndez, Marcelino; Wakelam, Valentine; Roueff, Evelyne; Gratier, Pierre; Marcelino, Núria; Reyes, Dianailys Nuñez; Cernicharo, José; Gerin, Maryvonne


    We report the detection of linear and cyclic isomers of C3H and C3H2 towards various starless cores and review the corresponding chemical pathways involving neutral (C3Hx with x = 1,2) and ionic (C3Hx+ with x = 1,2,3) isomers. We highlight the role of the branching ratio of electronic dissociative recombination (DR) reactions of C3H2+ and C3H3+ isomers, showing that the statistical treatment of the relaxation of C3H* and C3H2* produced in these DR reactions may explain the relative c,l-C3H and c,l-C3H2 abundances. We have also introduced in the model the third isomer of C3H2 (HCCCH). The observed cyclic-to-linear C3H2 ratio varies from 110 ± 30 for molecular clouds with a total density of about 1 × 104 molecules cm-3 to 30 ± 10 for molecular clouds with a total density of about 4 × 105 molecules cm-3, a trend well reproduced with our updated model. The higher ratio for molecular clouds with low densities is determined mainly by the importance of the H + l-C3H2 → H + c-C3H2 and H + t-C3H2 → H + c-C3H2 isomerization reactions.

  14. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) controls axon pathfinding during zebrafish development. (United States)

    Gauron, Carole; Meda, Francesca; Dupont, Edmond; Albadri, Shahad; Quenech'Du, Nicole; Ipendey, Eliane; Volovitch, Michel; Del Bene, Filippo; Joliot, Alain; Rampon, Christine; Vriz, Sophie


    It is now becoming evident that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is constantly produced by nearly all cells, contributes to bona fide physiological processes. However, little is known regarding the distribution and functions of H2O2 during embryonic development. To address this question, we used a dedicated genetic sensor and revealed a highly dynamic spatio-temporal pattern of H2O2 levels during zebrafish morphogenesis. The highest H2O2 levels are observed during somitogenesis and organogenesis, and these levels gradually decrease in the mature tissues. Biochemical and pharmacological approaches revealed that H2O2 distribution is mainly controlled by its enzymatic degradation. Here we show that H2O2 is enriched in different regions of the developing brain and demonstrate that it participates to axonal guidance. Retinal ganglion cell axonal projections are impaired upon H2O2 depletion and this defect is rescued by H2O2 or ectopic activation of the Hedgehog pathway. We further show that ex vivo, H2O2 directly modifies Hedgehog secretion. We propose that physiological levels of H2O2 regulate RGCs axonal growth through the modulation of Hedgehog pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Real-time monitoring of basal H2O2 levels with peroxiredoxin-based probes. (United States)

    Morgan, Bruce; Van Laer, Koen; Owusu, Theresa N E; Ezeriņa, Daria; Pastor-Flores, Daniel; Amponsah, Prince Saforo; Tursch, Anja; Dick, Tobias P


    Genetically encoded probes based on the H2O2-sensing proteins OxyR and Orp1 have greatly increased the ability to detect elevated H2O2 levels in stimulated or stressed cells. However, these proteins are not sensitive enough to monitor metabolic H2O2 baseline levels. Using yeast as a platform for probe development, we developed two peroxiredoxin-based H2O2 probes, roGFP2-Tsa2ΔCR and roGFP2-Tsa2ΔCPΔCR, that afford such sensitivity. These probes are ∼50% oxidized under 'normal' unstressed conditions and are equally responsive to increases and decreases in H2O2. Hence, they permit fully dynamic, real-time measurement of basal H2O2 levels, with subcellular resolution, in living cells. We demonstrate that expression of these probes does not alter endogenous H2O2 homeostasis. The roGFP2-Tsa2ΔCR probe revealed real-time interplay between basal H2O2 levels and partial oxygen pressure. Furthermore, it exposed asymmetry in H2O2 trafficking between the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix and a strong correlation between matrix H2O2 levels and cellular growth rate.

  16. Thermal Reactions of H2O2 on Icy Satellites and Small Bodies: Descent with Modification? (United States)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Loeffler, Mark J.


    Magnetospheric radiation drives surface and near-surface chemistry on Europa, but below a few meters Europa's chemistry is hidden from direct observation . As an example, surface radiation chemistry converts H2O and SO2 into H2O2 and (SO4)(sup 2-), respectively, and these species will be transported downward for possible thermally-driven reactions. However, while the infrared spectra and radiation chemistry of H2O2-containing ices are well documented, this molecule's thermally-induced solid-phase chemistry has seldom been studied. Here we report new results on thermal reactions in H2O + H2O2 + SO2 ices at 50 - 130 K. As an example of our results, we find that warming H2O + H2O2 + SO2 ices promotes SO2 oxidation to (SO4)(sup 2-). These results have implications for the survival of H2O2 as it descends, with modification, towards a subsurface ocean on Europa. We suspect that such redox chemistry may explain some of the observations related to the presence and distribution of H2O2 across Europa's surface as well as the lack of H2O2 on Ganymede and Callisto.

  17. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of the ribonuclease H2 enzyme. (United States)

    White, Rachel; Saxty, Barbara; Large, Jonathan; Kettleborough, Catherine A; Jackson, Andrew P


    Ribonuclease H2 (RNase H2) is a nuclease that specifically hydrolyzes RNA residues in RNA-DNA hybrids. Mutations in the RNase H2 enzyme complex have been identified in the genetic disorder Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), which has similarities to the autoimmune disease systemic lupus eryrthrematosis (SLE). The RNase H2 enzyme has also been recently implicated as a key genome surveillance enzyme. Therefore, small-molecule modulators of RNase H2 activity may have utility in therapeutics and as tools to investigate the cellular functions of RNase H2. A fluorescent quench assay, measuring cleavage of an RNA-DNA duplex substrate by recombinant RNase H2, was developed into a high-throughput format and used to screen a 48 560 compound library. A hit validation strategy was subsequently employed, leading to the identification of two novel inhibitor compounds with in vitro nanomolar range inhibition of RNase H2 activity and >100-fold selectivity compared with RNase H type 1. These compounds are the first small-molecule inhibitors of RNase H2 to be reported. They and their derivatives should provide the basis for the development of tool compounds investigating the cellular functions of the RNase H2 enzyme, and, potentially, for pharmacological manipulation of nucleic acid-mediated immune responses.

  18. Histone variant H2A.Z.2 mediates proliferation and drug sensitivity of malignant melanoma (United States)

    Vardabasso, Chiara; Gaspar-Maia, Alexandre; Hasson, Dan; Pünzeler, Sebastian; Valle-Garcia, David; Straub, Tobias; Keilhauer, Eva C.; Strub, Thomas; Dong, Joanna; Panda, Taniya; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Yao, Jonathan L.; Singh, Rajendra; Segura, Miguel F.; Fontanals-Cirera, Barbara; Verma, Amit; Mann, Matthias; Hernando, Eva; Hake, Sandra B.; Bernstein, Emily


    SUMMARY Histone variants are emerging as key regulatory molecules in cancer. Here we report a novel role for the H2A.Z isoform H2A.Z.2 as a driver of malignant melanoma. H2A.Z.2 is highly expressed in metastatic melanoma, correlates with decreased patient survival, and is required for cellular proliferation. Our integrated genomic analyses reveal that H2A.Z.2 controls the transcriptional output of E2F target genes in melanoma cells. These genes are highly expressed and display a distinct signature of H2A.Z occupancy. We identify BRD2 as an H2A.Z interacting protein, whose levels are also elevated in melanoma. We further demonstrate that H2A.Z.2 regulated genes are bound by BRD2 and E2F1 in a H2A.Z.2-dependent manner. Importantly, H2A.Z.2 deficiency sensitizes melanoma cells to chemotherapy and targeted therapies. Collectively, our findings implicate H2A.Z.2 as a mediator of cell proliferation and drug sensitivity in malignant melanoma, holding translational potential for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26051178

  19. H2S: a "double face" molecule in health and disease. (United States)

    di Masi, Alessandra; Ascenzi, Paolo


    H2S is a colorless, poisonous, and flammable gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs. H2S is present in effluent from hydrothermal vents and sulfur springs, which have been proposed to act as "pores" in the Earth surface, providing a source of energy in the form of reducing equivalents and of iron-sulfur centers. Remarkably, H2S-producing machineries or H2S-utilization capacity remain within a great diversity of microorganisms. In particular, two classes of bacteria have been identified, that is, sulfate- and sulfur-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, both contributing to the balance of the H2S level. The human body produces H2S and uses it as a signaling molecule in several physiological processes. However, many diseases, including neurological diseases, cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, and metabolic disorders, have been linked to abnormal endogenous H2S functions and metabolism. Remarkably, in recent years, the therapeutic administration of H2S(-donors) appears relevant in the treatment of some diseases. Here, H2S metabolism, as well as its physiological and pathological roles in humans is reviewed. Furthermore, the therapeutic use of H2S is discussed. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. A year of H2 measurements at Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant L. Forster


    Full Text Available We present a year-long high precision time series of atmospheric molecular hydrogen (H2 measured at the UK North Sea coast from March 2008 to February 2009. We observed a pronounced seasonal cycle in H2 with mean values in late winter/early spring ~40 ppb higher than those in late summer/early autumn. Background-subtracted molar H2/CO ratios (ΔH2/ΔCO averaged 0.35±0.002 for all data combined and 0.25±0.002 when ΔH2 was above 10 ppb. The ΔH2/ΔCO ratio was highest in summer, possibly as a result of larger photochemical production. Using simultaneous measurements of ozone, we estimated the deposition velocity of H2 during nocturnal inversion events to average 3.5±0.7×10−4 m s−1 for June 2008 and 1.9±1×10−4 m s−1 for July 2008, in good agreement with other reported estimates. In May 2008, we observed an episode of exceptionally clean air being transported from the tropics but arriving from the north, in which H2 was slightly elevated indicating minimal surface loss. On another occasion with south-easterly winds, we believe we detected emissions from H2 production facilities in the near-continent characterised by H2 mixing ratios reaching 1450 ppb.

  1. Histone H2AX phosphorylation is associated with most meiotic events in grasshopper. (United States)

    Cabrero, J; Teruel, M; Carmona, F D; Camacho, J P M


    It is widely accepted that the H2AX histone in its phosphorylated form (gamma-H2AX) is related to the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In several organisms, gamma-H2AX presence has been demonstrated in meiotic processes such as recombination and sex chromosome inactivation during prophase I (from leptotene to pachytene). To test whether gamma-H2AX is present beyond pachytene, we have analysed the complete sequence of changes in H2AX phosphorylation during meiosis in grasshopper, a model organism for meiotic studies at the cytological level. We show the presence of phosphorylated H2AX during most of meiosis, with the exception only of diplotene and the end of each meiotic division. During the first meiotic division, gamma-H2AX is associated with i) recombination, as deduced from its presence in leptotene-zygotene over all chromosome length, ii) X chromosome inactivation, since at pachytene gamma-H2AX is present in the X chromosome only, and iii) chromosome segregation, as deduced from gamma-H2AX presence in centromere regions at first metaphase-anaphase. During second meiotic division, gamma-H2AX was very abundant at most chromosome lengths from metaphase to telophase, suggesting its possible association with the maintenance of chromosome condensation and segregation. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Histone H2B mono-ubiquitylation maintains genomic integrity at stalled replication forks (United States)

    Northam, Matthew R.; Trujillo, Kelly M.


    Histone modifications play an important role in regulating access to DNA for transcription, DNA repair and DNA replication. A central player in these events is the mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B (H2Bub1), which has been shown to regulate nucleosome dynamics. Previously, it was shown that H2Bub1 was important for nucleosome assembly onto nascent DNA at active replication forks. In the absence of H2Bub1, incomplete chromatin structures resulted in several replication defects. Here, we report new evidence, which shows that loss of H2Bub1 contributes to genomic instability in yeast. Specifically, we demonstrate that H2Bub1-deficient yeast accumulate mutations at a high frequency under conditions of replicative stress. This phenotype is due to an aberrant DNA Damage Tolerance (DDT) response upon fork stalling. We show that H2Bub1 normally functions to promote error-free translesion synthesis (TLS) mediated by DNA polymerase eta (Polη). Without H2Bub1, DNA polymerase zeta (Polζ) is responsible for a highly mutagenic alternative mechanism. While H2Bub1 does not appear to regulate other DDT pathways, error-free DDT mechanisms are employed by H2Bub1-deficient cells as another means for survival. However, in these instances, the anti-recombinase, Srs2, is essential to prevent the accumulation of toxic HR intermediates that arise in an unconstrained chromatin environment. PMID:27458205


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Achmad


    Full Text Available The role of law students in the implementation of legal aid is divided into two, namely the implementation of legal aid litigation and non-litigation legal aid. The role of students in the provision of legal aid services, urgent existence, considering many people who are not capable of, marginalized and legally blind in Indonesia is difficult to get access to justice, especially a dense population and spread across a wide area so it is not proportional to the number Advocates are available and include high student awareness of the legal issues faced by the community/communities are not able to. Students have contributed significantly in their communities by providing legal aid services, running the advocacy work and organizing in their communities in order to encourage growth is growing awareness of the laws of society and realize access to justice (acces to justice for everyone, especially people not being able to obtain a guarantee in the fulfillment of their rights as citizens, especially equality before the law (equality before the law as mandated by the constitution in Article 28D paragraph (1 and Article 28H paragraph (2 of the constitution of 1945 .Keywords: Student, Legal Aid, Role

  4. The Role of Peroxiredoxins in the Transduction of H2O2 Signals. (United States)

    Rhee, Sue Goo; Woo, Hyun Ae; Kang, Dongmin


    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced on stimulation of many cell surface receptors and serves as an intracellular messenger in the regulation of diverse physiological events, mostly by oxidizing cysteine residues of effector proteins. Mammalian cells express multiple H2O2-eliminating enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and peroxiredoxin (Prx). A conserved cysteine in Prx family members is the site of oxidation by H2O2. Peroxiredoxins possess a high-affinity binding site for H2O2 that is lacking in catalase and GPx and which renders the catalytic cysteine highly susceptible to oxidation, with a rate constant several orders of magnitude greater than that for oxidation of cysteine in most H2O2 effector proteins. Moreover, Prxs are abundant and present in all subcellular compartments. The cysteines of most H2O2 effectors are therefore at a competitive disadvantage for reaction with H2O2. Recent Advances: Here we review intracellular sources of H2O2 as well as H2O2 target proteins classified according to biochemical and cellular function. We then highlight two strategies implemented by cells to overcome the kinetic disadvantage of most target proteins with regard to H2O2-mediated oxidation: transient inactivation of local Prx molecules via phosphorylation, and indirect oxidation of target cysteines via oxidized Prx. Critical Issues and Future Directions: Recent studies suggest that only a small fraction of the total pools of Prxs and H2O2 effector proteins localized in specific subcellular compartments participates in H2O2 signaling. Development of sensitive tools to selectively detect phosphorylated Prxs and oxidized effector proteins is needed to provide further insight into H2O2 signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  5. A novel source of atmospheric H2: abiotic degradation of organic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Throop


    Full Text Available Molecular hydrogen (H2 plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by competing for reactions with the hydroxyl radical (OH· and contributing to the production of H2O in the stratosphere, indirectly influencing stratospheric ozone concentrations. The dominant pathway for loss of H2 from the atmosphere is via microbially-mediated soil uptake, although the magnitude of this loss is still regarded as highly uncertain. Recent studies have shown that abiotic processes such as photochemically mediated degradation (photodegradation of organic material result in direct emissions of carbon (C and nitrogen (N-based trace gases as well as H2. This H2 production has important implications on source-sink dynamics of H2 at the soil-atmosphere interface and thus it is important to quantify its variability over a range of plant types and materials. Here, we show laboratory observations of H2 production and its temperature dependence during abiotic degradation of four plant litter types as well as pure cellulose and high lignin content woody material. A greater amount of H2 was produced in the absence of solar radiation than from photodegradation alone, verifying that low temperature thermal degradation of plant litter is a source of H2. In addition, we measured a significant release of H2 both in the presence and absence of O2. Our results suggest that abiotic release of H2 during organic matter degradation is ubiquitous in arid ecosystems and may also occur in other terrestrial ecosystems. We propose that because these processes occur at the soil-atmosphere interface, they provide a previously unrecognized proximal source of H2 for microbial uptake and confound interpretation of direct measurements of atmospheric uptake that are important for constraining the global H2 budget.

  6. Rate constant for the H˙ + H2O → ˙OH + H2reaction at elevated temperatures measured by pulse radiolysis. (United States)

    Muroya, Y; Yamashita, S; Lertnaisat, P; Sanguanmith, S; Meesungnoen, J; Jay-Gerin, J-P; Katsumura, Y


    Maintaining the structural integrity of materials in nuclear power plants is an essential issue associated with safe operation. Hydrogen (H 2 ) addition or injection to coolants is a powerful technique that has been widely applied such that the reducing conditions in the coolant water avoid corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Because the radiation-induced reaction of ˙OH + H 2 → H˙ + H 2 O plays a crucial role in these systems, the rate constant has been measured at operation temperatures of the reactors (285-300 °C) by pulse radiolysis, generating sufficient data for analysis. The reverse reaction H˙ + H 2 O → ˙OH + H 2 is negligibly slow at ambient temperature; however, it accelerates considerably quickly at elevated temperatures. Although the reverse reaction reduces the effectiveness of H 2 addition, reliable rate constants have not yet been measured. In this study, the rate constants have been determined in a temperature range of 250-350 °C by pulse radiolysis in an aqueous I - solution.

  7. Time-multiplexed open-path TDLAS spectrometer for dynamic, sampling-free, interstitial H2 18O and H2 16O vapor detection in ice clouds (United States)

    Kühnreich, B.; Wagner, S.; Habig, J. C.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Ebert, V.


    An advanced in situ diode laser hygrometer for simultaneous, sampling-free detection of interstitial H2 16O and H2 18O vapor was developed and tested in the aerosol interaction and dynamics in atmosphere (AIDA) cloud chamber during dynamic cloud formation processes. The spectrometer to measure isotope-resolved water vapor concentrations comprises two rapidly time-multiplexed DFB lasers near 1.4 and 2.7 µm and an open-path White cell with 227-m absorption path length and 4-m mirror separation. A dynamic water concentration range from 2.6 ppb to 87 ppm for H2 16O and 87 ppt to 3.6 ppm for H2 18O could be achieved and was used to enable a fast and direct detection of dynamic isotope ratio changes during ice cloud formation in the AIDA chamber at temperatures between 190 and 230 K. Relative changes in the H2 18O/H2 16O isotope ratio of 1 % could be detected and resolved with a signal-to-noise ratio of 7. This converts to an isotope ratio resolution limit of 0.15 % at 1-s time resolution.

  8. High resolution pore water delta2H and delta18O measurements by H2O(liquid)-H2O(vapor) equilibration laser spectroscopy. (United States)

    Wassenaar, L I; Hendry, M J; Chostner, V L; Lis, G P


    A new H2O(liquid)-H2O(vapor) pore water equilibration and laser spectroscopy method provides a fast way to obtain accurate high resolution deltaD and delta18O profiles from single core samples from saturated and unsaturated geologic media. The precision and accuracy of the H2O(liquid)-H2O(vapor) equilibration method was comparable to or better than conventional IRMS-based methods, and it can be conducted on geologic cores that contain volumetric water contents as low as 5%. Significant advantages of the H2O(liquid)-H2O(vapor) pore water equilibration method and laser isotopic analysis method include dual hydrogen- and oxygen-isotope assays on single small core samples, low consumable and instrumentation costs, and the potential for field-based hydrogeologic profiling. A single core is sufficient to obtain detailed vertical isotopic depth profiles in geologic, soil, and lacustrine pore water, dramatically reducing the cost of obtaining pore water by conventional wells or physical water extraction methods. In addition, other inherent problems like contamination of wells by leakage and drilling fluids can be eliminated.

  9. Ascending the nucleosome face: recognition and function of structured domains in the histone H2A-H2B dimer. (United States)

    Wyrick, John J; Kyriss, McKenna N M; Davis, William B


    Research over the past decade has greatly expanded our understanding of the nucleosome's role as a dynamic hub that is specifically recognized by many regulatory proteins involved in transcription, silencing, replication, repair, and chromosome segregation. While many of these nucleosome interactions are mediated by post-translational modifications in the disordered histone tails, it is becoming increasingly apparent that structured regions of the nucleosome, including the histone fold domains, are also recognized by numerous regulatory proteins. This review will focus on the recognition of structured domains in the histone H2A-H2B dimer, including the acidic patch, the H2A docking domain, the H2B α3-αC helices, and the HAR/HBR domains, and will survey the known biological functions of histone residues within these domains. Novel post-translational modifications and trans-histone regulatory pathways involving structured regions of the H2A-H2B dimer will be highlighted, along with the role of intrinsic disorder in the recognition of structured nucleosome regions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Crystal structures of hydrates of simple inorganic salts. III. Water-rich aluminium halide hydrates: AlCl3 · 15H2O, AlBr3 · 15H2O, AlI3 · 15H2O, AlI3 · 17H2O and AlBr3 · 9H2O. (United States)

    Schmidt, Horst; Hennings, Erik; Voigt, Wolfgang


    Water-rich aluminium halide hydrate structures are not known in the literature. The highest known water content per Al atom is nine for the perchlorate and fluoride. The nonahydrate of aluminium bromide, stable pentadecahydrates of aluminium chloride, bromide and iodide, and a metastable heptadecahydrate of the iodide have now been crystallized from low-temperature solutions. The structures of these hydrates were determined and are discussed in terms of the development of cation hydration spheres. The pentadecahydrate of the chloride and bromide are isostructural. In AlI(3) · 15H2O, half of the Al(3+) cations are surrounded by two complete hydration spheres, with six H2O in the primary and 12 in the secondary. For the heptadecahydrate of aluminium iodide, this hydration was found for every Al(3+).

  11. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.


    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  12. The Southern African Development Community Trade Legal Instruments Compliance with Certain Criteria of GATT Article XXIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saurombe


    Full Text Available Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT lays down the legal principles with which regional trade agreements have to conform. Based on these principles, WTO members have the mandate to determine the legality of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs under the GATT. Article XXIV permits both regional and bilateral preferential trade agreements leading to the formation of customs unions and free trade areas, and seeks to integrate them in the multilateral trading system envisioned for the world. SADC is an RTA created under this Article. Notwithstanding the controversies surrounding the provisions and interpretation of Article XXIV, this paper seeks to establish the extent to which the SADC Protocol on Trade and free trade area comply with WTO rules. An analysis of selected Article XXIV provisions and the SADC Trade Protocol provisions will be undertaken in trying to establish this compliance.

  13. A Basic Classification of Legal Institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Dick W.P.


    The author offers a general definition of legal institutions. A distinction between institutional legal concepts, legal institutions and social institutions makes it possible to define legal institutions as systems of valid presentations of what must occur in social reality in order that the former

  14. Phosphorylation of BK channels modulates the sensitivity to hydrogen sulfide (H2S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzel F. Sitdikova


    Full Text Available Introduction: Gases, such as nitric oxide (NO, carbon monoxide (CO or hydrogen sulfide (H2S, termed gasotransmitters, play an increasingly important role in understanding of how electrical signaling of cells is modulated. H2S is well known to act on various ion channels and receptors. In a previous study we reported that H2S increased calcium-activated potassium (BK channel activity. Aims: The goal of the present study is to investigate the modulatory effect of BK channel phosphorylation on the action of H2S on the channel as well as to recalculate and determine the H2S concentrations in aqueous sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS solutions.Methods: Single channel recordings of GH3, GH4 and GH4 STREX cells were used to analyze channel open probability, amplitude and open dwell times. H2S was measured with ananion selective electrode. Results: The concentration of H2S produced from NaHS was recalculated taking pH, temperature salinity of the perfusate and evaporation of H2S into account. The results indicate that from a concentration of 300 µM NaHS, only11-13%, i.e. 34-41 µM is effective as H2S in solution. GH3, GH4 and GH4 STREX cells respond differently to phosphorylation. BK channel open probability (Po of all cells lines used was increased by H2S in ATP containing solutions. PKA prevented the action of H2S on channel Po in GH4 and GH4 STREX, but not in GH3 cells. H2S, high significantly increased Po of all PKG pretreated cells. In the presence of PKC, which lowers channel activity, H2S increased channel Po of GH4 and GH4 STREX, but not those of GH3 cells. H2S increased open dwell times of GH3 cells in the absence of ATP significantly. A significant increase of dwell times with H2S was also observed in the presence of okadaic acid.Conclusions: Our results suggest that phosphorylation by PKG primes the channels for H2S activation and indicate that channel phosphorylation plays an important role in the response to H2S.

  15. High resolution spectroscopy of the Martian atmosphere - Study of seasonal variations of CO, O3, H2O, and T on the north polar cap and a search for SO2, H2O2, and H2CO (United States)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.; Chakrabarti, S.; Larson, H.; Sandel, B. R.


    An overview is presented of an observational campaign which will measure (1) the seasonal variations of the CO mixing ratio on the Martian polar cap due to accumulation and depletion of CO during the condensation and evaporation of CO2, as well as (2) the early spring ozone and water vapor of the Martian north polar cap, and (3) the presence of H2CO, H2O2, and SO2. The lines of these compounds will be measured by a combined 4-m telescope and Fourier-transform spectrometer 27097.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of H2O2-treated wheat seedlings reveals a H2O2-responsive fatty acid desaturase gene participating in powdery mildew resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Li

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 plays important roles in plant biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, the effect of H(2O(2 stress on the bread wheat transcriptome is still lacking. To investigate the cellular and metabolic responses triggered by H(2O(2, we performed an mRNA tag analysis of wheat seedlings under 10 mM H(2O(2 treatment for 6 hour in one powdery mildew (PM resistant (PmA and two susceptible (Cha and Han lines. In total, 6,156, 6,875 and 3,276 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in PmA, Han and Cha respectively. Among them, 260 genes exhibited consistent expression patterns in all three wheat lines and may represent a subset of basal H(2O(2 responsive genes that were associated with cell defense, signal transduction, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and transport. Among genes specific to PmA, 'transport' activity was significantly enriched in Gene Ontology analysis. MapMan classification showed that, while both up- and down- regulations were observed for auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolides signaling genes, the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathway genes were all up-regulated, suggesting H(2O(2-enhanced JA/Et functions in PmA. To further study whether any of these genes were involved in wheat PM response, 19 H(2O(2-responsive putative defense related genes were assayed in wheat seedlings infected with Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt. Eight of these genes were found to be co-regulated by H(2O(2 and Bgt, among which a fatty acid desaturase gene TaFAD was then confirmed by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS to be required for the PM resistance. Together, our data presents the first global picture of the wheat transcriptome under H(2O(2 stress and uncovers potential links between H(2O(2 and Bgt responses, hence providing important candidate genes for the PM resistance in wheat.

  17. Exposure of insect cells to ionising radiation in vivo induces persistent phosphorylation of a H2AX homologue (H2AvB). (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammad S; Filomeni, Erika; François, Maxime; Collins, Samuel R; Cooper, Tamara; Glatz, Richard V; Taylor, Phillip W; Fenech, Michael; Leifert, Wayne R


    The response of eukaryotic cells to ionising radiation (IR)-induced double-strand DNA breaks is highly conserved and involves a DNA repair mechanism characterised by the early phosphorylation of histone protein H2AX (producing the active form γH2AX). Although the expression of an induced γH2AX variant has been detected in Drosophila melanogaster, the expression and radiation response of a γH2AX homologue has not been reported in economically important fruit flies. We use Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae, Queensland fruit fly or 'Q-fly') to investigate this response with a view to developing molecular assays to detect/quantify exposure of fruit flies to IR and consequent DNA damage. Deep sequencing confirmed the presence of a H2AX homologue that we have termed H2AvB (i.e. variant Bactrocera) and has an identical sequence to a histone reported from the human disease vector Glossina morsitans. A linear dose-response of γH2AvB (0-400 Gy IR) was observed in whole Q-fly pupal lysates 24h post-IR and was detected at doses as low as 20 Gy. γH2AvB signal peaked at ~20min after IR exposure and at 24h post-IR the signal remained elevated but declined significantly by 5 days. Persistent and dose-dependent γH2AvB signal could be detected and quantified either by western blot or by laser scanning cytometry up to 17 days post-IR exposure in histone extracts or isolated nuclei from adult Q-flies (irradiated as pupae). We conclude that IR exposure in Q-fly leads to persistent γH2AvB signals (over a period of days) that can easily be detected by western blot or quantitative immunofluorescence techniques. These approaches have potential as the basis for assays for detection and quantification of prior IR exposure in pest fruit flies.

  18. Reorganization of Damaged Chromatin by the Exchange of Histone Variant H2A.Z-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishibuchi, Ikuno [Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kinomura, Aiko; Sun, Jiying; Liu, Ning-Ang [Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Horikoshi, Yasunori [Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Research Center for Mathematics of Chromatin Live Dynamics, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Shima, Hiroki [Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Kusakabe, Masayuki; Harata, Masahiko [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Fukagawa, Tatsuo [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetics and The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mishima (Japan); Ikura, Tsuyoshi [Laboratory of Chromatin Regulatory Network, Department of Mutagenesis, Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ishida, Takafumi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Tashiro, Satoshi, E-mail: [Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Research Center for Mathematics of Chromatin Live Dynamics, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)


    Purpose: The reorganization of damaged chromatin plays an important role in the regulation of the DNA damage response. A recent study revealed the presence of 2 vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms, H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2. However, the roles of the vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms are still unclear. Thus, in this study we examined the roles of the vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms in chromatin reorganization after the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Methods and Materials: To examine the dynamics of H2A.Z isoforms at damaged sites, we constructed GM0637 cells stably expressing each of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled H2A.Z isoforms, and performed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis and inverted FRAP analysis in combination with microirradiation. Immunofluorescence staining using an anti-RAD51 antibody was performed to study the kinetics of RAD51 foci formation after 2-Gy irradiation of wild-type (WT), H2A.Z-1- and H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells. Colony-forming assays were also performed to compare the survival rates of WT, H2A.Z-1-, and H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells with control, and H2A.Z-1- and H2A.Z-2-depleted U2OS cells after irradiation. Results: FRAP analysis revealed that H2A.Z-2 was incorporated into damaged chromatin just after the induction of DSBs, whereas H2A.Z-1 remained essentially unchanged. Inverted FRAP analysis showed that H2A.Z-2 was released from damaged chromatin. These findings indicated that H2A.Z-2 was exchanged at DSB sites immediately after the induction of DSBs. RAD51 focus formation after ionizing irradiation was disturbed in H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells but not in H2A.Z-1-deficient cells. The survival rate of H2A.Z-2-deficient cells after irradiation was lower than those of WT and H2A.Z-1- DT40 cells. Similar to DT40 cells, H2A.Z-2-depleted U2OS cells were also radiation-sensitive compared to control and H2A.Z-1-depleted cells. Conclusions: We found that vertebrate H2A.Z-2 is involved in the regulation of the DNA

  19. Silicon photonic dual-gas sensor for H2 and CO2 detection. (United States)

    Mi, Guangcan; Horvath, Cameron; Van, Vien


    We report a silicon photonic dual-gas sensor based on a wavelength-multiplexed microring resonator array for simultaneous detection of H2 and CO2 gases. The sensor uses Pd as the sensing layer for H2 gas and a novel functional material based on the Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB) polymer for CO2 gas sensing. Gas sensing experiments showed that the PHMB-functionalized microring exhibited high sensitivity to CO2 gas and excellent selectivity against H2. However, the Pd-functionalized microring was found to exhibit sensitivity to both H2 and CO2 gases, rendering it ineffective for detecting H2 in a gas mixture containing CO2. We show that the dual-gas sensing scheme can allow for accurate measurement of H2 concentration in the presence of CO2 by accounting for the cross-sensitivity of Pd to the latter.

  20. Search Directions for Direct H2O2 Synthesis Catalysts Starting from Au-12 Nanoclusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabow, Lars; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Falsig, Hanne


    We present density functional theory calculations on the direct synthesis of H2O2 from H-2 and O-2 over an Au-12 corner model of a gold nanoparticle. We first show a simple route for the direct formation of H2O2 over a gold nanocatalyst, by studying the energetics of 20 possible elementary...... that the rate of H2O2 and H2O formation can be determined from a single descriptor, namely, the binding energy of oxygen (E-O). Our model predicts the search direction starting from an Au-12 nanocluster for an optimal catalyst in terms of activity and selectivity for direct H2O2 synthesis. Taking also stability...

  1. Comparison of different methods for localizing antigenic regions in histone H2A. (United States)

    Muller, S; Plaue, S; Couppez, M; Van Regenmortel, M H


    Four different variations of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to analyze the antigenic structure of histone H2A. Eleven natural and 10 synthetic peptides of H2A were tested for their capacity to bind antibodies raised against the complete molecule in a direct binding assay. Results were compared to those obtained in a direct test using several peptide-BSA conjugates. The capacity of peptides to inhibit the reaction between H2A antibodies and the complete H2A molecule or large fragments of it was also measured. Inhibition assays detected antigenic activity in a large number of peptides than did direct binding assays. Antisera raised against eight synthetic, unconjugated peptides all reacted with histone H2A in ELISA. Using as probes peptides of 14-21 residues, at least 11 antigenic regions could be recognized, indicating that virtually the entire H2A polypeptide chain possessed antigenic activity.

  2. Tolerance of banana for fusarium wilt is associated with early H 2 O ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of O2•− , H2O2 and MDA, as well as changes in enzyme activities, and transcript levels of SOD and CAT in root extracts were monitored every 24 h over 4 days. The histochemical location of H2O2 was also detected. In the resistant iso-line, the accumulation of O2•− and H2O2, and the activation of SOD occurred ...

  3. A novel sandwich-type polyoxometalate compound with visible-light photocatalytic H2 evolution activity. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Lin, Qipu; Zheng, Shou-Tian; Bu, Xianhui; Feng, Pingyun


    A tin(II) tungstosilicate derivative K(11)H[Sn(4)(SiW(9)O(34))(2)]·25H(2)O with four sandwiched Sn(2+) cations was prepared by reaction of SnCl(2), KCl and Na(10)[α-SiW(9)O(34)]·xH(2)O. Visible-light photocatalytic H(2) evolution activity was observed with Pt nanoparticles as co-catalyst and methanol as sacrificial agent.

  4. Comparison of genes required for H2O2 resistance in Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis (United States)

    Xu, Yifan; Itzek, Andreas


    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced by several members of the genus Streptococcus mainly through the pyruvate oxidase SpxB under aerobic growth conditions. The acute toxic nature of H2O2 raises the interesting question of how streptococci cope with intrinsically produced H2O2, which subsequently accumulates in the microenvironment and threatens the closely surrounding population. Here, we investigate the H2O2 susceptibility of oral Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis and elucidate potential mechanisms of how they protect themselves from the deleterious effect of H2O2. Both organisms are considered primary colonizers and occupy the same intraoral niche making them potential targets for H2O2 produced by other species. We demonstrate that S. gordonii produces relatively more H2O2 and has a greater ability for resistance to H2O2 stress. Functional studies show that, unlike in Streptococcus pneumoniae, H2O2 resistance is not dependent on a functional SpxB and confirms the important role of the ferritin-like DNA-binding protein Dps. However, the observed increased H2O2 resistance of S. gordonii over S. sanguinis is likely to be caused by an oxidative stress protection machinery present even under anaerobic conditions, while S. sanguinis requires a longer period of time for adaptation. The ability to produce more H2O2 and be more resistant to H2O2 might aid S. gordonii in the competitive oral biofilm environment, since it is lower in abundance yet manages to survive quite efficiently in the oral biofilm. PMID:25280752

  5. Absolute linestrengths in the H2O2 nu6 band (United States)

    May, Randy D.


    Absolute linestrengths at 295 K have been measured for selected lines in the nu6 band of H2O2 using a tunable diode-laser spectrometer. H2O2 concentrations in a flowing gas mixture were determined by ultraviolet (uv) absorption at 254 nm using a collinear infrared (ir) and uv optical arrangement. The measured linestrengths are approx. 60 percent larger than previously reported values when absorption by hot bands in H2O2 is taken into account.

  6. Vibrational relaxation of the H2O bending mode in liquid water. (United States)

    Larsen, Olaf F A; Woutersen, Sander


    We have studied the vibrational relaxation of the H(2)O bending mode in an H(2)O:HDO:D(2)O isotopic mixture using infrared pump-probe spectroscopy. The transient spectrum and its delay dependence reveal an anharmonic shift of 55+/-10 cm(-1) for the H(2)O bending mode, and a value of 400+/-30 fs for its vibrational lifetime. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Non-LTE H2+ as the source of missing opacity in the solar atmosphere (United States)

    Swamy, K. S. K.; Stecher, T. P.


    The population of the various vibrational levels of the H2+ molecule has been calculated from the consideration of formation and destruction mechanisms. The resulting population is used in calculating the total absorption due to H2+ and is compared with the other known sources of opacity at several optical depths of the solar atmosphere. It is shown that the absorption due to H2+ can probably account for the missing ultraviolet opacity in the solar atmosphere.

  8. Effect of H2S on SO2-depolarised water electrolysis


    Krüger, Andries J.; Krieg, Henning M.; Bessarabov, Dmitri


    The performance of a PEM SO2 electrolyser, used for the production of H2 gas and liquid H2SO4, was evaluated when the feed was contaminated with hydrogen sulfide. Transient voltage response at constant current density and polarisation curves showed a decrease in operating efficiency over time for all H2S concentrations tested. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to separate and quantify the membrane resistance, charge resistance and mass transport limitations to evaluate ...

  9. Synthesis of CuO nanoflower and its application as a H2O2 sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. CuO three-dimensional (3D) flower-like nanostructures were successfully synthesized by a simple method at 100°C with Cu(NO3)2⋅3H2O and NH3⋅H2O for 6 h in the absence of any additives. We found that. NH3⋅H2O amount was critical for CuO morphology evolution. The phase analysis was carried out using ...

  10. Algorithms to Solve Stochastic H2/H∞ Control with State-Dependent Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Gao


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the algorithms which solve H2/H∞ control problems of stochastic systems with state-dependent noise. Firstly, the algorithms for the finite and infinite horizon H2/H∞ control of discrete-time stochastic systems are reviewed and studied. Secondly, two algorithms are proposed for the finite and infinite horizon H2/H∞ control of continuous-time stochastic systems, respectively. Finally, several numerical examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the algorithms.

  11. Optimal laser pulse design for transferring the coherent nuclear wave packet of H$_2^+$


    Zhang, Jun; He, Feng


    Within the Franck-Condon approximation, the single ionization of H$_2$ leaves H$_2^+$ in a coherent superposition of 19 nuclear vibrational states. We numerically design an optimal laser pulse train to transfer such a coherent nuclear wave packet to the ground vibrational state of H$_2^+$. The simulation results show that the population of the ground state after the transfer is more than 91%. Frequency analysis of the designed optimal pulse reveals that the transfer principle is mainly an ant...

  12. Dissociative ionization of H2 and D2 by electron impact near threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, L.G.J.; Heideman, H.G.M.

    We have studied the dissciative ionization of H2 and D2 by electron impact. It is found that in the vicinity of the 2Σ+g dissociation threshold of H+2 (18.08 eV) a significant fraction of the produced protons originates from the process e + H2 → H− + H+ + e (threshold at 17.34 eV). Similar results

  13. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis


    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  14. Legal issues with wind farm stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atcheson, A. [Stikeman Elliott LLP, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    Legal issues concerning wind power development and landowners were reviewed. Agreements with landowners present opportunities and risks for developers and land agents. Generally, a landowner agreement provides for a period of testing and an option to lease land for the purposes of installing and operating wind turbines. Provisions are used to set out the terms of the option and the lease; restrictions on use of the land by both parties; and the amount and method of payment. In order to establish a valid option to lease, it is necessary to have good and valuable consideration, certainty of terms and conditions, and compliance with statutes. If the term is too long or alienation of land appears too permanent, a transfer tax may be payable to the landowner. In Ontario, no land transfer tax is payable on a land lease if the term cannot exceed 50 years. Developers should expect basic terms to become public knowledge, and recognize that residents living near planned wind installations can use the local planning process to slow down or break a project, especially if they are concerned about negative environmental impacts such as noise. The arguments against wind farms on the basis of low frequency noise (LFN) are particularly damaging because they apply to all sites near human settlements, and the effects of LFN at inaudible levels have not been sufficiently studied to rule out the possibility of negative health effects. More comprehensive studies on the health effects of LFN are needed. Legal complications may also arise from wind theft, where one party with rights in a parcel of land erects a structure limiting the wind resource on an adjacent parcel of land without compensation. Further complications may arise from wind envy, where landowners may become envious of neighbours hosting turbine sites, while they must live with the sight and sound of the turbines without receiving compensation. Potential wind theft solutions include setback regulations; land pooling

  15. Cost control should extend to legal services. (United States)

    Burdett, R J; Taylor, M Z


    While a healthcare organization may consider legal services to be outside its management scope, control of legal spending is within a hospital's grasp. Whether an organization is large or active enough to merit an internal legal staff, an administrative position should be established to centralize management of legal services. A hospital may choose to undertake a cost reduction audit, which can determine the feasibility of an internal legal staff and coordinate competitive proposals from outside law firms handling litigation.

  16. The geochemistry and sequestration of H2S into the geothermal system at Hellisheidi, Iceland.


    Stefánsson, A.


    The geochemistry and mineralization of H2S in the geothermal system hosted by basaltic rock formation at Hellisheidi, SW Iceland, was studied. Injection of mixtures of H2S with geothermal waste water and condensed steam into the N230 °C geothermal aquifer is planned, where H2S will hopefully be removed in the form of sulphides. The natural H2S concentrations in the aquifer average 130 ppm. They are considered to be controlled by close approach to equilibrium with pyrite, pyrrh...

  17. Human Milk H2O2 content: Does it benefit preterm infants? (United States)

    Cieslak, Monika; Ferreira, Cristina H F; Shifrin, Yulia; Pan, Jingyi; Belik, Jaques


    Human milk has a high content of the antimicrobial compound hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). As opposed to healthy full-term infants, preterm neonates are fed previously expressed and stored maternal milk. These practices may favor H2O2 decomposition, thus limiting its potential benefit to preterm infants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the factors responsible for H2O2 generation and degradation in breastmilk. Human donors' and rat milk, along with rat mammary tissue were evaluated. The role of oxytocin and xanthine oxidase on H2O2 generation, its pH-dependent stability, as well as its degradation via lactoperoxidase and catalase were measured in milk. Breast tissue xanthine oxidase is responsible for the H2O2 generation and its milk content is dependent on oxytocin stimulation. Stability of the human milk H2O2 content is pH dependent and greatest in the acidic range. Complete H2O2 degradation occurs when human milk is maintained, longer than 10 min, at room temperature and this process is suppressed by lactoperoxidase and catalase inhibition. Fresh breastmilk H2O2 content is labile and quickly degrades at room temperature. Further investigation on breastmilk handling techniques to preserve its H2O2 content, when gavage-fed to preterm infants is warranted.Pediatric Research accepted article preview online, 22 November 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.303.

  18. Force-Induced H2S by PDLSCs Modifies Osteoclastic Activity during Tooth Movement. (United States)

    Liu, F; Wen, F; He, D; Liu, D; Yang, R; Wang, X; Yan, Y; Liu, Y; Kou, X; Zhou, Y


    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), a gasotransmitter, has been recently linked to mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) function and bone homeostasis. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are the main MSCs in PDL, which respond to mechanical force to induce physiological activities during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). However, it is unknown whether mechanical force might induce endogenous H 2 S production by PDLSCs to regulate alveolar bone homeostasis. Here, we used a mouse OTM model to demonstrate that orthodontic force-induced endogenous H 2 S production in PDL tissue was associated with macrophage accumulation and osteoclastic activity in alveolar bone. Then, we showed that mechanical force application induced cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) expression and endogenous H 2 S production by PDLSCs. Moreover, blocking endogenous H 2 S or systemically increasing H 2 S levels could decrease or enhance force-induced osteoclastic activities to control tooth movement. We further revealed how force-induced H 2 S production by PDLSCs contributed to the secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) system by PDLSCs. The secretion and expression of these factors controlled macrophage migration and osteoclast differentiation. This study demonstrated that PDLSCs produced H 2 S to respond to and transduce force signals. Force-induced gasotransmitter H 2 S production in PDLSCs therefore regulated osteoclastic activities in alveolar bone and controlled the OTM process through the MCP-1 secretion and RANKL/OPG system.

  19. Massive Star Formation, Outflows, and Anomalous H2 Emission in Mol 121 (IRAS 20188+3928) (United States)

    Wolf-Chase, Grace; Arvidsson, Kim; Smutko, Michael; Sherman, Reid


    We have discovered 12 new molecular hydrogen emission-line objects (MHOs) in the vicinity of the candidate massive young stellar object Mol 121, in addition to five that were previously known. H2 2.12 μm/H2 2.25 μm flux ratios indicate another region dominated by fluorescence from a photodissociation region, and one region that displays an anomalously low H2 2.12 μm/H2 2.25 μm flux ratio (young stellar objects embedded in cores that are likely to be in different evolutionary stages.

  20. UV Raman spectroscopy of H2-air flames excited with a narrowband KrF laser (United States)

    Shirley, John A.


    Raman spectra of H2 and H2O in flames excited by a narrowband KrF excimer laser are reported. Observations are made over a porous-plug, flat-flame burner reacting H2 in air, fuel-rich with nitrogen dilution to control the temperature, and with an H2 diffusion flame. Measurements made from UV Raman spectra show good agreement with measurements made by other means, both for gas temperature and relative major species concentrations. Laser-induced fluorescence interferences arising from OH and O2 are observed in emission near the Raman spectra. These interferences do not preclude Raman measurements, however.

  1. RNaseH2 mutants that cause Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome are active nucleases


    Perrino, Fred W.; Harvey, Scott; Shaban, Nadine M.; Hollis, Thomas


    Mutations in the genes encoding the RNaseH2 and TREX1 nucleases have been identified in patients with Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS). To determine if the AGS RNaseH2 mutations result in the loss of nuclease activity, the human wild-type RNaseH2 and four mutant complexes that constitute the majority of mutations identified in AGS patients have been prepared and tested for ribonuclease H activity. The heterotrimeric structures of the mutant RNaseH2 complexes are intact. Furthermore, the ribon...

  2. Impact of a future H2 transportation on atmospheric pollution in Europe (United States)

    Popa, M. E.; Segers, A. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Krol, M. C.; Visschedijk, A. J. H.; Schaap, M.; Röckmann, T.


    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality in Europe, we implemented H2 in the atmospheric transport and chemistry model LOTOS-EUROS. We simulated the present and future (2020) air quality, using emission scenarios with different proportions of H2 vehicles and different H2 leakage rates. The reference future scenario does not include H2 vehicles, and assumes that all present and planned European regulations for emissions are fully implemented. We find that, in general, the air quality in 2020 is significantly improved compared to the current situation in all scenarios, with and without H2 cars. In the future scenario without H2 cars, the pollution is reduced due to the strict European regulations: annually averaged CO, NOx and PM2.5 over the model domain decrease by 15%, 30% and 20% respectively. The additional improvement brought by replacing 50% or 100% of traditionally-fueled vehicles by H2 vehicles is smaller in absolute terms. If 50% of vehicles are using H2, the CO, NOx and PM2.5 decrease by 1%, 10% and 1% respectively, compared to the future scenario without H2 cars. When all vehicles run on H2, then additional decreases in CO, NOx and PM2.5 are 5%, 40%, and 5% relative to the no-H2 cars future scenario. Our study shows that H2 vehicles may be an effective pathway to fulfill the strict future EU air quality regulations. O3 has a more complicated behavior - its annual average decreases in background areas, but increases in the high-NOx area in western Europe, with the decrease in NOx. A more detailed analysis shows that the population exposure to high O3 levels decreases nevertheless. In all future scenarios, traffic emissions account for only a small proportion of the total anthropogenic emissions, thus it becomes more important

  3. H2O2-triggered bubble generating antioxidant polymeric nanoparticles as ischemia/reperfusion targeted nanotheranostics. (United States)

    Kang, Changsun; Cho, Wooram; Park, Minhyung; Kim, Jinsub; Park, Sanghoon; Shin, Dongho; Song, Chulgyu; Lee, Dongwon


    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) leads to oxidative stress, causing inflammation and cellular damages and death. H2O2 is one of the most stable and abundant ROS and H2O2-mediated oxidative stress is considered as a key mediator of cellular and tissue damages during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Therefore, H2O2 could hold tremendous potential as a diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for oxidative stress-associated inflammatory conditions such as I/R injury. Here, we report a novel nanotheranostic agent that can express ultrasound imaging and simultaneous therapeutic effects for hepatic I/R treatment, which is based on H2O2-triggered CO2-generating antioxidant poly(vanillin oxalate) (PVO). PVO nanoparticles generate CO2 through H2O2-triggered oxidation of peroxalate esters and release vanillin, which exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PVO nanoparticles intravenously administrated remarkably enhanced the ultrasound signal in the site of hepatic I/R injury and also effectively suppressed the liver damages by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis. To our best understanding, H2O2-responsive PVO is the first platform which generates bubbles to serve as ultrasound contrast agents and also exerts therapeutic activities. We therefore anticipate that H2O2-triggered bubble-generating antioxidant PVO nanoparticles have great potential for ultrasound imaging and therapy of H2O2-associated diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Explosion Power and Pressure Desensitization Resisting Property of Emulsion Explosives Sensitized by MgH2 (United States)

    Cheng, Yangfan; Ma, Honghao; Liu, Rong; Shen, Zhaowu


    Due to low detonation power and pressure desensitization problems that traditional emulsion explosives encounter in utilization, a hydrogen-based emulsion explosives was devised. This type of emulsion explosives is sensitized by hydrogen-containing material MgH2, and MgH2 plays a double role as a sensitizer and an energetic material in emulsion explosives. Underwater explosion experiments and shock wave desensitization experiments show that an MgH2 emulsion explosives has excellent detonation characteristics and is resistant to pressure desensitization. The pressure desensitization-resistant mechanism of MgH2 emulsion explosives was investigated using scanning electron microscopy.

  5. Extreme deuterium enrichment in stratospheric hydrogen and the global atmospheric budget of H2. (United States)

    Rahn, Thom; Eiler, John M; Boering, Kristie A; Wennberg, Paul O; McCarthy, Michael C; Tyler, Stanley; Schauffler, Sue; Donnelly, Stephen; Atlas, Elliot


    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is the second most abundant trace gas in the atmosphere after methane (CH4). In the troposphere, the D/H ratio of H2 is enriched by 120 per thousand relative to the world's oceans. This cannot be explained by the sources of H2 for which the D/H ratio has been measured to date (for example, fossil fuels and biomass burning). But the isotopic composition of H2 from its single largest source--the photochemical oxidation of methane--has yet to be determined. Here we show that the D/H ratio of stratospheric H2 develops enrichments greater than 440 per thousand, the most extreme D/H enrichment observed in a terrestrial material. We estimate the D/H ratio of H2 produced from CH4 in the stratosphere, where production is isolated from the influences of non-photochemical sources and sinks, showing that the chain of reactions producing H2 from CH4 concentrates D in the product H2. This enrichment, which we estimate is similar on a global average in the troposphere, contributes substantially to the D/H ratio of tropospheric H2.

  6. Detailed H2 and CO Electrochemistry for a MEA Model Fueled by Syngas

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, W. Y.


    © The Electrochemical Society. SOFCs can directly oxidize CO in addition to H2, which allows them to be coupled to a gasifier. Many membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) models neglect CO electrochemistry due to sluggish kinetics and the water-gas-shift reaction, but CO oxidation may be important for high CO-content syngas. The 1D-MEA model presented here incorporates detailed mechanisms for both H2 and CO oxidation, individually fitted to experimental data. These mechanisms are then combined into a single model, which provides a good fit to experimental data for H2/CO mixtures. Furthermore, the model fits H2/CO data best when a single chargetransfer step in the H2 mechanism is assumed to be rate-limiting for all current densities. This differs from the result for H2/H2O mixtures, where H2 adsorption becomes rate-limiting at high current densities. These results indicate that CO oxidation cannot be neglected in MEA models running on CO-rich syngas, and that CO oxidation can alter the H2 oxidation mechanism.

  7. Do We Understand the Environmental Impacts of an H2 Economy? (United States)

    Prather, M. J.


    The promise of a clean, hydrogen (H2)-fueled transportation sector has been waved in front of the nation by the current administration, the governor of California, and the technologists. A 2004 NAS report on "The Hydrogen Economy" was prepared by the economists and engineers, remarkably lacking any atmospheric scientists or biogeochemists who understand the natural cycle of H2. It is surprising that all of these groups examining a hydrogen economy are secure in the belief that H2 is a pure fuel, safe and harmless to the environment. A thorough well-to-wheel analysis as envisaged by the NAS report is needed to evaluate the environmental costs/benefits of a hydrogen economy (e.g., the energy source for producing H2, the distribution system), but it needs also to include our knowledge of the biogeochemical cycling of H2 in the atmosphere (0.5 ppm or about 175 Tg) and how it might be perturbed. This brief review of the science examines what controls the atmospheric abundance of H2 and how the chemistry of H2 impacts the climate and global air quality. Recent work on hydrogen isotopes, global modeling of sources and sinks, and the stratospheric and climate connections, enables us to more clearly define the budget and impacts of H2, and to place reasonable bounds on the environmental impacts - provided we understand the possible future emissions of H2 and of related direct and indirect greenhouse gases.

  8. Turn-on fluorescence detection of H2O2 and TATP. (United States)

    Germain, Meaghan E; Knapp, Michael J


    Peroxide-based explosives, like triacetone triperoxide (TATP), are important targets for detection because of their broad use in improvised explosives but pose challenges. We report a highly sensitive turn-on fluorescence detection for H2O2 and organic peroxides, including TATP. The detection strategy relies on oxidative deboronation to unmask H2Salen, which subsequently binds Zn(2+) to form fluorescent Zn(Salen). Sensitivity is excellent, with detection limits below 10 nM for H2O2, TATP, and benzoyl peroxide. In addition, acid treatment is necessary to sense TATP, suggesting the potential to discriminate between H2O2 and TATP based upon minimal sample pretreatment.

  9. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, and EPR study of [Na(H 2O) 2] 2[VO(H 2O) 5][SiW 12O 40]·4H 2O (United States)

    Tézé, André; Marchal-Roch, Catherine; So, Hyunsoo; Fournier, Michel; Hervé, Gilbert


    The vanadyl salt [Na(H 2O) 2] 2[VO(H 2O) 5][SiW 12O 40]·4H 2O has been synthesized in mild conditions by cationic exchanges from dodecasilicotungstic acid. Structural determination and EPR study have been achieved on single crystals. They are tetragonal, space group P4/ n with a=14.7759(1), c=10.4709(2) Å, V=2286(1) Å 3 and Z=2. A three-dimensional framework built from Keggin anions [SiW 12O 40] 4- linked by sodium cations in (110) and ( 1 1¯0 ) planes generates channels along the c axis in which are localized aquo vanadyl complexes [VO(H 2O) 5] 2+ and water molecules. Single crystal EPR spectra show eight hyperfine lines of the vanadium atom ( I=7/2) which are split into 1:2:1 pattern when the magnetic field is parallel to the c axis. The triplet pattern may be attributed to weak dipolar interactions between the nearest-neighbor vanadium atoms which are 10.47 Å apart in the infinite chain. A ring model was used to simulate the spectrum, and a very small antiferromagnetic exchange interaction was determined accurately . The EPR parameters determined are gx= gy=1.980, gz=1.9336, Ax= Ay=0.0072 cm -1, and Az=0.01805 cm -1, J=-0.00025 cm -1.

  10. Rate Controlling Step in the Reduction of Iron Oxides; Kinetics and Mechanism of Wüstite-Iron Step in H2, CO and H2/CO Gas Mixtures (United States)

    El-Geassy, Abdel-Hady A.


    Wüstite (W1 and W2) micropellets (150-50 μm) were prepared from the reduction of pure Fe2O3 and 2.1% SiO2-doped Fe2O3 in 40%CO/CO2 gas mixture at 1000°C which were then isothermally reduced in H2, CO and H2/CO gas mixtures at 900-1100°C. The reduction reactions was followed by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG) technique. The effect of gas composition, gas pressure and temperature on the rate of reduction was investigated. The different phases formed during the reduction were chemically and physically characterized. In SiO2-doped wüstite, fayalite (Fe2SiO3) was identified. At the initial reduction stages, the highest rate was obtained in H2 and the lowest was in CO gas. In H2/CO gas mixtures, the measured rate did not follow a simple additive equation. The addition of 5% H2 to CO led to a measurable increase in the rate of reduction compared with that in pure CO. Incubation periods were observed at the early reduction stages of W1 in CO at lower gas pressure (reaction rate minimum was detected in H2 and H2-rich gas mixtures at 925-950°C. The influence of addition of H2 to CO or CO to H2 on the reduction reactions, nucleation and grain growth of iron was intensively studied. Unlike in pure wüstite, the presence of fayalite enhances the reduction reactions with CO and CO-rich gas mixtures. The chemical reaction equations of pure wüstite with CO are given showing the formation of carbonyl-like compound [Fem(CO2)n]*. The apparent activation energy values, at the initial stages, ranged from 53.75 to 133.97 kJ/mole indicating different reaction mechanism although the reduction was designed to proceed by the interfacial chemical reaction.

  11. Broadening of spectral lines of CO2, N2O , H2CO, HCN, and H2S by pressure of gases dominant in planetary atmospheres (H2, He and CO2) (United States)

    Samuels, Shanelle; Gordon, Iouli; Tan, Yan


    HITRAN1,2 is a compilation of spectroscopic parameters that a variety of computer codes use to predict and simulate the transmission and emission of light in planetary atmospheres. The goal of this project is to add to the potential of the HITRAN database towards the exploration of the planetary atmospheres by including parameters describing broadening of spectral lines by H2, CO2, and He. These spectroscopic data are very important for the study of the hydrogen and helium-rich atmospheres of gas giants as well as rocky planets with volcanic activities, including Venus and Mars, since their atmospheres are dominated by CO2. First step in this direction was accomplished by Wilzewski et al.3 where this was done for SO2, NH3, HF, HCl, OCS and C2H2. The molecules investigated in this work were CO2, N2O, H2CO, HCN and H2S. Line-broadening coefficients, line shifts and temperature-dependence exponents for transitions of these molecules perturbed by H2, CO2 and He have been assembled from available peer-reviewed experimental and theoretical sources. The data was evaluated and the database was populated with these data and their extrapolations/interpolations using semi-empirical models that were developed to this end.Acknowledgements: Financial support from NASA PDART grant NNX16AG51G and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Latino Initiative Program from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center is gratefully acknowledged.References: 1. HITRAN online Gordon, I.E., Rothman, L.S., Hill, C., Kochanov, R.V., Tan, Y., et al., 2017. The HITRAN2016 Molecular Spectroscopic Database. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2017.06.0383. Wilzewski, J.S., Gordon, I.E., Kochanov, R. V., Hill, C., Rothman, L.S., 2016. H2, He, and CO2 line-broadening coefficients, pressure shifts and temperature-dependence exponents for the HITRAN database. Part 1: SO2, NH3, HF, HCl, OCS and C2H2. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat

  12. The Water Abundance behind Interstellar Shocks: Results from Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/IRS Observations of H2O, CO, and H2 (United States)

    Neufeld, David A.; Gusdorf, Antoine; Güsten, Rolf; Herczeg, Greg J.; Kristensen, Lars; Melnick, Gary J.; Nisini, Brunella; Ossenkopf, Volker; Tafalla, Mario; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.


    We have investigated the water abundance in shock-heated molecular gas, making use of Herschel measurements of far-infrared (IR) CO and H2O line emissions in combination with Spitzer measurements of mid-IR H2 rotational emissions. We present far-IR line spectra obtained with Herschel's Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer instrument in range spectroscopy mode toward two positions in the protostellar outflow NGC 2071 and one position each in the supernova remnants W28 and 3C391. These spectra provide unequivocal detections, at one or more positions, of 12 rotational lines of water, 14 rotational lines of CO, 8 rotational lines of OH (4 lambda doublets), and 7 fine-structure transitions of atoms or atomic ions. We first used a simultaneous fit to the CO line fluxes, along with H2 rotational line fluxes measured previously by Spitzer, to constrain the temperature and density distribution within the emitting gas; we then investigated the water abundances implied by the observed H2O line fluxes. The water line fluxes are in acceptable agreement with standard theoretical models for nondissociative shocks that predict the complete vaporization of grain mantles in shocks of velocity v ~ 25 km s-1, behind which the characteristic gas temperature is ~1300 K and the H2O/CO ratio is 1.2

  13. Reactions of H+(pyridinem(H2On and H+(NH31(pyridinem(H2On with NH3: experiments and kinetic modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Uggerud


    Full Text Available Reactions between pyridine containing water cluster ions, H+(pyridine1(H2On, H+(pyridine2(H2On and H+(NH31(pyridine1(H2On (n up to 15 with NH3 have been studied experimentally using a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The product ions in the reaction between H+(pyridinem(H2On (m = 1 to 2 and NH3 have been determined for the first time. It is found that the reaction mainly leads to cluster ions of the form H+(NH31(pyridinem(H2On-x, with x = 1 or 2 depending on the initial size of the reacting cluster ion. For a given number of water molecules (from 5 to 15 in the cluster ion, rate coefficients are found to be slightly lower than those for protonated pure water clusters reacting with ammonia. The rate coefficients obtained from this study are used in a kinetic cluster ion model under tropospheric conditions. The disagreement between ambient ground level measurements and previous models are discussed in relation to the results from our model and future experimental directions are suggested.

  14. Mental health and legal representation for asylum seekers in the ‘legacy caseload’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anne Kenny


    Full Text Available This article examines processes and challenges attendant upon an asylum seekers arriving by boat to Australia obtaining legal assistance for their claims. The authors set about explaining the experiences of asylum seekers in the ‘legacy caseload’ who have been waiting for around 4 years to have their protection claims assessed. The provision of legal assistance for this group will be essential to ensuring that the refugee status determination process is fair and allows asylum seekers to understand and participate more fully in the process.  It describes the complex interplay between legal assistance to support refugee claims and the way those making claims inevitably struggle to understand, engage and participate in the process. Recent changes to the assessment of claims combined with a reduction in funding for legal assistance create significant hurdles and combine to compound existing stress and adversity.

  15. End-of-life decisions in Malaysia: Adequacies of ethical codes and developing legal standards. (United States)

    Kassim, Puteri Nemie Jahn; Alias, Fadhlina


    End-of-life decision-making is an area of medical practice in which ethical dilemmas and legal interventions have become increasingly prevalent. Decisions are no longer confined to clinical assessments; rather, they involve wider considerations such as a patient's religious and cultural beliefs, financial constraints, and the wishes and needs of family members. These decisions affect everyone concerned, including members of the community as a whole. Therefore it is imperative that clear ethical codes and legal standards are developed to help guide the medical profession on the best possible course of action for patients. This article considers the relevant ethical, codes and legal provisions in Malaysia governing certain aspects of end-of-life decision-making. It highlights the lack of judicial decisions in this area as well as the limitations with the Malaysian regulatory system. The article recommends the development of comprehensive ethical codes and legal standards to guide end-of-life decision-making in Malaysia.

  16. Legal Education: Critical of Contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral


    Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor  of  law  schools;  The  educational  legislation  Questions  of  legal  education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences  about  the  teaching  of  law,  the  methodological  approach  and  the  didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.

  17. Socialisation to Interdisciplinary Legal Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfke, Werner; Mayoral, Juan A.; Hvidt, Martine Stagelund


    This article provides novel empirical survey evidence on socialization factors leading lecturers to implement interdisciplinary teaching in law. Recent debates on the legal scholarship and higher education legal institutions advocates for the introduction of interdisciplinary approaches to legal...... studies. Nevertheless, there is still few evidence of how this lecturing philosophy might be affected by the socialization with other disciplines. For that purpose, we analyse the case of external lectures in the Faculty of Law at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, who covers the majority...... of the teaching staff in this institution. To explain the adoption of interdisciplinary teaching, we rely on socialization factors connected to their former higher education and socialization in research and multidisciplinary environments....

  18. "Plug-and-Play" potentials: Investigating quantum effects in (H2)2-Li+-benzene (United States)

    D'Arcy, Jordan H.; Kolmann, Stephen J.; Jordan, Meredith J. T.


    Quantum and anharmonic effects are investigated in (H2)2-Li+-benzene, a model for hydrogen adsorption in metal-organic frameworks and carbon-based materials, using rigid-body diffusion Monte Carlo (RBDMC) simulations. The potential-energy surface (PES) is calculated as a modified Shepard interpolation of M05-2X/6-311+G(2df,p) electronic structure data. The RBDMC simulations yield zero-point energies (ZPE) and probability density histograms that describe the ground-state nuclear wavefunction. Binding a second H2 molecule to the H2-Li+-benzene complex increases the ZPE of the system by 5.6 kJ mol-1 to 17.6 kJ mol-1. This ZPE is 42% of the total electronic binding energy of (H2)2-Li+-benzene and cannot be neglected. Our best estimate of the 0 K binding enthalpy of the second H2 to H2-Li+-benzene is 7.7 kJ mol-1, compared to 12.4 kJ mol-1 for the first H2 molecule. Anharmonicity is found to be even more important when a second (and subsequent) H2 molecule is adsorbed; use of harmonic ZPEs results in significant error in the 0 K binding enthalpy. Probability density histograms reveal that the two H2 molecules are found at larger distance from the Li+ ion and are more confined in the θ coordinate than in H2-Li+-benzene. They also show that both H2 molecules are delocalized in the azimuthal coordinate, ϕ. That is, adding a second H2 molecule is insufficient to localize the wavefunction in ϕ. Two fragment-based (H2)2-Li+-benzene PESs are developed. These use a modified Shepard interpolation for the Li+-benzene and H2-Li+-benzene fragments, and either modified Shepard interpolation or a cubic spline to model the H2-H2 interaction. Because of the neglect of three-body H2, H2, Li+ terms, both fragment PESs lead to overbinding of the second H2 molecule by 1.5 kJ mol-1. Probability density histograms, however, indicate that the wavefunctions for the two H2 molecules are effectively identical on the "full" and fragment PESs. This suggests that the 1.5 kJ mol-1 error is

  19. Evaluating γH2AX in spermatozoa from male infertility patients. (United States)

    Zhong, Hui-zhi; Lv, Fu-tong; Deng, Xue-lian; Hu, Ying; Xie, Dan-ni; Lin, Bin; Mo, Zeng-nan; Lin, Fa-quan


    To investigate whether γH2AX levels were different in the spermatozoa of healthy men compared with infertility patients, and to assess the possible correlations between γH2AX and conventional semen parameters and double-stranded breaks (DSBs) identified with the use of comet assay. Prospective study. Clinical laboratory. Semen from 100 male infertile patients and 100 healthy sperm donors. Human sperm samples were analyzed in terms of World Health Organization parameters. The γH2AX levels were detected by means of flow cytometry. DSBs of sperm were detected by means of comet assay. Morphology slides were made and the sperm morphology assessed according to strict criteria. Conventional semen analyses, γH2AX levels in sperm, DNA DSBs in sperm, and correlations among γH2AX, conventional semen analyses, and DSBs. Concentration, viability, motility, and normal sperm morphology were significantly lower in male infertility patients compared with healthy men. Also, γH2AX levels and the number of DSBs were significantly higher in the sperm of infertile subjects compared with healthy men. γH2AX levels correlated negatively with conventional semen parameters and positively with DSBs. A threshold γH2AX level of 18.55% was identified as a cutoff value to discriminate infertile subjects from fertile control subjects with a specificity of 86.0% and a sensitivity of 83.0%. The positive and negative predictive values of the 18.55% γH2AX threshold were high: 87.7% and 85.5%, respectively. γH2AX levels were higher in the sperm of male infertility patients than in healthy men. γH2AX levels in sperm, as evaluated with the use of flow cytometry, might be a useful biomarker for evaluating DSBs in human spermatozoa. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dexmedetomidine attenuates H2O2-induced cell death in human osteoblasts. (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-Young; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Eun-Jung; Park, Bong-Soo; Yoon, Ji-Uk; Shin, Sang-Wook; Kim, Do-Wan


    Reactive oxygen species play critical roles in homeostasis and cell signaling. Dexmedetomidine, a specific agonist of the α2-adrenoceptor, has been commonly used for sedation, and it has been reported to have a protective effect against oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether dexmedetomidine has a protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and the mechanism of H2O2-induced cell death in normal human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cells. Cells were divided into three groups: control group-cells were incubated in normoxia without dexmedetomidine, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) group-cells were exposed to H2O2 (200 µM) for 2 h, and Dex/H2O2 group-cells were pretreated with dexmedetomidine (5 µM) for 2 h then exposed to H2O2 (200 µM) for 2 h. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated. Osteoblast maturation was determined by assaying bone nodular mineralization. Expression levels of bone-related proteins were determined by western blot. Cell viability was significantly decreased in the H2O2 group compared with the control group, and this effect was improved by dexmedetomidine. The Hoechst 33342 and Annexin-V FITC/PI staining revealed that dexmedetomidine effectively decreased H2O2-induced hFOB cell apoptosis. Dexmedetomidine enhanced the mineralization of hFOB cells when compared to the H2O2 group. In western blot analysis, bone-related protein was increased in the Dex/H2O2 group. We demonstrated the potential therapeutic value of dexmedetomidine in H2O2-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing osteoblast activity. Additionally, the current investigation could be evidence to support the antioxidant potential of dexmedetomidine in vitro.


    Ostrowski, Tim D.; Hasser, Eileen M.; Heesch, Cheryl M.; Kline, David D.


    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a stable reactive oxygen species and potent neuromodulator of cellular and synaptic activity. Centrally, endogenous H2O2 is elevated during bouts of hypoxia-reoxygenation, a variety of disease states, and aging. The nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) is the central termination site of visceral afferents for homeostatic reflexes and contributes to reflex alterations during these conditions. We determined the extent to which H2O2 modulates synaptic and membrane properties in nTS neurons in rat brainstem slices. Stimulation of the tractus solitarii (which contains the sensory afferent fibers) evoked synaptic currents that were not altered by 10 – 500 μM H2O2. However, 500 μM H2O2 modulated several intrinsic membrane properties of nTS neurons, including a decrease in input resistance, hyperpolarization of resting membrane potential (RMP) and action potential (AP) threshold (THR), and an initial reduction in AP discharge to depolarizing current. H2O2 increased conductance of barium-sensitive potassium currents, and block of these currents ablated H2O2-induced changes in RMP, input resistance and AP discharge. Following washout of H2O2 AP discharge was enhanced due to depolarization of RMP and a partially maintained hyperpolarization of THR. Hyperexcitability persisted with repeated H2O2 exposure. H2O2 effects on RMP and THR were ablated by intracellular administration of the antioxidant catalase, which was immunohistochemically identified in neurons throughout the nTS. Thus, H2O2 initially reduces excitability of nTS neurons that is followed by sustained hyperexcitability, which may play a profound role in cardiorespiratory reflexes. PMID:24397952

  2. Pushing the limits: detecting H2 emission from faint bipolar planetary nebulae in the IPHAS sample (United States)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Guerrero, M. A.; Sabin, L.; Santamaría, E.


    We have obtained deep narrowband images in the near-infrared H2 λ2.122 μm emission line for a sample of 15 faint Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric H α Survey (IPHAS) bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe) to search for molecular material. H2 emission is found in most of them (14 out of 15), mostly associated with rings at their equatorial regions and with their bipolar lobes. These detections add to the high occurrence of H2 emission among bipolar PNe reported in previous works, resulting from the large reservoir of molecular material in these sources and the suitable excitation conditions for H2 emission. The correlation between detailed bipolar morphology and H2 luminosity is also confirmed: bipolar PNe with broad equatorial rings (R-BPNe) have almost no continuum emission, are H2 brighter and have larger H2/Br γ line ratio than bipolar PNe with pinched equatorial waists (W-BPNe). The origin of this dichotomy is unclear. The larger size and age of R-BPNe are consistent with shock excitation of H2, whereas ultraviolet pumping is most likely the excitation mechanism in the smaller and younger W-BPNe, which would explain their lower H2 luminosity. Although both types of bipolar PNe seem to proceed from the same progenitor population, this does not imply that R-BPNe descend from W-BPNe. Otherwise, we note that some of the H2-weak bipolar PNe harbor post-common envelope binary systems and symbiotic stars. Finally, we suggest that the long-living H2 emission from R-BPNe arises from a discrete distribution of compact knots embedded within the ionized gas at the equatorial region.

  3. Trend in H2S Biology and Medicine Research—A Bibliometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Yang


    Full Text Available The biological and medical importance of hydrogen sulfide (H2S has been recognized for decades. The aim of this bibliometric study is to analyze the quantity and quality of publications in H2S biology and medicine (H2SBM based on the databases of Web of Science and Google Scholar. A total of 5881 publications published between 1990 and 2016 were analyzed. The number of H2SBM papers published before 2004 was below 100 annually, but thereafter this number rapidly increased and peaked in 2015 with more than 7-fold increase. All publications related to H2SBM research achieved a total h-index of 136 and were cited 123,074 times. The most published disciplines in H2S biomedicine research were the cardiovascular system (8.5%, neuroscience (6.5%, and gastroenterology hepatology (4.7%. The country with the greatest number of publications in the H2SBM research field was the USA with 1765 (30.0% publications, followed by China with 995 (16.9% publications and Japan with 555 (9.4% publications. The top 3 most published institutes were National University of Singapore, Peking University in China, and University of Groningen in Netherlands. Nitric Oxide Biology and Chemistry was the most exploited journal for H2SBM publications with 461 articles, followed by FASEB Journal with 200 publications and Antioxidants Redox Signaling with 116 publications. The most highly cited publications and researchers in H2SBM research were also unmasked from this bibliometric analysis. Collectively, H2SBM publications exhibit a continuous trend of increase, reflecting the increased H2SBM research intensity and diversity globally.

  4. Electrochemical Quantification of Extracellular Local H2O2Kinetics Originating from Single Cells. (United States)

    Bozem, Monika; Knapp, Phillip; Mirčeski, Valentin; Slowik, Ewa J; Bogeski, Ivan; Kappl, Reinhard; Heinemann, Christian; Hoth, Markus


    H 2 O 2 is produced by all eukaryotic cells under physiological and pathological conditions. Due to its enormous relevance for cell signaling at low concentrations and antipathogenic function at high concentrations, precise quantification of extracellular local H 2 O 2 concentrations ([H 2 O 2 ]) originating from single cells is required. Using a scanning electrochemical microscope and bare platinum disk ultramicroelectrodes, we established sensitive long-term measurements of extracellular [H 2 O 2 ] kinetics originating from single primary human monocytes (MCs) ex vivo. For the electrochemical techniques square wave voltammetry, cyclic and linear scan voltammetry, and chronoamperometry, detection limits for [H 2 O 2 ] were determined to be 5, 50, and 500 nM, respectively. Following phorbol ester stimulation, local [H 2 O 2 ] 5-8 μm above a single MC increased by 3.4 nM/s within the first 10 min before reaching a plateau. After extracellular addition of H 2 O 2 to an unstimulated MC, the local [H 2 O 2 ] decreased on average by 4.2 nM/s due to degradation processes of the cell. Using the scanning mode of the setup, we found that H 2 O 2 is evenly distributed around the producing cell and can still be detected up to 30 μm away from the cell. The electrochemical single-cell measurements were validated in MC populations using electron spin resonance spectroscopy and the Amplex ® UltraRed assay. Innovation and Conclusion: We demonstrate a highly sensitive, spatially, and temporally resolved electrochemical approach to monitor dynamics of production and degradation processes for H 2 O 2 separately. Local extracellular [H 2 O 2 ] kinetics originating from single cells is quantified in real time. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  5. [Legal aspects of health telematics]. (United States)

    Dierks, C


    Specific legal issues arise from the distance of the participants in health telematics. Substandard care not meeting the state of the art can yield malpractice litigation, especially if a diagnosis or therapy conveyed via telematics proves to be deficient. On the other hand, communication deficiencies may bring about a reversal of the burden of proof. If the patient's damage can not be attributed to the responsible person due to the division of labour, a joint liability is likely to be adjudicated. A specific legal risk analysis is required as a basis for a risk-adequate design of any application in health telematics.

  6. Legal Theory and Moral Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marquisio Aguirre


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to raise the hypothesis that, in its current state, according to the metaethical grounds that explicitly or implicitly sustain any interesting conception of the law, legal theory can be conceived as (a part of moral philosophy. This hypothesis is inferred from two questions that is worth asking to any legal theorist: 1 Is there an objective morality? 2 Which is the relevance of the answer to the preceding question for the conceptual and normative ways through which it is possible to provide an account of law as a social practice?

  7. Learned Treatise and Legal Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster-Swendsen, Mia


    of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...... that the Lex castrensis is in fact a political-legal treatise masked as pseudo-history with an explicit didactic purpose as a ‘schoolbook' for future administrators. As a learned ideological construct with a remarkable afterlife, Sven's work may be regarded as part of the intellectual preparation for future...

  8. Knowledge discovery from legal databases

    CERN Document Server

    Stranieri, Andrew; Schauer, Frederick


    Knowledge Discovery from Legal Databases is the first text to describe data mining techniques as they apply to law. Law students, legal academics and applied information technology specialists are guided thorough all phases of the knowledge discovery from databases process with clear explanations of numerous data mining algorithms including rule induction, neural networks and association rules. Throughout the text, assumptions that make data mining in law quite different to mining other data are made explicit.  Issues such as the selection of commonplace cases, the use of discretion as a form

  9. Competitive Legal Professionals' use of Technology in Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...

  10. Transposition of provisions of the Recast Directive on the functioning of the European Works Council

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Lorber, Pascale; Jagodzinski, Romuald


    The aim of this chapter is to list selected broader legal provisions and key conditions that can contribute to an improved environment for EWC work and thus stimulate improved functioning of this European body (sine qua non conditions), although an analysis of several of these broader concepts is

  11. Homeschooling as an Alternative Form of Educational Provision in South Africa and the USA (United States)

    de Waal, Esther; Theron, Tinie


    This paper studies homeschooling as an alternative form of educational provision in South Africa and USA to determine what knowledge and experiences from research on homeschooling in the USA may be relevant to the South Africa situation. Homeschooling in the USA has a sound legal foundation and has become an acceptable educational alternative.…

  12. 77 FR 28764 - Temporary Non-agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States (United States)


    ... H-2B Aliens in the United States AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ] ACTION... Aliens in the United States, published February 21, 2012 (the 2012 H-2B Final Rule). The 2012 H-2B Final...

  13. Ab initio studies of O-2(-) (H2O)(n) and O-3(-) (H2O)(n) anionic molecular clusters, n

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Nicolai Christian; Kurten, T.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker


    An ab initio study of gaseous clusters of O-2(-) and O-3(-) with water is presented. Based on thorough scans of configurational space, we determine the thermodynamics of cluster growth. The results are in good agreement with benchmark computational methods and existing experimental data. We find...... that anionic O-2(-)(H2O)n and O-3(-)(H2O)n clusters are thermally stabilized at typical atmospheric conditions for at least n = 5. The first 4 water molecules are strongly bound to the anion due to delocalization of the excess charge while stabilization of more than 4 H2O is due to normal hydrogen bonding...... finally, the thermodynamics of a few relevant cluster reactions are considered....

  14. New ab initio potential energy surface for BrH2 and rate constants for the H + HBr → H2 + Br abstraction reaction. (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Xie, Changjian; Xie, Daiqian


    A global potential energy surface (PES) for the electronic ground state of the BrH(2) system was constructed based on the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) method including the Davidson's correction using a large basis set. In addition, the spin-orbit correction were computed using the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian and the unperturbed MRCI wavefunctions in the Br + H(2) channel and the transition state region. Adding the correction to the ground state potential, the lowest spin-orbit correlated adiabatic potential was obtained. The characters of the new potential are discussed. Accurate initial state specified rate constants for the H + HBr → H(2) + Br abstraction reaction were calculated using a time-dependent wave packet method. The predicted rate constants were found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental values and much better than those obtained from a previous PES.

  15. The stable isotopic signature of biologically produced molecular hydrogen (H2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann


    Full Text Available Biologically produced molecular hydrogen (H2 is characterised by a very strong depletion in deuterium. Although the biological source to the atmosphere is small compared to photochemical or combustion sources, it makes an important contribution to the global isotope budget of H2. Large uncertainties exist in the quantification of the individual production and degradation processes that contribute to the atmospheric budget, and isotope measurements are a tool to distinguish the contributions from the different sources. Measurements of δ D from the various H2 sources are scarce and for biologically produced H2 only very few measurements exist. Here the first systematic study of the isotopic composition of biologically produced H2 is presented. In a first set of experiments, we investigated δ D of H2 produced in a biogas plant, covering different treatments of biogas production. In a second set of experiments, we investigated pure cultures of several H2 producing microorganisms such as bacteria or green algae. A Keeling plot analysis provides a robust overall source signature of δ D = −712‰ (±13‰ for the samples from the biogas reactor (at 38 °C, δ DH2O= +73.4‰, with a fractionation constant ϵH2-H2O of −689‰ (±20‰ between H2 and the water. The five experiments using pure culture samples from different microorganisms give a mean source signature of δ D = −728‰ (±28‰, and a fractionation constant ϵH2-H2O of −711‰ (±34‰ between H2 and the water. The results confirm the massive deuterium depletion of biologically produced H2 as was predicted by the calculation of the thermodynamic fractionation factors for hydrogen exchange between H2 and water vapour. Systematic errors in the isotope scale are difficult to assess in the absence of international standards for δ D of H2. As expected for a thermodynamic equilibrium, the fractionation factor is temperature dependent, but largely independent of the

  16. Observation of mixed acetylene - Nitrous oxide trimers: Infrared spectra of C2H2-(N2O)2 and (C2H2)2-N2O (United States)

    Sheybani-Deloui, S.; Yousefi, M.; Norooz Oliaee, J.; McKellar, A. R. W.; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.


    Infrared spectra of the lowest energy isomers of C2H2-(N2O)2 and (C2H2)2-N2O were observed in the region of the ν1 fundamental band of the N2O monomer (∼2224 cm-1) using a tunable diode laser and/or a CW quantum cascade laser to probe a pulsed supersonic slit jet expansion. One infrared band was measured for each trimer. The band for C2H2-(N2O)2 corresponds to the out-of-phase vibrations of the pair of equivalent N2O monomers. It is blue shifted by about 10 cm-1 with respect to the free N2O monomer. The band for (C2H2)2-N2O is slightly less blue shifted (centered at 2232.81 cm-1). It can be simulated as a predominately a-type band. In addition to the normal isotopologues, the corresponding bands for C2D2-(N2O)2 and (C2D2)2-N2O were also observed. The structures of these trimers are similar to those of the lowest energy isomers of the analogous OCS - acetylene trimers reported previously, that is, a twisted barrel with C2 symmetry for C2H2-(N2O)2 and a distorted T-shaped acetylene dimer with a coplanar N2O beside the stem of the T for (C2H2)2-N2O. Here, we present our observation and experimental results, which agree well with calculations based on distributed multipole pair potentials.

  17. Quantum tunneling during interstellar surface-catalyzed formation of water: the reaction H + H2O2 → H2O + OH. (United States)

    Lamberts, Thanja; Samanta, Pradipta Kumar; Köhn, Andreas; Kästner, Johannes


    The final step of the water formation network on interstellar grain surfaces starting from the H + O2 route is the reaction between H and H2O2. This reaction is known to have a high activation energy and therefore at low temperatures it can only proceed via tunneling. To date, however, no rate constants are available at temperatures below 200 K. In this work, we use instanton theory to compute rate constants for the title reaction with and without isotopic substitutions down to temperatures of 50 K. The calculations are based on density functional theory, with additional benchmarks for the activation energy using unrestricted single-reference and multireference coupled-cluster single-point energies. Gas-phase bimolecular rate constants are calculated and compared with available experimental data not only for H + H2O2 → H2O + OH, but also for H + H2O2 → H2 + HO2. We find a branching ratio where the title reaction is favored by at least two orders of magnitude at 114 K. In the interstellar medium this reaction predominantly occurs on water surfaces, which increases the probability that the two reactants meet. To mimic this, one, two, or three spectator H2O molecules are added to the system. Eley-Rideal bimolecular and Langmuir-Hinshelwood unimolecular rate constants are presented here. The kinetic isotope effects for the various cases are compared to experimental data as well as to expressions commonly used in astrochemical models. Both the rectangular barrier and the Eckart approximations lead to errors of about an order of magnitude. Finally, fits of the rate constants are provided as input for astrochemical models.

  18. Water Ice Radiolytic O2, H2, and H2O2 Yields for Any Projectile Species, Energy, or Temperature: A Model for Icy Astrophysical Bodies (United States)

    Teolis, B. D.; Plainaki, C.; Cassidy, T. A.; Raut, U.


    O2, H2, and H2O2 radiolysis from water ice is pervasive on icy astrophysical bodies, but the lack of a self-consistent, quantitative model of the yields of these water products versus irradiation projectile species and energy has been an obstacle to estimating the radiolytic oxidant sources to the surfaces and exospheres of these objects. A major challenge is the wide variation of O2 radiolysis yields between laboratory experiments, ranging over 4 orders of magnitude from 5 × 10-7 to 5 × 10-3 molecules/eV for different particles and energies. We revisit decades of laboratory data to solve this long-standing puzzle, finding an inverse projectile range dependence in the O2 yields, due to preferential O2 formation from an 30 Å thick oxygenated surface layer. Highly penetrating projectile ions and electrons with ranges ≳30 Å are therefore less efficient at producing O2 than slow/heavy ions and low-energy electrons (≲ 400 eV) which deposit most energy near the surface. Unlike O2, the H2O2 yields from penetrating projectiles fall within a comparatively narrow range of (0.1-6) × 10-3 molecules/eV and do not depend on range, suggesting that H2O2 forms deep in the ice uniformly along the projectile track, e.g., by reactions of OH radicals. We develop an analytical model for O2, H2, and H2O2 yields from pure water ice for electrons and singly charged ions of any mass and energy and apply the model to estimate possible O2 source rates on several icy satellites. The yields are upper limits for icy bodies on which surface impurities may be present.

  19. Sol-gel processed magnesium-doped silica membranes with improved H2/CO2 separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakiliç, Pelin; Huiskes, Cindy; Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Nijmeijer, Arian; Winnubst, A.J.A.


    Magnesium-doped silica membranes were synthesized and a large increase in H2/CO2 permselectivity is achieved as compared to undoped silica membranes. Three magnesium concentrations were studied, namely 10, 15 and 20 mol%, in order to find the optimal Mg-concentration for the highest H2/CO2

  20. H2O2-induced higher order chromatin degradation: A novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The genotoxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is well established. The underlying mechanism involves oxidation of DNA by ROS. However, we have recently shown that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the major mediator of oxidative stress, can also cause genomic damage indirectly. Thus, H2O2 at pathologically relevant ...

  1. Degradation of acidic Orange G dye using UV-H2O2 in batch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Degradation of Orange G dye has been investigated using UV irradiation with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a batch photoreactor. UV irradiation and H2O2 resulted in significant photodegradation of the dye although the effect individual reaction was very little. The degradation was studied to elucidate the effect of various ...

  2. Transport properties of the H2O@C60-dimer-based junction. (United States)

    Zhu, Chengbo; Wang, Xiaolin


    Theoretical predictions play an important role in finding potential applications in molecular electronics. Fullerenes have a number of potential applications, and the charge flow from a single C60 molecule to another becomes more versatile and more interesting after doping. Here, we report the conductance of two H2O@C60 molecules in series order and how the number of encapsulated water molecules influences the transport properties of the junction. Encapsulating an H2O molecule into one of the C60 cages increases the conductance of the dimer. Negative differential resistance is found in the dimer systems, and its peak-to-valley current ratio depends on the number of encapsulated H2O molecules. The conductance of the C60 dimer and the H2O@C60 dimer is two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the C60 monomer. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the conductance of the molecular junctions based on the H2O@C60 dimer can be tuned by moving the encapsulated H2O molecules. The conductance is H2O-position dependent. Our findings indicate that H2O@C60 can be used as a building block in C60-based molecular electronic devices and sensors.

  3. Crystal morphology of ADP (NH4H2PO4) : A qualitative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilo, M.; Woensdregt, C.F.


    The Hartman-Perdok theory enables one to establish the order of morphological importance of the ADP (NH4H2PO4) crystal faces from its crystal structure. Periodic Bond Chains (PBC's) have been obtained using the N−HN…O strong bonds between the ionic [NH4]+ and [H2PO4]- crystallization units. The

  4. Stability of globular proteins in H2O and D2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efimova, Y. M.; Haemers, S.; Wierczinski, B.; Norde, W.; van Well, A. A.


    In several experimental techniques D2O rather then H2O is often used as a solvent for proteins. Concerning the influence of the solvent on the stability of the proteins, contradicting results have been reported in literature. In this paper the influence of H2O-D2O solvent substitution on the

  5. Stability of globular proteins in H2O and in D2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efimova, Y.M.; Haemers, S.; Wierczinsky, B.; Norde, W.; Well, van A.A.


    In several experimental techniques D2O rather then H2O is often used as a solvent for proteins. Concerning the influence of the solvent on the stability of the proteins, contradicting results have been reported in literature. In this paper the influence of H2O-D2O solvent substitution on the

  6. Pretreatment of seed with H2O2 enhances drought tolerance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 16, 2009 ... water use efficiency (WUE) and proline level. H2O2 pretreatment enhanced the membrane stability, as ... ments and cultivation techniques for wheat production. Among various technique strategies, pre-sowing ... were surface sterilized with 75% ethanol for 2 min followed by repeated washings with ddH2O.

  7. Ni foam cathode enables high volumetric H2 production in a microbial electrolysis cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Saakes, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.


    Valuable, “green” H2 can be produced with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). To achieve a high volumetric production rate of high purity H2, a continuous flow MEC with an anion exchange membrane, a flow through bioanode and a flow through Ni foam cathode was constructed. At an electrical energy

  8. Role of H2AX in DNA damage response and human cancers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srivastava, N.; Gochhait, S.; Boer, P. de; Bamezai, R.N.


    H2AX, the evolutionarily conserved variant of histone H2A, has been identified as one of the key histones to undergo various post-translational modifications in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). By virtue of these modifications, that include acetylation, phosphorylation and

  9. Full Length Research Paper Lack of correlation between H 2O 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    substance, we attempted to determine if there is a consistent link between in vitro anti-staphylococcal activity and H2O2 production by Lactobacillus spp. A simple quantitative analysis of H2O2 produced by Lactobacillus spp. was performed by a modified spectrophotometric method. A statistically significant correlation was ...

  10. Image-Based Measurement of H2O2 Reaction-Diffusion in Wounded Zebrafish Larvae. (United States)

    Jelcic, Mark; Enyedi, Balázs; Xavier, João B; Niethammer, Philipp


    Epithelial injury induces rapid recruitment of antimicrobial leukocytes to the wound site. In zebrafish larvae, activation of the epithelial NADPH oxidase Duox at the wound margin is required early during this response. Before injury, leukocytes are near the vascular region, that is, ∼100-300 μm away from the injury site. How Duox establishes long-range signaling to leukocytes is unclear. We conceived that extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated by Duox diffuses through the tissue to directly regulate chemotactic signaling in these cells. But before it can oxidize cellular proteins, H2O2 must get past the antioxidant barriers that protect the cellular proteome. To test whether, or on which length scales this occurs during physiological wound signaling, we developed a computational method based on reaction-diffusion principles that infers H2O2 degradation rates from intravital H2O2-biosensor imaging data. Our results indicate that at high tissue H2O2 levels the peroxiredoxin-thioredoxin antioxidant chain becomes overwhelmed, and H2O2 degradation stalls or ceases. Although the wound H2O2 gradient reaches deep into the tissue, it likely overcomes antioxidant barriers only within ∼30 μm of the wound margin. Thus, Duox-mediated long-range signaling may require other spatial relay mechanisms besides extracellular H2O2 diffusion. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization and optimization of cathodic conditions for H2O2 synthesis in microbial electrochemical cells (United States)

    Cathode potential and O2 supply methods were investigated to improve H2O2 synthesis in an electrochemical cell, and optimal cathode conditions were applied for microbial electrochemical cells (MECs). Using aqueous O2 for the cathode significantly improved current density, but H2...

  12. 75 FR 6883 - Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States (United States)


    ... Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States AGENCY: Employment and Training... services involved in the petition; and (B) The employment of the alien in such labor or services will not...

  13. The transcriptional regulator c2h2 acceleratesmushroom formation in Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelkmans, Jordi F.; Vos, A.M.; Scholtmeijer, Karin; Hendrix, Ed; Baars, Johan J.P.; Gehrmann, T.; Reinders, M.J.T.; Lugones, Luis G.; Wösten, Han A.B.


    The Cys2His2 zinc finger protein gene c2h2 of Schizophyllum commune is involved in mushroom formation. Its inactivation results in a strain that is arrested at the stage of aggregate formation. In this study, the c2h2 orthologue of Agaricus bisporus was over-expressed in this white button mushroom

  14. The transcriptional regulator c2h2 accelerates mushroom formation in Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelkmans, J.F.; Vos, A.M.; Scholtmeijer, K; Hendrix, Eddy; Baars, Johan J; Gehrmann, Thies; Reinders, Marcel J; Lugones, L.G.; Wösten, HAB

    The Cys2His2 zinc finger protein gene c2h2 of Schizophyllum commune is involved in mushroom formation. Its inactivation results in a strain that is arrested at the stage of aggregate formation. In this study, the c2h2 orthologue of Agaricus bisporus was over-expressed in this white button mushroom

  15. The transcriptional regulator c2h2 accelerates mushroom formation in Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelkmans, Jordi F.; Vos, Aurin M.; Scholtmeijer, Karin; Hendrix, Ed; Baars, Johan J.P.; Gehrmann, Thies; Reinders, Marcel J.T.; Lugones, Luis G.; Wösten, Han A.B.


    The Cys2His2 zinc finger protein gene c2h2 of Schizophyllum commune is involved in mushroom formation. Its inactivation results in a strain that is arrested at the stage of aggregate formation. In this study, the c2h2 orthologue of Agaricus bisporus was over-expressed in this white button

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of H2S during acute bacterial infection: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francesca Benedetti; Sabrina Curreli; Selvi Krishnan; Sergio Davinelli; Fiorenza Cocchi; Giovanni Scapagnini; Robert C Gallo; Davide Zella


    .... The precise role of H2S in inflammation is still largely unknown. In particular, the role of H2S in the regulation of the inflammatory response in acute and chronic infections is being actively investigated because of its potential therapeutic use...

  17. ORFEUS II echelle spectra : Absorption by H-2 in the LMC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, KS; Richter, P; Bomans, DJ; Heithausen, A; Koornneef, J


    We report the first detection of H-2 absorption profiles of LMC gas on the line of sight to star 3120 in the association LH 10 near the emission nebula N 11B. Transitions found in the Lyman band are used to derive a total column density N(H-2) = 6.6 x 10(18) cm(-2). Excitation temperatures of less

  18. Interaction of H2 with stoichiometric and O-rich RuO2 (110) surfaces (United States)

    Wei, Yinying; Martinez, Umberto; Lammich, Lutz; Besenbacher, Flemming; Wendt, Stefan


    In this talk, I will present combined high-resolution STM, TPD, and DFT studies on the interaction of H2 with stoichiometric and O-rich RuO2(110) surfaces. On stoichiometric RuO2(110), H2 adsorbs molecularly on-top on Rucus sites for temperatures lower than 90 K. At higher temperatures such as 150 K, H2 molecules adsorb dissociatively on stoichiometric RuO2(110), leading to pairs of H species with one H adsorbed on-top on a Rucus site and the second at an adjacent Obr atom. On O-rich RuO2(110) surfaces characterized by O on-top species, H2 exposure followed by ramping the sample temperature leads to H2O formation. Systematic TPD measurements showed that the largest quantity of H2O forms at low adsorption temperatures and at a medium O on-top coverage. Our STM studies revealed different intermediate species depending on the H2 adsorption temperature. Based on these results it is proposed that the H2 sticking coefficient and the diffusivity of H adatoms play important roles in the hydrogen adsorption and the subsequent water formation reactions. We acknowledge the support of Danish Research Agency, the Strategic Research Council, and the European Research Council through an Advanced ERC grant (F.B.).

  19. Adsorption of H2O and CO2 on supported amine sorbents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veneman, Rens; Frigka, Natalia; Zhao, Wenying; Li, Zhenshan; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik


    In this work the adsorption of H2O and CO2 on Lewatit VP OC 1065 was studied in view of the potential application of this sorbent in post combustion CO2 capture. Both CO2 and H2O were found to adsorb on the amine active sites present on the pore surface of the sorbent material. However, where the

  20. Synthesis of H2SO4 doped polyaniline film by potentiometric method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H2SO4 doped polyaniline films were synthesized in aqueous acidic media. The polyaniline film deposited on platinum electrode exhibits highest conductivity. The conductivity of each H2SO4 doped polyaniline sample was determined by the four-probe technique. The current–voltage curve exhibits that polyaniline sample ...

  1. Characteristics of H2S emission from aged refuse after excavation exposure. (United States)

    Shen, Dong-Sheng; Du, Yao; Fang, Yuan; Hu, Li-Fang; Fang, Cheng-Ran; Long, Yu-Yang


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S(g)) emission from landfills is a widespread problem, especially when aged refuse is excavated. H2S(g) emission from aged refuse exposed to air was investigated and the results showed that large amounts of H2S(g) can be released, especially in the first few hours after excavation, when H2S(g) concentrations in air near refuse could reach 2.00 mg m(-3). Initial exposure to air did not inhibit the emission of H2S(g), as is generally assumed, but actually promoted it. The amounts of H2S(g) emitted in the first 2 d after excavation can be very dangerous, and the risks associated with the emission of H2S(g) could decrease significantly with time. Unlike a large number of sulfide existed under anaerobic conditions, the sulfide in aged municipal solid waste can be oxidized chemically to elemental sulfur (but not sulfate) under aerobic conditions, and its conversion rate was higher than 80%. Only microorganisms can oxidize the reduced sulfur species to sulfate, and the conversion rate could reach about 50%. Using appropriate techniques to enhance these chemical and biological transformations could allow the potential health risks caused by H2S(g) after refuse excavation to be largely avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [H 2 -Cryptand 222] 2+ (Br 3 – ) 2 as a Tribromide-Type Catalyst for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A stable organic tribromide, [H2-cryptand 222]2+(Br3–)2 was utilized as an active catalyst for the trimethylsilylation/tetrahydropyranylation of alcohols. The method is general for the preparation of OH-protected aliphatic (acyclic and cyclic), aromatic, primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. Keywords: [H2-cryptand ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, C.E.E.; De Kok, Luit J.; Kuiper, P.J.C.


    Fumigation of winter wheat with H2S during low temperature acclimation substantially reduced the development of freezing tolerance of the leaves. After 6 weeks of low temperature exposure (3-degrees-C), the freezing tolerance was increased by 6 and 2-degrees-C at 0 and 0.25-mu-l l-1 H2S,

  4. Biotechnological removal of H2S and thiols from sour gas streams under haloalkaline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman, P.


    Biotechnological removal of H2S and thiols from sour gas streams under haloalkaline conditions Paweł Roman Abstract Biological removal of H2S from sour gas streams became popular in recent years because of high process efficiency and low operational costs. To expand

  5. The rotational excitation of the interstellar HNC by para- and ortho-H2. (United States)

    Dumouchel, Fabien; Kłos, Jacek; Lique, François


    Rotational excitation of the interstellar HNC due to collisions with H(2) is investigated. We present a new four dimensional (4D) potential energy surface for the HNC-H(2) collisional system. Both molecules were treated as rigid rotors. Interaction energy was obtained from the electronic structure calculations using a single and double-excitation coupled cluster method with perturbative contributions from connected triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. The five atoms were described using the aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets. Bond functions were placed at mid-distance between the HNC center of mass and the center of mass of H(2) for a better description of the van der Waals interaction. Close coupling calculations of the inelastic integral cross sections of HNC in collisions with para-H(2) and ortho-H(2) were calculated for kinetic energies up to 800 cm(-1). After Boltzmann thermal averaging, rate coefficients were obtained for temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. Significant differences exist between para- and ortho-H(2) results. The strongest collision-induced rotational HNC transitions are the transitions with Δj = 1 for collisions with para-H(2) and with ortho-H(2). The new rate coefficients should induce important consequences on the determination of HNC abundance in the interstellar medium. In particular, we expect that they will help to solve the interstellar problem of relative abundance of the HCN and HNC isomers.

  6. Suitability of the H2S test for detection of fecal contamination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suitability of H2S field test to detect fecal contamination in drinking water was assessed by analysing 635 water samples from various sources at room temperature and at 37°C after 18, 24, and 48 h of incubation. The H2S test showed 216, 85, 96 and 85% correlation with Eijkman test, membrane filter technique, most ...

  7. Constitutive expression of gamma-H2AX has prognostic relevance in triple negative breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerke, A.P.; Kuijk, S.J. van; Sweep, F.C.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Martens, J.W.; Timmermans, M.A.Y.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Bussink, J.; Span, P.N.


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Constitutive gamma-H2AX expression might indicate disruption of the DNA damage repair pathway, genomic instability, or shortened telomeric ends. Here, we quantified expression of endogenous gamma-H2AX and its downstream factor 53BP1 in a large number of breast cancer cell

  8. 26 CFR 1.430(h)(2)-1 - Interest rates used to determine present value. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rates used to determine present value... to the interest rates to be applied for a plan year under section 430(h)(2). Section 430(h)(2) and... defined in section 414(f)). Paragraph (b) of this section describes how the segment interest rates are...

  9. Effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on respiration control of state 3/4 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 13, 2012 ... Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) could availably regulate electron transport in the inner membrane of mitochondria from bovine heart when succinate as substrate and rotenone as complex I inhibitor at. 37°C were used. H2S increased to a certain extent the respiratory rate of state 4. It also increased first and then ...

  10. Characterization and optimization of cathodic conditions for H2O2 synthesis in microbial electrochemical cells. (United States)

    Sim, Junyoung; An, Junyeong; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Ryu, Hodon; Lee, Hyung-Sool


    Cathode potential and O2 supply methods were investigated to improve H2O2 synthesis in an electrochemical cell, and optimal cathode conditions were applied for microbial electrochemical cells (MECs). Using aqueous O2 for the cathode significantly improved current density, but H2O2 conversion efficiency was negligible at 0.3-12%. Current density decreased for passive O2 diffusion to the cathode, but H2O2 conversion efficiency increased by 65%. An MEC equipped with a gas diffusion cathode was operated with acetate medium and domestic wastewater, which presented relatively high H2O2 conversion efficiency from 36% to 47%, although cathode overpotential was fluctuated. Due to different current densities, the maximum H2O2 production rate was 141 mg H2O2/L-h in the MEC fed with acetate medium, but it became low at 6 mg H2O2/L-h in the MEC fed with the wastewater. Our study clearly indicates that improving anodic current density and mitigating membrane fouling would be key parameters for large-scale H2O2-MECs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) on respiration control of state 3/4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental results indicated that more than 10 µM H2S brought about uncoupling of mitochondrial electron transport and the opening of mitochondrial KATP channel located in complex III-IV, and less than 10 µM H2S unexpectedly facilitated this course, which might be via sulfide-quinone oxidoreductase. The finding that ...

  12. System and method to control h2o2 level in advanced oxidation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a bio-electrochemical system (BES) and a method of in-situ production and removal of H2O2 using such a bio-electrochemical system (BES). Further, the invention relates to a method for in-situ control of H2O2 content in an aqueous system of advanced oxidation...

  13. Activity and Selectivity for O-2 Reduction to H2O2 on Transition Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahrostami, Samira; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Karamad, Mohammadreza


    Industrially viable electrochemical production of H2O2 requires active, selective and stable electrocatalyst materials to catalyse the oxygen reduction reaction to H2O2. On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we explain why single site catalysts such as Pd/Au show improved...

  14. The synthesis and hydrogen storage properties of a MgH(2) incorporated carbon aerogel scaffold. (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Gross, Adam F; Van Atta, Sky L; Lopez, Maribel; Liu, Ping; Ahn, Channing C; Vajo, John J; Jensen, Craig M


    A new approach to the incorporation of MgH2 in the nanometer-sized pores of a carbon aerogel scaffold was developed, by infiltrating the aerogel with a solution of dibutylmagnesium (MgBu2) precursor, and then hydrogenating the incorporated MgBu2 to MgH2. The resulting impregnated material showed broad x-ray diffraction peaks of MgH2. The incorporated MgH2 was not visible using a transmission electron microscope, which indicated that the incorporated hydride was nanosized and confined in the nanoporous structure of the aerogel. The loading of MgH2 was determined as 15-17 wt%, of which 75% is reversible over ten cycles. Incorporated MgH2 had >5 times faster dehydrogenation kinetics than ball-milled activated MgH2, which may be attributed to the particle size of the former being smaller than that of the latter. Cycling tests of the incorporated MgH(2) showed that the dehydrogenation kinetics are unchanged over four cycles. Our results demonstrate that confinement of metal hydride materials in a nanoporous scaffold is an efficient way to avoid aggregation and improve cycling kinetics for hydrogen storage materials.

  15. Impact of a future H2 transportation on atmospheric pollution in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375806407; Segers, A. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A C; Krol, M. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/078760410; Visschedijk, A. J H; Schaap, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413333175; Röckmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838233


    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality in Europe, we

  16. Dispersion capacitive de l'interface H 2 SO 4 /Pt | Hammadi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capacitive dispersion of Pt/H2SO4 interface. Impedance measurements by EIS and voltammograms measurements by CV on pretreated Pt electrodes immersed in an electrolytic solution of 0.5M H2SO4 are presented. Two electrochemical pretreatment techniques of the WE (thin Pt wire) are used: cleaning and etching.

  17. Adsorption of CO2 and H2O on supported amine sorbents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veneman, Rens; Zhao, W.; Li, Z.; Cai, N.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik


    In this work we have evaluated the H2O and CO2 adsorption characteristics of Lewatit VP OC 1065 in view of the potential application of solid sorbents in post combustion CO2 capture. Here we present single component adsorption isotherms for H2O and CO2 as well as co-adsorption experiments. It was


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, A.M.; de Kok, L.J.

    Exposure of spinach cotyledons to H2S or sulfate resulted in a concentration and time dependent accumulation of water-soluble non-protein thiols. The increase in thiol content upon a combined exposure to H2S and sulfate was comparable to that of the sum of the increases obtained by the individual

  19. Conductivity of Composite Material Based on System NdPO4·nH2OCsH2PO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anfimova, Tatiana; Bjerrum, Niels J.; Li, Qingfeng


    The goal of the present study was to obtain a comprehensive knowledge about synthesis conditions, structure, thermal behavior and conductivity properties of neodymiumorthophosphates in order to analyze of use this material in intermediate temperature fuel cells due to their thermal and chemical...... stability properties.The impedance spectroscopy technique (IS) was used to measure the conductivity. The conductivity of composites observed to be lower than conductivity of pure CsH2PO4 but had improved sufficiently conductivity of pure NdPO4·nH2O...

  20. Decapado de un acero inoxidable austenítico mediante mezclas ecológicas basadas en H2O2 - H2SO4 - iones F-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narváez, L.


    Full Text Available This study reports the pickling of 316L stainless steel using mixtures of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, sulphuric acid (H2SO4 and fluoride ions as hydrofluoric acid (HF, sodium fluoride (NaF and potassium fluoride (KF. The decomposition of H2O2 in the mixtures was assessed at different temperatures 25 °C to 60 °C, with ferric ion contents from 0 to 40 g/l. According to the results obtained, were established the optimal condition pickling at 20 g/l of ferric ions, 25 °C and p-toluensulphonic acid as stabilizer of H2O2. The HF pickling mixture was the only capable to remove totally the oxide layer from the 316L stainless steel after 300 s. The fluoride salts pickling mixtures only remove partially the oxide layer (20 to 40 % aprox. after 300 s. When the pickling time was increased until 1200 s, the removal percentages were around to 80 %.En este estudio se presenta el decapado del acero inoxidable austenítico 316L utilizando mezclas de peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2/ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4/iones fluoruro; los iones fluoruro provienen del ácido fluorhídrico (HF, fluoruro de sodio (NaF y fluoruro de potasio (KF. La estabilidad del H2O2 fue valorada modificando las concentraciones del ión férrico de 0 a 40 g/l y las temperaturas de 25 °C a 60 °C en las mezclas decapantes. Se establecieron las condiciones óptimas de decapado utilizando 20 g/l de iones férrico a 25 °C empleando el ácido p-toluensulfónico como estabilizante del H2O2. La mezcla que contenía HF fue la única capaz de eliminar completamente los óxidos superficiales del acero a tiempos de 300 s. Las mezclas a base de sales fluoradas eliminaron parcialmente los óxidos (20 y 40 % aprox. en 300 s. Al incrementar el tiempo de decapado hasta 1200 s se obtuvieron porcentajes de eliminación alrededor de un 80 %.

  1. Molecular hydrogen (H2 emissions and their isotopic signatures (H/D from a motor vehicle: implications on atmospheric H2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann


    Full Text Available Molecular hydrogen (H2, its isotopic signature (deuterium/hydrogen, δD, carbon monoxide (CO, and other compounds were studied in the exhaust of a passenger car engine fuelled with gasoline or methane and run under variable air-fuel ratios and operating modes. H2 and CO concentrations were largely reduced downstream of the three-way catalytic converter (TWC compared to levels upstream, and showed a strong dependence on the air-fuel ratio (expressed as lambda, λ. The isotopic composition of H2 ranged from δD = −140‰ to δD = −195‰ upstream of the TWC but these values decreased to −270‰ to −370‰ after passing through the TWC. Post-TWC δD values for the fuel-rich range showed a strong dependence on TWC temperature with more negative δD for lower temperatures. These effects are attributed to a rapid temperature-dependent H-D isotope equilibration between H2 and water (H2O. In addition, post TWC δD in H2 showed a strong dependence on the fraction of removed H2, suggesting isotopic enrichment during catalytic removal of H2 with enrichment factors (ε ranging from −39.8‰ to −15.5‰ depending on the operating mode. Our results imply that there may be considerable variability in real-world δD emissions from vehicle exhaust, which may mainly depend on TWC technology and exhaust temperature regime. This variability is suggestive of a δD from traffic that varies over time, by season, and by geographical location. An earlier-derived integrated pure (end-member δD from anthropogenic activities of −270‰ (Rahn et al., 2002 can be explained as a mixture of mainly vehicle emissions from cold starts and fully functional TWCs, but enhanced δD values by >50‰ are likely for regions where TWC technology is not fully implemented. Our results also suggest that a full hydrogen isotope analysis on fuel and exhaust gas may greatly aid at understanding process-level reactions in the exhaust gas, in particular in the TWC.

  2. Electrochemical Generation of Individual O2 Nanobubbles via H2O2 Oxidation. (United States)

    Ren, Hang; German, Sean R; Edwards, Martin A; Chen, Qianjin; White, Henry S


    Herein, we use Pt nanodisk electrodes (apparent radii from 4 to 80 nm) to investigate the nucleation of individual O2 nanobubbles generated by electrooxidation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). A single bubble reproducibly nucleates when the dissolved O2 concentration reaches ∼0.17 M at the Pt electrode surface. This nucleation concentration is ∼130 times higher than the equilibrium saturation concentration of O2 and is independent of electrode size. Moreover, in acidic H2O2 solutions (1 M HClO4), in addition to producing an O2 nanobubble through H2O2 oxidation at positive potentials, individual H2 nanobubbles can also be generated at negative potentials. Alternating generation of single O2 and H2 bubbles within the same experiment allows direct comparison of the critical concentrations for nucleation of each nanobubble without knowing the precise size/geometry of the electrode or the exact viscosity/temperature of the solution.

  3. H2FIRST: A partnership to advance hydrogen fueling station technology driving an optimal consumer experience.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moen, Christopher D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dedrick, Daniel E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Balfour, Bruce [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Noma, Edwin Yoichi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Somerday, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); San Marchi, Christopher W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wipke, Keith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Terlip, Danny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Harrison, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Harris, Aaron [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office of Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) is establishing the Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and Station Technology (H2FIRST) partnership, led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). FCTO is establishing this partnership and the associated capabilities in support of H2USA, the public/private partnership launched in 2013. The H2FIRST partnership provides the research and technology acceleration support to enable the widespread deployment of hydrogen infrastructure for the robust fueling of light-duty fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). H2FIRST will focus on improving private-sector economics, safety, availability and reliability, and consumer confidence for hydrogen fueling. This whitepaper outlines the goals, scope, activities associated with the H2FIRST partnership.

  4. Interaction of H2S with Calcium Permeable Channels and Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zhang


    Full Text Available A growing amount of evidence has suggested that hydrogen sulfide (H2S, as a gasotransmitter, is involved in intensive physiological and pathological processes. More and more research groups have found that H2S mediates diverse cellular biological functions related to regulating intracellular calcium concentration. These groups have demonstrated the reciprocal interaction between H2S and calcium ion channels and transporters, such as L-type calcium channels (LTCC, T-type calcium channels (TTCC, sodium/calcium exchangers (NCX, transient receptor potential (TRP channels, β-adrenergic receptors, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR in different cells. However, the understanding of the molecular targets and mechanisms is incomplete. Recently, some research groups demonstrated that H2S modulates the activity of calcium ion channels through protein S-sulfhydration and polysulfide reactions. In this review, we elucidate that H2S controls intracellular calcium homeostasis and the underlying mechanisms.

  5. Investigation of the deterioration of passive films in H2S-containing solutions (United States)

    Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Xian; Cui, Zhao-yang; Xue, Jun-peng; Lu, Min-xu


    The effect of H2S on the corrosion behavior of 316L stainless steel was investigated using electrochemical methods by changing the gas condition from CO2 to H2S and then back to CO2. The presence of H2S showed an acceleration effect on the corrosion of 316L stainless steel in comparison with CO2. The acceleration effect remained even after the complete removal of H2S by CO2, indicating that the passive film was irreversibly damaged. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the passive film was composed of Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and FeS2 after being immersed in H2S-containing solutions. The semiconducting property of the passive film was then investigated by using the Mott-Schottky approach. The presence of sulfides resulted in higher acceptor and donor densities and thus was responsible for the deterioration of passive films.

  6. Gas-Phase Photochemical Overall H2S Splitting by UV Light Irradiation. (United States)

    Baldovi, Herme G; Albero, Josep; Ferrer, Belen; Mateo, Diego; Alvaro, Mercedes; García, Hermenegildo


    Splitting of hydrogen sulfide is achieved to produce value-added chemicals. Upon irradiation at 254 nm in the gas phase and in the absence of catalysts or photocatalysts at near room temperature, H 2 S splits into stoichiometric amounts of H 2 and S with a quantum efficiency close to 50 %. No influence of the presence of CH 4 and CO 2 (typical components in natural gas and biogas in which H 2 S is an unwanted component) on the efficiency of overall H 2 S splitting was observed. A mechanism for the H 2 and S formation is proposed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Glutamine methylation in histone H2A is an RNA-polymerase-I-dedicated modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessarz, Peter; Santos-Rosa, Helena; Robson, Sam C


    Nucleosomes are decorated with numerous post-translational modifications capable of influencing many DNA processes. Here we describe a new class of histone modification, methylation of glutamine, occurring on yeast histone H2A at position 105 (Q105) and human H2A at Q104. We identify Nop1...... as the methyltransferase in yeast and demonstrate that fibrillarin is the orthologue enzyme in human cells. Glutamine methylation of H2A is restricted to the nucleolus. Global analysis in yeast, using an H2AQ105me-specific antibody, shows that this modification is exclusively enriched over the 35S ribosomal DNA...... and increased transcription at the ribosomal DNA locus. These features are phenocopied by mutations in FACT complex components. Together these data identify glutamine methylation of H2A as the first histone epigenetic mark dedicated to a specific RNA polymerase and define its function as a regulator of FACT...

  8. A Nose for Hydrogen Gas: Fast, Sensitive H2Sensors Using Electrodeposited Nanomaterials. (United States)

    Penner, Reginald M


    Hydrogen gas (H 2 ) is odorless and flammable at concentrations above 4% (v/v) in air. Sensors capable of detecting it rapidly at lower concentrations are needed to "sniff" for leaked H 2 wherever it is used. Electrical H 2 sensors are attractive because of their simplicity and low cost: Such sensors consist of a metal (usually palladium, Pd) resistor. Exposure to H 2 causes a resistance increase, as Pd metal is converted into more resistive palladium hydride (PdH x ). Sensors based upon Pd alloy films, developed in the early 1990s, were both too slow and too insensitive to meet the requirements of H 2 safety sensing. In this Account, we describe the development of H 2 sensors that are based upon electrodeposited nanomaterials. This story begins with the rise to prominence of nanowire-based sensors in 2001 and our demonstration that year of the first nanowire-based H 2 sensor. The Pd nanowires used in these experiments were prepared by electrodepositing Pd at linear step-edge defects on a graphite electrode surface. In 2005, lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition (LPNE) provided the capability to pattern single Pd nanowires on dielectrics using electrodeposition. LPNE also provided control over the nanowire thickness (±1 nm) and width (±10-15%). Using single Pd nanowires, it was demonstrated in 2010 that smaller nanowires responded more rapidly to H 2 exposure. Heating the nanowire using Joule self-heating (2010) also dramatically accelerated sensor response and recovery, leading to the conclusion that thermally activated H 2 chemisorption and desorption of H 2 were rate-limiting steps in sensor response to and recovery from H 2 exposure. Platinum (Pt) nanowires, studied in 2012, showed an inverted resistance response to H 2 exposure, that is, the resistance of Pt nanowires decreased instead of increased upon H 2 exposure. H 2 dissociatively chemisorbs at a Pt surface to form Pt-H, but in contrast to Pd, it stays on the Pt surface. Pt nanowires

  9. Cardiac H2S Generation Is Reduced in Ageing Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Jin


    Full Text Available Aims. To examine whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S generation changed in ageing diabetic mouse hearts. Results. Compared to mice that were fed tap water only, mice that were fed 30% fructose solution for 15 months exhibited typical characteristics of a severe diabetic phenotype with cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction. H2S levels in plasma, heart tissues, and urine were significantly reduced in these mice as compared to those in controls. The expression of the H2S-generating enzymes, cystathionine γ-lyase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, was significantly decreased in the hearts of fructose-fed mice, whereas cystathionine-β-synthase levels were significantly increased. Conclusion. Our results suggest that this ageing diabetic mouse model developed diabetic cardiomyopathy and that H2S levels were reduced in the diabetic heart due to alterations in three H2S-producing enzymes, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  10. Legal Aspects in Treating Rapists. (United States)

    Rada, Richard T.


    The development of new evaluation treatment methods for rapists and child molesters has created unique legal and ethical problems for therapists and researchers dealing with this population. Explores the issues of confidentiality, privileged communication, and informed consent to acquaint the reader with the potential problems. (Author)

  11. Neuromarketing from a Legal Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta


    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-49 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : biometric data * consumer protection * data protection Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  12. Legal Scholarship as a Vocation. (United States)

    Luban, David


    Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)



    Darko Majhoshev; Viktor Angelovski


    The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.). Child labor ...

  14. Mechanism of H2S-mediated protection against oxidative stress in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Mironov, Alexander; Seregina, Tatyana; Nagornykh, Maxim; Luhachack, Lyly G; Korolkova, Natalya; Lopes, Liubov Errais; Kotova, Vera; Zavilgelsky, Gennady; Shakulov, Rustem; Shatalin, Konstantin; Nudler, Evgeny


    Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) renders bacteria highly resistant to oxidative stress, but its mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report that 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) is the major source of endogenous H2S in Escherichia coli Cellular resistance to H2O2 strongly depends on the activity of mstA, a gene that encodes 3MST. Deletion of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) renders ∆mstA cells hypersensitive to H2O2 Conversely, induction of chromosomal mstA from a strong pLtetO-1 promoter (P tet -mstA) renders ∆fur cells fully resistant to H2O2 Furthermore, the endogenous level of H2S is reduced in ∆fur or ∆sodA ∆sodB cells but restored after the addition of an iron chelator dipyridyl. Using a highly sensitive reporter of the global response to DNA damage (SOS) and the TUNEL assay, we show that 3MST-derived H2S protects chromosomal DNA from oxidative damage. We also show that the induction of the CysB regulon in response to oxidative stress depends on 3MST, whereas the CysB-regulated l-cystine transporter, TcyP, plays the principle role in the 3MST-mediated generation of H2S. These findings led us to propose a model to explain the interplay between l-cysteine metabolism, H2S production, and oxidative stress, in which 3MST protects E. coli against oxidative stress via l-cysteine utilization and H2S-mediated sequestration of free iron necessary for the genotoxic Fenton reaction.

  15. Phosphorylation of Histone H2AX in the Mouse Brain from Development to Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Barral


    Full Text Available Phosphorylation of the histone H2AX (γH2AX form is an early response to DNA damage and a marker of aging and disease in several cells and tissues outside the nervous system. Little is known about in vivo phosphorylation of H2AX in neurons, although it was suggested that γH2AX is an early marker of neuronal endangerment thus opening the possibility to target it as a neuroprotective strategy. After experimental labeling of DNA-synthesizing cells with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU, we studied the brain occurrence of γH2AX in developing, postnatal, adult and senescent (2 years mice by light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. Focal and/or diffuse γH2AX immunostaining appears in interkinetic nuclei, mitotic chromosomes, and apoptotic nuclei. Immunoreactivity is mainly associated with neurogenetic areas, i.e., the subventricular zone (SVZ of telencephalon, the cerebellar cortex, and, albeit to a much lesser extent, the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In addition, γH2AX is highly expressed in the adult and senescent cerebral cortex, particularly the piriform cortex. Double labeling experiments demonstrate that γH2AX in neurogenetic brain areas is temporally and functionally related to proliferation and apoptosis of neuronal precursors, i.e., the type C transit amplifying cells (SVZ and the granule cell precursors (cerebellum. Conversely, γH2AX-immunoreactive cortical neurons incorporating the S phase-label BrdU do not express the proliferation marker phosphorylated histone H3, indicating that these postmitotic cells undergo a significant DNA damage response. Our study paves the way for a better comprehension of the role of H2AX phosphorylation in the normal brain, and offers additional data to design novel strategies for the protection of neuronal precursors and mature neurons in central nervous system (CNS degenerative diseases.

  16. In Vivo Monitoring of H2O2 with Polydopamine and Prussian Blue-coated Microelectrode. (United States)

    Li, Ruixin; Liu, Xiaomeng; Qiu, Wanling; Zhang, Meining


    In vivo monitoring of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the brain is of importance for understanding the function of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signal transmission. Producing a robust microelectrode for in vivo measurement of H2O2 is challenging due to the complex brain environment and the instability of electrocatalysts employed for the reduction of H2O2. Here, we develop a new kind of microelectrode for in vivo monitoring of H2O2, which is prepared by, first, electrodeposition of Prussian blue (PB) onto carbon nanotube (CNT) assembled carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFEs) and then overcoating of the CFEs with a thin membrane of polydopamine (PDA) through self-polymerization. Scanning electron microscopic and X-ray proton spectroscopic results confirm the formation of PDA/PB/CNT/CFEs. The PDA membrane enables PB-based electrodes to show high stability in both in vitro and in vivo studies and to stably catalyze the electrochemical reduction of H2O2. The microelectrode is selective for in vivo measurements of H2O2, interference-free from O2 and other electroactive species coexisting in the brain. These properties, along with good linearity, high biocompatibility, and stability toward H2O2, substantially enable the microelectrode to track H2O2 changes in vivo during electrical stimulation and microinfusion of H2O2 and drug, which demonstrates that the microelectrode could be well suited for in vivo monitoring of dynamic changes of H2O2 in rat brain.

  17. Cosmetic wastewater treatment by the ZVI/H2O2 process. (United States)

    Bogacki, Jan; Marcinowski, Piotr; Zapałowska, Ewa; Maksymiec, Justyna; Naumczyk, Jeremi


    The ZVI/H2O2 process was applied for cosmetic wastewater treatment. Two commercial zero-valent iron (ZVI) types with different granulations were chosen: Hepure Ferrox PRB and Hepure Ferrox Target. In addition, the pH and stirring method influence on ZVI/H2O2 process efficiency was studied. During the ZVI and ZVI/H2O2 processes, linear Fe ions concentration increase was observed. The addition of H2O2 significantly accelerated the iron dissolution process. The highest COD removal was obtained using finer ZVI (Hepure Ferrox Target) for doses of reagents ZVI/H2O2 1500/1600 mg/L, in a H2O2/COD weight ratio 2:1, at pH 3.0 with stirring on a magnetic stirrer. After 120 min of the process, 84.0% COD removal (from 796 to 127 mg/L) was achieved. It was found that the efficiency of the process depends, as in the case of the Fenton process, on the ratio of the reagents (ZVI/H2O2) and their dose in relation to the COD (H2O2/COD) but does not depend on the dose of the iron itself. Statistical analysis confirms that COD removal efficiency depends primarily on H2O2/COD ratio and ZVI granulation, but ZVI dose influence is not statistically significant. The head space, solid-phase microextraction, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry results confirm high efficiency of the ZVI/H2O2 process.

  18. Photodegradation of amoxicillin by catalyzed Fe3+/H2O2 process. (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Tingting; Wang, Dongbo; Yue, Xiu; Liu, Xian; Yang, Qi; Cao, Jianbin; Zheng, Wei; Zeng, Guangming


    Three oxidation processes of UV-Fe3+(EDTA)/H2O2 (UV: ultraviolet light; EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), UV-Fe3+/H2O2 and Fe3+/H2O2 were simultaneously investigated for the degradation of amoxicillin at pH 7.0. The results indicated that, 100% amoxicillin degradation and 81.9% chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) removal could be achieved in the UV-Fe3+ (EDTA)/H2O2 process. The treatment efficiency of amoxicillin and COD(Cr) removal were found to decrease to 59.0% and 43.0% in the UV-Fe3+/H2O2 process; 39.6% and 31.3% in the Fe3+/H2O2 process. Moreover, the results of biodegradability (biological oxygen demand (BOD5)/COD(Cr) ratio) revealed that the UV-Fe3+ (EDTA)/H2O2 process was a promising strategy to degrade amoxicillin as the biodegradability of the effluent was improved to 0.45, compared with the cases of UV-Fe3+/H2O2 (0.25) and Fe3+/H2O2 (0.10) processes. Therefore, it could be deduced that EDTA and UV light performed synergetic catalytic effect on the Fe3+/H2O2 process, enhancing the treatment efficiency. The degradation mechanisms were also investigated via UV-Vis spectra, and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectra. The degradation pathway of amoxicillin was further proposed.

  19. Phospho-histone H2AX is a diagnostic and prognostic marker for epithelial ovarian cancer. (United States)

    Mei, Ling; Hu, Qian; Peng, Jing; Ruan, Jiaying; Zou, Juan; Huang, Qin; Liu, Shanling; Wang, He


    Histone H2AX phosphorylation is a sensitive marker for DSB which contributes to both genomic instability and cancer treatment. Monitoring its formation may be a sensitive means to monitor cancer progression and treatment effect. To define the role of phospho-H2AX (pH2AX) expression in development and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The expression of pH2AX in 87 EOC samples and 28 samples of normal ovarian tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results were semi-quantitatively scored and analyzed by chi-square test. The overall survival time (OS) and disease free interval (DFI) were collected by follow-up and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The expression level of pH2AX protein in EOC were higher than that in normal tissues (P<0.001). Among the sensitive cases, high expression of pH2AX was found in 53.2% cases while for resistant cases, high expression rate was 80% (P=0.025). However, pH2AX expression was not significantly correlated with age, histopathological type, tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis or FIGO stages. Kaplan-Meier analysis found that DFI was negatively correlated with the pH2AX expression, where higher expression of pH2AX resulted in shorter DFI while no OS difference was detected in our study. pH2AX may be used to detect EOC at an early stage and identify women at higher risk for relapse.

  20. Characterization and kinetic analysis of protein tyrosine phosphatase-H2 from Microplitis demolitor bracovirus. (United States)

    Eum, Jai-Hoon; Bottjen, Rachel C; Pruijssers, Andrea J; Clark, Kevin D; Strand, Michael R


    The polydnavirus Microplitis demolitor bracovirus (MdBV) encodes 13 genes that share homology with classical protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Prior sequence analysis suggested that five members of the MdBV PTP gene family (ptp-H2, -H3, -H5, -N1 and -N2) encode PTPs, seven family members encode pseudophosphatases, and one family member is a pseudogene. Prior experimental studies further implicated PTP-H2 in disabling the function of host hemocytes following infection by MdBV. Here we report expression of PTP-H2 and selected mutants in Escherichia coli cells as non-fusion or thioredoxin-fusion proteins. Following purification by nickel affinity chromatography, the full-length and mutant proteins ran as single bands of predicted size on SDS-PAGE gels under reducing conditions. The non-fusion form of PTP-H2 exhibited classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics using the phosphopeptide END(pY)INASL and difluoro-4-methylumbiliferyl phosphate (DiFMUP) as substrates. As expected, the non-fusion mutant PTP-H2(C236S) had no enzymatic activity, while the thioredoxin-fusion form of PTP-H2 had low levels of activity. PTP-H2 exhibited optimal activity at pH 4.0 and 26 degrees C in sodium acetate buffer, and its activity was diminished by increasing buffer ionic strength. Activity was also greatly reduced by the presence of copper, heparin, and the classical PTP inhibitor vanadate. Using an anti-PTP-H2 antibody, immunoblotting and immunocytochemical studies only detected PTP-H2 in hemocytes from MdBV-infected Pseudoplusia includens. Overall, our results indicate that PTP-H2 is a functional tyrosine phosphatase that is specifically expressed in MdBV-infected hemocytes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.