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Sample records for proviral load increased

  1. Risk factors associated with increased bovine leukemia virus proviral load in infected cattle in Japan from 2012 to 2014.

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    Ohno, Ayumu; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsumoto, Yuki; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-02

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a malignant B cell lymphoma. BLV has spread worldwide and causes serious problems. After infection, the BLV genome is integrated into the host DNA and can be amplified during periods of latency. We previously designed degenerate primers using the Coordination of Common Motifs (CoCoMo) algorithm to establish a new quantitative real-time PCR method (BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2) of measuring the proviral load of both known and novel BLV variants. Here, we aimed to examine the correlation between proviral load and risk factors for BLV infection, such as breeding systems, parousity, and colostrum feeding. Blood and serum samples were collected from 83 BLV-positive farms in 22 prefectures of Japan, and the BLV proviral load and anti-BLV antibody levels were measured. BLV was detected in 73.3% (1039/1,417) of cattle by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and the provirus was detected in 93 of 1039 antibody-negative samples. The results showed that the proviral load increased with progression of lymphocytosis. Next, the risk factors associated with increasing BLV infection rate were examined along with any association with proviral load. The proviral load was higher in cattle with lymphocytosis than in healthy cattle, and higher in multiparous cows than in nulliparous cows. Finally, proviral loads were higher in contact breeding systems than in non-contact breeding systems. Taken together, these findings may help to formulate a plan for eliminating BLV from contaminated farms. This is the first nationwide study to estimate BLV proviral load in Japanese cattle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantification of HTLV-I proviral load in experimentally infected rabbits

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    Kindt Thomas J

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of proviral load in HTLV-1 infected patients correlate with clinical outcome and are reasonably prognostic. Adaptation of proviral load measurement techniques is examined here for use in an experimental rabbit model of HTLV-1 infection. Initial efforts sought to correlate proviral load with route and dose of inoculation and with clinical outcome in this model. These methods contribute to our continuing goal of using the model to test treatments that alleviate virus infection. Results A real-time PCR assay was used to measure proviral load in blood and tissue samples from a series of rabbits infected using HTLV-1 inocula prepared as either cell-free virus particles, infected cells or blood, or by naked DNA injection. Proviral loads from asymptomatically infected rabbits showed levels corresponding to those reported for human patients with clinically silent HTLV-1 infections. Proviral load was comparably increased in 50% of experimentally infected rabbits that developed either spontaneous benign or malignant tumors while infected. Similarly elevated provirus was found in organs of rabbits with experimentally induced acute leukemia/lymphoma-like disease. Levels of provirus in organs taken at necropsy varied widely suggesting that reservoirs of infections exist in non-lymphoid organs not traditionally thought to be targets for HTLV-1. Conclusion Proviral load measurement is a valuable enhancement to the rabbit model for HTLV-1 infection providing a metric to monitor clinical status of the infected animals as well as a means for the testing of treatment to combat infection. In some cases proviral load in blood did not reflect organ proviral levels, revealing a limitation of this method for monitoring health status of HTLV-1 infected individuals.

  3. Quantification of HTLV-I proviral load in experimentally infected rabbits

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    Zhao, Tong-Mao; Hague, Bishop; Caudell, David L; Simpson, R Mark; Kindt, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    Background Levels of proviral load in HTLV-1 infected patients correlate with clinical outcome and are reasonably prognostic. Adaptation of proviral load measurement techniques is examined here for use in an experimental rabbit model of HTLV-1 infection. Initial efforts sought to correlate proviral load with route and dose of inoculation and with clinical outcome in this model. These methods contribute to our continuing goal of using the model to test treatments that alleviate virus infection. Results A real-time PCR assay was used to measure proviral load in blood and tissue samples from a series of rabbits infected using HTLV-1 inocula prepared as either cell-free virus particles, infected cells or blood, or by naked DNA injection. Proviral loads from asymptomatically infected rabbits showed levels corresponding to those reported for human patients with clinically silent HTLV-1 infections. Proviral load was comparably increased in 50% of experimentally infected rabbits that developed either spontaneous benign or malignant tumors while infected. Similarly elevated provirus was found in organs of rabbits with experimentally induced acute leukemia/lymphoma-like disease. Levels of provirus in organs taken at necropsy varied widely suggesting that reservoirs of infections exist in non-lymphoid organs not traditionally thought to be targets for HTLV-1. Conclusion Proviral load measurement is a valuable enhancement to the rabbit model for HTLV-1 infection providing a metric to monitor clinical status of the infected animals as well as a means for the testing of treatment to combat infection. In some cases proviral load in blood did not reflect organ proviral levels, revealing a limitation of this method for monitoring health status of HTLV-1 infected individuals. PMID:15910683

  4. Evaluation of HTLV-1 activity in HAM/TSP patients using proviral load and Tax mRNA expression after In Vitro lymphocyte activation.

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    Yari, Atefeh; Rezaee, Seyyed Abdolrahim; Valizadeh, Narges; Rajaee, Taraneh; Jazayeri, Seyyed Mohammad; Soltani, Mojdeh; Norouzi, Mehdi

    2014-07-01

    HTLV-1 is the first human retrovirus that has been recognized and is associated with HAM/TSP and ATLL. Studies have shown that less than five percent of HTLV-1 infected carriers develop HAM/TSP or ATLL and about ninety-five percent remain asymptomatic. Therefore, the proviral load with Tax may affect cellular genes such as cytokines and oncogenes, as well as involve in pathogenicity. Thirty HAM/TSP patients, thirty HTLV-1 healthy carriers, and MT-2 cell line were evaluated for HTLV-1 activity. PBMCs were isolated and activated using PMA and ionomycine. Real-time PCR and TaqMan methods were performed using specific primers and fluorescence probes for Tax expression and proviral load assessment. B2microglobulin (β2m) and albumin were used as controls in Tax expression and in proviral load, respectively. An insignificant increase in Tax expression was observed in rest PBMCs of HAM/TSP patients compared to healthy carriers. However, after lymphocyte activation there was a significant increase in Tax expression in HAM/TSP patients (P=0.042). The Proviral load in patients was significantly higher than in carriers. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between Tax mRNA expression in activated PBMCs and proviral load (R=0.37, P=0.012). Although proviral load had been addressed as a valuable index for monitoring HTLV-1 infected subjects, the results of this study demonstrated that Tax expression in activated PBMCs along with proviral load assessment in HAM/TSP patients are a more reliable factor for determining the prognosis and monitoring healthy carriers and HAM/TSP patients.

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine MHC region of Japanese Black cattle are associated with bovine leukemia virus proviral load.

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    Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Sasaki, Shinji; Meripet, Polat; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Aida, Yoko

    2017-04-04

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a malignant B cell lymphoma that has spread worldwide and causes serious problems for the cattle industry. The BLV proviral load, which represents the BLV genome integrated into host genome, is a useful index for estimating disease progression and transmission risk. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BLV proviral load in Japanese Black cattle. The study examined 93 cattle with a high proviral load and 266 with a low proviral load. Three SNPs showed a significant association with proviral load. One SNP was detected in the CNTN3 gene on chromosome 22, and two (which were not in linkage disequilibrium) were detected in the bovine major histocompatibility complex region on chromosome 23. These results suggest that polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex region affect proviral load. This is the first report to detect SNPs associated with BLV proviral load in Japanese Black cattle using whole genome association study, and understanding host factors may provide important clues for controlling the spread of BLV in Japanese Black cattle.

  6. Telomere Length, Proviral Load and Neurologic Impairment in HTLV-1 and HTLV-2-Infected Subjects

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    Benjamin Usadi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Short or damaged telomeres have been implicated in degenerative conditions. We hypothesized that analysis of telomere length (TL in human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV infection and HTLV-associated neuropathy might provide clues to the etiology of HTLV-associated disease and viral dynamics. A subset of 45 human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1, 45 human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2, and 45 seronegative subjects was selected from the larger HTLV Outcomes Study (HOST cohort, matched on age, sex and race/ethnicity. Telomere-to-single-copy gene (T/S ratio (a measure of TL and HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 proviral loads were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs using quantitative PCR (qPCR. Vibration sensation measured by tuning fork during neurologic examinations performed as part of the HOST study allowed for an assessment of peripheral neuropathy. TL was compared between groups using t-tests, linear and logistic regression. Mean T/S ratio was 1.02 ± 0.16 in HTLV-1, 1.03 ± 0.17 in HTLV-2 and 0.99 ± 0.18 in HTLV seronegative subjects (p = 0.322. TL was not associated with HTLV-1 or -2 proviral load. Shorter TL was significantly associated with impaired vibration sense in the HTLV-2 positive group only. Overall, we found no evidence that telomere length was affected by chronic HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection. That TL was only associated with peripheral neuropathy in the HTLV-2-positive group is intriguing, but should be interpreted cautiously. Studies with larger sample size and telomere length measurement in lymphocyte subsets may clarify the relationship between TL and HTLV-infection.

  7. Dynamic interaction between STLV-1 proviral load and T-cell response during chronic infection and after immunosuppression in non-human primates.

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    Sandrine Souquière

    Full Text Available We used mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx naturally infected with simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (STLV-1 as a model for evaluating the influence of natural STLV-1 infection on the dynamics and evolution of the immune system during chronic infection. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the role of the immune system in controlling the infection during latency, we induced immunosuppression in the infected monkeys. We first showed that the STLV-1 proviral load was higher in males than in females and increased significantly with the duration of infection: mandrills infected for 10-6 years had a significantly higher proviral load than those infected for 2-4 years. Curiously, this observation was associated with a clear reduction in CD4+ T-cell number with age. We also found that the percentage of CD4(+ T cells co-expressing the activation marker HLA-DR and the mean percentage of CD25(+ in CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells were significantly higher in infected than in uninfected animals. Furthermore, the STLV-1 proviral load correlated positively with T-cell activation but not with the frequency of T cells secreting interferon gamma in response to Tax peptides. Lastly, we showed that, during immunosuppression in infected monkeys, the percentages of CD8(+ T cells expressing HLA-DR(+ and of CD4(+ T cells expressing the proliferation marker Ki67 decreased significantly, although the percentage of CD8(+ T cells expressing HLA-DR(+ and Ki67 increased significantly by the end of treatment. Interestingly, the proviral load increased significantly after immunosuppression in the monkey with the highest load. Our study demonstrates that mandrills naturally infected with STLV-1 could be a suitable model for studying the relations between host and virus. Further studies are needed to determine whether the different compartments of the immune response during infection induce the long latency by controlling viral replication over time. Such studies would provide important

  8. Identification of bovine leukocyte antigen class II haplotypes associated with variations in bovine leukemia virus proviral load in Japanese Black cattle.

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    Miyasaka, T; Takeshima, S-n; Jimba, M; Matsumoto, Y; Kobayashi, N; Matsuhashi, T; Sentsui, H; Aida, Y

    2013-02-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. Bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) is strongly involved in the subclinical progression of BLV infections. Recent studies show that the BoLA-DRB3 gene might play a direct role in controlling the number of BLV-infected peripheral B lymphocytes in vivo in Holstein cattle. However, the specific BoLA class II allele and DRB3-DQA1 haplotypes determining the BLV proviral load in Japanese Black cattle are yet to be identified. In this study, we focused on the association of BLV proviral load and polymorphism of BoLA class II in Japanese Black cattle. We genotyped 186 BLV-infected, clinically normal cattle for BoLA-DRB3 and BoLA-DQA1 using a polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing method. BoLA-DRB3*0902 and BoLA-DRB3*1101 were associated with a low proviral load (LPVL), and BoLA-DRB3*1601 was associated with a high proviral load (HPVL). Furthermore, BoLA-DQA1*0204 and BoLA-DQA1*10012 were related to LPVL and HPVL, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed the correlation between the DRB3-DQA1 haplotype and BLV proviral load. Two haplotypes, namely 0902B or C (DRB3*0902-DQA1*0204) and 1101A (DRB3*1101-DQA1*10011), were associated with a low BLV proviral load, whereas one haplotype 1601B (DRB3*1601-DQA1*10012) was associated with a high BLV proviral load. We conclude that resistance is a dominant trait and susceptibility is a recessive trait. Additionally, resistant alleles were common between Japanese Black and Holstein cattle, and susceptible alleles differed. This is the first report to identify an association between the DRB3-DQA1 haplotype and variations in BLV proviral load. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Comparison of HTLV-I Proviral Load in Adult T Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-I-Associated Myelopathy (HAM-TSP) and Healthy Carriers.

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    Akbarin, Mohammad Mehdi; Rahimi, Hossein; Hassannia, Tahereh; Shoja Razavi, Ghazaleh; Sabet, Faezeh; Shirdel, Abbas

    2013-03-01

    Human T Lymphocyte Virus Type one (HTLV-I) is a retrovirus that infects about 10-20 million people worldwide. Khorasan province in Iran is an endemic area. The majority of HTLV-I-infected individuals sustain healthy carriers but small proportion of infected population developed two progressive diseases: HAM/TSP and ATL. The proviral load could be a virological marker for disease monitoring, therefore in the present study HTLV-I proviral load has been evaluated in ATL and compared to HAM/TSP and healthy carriers. In this case series study, 47 HTLV-I infected individuals including 13 ATL, 23 HAM/TSP and 11 asymptomatic subjects were studied. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were investigated for presence of HTLV-I DNA provirus by PCR using LTR and Tax fragments. Then in infected subjects, HTLV-I proviral load was measured using real time PCR TaqMan method. The average age of patients in ATL was 52±8, in HAM/TSP 45.52±15.17 and in carrier's 38.65±14.9 years which differences were not statistically significant. The analysis of data showed a significant difference in mean WBC among study groups (ATL vs HAM/TSP and carriers P=0.0001). Moreover, mean HTLV-I proviral load was 11967.2 ± 5078, 409 ± 71.3 and 373.6 ± 143.3 in ATL, HAM/TSP and Healthy Carriers, respectively. The highest HTLV-I proviral load was measured in ATL group that had a significant correlation with WBC count (R=0.495, P=0.001). The proviral load variations between study groups was strongly significant (ATL vs carrier P=0.0001; ATL vs HAM/TSP P= 0.0001 and HAM/TSP vs carriers PTSP and healthy carriers. Therefore, HTLV-I proviral load is a prognostic factor for development of HTLV-I associated diseases and can be used as a monitoring marker for the efficiency of therapeutic regime.

  10. Association between HLA Class I Alleles and Proviral Load in HTLV-I Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraperesis (HAM/TSP) Patients in Iranian Population.

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    Taghaddosi, Mahdi; Rezaee, S A Rahim; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Rajaei, Taraneh; Farid Hosseini, Reza; Narges, Valizadeh

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HLA class I alleles (HLA-A*02, HLA-A*24, HLA-Cw*08, HLA-B5401) and proviral load in HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraperesis (HAM/TSP) patients in Iranian population. 20 new cases of HAM/TSP patients and 30 HTLV-I infected healthy carriers were recruited. Peripheral blood samples were collected. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated. DNA was extracted from PBMC.HTLV-I proviral load was calculated by Taqman quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). PCR sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) reactions were performed to detect HLA-A, HLA-B and, HLA-Cw alleles. There was no significant difference in sex and age between asymptomatic and HAM/TSP group. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare proviral load between HAM/TSP patients and healthy carrier. Provirus load of HAM/TSP patients was significantly higher than that of HCs (P=0.003, Mann-Whitney U test).Odd ratio was calculated to determine association between class I alleles including (HLA-A*02, HLA-A*24, HLA-Cw*08) and risk of HAM/TSP development. We couldn't find any association between these class I alleles and risk of HAM/TSP development in our study. In our survey HLA-A*02, HLA-A24, HLA-Cw*08 didn't have protective effect on proviral load (P=0.075, P=0.060 and 0.650 Mann-Whitney U test respectively). In conclusion, certain HLA alleles with protective effect in one population may have not similar effect in other population. This may be because of pathogen polymorphism or host genetic heterogeneity and allele frequency in desired population.

  11. High HTLV-1 proviral load, a marker for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, is also detected in patients with infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1

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    Primo, J.; Siqueira, I.; Nascimento, M.C.F.; Oliveira, M.F.; Farre, L.; Carvalho, E.M.; Bittencourt, A.L.

    2010-01-01

    Salvador (BA, Brazil) is an endemic area for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in the general population has been estimated to be 1.76%. HTLV-1 carriers may develop a variety of diseases such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH). IDH is a chronic and severe form of childhood exudative and infective dermatitis involving mainly the scalp, neck and ears. It has recently been observed that 30% of patients with IDH develop juvenile HAM/TSP. The replication of HTLV-1 has been reported to be greater in adult HAM/TSP patients than in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers. In the current study, the proviral load of 28 children and adolescents with IDH not associated with HAM/TSP was determined and the results were compared to those obtained in 28 HTLV-1 adult carriers and 28 adult patients with HAM/TSP. The proviral load in IDH patients was similar to that of patients with HAM/TSP and much higher than that found in HTLV-1 carriers. The high levels of proviral load in IDH patients were not associated with age, duration of illness, duration of breast-feeding, or activity status of the skin disease. Since proviral load is associated with neurological disability, these data support the view that IDH patients are at high risk of developing HAM/TSP. PMID:19578703

  12. Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load of HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients according to new diagnostic criteria of HAM/TSP.

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    Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios; Olavarria, Viviana Nilla; Kruschewsky, Ramon de Almeida; Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth; Dourado, Inês; Correia, Luis C L; de Castro-Costa, Carlos Maurício; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo

    2011-07-01

    A high human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load is described in HTLV-1-associated diseases, especially HAM/TSP. However, the cut-off value to define high levels of HTLV-1 proviral load is not well established. 281 HTLV-1-infected patients from the HTLV reference center in Salvador, Brazil, were followed from 2005 to 2008. Patients were classified as asymptomatic, possible-, probable-, and definite-HAM/TSP, in accordance with diagnostic criteria proposed by De Castro-Costa et al. (2006): AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:931-935. HTLV-1 proviral load was determined using real-time PCR. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed using only asymptomatic individuals and definite-HAM/TSP patients. The ROC curve was used to predict the proviral load level that differentiates these two groups. Out of 281 patients, 189 were asymptomatic and 92 were diagnosed with HAM/TSP (22 possible, 23 probable, 47 definite). The mean HTLV-1 proviral load was higher in possible- (89,104 ± 93,006 copies/106 PBMC), -probable (175,854 ± 128,083 copies/106 PBMC), and definite-HAM/TSP patients (150,667 ± 122,320 copies/106 PBMC),when compared to asymptomatic individuals (27,178 ± 41,155 copies/106 PBMC) (P TSP groups showed the highest proviral loads in probable-HAM/TSP patients, yet the differences in mean values were not statistically significant. The ROC curve suggested a value of 49,865 copies/106 PBMC, with 87% sensitivity (95% CI ¼ 74-95) and 81% specificity (95% CI ¼ 75-86), as the best proviral load cut-off point to differentiate definite HAM/TSP patients from asymptomatic individuals. HTLV-1 proviral loads are higher in groups of infected patients with eurological symptoms and may represent a relevant biological marker of disease progression.

  13. Proviral load and the balance of serum cytokines in HTLV-1-asymptomatic infection and in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

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    Starling, Ana Lúcia Borges; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Labanca, Ludimila; de Souza Pereira, Silvio Roberto; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins, Marina Lobato; Ribas, João Gabriel; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara F; Gonçalves, Denise Utsch

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the proviral load and the plasma cytokine profiles (interleukin-IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ) in 87 HTLV-1-infected individuals, including 28 with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), 32 with possible pHAM/TSP and 27 asymptomatic carriers (AC). The control group was composed by 21 HTLV-1-seronegative individuals. Our finding demonstrated that HAM/TSP group presented higher proviral load as compared to all other HTLV-1 groups (pTSP group showed higher serum concentration of IL-6 (p=0.0009) as compared to all other groups. Moreover, higher serum concentration of IFN-γ (p=0.0118) and IL-4 (p=0.0166) were observed in HAM/TSP group as compared to the healthy controls. Additionally, the HAM/TSP group also showed higher serum concentration of TNF-α (p=0.0239) and IFN-γ (p=0.0118) as compared to AC. No differences in the serum concentration of IL-2 and IL-10 were observed among the groups. The analysis of cytokine balance demonstrated that HAM/TSP presented higher pro-inflammatory profile with enhanced IFN-γ/IL-10 and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio as compared to AC and pHAM/TSP. Further analysis pointed out to a positive correlation between the IFN-γ response and the proviral load in AC. Conversely, a negative association between TNF-α and IL-2 with the proviral load was the hallmark of HAM/TSP group. These findings suggested that the proviral load and the pro-inflammatory cytokine profile may be independent events in the peripheral blood of HAM/TSP individuals. The knowledge about the existence of individual virological/immunological behavior upon HTLV-1 infection, may guide to the establishment of more effective therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the role of TAX, HBZ, and HTLV-1 proviral load on the survival of ATLL patients.

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    Akbarin, Mohammad Mehdi; Shirdel, Abbas; Bari, Alireza; Mohaddes, Seyedeh Tahereh; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Karimani, Ehsan Ghayour; Etminani, Kobra; Golabpour, Amin; Torshizi, Reza

    2017-06-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an aggressive malignancy with very poor prognosis and short survival, caused by the human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1). The HTLV-1 biomarkers trans-activator x (TAX) and HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) are main oncogenes and life-threatening elements. This study aimed to assess the role of the TAX and HBZ genes and HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) in the survival of patients with ATLL. Forty-three HTLV-1-infected individuals, including 18 asymptomatic carriers (AC) and 25 ATLL patients (ATLL), were evaluated between 2011 and 2015. The mRNA expression of TAX and HBZ and the HTLV-1 PVL were measured by quantitative PCR. Significant differences in the mean expression levels of TAX and HBZ were observed between the two study groups (ATLL and AC, P=0.014 and P=0.000, respectively). In addition, the ATLL group showed a significantly higher PVL than AC (P=0.000). There was a significant negative relationship between PVL and survival among all study groups (P=0.047). The HTLV-1 PVL and expression of TAX and HBZ were higher in the ATLL group than in the AC group. Moreover, a higher PVL was associated with shorter survival time among all ATLL subjects. Therefore, measurement of PVL, TAX, and HBZ may be beneficial for monitoring and predicting HTLV-1-infection outcomes, and PVL may be useful for prognosis assessment of ATLL patients. This research demonstrates the possible correlation between these virological markers and survival in ATLL patients.

  15. The FAS-670 AA genotype is associated with high proviral load in peruvian HAM/TSP patients.

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    Rosado, Jason; Morales, Sandra; López, Giovanni; Clark, Daniel; Verdonck, Kristien; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Van Camp, Guy; Talledo, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of the HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Apoptosis is a mechanism of defense elicited by many triggers, including cross-linking of the FAS receptor expressed in viruses-infected cells, and the ligand FASL presented by T-cytotoxic cells. As HAM/TSP has been associated with high levels of proviral load (PVL), we hypothesized that certain genotypes of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with a decreased protein expression of FAS and FASL could be risk factors for this disease. Three SNPs: FAS-670A/G (rs1800682), FAS-1377G/A (rs2234767), and FASL-844C/T (rs763110) were analyzed in 73 HAM/TSP patients and 143 HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers. Ancestry informative markers were used to adjust for ethnicity through a principal component analysis. Gender, age, PVL, and the first three principal components were used as covariates. The FAS/FASL genotype distribution was not associated with HAM/TSP presence (P-> 0.05). The FAS-670 AA genotype was associated with high PVL in comparison to FAS-670 GG in HAM/TSP patients (P = 0.015), while in asymptomatic carriers low levels of PVL were observed (P > 0.05). Our findings suggest that rs1800682, rs2234767, and rs763110 genotypes are not associated with the presence of HAM/TSP, but that the FAS-670 AA genotype can promote higher PVL values in HAM/TSP patients. J. Med. Virol. 89:726-731, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Proviral Loads and Clonal Expansion of HTLV-1-Infected Cells following Vertical Transmission: A 10-Year Follow-Up of Children in Jamaica

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    Umeki, Kazumi; Hisada, Michie; Maloney, Elizabeth M.; Hanchard, Barrie; Okayama, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    Objective Few studies have specifically examined proviral load (PVL) and clonal evolution of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected cells in vertically infected children. Methods Sequential samples (from ages 1 to 16 years) from 3 HTLV-1-infected children (cases A, B and C) in the Jamaica Mother Infant Cohort Study were analyzed for their PVL and clonal expansion of HTLV-1-infected cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by inverse-long PCR. Results The baseline PVL (per 100,000 PBMCs) of case A was 260 (at 1 year of age) and of case B it was 1,867 (at 3 years of age), and they remained constant for more than 10 years. Stochastic patterns of clonal expansion of HTLV-1-infected cells were predominately detected. In contrast, case C, who had lymphadenopathy, seborrheic dermatitis and hyperreflexia, showed an increase in PVL from 2,819 at 1.9 years to 13,358 at 13 years of age, and expansion of 2 dominant clones. Conclusion The clonal expansion of HTLV-1-infected cells is induced in early childhood after infection acquired from their mothers. Youths with high PVL and any signs and symptoms associated with HTLV-1 infection should be closely monitored. PMID:19468234

  17. Characterization of HIV-1 Near Full-Length Proviral Genome Quasispecies from Patients with Undetectable Viral Load Undergoing First-Line HAART Therapy

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    Brunna M. Alves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART by human immunodeficiency virus postive (HIV+ individuals has become a reality worldwide. In Brazil, HAART currently reaches over half of HIV-infected subjects. In the context of a remarkable HIV-1 genetic variability, highly related variants, called quasispecies, are generated. HIV quasispecies generated during infection can influence virus persistence and pathogenicity, representing a challenge to treatment. However, the clinical relevance of minority quasispecies is still uncertain. In this study, we have determined the archived proviral sequences, viral subtype and drug resistance mutations from a cohort of HIV+ patients with undetectable viral load undergoing HAART as first-line therapy using next-generation sequencing for near full-length virus genome (NFLG assembly. HIV-1 consensus sequences representing NFLG were obtained for eleven patients, while for another twelve varying genome coverage rates were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis showed the predominance of subtype B (83%; 19/23. Considering the minority variants, 18 patients carried archived virus harboring at least one mutation conferring antiretroviral resistance; for six patients, the mutations correlated with the current ARVs used. These data highlight the importance of monitoring HIV minority drug resistant variants and their clinical impact, to guide future regimen switches and improve HIV treatment success.

  18. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR: Quantitation of bovine leukemia virus proviral load using the CoCoMo algorithm

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    Matoba Kazuhiro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV and is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a disease characterized by a highly extended course that often involves persistent lymphocytosis and culminates in B-cell lymphomas. BLV provirus remains integrated in cellular genomes, even in the absence of detectable BLV antibodies. Therefore, to understand the mechanism of BLV-induced leukemogenesis and carry out the selection of BLV-infected animals, a detailed evaluation of changes in proviral load throughout the course of disease in BLV-infected cattle is required. The aim of this study was to develop a new quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR method using Coordination of Common Motifs (CoCoMo primers to measure the proviral load of known and novel BLV variants in clinical animals. Results Degenerate primers were designed from 52 individual BLV long terminal repeat (LTR sequences identified from 356 BLV sequences in GenBank using the CoCoMo algorithm, which has been developed specifically for the detection of multiple virus species. Among 72 primer sets from 49 candidate primers, the most specific primer set was selected for detection of BLV LTR by melting curve analysis after real-time PCR amplification. An internal BLV TaqMan probe was used to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of the assay, and a parallel amplification of a single-copy host gene (the bovine leukocyte antigen DRA gene was used to normalize genomic DNA. The assay is highly specific, sensitive, quantitative and reproducible, and was able to detect BLV in a number of samples that were negative using the previously developed nested PCR assay. The assay was also highly effective in detecting BLV in cattle from a range of international locations. Finally, this assay enabled us to demonstrate that proviral load correlates not only with BLV infection capacity as assessed by syncytium formation, but

  19. Evaluation of HTLV-1 HBZ and proviral load, together with host IFN λ3, in pathogenesis of HAM/TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Jaberi, Najmeh; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim; Bustani, Reza; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad; Akbarin, Mohammad Mehdi; Milani, Saeideh; Tarokhian, Hanieh; Norouzi, Mehdi

    2017-06-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with two progressive diseases: HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Although HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) has been introduced as a risk factor for these diseases' progression, it is not sufficient on its own to yield an accurate estimation of the outcome of the infection. In the present study, PVL and HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) expression level as viral factors, and IFN λ3 as a host factor, were evaluated in HAM/TSP patients and HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs). During 2014-2015, 12 HAM/TSP patients and 18 ACs who had been referred to the HTLV-1 Clinic, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS), Mashhad, Iran, were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and the DNA and mRNA were extracted for quantification of HBZ, IFN λ3 expression, and PVL using real-time PCR (TaqMan method). Although the PVL was higher in the HAM/TSP group, with a 94% confidence interval, there were no considerable differences in terms of HBZ mRNA and PVL between ACs and HAM patients. IFN λ3 expression in the HAM/TSP group was significantly higher than in the ACs (P = 0.02). To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated the expression level of IFN λ3 in HTLV-1 positive patients. The immune response against HTLV-1 viral antigens and virulent factors will therefore further refine our knowledge of interactions between the virus and host in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-related disorders. The virus PVL and the host IFN λ3 can be used as pathogenic factors of HTLV-1 infected patients at risk of HAM/TSP manifestation. J. Med. Virol. 89:1102-1107, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Interferon Beta-1a Improves Urinary Symptoms, Reduces Proviral Load, and Modifies the Immune Response in a Patient with HAM/TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Davi Tanajura; Sundberg, Michael; Passos, Lúcia; Muniz, André Luiz; Santos, Silvane

    2012-01-01

    The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the known causative agent of a chronic neurologic condition known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Although several therapies have been evaluated for HAM/TSP, none have been approved for use in humans. In this paper, we describe a 55-year-old female patient with HAM/TSP who was treated with interferon beta-1a. This patient, in comparison to 20 female patients with HAM/TSP who were not treated, showed improvement in urinary symptoms over four years of therapy, as well as a reduction in HTLV-1 proviral load and serum cytokine levels typically observed in HAM/TSP. This improved outcome merits further controlled studies on the use and efficacy of interferon beta-1a as a therapy for HAM/TSP.

  1. HTLV-1 Tax-Specific CTL Epitope-Pulsed Dendritic Cell Therapy Reduces Proviral Load in Infected Rats with Immune Tolerance against Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Satomi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Murakami, Yuji; Zeng, Na; Takatsuka, Natsuko; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Masuda, Takao; Suehiro, Youko; Kannagi, Mari

    2017-02-01

    Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), a CD4(+) T cell malignancy with a poor prognosis, is caused by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. High proviral load (PVL) is a risk factor for the progression to ATL. We previously reported that some asymptomatic carriers had severely reduced functions of CTLs against HTLV-1 Tax, the major target Ag. Furthermore, the CTL responses tended to be inversely correlated with PVL, suggesting that weak HTLV-1-specific CTL responses may be involved in the elevation of PVL. Our previous animal studies indicated that oral HTLV-1 infection, the major route of infection, caused persistent infection with higher PVL in rats compared with other routes. In this study, we found that Tax-specific CD8(+) T cells were present, but not functional, in orally infected rats as observed in some human asymptomatic carriers. Even in the infected rats with immune unresponsiveness against Tax, Tax-specific CTL epitope-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) therapy reduced the PVL and induced Tax-specific CD8(+) T cells capable of proliferating and producing IFN-γ. Furthermore, we found that monocyte-derived DCs from most infected individuals still had the capacity to stimulate CMV-specific autologous CTLs in vitro, indicating that DC therapy may be applicable to most infected individuals. These data suggest that peptide-pulsed DC immunotherapy will be useful to induce functional HTLV-1-specific CTLs and decrease PVL in infected individuals with high PVL and impaired HTLV-1-specific CTL responses, thereby reducing the risk of the development of ATL. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Low Proviral Load is Associated with Indeterminate Western Blot Patterns in Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infected Individuals: Could Punctual Mutations be Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánepa, Camila; Salido, Jimena; Ruggieri, Matías; Fraile, Sindy; Pataccini, Gabriela; Berini, Carolina; Biglione, Mirna

    2015-10-28

    indeterminate Western blot (WB) patterns are a major concern for diagnosis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection, even in non-endemic areas. (a) to define the prevalence of indeterminate WB among different populations from Argentina; (b) to evaluate if low proviral load (PVL) is associated with indeterminate WB profiles; and (c) to describe mutations in LTR and tax sequence of these cases. Among 2031 samples, 294 were reactive by screening. Of them, 48 (16.3%) were WB indeterminate and of those 15 (31.3%) were PCR+. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed to 52 HTLV-1+ samples, classified as Group 1 (G1): 25 WB+ samples from individuals with pathologies; Group 2 (G2): 18 WB+ samples from asymptomatic carriers (AC); and Group 3 (G3): 9 seroindeterminate samples from AC. Median PVL was 4.78, 2.38, and 0.15 HTLV-1 copies/100 PBMCs, respectively; a significant difference (p=0.003) was observed. Age and sex were associated with PVL in G1 and G2, respectively. Mutations in the distal and central regions of Tax Responsive Elements (TRE) 1 and 2 of G3 were observed, though not associated with PVL.The 8403A>G mutation of the distal region, previously related to high PVL, was absent in G3 but present in 50% of WB+ samples (p = 0.03). indeterminate WB results confirmed later as HTLV-1 positive may be associated with low PVL levels. Mutations in LTR and tax are described; their functional relevance remains to be determined.

  3. T-cell tropism of simian T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 and cytokine profiles in relation to proviral load and immunological changes during chronic infection of naturally infected mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souquière, Sandrine; Mouinga-Ondeme, Augustin; Makuwa, Maria; Beggio, Paola; Radaelli, Antonia; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Mortreux, Franck; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2009-08-01

    Although a wide variety of non-human primates are susceptible to simian T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (STLV-1), little is known about the virological or molecular determinants of natural STLV-1 infection. We determined STLV-1 virus tropism in vivo and its relation to the immune response by evaluating cytokine production and T-cell subsets in naturally infected and uninfected mandrills. With real-time PCR methods, we found that STLV-1 in mandrills infects both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells; however, proviral loads were significantly higher (P = 0.01) in CD4(+) than in CD8(+) cells (mean STLV-1 copies number per 100 cells (+/- SD) was 7.8 +/- 8 in CD4(+) T cells and 3.9 +/- 4.5 in CD8(+) T cells). After culture, STLV-1 provirus was detected in enriched CD4(+) but not in enriched CD8(+) T cells. After 6 months of culture, STLV-1-transformed cell lines expressing CD3(+), CD4(+) and HLADR(+) were established, and STLV-1 proteins and tax/rex mRNA were detected. In STLV-1 infected monkeys, there was a correlation between high proviral load and elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The two monkeys with the highest STLV-1 proviral load had activated CD4(+)HLADR(+) and CD8(+)HLADR(+) T-cell subsets and a high percentage of CD25(+) in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Our study provides the first cellular, immunological and virological characterization of natural STLV-1 infection in mandrills and shows that they are an appropriate animal model for further physiopathological studies of the natural history of human T-cell leukaemia viruses.

  4. The effect of HTLV-1 virulence factors (HBZ, Tax, proviral load), HLA class I and plasma neopterin on manifestation of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy tropical spastic paraparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokhian, Hanieh; Taghadosi, Mahdi; Rafatpanah, Hushang; Rajaei, Taraneh; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Valizadeh, Narges; Rezaee, S A Rahim

    2017-01-15

    Previous studies have suggested debatable roles of Tax and HBZ gene expression in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). In this study, HTLV-1 and host interactions in the manifestation of HAM/TSP were evaluated. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 33 HAM/TSP patients and 38 HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs). HTLV-1-Tax, HBZ gene expression, and proviral load (PVL) were assessed using the quantitative real-time PCR (TaqMan), host plasma neopterin level, and HLA-I, and the clinical manifestation were evaluated. The HTLV-1 PVLs in HAM/TSP and ACs were 306±360.741 copies/10(4) PBMCs and 250.98±629.94 copies/10(4) PBMCs, respectively; the PVL was higher in HAM/TSP than that in ACs (p=0.004). HTLV-1 Tax and HBZ expression in HAM/TSP was higher than that in ACs, wherein only the Tax expression was statistically significant (p=0.039). In contrast to Japanese HTLV-1-infected subjects, HLA-A*02, HLA-A*24, HLA-Cw*08, and HLA-B*5401 did not exhibit preventive effects for HAM/TSP manifestation. The plasma neopterin level was significantly higher in HAM/TSPs than that in ACs; furthermore, there was a strong significant correlation between plasma neopterin and PVL (R=0.76, p=0.001). Moreover, there were significant correlation between urinary disturbances and haematological indices, including the RBC count (R=-0.61, p=0.01) and Hematocrit (Ht) index (R=-0.75, p=0.002), and between mobility disturbances with Tax expression (R=-0.58, p=0.02) and WBC counts (R=-0.54, p=0.04), and finally, a significant association was found between the sensory disturbances and PVL (p=0.05). Overall, HTLV-1 PVL and Tax may be the valid predictors of disease development, and the neopterin level may be a valid predictor of disease progression. In addition, Tax and neopterin are more helpful than PVL for the monitoring of HTLV-1-infected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. New entity, definition and diagnostic criteria of cutaneous adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 proviral DNA load can distinguish between cutaneous and smoldering types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Masahiro; Kurokawa, Motoki; Ogata, Katsumi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Setoyama, Mitsuru

    2008-05-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) has been divided into four subtypes up to now: (i) acute; (ii) lymphoma; (iii) chronic; and (iv) smoldering. Skin lesion(s) may be present and the cases showing less than 5% abnormal T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood without involvement of other organs, have been classified as smoldering ATLL. However, this type of ATLL with skin manifestations had a worse prognosis than that without skin lesions. This study aimed to define and distinguish cutaneous ATLL lacking nodal lymphoma and leukemic change from smoldering ATLL. We propose an entity of cutaneous ATLL, which has less than 5% abnormal T lymphocyte in peripheral blood, a normal lymphocyte count (i.e. smoldering ATLL. HTLV-1 proviral loads, soluble interleukin-2 receptors and other parameters were examined in each case. HTLV-1 proviral DNA loads in smoldering ATLL group are significantly higher than those in asymptomatic carrier and cutaneous ATLL group. Cutaneous ATLL may be a distinct entity that should be separated from smoldering ATLL clinically and virologically.

  6. Estimation of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral load harbored by lymphocyte subpopulations in BLV-infected cattle at the subclinical stage of enzootic bovine leucosis using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panei, Carlos Javier; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Omori, Takashi; Nunoya, Tetsuo; Davis, William C; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Matoba, Kazuhiro; Aida, Yoko

    2013-05-04

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infection may remain clinically silent at the aleukemic (AL) stage, cause persistent lymphocytosis (PL), or, more rarely, B cell lymphoma. BLV has been identified in B cells, CD2+ T cells, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, γ/δ T cells, monocytes, and granulocytes in infected cattle that do not have tumors, although the most consistently infected cell is the CD5+ B cell. The mechanism by which BLV causes uncontrolled CD5+ B cell proliferation is unknown. Recently, we developed a new quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR, which enabled us to demonstrate that the proviral load correlates not only with BLV infection, as assessed by syncytium formation, but also with BLV disease progression. The present study reports the distribution of BLV provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subpopulations isolated from BLV-infected cows at the subclinical stage of EBL as examined by cell sorting and BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR. Phenotypic characterization of five BLV-infected but clinically normal cattle with a proviral load of > 100 copies per 1 × 105 cells identified a high percentage of CD5+ IgM+ cells (but not CD5- IgM+ B cells, CD4+ T cells, or CD8+T cells). These lymphocyte subpopulations were purified from three out of five cattle by cell sorting or using magnetic beads, and the BLV proviral load was estimated using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR. The CD5+ IgM+ B cell population in all animals harbored a higher BLV proviral load than the other cell populations. The copy number of proviruses infecting CD5- IgM+ B cells, CD4+ cells, and CD8+ T cells (per 1 ml of blood) was 1/34 to 1/4, 1/22 to 1/3, and 1/31 to 1/3, respectively, compared with that in CD5+ IgM+ B cells. Moreover, the BLV provirus remained integrated into the genomic DNA of CD5+ IgM+ B cells, CD5- IgM+ B cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells

  7. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 prevalence and quantitative detection of DNA proviral load in individuals with indeterminate/positive serological results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bon Isabella

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-1 infection is currently restricted to endemic areas. To define the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in patients living in Italy, we first carried out a retrospective serological analysis in a group of people originating from African countries referred to our hospital from January 2003 to February 2005. We subsequently applied a real time PCR on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects with positive or indeterminate serological results. Methods All the sera were first analysed by serological methods (ELISA and/or Western Blotting and then the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects with positive or inconclusive serological results were analyzed for the presence of proviral DNA by a sensitive SYBR Green real time PCR. In addition, twenty HTLV-I ELISA negative samples were assayed by real time PCR approach as negative controls. Results Serological results disclosed serum reactivity by ELISA (absorbance values equal or greater than the cut-off value in 9 out of 3408 individuals attending the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic and/or Oncology Department, and 2 out 534 blood donors enrolled as a control population. Irrespective of positive or inconclusive serological results, all these subjects were analyzed for the presence of proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by SYBR real time PCR. A clear-cut positive result for the presence of HTLV-1 DNA was obtained in two subjects from endemic areas. Conclusion SYBR real time PCR cut short inconclusive serological results. This rapid and inexpensive assay showed an excellent linear dynamic range, specificity and reproducibility readily revealing and quantifying the presence of virus in PBMCs. Our results highlight the need to monitor the presence of HTLV-1 in countries which have seen a large influx of immigrants in recent years. Epidemiological surveillance and correct diagnosis are recommended to verify the prevalence and incidence of a new

  8. Damaging the Integrated HIV Proviral DNA with TALENs.

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    Christy L Strong

    Full Text Available HIV-1 integrates its proviral DNA genome into the host genome, presenting barriers for virus eradication. Several new gene-editing technologies have emerged that could potentially be used to damage integrated proviral DNA. In this study, we use transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs to target a highly conserved sequence in the transactivation response element (TAR of the HIV-1 proviral DNA. We demonstrated that TALENs cleave a DNA template with the HIV-1 proviral target site in vitro. A GFP reporter, under control of HIV-1 TAR, was efficiently inactivated by mutations introduced by transfection of TALEN plasmids. When infected cells containing the full-length integrated HIV-1 proviral DNA were transfected with TALENs, the TAR region accumulated indels. When one of these mutants was tested, the mutated HIV-1 proviral DNA was incapable of producing detectable Gag expression. TALEN variants engineered for degenerate recognition of select nucleotide positions also cleaved proviral DNA in vitro and the full-length integrated proviral DNA genome in living cells. These results suggest a possible design strategy for the therapeutic considerations of incomplete target sequence conservation and acquired resistance mutations. We have established a new strategy for damaging integrated HIV proviral DNA that may have future potential for HIV-1 proviral DNA eradication.

  9. Construction of a High Titer Infectious HIV-1 Subtype C Proviral Clone from South Africa

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    Jochen Bodem

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 subtype C is currently the predominant subtype worldwide. Cell culture studies of Sub-Saharan African subtype C proviral plasmids are hampered by the low replication capacity of the resulting viruses, although viral loads in subtype C infected patients are as high as those from patients with subtype B. Here, we describe the sequencing and construction of a new HIV-1 subtype C proviral clone (pZAC, replicating more than one order of magnitude better than the previous subtype C plasmids. We identify the env-region for being the determinant for the higher viral titers and the pZAC Env to be M-tropic. This higher replication capacity does not lead to a higher cytotoxicity compared to previously described subtype C viruses. In addition, the pZAC Vpu is also shown to be able to down-regulate CD4, but fails to fully counteract CD317.

  10. Tibiofemoral joint kinetics during squatting with increasing external load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Sonia; Rebai, Haithem; Elleuch, Mohamed Habib; Tabka, Zouheir; Poumarat, Georges

    2008-08-01

    There is limited information about the effects of increasing load while squatting. To quantify tibiofemoral joint kinetics during squatting with variable loads. Research laboratory. 20 male students. Tibiofemoral joint kinetics and electromyographic (EMG) activity of four involved muscles were determined by recording the half squat with variable external loads. Tibiofemoral joint force and external moment components and EMG activity of four involved muscles. Throughout the exercise, a posterior direction for the antero-posterior shear force and a net extension for the external moment were observed. They increased with knee flexion reaching peak force of 29% of the subject body weight (BW) and moment of 88Nm (without external load). All force and moment components and muscle activities increased as the external load increased. These findings suggest that half squat may be safe to use for quadriceps strengthening with very low potential loading on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Our data can help clinicians choose the appropriate external load.

  11. The frequency of CD127low expressing CD4+CD25high T regulatory cells is inversely correlated with human T lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1 proviral load in HTLV-1-infection and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieia Marco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+CD25high regulatory T (TReg cells modulate antigen-specific T cell responses, and can suppress anti-viral immunity. In HTLV-1 infection, a selective decrease in the function of TReg cell mediated HTLV-1-tax inhibition of FOXP3 expression has been described. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and phenotype of TReg cells in HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers and in HTLV-1-associated neurological disease (HAM/TSP patients, and to correlate with measures of T cell activation. Results We were able to confirm that HTLV-I drives activation, spontaneous IFNγ production, and proliferation of CD4+ T cells. We also observed a significantly lower proportion of CTLA-4+ TReg cells (CD4+CD25high T cells in subjects with HAM/TSP patients compared to healthy controls. Ki-67 expression was negatively correlated to the frequency of CTLA-4+ TReg cells in HAM/TSP only, although Ki-67 expression was inversely correlated with the percentage of CD127low TReg cells in healthy control subjects. Finally, the proportion of CD127low TReg cells correlated inversely with HTLV-1 proviral load. Conclusion Taken together, the results suggest that TReg cells may be subverted in HAM/TSP patients, which could explain the marked cellular activation, spontaneous cytokine production, and proliferation of CD4+ T cells, in particular those expressing the CD25highCD127low phenotype. TReg cells represent a potential target for therapeutic intervention for patients with HTLV-1-related neurological diseases.

  12. HTLV-1 proviral integration sites differ between asymptomatic carriers and patients with HAM/TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Heather A; Laydon, Daniel J; Melamed, Anat; Elemans, Marjet; Asquith, Becca; Matsuoka, Masao; Bangham, Charles R M

    2014-09-30

    HTLV-1 causes proliferation of clonal populations of infected T cells in vivo, each clone defined by a unique proviral integration site in the host genome. The proviral load is strongly correlated with odds of the inflammatory disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). There is evidence that asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) have a more effective CD8 + T cell response, including a higher frequency of HLA class I alleles able to present peptides from a regulatory protein of HTLV-1, HBZ. We have previously shown that specific features of the host genome flanking the proviral integration site favour clone survival and spontaneous expression of the viral transactivator protein Tax in naturally infected PBMCs ex vivo. However, the previous studies were not designed or powered to detect differences in integration site characteristics between ACs and HAM/TSP patients. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the genomic environment of the provirus differs systematically between ACs and HAM/TSP patients, and between individuals with strong or weak HBZ presentation. We used our recently described high-throughput protocol to map and quantify integration sites in 95 HAM/TSP patients and 68 ACs from Kagoshima, Japan, and 75 ACs from Kumamoto, Japan. Individuals with 2 or more HLA class I alleles predicted to bind HBZ peptides were classified 'strong' HBZ binders; the remainder were classified 'weak binders'. The abundance of HTLV-1-infected T cell clones in vivo was correlated with proviral integration in genes and in areas with epigenetic marks associated with active regulatory elements. In clones of equivalent abundance, integration sites in genes and active regions were significantly more frequent in ACs than patients with HAM/TSP, irrespective of HBZ binding and proviral load. Integration sites in genes were also more frequent in strong HBZ binders than weak HBZ binders. Clonal abundance is correlated with integration in a

  13. Multiple proviral integration events after virological synapse-mediated HIV-1 spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Rebecca A; Martin, Nicola; Mitar, Ivonne; Jones, Emma; Sattentau, Quentin J

    2013-08-15

    HIV-1 can move directly between T cells via virological synapses (VS). Although aspects of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this mode of spread have been elucidated, the outcomes for infection of the target cell remain incompletely understood. We set out to determine whether HIV-1 transfer via VS results in productive, high-multiplicity HIV-1 infection. We found that HIV-1 cell-to-cell spread resulted in nuclear import of multiple proviruses into target cells as seen by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Proviral integration into the target cell genome was significantly higher than that seen in a cell-free infection system, and consequent de novo viral DNA and RNA production in the target cell detected by quantitative PCR increased over time. Our data show efficient proviral integration across VS, implying the probability of multiple integration events in target cells that drive productive T cell infection. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Increasing the load bearing capacity of barrel vaults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Just after World War II many barrel vaults and domes were built with a structural system, known as Fusée Ceramique. This paper analyses the load bearing capacity of these vaults. Schemes, theories, idealizations and assumptions are analysed, validated and discussed. Methods to increase the load

  15. Polo-like-kinase 1 is a proviral host-factor for hepatitis B virus replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Ahmed M.; Foca, Adrien; Fusil, Floriane; Lahlali, Thomas; Jalaguier, Pascal; Amirache, Fouzia; N’Guyen, Lia; Isorce, Nathalie; Cosset, François-Loïc; Zoulim, Fabien; Andrisani, Ourania M; Durantel, David

    2017-01-01

    Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and current treatments for CHB and HCC are perfectible. Herein, we identified cellular Serine/Threonine Polo-like-kinase 1 (PLK1) as a positive effector of HBV replication. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the proviral role of PLK1 in HBV biosynthesis and validate PLK1 inhibition a potential antiviral strategy. To this end, we employed physiologically relevant HBV infection models of Primary Human Hepatocytes (PHH) and differentiated HepaRG cells, in conjunction with pharmacologic PLK1 inhibitors, siRNA-mediated knockdown, and overexpression of constitutively active PLK1 (PLK1CA). In addition, humanized liver FRG mouse model was used to determine antiviral effect of PLK1 inhibitor BI-2536 on HBV infection in vivo. Lastly, in vitro PLK1 kinase assays and site-directed mutagenesis were employed to demonstrate HBV core protein (HBc) is a PLK1 substrate. We demonstrate HBV infection activated cellular PLK1 in PHH and dHepaRG cells. PLK1 inhibition by BI-2536 or siRNA-mediated knockdown suppressed, whereas overexpression of PLK1CA increased HBV DNA biosynthesis, supporting PLK1 effects on viral biosynthesis are specific, and PLK1 is a proviral cellular factor. Significantly, BI-2536 administration to HBV-infected humanized liver FRG mice strongly inhibited HBV infection, validating PLK1 as a novel antiviral target in vivo. The proviral action of PLK1 is associated with the biogenesis of the nucleocapsid, as BI-2536 leads to its decreased intracellular formation/accumulation. In this respect, our studies identified HBc as a PLK1 substrate in vitro, and mapped PLK1 phosphorylation sites on this protein. PLK1 is a proviral host factor that could be envisaged as a target for combined antiviral and antitumoral strategies against HBV infection and HBV mediated carcinogenesis. PMID:28445592

  16. Application of PSAT to Load Flow Analysis with STATCOM under Load Increase Scenario and Line Contingencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, Aparna S.; Bedekar, P. P.

    2017-09-01

    Load flow analysis is the initial and essential step for any power system computation. It is required for choosing better options for power system expansion to meet with ever increasing load demand. Implementation of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) device like STATCOM, in the load flow, which is having fast and very flexible control, is one of the important tasks for power system researchers. This paper presents a simple and systematic approach for steady state power flow calculations with FACTS controller, static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) using command line usage of MATLAB tool-power system analysis toolbox (PSAT). The complexity of MATLAB language programming increases due to incorporation of STATCOM in an existing Newton-Raphson load flow algorithm. Thus, the main contribution of this paper is to show how command line usage of user friendly MATLAB tool, PSAT, can extensively be used for quicker and wider interpretation of the results of load flow with STATCOM. The novelty of this paper lies in the method of applying the load increase pattern, where the active and reactive loads have been changed simultaneously at all the load buses under consideration for creating stressed conditions for load flow analysis with STATCOM. The performance have been evaluated on many standard IEEE test systems and the results for standard IEEE-30 bus system, IEEE-57 bus system, and IEEE-118 bus system are presented.

  17. Cognitive Load During Route Selection Increases Reliance on Spatial Heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunyé, Tad T; Martis, Shaina B; Taylor, Holly A

    2017-03-22

    Planning routes from maps involves perceiving the symbolic environment, identifying alternate routes, and applying explicit strategies and implicit heuristics to select an option. Two implicit heuristics have received considerable attention, the southern route preference and initial segment strategy. The current study tested a prediction from decision making theory, that increasing cognitive load during route planning will increase reliance on these heuristics. In two experiments, participants planned routes while under conditions of minimal (0-back) or high (2-back) working memory load. In Experiment 1, we examined how memory load impacts the southern route heuristic. In Experiment 2, we examined how memory load impacts the initial segment heuristic. Results replicated earlier results demonstrating a southern route preference (Experiment 1) and initial segment strategy (Experiment 2), and further demonstrated that evidence for heuristic reliance is more likely under conditions of concurrent working memory load. Furthermore, the extent to which participants maintained efficient route selection latencies in the 2-back condition predicted the magnitude of this effect. Together, results demonstrate that working memory load increases the application of heuristics during spatial decision making, particularly when participants attempt to maintain quick decisions while managing concurrent task demands.

  18. Using Resurrected Ancestral Proviral Proteins to Engineer Virus Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Delgado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proviral factors are host proteins hijacked by viruses for processes essential for virus propagation such as cellular entry and replication. Pathogens and their hosts co-evolve. It follows that replacing a proviral factor with a functional ancestral form of the same protein could prevent viral propagation without fatally compromising organismal fitness. Here, we provide proof of concept of this notion. Thioredoxins serve as general oxidoreductases in all known cells. We report that several laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins display substantial levels of functionality within Escherichia coli. Unlike E. coli thioredoxin, however, these ancestral thioredoxins are not efficiently recruited by the bacteriophage T7 for its replisome and therefore prevent phage propagation in E. coli. These results suggest an approach to the engineering of virus resistance. Diseases caused by viruses may have a devastating effect in agriculture. We discuss how the suggested approach could be applied to the engineering of plant virus resistance.

  19. Metasystem approach to increase the load factor FMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishchukhin Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to increasing the efficiency of using flexible manufacture systems (FMS by increasing the load factor. Unlike the well-known multi-agent approach to production management, we are investigating the addition of a metasystem level allowing flexible combination of the decentralized control method with centralization. The metasystem approach allows to reduce management to flexible switching of functioning technologies on the basis of the replacement rule, while describing FMS as a metasystem consisting of classification of the system analyst J. Klir from structured data systems. Production events are simulated in virtual space with the help of a multi-agent approach. At the same time, the number of requests from the waiting queue is chosen such that it becomes possible to optimize the loading of the FMS in the simplest case by the full-scan method, if the queue is not available, then the initiative of choice is provided to communications of agents-technologies and agents-equipments. Experimental studies were carried out on the FMS model including six pieces of equipment divided into three groups with a stream of six applications, each of which has a technological route of six operations each‥ The experimental results showed the consistency of the developed approach by increasing the load factor of the FMS.

  20. Polo-like-kinase 1 is a proviral host factor for hepatitis B virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Ahmed; Foca, Adrien; Fusil, Floriane; Lahlali, Thomas; Jalaguier, Pascal; Amirache, Fouzia; N'Guyen, Lia; Isorce, Nathalie; Cosset, François-Loïc; Zoulim, Fabien; Andrisani, Ourania; Durantel, David

    2017-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and current treatments for chronic hepatitis B and HCC are suboptimal. Herein, we identified cellular serine/threonine Polo-like-kinase 1 (PLK1) as a positive effector of HBV replication. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the proviral role of PLK1 in HBV biosynthesis and validate PLK1 inhibition a potential antiviral strategy. To this end, we employed physiologically relevant HBV infection models of primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) and differentiated HepaRG cells in conjunction with pharmacologic PLK1 inhibitors, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown, and overexpression of constitutively active PLK1 (PLK1CA ). In addition, a humanized liver Fah-/- /Rag2-/- /Il2rg-/- (FRG) mouse model was used to determine the antiviral effect of PLK1 inhibitor BI-2536 on HBV infection in vivo. Finally, in vitro PLK1 kinase assays and site-directed mutagenesis were employed to demonstrate that HBV core protein (HBc) is a PLK1 substrate. We demonstrated that HBV infection activated cellular PLK1 in PHHs and differentiated HepaRG cells. PLK1 inhibition by BI-2536 or siRNA-mediated knockdown suppressed HBV DNA biosynthesis, whereas overexpression of PLK1CA increased it, suggesting that the PLK1 effects on viral biosynthesis are specific and that PLK1 is a proviral cellular factor. Significantly, BI-2536 administration to HBV-infected humanized liver FRG mice strongly inhibited HBV infection, validating PLK1 as an antiviral target in vivo. The proviral action of PLK1 is associated with the biogenesis of the nucleocapsid, as BI-2536 leads to its decreased intracellular formation/accumulation. In this respect, our studies identified HBc as a PLK1 substrate in vitro, and mapped PLK1 phosphorylation sites on this protein. PLK1 is a proviral host factor that could be envisaged as a target for combined antiviral and antitumoral strategies against HBV infection and HBV

  1. Chimaeric load among sympatric social bacteria increases with genotype richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Soares, Helena; Chen, I-Chen Kimberly; Fitzpatrick, Kara; Velicer, Gregory J

    2014-07-22

    The total productivity of social groups can be determined by interactions among their constituents. Chimaeric load--the reduction of group productivity caused by antagonistic within-group heterogeneity--may be common in heterogeneous microbial groups due to dysfunctional behavioural interactions between distinct individuals. However, some instances of chimaerism in social microbes can increase group productivity, thus making a general relationship between chimaerism and group-level performance non-obvious. Using genetically similar strains of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus that were isolated from a single centimetre-scale patch of soil, we tested for a relationship between degree of chimaerism (genotype richness) and total group performance at social behaviours displayed by this species. Within-group genotype richness was found to correlate negatively with total group performance at most traits examined, including swarming in both predatory and prey-free environments and spore production during development. These results suggest that interactions between such neighbouring strains in the wild will tend to be mutually antagonistic. Negative correlations between group performance and average genetic distance among group constituents at three known social genes were not found, suggesting that divergence at other loci that govern social interaction phenotypes is responsible for the observed chimaeric load. The potential for chimaeric load to result from co-aggregation among even closely related neighbours may promote the maintenance and strengthening of kin discrimination mechanisms, such as colony-merger incompatibilities observed in M. xanthus. The findings reported here may thus have implications for understanding the evolution and maintenance of diversity in structured populations of soil microbes. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Highly loaded behavior of kinesins increases the robustness of transport under high resisting loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woochul Nam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kinesins are nano-sized biological motors which walk by repeating a mechanochemical cycle. A single kinesin molecule is able to transport its cargo about 1 μm in the absence of external loads. However, kinesins perform much longer range transport in cells by working collectively. This long range of transport by a team of kinesins is surprising because the motion of the cargo in cells can be hindered by other particles. To reveal how the kinesins are able to accomplish their tasks of transport in harsh intracellular circumstances, stochastic studies on the kinesin motion are performed by considering the binding and unbinding of kinesins to microtubules and their dependence on the force acting on kinesin molecules. The unbinding probabilities corresponding to each mechanochemical state of kinesin are modeled. The statistical characterization of the instants and locations of binding are captured by computing the probability of unbound kinesin being at given locations. It is predicted that a group of kinesins has a more efficient transport than a single kinesin from the perspective of velocity and run length. Particularly, when large loads are applied, the leading kinesin remains bound to the microtubule for long time which increases the chances of the other kinesins to bind to the microtubule. To predict effects of this behavior of the leading kinesin under large loads on the collective transport, the motion of the cargo is studied when the cargo confronts obstacles. The result suggests that the behavior of kinesins under large loads prevents the early termination of the transport which can be caused by the interference with the static or moving obstacles.

  3. Highly loaded behavior of kinesins increases the robustness of transport under high resisting loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Woochul; Epureanu, Bogdan I

    2015-03-01

    Kinesins are nano-sized biological motors which walk by repeating a mechanochemical cycle. A single kinesin molecule is able to transport its cargo about 1 μm in the absence of external loads. However, kinesins perform much longer range transport in cells by working collectively. This long range of transport by a team of kinesins is surprising because the motion of the cargo in cells can be hindered by other particles. To reveal how the kinesins are able to accomplish their tasks of transport in harsh intracellular circumstances, stochastic studies on the kinesin motion are performed by considering the binding and unbinding of kinesins to microtubules and their dependence on the force acting on kinesin molecules. The unbinding probabilities corresponding to each mechanochemical state of kinesin are modeled. The statistical characterization of the instants and locations of binding are captured by computing the probability of unbound kinesin being at given locations. It is predicted that a group of kinesins has a more efficient transport than a single kinesin from the perspective of velocity and run length. Particularly, when large loads are applied, the leading kinesin remains bound to the microtubule for long time which increases the chances of the other kinesins to bind to the microtubule. To predict effects of this behavior of the leading kinesin under large loads on the collective transport, the motion of the cargo is studied when the cargo confronts obstacles. The result suggests that the behavior of kinesins under large loads prevents the early termination of the transport which can be caused by the interference with the static or moving obstacles.

  4. Using Resurrected Ancestral Proviral Proteins to Engineer Virus Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Asunción; Arco, Rocio; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M

    2017-05-09

    Proviral factors are host proteins hijacked by viruses for processes essential for virus propagation such as cellular entry and replication. Pathogens and their hosts co-evolve. It follows that replacing a proviral factor with a functional ancestral form of the same protein could prevent viral propagation without fatally compromising organismal fitness. Here, we provide proof of concept of this notion. Thioredoxins serve as general oxidoreductases in all known cells. We report that several laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins display substantial levels of functionality within Escherichia coli. Unlike E. coli thioredoxin, however, these ancestral thioredoxins are not efficiently recruited by the bacteriophage T7 for its replisome and therefore prevent phage propagation in E. coli. These results suggest an approach to the engineering of virus resistance. Diseases caused by viruses may have a devastating effect in agriculture. We discuss how the suggested approach could be applied to the engineering of plant virus resistance. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased forefoot loading is associated with an increased plantar flexion moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melai, Tom; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Ijzerman, T Herman; de Lange, Ton L H; Willems, Paul J B; Meijer, Kenneth; Lieverse, Aloysius G; Savelberg, Hans H C M

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the cascade of effects leading from alterations in force generation around the ankle joint to increased plantar pressures under the forefoot. Gait analysis including plantar pressure measurement was performed at an individually preferred and a standardized, imposed gait velocity in diabetic subjects with polyneuropathy (n=94), without polyneuropathy (n=39) and healthy elderly (n=19). The plantar flexion moment at 40% of the stance phase was negatively correlated with the displacement rate of center of pressure (r=-.749, pDisplacement rate of center of pressure was strongly correlated with forefoot loading (r=-.837, pcenter of pressure and consequently higher loading of the forefoot. This indicates that interventions aimed at increasing the control of the roll-off of the foot may contribute to a better plantar pressure distribution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A; Vigotsky, Andrew D

    2016-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp(2) = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp(2) = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training.

  7. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A.; Vigotsky, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Materials and Methods Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. Results After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp2 = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp2 = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. Conclusions This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training. PMID:27625750

  8. Proviral Features of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 in Carriers with Indeterminate Western Blot Analysis Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramitsu, Madoka; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Yamochi, Tadanori; Firouzi, Sanaz; Sato, Tomoo; Umeki, Kazumi; Sasaki, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Kubota, Ryuji; Sobata, Rieko; Matsumoto, Chieko; Kaneko, Noriaki; Momose, Haruka; Araki, Kumiko; Saito, Masumichi; Nosaka, Kisato; Utsunomiya, Atae; Koh, Ki-Ryang; Ogata, Masao; Uchimaru, Kaoru; Iwanaga, Masako; Sagara, Yasuko; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Okayama, Akihiko; Miura, Kiyonori; Satake, Masahiro; Saito, Shigeru; Itabashi, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Kazunari; Kuroda, Makoto; Watanabe, Toshiki; Okuma, Kazu; Hamaguchi, Isao

    2017-09-01

    Western blotting (WB) for human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is performed to confirm anti-HTLV-1 antibodies detected at the initial screening of blood donors and in pregnant women. However, the frequent occurrence of indeterminate results is a problem with this test. We therefore assessed the cause of indeterminate WB results by analyzing HTLV-1 provirus genomic sequences. A quantitative PCR assay measuring HTLV-1 provirus in WB-indeterminate samples revealed that the median proviral load was approximately 100-fold lower than that of WB-positive samples (0.01 versus 0.71 copy/100 cells). Phylogenic analysis of the complete HTLV-1 genomes of WB-indeterminate samples did not identify any specific phylogenetic groups. When we analyzed the nucleotide changes in 19 HTLV-1 isolates from WB-indeterminate samples, we identified 135 single nucleotide substitutions, composed of four types, G to A (29%), C to T (19%), T to C (19%), and A to G (16%). In the most frequent G-to-A substitution, 64% occurred at GG dinucleotides, indicating that APOBEC3G is responsible for mutagenesis in WB-indeterminate samples. Moreover, interestingly, five WB-indeterminate isolates had nonsense mutations in Pol and/or Tax, Env, p12, and p30. These findings suggest that WB-indeterminate carriers have low production of viral antigens because of a combination of a low proviral load and mutations in the provirus, which may interfere with host recognition of HTLV-1 antigens. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Exponential increase in postprandial blood-glucose exposure with increasing carbohydrate loads using a linear carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marran, K J; Davey, B; Lang, A; Segal, D G

    2013-04-10

    Postprandial glucose excursions contribute significantly to average blood glucose, glycaemic variability and cardiovascular risk. Carbohydrate counting is a method of insulin dosing that balances carbohydrate load to insulin dose using a fixed ratio. Many patients and current insulin pumps calculate insulin delivery for meals based on a linear carbohydrate-to-insulin relationship. It is our hypothesis that a non-linear relationship exists between the amounts of carbohydrate consumed and the insulin required to cover it. To document blood glucose exposure in response to increasing carbohydrate loads on fixed carbohydrate-to-insulin ratios. Five type 1 diabetic subjects receiving insulin pump therapy with good control were recruited. Morning basal rates and carbohydrate- to-insulin ratios were optimised. A Medtronic glucose sensor was used for 5 days to collect data for area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis, during which standardised meals of increasing carbohydrate loads were consumed. Increasing carbohydrate loads using a fixed carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio resulted in increasing glucose AUC. The relationship was found to be exponential rather than linear. Late postprandial hypoglycaemia followed carbohydrate loads of >60 g and this was often followed by rebound hyperglycaemia that lasted >6 hours. A non-linear relationship exists between carbohydrates consumed and the insulin required to cover them. This has implications for control of postprandial blood sugars, especially when consuming large carbohydrate loads. Further studies are required to look at the optimal ratios, duration and type of insulin boluses required to cover increasing carbohydrate loads.

  10. Neuronal Depolarization Drives Increased Dopamine Synaptic Vesicle Loading via VGLUT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Jenny I; Dunn, Matthew; Mingote, Susana; Karam, Caline S; Farino, Zachary J; Sonders, Mark S; Choi, Se Joon; Grygoruk, Anna; Zhang, Yuchao; Cela, Carolina; Choi, Ben Jiwon; Flores, Jorge; Freyberg, Robin J; McCabe, Brian D; Mosharov, Eugene V; Krantz, David E; Javitch, Jonathan A; Sulzer, David; Sames, Dalibor; Rayport, Stephen; Freyberg, Zachary

    2017-08-30

    The ability of presynaptic dopamine terminals to tune neurotransmitter release to meet the demands of neuronal activity is critical to neurotransmission. Although vesicle content has been assumed to be static, in vitro data increasingly suggest that cell activity modulates vesicle content. Here, we use a coordinated genetic, pharmacological, and imaging approach in Drosophila to study the presynaptic machinery responsible for these vesicular processes in vivo. We show that cell depolarization increases synaptic vesicle dopamine content prior to release via vesicular hyperacidification. This depolarization-induced hyperacidification is mediated by the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT). Remarkably, both depolarization-induced dopamine vesicle hyperacidification and its dependence on VGLUT2 are seen in ventral midbrain dopamine neurons in the mouse. Together, these data suggest that in response to depolarization, dopamine vesicles utilize a cascade of vesicular transporters to dynamically increase the vesicular pH gradient, thereby increasing dopamine vesicle content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Underestimation of object mass in lifting does not increase the load on the low back

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, J.C.E.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Sudden, unexpected loading on the low back is associated with a high incidence of low back pain. Experiments in which sudden loading was applied during standing revealed increased compression forces on the spine and increased trunk angle, which may cause injury to the spine and hence explain this

  12. Virological and immunological profiles among patients with undetectable viral load followed prospectively for 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, T L; Ullum, H; Røge, Birgit T

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify HIV-RNA in plasma, in lymphoid tissue and proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and to relate these to immunological markers among patients with plasma viral load counts of

  13. Fabrication of TREAT Fuel with Increased Graphite Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Erik Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leckie, Rafael M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dombrowski, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Papin, Pallas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-02-05

    As part of the feasibility study exploring the replacement of the HEU fuel core of the TREAT reactor at Idaho National Laboratory with LEU fuel, this study demonstrates that it is possible to increase the graphite content of extruded fuel by reformulation. The extrusion process was use to fabricate the “upgrade” core1 for the TREAT reactor. The graphite content achieved is determined by calculation and has not been measured by any analytical method. In conjunction, a technique, Raman Spectroscopy, has been investigated for measuring the graphite content. This method shows some promise in differentiating between carbon and graphite; however, standards that would allow the technique to be calibrated to quantify the graphite concentration have yet to be fabricated. Continued research into Raman Spectroscopy is on going. As part of this study, cracking of graphite extrusions due to volatile evolution during heat treatment has been largely eliminated. Continued research to optimize this extrusion method is required.

  14. Contrast Loading Increases Upper Body Power Output in Junior Volleyball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilios, Ilias; Sotiropoulos, Konstantinos; Barzouka, Karolina; Christou, Marios; Tokmakidis, Savvas P

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the acute effects of contrast loading on mechanical power output during bench-press throws in junior volleyball players. Eleven males (age: 16.5 ± 0.5 years) performed a contrast loading and a control protocol. The contrast protocol included the execution of 3 bench-throws with a 30% load of 1RM, after 3 min a conditioning set of 5 bench-throws with a 60% load of 1RM and after 3 and 5 min two more sets of 3 bench-throws with a 30% load of 1RM. The control protocol included the execution of 3 sets of 3 bench-throws with a 30% load of 1RM at the same time points as in the contrast protocol without the execution of the conditioning set. Mechanical power with a 30% load was higher (p < .05) 3 and 5 min following the conditioning set at the contrast protocol compared with the control protocol (8.7 ± 7.5 and 10.4 ± 3.4%, respectively). High correlations (p < .05) were obtained between participant's relative maximal strength (r = .87) and power (r = .82) and the increases in power output. Contrast loading increases upper body power output produced with a light load by junior athletes. The potential for increased upper body performance is more evident in stronger or more powerful individuals.

  15. Plasma volume reduction and hematological fluctuations in high-level athletes after an increased training load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Jacob; Andersen, Andreas Breenfeldt; Goetze, J P

    2017-01-01

    to baseline training load in week 3. PV and hematological variables were determined frequently during all weeks. The higher training load in week 2 increased (P..., demonstrating the importance of knowledge on naturally occurring hematological fluctuations. Finally, concentrations of albumin, sTfR, and proANP could not explain PV fluctuations....

  16. The impact of increased loading rate on granular media, rapid depth filtration of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gordon J; Sheikh, Bahman; Holden, Robert B; Kouretas, Tom J; Nelson, Kara L

    2007-11-01

    The impact of loading rate on tertiary filtration of wastewater was studied using a pilot-scale, dual-media, rapid depth filtration system. Loading rates of 12.2, 15.3, 18.3, 21.4, and 24.4m/h were tested on parallel filter columns treating the same coagulated secondary wastewater to determine the impact on removal of turbidity, particles (2-15 microm), total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, and MS2 bacteriophage, as well as on the particle deposition profile in the filter bed. Increasing the loading rate from 12.2 to 24.4m/h decreased the removal efficiencies for all metrics. The observed impact of loading rate on particle removal was similar to that predicted by a clean-bed filtration model, although the model significantly underestimated the removal efficiencies of the smaller particles. For two loading rates, 12.2 and 18.3m/h, the effect of coagulant dose was also studied; the negative impact of loading rate on removal efficiency was eliminated by increasing the coagulant dose for the higher loading rate, which also resulted in removal of particles deeper in the filter bed. For all conditions studied, loading rate had no observable impact on the ability to disinfect filter effluents with chloramines. The results of this research indicate that loading rates higher than those typically used in tertiary filtration can produce acceptable effluent quality, and support a regulatory approach based on filter effluent turbidity.

  17. Plasma volume reduction and hematological fluctuations in high-level athletes after an increased training load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejder, J; Andersen, A B; Goetze, J P; Aachmann-Andersen, N J; Nordsborg, N B

    2017-12-01

    The time course of plasma volume (PV) reduction following an increased training load period is unknown and was investigated. The accompanying fluctuations in [Hb] and OFF-hr score were analyzed in the Athlete Biological Passport. Further, whether fluctuations in plasma albumin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), and pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (proANP) concentrations correlate with PV fluctuations was investigated. Eleven high-level competitive cyclists were investigated for 3 weeks. After initial measurements in week 1, training load was increased ~250% in week 2 followed by a reversion to baseline training load in week 3. PV and hematological variables were determined frequently during all weeks. The higher training load in week 2 increased (Ptraining load period were reverted within 2 and 4 days after returning to baseline training load, respectively, while OFF-hr remained altered for 6 days. Furthermore, some atypical blood profiles were induced during and subsequent to the increased training load, demonstrating the importance of knowledge on naturally occurring hematological fluctuations. Finally, concentrations of albumin, sTfR, and proANP could not explain PV fluctuations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Evolution of specific antibodies and proviral DNA in milk of small ruminants infected by small ruminant lentivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero, Nuria; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Arjona, Alvaro; Toural, Cristina; Heras, Alfonso las; Fernández-Garayzabal, José F; Domenech, Ana

    2013-10-22

    The diagnosis of Small Ruminant Lentivirus (SRLV) is based on clinical signs, pathological lesions and laboratory testing. No standard reference test for the diagnosis of maedi visna has been validated up to the present, and it is puzzling that tests which detect antibodies against the virus and tests which detect the proviral genome may render opposite results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence in milk throughout a lactation period of specific antibodies by ELISA and of SRLV proviral DNA by a PCR of the highly conserved pol region. A six-month study was conducted with the milk of 28 ewes and 31 goats intensively reared. The percentage of animals with antibodies against SRLV increased throughout the study period. Seroprevalence in sheep was 28% at the beginning of the study and by the end it had increased up to 52.4%. In goats, initial seroprevalence of 5.6% increased to 16%. The percentage of PCR positive ewes was stable throughout the study period. Of the positive sheep, 21.4% were PCR-positive before antibodies could be detected and most of them became PCR-negative shortly after the first detection of antibodies. This might suggest that antibodies have a neutralizing effect. In addition, an equal percentage of sheep were always PCR-negative but either became ELISA-positive or was always ELISA-positive, which might support this hypothesis. On the other hand, the PCR results in goats did not follow any pattern and oscillated between 35.3% and 55.6% depending on the month. Most goats positive by PCR failed to develop antibodies in the 6 months tested. We may conclude that the infection and the antibody response to it follow a different trend in sheep and goats.

  19. Enhanced water use efficiency in global terrestrial ecosystems under increasing aerosol loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Chen, Min; Liu, Yaling; Miralles, Diego G.; Wang, Faming

    2017-05-01

    Aerosols play a crucial role in the climate system, affecting incoming radiation and cloud formation. Based on a modelling framework that couples ecosystem processes with the atmospheric transfer of radiation, we analyze the effect of aerosols on surface incoming radiation, gross primary productivity (GPP), water losses from ecosystems through evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE, defined as GPP/ET) for 2003–2010 and validate them at global FLUXNET sites. The total diffuse radiation increases under relatively low or intermediate aerosol loadings, but decreases under more polluted conditions. We find that aerosol-induced changes in GPP depend on leaf area index, aerosol loading and cloudiness. Specifically, low and moderate aerosol loadings cause increases in GPP for all plant types, while heavy aerosol loadings result in enhancement (decrease) in GPP for dense (sparse) vegetation. On the other hand, ET is mainly negatively affected by aerosol loadings due to the reduction in total incoming radiation. Finally, WUE shows a consistent rise in all plant types under increasing aerosol loadings. Overall, the simulated daily WUE compares well with observations at 43 eddy-covariance tower sites (R2=0.84 and RMSE=0.01gC (kg H2O)-1) with better performance at forest sites. In addition to the increasing portions of diffuse light, the rise in WUE is also favored by the reduction in radiation- and heat-stress caused by the aerosols, especially for wet and hot climates.

  20. Study of enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass at increased solids loading

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Ioelovich; Ely Morag

    2012-01-01

    The effect of biomass loading from 50 to 200 g/L on enzymatic hydrolysis was studied using switchgrass samples pretreated by dilute acid and hypochlorite-alkaline methods. It was confirmed that an increase of initial loading of the pretreated biomass leads to a decrease of enzymatic digestibility, probably due to difficulty of mass transfer of cellulolytic enzymes in the high-viscous substrate slurry and also because of an inhibiting effect of the formed sugars. An additional sharp problem co...

  1. Increased use of district heating in industrial processes - Impacts on heat load duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Difs, Kristina; Danestig, Maria; Trygg, Louise [Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    Current knowledge of the potential for an increased use of industrial district heating (DH) due to conversions of industrial processes to DH is limited. In this paper, a Method for Heat Load Analysis (MeHLA) for exploring industrial DH conversions has been developed. This method can be a helpful tool for analyzing the impact different industrial processes have on the local DH system, when processes that utilize electricity and other fuels, convert to utilizing DH. Heat loads for different types of industries and processes are analyzed according to characteristics such as temperature levels and time-dependency. MeHLA has been used to analyze 34 Swedish industries and the method demonstrates how conversion of industrial processes to DH can result in heat load duration curves that are less outdoor temperature-dependent and more evenly distributed over the year. An evenly distributed heat load curve can result in increased annual operating time for base load DH plants such as cogeneration plants, leading to increased electricity generation. In addition to the positive effects for the DH load duration curve, the conversions to DH can also lead to an 11% reduction in the use of electricity, a 40% reduction in the use of fossil fuels and a total energy end-use saving of 6% in the studied industries. Converting the industrial processes to DH will also lead to a potential reduction of the global carbon dioxide emissions by 112,000 tonnes per year. (author)

  2. Vulnerability of boreal zone for increased nitrogen loading due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Katri; Holmberg, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The observed rapid warming of the boreal zone that has been observed in Finland (0.14 °C by decade) is expected to continue (http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/). Also precipitation is assumed to increase in future. These changes may increase nitrogen (N) loading from terrestrial environments to water bodies by accelerating soil organic matter decay and by increasing runoff. Nitrogen is limiting nutrient in the Baltic Sea but also in some lakes, so increased loading may increase eutrophication. Further, high nitrate levels in drinking water may cause methaemoglobin anemia for humans, and nitrate is also connected to increased risk of diabetes and cancer. Thus EU has set upper limits to nitrate concentration in drinking water. MONIMET (LIFE12 ENV/FI/000409) is a project about Climate Change Indicators and Vulnerability of Boreal Zone. We simulated N loading from two boreal catchments to the receiving waters by the dynamic, catchment scale model INCA in different climate change and land use change scenarios. We calculated land use specific N loading values for these two well monitored catchments that belong to the LTER (The Long Term Ecological Research) monitoring network. We upscaled the results to the larger river basin, combining them with the information on drinking water supply to assess the vulnerability. Specific emphasis was paid on nitrate concentrations in soil water and groundwater. In general, land use change has higher influence on N loading than increase in precipitation and temperature alone. Peak runoff will sift from snow melting peak in April to late autumn and winter. Growing season will become longer allowing more efficient vegetation uptake of nutrients. Small groundwater aquifers and private wells in the middle of agricultural fields will be in the risk of increased N concentrations, if agricultural N loading increases due to changes in agricultural patterns and land use change.

  3. Reduced knee flexion is a possible cause of increased loading rates in individuals with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Danilo de Oliveira; Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; Ferrari, Deisi; Aragão, Fernando Amâncio; Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis de

    2015-11-01

    Stair ascent is an activity that exacerbates symptoms of individuals with patellofemoral pain. The discomfort associated with this activity usually results in gait modification such as reduced knee flexion in an attempt to reduce pain. Although such compensatory strategy is a logical approach to decrease pain, it also reduces the normal active shock absorption increasing loading rates and may lead to deleterious and degenerative changes of the knee joint. Thus, the aims of this study were (i) to investigate whether there is reduced knee flexion in adults with PFP compared to healthy controls; and (ii) to analyze loading rates in these subjects, during stair climbing. Twenty-nine individuals with patellofemoral pain and twenty-five control individuals (18-30 years) participated in this study. Each subject underwent three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic analyses during stair climbing on two separate days. Between-groups analyses of variance were performed to identify differences in peak knee flexion and loading rates. Intraclass correlation coefficient was performed to verify the reliability of the variables. On both days, the patellofemoral pain group demonstrated significantly reduced peak knee flexion and increased loading rates. In addition, the two variables obtained high to very high reliability. Reduced knee flexion during stair climbing as a strategy to avoid anterior knee pain does not seem to be healthy for lower limb mechanical distributions. Repeated loading at higher loading rates may be damaging to lower limb joints. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased internal and external bacterial load during Drosophila aging without life-span trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chunli; Webster, Paul; Finkel, Steven E; Tower, John

    2007-08-01

    The role of microbial load during aging of the adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is incompletely understood. Here we show dramatic increases in aerobic and anaerobic bacterial load during aging, both inside the body and on the surface. Scanning electron microscopy and cell staining analyses of the surface of aged flies detected structures resembling abundant small bacteria and bacterial biofilms. Bacteria cultured from laboratory flies included aerobic species Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter tropicalis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus and anaerobic species Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sp. MR-2; Lactobacillus homohiochii, Lactobacillus fructivorans, and Lactobacillus brevis were identified by DNA sequencing. Reducing bacterial load and antimicrobial peptide gene expression by axenic culture or antibiotics had no effect on life span. We conclude that Drosophila can tolerate a significant bacterial load and mount a large innate immune response without a detectable trade-off with life span; furthermore, microbes do not seem to limit life span under optimized laboratory conditions.

  5. Rapid increases in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    a program involving a rapid stepwise increase in the number of jumps, drop height, and squat depth, and the addition of weight. Concentric, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and stimulated knee extension torque were measured before and 10 min after each session. Muscle soreness and plasma...... creatine kinase activity were assessed after each session. Steep increments in stretch-shortening exercise load in sessions 4 and 7 amplified the postexercise decrease in stimulated muscle torque and slightly increased muscle soreness but had a minimal effect on the recovery of MVC and stimulated torque......The aim of the present study was to monitor the changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks (nine training sessions) of stretch-shortening (drop jump) exercise with constant load alternated with steep increases in load. Physically active men (n = 9, mean age 19.1 years) performed...

  6. On the Potential of Pitch Control for Increased Power Capture and Load Alleviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Henriksen, Lars Christian; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2012-01-01

    to a moving reference. This study is focused on estimating the upper limits of the power increase and load variation alleviation that are achievable through pitch actuation. Knowing these upper limits, the potential of improving existing controllers can be assessed. The achievable power output increase...... and load variation reduction are estimated through numerical optimization of the pitch and generator torque actuation. Results show that the potential of increased power output at below rated wind speeds through optimized pitch actuation is greatest for inflows that varies with the azimuthal position...... of the blades. It is shown that at above rated wind speeds, the potential of decreasing the wind shear induced load variations beyond what is possible with a simple cyclic pitch scheme is limited. The results presented in this study are all obtained from simulations with deterministic inflow because...

  7. Assessment of increasing loading rate on two-stage digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelklein, M A; Jacob, A; O' Shea, R; Murphy, J D

    2016-02-01

    A two-stage food waste digestion system involved a first stage hydrolysis reactor followed by a second stage methanogenic reactor. Organic loading rates (OLR) were increased from 6 to 15 g VS L(-1) d(-1) in the hydrolysis reactor and from 2 to 5 g VS L(-1) d(-1) in the methanogenic reactor. The retention time was fixed at 4 days (hydrolysis reactor) and 12 days (methane reactor). A single-stage digester was subjected to similar loading rates as the methanogenic reactor at 16 days retention. Increased OLR resulted in higher quantities of liquid fermentation products from the first stage hydrolysis reactor. Solubilisation of chemical oxygen demand peaked at 47% at the maximum loading. However, enhanced hydrolysis yields had no significant impact on the specific methane yields. The two-stage system increased methane yields up to 23% and enriched methane content by an average of 14% to levels of 71%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Response of Vallisneria natans to Increasing Nitrogen Loading Depends on Sediment Nutrient Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Gu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High nitrogen (N loading may contribute to recession of submerged macrophytes in shallow lakes; yet, its influences vary depending on environmental conditions. In August 2013, we conducted a 28-day factorial-designed field mesocosm experiment in Lake Taihu at the Taihu Laboratory for Lake Ecosystem Research (TLLER to examine the effects of high N loading on the growth of Vallisneria natans in systems with contrasting sediment types. We ran the experiments with two levels of nutrient loading—present-day external nutrient loading (average P: 5 μg·L−1·day−1, N: 130 μg·L−1·day−1 and P: 5 μg·L−1·day−1, and with three times higher N loading (N: 390 μg·L−1·day−1 and used sediment with two contrasting nutrient levels. V. natans growth decreased significantly with increasing N loading, the effect being dependent, however, on the nutrient status of the sediment. In low nutrient sediment, relative growth rates, leaf biomass and root biomass decreased by 11.9%, 18.2% and 23.3%, respectively, at high rather than low N loading, while the decline was larger (44.0%, 32.7% and 41.8%, respectively when using high nutrient sediment. The larger effect in the nutrient-rich sediment may reflect an observed higher shading of phytoplankton and excess nutrient accumulation in plant tissue, though potential toxic effects of the high-nutrient sediment may also have contributed. Our study confirms the occurrence of a negative effect of increasing N loading on submerged plant growth in shallow nutrient-enriched lakes and further shows that this effect is augmented when the plants grow in nutrient-rich sediment. External N control may, therefore, help to protect or restore submerged macrophytes, especially when the sediment is enriched with nutrients and organic matter.

  9. Working memory load reduces the late positive potential and this effect is attenuated with increasing anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Ferri, Jamie; Hajcak, Greg

    2011-09-01

    Emotion regulation decreases the processing of arousing stimuli, as indexed by the late positive potential (LPP), an electrocortical component that varies in amplitude with emotional arousal. Emotion regulation increases activity in the prefrontal areas associated with cognitive control, including the dosolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The present study manipulated working memory load, known to activate the DLPFC, and recorded the LPP elicited by aversive and neutral IAPS pictures presented during the retention interval. The LPP was larger on low-load compared to high-load trials, and on trials with aversive compared to neutral pictures. These LPP data suggest that emotional content and working memory load have opposing effects on attention to distracting stimuli. State anxiety was associated with reduced modulation of the LPP by working memory load. Results are discussed in terms of competition for attention between emotion and cognition and suggest a relationship between DLPFC activation and the allocation of attentional resources to distracting visual stimuli-a relationship that may be disrupted with increasing anxiety.

  10. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-01-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were

  11. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F.M.; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Marianne; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; Leeuw, de Peter W.; Baak, van Marleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were

  12. Acute neuromuscular response during eccentric overload protocol by using a mechanical device to increase the load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel B Lanza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n4p375   The aim of this study was to propose a mechanical device that could increase the mechanical load during the entire eccentric (ECC action on a knee flexor machine and to compare the muscular activity when the device was used during a testing protocol. Fifteen physically active women were recruited, and they performed two protocols: control and eccentric overload. Control protocol was performed with concentric (CON and ECC actions with similar load (60% of one repetition maximum whilst eccentric overload protocol consisted of ECC actions with 40% more load than CON actions. Muscular activation was measured using surface electromyography of the biceps femoris (BF and the gastrocnemius medialis (GM muscles. ECC actions presented a higher muscular activation during eccentric overload protocol than control protocol for BF (p = 0.032, but not for the GM (p = 0.439. The mechanical device increased the mechanical load during the ECC muscle action and consequently increased the amplitude of the neural drive to the BF muscle; however, it did not increase the amplitude of the neural drive to the GM muscle.

  13. Manipulation of Foot Strike and Footwear Increases Achilles Tendon Loading During Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Hannah; Patel, Mubarak

    2017-08-01

    The Achilles tendon is the most common site of tendon overuse injury in humans. Running with a forefoot strike pattern and in minimal shoes is a topic of recent interest, yet evidence is currently limited regarding the combined influence of foot strike and footwear on Achilles tendon loading. To investigate the influence of both foot strike and footwear on Achilles tendon loading in habitual rearfoot strike runners. Controlled laboratory study. Synchronized kinematic and force data were collected from 22 habitual rearfoot strikers (11 male), who habitually ran in nonminimal running shoes, during overground running at 3.6 m·s(-1). Participants ran in 3 different footwear conditions (standard running shoe, minimal running shoe, and barefoot) with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) in each footwear condition. Achilles tendon loading was estimated by use of inverse dynamics, where the Achilles tendon moment arm was determined with a regression equation. A 2-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare conditions. Achilles tendon impulse was greater when subjects ran with an FFS rather than an RFS in minimal shoes. Achilles tendon loading rates were higher when subjects ran either in minimal shoes or barefoot than in standard shoes, regardless of foot strike. In runners who habitually rearfoot strike in standard running shoes, running in minimal shoes or barefoot increased the rate of tendon loading, and running with a forefoot strike in minimal shoes increased the magnitude of tendon loading. Transitioning to these running conditions may increase the risk of tendinopathy.

  14. Changes in global and regional modularity associated with increasing working memory load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Matthew L.; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Using graph theory measures common to complex network analyses of neuroimaging data, the objective of this study was to explore the effects of increasing working memory processing load on functional brain network topology in a cohort of young adults. Measures of modularity in complex brain networks quantify how well a network is organized into densely interconnected communities. We investigated changes in both the large-scale modular organization of the functional brain network as a whole and regional changes in modular organization as demands on working memory increased from n = 1 to n = 2 on the standard n-back task. We further investigated the relationship between modular properties across working memory load conditions and behavioral performance. Our results showed that regional modular organization within the default mode and working memory circuits significantly changed from 1-back to 2-back task conditions. However, the regional modular organization was not associated with behavioral performance. Global measures of modular organization did not change with working memory load but were associated with individual variability in behavioral performance. These findings indicate that regional and global network properties are modulated by different aspects of working memory under increasing load conditions. These findings highlight the importance of assessing multiple features of functional brain network topology at both global and regional scales rather than focusing on a single network property. PMID:25520639

  15. Changes in global and regional modularity associated with increasing working memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Matthew L; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Using graph theory measures common to complex network analyses of neuroimaging data, the objective of this study was to explore the effects of increasing working memory processing load on functional brain network topology in a cohort of young adults. Measures of modularity in complex brain networks quantify how well a network is organized into densely interconnected communities. We investigated changes in both the large-scale modular organization of the functional brain network as a whole and regional changes in modular organization as demands on working memory increased from n = 1 to n = 2 on the standard n-back task. We further investigated the relationship between modular properties across working memory load conditions and behavioral performance. Our results showed that regional modular organization within the default mode and working memory circuits significantly changed from 1-back to 2-back task conditions. However, the regional modular organization was not associated with behavioral performance. Global measures of modular organization did not change with working memory load but were associated with individual variability in behavioral performance. These findings indicate that regional and global network properties are modulated by different aspects of working memory under increasing load conditions. These findings highlight the importance of assessing multiple features of functional brain network topology at both global and regional scales rather than focusing on a single network property.

  16. HIV drug resistance mutations in proviral DNA from a community treatment program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Derache

    Full Text Available Drug resistance mutations archived in resting memory CD4+ cells may persist despite suppression of HIV RNA to <50 copies/ml. We sequenced pol gene from proviral DNA among viremic and suppressed patients to identify drug resistance mutations.The Peninsula AIDS Research Cohort study enrolled and followed over 2 years 120 HIV infected patients from San Mateo and San Francisco Counties. HIV-1 pol genotyping by bulk sequencing was performed on 38 DNA and RNA from viremic patients and DNA only among 82 suppressed patients at baseline. Antiretroviral susceptibility was predicted by HIVDB.stanford.edu.Among 120 subjects, 81% were on antiretroviral therapy and had been treated for a median time of 7 years. Thirty-two viremic patients showed concordant RNA and DNA genotypes (84%; the discordant profiles were mainly observed in patients with low-level viremia. Among suppressed patients, 21 had drug resistance mutations in proviral DNA (26% with potential resistance to one, two or three ARV classes in 16, 4 and 1 samples respectively.The high level of genotype concordance between DNA and RNA in viremic patients suggested that DNA genotyping might be used to assess drug resistance in resource-limited settings, and further investigation of extracted DNA from dried blood spots is needed. Drug resistance mutations in proviral DNA in 26% of subjects with less than 50 copies/ml pose a risk for the transmission of drug resistant virus with virologic failure, treatment interruption or decreased adherence.

  17. Acute caffeine ingestion's increase of voluntarily chosen resistance-training load after limited sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christian; Beaven, C Martyn; Kilduff, Liam P; Drawer, Scott

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether caffeine ingestion would increase the workload voluntarily chosen by athletes in a limited-sleep state. In a double-blind, crossover study, 16 professional rugby players ingested either a placebo or 4 mg/kg caffeine 1 hr before exercise. Athletes classified themselves into nondeprived (8 hr+) or sleep-deprived states (6 hr or less). Exercise comprised 4 sets of bench press, squats, and bent rows at 85% 1-repetition maximum. Athletes were asked to perform as many repetitions on each set as possible without failure. Saliva was collected before administration of placebo or caffeine and again before and immediately after exercise and assayed for testosterone and cortisol. Sleep deprivation produced a very large decrease in total load (p = 1.98 × 10(-7)). Caffeine ingestion in the nondeprived state resulted in a moderate increase in total load, with a larger effect in the sleep-deprived state, resulting in total load similar to those observed in the nondeprived placebo condition. Eight of the 16 athletes were identified as caffeine responders. Baseline testosterone was higher (p sleep-deprived athletes. Changes in hormones from predose to preexercise correlated to individual workload responses to caffeine. Testosterone response to exercise increased with caffeine compared with placebo, as did cortisol response. Caffeine increased voluntary workload in professional athletes, even more so under conditions of self-reported limited sleep. Caffeine may prove worthwhile when athletes are tired, especially in those identified as responders.

  18. Increased Hemodynamic Load in Early Embryonic Stages Alters Myofibril and Mitochondrial Organization in the Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Midgett

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal blood flow is essential for proper heart formation during embryonic development, as abnormal hemodynamic load (blood pressure and shear stress results in cardiac defects seen in congenital heart disease (CHD. However, the detrimental remodeling processes that relate altered blood flow to cardiac malformation and defects remain unclear. Heart development is a finely orchestrated process with rapid transformations that occur at the tissue, cell, and subcellular levels. Myocardial cells play an essential role in cardiac tissue maturation by aligning in the direction of stretch and increasing the number of contractile units as hemodynamic load increases throughout development. This study elucidates the early effects of altered blood flow on myofibril and mitochondrial configuration in the outflow tract myocardium in vivo. Outflow tract banding was used to increase hemodynamic load in the chicken embryo heart between Hamburger and Hamilton stages 18 and 24 (~24 h during tubular heart stages. 3D focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy analysis determined that increased hemodynamic load induced changes in the developing myocardium, characterized by thicker myofibril bundles that were more disbursed in circumferential orientation, and mitochondria that organized in large clusters around the nucleus. Proteomic mass-spectrometry analysis quantified altered protein composition after banding that is consistent with altered myofibril thin filament assembly and function, and mitochondrial maintenance and organization. Additionally, pathway analysis of the proteomics data identified possible activation of signaling pathways in response to banding, including the renin-angiotensin system (RAS. Imaging and proteomic data combined indicate that myofibril and mitochondrial arrangement in early embryonic stages is a critical developmental process that when disturbed by altered blood flow may contribute to cardiac malformation and defects.

  19. Distinctive Drug-resistant Mutation Profiles and Interpretations of HIV-1 Proviral DNA Revealed by Deep Sequencing in Reverse Transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qian Qian; Li, Zhen Peng; Zhao, Hai; Pan, Dong; Wang, Yan; Xu, Wei Si; Xing, Hui; Feng, Yi; Jiang, Shi Bo; Shao, Yi Ming; Ma, Li Ying

    2016-04-01

    To investigate distinctive features in drug-resistant mutations (DRMs) and interpretations for reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) between proviral DNA and paired viral RNA in HIV-1-infected patients. Forty-three HIV-1-infected individuals receiving first-line antiretroviral therapy were recruited to participate in a multicenter AIDS Cohort Study in Anhui and Henan Provinces in China in 2004. Drug resistance genotyping was performed by bulk sequencing and deep sequencing on the plasma and whole blood of 77 samples, respectively. Drug-resistance interpretation was compared between viral RNA and paired proviral DNA. Compared with bulk sequencing, deep sequencing could detect more DRMs and samples with DRMs in both viral RNA and proviral DNA. The mutations M184I and M230I were more prevalent in proviral DNA than in viral RNA (Fisher's exact test, PDNA, and 5 of these samples with different DRMs between proviral DNA and paired viral RNA showed a higher level of drug resistance to the first-line drugs. Considering 'minority resistant variants', 22 samples (28.57%) were associated with a higher level of drug resistance to the tested RTIs for proviral DNA when compared with paired viral RNA. Compared with viral RNA, the distinctive information of DRMs and drug resistance interpretations for proviral DNA could be obtained by deep sequencing, which could provide more detailed and precise information for drug resistance monitoring and the rational design of optimal antiretroviral therapy regimens. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  20. Genome organization of the Chelonus inanitus polydnavirus: excision sites, spacers and abundance of proviral and excised segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaheim, Marc; Lanzrein, Beatrice

    2007-02-01

    Polydnaviruses are only found in symbiotic association with parasitic wasps within the families Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (ichnoviruses and bracoviruses). They have a segmented genome consisting of circular double-stranded DNA. In the proviral linear form they are integrated in the wasp's genome; in two bracoviruses, segments were found to be clustered. Proviral segments have direct terminal repeats. Segment excision has been proposed to occur through juxtaposition of these repeats by formation of a loop and recombination; one copy of the repeat then ends up in the circular segment and one in the rejoined DNA. Here we analysed the excision/circularization site of four segments of the Chelonus inanitus bracovirus (CiV) and found that they are similar to the two already known sites; on the basis of the combined data an extended excision site motif was found. Analyses of segment flanking sequences led to the first identification of one complete and several partial spacers between proviral segments in a polydnavirus. The spacer between the proviral segments CiV14 and CiV22.5 has a length of 2065 bp; the terminal repeats of CiV14 and CiV22.5 were seen to have an opposite orientation and from this a model on the spacial organization of the loops of the proviral cluster is proposed. Through various approaches it was shown that spacers are not excised or injected into the host. Measurement of relative abundances of various segments in proviral and excised form indicates for the first time that abundant segments are present in multiple copies in the proviral form.

  1. Low load, high repetition resistance training program increases bone mineral density in untrained adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bailey A; Hastings, Bryce; Gottschall, Jinger S

    2017-01-01

    High load, low repetition resistance training increases BMD in untrained adults; however, many older and untrained adults cannot maintain this type of strenuous program. Our goal was to evaluate whether a low load, high repetition resistance training program would increase BMD in untrained adults. Twenty sedentary, but otherwise healthy, adults (6 men and 14 women, age 28-63 yrs) completed a 27-week group exercise program. The participants were randomly assigned to one of two strength groups: one group completed full body, low load, high repetition weight training classes (S-WEIGHT), while the other group completed core focused fusion classes (S-CORE). Both groups also completed indoor cycling classes for cardiovascular conditioning. After a 3-week familiarization period, all participants completed a 12-week block of 5 fitness classes per week (3 cycling + 2 strength) and concluded with another 12-week block of 6 classes per week (3 cycling + 3 strength). We completed iDXA scans at baseline (week 3) and final (week 28). Compared to baseline, BMD significantly increased for S-WEIGHT in the arms (+4%, Pload, high repetition resistance training program may be an effective method to improve bone mass in adults.

  2. Do the rotator cuff tendons of young athletic subjects hypertrophy in response to increased loading demands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Charles; Moran, Daniel S; Safran, Ori; Finsestone, Aharon S

    2012-11-01

    The rotator cuff is composed of muscle and tendon units. Although muscle has been shown to adapt to mechanical loads, the response of human tendon is not well defined. We hypothesized that increased loading demands on the rotator cuff of young trainees would cause an adaptive muscle response but not an adaptive hypertrophic tendon response. The hypertrophic response of the rotator cuff tendon, shoulder strength, aerobic fitness, and the lean body weight of 70 young male recruits were studied before and after a 1-year course of elite infantry training. Shoulder strength was assessed by the maximum number of pull-ups done and the rotator cuff thickness by ultrasound measurement of the supraspinatus thickness. Aerobic physical fitness was assessed by maximum oxygen consumption (Vo(2) max). Lean body weight was measured by skin-fold thickness. The mean number of pull-ups done increased from 17.5 to 21.7 (P = .01), but the supraspinatus thickness at the beginning of training (6.1 mm) was unchanged at the end of the training. Vo(2) max increased from 57 to 64 mL/kg/min (P = .0001). Lean body weight increased from 58.3 to 64.7 kg (P = .0001). As a result of increased loading, the strength of the rotator cuff muscles of young trainees increased, but by the parameter of hypertrophy, no evidence was found of a parallel adaptive response of the rotator cuff tendon. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of cavitation damage upon high temperature creep under stationary and non-stationary loading conditions. Part III: Creep at steady increasing load and true stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boček, M.; Hoffmann, M.

    1984-11-01

    In this paper for ideally plastic materials the influence of high temperature cavitation damage upon creep at steady increasing loads is investigated. The damage function A(t) enters a constitutive equation for plastíc flow through an effective stress σ e. For given loading conditions the latter is derived from the solution of Hart's tensile test equation. In the present paper the case of time linear increase in load ( F = constant) and in true stress ( /.s = constant) is investigated. The creep equations for cavitating as well as for non-cavitating materials are derived and the volume change during creep at /.F = constant are calculated.

  4. Extreme Value Predictions using Monte Carlo Simulations with Artificially Increased Load Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2011-01-01

    an approximation to the mean outcrossing rate. Better accuracy can be obtained by Monte Carlo simulations, but the necessary length of the time domain simulations for very low out-crossing rates might be prohibitively long. In such cases the property mentioned above for the FORM reliability index might be assumed...... to be valid in the Monte Carlo simulations, making it possible to increase the out-crossing rates and thus reduce the necessary length of the time domain simulations by applying a larger load spectrum than relevant from a design point of view. The mean out-crossing rate thus obtained can then afterwards...... be found using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). The FORM analysis also shows that the reliability index is strictly inversely proportional to the square root of the magnitude of the load spectrum, irrespectively of the non-linearity in the system. However, the FORM analysis only gives...

  5. Use of Adaptive Injection Strategies to Increase the Full Load Limit of RCCI Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Reed; Ickes, Andrew; Wallner, Thomas

    2016-04-12

    Dual-fuel combustion using port-injection of low reactivity fuel combined with direct injection (DI) of a higher reactivity fuel, otherwise known as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), has been shown as a method to achieve low-temperature combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low engine-out soot and NOx emissions, and high indicated thermal efficiency. A key requirement for extending to high-load operation is moderating the reactivity of the premixed charge prior to the diesel injection. One way to accomplish this is to use a very low reactivity fuel such as natural gas. In this work, experimental testing was conducted on a 13 l multicylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to operate using RCCI combustion with port injection of natural gas and DI of diesel fuel. Engine testing was conducted at an engine speed of 1200 rpm over a wide variety of loads and injection conditions. The impact on dual-fuel engine performance and emissions with respect to varying the fuel injection parameters is quantified within this study. The injection strategies used in the work were found to affect the combustion process in similar ways to both conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and RCCI combustion for phasing control and emissions performance. As the load is increased, the port fuel injection (PFI) quantity was reduced to keep peak cylinder pressure (PCP) and maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR) under the imposed limits. Overall, the peak load using the new injection strategy was shown to reach 22 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with a peak brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of 47.6%.

  6. Reducing ground reaction forces in gymnastics' landings may increase internal loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Chris; Pain, Matthew T G; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2009-04-16

    The aim of this study was to use a subject-specific seven-link wobbling mass model of a gymnast, and a multi-layer model of a landing mat, to determine landing strategies that minimise ground reaction forces (GRF) and internal forces. Subject-specific strength parameters were determined that defined the maximum voluntary torque/angle/angular velocity relationship at each joint. These relationships were used to produce subject-specific 'lumped' linear muscle models for each joint. Muscle activation histories were optimised using a Simplex algorithm to minimise GRF or bone bending moments for forward and backward rotating vault landings. Optimising the landing strategy to minimise each of the GRF reduced the peak vertical and horizontal GRF by 9% for the backward rotating vault and by 8% and 48% for the forward rotating vault, compared to a matching simulation. However, most internal loading measures (bone bending moments, joint reaction forces and muscle forces) increased compared to the matching simulation. Optimising the landing strategy to minimise the peak bone bending moments resulted in reduced internal loading measures, and in most cases reduced GRF. Bone bending moments were reduced by 27% during the forward rotating vault and by 2% during the backward rotating vault landings when compared to the matching simulations. It is possible for a gymnast to modify their landing strategy in order to minimise internal forces and lower GRF. However, using a reduction in GRF, due to a change in landing strategy, as a basis for a reduction in injury potential in vaulting movements may not be appropriate since internal loading can increase.

  7. Investigating signs of recent evolution in the pool of proviral HIV type 1 DNA during years of successful HAART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mens, Helene; Pedersen, Anders G; Jørgensen, Louise B

    2007-01-01

    In order to shed light on the nature of the persistent reservoir of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we investigated signs of recent evolution in the pool of proviral DNA in patients on successful HAART. Pro-viral DNA, corresponding to the C2-V3-C3 region of the HIV-1 env gene......, was collected from PBMCs isolated from 57 patients. Both "consensus" (57 patients) and clonal (7 patients) sequences were obtained from five time points spanning a 24-month period. The main computational strategy was to use maximum likelihood to fit a set of alternative phylogenetic models to the clonal data...

  8. Investigating signs of recent evolution in the pool of proviral HIV type 1 DNA during years of successful HAART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mens, Helene; Pedersen, Anders G; Jørgensen, Louise B

    2007-01-01

    In order to shed light on the nature of the persistent reservoir of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we investigated signs of recent evolution in the pool of proviral DNA in patients on successful HAART. Pro-viral DNA, corresponding to the C2-V3-C3 region of the HIV-1 env gene...... HIV genomes in some patients. Interestingly, stop-codons were present at the same two positions in several independent clones and across patients. Simulation studies indicated that this phenomenon could be explained as the result of parallel evolution and that some sites were inherently more likely...

  9. Periostin deficiency increases bone damage and impairs injury response to fatigue loading in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Bonnet

    Full Text Available Bone damage removal and callus formation in response to fatigue loading are essential to prevent fractures. Periostin (Postn is a matricellular protein that mediates adaptive response of cortical bone to loading. Whether and how periostin influences damage and the injury response to fatigue remains unknown. We investigated the skeletal response of Postn(-/- and Postn(+/+ mice after fatigue stimulus by axial compression of their tibia. In Postn(+/+ mice, cracks number and surface (CsNb, CsS increased 1h after fatigue, with a decrease in strength compared to non-fatigued tibia. At 15 days, CsNb had started to decline, while CtTV and CtBV increased in fatigued vs non-fatigued tibia, reflecting a woven bone response that was present in 75% of the fatigued bones. Cortical porosity and remodelling also prominently increased in the fatigued tibia of Postn(+/+ mice. At 30 days, paralleling a continuous removal of cortical damage, strength of the fatigued tibia was similar to the non-fatigue tibia. In Postn(-/- mice, cracks were detectable even in the absence of fatigue, while the amount of collagen crosslinks and tissue hardness was decreased compared to Postn(+/+. Fatigue significantly increased CsNb and CsS in Postn(-/-, but was not associated with changes in CtTV and CtBV, as only 16% of the fatigued bones formed some woven bone. Cortical porosity and remodelling did not increase either after fatigue in Postn(-/-, and the level of damage remained high even after 30 days. As a result, strength remained compromised in Postn(-/- mice. Contrary to Postn(+/+, which osteocytic lacunae showed a change in the degree of anisotropy (DA after fatigue, Postn(-/- showed no DA change. Hence periostin appears to influence bone materials properties, damage accumulation and repair, including local modeling/remodeling processes in response to fatigue. These observations suggest that the level of periostin expression could influence the propensity to fatigue fractures.

  10. Use of Intraoral Welding to Increase the Predictability of Immediately Loaded Computer-Guided Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiero, Alberto Maria; Benato, Renato; Benato, Andrea; Degidi, Marco

    Inaccuracy of computer-guided implant placement may lead to complications when combined with an immediately loaded prefabricated prosthesis. The aim of this case series was to describe the use of an intraoral welding technique to increase the predictability of immediately loaded implants supporting a fixed full-arch prosthesis after computer-guided flapless implant placement. A total of 60 Ankylos plus implants (Dentsply) with a width of 3.5 mm and a length of 8 to 14 mm were placed consecutively in 10 patients. The implants were functionally loaded using the intraoral welding technique on the day of surgery. The accuracy of guided implant placement was assessed by matching the planning cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans with postoperative CBCT scans. No mechanical or biologic complications were registered at the 1-year follow-up. The global coronal deviation of implant placement from the guide plan ranged from 0.25 to 2.84 mm (SD: 0.6 mm), with a mean of 1.28 mm. Average angle deviation was 3.42 degrees (range 0.38-7.82 degrees; SD: 1.52 degrees). The global apical deviation ranged between 0.36 and 3.85 mm (SD: 0.71 mm), with a mean of 1.65 mm. Despite the inaccuracy registered, this guided-welded approach allowed successful achievement of a passive fit of the full-arch prosthesis on the inserted implants the same day of the surgery and provided a high implant and prosthetic survival rate at the 1-year follow-up.

  11. Prolonged constant load cycling exercise is associated with reduced gross efficiency and increased muscle oxygen uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopker, J G; O'Grady, C; Pageaux, B

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of prolonged constant load cycling exercise on cycling efficiency and local muscle oxygen uptake responses. Fourteen well-trained cyclists each completed a 2-h steady-state cycling bout at 60% of their maximal minute power output to assess changes in gross cycling efficiency (GE) and muscle oxygen uptake (mVO 2 ) at time points 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to continually monitor tissue oxygenation of the Vastus Lateralis muscle, with arterial occlusions (OCC) applied to assess mVO 2 . The half-recovery time of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO 2 ) was also assessed pre and post the 2-h cycling exercise by measuring the hyperemic response following a 5-min OCC. GE significantly declined during the 2-h cycling bout (18.4 ± 1.6 to 17.4 ± 1.4%; P cycling exercise (+7.1 ± 19s), albeit not significantly (d: 0.48; P = 0.27). This study demonstrates that GE decreases during prolonged constant load cycling exercise and provides evidence of an increased mVO 2 , suggestive of progressive mitochondrial or contractile inefficiency. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The magic angle effect can (partially) explain load-induced increases in meniscal T2 and T1rho

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzoli, Valentina; Tsui, Danny; de Graaf, Larry; Nicolay, Klaas; Sprengers, Andre M.; Janssen, Dennis; Verdonschot, Nico; Nederveen, Aart J.; Strijkers, Gustav J.

    2017-01-01

    Often, knee injury and disorders are caused by or lead to abnormal biomechanical loading patterns in the knee joint menisci. Quantitative information on in vivo loading patterns is therefore in high demand to evaluate therapy and prevent further damage. T1ρ and T2 in meniscus were shown to increase

  13. Pro-inflammatory cytokines expression increases following low- and high-magnitude cyclic loading of lumbar ligaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Ambrosia, Peter; King, Karen; Davidson, Bradley; Zhou, Bing He; Lu, Yun

    2010-01-01

    Repetitive or overuse disorders of the lumbar spine affect the lives of workers and athletes. We hypothesize that repetitive anterior lumbar flexion–extension under low or high load will result in significantly elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines expression several hours post-activity. High loads will exhibit significantly higher expression than low loads. Lumbar spine of in vivo feline was subjected to cyclic loading at 0.25 Hz for six 10-min periods with 10 min of rest in between. One group was subjected to a low peak load of 20 N, whereas the second group to a high peak load of 60 N. Following a 7-h post-loading rest, the supraspinous ligaments of L-3/4, L-4/5 and L-5/6 and the unstimulated T-10/11 were excised for mRNA analysis and IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα and TGFβ1 pro-inflammatory cytokines expression. Creep (laxity) developed in the lumbar spine during the loading and the subsequent 7 h of rest was calculated. A two-way mixed model ANOVA was used to assess difference in each cytokines expression between the two groups and control. Tukey HSD post hoc analysis delineated specific significant effects. Significance was set at 0.05. Low and high-load groups exhibited development of creep throughout the cyclic loading period and gradual recovery throughout the 7-h rest period. Residual creep of 24.8 and 30.2% were present in the low and high-load groups, respectively, 7-h post-loading. Significant increases in expression of all cytokines measured relative to control were obtained for supraspinous ligaments from both low and high-load magnitudes. IL-6, IL-8 and TGFβ1 expression in the high-load group were significantly higher relative to the low-load group. Significant increases in cytokines expression indicating tissue inflammation are observed several hours post-repetitive lumbar flexion–extension regardless of the load magnitude applied. Repetitive occupational and athletic activity, regardless of the load applied, may be associated with the

  14. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  15. The effect of increased loads of dissolved organic matter on estuarine microbial community composition and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, Sachia J.; Rowe, Owen; Jakobsen, Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Increased river loads are projected as one of the major consequences of climate change in the northern hemisphere, leading to elevated inputs of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) and inorganic nutrients to coastal ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects...... pronounced effects on the recipient bacterioplankton, driving compositional changes in response to DOM type. The shifts in bacterioplankton community composition were especially driven by the proliferation of Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, and Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria populations....... The DOM additions stimulated protease activity and a release of inorganic nutrients, suggesting that DOM was actively processed. However, no difference between DOM types was detected in these functions despite different community compositions. Extensive release of re-mineralized carbon, nitrogen...

  16. Cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin increases freezability of buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis spermatozoa by increasing cholesterol to phospholipid ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Rajoriya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin (CLC on freezability of buffalo spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: Murrah buffalo bull semen samples with progressive motility of 70% and greater were used. After the evaluation of motility and livability, four equal fractions of semen samples were made. Group I was kept as control and diluted with Tris, whereas Group II, III and IV were treated with CLC solution at the rate of 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg/ml respectively to obtain 120 × 106 sperm/ml as final spermatozoa concentration. The aliquots of all the groups were incubated for action of CLC, followed by dilution and freezing. Evaluation at pre-freeze and post-thaw stage of progressive motility, viability and level of cholesterol and phospholipid was done. Results: The mean cholesterol content (μg/100 × 106 spermatozoa of Group I, II, III and IV at pre-freeze stage was 21.55±0.63, 49.56±1.38, 55.67±0.45 and 47.79±1.01 and at post-thaw stage were 13.18±0.45, 34.27±0.71, 36.21±0.48 and 33.68±0.56, respectively. At pre-freeze stage, cholesterol content was significantly (p<0.01 higher in Group III in comparison to other groups. The mean cholesterol and phospholipids content of fresh sperm was 24.14±0.58 and 51.13±0.66 μg/100 × 106 sperm cells, respectively, and C/P ratio of spermatozoa at fresh stage was 0.47±0.067. Conclusion: CLC treatment maintains the C/P ratio and plays an important role in maintaining membrane architecture of spermatozoa. Hence, addition of CLC may be helpful in increasing freezability of buffalo spermatozoa by increasing the C/P ratio of spermatozoa.

  17. High prevalence of HIV-1 transmitted drug-resistance mutations from proviral DNA massively parallel sequencing data of therapy-naïve chronically infected Brazilian blood donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pessôa

    Full Text Available An improved understanding of the prevalence of low-abundance transmitted drug-resistance mutations (TDRM in therapy-naïve HIV-1-infected patients may help determine which patients are the best candidates for therapy. In this study, we aimed to obtain a comprehensive picture of the evolving HIV-1 TDRM across the massive parallel sequences (MPS of the viral entire proviral genome in a well-characterized Brazilian blood donor naïve to antiretroviral drugs.The MPS data from 128 samples used in the analysis were sourced from Brazilian blood donors and were previously classified by less-sensitive (LS or "detuned" enzyme immunoassay as non-recent or longstanding HIV-1 infections. The Stanford HIV Resistance Database (HIVDBv 6.2 and IAS-USA mutation lists were used to interpret the pattern of drug resistance. The minority variants with TDRM were identified using a threshold of ≥ 1.0% and ≤ 20% of the reads sequenced. The rate of TDRM in the MPS data of the proviral genome were compared with the corresponding published consensus sequences of their plasma viruses.No TDRM were detected in the integrase or envelope regions. The overall prevalence of TDRM in the protease (PR and reverse transcriptase (RT regions of the HIV-1 pol gene was 44.5% (57/128, including any mutations to the nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI. Of the 57 subjects, 43 (75.4% harbored a minority variant containing at least one clinically relevant TDRM. Among the 43 subjects, 33 (76.7% had detectable minority resistant variants to NRTIs, 6 (13.9% to NNRTIs, and 16 (37.2% to PR inhibitors. The comparison of viral sequences in both sources, plasma and cells, would have detected 48 DNA provirus disclosed TDRM by MPS previously missed by plasma bulk analysis.Our findings revealed a high prevalence of TDRM found in this group, as the use of MPS drastically increased the detection of these

  18. Maximal rate of increase in heart rate during the rest-exercise transition tracks reductions in exercise performance when training load is increased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Maximillian J; Thomson, Rebecca L; Rogers, Daniel K; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate kinetics are faster in well-trained athletes at exercise onset, indicating sensitivity to training status, but whether they track performance changes due to changes in training load is unknown. Randomised, counterbalanced, cross-over. 17 cyclists completed two weeks of light and two weeks of heavy training. The day after each training period heart rate was recorded during 5 min cycling at 100 W to determine the maximal rate of heart rate increase. Participants then performed a 5 min cycle time-trial after which heart rate recovery was determined. Work during 5 min cycle time-trial decreased 3.5% (Ptraining load (completed light training then heavy training) and, although maximal rate of heart rate increase did not change (P=0.27), within-individual changes in work were correlated with changes in maximal rate of heart rate increase (r=0.87, P=0.005). Work during 5 min cycle time-trial increased 6.5% (Ptraining load (completed heavy training then light training) and maximal rate of heart rate increase increased 28% (P=0.002) but the changes in maximal work were not related to changes in rate of heart rate increase (r=0.32, P=0.40). Heart rate recovery tended to track changes in 5 min cycle time-trial work following increases and decreases in training load (r=0.65-0.75, P=0.03-0.08). Maximal rate of heart rate increases during cycling at 100 W tracks reductions in exercise performance when training load is increased, but not performance improvements when training loads are reduced. Maximal rate of heart rate increase may be a useful adjunct to heart rate recovery for tracking changes in exercise performance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stability of an anaerobic single reactor filled with dolomitic limestone with increased organic load of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Ribas Döll

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic single-stage reactor was evaluated to treat vinasse and to evaluate its stability. This bench reactor was filled with dolomitic limestone with a horizontal plug flow to simulate a drainage channel. The experiment lasted 129 days while the reactor was submitted to different applied organic concentrations (chronologically applied: 3.0; 5.0; 12.0; 9.0 and 7.5 g L-1 as COD, chemical oxygen demand. COD removals were 50% and 9% with 3.0 and 7.5 g L-1, respectively. With 12.0 g L-1, reactor efficiency increased to 33%, with an abrupt drop to 3% on the 84th day. Therefore, in order to avoid reactor collapse, a remedial measure was necessary. The system remained in batch without feeding for 19 days (from the 85th to the 104th day with 9.0 g L-1. Afterwards, it was observed that the performance of the system tended to stabilize, reaching 47% with 7.5 g L-1 in the 118th day. At the end of the experiment, the potassium content of the wastewater decreased from 800 mg L-1 to 594 mg L-1 (on an average 25% and calcium and magnesium increased within the reactor liquor. The dissolution of the limestone inside the liquor reactor probably caused this result. After the treatment with limestone, the average pH value of the effluent increased from 4.9 to over 6.0 in all organic concentrations. It could be concluded that the reactor filled with dolomitic limestone in these operational conditions assured a low efficiency in COD removal, potassium reduction, increasing values of pH, alkalinity, calcium and magnesium. The instability was observed when there was increase in organic load to 12 g L-1 with subsequent recovery.

  20. Investigation of the bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA in human leukemias and lung cancers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jehoon; Kim, Yonggoo; Kang, Chang Suk; Cho, Dae Hyun; Shin, Dong Hwan; Yum, Young Na; Oh, Jae Ho; Kim, Sheen Hee; Hwang, Myung Sil; Lim, Chul Joo; Yang, Ki Hwa; Han, Kyungja

    2005-08-01

    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis. This study investigated the presence of the BLV in leukemia (179 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 292 acute myeloid leukemia and 46 chronic myelogenous leukemia cases) and 162 lung cancer patients (139 adenocarcinoma, 23 squamous cell carcinoma) to determine if the BLV is a causative organism of leukemia and lung cancer in Koreans. A BLV infection was confirmed in human cells by PCR using a BLV-8 primer combination. All 517 cases of human leukemia and 162 lung cancer were negative for a PCR of the BLV proviral DNA. In conclusion, although meat has been imported from BLV endemic areas, the BLV infection does not appear to be the cause of human leukemia or lung cancer in Koreans. These results can be used as a control for further studies on the BLV in Koreans.

  1. Increased bone quantity around an ailing implant in esthetic zone using progressive bone loading: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Ghodsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Progressive loading protocol is a high-demanding procedure suggested to increase the quality of bone when the implant is inserted in D3 or D4-typed bone. The purpose of this study was to present a case report regarding simultaneously progressive and immediately loading implants in the anterior position of the maxilla. Case report: One patient whose implants in the anterior maxilla (in site of teeth #7, #9, #11 had questionable to poor prognosis who was treated immediate and delayed progressive loading protocol and was followed up for 2 years. Discussion: Although the number of studies in this field is limited, it can be concluded that the progressive loading protocol can predictably enhance the treatment success in immediate-loaded implants with poor prognosis and when inserted in low quality bone such as the present case.

  2. Blood flow restriction increases metabolic stress but decreases muscle activation during high-load resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Emerson L; Barroso, Renato; Silva-Batista, Carla; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Roschel, Hamilton; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor

    2018-01-01

    We investigated differences in metabolic stress (lactate) and muscle activation (electromyography; EMG) when high-load resistance exercise (HL) is compared with a condition in which blood flow restriction (BFR) is applied during the exercise or during the rest interval. Twelve participants performed HL with BFR during the intervals (BFR-I), during the set (BFR-S), and without BFR. Each condition consisted of 3 sets of 8 repetitions with knee extension at 70% of 1-repetition maximum. Lactate and root mean square (RMS) from the surface EMG of the vastus lateralis were calculated. Lactate increased in all protocols but was higher with BFR-I than with BFR-S and HL. RMS decreased under all conditions, with a larger effect size in BFR-I (1.47) than in BFR-S (0.66) and HL (0.59). BFR-I increases lactate, possibly as a result of reduced restoration of ATP. Muscle activation seems to be impacted by mechanical stress but may be reduced by metabolic stress. Muscle Nerve 57: 107-111, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Quantifying the increase in lateral capacity of monopiles in sand due to cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo; O'Loughlin, Conleth

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of this paper is a simple method to predict the higher moment capacity of a monopile in dense silica sand after drained cyclic loading. The method accounts for the effect of cyclic load magnitude, symmetry and number of cycles, and is calibrated against a series of single gravity...

  4. Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage phiX174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal.

  5. Decline eccentric squats increases patellar tendon loading compared to standard eccentric squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsgaard, M; Aagaard, P; Roikjaer, S; Olsen, D; Jensen, M; Langberg, H; Magnusson, S P

    2006-08-01

    Recent studies have shown excellent clinical results using eccentric squat training on a 25 degrees decline board to treat patellar tendinopathy. It remains unknown why therapeutic management of patellar tendinopathy using decline eccentric squats offer superior clinical efficacy compared to standard horizontal eccentric squats. This study aimed to compare electromyography activity, patellar tendon strain and joint angle kinematics during standard and decline eccentric squats. Thirteen subjects performed unilateral eccentric squats on flat-and a 25 degrees decline surface. During the squats, electromyography activity was obtained in eight representative muscles. Also, ankle, knee and hip joint goniometry was obtained. Additionally, patellar tendon strain was measured in vivo using ultrasonography as subjects maintained a unilateral isometric 90 degrees knee angle squat position on either flat or 25 degrees decline surface. Patellar tendon strain was significantly greater (Pcompared to the standard surface. The stop angles of the ankle and hip joints were significantly smaller during the decline compared to the standard squats (Pcompared to the standard squats (Pstandard and decline squats. The use of a 25 degrees decline board increases the load and the strain of the patellar tendon during unilateral eccentric squats. This finding likely explains previous reports of superior clinical efficacy of decline eccentric squats in the rehabilitative management of patellar tendinopathy.

  6. Pad stress tests with increasing load for the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimstad, Liv; Larsen, Elsa Skjønhaug; Schiøtz, Hjalmar A; Kulseng-Hanssen, Sigurd

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to test the ability of pad stress tests with increasing load (supine, jumping on the floor, and jumping on a trampoline) to document stress incontinence in subjectively stress incontinent women. In this prospective study 147 subjectively stress and mixed incontinent women performed consecutively the three pad stress tests with a bladder volume of 300 ml. Nineteen women performed a second trampoline pad stress test to test repeatability of the test. Nine continent women performed a trampoline pad stress test in order to determine if subjectively continent women would leak during the test. Seventy-two women (49%) leaked during the supine, 136 (93%) leaked during the jumping, and 146 (99%) leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The differences between pad stress tests were significant with P trampoline pad stress tests was high at 0.8. None of the nine continent women leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The supine pad stress test has low sensitivity and is therefore often falsely negative. The jumping pad stress test is a simple test to perform and is satisfactory for everyday use. Subjectively stress incontinent women who do not leak during the jumping pad stress test may perform a trampoline pad stress test to document stress incontinence. The trampoline pad stress test is also simple to perform and detected leakage in 91% of the women who did not leak during the jumping pad stress test. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. An unexpected truth: increasing nitrate loading can decrease nitrate export from watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarizadeh Bardsiri, A.; Grant, S. B.; Rippy, M.

    2015-12-01

    The discharge of anthropogenic nitrate (e.g., from partially treated sewage, return flows from agricultural irrigation, and runoff from animal feeding operations) to streams can negatively impact both human and ecosystem health. Managing these many point and non-point sources to achieve some specific end-point—for example, reducing the annual mass of nitrate exported from a watershed—can be a challenge, particularly in rapidly growing urban areas. Adding to this complexity is the fact that streams are not inert: they too can add or remove nitrate through assimilation (e.g., by stream-associated plants and animals) and microbially-mediated biogeochemical reactions that occur in streambed sediments (e.g., respiration, ammonification, nitrification, denitrification). By coupling a previously published correlation for in-stream processing of nitrate [Mulholland et al., Nature, 2008, 452, 202-205] with a stream network model of the Jacksons Creek watershed (Victoria, Australia) I demonstrate that managing anthropogenic sources of stream nitrate without consideration of in-stream processing can result in a number of non-intuitive "surprises"; for example, wastewater effluent discharges that increase nitrate loading but decrease in-stream nitrate concentrations can reduce the mass of nitrate exported from a watershed.

  8. High Working Memory Load Increases Intracortical Inhibition in Primary Motor Cortex and Diminishes the Motor Affordance Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott M; Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Aron, Adam R

    2016-05-18

    Motor affordances occur when the visual properties of an object elicit behaviorally relevant motor representations. Typically, motor affordances only produce subtle effects on response time or on motor activity indexed by neuroimaging/neuroelectrophysiology, but sometimes they can trigger action itself. This is apparent in "utilization behavior," where individuals with frontal cortex damage inappropriately grasp affording objects. This raises the possibility that, in healthy-functioning individuals, frontal cortex helps ensure that irrelevant affordance provocations remain below the threshold for actual movement. In Experiment 1, we tested this "frontal control" hypothesis by "loading" the frontal cortex with an effortful working memory (WM) task (which ostensibly consumes frontal resources) and examined whether this increased EEG measures of motor affordances to irrelevant affording objects. Under low WM load, there were typical motor affordance signatures: an event-related desynchronization in the mu frequency and an increased P300 amplitude for affording (vs nonaffording) objects over centroparietal electrodes. Contrary to our prediction, however, these affordance measures were diminished under high WM load. In Experiment 2, we tested competing mechanisms responsible for the diminished affordance in Experiment 1. We used paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex to measure long-interval cortical inhibition. We found greater long-interval cortical inhibition for high versus low load both before and after the affording object, suggesting that a tonic inhibition state in primary motor cortex could prevent the affordance from provoking the motor system. Overall, our results suggest that a high WM load "sets" the motor system into a suppressed state that mitigates motor affordances. Is an irrelevant motor affordance more likely to be triggered when you are under low or high cognitive load? We examined this using physiological measures

  9. The stiffness change and the increase in the ultimate capacity for a stiff pile resulting from a cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lada, Aleksandra; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nicolai, Giulio

    In the paper the experimental results of small-scale tests on a stiff monopile are presented to outline the change in stiffness during the cyclic loading and the change in the ultimate pile capacity. The results confirm the increase of stiffness and the increase in bearing capacity resulting from...

  10. Event related potentials reveal that increasing perceptual load leads to increased responses for target stimuli and decreased responses for irrelevant stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rorden

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Lavie and colleagues (1995, JEP:HPP 9: 497- have suggested that perceptual processing is influenced by perceptual load. Specifically, relevant information receives additional processing in high load situations exhausting the available capacity. On the other hand, irrelevant information receives less processing with increasing load on a relevant task, as there is a reduced amount of residual processing available. Rees et al. (1997, Science 278: 1616- provided the first physiological evidence for this model, showing this pattern in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study. Likewise, Handy et al. (2001, Psych Sci 12: 213- offered supporting evidence measuring event related potentials (ERPs. Both of these studies presented irrelevant information in peripheral vision. Here we manipulated load while using the identical stimuli and the same task (a peripheral gap judgment task with centrally presented irrelevant stimuli. Event related potentials show the pattern predicted by Lavie and colleagues, specifically for the N1 component. This work offers further evidence that visual attention modulates relatively early processing of perceptual information. Specifically, increasing load resulted in stronger N1 responses to relevant information and weaker N1 responses to irrelevant information.

  11. High glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with moderately increased cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Galeone, Carlotta; Gandini, Sara; Augustin, Livia S; Jenkins, David J A; Pelucchi, Claudio; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2015-07-01

    To obtain an up-to-date quantification of the association between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and the risk of cancer. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies updated to January 2015. Summary relative risks (RRs) were derived using random effects models. Seventy-five reports were evaluated in the systematic review (147,090 cases), and 72 were included in the meta-analyses by cancer site. Considering hormone-related cancers, summary RRs comparing the highest versus the lowest GI and GL intake were, respectively, 1.05 and 1.07 for breast, 1.13 and 1.17 for endometrial, 1.11 and 1.19 for ovarian, and 1.06 and 1.04 for prostate cancers. Considering digestive-tract cancers, summary RRs for GI and GL were, respectively, 1.46 and 1.25 for esophageal (squamous cell carcinoma), 1.17 and 1.10 for stomach, 1.16 (significant) and 1.10 for colorectal, 1.11 and 1.14 for liver, and 1.10 and 1.01 for pancreatic cancers. In most of these meta-analyses, significant heterogeneity among studies was observed. In subgroup analyses, case-control studies and studies from Europe tended to estimate higher RRs. High-GI and high-GL diets are related to moderately increased risk of cancer at several common sites. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. High dietary acid load is associated with increased prevalence of hypertension: the Furukawa Nutrition and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Shamima; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kurotani, Kayo; Kochi, Takeshi; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Ito, Rie; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kabe, Isamu; Nanri, Akiko

    2015-02-01

    Acid-base status has been suggested to influence blood pressure, but there is a paucity of epidemiologic evidence linking dietary acid load to hypertension. We examined cross-sectionally the association between dietary acid load and hypertension in a Japanese working population. Data were derived from health surveys from 2028 employees, ages 18 to 70 y, in two workplaces in Japan. A validated brief diet history questionnaire was used to assess diet. Two measures were used to characterize dietary acid load: potential renal acid load and estimated net endogenous acid production, which were derived from nutrient intakes. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between dietary acid load and hypertension with adjustment of potential confounding variables. High dietary acid load was suggestively associated with increased prevalence of hypertension. The multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of hypertension for the lowest through highest tertiles of net endogenous acid production were 1.00 (reference), 1.07 (0.80-1.42), and 1.33 (0.998-1.78), respectively (P for trend = 0.053). This positive association was statistically significant among normal-weight (body mass index <23 kg/m(2); P for trend = 0.03) and non-shift workers (P for trend = 0.04). Similar positive associations were observed between potential renal acid load and hypertension. The present findings suggest that high dietary acid load may be associated with increased prevalence of hypertension among those who were normal weight and non-shift workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Attention bias modification training under working memory load increases the magnitude of change in attentional bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Patrick J F; Branson, Sonya; Chen, Nigel T M; Van Bockstaele, Bram; Salemink, Elske; MacLeod, Colin; Notebaert, Lies

    2017-12-01

    Attention bias modification (ABM) procedures have shown promise as a therapeutic intervention, however current ABM procedures have proven inconsistent in their ability to reliably achieve the requisite change in attentional bias needed to produce emotional benefits. This highlights the need to better understand the precise task conditions that facilitate the intended change in attention bias in order to realise the therapeutic potential of ABM procedures. Based on the observation that change in attentional bias occurs largely outside conscious awareness, the aim of the current study was to determine if an ABM procedure delivered under conditions likely to preclude explicit awareness of the experimental contingency, via the addition of a working memory load, would contribute to greater change in attentional bias. Bias change was assessed among 122 participants in response to one of four ABM tasks given by the two experimental factors of ABM training procedure delivered either with or without working memory load, and training direction of either attend-negative or avoid-negative. Findings revealed that avoid-negative ABM procedure under working memory load resulted in significantly greater reductions in attentional bias compared to the equivalent no-load condition. The current findings will require replication with clinical samples to determine the utility of the current task for achieving emotional benefits. These present findings are consistent with the position that the addition of a working memory load may facilitate change in attentional bias in response to an ABM training procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased joint loads during walking--a consequence of pain relief in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjaer, T

    2006-01-01

    Joint pain is a primary symptom in knee osteoarthritis (OA), but the effect of pain and pain relief on the knee joint mechanics of walking is not clear. In this study, the effects of local knee joint analgesia on knee joint loads during walking were studied in a group of knee osteoarthritis...... patients. A group of healthy subjects was included as a reference group. The joint loads were calculated from standard gait analysis data obtained with standardised walking speed (4 km/h). The gait analyses were performed before and after pain relief by intra-articular injections of 10 mL lidocaine (1...

  15. Cognitive load and emotional processing in generalized anxiety disorder: electrocortical evidence for increased distractibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

    2014-08-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) may be characterized by emotion regulation deficits attributable to an imbalance between top-down (i.e., goal-driven) and bottom-up (i.e., stimulus-driven) attention. In prior work, these attentional processes were examined by presenting unpleasant and neutral pictures within a working memory paradigm. The late positive potential (LPP) measured attention toward task-irrelevant pictures. Results from this prior work showed that working memory load reduced the LPP across participants; however, this effect was attenuated for individuals with greater self-reported state anxiety, suggesting reduced top-down control. In the current study, the same paradigm was used with 106 medication-free female participants-71 with GAD and 35 without GAD. Unpleasant pictures elicited larger LPPs, and working memory load reduced the picture-elicited LPP. Compared with healthy controls, participants with GAD showed large LPPs to unpleasant pictures presented under high working memory load. Self-reported symptoms of anhedonic depression were related to a reduced effect of working memory load on the LPP elicited by neutral pictures. These results indicate that individuals with GAD show less flexible modulation of attention when confronted with unpleasant stimuli. Furthermore, among those with GAD, anhedonic depression may broaden attentional deficits to neutral distracters. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. High HPV 16 viral load is associated with increased cervical dysplasia in Honduran women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Ferrera, A.; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is believed to have a co-factorial etiology in which high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are considered an essential factor and other elements play an ancillary role. Besides the importance of specific HPV genotypes, other viral cofactors as viral load may influence the

  17. Preen gland removal increases plumage bacterial load but not that of feather-degrading bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Mureşan, Cosmin; Mirleau, Pascal; Heeb, Philipp

    2013-02-01

    The preen gland is a holocrine sebaceous gland of the avian integument which produces an oily secretion that is spread on the plumage during preening. It has been suggested that birds may defend themselves against feather-degrading bacteria (FDB) and other potential pathogens using preen gland secretions. However, besides some in vitro studies, the in vivo bacterial inhibitory effects of the preen oil on the abundance of feather-associated bacterial species has not yet been studied in passerines. Here we tested the effect of gland removal on the abundance of FDB and other-cultivable bacterial loads (OCB) of male house sparrows ( Passer domesticus). Our results did not support earlier results on in vitro antibacterial activity of preen oil against FDB since the absence of the preen gland did not significantly affect their loads related to the control birds. In contrast, we found that preen gland removal led to higher loads of OCB. This result suggests that the antimicrobial spectrum of the preen oil is broader than previously thought and that, by reducing the overall feather bacterial loads, the preen gland could help birds to protect themselves against a variety of potentially harmful bacteria.

  18. Impact of increasing freight loads on rail substructure from fracking sand transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In this report the effect of surface infiltration of frac sand and heavy axle loads (HALs) were studied for their impact on the ballast layer. : Different combinations of ballast and fracking sand were constructed to observe long term trends of defor...

  19. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  20. Tibial loading increases osteogenic gene expression and cortical bone volume in mature and middle-aged mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Silva

    Full Text Available There are conflicting data on whether age reduces the response of the skeleton to mechanical stimuli. We examined this question in female BALB/c mice of different ages, ranging from young to middle-aged (2, 4, 7, 12 months. We first assessed markers of bone turnover in control (non-loaded mice. Serum osteocalcin and CTX declined significantly from 2 to 4 months (p<0.001. There were similar age-related declines in tibial mRNA expression of osteoblast- and osteoclast-related genes, most notably in late osteoblast/matrix genes. For example, Col1a1 expression declined 90% from 2 to 7 months (p<0.001. We then assessed tibial responses to mechanical loading using age-specific forces to produce similar peak strains (-1300 µε endocortical; -2350 µε periosteal. Axial tibial compression was applied to the right leg for 60 cycles/day on alternate days for 1 or 6 weeks. qPCR after 1 week revealed no effect of loading in young (2-month mice, but significant increases in osteoblast/matrix genes in older mice. For example, in 12-month old mice Col1a1 was increased 6-fold in loaded tibias vs. controls (p = 0.001. In vivo microCT after 6 weeks revealed that loaded tibias in each age group had greater cortical bone volume (BV than contralateral control tibias (p<0.05, due to relative periosteal expansion. The loading-induced increase in cortical BV was greatest in 4-month old mice (+13%; p<0.05 vs. other ages. In summary, non-loaded female BALB/c mice exhibit an age-related decline in measures related to bone formation. Yet when subjected to tibial compression, mice from 2-12 months have an increase in cortical bone volume. Older mice respond with an upregulation of osteoblast/matrix genes, which increase to levels comparable to young mice. We conclude that mechanical loading of the tibia is anabolic for cortical bone in young and middle-aged female BALB/c mice.

  1. Soil Respiration and Belowground Carbon Stores Among Salt Marshes Subjected to Increasing Watershed Nitrogen Loadings in Southern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal salt marshes are ecosystems located between the uplands and sea, and because of their location are subject to increasing watershed nutrient loadings and rising sea levels. Residential development along the coast is intense, and there is a significant relationship between...

  2. Is increased joint loading detrimental to obese patients with knee osteoarthritis? A secondary data analysis from a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Hunter, D J; Dam, E B

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether increased knee joint loading due to improved ambulatory function and walking speed following weight loss achieved over 16 weeks accelerates symptomatic and structural disease progression over a subsequent 1 year weight maintenance period in an obese population with knee...

  3. Existence of proviral porcine endogenous retrovirus in fresh and decellularised porcine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Swine are expected to be utilized as xenograft donors for both whole organ and cellular transplantation. A major concern in using porcine organs for transplantation is the potential of transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV. Tissue-engineered or decellularised heart valves have already been implanted in humans and have been marketed by certain companies after Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval. The aim of this study was to examine the existence of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV in fresh and decellularised porcine tissues. Methods: Porcine tissues (both fresh and decellularised were analysed using validated assays specific for PERV: polymerase chain reaction (PCR, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results: PERV specific GAG sequences were found in the porcine heart tissue samples using PCR for DNA and RT- PCR for RNA. All tissue samples (both fresh and treated tissues like aortic valve, pulmonary valve and heart muscle showed the presence of PERV DNA. RT PCR for PERV was positive in all fresh tissues and was found to be negative in decellularised treated tissues. Conclusions: PCR is a rapid, specific test for the detection of PERV virus in xenografts. These findings have demonstrated that the presence of proviral DNA form of PERV in porcine tissues needs to be carefully considered when the infectious disease potential of xenotransplantation is being assessed.

  4. Reducing Structural Weight and Increasing Protection in Simple Structures Subjected to Blast Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-12

    compression measured in the spring, which is determined from the governing equations shown in Appendix A. In the LS-DYNA model, a single spring- mass - damper ...like a solid when experiencing a large shear load, such as an impulse of high pressure but of short duration from a blast, and returns to liquid ... mass model with a single degree of freedom (DOF) representing the upper torso of the occupant (Appendix A) is mounted directly in the middle of the

  5. Spray-dried nanocrystals for a highly hydrophobic drug: Increased drug loading, enhanced redispersity, and improved oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanxian; Shao, Jingbo; Fu, Qiang; Li, Jingru; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui

    2017-01-10

    For a highly hydrophobic and drug, it is difficult to formulate and solidify its nanocrystals with high drug loading and good redispersity. In this study, Allisartan Isoproxil was used as a model drug, and SDS was tested in combination with sugar alcohols to improve the drug loading and redispersity for its spray-dried nanocrystals, simultaneously. These spray-dried nanocrystals had high drug loading of 61.7% and good redispersity, which was mainly attributed to the addition of SDS. In addition, the nanocrystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray power diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that Allisartan Isoproxil was unchanged in chemical structure, but was partially amorphous. Regarding the in vitro dissolution, the optimism formulation shown an increased dissolution compared with the bulk drug and aggregated nanocrystals. Importantly, the optimum formulation increased the oral bioavailability of crude ALS-3 for 4.73 times. In conclusion, we developed a method to solidify aqueous nanocrystals with increased drug loading, good redispersity and improved bioavailability for high hydrophobic drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Light-load resistance exercise increases muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy signaling in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jakob; Bülow, Jacob; Jensen, Jacob K

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated whether well-tolerated light-load resistance exercise (LL-RE) affects skeletal muscle fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and anabolic intracellular signaling as a way to counteract age-related loss of muscle mass. METHODS: Untrained healthy men (age: +65...... and 12g whey protein at 7 hours post-exercise; N=10) or placebo (4g maltodextrin/hour; N=10). Quadriceps muscle biopsies were taken at 0, 3, 7 and 10 hours post-exercise from both the resting and exercised leg. Myofibrillar-FSR and activity of select targets from the mTORC1-signalling cascade were...

  7. Intra-operative colloid administration increases the clearance of a post-operative fluid load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Tine; Hahn, Robert; Holte, K

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether an intra-operative colloid infusion alters the dynamics of a crystalloid load administered post-operatively. METHODS: Ten patients received 12.5 ml/kg of Ringer's lactate over 30 min 1-3 days before and 4 h after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, during which 10 ml....../kg of a colloid solution, hydroxyethylstarch (HES 130/0.4), was infused. The total body clearance of the pre- and post-operative test infusions was taken as the ratio between the urinary excretion and the Hb-derived dilution of venous plasma over 150 min. The plasma clearance of the infused fluid was calculated...... using volume kinetics based on the plasma dilution alone. The pre-operative plasma clearance was compared with the post-operative plasma clearance and patients served as their own control. RESULTS: The urinary excretion averaged 350 ml for the pre-operative infusion and 612 ml post-operatively, which...

  8. Cloning the human betaretrovirus proviral genome from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lizhe; Sakalian, Michael; Shen, Zhiwei; Loss, George; Neuberger, James; Mason, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) have both serologic and tissue evidence of infection. A recently identified human betaretrovirus was originally cloned from the biliary epithelium cDNA library of a patient with PBC. By conducting a BLASTN search, the initial partial pol gene fragment was found to have 95% to 97% nucleotide homology with mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) and with retrovirus sequences derived from human breast cancer samples. Using an anti-p27(CA) MMTV antibody, viral proteins were detected in the perihepatic lymph nodes but not in liver tissue samples from patients with PBC, suggesting a higher viral burden in lymphoid tissue. Therefore, in the current study, we used lymph node DNA to clone the proviral genome of the human betaretrovirus from two patients with PBC using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) walking methodology with conserved primers complementary to MMTV. The human betaretrovirus genome contains five potential open reading frames (ORF) for Gag, protease (Pro), polymerase (Pol), envelope (Env), and superantigen (Sag) proteins that are collinear with their counterparts in MMTV. Alignment studies performed with characterized MMTV and human breast cancer betaretrovirus amino acid sequences revealed a 93% to 99% identity with the p27 capsid proteins, a 93% to 97% identity with the betaretrovirus envelope proteins, and a 76% to 85% identity with the more variable superantigen proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of known betaretrovirus superantigen proteins showed that the human and murine sequences did not cluster as two distinct species. In conclusion, human betaretrovirus nucleic acid sequences have been cloned from patients with PBC. They share marked homology with MMTV and human breast cancer-derived retrovirus sequences.

  9. Heavier and lighter load resistance training to momentary failure produce similar increases in strength with differing degrees of discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James Peter; Steele, James

    2017-10-01

    It has been suggested that disparities in effort and discomfort between high- and low-load resistance training might exist, which in turn have produced unequivocal adaptations between studies. Strength responses to heavier load (HL; 80% maximum voluntary isometric torque; MVIT) and lighter load (LL; 50% MVIT) resistance training were examined in addition to acute perceptions of effort and discomfort. Seven men (20.6 ± 0.5 years, 178.9 ± 3.2 cm, 77.1 ± 2.7 kg) performed unilateral resistance training of the knee extensors to momentary failure using HL and LL. Analyses revealed significant pre- to post-intervention increases in strength for both HL and LL, with no significant between-group differences (P > 0.05). Mean repetitions per set, total training time, and discomfort were all significantly higher for LL compared with HL (P training with HL and LL produces similar strength adaptations, but discomfort should be considered before selecting a training load. Muscle Nerve 56: 797-803, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Recombinant sclerostin antagonises effects of ex vivo mechanical loading in trabecular bone and increases osteocyte lacunar size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogawa, Masakazu; Khalid, Kamarul A; Wijenayaka, Asiri R; Ormsby, Renee T; Evdokiou, Andreas; Anderson, Paul H; Findlay, David M; Atkins, Gerald J

    2017-10-04

    Sclerostin (SCL) has emerged as an important regulator of bone mass. We have shown that SCL can act by targeting late osteoblasts/osteocytes to inhibit bone mineralisation and to upregulate osteocyte expression of catabolic factors, resulting in osteocytic osteolysis. Here we sought to examine the effect of exogenous sclerostin on osteocytes in trabecular bone mechanically loaded ex vivo. Bovine trabecular bone cores, with bone marrow removed, were inserted into individual chambers and subjected to daily episodes of dynamic loading. Cores were perfused with either osteogenic media alone or media containing human recombinant sclerostin (rhSCL) (50 ng/ml). Loaded control bone increased in apparent stiffness over time compared to unloaded bone, and this was abrogated in the presence of rhSCL. Loaded bone showed an increase in calcein uptake as a surrogate of mineral accretion, compared to unloaded bone, in which this was substantially inhibited by rhSCL treatment. Sclerostin treatment induced a significant increase in the ionised calcium concentration in the perfusate and the release of β-CTX at several time points, an increased mean osteocyte lacunar size, indicative of osteocytic osteolysis and the expression of catabolism-related genes. Human primary osteocyte-like cultures treated with rhSCL also released β-CTX from their matrix. These results suggest that osteocytes contribute directly to bone mineral accretion, and to the mechanical properties of bone. Moreover, it appears that sclerostin, acting on osteocytes, can negate this effect by modulating the dimensions of the lacunocanalicular porosity and the composition of the peri-osteocyte matrix. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology.

  11. Impaired increase of plasma abscisic Acid in response to oral glucose load in type 2 diabetes and in gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Pietro; Bruzzone, Santina; Mannino, Elena; Sociali, Giovanna; Andraghetti, Gabriella; Salis, Annalisa; Ponta, Monica Laura; Briatore, Lucia; Adami, Giovanni F; Ferraiolo, Antonella; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Maggi, Davide; Cordera, Renzo; Murialdo, Giovanni; Zocchi, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is present and active in humans, regulating glucose homeostasis. In normal glucose tolerant (NGT) human subjects, plasma ABA (ABAp) increases 5-fold after an oral glucose load. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an oral glucose load on ABAp in type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects. We chose two sub-groups of patients who underwent an oral glucose load for diagnostic purposes: i) 9 treatment-naive T2D subjects, and ii) 9 pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GDM), who underwent the glucose load before and 8-12 weeks after childbirth. Each group was compared with matched NGT controls. The increase of ABAp in response to glucose was found to be abrogated in T2D patients compared to NGT controls. A similar result was observed in the women with GDM compared to pregnant NGT controls; 8-12 weeks after childbirth, however, fasting ABAp and ABAp response to glucose were restored to normal in the GDM subjects, along with glucose tolerance. We also retrospectively compared fasting ABAp before and after bilio-pancreatic diversion (BPD) in obese, but not diabetic subjects, and in obese T2D patients, in which BPD resulted in the resolution of diabetes. Compared to pre-BPD values, basal ABAp significantly increased 1 month after BPD in T2D as well as in NGT subjects, in parallel with a reduction of fasting plasma glucose. These results indicate an impaired hyperglycemia-induced ABAp increase in T2D and in GDM and suggest a beneficial effect of elevated ABAp on glycemic control.

  12. Impaired increase of plasma abscisic Acid in response to oral glucose load in type 2 diabetes and in gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Ameri

    Full Text Available The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA is present and active in humans, regulating glucose homeostasis. In normal glucose tolerant (NGT human subjects, plasma ABA (ABAp increases 5-fold after an oral glucose load. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an oral glucose load on ABAp in type 2 diabetes (T2D subjects. We chose two sub-groups of patients who underwent an oral glucose load for diagnostic purposes: i 9 treatment-naive T2D subjects, and ii 9 pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GDM, who underwent the glucose load before and 8-12 weeks after childbirth. Each group was compared with matched NGT controls. The increase of ABAp in response to glucose was found to be abrogated in T2D patients compared to NGT controls. A similar result was observed in the women with GDM compared to pregnant NGT controls; 8-12 weeks after childbirth, however, fasting ABAp and ABAp response to glucose were restored to normal in the GDM subjects, along with glucose tolerance. We also retrospectively compared fasting ABAp before and after bilio-pancreatic diversion (BPD in obese, but not diabetic subjects, and in obese T2D patients, in which BPD resulted in the resolution of diabetes. Compared to pre-BPD values, basal ABAp significantly increased 1 month after BPD in T2D as well as in NGT subjects, in parallel with a reduction of fasting plasma glucose. These results indicate an impaired hyperglycemia-induced ABAp increase in T2D and in GDM and suggest a beneficial effect of elevated ABAp on glycemic control.

  13. Model Based Open-Loop Wind Farm Control Using Active Power for Power Increase and Load Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hyungyu Kim; Kwansu Kim; Insu Paek

    2017-01-01

    A new wind farm control algorithm that adjusts the power output of the most upstream wind turbine in a wind farm for power increase and load reduction was developed in this study. The algorithm finds power commands to individual wind turbines to maximize the total power output from the wind farm when the power command from the transmission system operator is larger than the total available power from the wind farm. To validate this wind farm control algorithm, a relatively high fidelity wind ...

  14. Genome-wide amplification of proviral sequences reveals new polymorphic HERV-K(HML-2) proviruses in humans and chimpanzees that are absent from genome assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Catriona M; Badge, Richard M

    2015-04-28

    To date, the human population census of proviruses of the Betaretrovirus-like human endogenous retroviral (HERV-K) (HML-2) family has been compiled from a limited number of complete genomes, making it certain that rare polymorphic loci are under-represented and are yet to be described. Here we describe a suppression PCR-based method called genome-wide amplification of proviral sequences (GAPS) that selectively amplifies DNA fragments containing the termini of HERV-K(HML-2) proviral sequences and their flanking genomic sequences. We analysed the HERV-K(HML-2) proviral content of 101 unrelated humans, 4 common chimpanzees and three centre d'etude du polymorphisme humain (CEPH) pedigrees (44 individuals). The technique isolated HERV-K(HML-2) proviruses that had integrated in the genomes of the great apes throughout their divergence and included evolutionarily young elements still unfixed for presence/absence. By examining the HERV-K(HML-2) proviral content of 145 humans we detected a new insertionally polymorphic Type I HERV-K(HML-2) provirus. We also observed provirus versus solo long terminal repeat (LTR) polymorphism within humans at a previously unreported, but ancient, locus. Finally, we report two novel chimpanzee specific proviruses, one of which is dimorphic for a provirus versus solo LTR. Thus GAPS enables the isolation of uncharacterised HERV-K(HML-2) proviral sequences and provides a direct means to assess inter-individual genetic variation associated with HERV-K(HML-2) proviruses.

  15. Design and implementation of an external quality assessment program for HIV viral load measurements using dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prach, Lisa M; Puren, Adrian; Lippman, Sheri A; Carmona, Sergio; Stephenson, Sophie; Cutler, Ewalde; Barnhart, Scott; Liegler, Teri

    2015-03-01

    An external quality assurance program was developed for HIV-1 RNA viral load measurements taken from dried blood spots using a reference panel and field-collected specimens. The program demonstrated that accurate and reproducible quantitation can be obtained from field-collected specimens. Residual proviral DNA may confound interpretation in virologically suppressed subjects. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. The increase in plasma nitrite after a dietary nitrate load is markedly attenuated by an antibacterial mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Mirco; Jansson, Emmelie A; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies surprisingly show that dietary inorganic nitrate, abundant in vegetables, can be metabolized in vivo to form nitrite and then bioactive nitric oxide. A reduction in blood pressure was recently noted in healthy volunteers after dietary supplementation with nitrate; an effect consistent with formation of vasodilatory nitric oxide. Oral bacteria have been suggested to play a role in bioactivation of nitrate by first reducing it to the more reactive anion nitrite. In a cross-over designed study in seven healthy volunteers we examined the effects of a commercially available chlorhexidine-containing antibacterial mouthwash on salivary and plasma levels of nitrite measured after an oral intake of sodium nitrate (10mg/kg dissolved in water). In the control situation the salivary and plasma levels of nitrate and nitrite increased greatly after the nitrate load. Rinsing the mouth with the antibacterial mouthwash prior to the nitrate load had no effect on nitrate accumulation in saliva or plasma but abolished its conversion to nitrite in saliva and markedly attenuated the rise in plasma nitrite. We conclude that the acute increase in plasma nitrite seen after a nitrate load is critically dependent on nitrate reduction in the oral cavity by commensal bacteria. The removal of these bacteria with an antibacterial mouthwash will very likely attenuate the NO-dependent biological effects of dietary nitrate.

  17. Cubozoan Sting-Site Seawater Rinse, Scraping, and Ice Can Increase Venom Load: Upending Current First Aid Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Anne Yanagihara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarian envenomations are the leading cause of severe and lethal human sting injuries from marine life. The total amount of venom discharged into sting-site tissues, sometimes referred to as “venom load”, has been previously shown to correlate with tentacle contact length and sequelae severity. Since <1% of cnidae discharge upon initial tentacle contact, effective and safe removal of adherent tentacles is of paramount importance in the management of life-threatening cubozoan stings. We evaluated whether common rinse solutions or scraping increased venom load as measured in a direct functional assay of venom activity (hemolysis. Scraping significantly increased hemolysis by increasing cnidae discharge. For Alatina alata, increases did not occur if the tentacles were first doused with vinegar or if heat was applied. However, in Chironex fleckeri, vinegar dousing and heat treatment were less effective, and the best outcomes occurred with the use of venom-inhibiting technologies (Sting No More® products. Seawater rinsing, considered a “no-harm” alternative, significantly increased venom load. The application of ice severely exacerbated A. alata stings, but had a less pronounced effect on C. fleckeri stings, while heat application markedly reduced hemolysis for both species. Our results do not support scraping or seawater rinsing to remove adherent tentacles.

  18. Achieving Peak Flow and Sediment Loading Reductions through Increased Water Storage in the Le Sueur Watershed, Minnesota: A Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, N. A.; Gran, K. B.; Cho, S. J.; Dalzell, B. J.; Kumarasamy, K.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of factors including climate change, land clearing, and artificial drainage have increased many agricultural regions' stream flows and rates at which channel banks and bluffs are eroded. Increasing erosion rates within the Minnesota River Basin have contributed to higher sediment-loading rates, excess turbidity levels, and increases in sedimentation rates in Lake Pepin further downstream. Water storage sites (e.g., wetlands) have been discussed as a means to address these issues. This study uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess a range of water retention site (WRS) implementation scenarios in the Le Sueur watershed in south-central Minnesota, a subwatershed of the Minnesota River Basin. Sediment loading from bluffs was assessed through an empirical relationship developed from gauging data. Sites were delineated as topographic depressions with specific land uses, minimum areas (3000 m2), and high compound topographic index values. Contributing areas for the WRS were manually measured and used with different site characteristics to create 210 initial WRS scenarios. A generalized relationship between WRS area and contributing area was identified from measurements, and this relationship was used with different site characteristics (e.g., depth, hydraulic conductivity (K), and placement) to create 225 generalized WRS scenarios. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates are generally maximized by placing site with high K values in the upper half of the watershed. High K values allow sites to lose more water through seepage, emptying their storages between precipitation events and preventing frequent overflowing. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates also level off at high WRS extents due to the decreasing frequencies of high-magnitude events. The generalized WRS scenarios were also used to create a simplified empirical model capable of generating peak flows and sediment-loading rates from near

  19. Increased sediment load during a large-scale dam removal changes nearshore subtidal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Miller, Ian M.; Foley, Melissa M.; Berry, Helen D.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Hudson, Benjamin; Elder, Nancy E.; Beirne, Matthew M.; Warrick, Jonathan; McHenry, Michael L.; Stevens, Andrew; Eidam, Emily; Ogston, Andrea; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Pedersen, Rob

    2017-01-01

    The coastal marine ecosystem near the Elwha River was altered by a massive sediment influx—over 10 million tonnes—during the staged three-year removal of two hydropower dams. We used time series of bathymetry, substrate grain size, remotely sensed turbidity, scuba dive surveys, and towed video observations collected before and during dam removal to assess responses of the nearshore subtidal community (3 m to 17 m depth). Biological changes were primarily driven by sediment deposition and elevated suspended sediment concentrations. Macroalgae, predominantly kelp and foliose red algae, were abundant before dam removal with combined cover levels greater than 50%. Where persistent sediment deposits formed, macroalgae decreased greatly or were eliminated. In areas lacking deposition, macroalgae cover decreased inversely to suspended sediment concentration, suggesting impacts from light reduction or scour. Densities of most invertebrate and fish taxa decreased in areas with persistent sediment deposition; however, bivalve densities increased where mud deposited over sand, and flatfish and Pacific sand lance densities increased where sand deposited over gravel. In areas without sediment deposition, most invertebrate and fish taxa were unaffected by increased suspended sediment or the loss of algae cover associated with it; however, densities of tubeworms and flatfish, and primary cover of sessile invertebrates increased suggesting benefits of increased particulate matter or relaxed competition with macroalgae for space. As dam removal neared completion, we saw evidence of macroalgal recovery that likely owed to water column clearing, indicating that long-term recovery from dam removal effects may be starting. Our results are relevant to future dam removal projects in coastal areas and more generally to understanding effects of increased sedimentation on nearshore subtidal benthic communities.

  20. Increased sediment load during a large-scale dam removal changes nearshore subtidal communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Rubin

    Full Text Available The coastal marine ecosystem near the Elwha River was altered by a massive sediment influx-over 10 million tonnes-during the staged three-year removal of two hydropower dams. We used time series of bathymetry, substrate grain size, remotely sensed turbidity, scuba dive surveys, and towed video observations collected before and during dam removal to assess responses of the nearshore subtidal community (3 m to 17 m depth. Biological changes were primarily driven by sediment deposition and elevated suspended sediment concentrations. Macroalgae, predominantly kelp and foliose red algae, were abundant before dam removal with combined cover levels greater than 50%. Where persistent sediment deposits formed, macroalgae decreased greatly or were eliminated. In areas lacking deposition, macroalgae cover decreased inversely to suspended sediment concentration, suggesting impacts from light reduction or scour. Densities of most invertebrate and fish taxa decreased in areas with persistent sediment deposition; however, bivalve densities increased where mud deposited over sand, and flatfish and Pacific sand lance densities increased where sand deposited over gravel. In areas without sediment deposition, most invertebrate and fish taxa were unaffected by increased suspended sediment or the loss of algae cover associated with it; however, densities of tubeworms and flatfish, and primary cover of sessile invertebrates increased suggesting benefits of increased particulate matter or relaxed competition with macroalgae for space. As dam removal neared completion, we saw evidence of macroalgal recovery that likely owed to water column clearing, indicating that long-term recovery from dam removal effects may be starting. Our results are relevant to future dam removal projects in coastal areas and more generally to understanding effects of increased sedimentation on nearshore subtidal benthic communities.

  1. Increased sediment load during a large-scale dam removal changes nearshore subtidal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P; Miller, Ian M; Foley, Melissa M; Berry, Helen D; Duda, Jeffrey J; Hudson, Benjamin; Elder, Nancy E; Beirne, Matthew M; Warrick, Jonathan A; McHenry, Michael L; Stevens, Andrew W; Eidam, Emily F; Ogston, Andrea S; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Pedersen, Rob

    2017-01-01

    The coastal marine ecosystem near the Elwha River was altered by a massive sediment influx-over 10 million tonnes-during the staged three-year removal of two hydropower dams. We used time series of bathymetry, substrate grain size, remotely sensed turbidity, scuba dive surveys, and towed video observations collected before and during dam removal to assess responses of the nearshore subtidal community (3 m to 17 m depth). Biological changes were primarily driven by sediment deposition and elevated suspended sediment concentrations. Macroalgae, predominantly kelp and foliose red algae, were abundant before dam removal with combined cover levels greater than 50%. Where persistent sediment deposits formed, macroalgae decreased greatly or were eliminated. In areas lacking deposition, macroalgae cover decreased inversely to suspended sediment concentration, suggesting impacts from light reduction or scour. Densities of most invertebrate and fish taxa decreased in areas with persistent sediment deposition; however, bivalve densities increased where mud deposited over sand, and flatfish and Pacific sand lance densities increased where sand deposited over gravel. In areas without sediment deposition, most invertebrate and fish taxa were unaffected by increased suspended sediment or the loss of algae cover associated with it; however, densities of tubeworms and flatfish, and primary cover of sessile invertebrates increased suggesting benefits of increased particulate matter or relaxed competition with macroalgae for space. As dam removal neared completion, we saw evidence of macroalgal recovery that likely owed to water column clearing, indicating that long-term recovery from dam removal effects may be starting. Our results are relevant to future dam removal projects in coastal areas and more generally to understanding effects of increased sedimentation on nearshore subtidal benthic communities.

  2. Direct load control for electricity supply and demand matching : increasing reliability of wind energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve ten, Marieke

    2009-01-01

    In Sweden as well as in The Netherlands energy policy is increasingly aiming at extending the use of renew-able sources. In accordance with the targets of the European Union, both countries have formulated national targets for the year 2020. For wind ener

  3. No increased bone formation around alendronate or omeprazole loaded bioactive bone cements in a femoral defect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, E.W.H.; Kowalski, R.S.; Spauwen, P.H.M.; Jansen, Jarno

    2008-01-01

    Alendronate and omeprazole have been found to influence bone healing by interfering with osteoclastic activity, resulting in increased bone formation. The biological effect of these conventional drugs, incorporated into bioactive bone cement (G2B1), was investigated in a rabbit model. The 2

  4. Childhood-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Increased Familial Loading of Psychiatric Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rende, Richard; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Strober, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Valeri, Sylvia; Chiappetta, Laurel; Ryan, Neal; Leonard, Henrietta; Hunt, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Satish; Keller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether childhood-onset bipolar disorder (BP) is associated with an increased psychiatric family history compared with adolescent-onset BP. Method: Semistructured psychiatric interviews were conducted for 438 youth with BP spectrum disorders. To evaluate the effects of age at onset and psychiatric family history, the sample…

  5. Running exercise for short duration increases bone mineral density of loaded long bones in young growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Yoshinobu; Nakajima, Arata; Fukuda, Satoshi; Goto, Sumio; Iida, Haruzo; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2009-10-01

    Running exercise is an effective therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis; however, appropriate duration of exercise has not been determined. We therefore investigated the effect of exercise duration on bone mineral density (BMD) and systemic bone metabolism using young growing rats. Fifteen 8-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into three groups according to running load: control group (no running), short duration (30 min/day) and long duration (180 min/day), and animals ran on a treadmill 5 days per week over an 8-week period. BMD of the tibia was measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and serum levels of tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), a bone resorption marker and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a bone formation marker were measured to know whether the treadmill exercise would affect systemic bone metabolism. Short-duration running exercise (30 min/day) caused a significant increase in BMD of the metaphyseal trabecula (p exercise (180 min/day) significantly reduced BMD of the diaphyseal and metaphyseal cortex and that of the diaphyseal trabecula with a significant reduction of serum ALP levels and a significant increase in serum phosphorus. These findings suggest that short-duration exercise may increase BMD through suppression of bone resorption, whereas long-duration exercise may reduce BMD through suppression of bone formation. Exercising for short duration but not prolonged exercise is recommended to increase BMD of loaded long bones.

  6. pH sensitive insulin-loaded nanohydrogel increases the effect of oral insulin in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnoosh-Yamchi, Jalil; Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Davaran, Soodabeh; Ostad Rahimi, Ali Reza; Garnoosh, Khalil; Bahmani, Zahra; Ashoori, Mohammad; Mobasseri, Majid

    2017-09-01

    There are different methods for insulin administration in diabetic patient. Nano-hydrogel is one of the most talented drug carrier for its sensitivity to environmental stimulus. NIPAAm-MAA-HEM copolymers were synthesized by radical chain reaction. The copolymers were characterized with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transient electron microscopy (TEM). Copolymers were loaded with regular insulin by modified double emulsion method. Diabetic rats are used for feeding insulin-loaded nanohydrogel. Analysis of the results from the measurement of the amount of blood insulin from the rats blood that received insulin in nanohydrogel loaded form compared with rats that received pure insulin is significantly high, which confirm that insulin has been able to pass from the stomach acid barrier by nanohydrogel and is absorbed from the intestine. Blood sugar levels from tested rats indicate that with increasing amount of insulin, blood sugar levels fall down. Our study confirms that insulin has been able to pass from the stomach acid barrier by nanohydrogel and be absorbed from the intestine.

  7. Riboflavin-containing telodendrimer nanocarriers for efficient doxorubicin delivery: High loading capacity, increased stability, and improved anticancer efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dandan; Shi, Changying; Wang, Xu; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Shengle; Luo, Juntao

    2017-10-01

    We have developed two linear-dendritic telodendrimers (TDs) with rational design using amphiphilic riboflavin (Rf) as building blocks for efficient doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. Micellar TD nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of a hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell and a Rf-containing affinitive core for DOX encapsulation. Strong DOX-Rf interactions and amphiphilic Rf structure render these nanocarriers with an ultra-high DOX loading capacity (>1/1, DOX/TD, w/w), ∼100% loading efficiency, the sustained drug release and the optimal particle sizes (20-40 nm) for efficient tumor-targeted drug delivery. These nanoformulations significantly prolonged DOX circulation time in the blood without the accelerated clearance observed after multiple injections. DOX-TDs target several types of tumors efficiently in vivo, e.g. Raji lymphoma, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer, and SKOV-3 ovarian cancer. In vivo maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of DOX was increased by 2-2.5 folds for the nanoformulations in mice relative to those of free DOX and Doxil(®). These nanoformulations significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival of mice bearing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts. In summary, Rf-containing nanoformulations with high DOX loading capacity, improved stability and efficient tumor targeting lead to superior antitumor efficacy, which merit the further development for clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of insulin-like growth factor-I in the regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation to increased loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G. R.

    1998-01-01

    Adaptations in muscle mass stimulated by changes in muscle loading state entail alternations in the synthesis and degradation of myofiber proteins and the modulation of myonuclear number such that the ratio between the number of myonuclei and the size of the myofibers remains relatively constant. As depicted schematically in Figure 2.6, the literature regarding the role of IGF-in mediating muscle adaptation to alterations in loading state suggests the following conclusions: During periods of increased loading, myofibers upregulate the expression and secretion of IGF-I. Acting as an autocrine and/or paracrine growth factor, IGF-I stimulates myofiber anabolic processes. Acting as a paracrine growth factor, IGF-I also stimulates adjacent satellite cells to enter the cell cycle and proliferate. Continued myofiber production of IGF-I stimulates some satellite cells to differentiate and then fuse with myofibers, thus providing additional myonuclei in order to maintain or reestablish the myonucleus to myofiber size ratios of the enlarged myofibers.

  9. Genetic instability and increased mutational load: which diagnostic tool best direct patients with cancer to immunotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Giuseppe; Colombino, Maria; Cossu, Antonio; Marchetti, Antonio; Botti, Gerardo; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2017-01-21

    The occurrence of high rates of somatic mutations in cancer is believed to correspond to increased frequency of neo-epitope formation and tumor immunogenicity. Thus, classification of patients with cancer according to degree a somatic hyper-mutational status could be proposed as a predictive biomarker of responsiveness to immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Here, we discuss the suitable and reliable tests easily adoptable in clinical practice to assess somatic mutational status in patients with advanced cancer.

  10. Increasing cognitive load attenuates right arm swing in healthy human walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Tim; Easthope, Christopher S.; Filli, Linard; Lőrincz, Lilla; Schrafl-Altermatt, Miriam; Brugger, Peter; Linnebank, Michael; Curt, Armin; Zörner, Björn; Bolliger, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Human arm swing looks and feels highly automated, yet it is increasingly apparent that higher centres, including the cortex, are involved in many aspects of locomotor control. The addition of a cognitive task increases arm swing asymmetry during walking, but the characteristics and mechanism of this asymmetry are unclear. We hypothesized that this effect is lateralized and a Stroop word-colour naming task-primarily involving left hemisphere structures-would reduce right arm swing only. We recorded gait in 83 healthy subjects aged 18-80 walking normally on a treadmill and while performing a congruent and incongruent Stroop task. The primary measure of arm swing asymmetry-an index based on both three-dimensional wrist trajectories in which positive values indicate proportionally smaller movements on the right-increased significantly under dual-task conditions in those aged 40-59 and further still in the over-60s, driven by reduced right arm flexion. Right arm swing attenuation appears to be the norm in humans performing a locomotor-cognitive dual-task, confirming a prominent role of the brain in locomotor behaviour. Women under 60 are surprisingly resistant to this effect, revealing unexpected gender differences atop the hierarchical chain of locomotor control.

  11. Identification of full-length proviral DNA of porcine endogenous retrovirus from Chinese Wuzhishan miniature pigs inbred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuyuan; Lv, Maomin; Xu, Shu; Wu, Jianmin; Tian, Kegong; Zhang, Jingang

    2010-07-01

    Existence of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) hinders pigs to be used in clinical xenotransplantation to alleviate the shortage of human transplants. Chinese miniature pigs are potential organ donors for xenotransplantation in China. However, so far, an adequate level of information on the molecular characteristics of PERV from Chinese miniature pigs has not been available. We described here the cloning and characterization of full-length proviral DNA of PERV from Chinese Wuzhishan miniature pigs inbred (WZSP). Full-length nucleotide sequences of PERV-WZSP and other PERVs were aligned and phylogenetic tree was constructed from deduced amino-acid sequences of env. The results demonstrated that the full-length proviral DNA of PERV-WZSP belongs to gammaretrovirus and shares high similarity with other PERVs. Sequence analysis also suggested that different patterns of LTR existed in the same porcine germ line and partial PERV-C sequence may recombine with PERV-A sequence in LTR. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ACL Deficiency Increases Forces on the Medial Femoral Condyle and the Lateral Meniscus with Applied Rotatory Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lucas S; Boorman-Padgett, James; Kent, Robert; Stone, Kyle; Wickiewicz, Thomas L; Pearle, Andrew D; Imhauser, Carl W

    2016-10-19

    The articular surfaces and menisci act with the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) to stabilize the knee joint. Their role in resisting applied rotatory loads characteristic of instability events is unclear despite commonly observed damage to these intra-articular structures in the acute and chronic ACL injury settings. Ten fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees were mounted to a robotic manipulator. Combined valgus and internal rotation torques were applied in the presence and absence of a 300-N compressive load. Forces carried by the individual menisci and via cartilage-to-cartilage contact on each femoral condyle in ACL-intact and ACL-sectioned states were measured using the principle of superposition. In response to applied valgus and internal rotation torques in the absence of compression, sectioning of the ACL increased the net force carried by the lateral meniscus by at most 65.8 N (p meniscus increased by 25.7 N (p medial femoral condyle by at most 38.9 N (p = 0.006) and 46.7 N (p = 0.040) in the absence and presence of compression, respectively. Additionally, the lateral shear force carried by cartilage-to-cartilage contact on the medial femoral condyle increased by at most 21.0 N (p = 0.005) and by 28.0 N (p = 0.025) in the absence and presence of compression, respectively. Forces carried by the medial meniscus and by cartilage-to-cartilage contact on the lateral femoral condyle changed by meniscus and medial femoral condyle-and the anterior shear and lateral shear forces, respectively-in response to multiplanar valgus and internal rotation torque. These loading patterns provide a biomechanical rationale for clinical patterns of intra-articular derangement such as lateral meniscal injury and osseous remodeling of the medial compartment seen with ACL insufficiency. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  13. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load in Mice Subjected to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, Sara L; Ulleryd, Marcus A; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov; Johansson, Maria E

    2016-04-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics,S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Factors associated with increased white matter hyperintense lesion (WMHI) load in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharir, S S; Osman, S S; Md Rani, S A; Sakthiswary, R; Said, M S M

    2018-01-01

    Introduction White matter hyperintense (WMHI) lesions are the most common finding in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Objective The objective of this article is to determine the clinical factors associated with an increase in WMHI lesion load among SLE patients. Method A total of 83 SLE patients with MRI of the brain from National University of Malaysia Medical Centre were included. The WMHI lesion load was determined using the Scheltens score and Fazekas scale, and their distribution was divided into the deep white matter (DWMHI) and periventricular (PVH) regions. The clinical correlates of WMHI lesions were initially determined using univariate analyses and subsequently multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine the independent factors of increased WMHI lesion load. Results MRI of the brain of 46 patients who had WMHI lesions were compared with 37 patients with normal MRI. We found significant association between the presence of WMHI lesions and age, presence of cerebral infarcts, positive antiphospholipid antibody (aPL), active disease, neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE) and disease damage. Age, SLEDAI scores, cerebral infarcts and disease damage were significantly associated with higher DWMHI and PVH Scheltens scores. Meanwhile, patients with active lupus nephritis (LN), lower serum albumin and more severe proteinuria were associated with larger Fazekas WMHI lesions. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that the independent factors associated with presence of WMHI lesions were positive aPL and SLEDAI scores ( p SLE disease. Conclusion Presence of WMHI lesions in SLE was significantly associated with cerebral infarcts, aPL and high general SLE activity, suggesting both inflammation and ischaemia as the underlying pathology of these lesions.

  15. Regional recruitment of rat diaphragmatic lymphatics in response to increased pleural or peritoneal fluid load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, Andrea; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Sciacca, Laura; Guidali, Maria Luisa; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2007-03-15

    The specific role of the diaphragmatic tendinous and muscular tissues in sustaining lymph formation and propulsion in the diaphragm was studied in 24 anaesthetized spontaneously breathing supine rats. Three experimental protocols were used: (a) control; (b) peritoneal ascitis, induced through an intraperitoneal injection of 100 ml kg(-1) of iso-oncotic saline; and (c) pleural effusion, induced through an intrapleural injection of 6.6 ml kg(-1) saline solution. A group of animals (n = 12) was instrumented to measure the hydraulic transdiaphragmatic pressure gradient between the pleural and peritoneal cavities in the three protocols. In the other group (n = 12), the injected iso-oncotic saline was enriched with 2% fluorescent dextrans (molecular mass = 70 kDa); at 30 min from the injections these animals were suppressed and their diaphragm excised and processed for confocal microscopy analysis. In control conditions, in spite of a favourable peritoneal-to-pleural pressure gradient, the majority of the tracer absorbed into the diaphragmatic lymphatic system converges towards the deeper collecting lymphatic ducts. This suggests that diaphragmatic lymph formation mostly depends upon pressure gradients developing between the serosal cavities and the lymphatic vessel lumen. In addition, the tracer distributes to lymph vessels located in the muscular diaphragmatic tissue, suggesting that active muscle contraction, rather than passive tendon stretch, more efficiently enhances local diaphragmatic lymph flow. Vice versa, a prevailing recruitment of the lymphatics of the tendinous diaphragmatic regions was observed in peritoneal ascitis and pleural effusion, suggesting a functional adaptation of the diaphragmatic network to increased draining requirements.

  16. Comparable cerebral oxygenation patterns in younger and older adults during dual-task walking with increasing load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Fraser

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuroimaging literature on dual-task gait clearly demonstrates increased prefrontal cortex (PFC involvement when performing a cognitive task while walking. However, findings from direct comparisons of the cerebral oxygenation patterns of younger (YA and older (OA adults during dual-task walking are mixed and it is unclear how YA and OA respond to increasing cognitive load (difficulty while walking. This functional near infra-red (fNIRS study examined cerebral oxygenation of YA and OA during self-paced dual-task treadmill walking at two different levels of cognitive load (auditory n-back. Changes in accuracy (% as well as oxygenated (HbO and deoxygenated (HbR hemoglobin were examined. For the HbO and HbR measures, eight regions of interest (ROIs were assessed: the anterior and posterior dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFC (aDLPFC, pDLPFC, aVLPFC, pVLPFC in each hemisphere. Nineteen YA (M = 21.83 yrs and 14 OA (M = 66.85 yrs walked at a self-selected pace while performing auditory 1-back and 2-back tasks. Walking alone (single motor: SM and performing the cognitive tasks alone (single cognitive: SC were compared to dual-task walking (DT = SM + SC. In the behavioural data, participants were more accurate in the lowest level of load (1-back compared to the highest (2-back; p ˂ .001. YA were more accurate than OA overall (p = .009, and particularly in the 2-back task (p = .048. In the fNIRS data, both younger and older adults had task effects (SM < DT in specific ROIs for ∆HbO (3 YA, 1 OA and ∆HbR (7 YA, 8 OA. After controlling for walk speed differences, direct comparisons between YA and OA did not reveal significant age differences, but did reveal a difficulty effect in HbO in the left aDLPFC (p = .028 and significant task effects (SM < DT in HbR for 6 of the 8 ROIs. Findings suggest that YA and OA respond similarly to manipulations of cognitive load when walking on a treadmill at a self-selected pace.

  17. Comparable Cerebral Oxygenation Patterns in Younger and Older Adults during Dual-Task Walking with Increasing Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah A; Dupuy, Olivier; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric; Bherer, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The neuroimaging literature on dual-task gait clearly demonstrates increased prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement when performing a cognitive task while walking. However, findings from direct comparisons of the cerebral oxygenation patterns of younger (YA) and older (OA) adults during dual-task walking are mixed and it is unclear how YA and OA respond to increasing cognitive load (difficulty) while walking. This functional near infra-red (fNIRS) study examined cerebral oxygenation of YA and OA during self-paced dual-task treadmill walking at two different levels of cognitive load (auditory n-back). Changes in accuracy (%) as well as oxygenated (HbO) and deoxygenated (HbR) hemoglobin were examined. For the HbO and HbR measures, eight regions of interest (ROIs) were assessed: the anterior and posterior dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFC (aDLPFC, pDLPFC, aVLPFC, pVLPFC) in each hemisphere. Nineteen YA (M = 21.83 years) and 14 OA (M = 66.85 years) walked at a self-selected pace while performing auditory 1-back and 2-back tasks. Walking alone (single motor: SM) and performing the cognitive tasks alone (single cognitive: SC) were compared to dual-task walking (DT = SM + SC). In the behavioural data, participants were more accurate in the lowest level of load (1-back) compared to the highest (2-back; p < 0.001). YA were more accurate than OA overall (p = 0.009), and particularly in the 2-back task (p = 0.048). In the fNIRS data, both younger and older adults had task effects (SM < DT) in specific ROIs for ΔHbO (three YA, one OA) and ΔHbR (seven YA, eight OA). After controlling for walk speed differences, direct comparisons between YA and OA did not reveal significant age differences, but did reveal a difficulty effect in HbO in the left aDLPFC (p = 0.028) and significant task effects (SM < DT) in HbR for six of the eight ROIs. Findings suggest that YA and OA respond similarly to manipulations of cognitive load when walking on a treadmill at a self-selected pace.

  18. BACK MUSCLES STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT BY MEANS OF INCREASE AND DECREASE OF EFFORT LOAD DURING GIANT SETS IN BODYBUILDING FOR MASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMNEA OLIVIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the study is to highlight methodological issues on the back muscle strength development by combining methodological procedures in masses bodybuilding.Methods. The study was conducted in three stages over a period of two months (March-April 2011, performing three workouts per week, monitoring the effective use of strength exercises to develop back muscles in the same muscle area by means of giant sets during workouts. In this context, we conducted a case study in "Tonik Fitness Club" in Bucharest, applied to two athletes of 28 and 34 years old. We recorded subjects’ evolutions during the training session, using statistical and mathematical method and graphical representation method.Results. The study content highlights the training programs depending on muscle zone and the specific methodological aspects, the weekly training program per muscle groups, the stages of study carrying out, the test and control trials applied in terms of anthropometric measurements and of back muscle strength development, and the application of the methodical procedure of effort load increase and decrease within the giant sets in a training micro-cycle.Discussion. The study focused on the training programs over two months, monitoring statistically the development of back muscle strength through the application of the procedure of effort load increase and decrease during giant sets in bodybuilding for masses. From the analysis of training programs content we noticed that three giant sets of exercises were used, performed in four series; each exercise within the giant sets was applied by means of the procedure of increasing and decreasing effort load. Study results emphasize the anthropometric measurement results: the study subjects have the age mean of 24.75, with a size of 175.2 cm and a weight of 83.75 kg at initial testing and a decrease by 2.12 kg in final testing. Regarding the chest perimeter, the inspiration is averaging 89.5 in initial

  19. High dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged women : a population-based follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, Joline W. J.; de Bruijne, Leonie M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this work was to assess whether high dietary glycemic load and glycemic index are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Background The associations of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load with risk of CVD are not well established, particularly

  20. TRAIL signaling is proinflammatory and proviral in a murine model of rhinovirus 1B infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girkin, Jason L; Hatchwell, Luke M; Collison, Adam M; Starkey, Malcolm R; Hansbro, Philip M; Yagita, Hideo; Foster, Paul S; Mattes, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    the aim of this study is to elucidate the role of TRAIL during rhinovirus (RV) infection in vivo. Naïve wild-type and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-deficient (Tnfsf10(-/-)) BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with RV1B. In separate experiments, Tnfsf10(-/-) mice were sensitized and challenged via the airway route with house dust mite (HDM) to induce allergic airways disease and then challenged with RVIB or UV-RVIB. Airway hyperreactivity (AHR) was invasively assessed as total airways resistance in response to increasing methacholine challenge and inflammation was assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at multiple time points postinfection. Chemokines were quantified by ELISA of whole lung lysates and viral load was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and tissue culture infective dose (TCID50). Human airway epithelial cells (BEAS2B) were infected with RV1B and stimulated with recombinant TRAIL or neutralizing anti-TRAIL antibodies and viral titer assessed by TCID50 HDM-challenged Tnfsf10(-/-) mice were protected against RV-induced AHR and had suppressed cellular infiltration in the airways upon RV infection. Chemokine C-X-C-motif ligand 2 (CXCL2) production was suppressed in naïve Tnfsf10(-/-) mice infected with RV1B, with less RV1B detected 24 h postinfection. This was associated with reduced apoptotic cell death and a reduction of interferon (IFN)-λ2/3 but not IFN-α or IFN-β. TRAIL stimulation increased, whereas anti-TRAIL antibodies reduced viral replication in RV1B-infected BEAS2B cells in vitro. In conclusion, TRAIL promotes RV-induced AHR, inflammation and RV1B replication, implicating this molecule and its downstream signaling pathways as a possible target for the amelioration of RV1B-induced allergic and nonallergic lung inflammation and AHR. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Change of teicoplanin loading dose requirement for incremental increases of systemic inflammatory response syndrome score in the setting of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takafumi; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Takata, Tohru; Irie, Keiichi; Sano, Kazunori; Imakyure, Osamu; Mishima, Kenichi; Futagami, Koujiro

    2016-08-01

    Background Target trough concentrations are recommended for teicoplanin (TEIC) to minimize its adverse effects and to maximize efficacy in sepsis caused by grampositive cocci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, optimal doses to attain proper trough values in patients with sepsis have not yet been well established for TEIC. Objective This study investigated whether the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score could predict the pharmacokinetics of TEIC in patients with sepsis. Setting This study was conducted at Fukuoka University Hospital in Japan. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients using TEIC between April 2012 and March 2015. SIRS positive was defined as infection with a SIRS score ≥2. Estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a Bayesian method. Creatinine clearance rates were estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula (eCcr). Main outcome measure Change of TEIC loading dose requirement for incremental increases of SIRS score. Results In total, 133 patients were enrolled: 50 non-SIRS patients and 83 patients with SIRS. The TEIC plasma trough concentration was significantly lower in SIRS than non-SIRS patients (15.7 ± 7.1 vs. 20.1 ± 8.6 μg/mL; P < 0.01), although there was no significant difference in the loading dose administered. Moreover, SIRS scores were increasingly predictive of eCcr and TEIC clearance in a stepwise manner. To achieve the target trough concentration (15-30 μg/mL), the optimal doses required in non-SIRS versus SIRS patients were 12-24 versus 18-30 mg/kg/day, respectively, during the first 48 h. Conclusions These findings suggest that the pharmacokinetics of TEIC are altered in SIRS patients, who required higher doses than non-SIRS patients to achieve the target trough concentration. We suggest that the SIRS score can become a new modality to determine the initial TEIC loading dose.

  2. Diverse wild mouse origins of xenotropic, mink cell focus-forming, and two types of ecotropic proviral genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, C A; O'Neill, R R

    1987-10-01

    We analyzed wild mouse DNAs for the number and type of proviral genes related to the env sequences of various murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs). Only Mus species closely related to laboratory mice carried these retroviral sequences, and the different subclasses of viral env genes tended to be restricted to specific taxonomic groups. Only Mus musculus molossinus carried proviral genes which cross-reacted with the inbred mouse ecotropic MuLV env gene. The ecotropic viral env sequence associated with the Fv-4 resistance gene was found in the Asian mice M. musculus molossinus and Mus musculus castaneus and in California mice from Lake Casitas (LC). Both M. musculus castaneus and LC mice carried many additional Fv-4 env-related proviruses, two of which are common to both mouse populations, which suggests that these mice share a recent common ancestry. Xenotropic and mink cell focus-forming (MCF) virus env sequences were more widely dispersed in wild mice than the ecotropic viral env genes, which suggests that nonecotropic MuLVs were integrated into the Mus germ line at an earlier date. Xenotropic MuLVs represented the major component of MuLV env-reactive genes in Asian and eastern European mice classified as M. musculus molossinus, M. musculus castaneus, and Mus musculus musculus, whereas Mus musculus domesticus from western Europe, the Mediterranean, and North America contained almost exclusively MCF virus env copies. M. musculus musculus mice from central Europe trapped near the M. musculus domesticus/M. musculus musculus hybrid zone carried multiple copies of both types of env genes. LC mice also carried both xenotropic and MCF viral env genes, which is consistent with the above conclusion that they represent natural hybrids of M. musculus domesticus and M. musculus castaneus.

  3. Amino Acid Medical Foods Provide a High Dietary Acid Load and Increase Urinary Excretion of Renal Net Acid, Calcium, and Magnesium Compared with Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods in Phenylketonuria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridget M. Stroup; Emily A. Sawin; Sangita G. Murali; Neil Binkley; Karen E. Hansen; Denise M. Ney

    2017-01-01

    .... We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). Design...

  4. Visco-elastic deformation around Siling Co lake (Tibet) due to its 2000-2010 increased water load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doin, M.; Twardzik, C.; Ducret, G.; Lasserre, C.; Guillaso, S.; Sun, J.

    2012-12-01

    This study attempts to constrain the lithospheric strength in Central Tibet by studying the rebound of the lithosphere subjected to loading due to lake Siling Co water level increase. This lake is a large (1600 km2) endhoreic lake at 4500 m elevation located North of the strike-slip right lateral Gyaring Co fault, and South of the Bangong Nujiang suture zone. The water load of the lake is constrained by altimetric measures and all cloud-free LANDSAT images available on the USGS GLOVIS server. During the period 1973-1999 the Siling Co water level remained stable, while it increased by about 1.0 m/yr in the period 2000-2006. The increase rate gradually stepped down to 0.2 m/yr in 2008-2011. The ground motion associated to the water level increase is studied by InSAR using all available 56 ERS and 51 Envisat data on descending tracks 491 and 219 in the period 1992-2010. A redundant network of small baseline differential interferograms is computed with perpendicular baseline smaller than 500 m. The ERS and Envisat networks overlap in time, thus insuring measurement continuity. The coherence is quickly lost with time (over one year), particularly to the North of the lake because of freeze-thaw cycles. Interferograms are corrected for stratified atmospheric effect and residual orbital trends. The interferograms covering the period 1992-1999 show no detectable deformation, whereas the ones covering the period 2000-2010 present a clear bowl shape pattern centered on the lake that extend from the shore to about ~100 km from the lake center. The amplitude is about 5 mm/yr close to the lake shores. To increase the signal to noise ratio, the interferograms are first analysed in time assuming a constant deformation shape. We then obtain the temporal evolution of the deformation amplitude : it remains constant for the period 1992-1999, and increases from 2000 until 2010. This curve thus closely follows the lake level temporal evolution. The average spatial deformation pattern is

  5. Changes in the location of biodiversity-ecosystem function hot spots across the seafloor landscape with increasing sediment nutrient loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, Simon F; Hewitt, Judi E; Kraan, Casper; Lohrer, A M; Pilditch, Conrad A; Douglas, Emily

    2017-04-12

    Declining biodiversity and loss of ecosystem function threatens the ability of habitats to contribute ecosystem services. However, the form of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function (BEF) and how relationships change with environmental change is poorly understood. This limits our ability to predict the consequences of biodiversity loss on ecosystem function, particularly in real-world marine ecosystems that are species rich, and where multiple ecosystem functions are represented by multiple indicators. We investigated spatial variation in BEF relationships across a 300 000 m 2 intertidal sandflat by nesting experimental manipulations of sediment pore water nitrogen concentration into sites with contrasting macrobenthic community composition. Our results highlight the significance of many different elements of biodiversity associated with environmental characteristics, community structure, functional diversity, ecological traits or particular species (ecosystem engineers) to important functions of coastal marine sediments (benthic oxygen consumption, ammonium pore water concentrations and flux across the sediment-water interface). Using the BEF relationships developed from our experiment, we demonstrate patchiness across a landscape in functional performance and the potential for changes in the location of functional hot and cold spots with increasing nutrient loading that have important implications for mapping and predicating change in functionality and the concomitant delivery of ecosystem services. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Susceptibility of experimental faults to pore pressure increase: insights from load-controlled experiments on calcite-bearing rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, Elena; Violay, Marie; Nielsen, Stefan; Cornelio, Chiara; Di Toro, Giulio

    2017-04-01

    Fluid pressure has been indicated as a major factor controlling natural (e.g., L'Aquila, Italy, 2009 Mw 6.3) and induced seismicity (e.g., Wilzetta, Oklahoma, 2011 Mw 5.7). Terzaghi's principle states that the effective normal stress is linearly reduced by a pore pressure (Pf) increase σeff=σn(1 - αPf), where the effective stress parameter α, may be related to the fraction of the fault area that is flooded. A value of α =1 is often used by default, with Pf shifting the Mohr circle towards lower normal effective stresses and anticipating failure on pre-existing faults. However, within a complex fault core of inhomogeneous permeability, α may vary in a yet poorly understood way. To shed light on this problem, we conducted experiments on calcite-bearing rock samples (Carrara marble) at room humidity conditions and in the presence of pore fluids (drained conditions) using a rotary apparatus (SHIVA). A pre-cut fault is loaded by constant shear stress τ under constant normal stress σn=15 MPa until a target value corresponding roughly to the 80 % of the frictional fault strength. The pore pressure Pf is then raised with regular pressure and time steps to induce fault instability. Assuming α=1 and a threshold for instability τp_eff=μp σeff, the experiments reveal that an increase of Pf does not necessarily induce an instability even when the effective strength threshold is largely surpassed (e.g., τp_eff=1.3 μpσeff). This result may indicate that the Pf increase did not instantly diffuse throughout the slip zone, but took a finite time to equilibrate with the external imposed pressure increase due to finite permeability. Under our experimental conditions, a significant departure from α=1 is observed provided that the Pf step is shorter than about < 20s. We interpret this delay as indicative of the diffusion time (td), which is related to fluid penetration length l by l = √ κtd-, where κ is the hydraulic diffusivity on the fault plane. We show that a

  7. Maternal dietary loads of alpha-tocopherol increase synapse density and glial synaptic coverage in the hippocampus of adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salucci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An increased intake of the antioxidant α-Tocopherol (vitamin E is recommended in complicated pregnancies, to prevent free radical damage to mother and fetus. However, the anti-PKC and antimitotic activity of α-Tocopherol raises concerns about its potential effects on brain development. Recently, we found that maternal dietary loads of α-Tocopherol through pregnancy and lactation cause developmental deficit in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rat offspring. The defect persisted into adulthood, with behavioral alterations in hippocampus-dependent learning. Here, using the same rat model of maternal supplementation, ultrastructural morphometric studies were carried out to provide mechanistic interpretation to such a functional impairment in adult offspring by the occurrence of long-term changes in density and morphological features of hippocampal synapses. Higher density of axo-spinous synapses was found in CA1 stratum radiatum of α-Tocopherol-exposed rats compared to controls, pointing to a reduced synapse pruning. No morphometric changes were found in synaptic ultrastructural features, i.e., perimeter of axon terminals, length of synaptic specializations, extension of bouton-spine contact. Glia-synapse anatomical relationship was also affected. Heavier astrocytic coverage of synapses was observed in Tocopherol-treated offspring, notably surrounding axon terminals; moreover, the percentage of synapses contacted by astrocytic endfeet at bouton-spine interface (tripartite synapses was increased. These findings indicate that gestational and neonatal exposure to supranutritional tocopherol intake can result in anatomical changes of offspring hippocampus that last through adulthood. These include a surplus of axo-spinous synapses and an aberrant glia-synapse relationship, which may represent the morphological signature of previously described alterations in synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning.

  8. Genotypic tropism testing in proviral DNA to guide maraviroc initiation in aviremic subjects: 48-week analysis of the PROTEST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Federico; Poveda, Eva; Pérez-Elías, Maria Jesús; Quero, José Hernández; Ribas, Maria Angels; Martínez-Madrid, Onofre J; Flores, Juan; Crespo, Manel; Gutiérrez, Félix; García-Deltoro, Miguel; Imaz, Arkaitz; Ocampo, Antonio; Artero, Arturo; Blanco, Francisco; Bernal, Enrique; Pasquau, Juan; Mínguez-Gallego, Carlos; Pérez, Núria; Aiestarán, Aintzane; Paredes, Roger

    2014-01-01

    In a previous interim 24-week virological safety analysis of the PROTEST study (1), initiation of Maraviroc (MVC) plus 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in aviremic subjects based on genotypic tropism testing of proviral HIV-1 DNA was associated with low rates of virological failure. Here we present the final 48-week analysis of the study. PROTEST was a phase 4, prospective, single-arm clinical trial (ID: NCT01378910) carried on in 24 HIV care centres in Spain. Maraviroc-naïve HIV-1-positive adults with HIV-1 RNA (VL) 10% in a singleton), initiated MVC with 2 NRTIs and were followed for 48 weeks. Virological failure was defined as two consecutive VL>50 c/mL. Recent adherence was calculated as: (# pills taken/# pills prescribed during the previous week)*100. Tropism results were available from 141/175 (80.6%) subjects screened: 87/141 (60%) were R5 and 74/87 (85%) were finally included in the study. Their median age was 48 years, 16% were women, 31% were MSM, 36% had CDC category C at study entry, 62% were HCV+ and 10% were HBV+. Median CD4+ counts were 616 cells/mm(3) at screening, and median nadir CD4+ counts were 143 cells/mm(3). Previous ART included PIs in 46 (62%) subjects, NNRTIs in 27 (36%) and integrase inhibitors (INIs) in 1 (2%). The main reasons for treatment change were dyslipidemia (42%), gastrointestinal symptoms (22%), and liver toxicity (15%). MVC was given alongside TDF/FTC in 40 (54%) subjects, ABC/3TC in 30 (40%), AZT/3TC in 2 (3%) and ABC/TDF in 2 (3%). Sixty-two (84%) subjects maintained VL<50 c/mL through week 48, whereas 12 (16%) discontinued treatment: two (3%) withdrew informed consent, one (1%) had a R5→X4 shift in HIV tropism between the screening and baseline visits, one (1%) was lost to follow-up, one (1%) developed an ART-related adverse event (rash), two (3%) died due to non-study-related causes (1 myocardial infarction at week 0 and 1 lung cancer at week 36), and five (7%) developed protocol-defined virological

  9. Genotypic tropism testing in proviral DNA to guide maraviroc initiation in aviremic subjects: 48-week analysis of the PROTEST study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Garcia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In a previous interim 24-week virological safety analysis of the PROTEST study (1, initiation of Maraviroc (MVC plus 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs in aviremic subjects based on genotypic tropism testing of proviral HIV-1 DNA was associated with low rates of virological failure. Here we present the final 48-week analysis of the study. Methods: PROTEST was a phase 4, prospective, single-arm clinical trial (ID: NCT01378910 carried on in 24 HIV care centres in Spain. Maraviroc-naïve HIV-1-positive adults with HIV-1 RNA (VL 10% in a singleton, initiated MVC with 2 NRTIs and were followed for 48 weeks. Virological failure was defined as two consecutive VL>50 c/mL. Recent adherence was calculated as: (# pills taken/# pills prescribed during the previous week*100. Results: Tropism results were available from 141/175 (80.6% subjects screened: 87/141 (60% were R5 and 74/87 (85% were finally included in the study. Their median age was 48 years, 16% were women, 31% were MSM, 36% had CDC category C at study entry, 62% were HCV+ and 10% were HBV+. Median CD4+ counts were 616 cells/mm3 at screening, and median nadir CD4+ counts were 143 cells/mm3. Previous ART included PIs in 46 (62% subjects, NNRTIs in 27 (36% and integrase inhibitors (INIs in 1 (2%. The main reasons for treatment change were dyslipidemia (42%, gastrointestinal symptoms (22%, and liver toxicity (15%. MVC was given alongside TDF/FTC in 40 (54% subjects, ABC/3TC in 30 (40%, AZT/3TC in 2 (3% and ABC/TDF in 2 (3%. Sixty-two (84% subjects maintained VL<50 c/mL through week 48, whereas 12 (16% discontinued treatment: two (3% withdrew informed consent, one (1% had a R5→X4 shift in HIV tropism between the screening and baseline visits, one (1% was lost to follow-up, one (1% developed an ART-related adverse event (rash, two (3% died due to non-study-related causes (1 myocardial infarction at week 0 and 1 lung cancer at week 36, and five (7% developed protocol

  10. Effects of glycemic load on metabolic risk markers in subjects at increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrolix, Ruth; Mensink, Ronald P

    2010-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that diets with a low glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) are associated with a decreased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Intervention studies are inconsistent, however, possibly due to differences in macronutrient and fiber compositions of the experimental diets. We tested side-by-side test foods with similar macronutrient and fiber compositions but with different sucrose-flour ratios or carbohydrate source to determine the effects of different GIs and GLs on metabolic risk markers in overweight subjects. Overweight men (n = 9) and women (n = 6) received in random order for 11 wk 4 test foods with an increased GI or a decreased GI (69 compared with 40, 86 compared with 48, 63 compared with 37, and 51 compared with 20, respectively). There was a GL difference of 32 units between the 2 interventions. At the end of the 11-wk intervention periods, the decreased GL test foods did not change fasting plasma glucose (mean +/- SD: 5.83 +/- 0.6 compared with 5.94 +/- 0.6 mmol/L) or insulin (8.3 +/- 2.8 compared with 9.8 +/- 5.1 mU/L) concentrations compared with increased GL test foods. Serum total cholesterol (5.56 +/- 0.90 compared with 5.76 +/- 1.04 mmol/L), LDL-cholesterol (3.57 +/- 0.72 compared with 3.68 +/- 0.80 mmol/L), HDL-cholesterol (1.21 +/- 0.38 compared with 1.24 +/- 0.37 mmol/L), and triacylglycerol (1.61 +/- 0.77 compared with 1.78 +/- 1.04 mmol/L) concentrations were also not significantly different for decreased and increased GL test foods, respectively. Finally, proinflammatory (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) and prothrombotic (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1) markers were not affected. Glucose and lipids were also analyzed after 1 and 5 wk of intervention and were not affected by the intervention. When incorporated into a habitual diet, consumption of test foods with a decreased GL does not ameliorate metabolic risk markers

  11. Extravascular Lung Water Does Not Increase in Hypovolemic Patients after a Fluid-Loading Protocol Guided by the Stroke Volume Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ferrando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Circulatory failure secondary to hypovolemia is a common situation in critical care patients. Volume replacement is the first option for the treatment of hypovolemia. A possible complication of volume loading is pulmonary edema, quantified at the bedside by the measurement of extravascular lung water index (ELWI. ELWI predicts progression to acute lung injury (ALI in patients with risk factors for developing it. The aim of this study was to assess whether fluid loading guided by the stroke volume variation (SVV, in patients presumed to be hypovolemic, increased ELWI or not. Methods. Prospective study of 17 consecutive postoperative, fully mechanically ventilated patients diagnosed with circulatory failure secondary to presumed hypovolemia were included. Cardiac index (CI, ELWI, SVV, and global end-diastolic volume index (GEDI were determined using the transpulmonary thermodilution technique during the first 12 hours after fluid loading. Volume replacement was done with a strict hemodynamic protocol. Results. Fluid loading produced a significant increase in CI and a decrease in SVV. ELWI did not increase. No correlation was found between the amount of fluids administered and the change in ELWI. Conclusion. Fluid loading guided by SVV in hypovolemic and fully mechanically ventilated patients in sinus rhythm does not increase ELWI.

  12. A stepwise reduction in plasma and salivary nitrite with increasing strengths of mouthwash following a dietary nitrate load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, Mary; Smoliga, James M; Tarzia, Brendan; Stabler, Thomas; Van Bruggen, Mitch; Allen, Jason D

    2016-04-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) bioavailability is essential for vascular health. Dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate, which is abundant in vegetables and roots, has been identified as an effective means of increasing vascular NO bioavailability. Recent studies have shown a reduction in resting blood pressures in both normotensive and hypertensive subjects following ingestion of inorganic nitrate. Oral bacteria play a key role in this process and the use of strong antibacterial mouthwash rinses can disable this mechanism. Hence, mouthwash usage, a $1.4 billion market in the US, may potentially be detrimental to cardiovascular health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different strengths of commercially available mouthwash products on salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations following 8.4 mmol inorganic nitrate load (beetroot juice). Specifically, we examined the effects of Listerine antiseptic mouthwash, Cepacol antibacterial mouthwash, and Chlorhexidine mouthwash versus control (water). Twelve apparently healthy normotensive males (36 ± 11 yrs) completed four testing visits in a randomized order, separated by one week. Testing consisted of blood pressure (BP), and saliva and venous blood collection at baseline and each hour for 4 h. Following baseline-testing participants consumed 140 ml of beet juice and then 15 min later gargled with 5 mL of assigned mouthwash. Testing and mouthwash rinse was repeated every hour for 4 h. Linear mixed effects models, followed by pairwise comparisons where appropriate, were used to determine the influence of treatment and time on plasma and saliva nitrate and nitrite, and BP. Plasma and salivary nitrate increased above baseline (time effect) for all conditions (p ≤ 0.01). There were time (p ≤ 0.01), treatment (p ≤ 0.01), and interaction (p ≤ 0.05) effects for plasma and salivary nitrite. There was a treatment effect on systolic BP (p ≤ 0.05). Further examination revealed a

  13. When to increase or reduce sodium loading in the management of fluid volume status during acute decompensated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirotani, Shinichi; Masuyama, Tohru

    2014-12-01

    Sodium restriction has been believed to be indispensible to manage fluid overload during acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). However, recently, it was reported that a change in aggression of sodium and water restriction did not affect the outcome of ADHF. In contrast, current data suggest that small amount of hypertonic saline solution with high-dose furosemide produces an improvement in haemodynamic and clinical parameters without any severe adverse effects. In this perspective, first, we are going to describe the effects of sodium loading on neurohormonal activation, body's sodium balance, and renal function in chronic heart failure and the efficacy of loop diuretics in ADHF. Then, we are going to explain the possible mechanisms by which sodium loading enhances the efficacy of loop diuretics and about the clinical conditions during which sodium loading should be avoided. © 2014 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  14. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-12-01

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC).Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  15. Structure and possible function of a G-quadruplex in the long terminal repeat of the proviral HIV-1 genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Beatrice; Lech, Christopher J; Heddi, Brahim; Regmi, Sagar; Frasson, Ilaria; Perrone, Rosalba; Richter, Sara N; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2016-07-27

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) of the proviral human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genome is integral to virus transcription and host cell infection. The guanine-rich U3 region within the LTR promoter, previously shown to form G-quadruplex structures, represents an attractive target to inhibit HIV transcription and replication. In this work, we report the structure of a biologically relevant G-quadruplex within the LTR promoter region of HIV-1. The guanine-rich sequence designated LTR-IV forms a well-defined structure in physiological cationic solution. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of this sequence reveals a parallel-stranded G-quadruplex containing a single-nucleotide thymine bulge, which participates in a conserved stacking interaction with a neighboring single-nucleotide adenine loop. Transcription analysis in a HIV-1 replication competent cell indicates that the LTR-IV region may act as a modulator of G-quadruplex formation in the LTR promoter. Consequently, the LTR-IV G-quadruplex structure presented within this work could represent a valuable target for the design of HIV therapeutics. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Strategies for rapidly mapping proviral integration sites and assessing cardiogenic potential of nascent human induced pluripotent stem cell clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambrot, Cheryl; Buermans, Henk P J; Varga, Eszter; Kosmidis, Georgios; Langenberg, Karin; Casini, Simona; Elliott, David A; Dinnyes, Andras; Atsma, Douwe E; Mummery, Christine L; Braam, Stefan R; Davis, Richard P

    2014-10-01

    Recent methodological advances have improved the ease and efficiency of generating human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), but this now typically results in a greater number of hiPSC clones being derived than can be wholly characterized. It is therefore imperative that methods are developed which facilitate rapid selection of hiPSC clones most suited for the downstream research aims. Here we describe a combination of procedures enabling the simultaneous screening of multiple clones to determine their genomic integrity as well as their cardiac differentiation potential within two weeks of the putative reprogrammed colonies initially appearing. By coupling splinkerette-PCR with Ion Torrent sequencing, we could ascertain the number and map the proviral integration sites in lentiviral-reprogrammed hiPSCs. In parallel, we developed an effective cardiac differentiation protocol that generated functional cardiomyocytes within 10 days without requiring line-specific optimization for any of the six independent human pluripotent stem cell lines tested. Finally, to demonstrate the scalable potential of these procedures, we picked 20 nascent iPSC clones and performed these independent assays concurrently. Before the clones required passaging, we were able to identify clones with a single integrated copy of the reprogramming vector and robust cardiac differentiation potential for further analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased expression of matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE in cortical bone of the rat tibia after mechanical loading: identification by oligonucleotide microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianne M A Reijnders

    Full Text Available Skeletal integrity in humans and animals is maintained by daily mechanical loading. It has been widely accepted that osteocytes function as mechanosensors. Many biochemical signaling molecules are involved in the response of osteocytes to mechanical stimulation. The aim of this study was to identify genes involved in the translation of mechanical stimuli into bone formation. The four-point bending model was used to induce a single period of mechanical loading on the right tibia, while the contra lateral left tibia served as control. Six hours after loading, the effects of mechanical loading on gene-expression were determined with microarray analysis. Protein expression of differentially regulated genes was evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Nine genes were found to exhibit a significant differential gene expression in LOAD compared to control. MEPE, Garnl1, V2R2B, and QFG-TN1 olfactory receptor were up-regulated, and creatine kinase (muscle form, fibrinogen-B beta-polypeptide, monoamine oxidase A, troponin-C and kinesin light chain-C were down-regulated. Validation with real-time RT-PCR analysis confirmed the up-regulation of MEPE and the down-regulation of creatine kinase (muscle form and troponin-C in the loaded tibia. Immunohistochemistry showed that the increase of MEPE protein expression was already detectable six hours after mechanical loading. In conclusion, these genes probably play a role during translation of mechanical stimuli six hours after mechanical loading. The modulation of MEPE expression may indicate a connection between bone mineralization and bone formation after mechanical stimulation.

  18. Increased rate of force development and neuromuscular activity after high-load resistance training in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper L.; Eidemak, Inge

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-load resistance training on the rate of force development and neuromuscular function in patients undergoing dialysis. MethodsTwenty-nine patients were tested before and after 16 weeks of resistance training. The rate of force develop...

  19. Numerical Evaluation on the Different Shapes of Gravelly Sand Columns to Increase the Loading Capacity of Soft Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghzili Sif Allah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement on soft clay by the installation of stone column is one of the most popular methods followed worldwide. Different analytical and numerical solutions have already been developed for understanding the load transfer mechanism of soft soil reinforced with stone column. This study investigated a bearing capacity of the gravelly sand column, installed in soft clay bed at 15kpa of undrained shear strength. The column variable of length and diameter ratio at 7, 8 and 9 were evaluated. On top of that, the combination of two diameters in single column was tested and the uniform diameter was used as a control. In the numerical analysis, Mohrcoulomb model was adopted in the idealization of the behaviour of the gravelly sand column and soft clay materials. The results revealed that the optimum design that gave the highest loading capacity of the combination 11=12 of column diameter was the length and diameter ratio of 8.

  20. Cognitive Load Study Using Increasingly Immersive Levels of Map-based Information Portrayal on the End User Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    at Fort Benning, GA. For this experiment, it was loaded onto a standard laptop computer. The computer communicated with the Soldier’s EUD via WiFi ...3 The company commander calls and gives the approximate azimuth for a possible contaminant with a large danger area radius and asks the platoon...more helpful (if adjusted to eyewear) in a dangerous urban environment. 1 I like the potential of AR. Needs to have adjustment ability given to the

  1. Changes in rocket salad phytochemicals within the commercial supply chain: Glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, amino acids and bacterial load increase significantly after processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Luke; Yahya, Hanis Nadia; Oloyede, Omobolanle Oluwadamilola; Methven, Lisa; Wagstaff, Carol

    2017-04-15

    Five cultivars of Eruca sativa and a commercial variety of Diplotaxis tenuifolia were grown in the UK (summer) and subjected to commercial growth, harvesting and processing, with subsequent shelf life storage. Glucosinolates (GSL), isothiocyanates (ITC), amino acids (AA), free sugars, and bacterial loads were analysed throughout the supply chain to determine the effects on phytochemical compositions. Bacterial load of leaves increased significantly over time and peaked during shelf life storage. Significant correlations were observed with GSL and AA concentrations, suggesting a previously unknown relationship between plants and endemic leaf bacteria. GSLs, ITCs and AAs increased significantly after processing and during shelf life. The supply chain did not significantly affect glucoraphanin concentrations, and its ITC sulforaphane significantly increased during shelf life in E. sativa cultivars. We hypothesise that commercial processing may increase the nutritional value of the crop, and have added health benefits for the consumer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. A Little Goes a Long Way: Low Working Memory Load Is Associated with Optimal Distractor Inhibition and Increased Vagal Control under Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Derek P; Friedman, Bruce H

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety impairs both inhibition of distraction and attentional focus. It is unclear whether these impairments are reduced or exacerbated when loading working memory with non-affective information. Cardiac vagal control has been related to top-down regulation of anxiety; therefore, vagal control may reflect load-related inhibition of distraction under anxiety. The present study examined whether: (1) the enhancing and impairing effects of load on inhibition exist together in a non-linear function, (2) there is a similar association between inhibition and concurrent vagal control under anxiety. During anxiogenic threat-of-noise, 116 subjects maintained a digit series of varying lengths (0, 2, 4, and 6 digits) while completing a visual flanker task. The task was broken into four blocks, with a baseline period preceding each. Electrocardiography was acquired throughout to quantify vagal control as high-frequency heart rate variability (HRV). There were significant quadratic relations of working memory load to flanker performance and to HRV, but no associations between HRV and performance. Results indicate that low load was associated with relatively better inhibition and increased HRV. These findings suggest that attentional performance under anxiety depends on the availability of working memory resources, which might be reflected by vagal control. These results have implications for treating anxiety disorders, in which regulation of anxiety can be optimized for attentional focus.

  3. Genetic modelling of PIM proteins in cancer: proviral tagging, cooperation with oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and carcinogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enara eAguirre

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The PIM proteins, which were initially discovered as proviral insertion sites in Moloney murine leukemia virus infection, are a family of highly homologous serine/threonine kinases that have been reported to be overexpressed in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. The PIM proteins have also been associated with metastasis and overall treatment responses and implicated in the regulation of apoptosis, metabolism, the cell cycle, and homing and migration, which makes these proteins interesting targets for anticancer drug discovery. The use of retroviral insertional mutagenesis and refined approaches such as complementation tagging has allowed the identification of myc, pim and a third group of genes (including bmi1 and gfi1 as complementing genes in lymphomagenesis. Moreover, mouse modeling of human cancer has provided an understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in tumor initiation and progression at the physiological level. In particular, genetically modified mice have allowed researchers to further elucidate the role of each of the Pim isoforms in various tumor types. PIM kinases have been identified as weak oncogenes because experimental overexpression in lymphoid tissue, prostate and liver induces tumors at a relatively low incidence and with a long latency. However, very strong synergistic tumorigenicity between Pim1/2 and c-Myc and other oncogenes has been observed in lymphoid tissues. Mouse models have also been used to study whether the inhibition of specific PIM isoforms is required to prevent carcinogen-induced sarcomas, indicating that the absence of Pim2 and Pim3 greatly reduces sarcoma growth and bone invasion; the extent of this effect is similar to that observed in the absence of all 3 isoforms. This review will summarize some of the animal models that have been used to understand the isoform-specific contribution of PIM kinases to tumorigenesis.

  4. Egg load decreases mobility and increases predation risk in female black-horned tree crickets (Oecanthus nigricornis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla Ercit

    Full Text Available Female-biased predation is an uncommon phenomenon in nature since males of many species take on riskier behaviours to gain more mates. Several species of sphecid wasps have been observed taking more female than male prey, and it is not fully understood why. The solitary sphecid Isodontia mexicana catches more adult female tree cricket (Oecanthus nigricornis prey. Previous work has shown that, although female tree crickets are larger and thus likely to be more valuable as prey than males, body size alone cannot fully explain why wasps take more females. We tested the hypothesis that wasps catch adult female tree crickets more often because bearing eggs impedes a female's ability to escape predation. We compared female survivors to prey of I. mexicana, and found that females carrying more eggs were significantly more likely to be caught by wasps, regardless of their body size and jumping leg mass. We also conducted laboratory experiments where females' jumping responses to a simulated attack were measured and compared to her egg load and morphology. We found a significant negative relationship between egg load and jumping ability, and a positive relationship between body size and jumping ability. These findings support the hypothesis that ovarian eggs are a physical handicap that contributes to female-biased predation in this system. Predation on the most fecund females may have ecological-evolutionary consequences such as collapse of prey populations or selection for alternate life history strategies and behaviours.

  5. Pressure drop increase by biofilm accumulation in spiral wound RO and NF membrane systems: role of substrate concentration, flow velocity, substrate load and flow direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrouwenvelder, J S; Hinrichs, C; Van der Meer, W G J; Van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kruithof, J C

    2009-01-01

    In an earlier study, it was shown that biofouling predominantly is a feed spacer channel problem. In this article, pressure drop development and biofilm accumulation in membrane fouling simulators have been studied without permeate production as a function of the process parameters substrate concentration, linear flow velocity, substrate load and flow direction. At the applied substrate concentration range, 100-400 microg l(-1) as acetate carbon, a higher concentration caused a faster and greater pressure drop increase and a greater accumulation of biomass. Within the range of linear flow velocities as applied in practice, a higher linear flow velocity resulted in a higher initial pressure drop in addition to a more rapid and greater pressure drop increase and biomass accumulation. Reduction of the linear flow velocity resulted in an instantaneous reduction of the pressure drop caused by the accumulated biomass, without changing the biofilm concentration. A higher substrate load (product of substrate concentration and flow velocity) was related to biomass accumulation. The effect of the same amount of accumulated biomass on the pressure drop increase was related to the linear flow velocity. A decrease of substrate load caused a gradual decline in time of both biomass concentration and pressure drop increase. It was concluded that the pressure drop increase over spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems can be reduced by lowering both substrate load and linear flow velocity. There is a need for RO and NF systems with a low pressure drop increase irrespective of the biomass formation. Current efforts to control biofouling of spiral wound membranes focus in addition to pretreatment on membrane improvement. According to these authors, adaptation of the hydrodynamics, spacers and pressure vessel configuration offer promising alternatives. Additional approaches may be replacing heavily biofouled elements and flow direction reversal.

  6. Power Load from Collision Debris on the LHC Point 8 Insertion Magnets implied by the LHCB Luminosity Increase

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, L S; Lechner, A; Mereghetti, A; Vlachoudis, V; Patapenka, A

    2013-01-01

    LHCb is aiming to upgrade its goal peak luminosity up to a value of 2 × 1033 cm−2 s−1 after LS2. We investigate the collision debris impact on the machine elements by extensive FLUKA simulations, showing that the present machine layout is substantially compatible with such a luminosity goal. In particular the installation of a TAS (Target Absorber of Secondaries, installed in front of the final focus Q1-Q3 quadrupole triplet in the LHC high luminosity insertions) turns out not to be necessary on the basis of the expected peak power deposition in the Q1 superconducting coils. A warm protection may be desirable to further reduce heat load and dose on the D2 recombination dipole, due to the absence of the TAN (Target Absorber of Neutrals, present in Point 1 and 5).

  7. Effect of increasing nitrobenzene loading rates on the performance of anaerobic migrating blanket reactor and sequential anaerobic migrating blanket reactor/completely stirred tank reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuscu, Ozlem Selcuk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Sueleyman Demirel University, 32360, Isparta (Turkey); Sponza, Delia Teresa, E-mail: delya.sponza@deu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eyluel University, Buca Kaynaklar Campus, 35160, Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-08-30

    A laboratory scale anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR) reactor was operated at nitrobenzene (NB) loading rates increasing from 3.33 to 66.67 g NB/m{sup 3} day and at a constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 days to observe the effects of increasing NB concentrations on chemical oxygen demand (COD), NB removal efficiencies, bicarbonate alkalinity, volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and methane gas percentage. Moreover, the effect of an aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) reactor, following the anaerobic reactor, on treatment efficiencies was also investigated. Approximately 91-94% COD removal efficiencies were observed up to a NB loading rate of 30.00 g/m{sup 3} day in the AMBR reactor. The COD removal efficiencies decreased from 91% to 85% at a NB loading rate of 66.67 g/m{sup 3} day. NB removal efficiencies were approximately 100% at all NB loading rates. The maximum total gas, methane gas productions and methane percentage were found to be 4.1, 2.6 l/day and 59%, respectively, at a NB loading rate of 30.00 g/m{sup 3} day. The optimum pH values were found to be between 7.2 and 8.4 for maximum methanogenesis. The total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentrations in the effluent were 110 and 70 mg/l in the first and second compartments at NB loading rates as high as 66.67 and 6.67 g/m{sup 3} day, respectively, while they were measured as zero in the effluent of the AMBR reactor. In this study, from 180 mg/l NB 66 mg/l aniline was produced in the anaerobic reactor while aniline was completely removed and transformed to 2 mg/l of cathechol in the aerobic CSTR reactor. Overall COD removal efficiencies were found to be 95% and 99% for NB loading rates of 3.33 and 66.67 g/m{sup 3} day in the sequential anaerobic AMBR/aerobic CSTR reactor system, respectively. The toxicity tests performed with Photobacterium phosphoreum (LCK 480, LUMIStox) and Daphnia magna showed that the toxicity decreased with anaerobic/aerobic sequential reactor system from

  8. Assessment of Head Displacement and Disassembly Force With Increasing Assembly Load at the Head/Trunnion Junction of a Total Hip Arthroplasty Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoutar, Darryl N; Crosnier, Emilie A; Shivji, Faiz; Miles, Anthony W; Gill, Harinderjit S

    2017-05-01

    Most femoral components used now for total hip arthroplasty are modular, requiring a strong connection at assembly. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of assembly force on the strength of head-trunnion interface and to measure the initial displacement of the head on the trunnion with different assembly forces. Three assembly load levels were assessed (A: 2 kN, B: 4 kN, C: 6 kN) with 4 implants in each group. The stems were mounted in a custom rig and the respective assembly loads were applied to the head at a constant rate of 0.05 kN/s (ISO7260-10:2003). Load levels were recorded during assembly. Head displacement was measured with a laser sensor. The disassembly force was determined by a standard pull-off test. The maximum head displacement on the trunnion was significantly different between the 2 kN group and the other 2 groups (4 kN, 6 kN, P = .029), but not between the 4 kN and 6 kN groups (P = .89). The disassembly forces between the 3 groups were significantly different (mean ± standard deviation, A: 1316 ± 223 kN; B: 2224 ± 151 kN; C: 3965 ± 344 kN; P = .007), with increasing assembly load leading to a higher pull-off force. For the 4 kN and 6 kN groups, a first peak of approximately 2.5 kN was observed on the load recordings during assembly before the required assembly load was eventually reached corresponding to sudden increase in head displacement to approximately 150 μm. An assembly force of 2 kN may be too low to overcome the frictional forces needed to engage the head and achieve maximum displacement on the trunnion and thus an assembly load of greater than 2.5 kN is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Increasing plantarflexion angle during landing reduces vertical ground reaction forces, loading rates and the hip's contribution to support moment within participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, K Michael; Richards, James G

    2015-01-01

    The ankle joint's role in shock absorption during landing has been researched in many studies, which have found that landing with higher amounts of plantarflexion (PF) results in lower peak vertical ground reaction forces and loading rates. However, there has not yet been a study that compares drop landings within participants along a quantitative continuum of PF angles. Using a custom-written real-time feedback program, participants adjusted their ankles to an instructed PF angle and dropped onto two force platforms. For increasing PF, peak ground reaction force and peak loading rate during weight acceptance decreased significantly. The hip's contribution to peak support moment decreased as PF at initial contact increased up to 30°. The ankle and knee contributions increased over this same continuum of PF angles. There appears to be no optimal PF angle based on peak ground reaction force and loading rate measurements, but there may be an optimum where joint contributions to peak support moment converge and the hip moment's contribution is minimised.

  10. Dynamics of 103K/N and 184M/V HIV-1 drug resistant populations: relative comparison in plasma virus RNA versus CD45RO+T cell proviral DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Martin Roelsgaard; Tolstrup, M; Bertelsen, L

    2007-01-01

    and to investigate the expression of resistance mutations (103N and 184V) and dynamic interactions between proviral DNA and plasma virions. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical cross-sectional study, including 11 patients on lamivudine efavirenz and/or nevirapine therapy. The viral populations were determined by an assay based...... population with linked mutations (103N and 184V) was detected in two patients after more than 2 years of non-NNRTI HAART. CONCLUSION: The ARMS assay is useful for detecting viral quasi-species containing efavirenz and lamivudine resistant mutations in plasma virions and in proviral DNA. Data suggest...

  11. Nutrient additions in pristine Patagonian Sphagnum bog vegetation : can phosphorus addition alleviate (the effects of) increased nitrogen loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritz, C.; Dijk, G. van; Smolders, A.J.P.; Pancotto, V.A.; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Roelofs, J.G.M.; Grootjans, A.P.

    Sphagnum-bog ecosystems have a limited capability to retain carbon and nutrients when subjected to increased nitrogen (N) deposition. Although it has been proposed that phosphorus (P) can dilute negative effects of nitrogen by increasing biomass production of Sphagnum mosses, it is still unclear

  12. A variant in the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose, increased basal hepatic glucose production and increased insulin release after oral and intravenous glucose loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, C S; Grarup, N; Krarup, N T

    2009-01-01

    An association between elevated fasting plasma glucose and the common rs560887 G allele in the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus has been reported. In Danes we aimed to examine rs560887 in relation to plasma glucose and serum insulin responses following oral and i.v. glucose loads and in relation to hepatic...

  13. Increasing runoff and sediment load from the Greenland ice sheet at kangerlussuaq (Sonder Stromfjord) in a 30-year perspective, 1979-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.; Hasholt, Bent [UNIV OF COPENGAGEN; Steffen, Konrad [UNIV OF COLORADO; Van Den Broeke, Michiel [UTRECHT UNIV; Mcgrath, Daniel [UNIV OF COLORADO; Yde, Jacob [UNIV OF AARHUS

    2009-01-01

    This observation and modeling study provides insights into runoff and sediment load exiting the Watson River drainage basin, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland during a 30 year period (1978/79-2007/08) when the climate experienced increasing temperatures and precipitation. The 30-year simulations quantify the terrestrial freshwater and sediment output from part of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and the land between the GrIS and the ocean, in the context of global warming and increasing GrIS surface melt. We used a snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) to simulate the winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff and surface mass balance (SMB), of the Greenland ice sheet. Observed sediment concentrations were related to observed runoff, producing a sediment-load time series. To a large extent, the SMB fluctuations could be explained by changes in net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation and sublimation), with 8 out of 30 years having negative SMB, mainly because of relatively low annual net precipitation. The overall trend in net precipitation and runoff increased significantly, while 5MB increased insignificantly throughout the simulation period, leading to enhanced precipitation of 0.59 km{sup 3} w.eq. (or 60%), runoff of 0.43 km{sup 3} w.eq (or 54%), and SMB of 0.16 km3 w.eq. (or 86%). Runoff rose on average from 0.80 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 1978/79 to 1.23 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 2007/08. The percentage of catchment oudet runoff explained by runoff from the GrIS decreased on average {approx} 10%, indicating that catchment runoff throughout the simulation period was influenced more by precipitation and snowmelt events, and less by runoff from the GrIS. Average variations in the increasing Kangerlussuaq runoff from 1978/79 through 2007/08 seem to follow the overall variations in satellite-derived GrIS surface melt, where 64% of the variations in simulated runoff were explained by regional melt conditions on the GrIS. Throughout the simulation

  14. Nutrient additions in pristine Patagonian Sphagnum bog vegetation: can phosphorus addition alleviate (the effects of) increased nitrogen loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, C; van Dijk, G; Smolders, A J P; Pancotto, V A; Elzenga, T J T M; Roelofs, J G M; Grootjans, A P

    2012-05-01

    Sphagnum-bog ecosystems have a limited capability to retain carbon and nutrients when subjected to increased nitrogen (N) deposition. Although it has been proposed that phosphorus (P) can dilute negative effects of nitrogen by increasing biomass production of Sphagnum mosses, it is still unclear whether P-addition can alleviate physiological N-stress in Sphagnum plants. A 3-year fertilisation experiment was conducted in lawns of a pristine Sphagnum magellanicum bog in Patagonia, where competing vascular plants were practically absent. Background wet deposition of nitrogen was low (≈ 0.1-0.2 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)). Nitrogen (4 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)) and phosphorus (1 g · P · m(-2) · year(-1)) were applied, separately and in combination, six times during the growing season. P-addition substantially increased biomass production of Sphagnum. Nitrogen and phosphorus changed the morphology of Sphagnum mosses by enhancing height increment, but lowering moss stem density. In contrast to expectations, phosphorus failed to alleviate physiological stress imposed by excess nitrogen (e.g. amino acid accumulation, N-saturation and decline in photosynthetic rates). We conclude that despite improving growth conditions by P-addition, Sphagnum-bog ecosystems remain highly susceptible to nitrogen additions. Increased susceptibility to desiccation by nutrients may even worsen the negative effects of excess nitrogen especially in windy climates like in Patagonia. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Patellar tendon strain is increased at the site of the jumper's knee lesion during knee flexion and tendon loading: results and cadaveric testing of a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Michael; Arnoczky, Steven P; Elvin, Niell; Dodds, Julie

    2008-11-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee) is characterized by localized tenderness of the patellar tendon at its origin on the inferior pole of the patella and a characteristic increase in signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging at this location. However, it is unclear why the lesion typically occurs in this area of the patellar tendon as surface strain gauge studies of the patellar tendon through the range of motion have produced conflicting results. The predicted patellar tendon strains that occur as a result of the tendon loads and patella-patellar tendon angles (PPTAs) experienced during a jump landing will be significantly increased in the area of the patellar tendon associated with patellar tendinopathy. Descriptive laboratory study. A 2-dimensional, computational, finite element model of the patella-patellar tendon complex was developed using anatomic measurements taken from lateral radiographs of a normal knee. The patella was modeled with plane strain rigid elements, and the patellar tendon was modeled with 8-node plane strain elements with neo-Hookean material properties. A tie constraint was used to join the patellar tendon and patella. Patella-patellar tendon angles corresponding to knee flexion angles between 0 degrees and 60 degrees and patellar tendon strains ranging from 5% to 15% were used as input variables into the computational model. To determine if the location of increased strain predicted by the computational model could produce isolated tendon fascicle damage in that same area, 5 human cadaveric patella-patellar tendon-tibia specimens were loaded under conditions predicted by the model to significantly increase localized tendon strain. Pre- and posttesting ultrasound images of the patella-patellar tendon specimens were obtained to document the location of any injured fascicles. Localized tendon strain at the classic location of the jumper's knee lesion was found to increase in association with an increase in the magnitude of applied

  16. Biomechanics laboratory-based prediction algorithm to identify female athletes with high knee loads that increase risk of ACL injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Khoury, Jane; Succop, Paul; Hewett, Timothy E

    2014-01-01

    Objective Knee abduction moment (KAM) during landing predicts non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk with high sensitivity and specificity in female athletes. The purpose of this study was to employ sensitive laboratory (lab-based) tools to determine predictive mechanisms that underlie increased KAM during landing. Methods Female basketball and soccer players (N=744) from a single county public school district were recruited to participate in testing of anthropometrics, maturation, laxity/flexibility, strength and landing biomechanics. Linear regression was used to model KAM, and logistic regression was used to examine high (>25.25 Nm of KAM) versus low KAM as surrogate for ACL injury risk. Results The most parsimonious model included independent predictors (β±1 SE) (1) peak knee abduction angle (1.78±0.05; p<0.001), (2) peak knee extensor moment (0.17±0.01; p<0.001), (3) knee flexion range of motion (0.15±0.03; p<0.01), (4) body mass index (BMI) Z-score (−1.67±0.36; p<0.001) and (5) tibia length (−0.50±0.14; p<0.001) and accounted for 78% of the variance in KAM during landing. The logistic regression model that employed these same variables predicted high KAM status with 85% sensitivity and 93% specificity and a C-statistic of 0.96. Conclusions Increased knee abduction angle, quadriceps recruitment, tibia length and BMI with decreased knee flexion account for 80% of the measured variance in KAM during a drop vertical jump. Clinical relevance Females who demonstrate increased KAM are more responsive and more likely to benefit from neuromuscular training. These findings should significantly enhance the identification of those at increased risk and facilitate neuromuscular training targeted to this important risk factor (high KAM) for ACL injury. PMID:20558526

  17. Load-Dependent Increases in Delay-Period Alpha-Band Power Track the Gating of Task-Irrelevant Inputs to Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Andrew J.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    Studies exploring the role of neural oscillations in cognition have revealed sustained increases in alpha-band power (ABP) during the delay period of verbal and visual working memory (VWM) tasks. There have been various proposals regarding the functional significance of such increases, including the inhibition of task-irrelevant cortical areas as well as the active retention of information in VWM. The present study examines the role of delay-period ABP in mediating the effects of interference arising from on-going visual processing during a concurrent VWM task. Specifically, we reasoned that, if set-size dependent increases in ABP represent the gating out of on-going task-irrelevant visual inputs, they should be predictive with respect to some modulation in visual evoked potentials resulting from a task-irrelevant delay period probe stimulus. In order to investigate this possibility, we recorded the electroencephalogram while subjects performed a change detection task requiring the retention of two or four novel shapes. On a portion of trials, a novel, task-irrelevant bilateral checkerboard probe was presented mid-way through the delay. Analyses focused on examining correlations between set-size dependent increases in ABP and changes in the magnitude of the P1, N1 and P3a components of the probe-evoked response and how such increases might be related to behavior. Results revealed that increased delay-period ABP was associated with changes in the amplitude of the N1 and P3a event-related potential (ERP) components, and with load-dependent changes in capacity when the probe was presented during the delay. We conclude that load-dependent increases in ABP likely play a role in supporting short-term retention by gating task-irrelevant sensory inputs and suppressing potential sources of disruptive interference. PMID:28555099

  18. Load-Dependent Increases in Delay-Period Alpha-Band Power Track the Gating of Task-Irrelevant Inputs to Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Heinz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies exploring the role of neural oscillations in cognition have revealed sustained increases in alpha-band power (ABP during the delay period of verbal and visual working memory (VWM tasks. There have been various proposals regarding the functional significance of such increases, including the inhibition of task-irrelevant cortical areas as well as the active retention of information in VWM. The present study examines the role of delay-period ABP in mediating the effects of interference arising from on-going visual processing during a concurrent VWM task. Specifically, we reasoned that, if set-size dependent increases in ABP represent the gating out of on-going task-irrelevant visual inputs, they should be predictive with respect to some modulation in visual evoked potentials resulting from a task-irrelevant delay period probe stimulus. In order to investigate this possibility, we recorded the electroencephalogram while subjects performed a change detection task requiring the retention of two or four novel shapes. On a portion of trials, a novel, task-irrelevant bilateral checkerboard probe was presented mid-way through the delay. Analyses focused on examining correlations between set-size dependent increases in ABP and changes in the magnitude of the P1, N1 and P3a components of the probe-evoked response and how such increases might be related to behavior. Results revealed that increased delay-period ABP was associated with changes in the amplitude of the N1 and P3a event-related potential (ERP components, and with load-dependent changes in capacity when the probe was presented during the delay. We conclude that load-dependent increases in ABP likely play a role in supporting short-term retention by gating task-irrelevant sensory inputs and suppressing potential sources of disruptive interference.

  19. Increase in transaminase levels following the use of raltegravir in a woman with a high HIV viral load at 35 weeks of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renet, Sophie; Closon, Aurélie; Brochet, Marie-Sophie; Bussières, Jean-François; Boucher, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Despite the efficacy of raltegravir in reducing viral load in HIV-infected patients, evidence for its safety in late pregnancy is lacking. A high rate of placental transfer was recently demonstrated. A treatment-naïve 34-year-old HIV-1-positive woman of African origin began treatment with zidovudine/lamivudine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and raltegravir at 35 weeks of pregnancy. After 11 days of treatment with raltegravir, a substantial reduction in viral load was achieved. Concurrently, she had a 23-fold increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and a 10-fold increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase, both of which returned to normal when raltegravir treatment was discontinued. A healthy boy was delivered at term. The infant's tests for HIV were negative at five months, and he had no health problems at eight months. This is the first case report, to our knowledge, of increased maternal serum transaminase levels following the use of raltegravir in a woman at a late stage of pregnancy.

  20. Multi-proxy evidence of long-term changes in ecosystem structure in a Danish marine estuary, linked to increased nutrient loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Marianne; Clarke, A.L.; Reuss, Nina Steenberg

    2006-01-01

    and prompting debate on the causes. This paper reports a multi-proxy survey of 210Pb-dated sediment cores from the anoxic basin. Analyses of diatoms, dinoflagellates, pigments and geochemical proxies were used to determine changes in ecosystem structure over the past 100 years. The aim was to establish ‘base......-line conditions', for management purposes, of the biological structure prior to 1900, and to examine possible causes of changes observed. Geochemical proxies total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC) and biogenic silica (BSi) were consistently high throughout the sediment record. Increased concentrations of pigments...... and natural isotopes (d13C, d15N) suggested increasing production and nutrient loading. The main changes in the biological proxies occurred between 1915 and the 1940s, and indicated that the estuary has been somewhat eutrophic since 1900, but that the eutrophication process increased over the past 100 years...

  1. Detection and quantification of proviral HIV-1 184 M/V in circulating CD4(+) T cells of patients on HAART with a viremia less than 1000 copies/ml

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohey, Rajesh; Jørgensen, Anne Louise; Møller, Bjarne K

    2005-01-01

    proviral HIV-1 was detected and quantified by a specific and sensitive assay combining a TaqMan real-time PCR analysis with the amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS) principle. Results Fifty-six percent of patients with low-level viremia had 184V in the CD4+ T cellular DNA compartment as compared...

  2. Increasing training load without risking the female athlete triad: menstrual cycle based periodized training may be an answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Henriksson-Larsén, Karin

    2017-11-01

    An improved muscle strength are of great importance in many sports, hence an increased understanding on how to generate optimal strength training programs in women without negative side effects that may lead to the female athlete triad are essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential negative effects of high frequency periodized menstrual/oral contraceptives (OC) cycle based leg resistance training on components in the female athlete triad. Fifty-nine women, with experience of resistance training and with regular menstrual/OC cycles were included in the analyses. The participants were randomly assigned a training program consisted of high frequency leg resistance training, periodized to the first two weeks (group 1) or the last two weeks (group 2) of each cycle, or to a control group performing regular training, during four consecutive menstrual/OC cycles. The main analysis was the pre-to-post change of sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass, bone mineral density in the spine. We further examined the participants' own experience of the training programs. No significant negative impact on sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass and bone mineral density in the spine, was detected in any of the groups. Moreover, the women in group 1 experienced their training program as positive. The high frequency periodized leg resistance training was not associated with exercise-related negative consequences on components in the female athlete triad. Moreover, the training was well accepted when performed during the first two weeks of each cycle.

  3. Soluble plantain nonstarch polysaccharides, although increasing caecal load, reduce systemic invasion of Salmonella Gallinarum in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, B N; Campbell, B J; Wigley, P

    2015-04-01

    Soluble plantain (Musa paradisiaca) nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs) have previously been shown to prevent pathogenic interaction with the intestinal epithelium. Here, we examined whether plantain NSP could prevent the invasion of the intestinal mucosa by Salmonella enterica Gallinarum, a causative agent of fowl typhoid. In vitro assays using B1OXI cells were performed with monolayers pretreated with/without plantain NSP, before inoculation with Salm. Gallinarum 287/91. Chicks were fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing 50 mg day(-1) plantain NSP, followed by oral inoculation with Salm. Gallinarum 287/91 at the age of 6 days. Bacteria were enumerated from the liver, spleen and caecal contents 3 days postinfection. Adhesion and invasion of Salm. Gallinarum to B1OXI cells were inhibited by 10 mg ml(-1) plantain NSP (reduction in invasion 52%; 95% CI 27-77; P Musa paradisiaca) inhibits interaction with epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica Gallinarum, a causative agent of the disease fowl typhoid. Incorporation of plantain NSP into the poultry feed reduced Salm. Gallinarum levels in the spleen and liver of chicks following experimental infection, although their numbers in the caeca increased. These data demonstrate that alternatives to antimicrobials such as NSP may be useful in the control of invasive salmonellosis in poultry. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. An Increase in Postural Load Facilitates an Anterior Shift of Processing Resources to Frontal Executive Function in a Postural-suprapostural Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ya Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Increase in postural-demand resources does not necessarily degrade a concurrent motor task, according to the adaptive resource-sharing hypothesis of postural-suprapostural dual-tasking. This study investigated how brain networks are organized to optimize a suprapostural motor task when the postural load increases and shifts postural control into a less automatic process. Fourteen volunteers executed a designated force-matching task from a level surface (a relative automatic process in posture and from a stabilometer board while maintaining balance at a target angle (a relatively controlled process in posture. Task performance of the postural and suprapostural tasks, synchronization likelihood (SL of scalp EEG, and graph-theoretical metrics were assessed. Behavioral results showed that the accuracy and reaction time of force-matching from a stabilometer board were not affected, despite a significant increase in postural sway. However, force-matching in the stabilometer condition showed greater local and global efficiencies of the brain networks than force-matching in the level-surface condition. Force-matching from a stabilometer board was also associated with greater frontal cluster coefficients, greater mean SL of the frontal and sensorimotor areas, and smaller mean SL of the parietal-occipital cortex than force-matching from a level surface. The contrast of supra-threshold links in the upper alpha and beta bands between the two stance conditions validated load-induced facilitation of inter-regional connections between the frontal and sensorimotor areas, but that contrast also indicated connection suppression between the right frontal-temporal and the parietal-occipital areas for the stabilometer stance condition. In conclusion, an increase in stance difficulty alters the neurocognitive processes in executing a postural-suprapostural task. Suprapostural performance is not degraded by increase in postural load, due to 1 increased effectiveness

  5. Increased cellular uptake of lauryl gallate loaded in superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles due to surface modification with folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuser, Paulo Emilio; Arévalo, Juan Marcelo Carpio; Junior, Enio Lima; Rossi, Gustavo Rodrigues; da Silva Trindade, Edvaldo; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Jacques, Amanda Virtuoso; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; Santos-Silva, Maria Claudia; Sayer, Claudia; de Araújo, Pedro H Hermes

    2016-12-01

    Lauryl gallate loaded in superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles surface modified with folic acid were synthesized by miniemulsion polymerization in just one step. In vitro biocompatibility and cytotoxicity assays on L929 (murine fibroblast), human red blood, and HeLa (uterine colon cancer) cells were performed. The effect of folic acid at the nanoparticles surface was evaluated through cellular uptake assays in HeLa cells. Results showed that the presence of folic acid did not affect substantially the polymer particle size (~120 nm), the superparamagnetic behavior, the encapsulation efficiency of lauryl gallate (~87 %), the Zeta potential (~38 mV) of the polymeric nanoparticles or the release profile of lauryl gallate. The release profile of lauryl gallate from superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles presented an initial burst effect (0-1 h) followed by a slow and sustained release, indicating a biphasic release system. Lauryl gallate loaded in superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles with folic acid did not present cytotoxicity effects on L929 and human red blood cells. However, free lauryl gallate presented significant cytotoxic effects on L929 and human red blood cells at all tested concentrations. The presence of folic acid increased the cytotoxicity of lauryl gallate loaded in nanoparticles on HeLa cells due to a higher cellular uptake when HeLa cells were incubated at 37 °C. On the other hand, when the nanoparticles were incubated at low temperature (4 °C) cellular uptake was not observed, suggesting that the uptake occurred by folate receptor mediated energy-dependent endocytosis. Based on presented results our work suggests that this carrier system can be an excellent alternative in targeted drug delivery by folate receptor.

  6. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  7. Does Spanning a Lateral Lumbar Interbody Cage Across the Vertebral Ring Apophysis Increase Loads Required for Failure and Mitigate Endplate Violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briski, David C; Goel, Vijay K; Waddell, Bradford S; Serhan, Hassan; Kodigudla, Manoj K; Palepu, Vivek; Agarwal, Anand K; Zavatsky, Joseph M

    2017-10-15

    Randomized Biomechanical Cadaveric Study-Level II. We aimed to elucidate that placing lateral lumbar interbody cages that span the stronger ring apophysis will require increasing loads for failure, decreasing rates of subsidence, regardless of bone density or endplate integrity. There are several reports regarding the rates and grades of cage subsidence when utilizing the lateral lumbar interbody fusion technique. However, there is limited data on how spanning the lateral cage across the ring apophysis can prevent it. Eight fresh-frozen human spines (L1-L5) were utilized. Each vertebra was placed with their endplates horizontal in an MTS actuator. A total of 40 specimens were randomized into Groups:Load displacement data was collected at 5 Hz until failure. Longer cages spanning the ring apophysis provided more strength in compression with less subsidence relative to shorter cages, regardless of endplate integrity.Longer cages, spanning the ring apophysis, resting on intact endplates (G2) had a significant (P violation or osteoporosis. 2.

  8. Progressive resistance-loaded voluntary wheel running increases hypertrophy and differentially affects muscle protein synthesis, ribosome biogenesis, and proteolytic markers in rat muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, C B; Holland, A M; Kephart, W C; Mumford, P W; Lowery, R P; Kavazis, A N; Wilson, J M; Roberts, M D

    2018-02-01

    We examined if 6 weeks of progressive resistance-loaded voluntary wheel running in rats induced plantaris, soleus, and/or gastrocnemius hypertrophy and/or affected markers of translational efficiency, ribosome biogenesis, and markers of proteolysis. For 6 weeks, 8 male Sprague-Dawley rats (~9-10 weeks of age, ~300-325 g) rats were assigned to the progressive resistance-loaded voluntary wheel running model (EX), and ten rats were not trained (SED). For EX rats, the wheel-loading paradigm was as follows - days 1-7: free-wheel resistance, days 8-15: wheel resistance set to 20%-25% body mass, days 16-24: 40% body mass, days 25-32: 60% body mass, days 33-42: 40% body mass. Following the intervention, muscles were analysed for markers of translational efficiency, ribosome biogenesis, and muscle proteolysis. Raw gastrocnemius mass (+13%, p < .01), relative (body mass-corrected) gastrocnemius mass (+16%, p < .001), raw plantaris mass (+13%, p < .05), and relative plantaris mass (+15%, p < .01) were greater in EX vs. SED rats. In spite of gastrocnemius hypertrophy, EX animals presented a 54% decrease in basal muscle protein synthesis levels (p < .01), a 125% increase in pan 4EBP1 levels (p < .001) and a 31% decrease in pan eIF4E levels (p < .05). However, in relation to SED animals, EX animals presented a 70% increase in gastrocnemius c-Myc protein levels (p < .05). Most markers of translational efficiency and ribosome biogenesis were not altered in the plantaris or soleus muscles of EX vs. SED animals. Gastrocnemius F-box protein 32 and poly-ubiquinated protein levels were approximately 150% and 200% greater in SED vs. EX rats (p < .001). These data suggest that the employed resistance training model increases hind limb muscle hypertrophy, and this may be mainly facilitated through reductions in skeletal muscle proteolysis, rather than alterations in ribosome biogenesis or translational efficiency. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Effect of the Organic Loading Rate Increase and the Presence of Zeolite on Microbial Community Composition and Process Stability During Anaerobic Digestion of Chicken Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshina, Elvira E; Belostotskiy, Dmitry E; Ilinskaya, Olga N; Boulygina, Eugenia A; Grigoryeva, Tatiana V; Ziganshin, Ayrat M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) increase from 1.0 to 3.5 g VS L(-1) day(-1) at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 35 days on anaerobic reactors' performance and microbial diversity during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich chicken wastes in the absence/presence of zeolite. The effects of anaerobic process parameters on microbial community structure and dynamics were evaluated using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based pyrosequencing approach. Maximum 12 % of the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was efficiently removed by zeolite in the fixed zeolite reactor (day 87). In addition, volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the fixed zeolite reactor accumulated in lower concentrations at high OLR of 3.2-3.5 g VS L(-1) day(-1). Microbial communities in the fixed zeolite reactor and reactor without zeolite were dominated by various members of Bacteroidales and Methanobacterium sp. at moderate TAN and VFA levels. The increase of the OLR accompanied by TAN and VFA accumulation and increase in pH led to the predominance of representatives of the family Erysipelotrichaceae and genera Clostridium and Methanosarcina. Methanosarcina sp. reached relative abundances of 94 and 57 % in the fixed zeolite reactor and reactor without zeolite at the end of the experimental period, respectively. In addition, the diminution of Synergistaceae and Crenarchaeota and increase in the abundance of Acholeplasmataceae in parallel with the increase of TAN, VFA, and pH values were observed.

  10. Systematic Review of the Use of Dried Blood Spots for Monitoring HIV Viral Load and for Early Infant Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Pieter W.; Sollis, Kimberly A.; Fiscus, Susan; Ford, Nathan; Vitoria, Marco; Essajee, Shaffiq; Barnett, David; Cheng, Ben; Crowe, Suzanne M.; Denny, Thomas; Landay, Alan; Stevens, Wendy; Habiyambere, Vincent; Perriens, Joseph H.; Peeling, Rosanna W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dried blood spots (DBS) have been used as alternative specimens to plasma to increase access to HIV viral load (VL) monitoring and early infant diagnosis (EID) in remote settings. We systematically reviewed evidence on the performance of DBS compared to plasma for VL monitoring and EID. Methods and Findings Thirteen peer reviewed HIV VL publications and five HIV EID papers were included. Depending on the technology and the viral load distribution in the study population, the percentage of DBS samples that are within 0.5 log of VL in plasma ranged from 52–100%. Because the input sample volume is much smaller in a blood spot, there is a risk of false negatives with DBS. Sensitivity of DBS VL was found to be 78–100% compared to plasma at VL below 1000 copies/ml, but this increased to 100% at a threshold of 5000 copies/ml. Unlike a plasma VL test which measures only cell free HIV RNA, a DBS VL also measures proviral DNA as well as cell-associated RNA, potentially leading to false positive results when using DBS. The systematic review showed that specificity was close to 100% at DBS VL above 5000 copies/ml, and this threshold would be the most reliable for predicting true virologic failure using DBS. For early infant diagnosis, DBS has a sensitivity of 100% compared to fresh whole blood or plasma in all studies. Conclusions Although limited data are available for EID, DBS offer a highly sensitive and specific sampling strategy to make viral load monitoring and early infant diagnosis more accessible in remote settings. A standardized approach for sampling, storing, and processing DBS samples would be essential to allow successful implementation. Trial Registration PROSPERO Registration #: CRD42013003621. PMID:24603442

  11. Systematic review of the use of dried blood spots for monitoring HIV viral load and for early infant diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter W Smit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS have been used as alternative specimens to plasma to increase access to HIV viral load (VL monitoring and early infant diagnosis (EID in remote settings. We systematically reviewed evidence on the performance of DBS compared to plasma for VL monitoring and EID. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Thirteen peer reviewed HIV VL publications and five HIV EID papers were included. Depending on the technology and the viral load distribution in the study population, the percentage of DBS samples that are within 0.5 log of VL in plasma ranged from 52-100%. Because the input sample volume is much smaller in a blood spot, there is a risk of false negatives with DBS. Sensitivity of DBS VL was found to be 78-100% compared to plasma at VL below 1000 copies/ml, but this increased to 100% at a threshold of 5000 copies/ml. Unlike a plasma VL test which measures only cell free HIV RNA, a DBS VL also measures proviral DNA as well as cell-associated RNA, potentially leading to false positive results when using DBS. The systematic review showed that specificity was close to 100% at DBS VL above 5000 copies/ml, and this threshold would be the most reliable for predicting true virologic failure using DBS. For early infant diagnosis, DBS has a sensitivity of 100% compared to fresh whole blood or plasma in all studies. CONCLUSIONS: Although limited data are available for EID, DBS offer a highly sensitive and specific sampling strategy to make viral load monitoring and early infant diagnosis more accessible in remote settings. A standardized approach for sampling, storing, and processing DBS samples would be essential to allow successful implementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO Registration #: CRD42013003621.

  12. Will urban expansion lead to an increase in future water pollution loads?--a preliminary investigation of the Haihe River Basin in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining

    2014-01-01

    Urban expansion is a major driving force changing regional hydrology and nonpoint source pollution. The Haihe River Basin, the political, economic, and cultural center of northeastern China, has undergone rapid urbanization in recent decades. To investigate the consequences of future urban sprawl on nonpoint source water pollutant emissions in the river basin, the urban sprawl in 2030 was estimated, and the annual runoff and nonpoint source pollution in the Haihe River basin were simulated. The Integrated Model of Non-Point Sources Pollution Processes (IMPULSE) was used to simulate the effects of urban sprawl on nonpoint source pollution emissions. The outcomes indicated that the urban expansion through 2030 increased the nonpoint source total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions by 8.08, 0.14, and 149.57 kg/km(2), respectively. Compared to 2008, the total nonpoint emissions rose by 15.33, 0.57, and 12.39 %, respectively. Twelve percent of the 25 cities in the basin would increase by more than 50 % in nonpoint source TN and COD emissions in 2030. In particular, the nonpoint source TN emissions in Xinxiang, Jiaozuo, and Puyang would rise by 73.31, 67.25, and 58.61 %, and the nonpoint source COD emissions in these cities would rise by 74.02, 51.99, and 53.27 %, respectively. The point source pollution emissions in 2008 and 2030 were also estimated to explore the effects of urban sprawl on total water pollution loads. Urban sprawl through 2030 would bring significant structural changes of total TN, TP, and COD emissions for each city in the area. The results of this study could provide insights into the effects of urbanization in the study area and the methods could help to recognize the role that future urban sprawl plays in the total water pollution loads in the water quality management process.

  13. Black Tea Increases Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improves Flow Mediated Dilatation Counteracting Deleterious Effects from a Fat Load in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Draijer, Richard; Schalkwijk, Casper; Desideri, Giovambattista; D'Angeli, Anatolia; Francavilla, Sandro; Mulder, Theo; Ferri, Claudio

    2016-11-16

    (1) Background: Endothelial dysfunction predicts cardiovascular events. Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) maintain and repair the endothelium regulating its function. Tea flavonoids reduce cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effects of black tea on the number of CACs and on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) before and after an oral fat in hypertensives; (2) Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over study, 19 patients were assigned to black tea (150 mg polyphenols) or a placebo twice a day for eight days. Measurements were obtained in a fasted state and after consuming whipping cream, and FMD was measured at baseline and after consumption of the products; (3) Results: Compared with the placebo, black tea ingestion increased functionally active CACs (36 ± 22 vs. 56 ± 21 cells per high-power field; p = 0.006) and FMD (5.0% ± 0.3% vs. 6.6% ± 0.3%, p Tea further increased FMD 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after consumption, with maximal response 2 h after intake (p tea consumption counteracted FMD impairment (p tea by increasing the number of CACs and preventing endothelial dysfunction induced by acute oral fat load in hypertensive patients. Considering that tea is the most consumed beverage after water, our findings are of clinical relevance and interest.

  14. Inefficient viral replication of bovine leukemia virus induced by spontaneous deletion mutation in the G4 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hironobu; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Nikaido, Sae; Sato, Reiichiro; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Tsukamoto, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, which is highly prevalent in several regions of the world and significantly impacts the livestock industry. In BLV infection, the proviral load in the blood reflects disease progression. Although the BLV genome is highly conserved among retroviruses, genetic variation has been reported. However, the relationship between proviral load and genetic variation is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the changes in proviral load in BLV-infected cattle in Japan and then identified and analysed a BLV strain pvAF967 that had a static proviral load. First, examining the proviral load in the aleukaemic cattle in 2014 and 2015, cow AF967 showed a static proviral load, while the other cows showed significant increases in proviral load. Sequencing the provirus in cow AF967 showed a deletion of 12 nt located in the G4 gene. An in vitro assay system using BLV molecular clone was set up to evaluate viral replication and production. In this in vitro assay, the deletion mutation in the G4 gene resulted in a significant decrease in viral replication and production. In addition, we showed that the deletion mutation did not affect the viral transcriptional activity of Tax protein, which is also important for virus replication. The emergence of strain pvAF967 that showed a static proviral load, combined with other retrovirus evolutionary traits, suggests that some BLV strains may have evolved to be symbiotic with cattle.

  15. Endogenous substance P production in the Achilles tendon increases with loading in an in vivo model of tendinopathy-peptidergic elevation preceding tendinosis-like tissue changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, L J; Andersson, G; Wennstig, G; Forsgren, S; Danielson, P

    2011-06-01

    To quantify the intratendinous levels of substance P (SP) at different stages of overload in an established model for Achilles tendinopathy (rabbit). Also, to study the distribution of the SP-receptor, the NK-1R, and the source of SP, in the tendon. Animals were subjected to the overuse protocol for 1, 3 or 6 weeks. One additional group served as unexercised controls. Immunoassay (EIA), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in situ hybridisation (ISH) were performed. EIA revealed increased SP-levels in the Achilles tendon of the exercised limb in all the experimental groups as compared to in the controls (statistically significant; p=0.01). A similar trend in the unexercised Achilles tendon was observed but was not statistically significant (p=0.14). IHC and in ISH illustrated reactions of both SP and NK-1R mainly in blood vessel walls, but the receptor was also found on tenocytes. Achilles tendon SP-levels are elevated already after 1 week of loading. This shows that increased SP-production precedes tendinosis, as tendinosis-like changes occur only after a minimum of 3 weeks of exercise, as shown in a recent study using this model. We propose that central neuronal mechanism may be involved as similar trends were observed in the contralateral Achilles tendon.

  16. Poly(butylcyanoacrylate) and Poly(ε-caprolactone) Nanoparticles Loaded with 5-Fluorouracil Increase the Cytotoxic Effect of the Drug in Experimental Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Raúl; Cabeza, Laura; Arias, José L; Melguizo, Consolación; Álvarez, Pablo J; Vélez, Celia; Clares, Beatriz; Áranega, Antonia; Prados, Jose

    2015-07-01

    The clinical use of 5-fluorouracil, one of the drugs of choice in colon cancer therapy, is limited by a nonuniform oral absorption, a short plasma half-life, and by the development of drug resistances by malignant cells. We hypothesized that the formulation of biodegradable nanocarriers for the efficient delivery of this antitumor drug may improve its therapeutic effect against advanced or recurrent colon cancer. Hence, we have engineered two 5-fluorouracil-loaded nanoparticulate systems based on the biodegradable polymers poly(butylcyanoacrylate) and poly(ε-caprolactone). Drug incorporation to the nanosystems was accomplished by entrapment (encapsulation/dispersion) within the polymeric network during nanoparticle synthesis, i.e., by anionic polymerization of the monomer and interfacial polymer disposition, respectively. Main factors determining 5-fluorouracil incorporation within the polymeric nanomatrices were investigated. These nanocarriers were characterized by high drug entrapment efficiencies and sustained drug-release profiles. In vitro studies using human and murine colon cancer cell lines demonstrated that both types of nanocarriers significantly increased the antiproliferative effect of the encapsulated drug. In addition, both nanoformulations produced in vivo an intense tumor growth inhibition and increased the mice survival rate, being the greater tumor volume reduction obtained when using the poly(ε-caprolactone)-based formulation. These results suggest that these nanocarriers may improve the antitumor activity of 5-fluorouracil and could be used against advanced or recurrent colon cancer.

  17. Increased Loading, Efficacy and Sustained Release of Silibinin, a Poorly Soluble Drug Using Hydrophobically-Modified Chitosan Nanoparticles for Enhanced Delivery of Anticancer Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha Yee Kuen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional delivery of anticancer drugs is less effective due to pharmacological drawbacks such as lack of aqueous solubility and poor cellular accumulation. This study reports the increased drug loading, therapeutic delivery, and cellular accumulation of silibinin (SLB, a poorly water-soluble phenolic compound using a hydrophobically-modified chitosan nanoparticle (pCNP system. In this study, chitosan nanoparticles were hydrophobically-modified to confer a palmitoyl group as confirmed by 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS assay. Physicochemical features of the nanoparticles were studied using the TNBS assay, and Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR analyses. The FTIR profile and electron microscopy correlated the successful formation of pCNP and pCNP-SLB as nano-sized particles, while Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS and Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM results exhibited an expansion in size between pCNP and pCNP-SLB to accommodate the drug within its particle core. To evaluate the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles, a Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT cytotoxicity assay was subsequently performed using the A549 lung cancer cell line. Cytotoxicity assays exhibited an enhanced efficacy of SLB when delivered by CNP and pCNP. Interestingly, controlled release delivery of SLB was achieved using the pCNP-SLB system, conferring higher cytotoxic effects and lower IC50 values in 72-h treatments compared to CNP-SLB, which was attributed to the hydrophobic modification of the CNP system.

  18. Higher glycemic index and glycemic load diet is associated with increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Ghazaleh; Jessri, Mahsa; Hajizadeh, Bahareh; Ibiebele, Torukiri I; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2013-09-01

    Several studies have indicated the association between intake of foods high in dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with an increased risk of digestive tract cancers. We hypothesized that GI and GL may be associated with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a high-risk population in Iran. In total, we interviewed 47 cases with incident of ESCC and 96 frequency-matched hospital controls, then calculated the average dietary GI and GL via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary GL was calculated as a function of GI, carbohydrate content, and frequency of intake of certain foods. Dietary GI and GL levels were significantly higher among the ESCC cases compared with the controls (P < .05). After adjustment for potential confounders, those in the highest tertile of dietary GI had 2.95 times higher risk of ESCC compared with those in the lowest (95% confidence interval, 1.68-3.35; P for trend = .002). In addition, being in the highest tertile of dietary GL was positively associated with an ESCC risk (odds ratio, 3.49; 95% confidence interval, 2.98-4.41; P for trend = .001). Findings of the present study indicate that diets with high GI and GL might have potentially unfavorable effects on ESCC risk and suggest a possible role for excess circulating insulin and related insulin-like growth factor 1 in esophageal cancer development. © 2013.

  19. Preexposure to Olive Oil Polyphenols Extract Increases Oxidative Load and Improves Liver Mass Restoration after Hepatectomy in Mice via Stress-Sensitive Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Marinić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols can act as oxidants in some conditions, inducing redox-sensitive genes. We investigated the effect of preexposure to the olive oil polyphenols extract (PFE on time-dependent changes in the hepatic oxidative state in a model of liver regeneration—a process in which oxidative stress associated with the metabolic overload accounts for the early events that contribute to the onset of liver self-repair. Liver regeneration was induced by one-third hepatectomy in mice. Prior to hepatectomy, mice were intraperitoneally given either PFE (50 mg/kg body weight or saline for seven consecutive days, while respective controls received vehicle alone. Redox state-regulating enzymes and thiol proteins along with the mRNA levels of Nrf2 gene and its targets γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and heme oxygenase-1 were determined at different time intervals after hepatectomy. The liver mass restoration was calculated to assess hepatic regeneration. The resulting data demonstrate the effectiveness of preexposure to PFE in stimulating liver regeneration in a model of a small tissue loss which may be ascribed to the transient increase in oxidant load during the first hours after hepatectomy and associated induction of stress response gene-profiles under the control of Nrf2.

  20. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Rudyk

    Full Text Available Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11 or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16 chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry. The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF and controls (OC. However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP and Δheart rate (HR with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05 in the awake phase (night-time and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli.

  1. Increased cortical lesion load and intrathecal inflammation is associated with oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis patients: a combined CSF and MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Gabriele; Magliozzi, Roberta; Pitteri, Marco; Reynolds, Richard; Rossi, Stefania; Gajofatto, Alberto; Benedetti, Maria Donata; Facchiano, Francesco; Monaco, Salvatore; Calabrese, Massimiliano

    2017-02-21

    Although IgG oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are a frequent phenomenon in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, their relationship with grey matter lesions, intrathecal/meningeal inflammation and clinical evolution has not been clarified yet. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between the OCBs, the inflammatory/neurodegenerative CSF profile at diagnosis, the cortical lesion load and the clinical evolution after 10 years. This is a 10-year observational, cross-sectional study based on a combined MRI, cognitive and CSF profiling of the examined patients. Forty consecutive OCB-negative (OCB-) and 50 OCB-positive (OCB+) MS patients were included in this study. Both groups had mean disease duration of 10 years and were age and gender matched. Each patient underwent neurological and neuropsychological evaluation and 3-T MRI. Analysis of the presence and levels of 28 inflammatory mediators was performed in the CSF obtained from 10 OCB- MS, 11 OCB+ MS and 10 patients with other neurological conditions. Increased number of CLs was found in OCB+ compared to OCB- patients (p TNFSF13B, IL6, IL10) and other pro-inflammatory molecules, such as IFN-γ, TNF, MMP2, GM-CSF, osteopontin and sCD163. Finally, the occurrence of OCB was found associated with poor prognosis, from both physical and cognitive points of view. OCB at MS onset are associated with more severe GM pathology and with a more severe physical disability and cognitive impairment after 10 years. Increased levels of cytokines linked to B cell activation, lymphoid-neogenesis, and pro-inflammatory immune response in the CSF of OCB+ patients support the hypothesis of crucial role played by compartmentalized, intrathecal B cell response in the pathogenesis of CLs and OCB production.

  2. The novel immunosuppressive protein kinase C inhibitor sotrastaurin has no pro-viral effects on the replication cycle of hepatitis B or C virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas von Hahn

    Full Text Available The pan-protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor sotrastaurin (AEB071 is a novel immunosuppressant currently in phase II trials for immunosuppression after solid organ transplantation. Besides T-cell activation, PKC affects numerous cellular processes that are potentially important for the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV, major blood-borne pathogens prevalent in solid organ transplant recipients. This study uses state of the art virological assays to assess the direct, non-immune mediated effects of sotrastaurin on HBV and HCV. Most importantly, sotrastaurin had no pro-viral effect on either HBV or HCV. In the presence of high concentrations of sotrastaurin, well above those used clinically and close to levels where cytotoxic effects become detectable, there was a reduction of HCV and HBV replication. This reduction is very likely due to cytotoxic and/or anti-proliferative effects rather than direct anti-viral activity of the drug. Replication cycle stages other than genome replication such as viral cell entry and spread of HCV infection directly between adjacent cells was clearly unaffected by sotrastaurin. These data support the evaluation of sotrastaurin in HBV and/or HCV infected transplant recipients.

  3. Human presence increases parasitic load in endangered lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus in its fragmented rainforest habitats in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Hussain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding changes in the host-parasite relationship due to habitat fragmentation is necessary for better management and conservation of endangered species in fragmented landscapes. Pathogens and parasites can pose severe threat to species in restricted environments such as forest fragments where there is increased contact of wildlife with human and livestock populations. Environmental stress and reduced nutritional level in forest fragments can influence parasite infection and intensity on the native species. In this study, we examine the impact of habitat fragmentation on the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in lion-tailed macaques in a fragmented rainforest in Western Ghats. METHODS: The prevalence of different gastrointestinal parasites was estimated from 91 fecal samples collected from 9 lion-tailed macaque groups in nine forest fragments. The parasites were identified up to genus level on the basis of the morphology and coloration of the egg, larva and cyst. The covariates included forest fragment area, group size and the presence/absence of human settlements and livestock in proximity. We used a linear regression model to identify the covariates that significantly influenced the prevalence of different parasite taxa. RESULTS: Nine gastrointestinal parasite taxa were detected in lion-tailed macaque groups. The groups near human settlements had greater prevalence and number of taxa, and these variables also had significant positive correlations with group size. We found that these parameters were also greater in groups near human settlements after controlling for group size. Livestock were present in all five fragments that had human settlements in proximity. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that high prevalence and species richness of gastrointestinal parasites in lion-tailed macaque groups are directly related to habitat fragmentation, high anthropogenic activities and high host density. The parasite load

  4. Human presence increases parasitic load in endangered lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) in its fragmented rainforest habitats in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shaik; Ram, Muthuvarmadam Subramanian; Kumar, Ajith; Shivaji, Sisinthy; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Understanding changes in the host-parasite relationship due to habitat fragmentation is necessary for better management and conservation of endangered species in fragmented landscapes. Pathogens and parasites can pose severe threat to species in restricted environments such as forest fragments where there is increased contact of wildlife with human and livestock populations. Environmental stress and reduced nutritional level in forest fragments can influence parasite infection and intensity on the native species. In this study, we examine the impact of habitat fragmentation on the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in lion-tailed macaques in a fragmented rainforest in Western Ghats. The prevalence of different gastrointestinal parasites was estimated from 91 fecal samples collected from 9 lion-tailed macaque groups in nine forest fragments. The parasites were identified up to genus level on the basis of the morphology and coloration of the egg, larva and cyst. The covariates included forest fragment area, group size and the presence/absence of human settlements and livestock in proximity. We used a linear regression model to identify the covariates that significantly influenced the prevalence of different parasite taxa. Nine gastrointestinal parasite taxa were detected in lion-tailed macaque groups. The groups near human settlements had greater prevalence and number of taxa, and these variables also had significant positive correlations with group size. We found that these parameters were also greater in groups near human settlements after controlling for group size. Livestock were present in all five fragments that had human settlements in proximity. The present study suggests that high prevalence and species richness of gastrointestinal parasites in lion-tailed macaque groups are directly related to habitat fragmentation, high anthropogenic activities and high host density. The parasite load partially explains the reason for the decline in immature survival

  5. Serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels slightly increase rather than decrease after a glucose load in subjects with different glucose tolerance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hang; Ma, Xiaojing; Yin, Jun; Wang, Yufei; He, Xingxing; Bao, Yuqian; Zhou, Jian; Jia, Weiping

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies showed that serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) levels are significantly reduced in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, it remains unclear how 1,5-AG levels acutely change in response to a glucose load. This study explored acute changes in 1,5-AG levels after a glucose load and the related influencing factors in individuals with differing degrees of glucose tolerance. A total of 681 participants (353 without DM and 328 with DM) without a prior history of DM were enrolled. All participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting and postload (30, 60, 120, and 180 min) levels of plasma glucose, serum 1,5-AG, and insulin were measured. In all participant groups, serum 1,5-AG levels were slightly elevated after a glucose load and reached peak values at 120 min after loading (all P glucose load. Further studies in different 1,5-AG transport models are needed to investigate the relevant metabolic pathways.

  6. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  7. Lack of Evidence for Increased Genetic Loading for Autism among Families of Affected Females: A Replication from Family History Data in Two Large Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goin-Kochel, Robin P.; Abbacchi, Anna; Constantino, John N.

    2007-01-01

    Both the broad and narrow phenotypes of autism have been consistently observed in family members of affected individuals. Additionally, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) present four times more often in males than in females, for reasons that are currently unknown. In this study, we examined whether there were differences in familial loading of ASD…

  8. High viral load in lymph nodes and latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in peripheral blood cells of HIV-1-infected chimpanzees.

    OpenAIRE

    Saksela, K; Muchmore, E; Girard, M; Fultz, P; Baltimore, D

    1993-01-01

    We have examined human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in chimpanzees by analyzing HIV-1 DNA and RNA in lymph nodes and peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Like certain asymptomatic HIV-infected persons, these chimpanzees had no detectable viral replication in their PBMCs. However, viral replication and a high viral load were observed in the lymphatic tissue. Despite the absence of viral replication in PBMCs, 1/1,000 to 1/10,000 of the PBMCs contained HIV-1 proviral DNA, and...

  9. Evaluating impact of market changes on increasing cell-load variation in dynamic cellular manufacturing systems using a hybrid Tabu search and simulated annealing algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Delgoshaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method is proposed for scheduling dynamic cellular manufacturing systems (D-CMS in the presence of uncertain product demands. The aim of this method is to control the process of trading off between in-house manufacturing and outsourcing while product demands are uncertain and can be varied from period to period. To solve the proposed problem, a hybrid Tabu Search and Simulated Annealing are developed to overcome hardness of the proposed model and then results are compared with a Branch and Bound and Simulated Annealing algorithms. A Taguchi method (L_27 orthogonal optimization is used to estimate parameters of the proposed method in order to solve experiments derived from literature. An in-depth analysis is conducted on the results in consideration of various factors. For evaluating the system imbalance in dynamic market demands, a new measuring index is developed. Our findings indicate that the uncertain condition of market demands affects the routing of product parts and may induce machine-load variations that yield to cell-load diversity. The results showed that the proposed hybrid method can provide solutions with better quality.

  10. Increased susceptibility to Strongyloides venezuelensis infection is related to the parasite load and absence of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria; Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; Silva, Neide Maria; Massa, Virgínia; Alves, Ronaldo; Ueta, Marlene Tiduko; Silva, João Santana; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2013-11-01

    In human and murine models strongyloidiasis induce a Th2 type response. In the current study we investigated the role of different loads of Strongyloides venezuelensis in the immune response raised against the parasite and the participation of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule in the disease outcome in face of the different parasite burden. The C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and MHC II(-/-) mice were individually inoculated by subcutaneous injection with 500 or 3000 S. venezuelensis L3. The MHC II(-/-) mice infected with 3000L3 were more susceptible to S. venezuelensis infection when compared with WT groups, in which the parasite was completely eliminated. The production of Th2 cytokines and specific IgG1 or IgE antibodies against parasite were significantly lowered in MHC II(-/-) infected mice with different larvae inoculums. The infection of MHC II(-/-) mice with S. venezuelensis induced slight inflammatory alterations in the small intestine, and these lesions were lower when compared with WT mice, irrespective of the parasite load utilized to infect animals. Finally, we concluded that MHC class II molecules are essential in the immune response against S. venezuelensis mainly when infection occurs with high parasite inoculum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High viral load and elevated angiogenic markers associated with increased risk of preeclampsia among women initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy in the Mma Bana study, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, Kathleen M; McElrath, Thomas F; Hughes, Michael D; Ogwu, Anthony; Souda, Sajini; Datwyler, Saul A; von Widenfelt, Erik; Moyo, Sikhulile; Nádas, Marisa; Makhema, Joseph; Machakaire, Esther; Lockman, Shahin; Essex, Max; Shapiro, Roger L

    2013-04-15

    Risk factors associated with preeclampsia in HIV-infected women remain largely unknown. Systemic angiogenic imbalance contributes to preeclampsia in HIV-uninfected women, but changes in angiogenic markers after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation have not been studied. The Mma Bana study randomized 560 HIV-infected, HAART-naive pregnant women with CD4 counts ≥ 200 cells per cubic millimeter between 26 and 34 weeks gestation to lopinavir/ritonavir/zidovudine/lamivudine or abacavir/zidovudine/lamivudine. Another 170 participants with CD4 counts less than 200 cells per cubic millimeter initiated nevirapine/zidovudine/lamivudine between 18 and 34 weeks gestation. Characteristics of 11 women who developed preeclampsia were compared with the remaining 722 Mma Bana participants who delivered using logistic regression. Plasma samples drawn at HAART initiation and 1 month later from 60 women without preeclampsia and at HAART initiation for all 11 preeclamptic women were assayed for placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble FMS toll-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1). Pre-HAART viral load greater than 100,000 copies per milliliter was associated with preeclampsia (odds ratio: 5.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.8 to 19.4, P = 0.004). Median pre-HAART PlGF level was lower and sFlt-1 was higher in women who developed preeclampsia vs those who did not (130 vs 992 pg/mL, P = 0.001; 17.5 vs 9.4 pg/mL, P = 0.03, respectively). In multivariate analysis, PlGF and viral load remained significantly associated with preeclampsia. No significant changes in angiogenic factors were noted after 1 month of HAART treatment among non-preeclamptic women. Pre-HAART viral load greater than 100,000 copies per milliliter and PlGF predicted preeclampsia among women starting HAART in pregnancy. Among non-preeclamptic women, HAART treatment did not significantly alter levels of PlGF or sFlt-1 after 1 month of treatment.

  12. Induction pegylated interferon alfa-2a and high dose ribavirin do not increase SVR in heavy patients with HCV genotype 1 and high viral loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Rajender; Shiffman, Mitchell L; Rodriguez-Torres, Maribel; Cheinquer, Hugo; Abdurakhmanov, Djamal; Bakulin, Igor; Morozov, Viacheslav; Silva, Giovanni Faria; Geyvandova, Natalia; Stanciu, Carol; Rabbia, Michael; McKenna, Michael; Thommes, James A; Harrison, Stephen A

    2010-12-01

    Patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1, body weight ≥85 kg, and high baseline viral load respond poorly to standard doses of pegylated interferon (peginterferon) and ribavirin. We evaluated intensified therapy with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin. This double-blind randomized trial included HCV genotype 1-infected outpatients from hepatology clinics with body weight ≥85 kg and HCV RNA titer ≥400,000 IU/mL. Patients were randomized to 180 μg/wk peginterferon alfa-2a for 48 weeks plus 1200 mg/day ribavirin (standard of care) (group A, n = 191) or 1400/1600 mg/day ribavirin (group B, n = 189). Additional groups included 360 μg/wk peginterferon alfa-2a for 12 weeks then 180 μg/wk peginterferon alfa-2a for 36 weeks plus 1200 mg/day ribavirin (group C, n = 382) or 1400/1600 mg/day ribavirin (group D, n = 383). Follow-up lasted 24 weeks after treatment. Sustained virologic response rates (HCV RNA level alfa-2a regimens (A + B vs C + D: odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.39; P = .584) or pooled ribavirin regimens (A + C vs B + D: OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.79-1.28; P = .974). In patients infected with HCV genotype 1 who are difficult to treat (high viral load, body weight ≥85 kg), a 12-week induction regimen of peginterferon alfa-2a and/or higher-dose ribavirin is not more effective than the standard regimen. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic composition of replication competent clonal HIV-1 variants isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), HIV-1 proviral DNA from PBMC and HIV-1 RNA in serum in the course of HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo-Matas, Diana; van Gils, Marit J; Bowles, Emma J; Navis, Marjon; Rachinger, Andrea; Boeser-Nunnink, Brigitte; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B; Kootstra, Neeltje A; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2010-09-30

    The HIV-1 quasispecies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is considered to be a mix of actively replicating, latent, and archived viruses and may be genetically distinct from HIV-1 variants in plasma that are considered to be recently produced. Here we analyzed the genetic relationship between gp160 env sequences from replication competent clonal HIV-1 variants that were isolated from PBMC and from contemporaneous HIV-1 RNA in serum and HIV-1 proviral DNA in PBMC of four longitudinally studied therapy naïve HIV-1 infected individuals. Replication competent clonal HIV-1 variants, HIV-1 RNA from serum, and HIV-1 proviral DNA from PBMC formed a single virus population at most time points analyzed. However, an under-representation in serum of HIV-1 sequences with predicted CXCR4 usage was sometimes observed implying that the analysis of viral sequences from different sources may provide a more complete assessment of the viral quasispecies in peripheral blood in vivo. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Increasing the yield in targeted next-generation sequencing by implicating CNV analysis, non-coding exons and the overall variant load: the example of retinal dystrophies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Eisenberger

    Full Text Available Retinitis pigmentosa (RP and Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA are major causes of blindness. They result from mutations in many genes which has long hampered comprehensive genetic analysis. Recently, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS has proven useful to overcome this limitation. To uncover "hidden mutations" such as copy number variations (CNVs and mutations in non-coding regions, we extended the use of NGS data by quantitative readout for the exons of 55 RP and LCA genes in 126 patients, and by including non-coding 5' exons. We detected several causative CNVs which were key to the diagnosis in hitherto unsolved constellations, e.g. hemizygous point mutations in consanguineous families, and CNVs complemented apparently monoallelic recessive alleles. Mutations of non-coding exon 1 of EYS revealed its contribution to disease. In view of the high carrier frequency for retinal disease gene mutations in the general population, we considered the overall variant load in each patient to assess if a mutation was causative or reflected accidental carriership in patients with mutations in several genes or with single recessive alleles. For example, truncating mutations in RP1, a gene implicated in both recessive and dominant RP, were causative in biallelic constellations, unrelated to disease when heterozygous on a biallelic mutation background of another gene, or even non-pathogenic if close to the C-terminus. Patients with mutations in several loci were common, but without evidence for di- or oligogenic inheritance. Although the number of targeted genes was low compared to previous studies, the mutation detection rate was highest (70% which likely results from completeness and depth of coverage, and quantitative data analysis. CNV analysis should routinely be applied in targeted NGS, and mutations in non-coding exons give reason to systematically include 5'-UTRs in disease gene or exome panels. Consideration of all variants is indispensable

  15. Preparation and characterization of loperamide-loaded Dynasan 114 solid lipid nanoparticles for increased oral absorption in the treatment of diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project was to assemble two optimum solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN formulations for oral delivery of loperamide (LPM to treat different types of diarrhea, and to evaluate their release profiles in vitro and pharmacokinetic properties in vivo. In this work, glyceryl trimyristate (Dynasan 114 nanoparticles containing the drug LPM and sodium cholate as a stabilizer were prepared using a modified solvent evaporation technique. Two LPM-loaded SLNs, namely LPM-SLN-1 (LPM-SLN with a high ratio rate of lipid to drug and LPM-SLN-2 (LPM-SLN with a low ratio rate of lipid to drug, were prepared by the solvent evaporation method. A change in the lipid concentration affects the characteristics of LPM-SLNs. The average sizes of the LPM-SLNs were 303 ± 18 nm and 519 ± 36 nm, separately, as analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS. The LPM-SLNs were found to be round with a smooth surface, as observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM and a scanning electron microscope (SEM. The average encapsulation efficiencies were 87 ± 3.78% w/w and 84 ± 5.17%, accordingly. In the in vitro release experiments, LPM-SLNs showed a continuous release profile of LPM without any burst release. The oral bioavailability of LPM-SLNs was analyzed using Wistar rats. The relative bioavailabilities of LPM-SLNs were 227% and 153%, respectively, as compared that of the LPM tablet. There was no difference in the Tmax between LPM-SLN-2 and the LPM tablet. In conclusion, LPM-SLN-1 significantly improved the oral bioavailability of LPM, while LPM-SLN-2 having the same swift action as the LPM tablet. These results demonstrate the potential of LPM-SLNs in the oral delivery of LPM to treat different types of diarrhea.

  16. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  17. The expression of heterologous Fe (III) phytosiderophore transporter HvYS1 in rice increases Fe uptake, translocation and seed loading and excludes heavy metals by selective Fe transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banakar, Raviraj; Alvarez Fernández, Ána; Abadía, Javier; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Many metal transporters in plants are promiscuous, accommodating multiple divalent cations including some which are toxic to humans. Previous attempts to increase the iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content of rice endosperm by overexpressing different metal transporters have therefore led unintentionally to the accumulation of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Unlike other metal transporters, barley Yellow Stripe 1 (HvYS1) is specific for Fe. We investigated the mechanistic basis of this preference by constitutively expressing HvYS1 in rice under the control of the maize ubiquitin1 promoter and comparing the mobilization and loading of different metals. Plants expressing HvYS1 showed modest increases in Fe uptake, root-to-shoot translocation, seed accumulation and endosperm loading, but without any change in the uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn, Mn or Cu, confirming the selective transport of Fe. The concentrations of Zn and Mn in the endosperm did not differ significantly between the wild-type and HvYS1 lines, but the transgenic endosperm contained significantly lower concentrations of Cu. Furthermore, the transgenic lines showed a significantly reduced Cd uptake, root-to-shoot translocation and accumulation in the seeds. The underlying mechanism of metal uptake and translocation reflects the down-regulation of promiscuous endogenous metal transporters revealing an internal feedback mechanism that limits seed loading with Fe. This promotes the preferential mobilization and loading of Fe, therefore displacing Cu and Cd in the seed. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Prevention of overuse injuries by a concurrent exercise program in subjects exposed to an increase in training load: a randomized controlled trial of 1020 army recruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, Christoffer; Larsen, Klaus; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether an exercise program can prevent overuse injuries in the lower extremity. An often encountered and important risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries is an abrupt increase in activity level. HYPOTHESIS: A preventive training program based...... on a literature review of intrinsic risk factors, and performed concurrent with an increase in physical activity, can reduce the incidence of overuse knee injuries and medial tibial stress syndrome, as well as increase running distance. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS......: A total of 1020 soldiers aged 20.9 years (range, 19-26 years) undergoing 3 months of basic military training consecutively enrolled from December 2004 to December 2005. The prevention program consisted of an exercise program of 15 minutes' duration 3 times a week, including 5 exercises for strength...

  19. Prevention of overuse injuries by a concurrent exercise program in subjects exposed to an increase in training load - A randomized controlled trial of 1020 army recruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushoj, C.; Larsen, K.; Albrecht-Beste, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: It is unknown whether an exercise program can prevent overuse injuries in the lower extremity. An often encountered and important risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries is an abrupt increase in activity level. Hypothesis: A preventive training program base...

  20. Prevention of overuse injuries by a concurrent exercise program in subjects exposed to an increase in training load: a randomized controlled trial of 1020 army recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brushøj, Christoffer; Larsen, Klaus; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Løye, Finn; Hölmich, Per

    2008-04-01

    It is unknown whether an exercise program can prevent overuse injuries in the lower extremity. An often encountered and important risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries is an abrupt increase in activity level. A preventive training program based on a literature review of intrinsic risk factors, and performed concurrent with an increase in physical activity, can reduce the incidence of overuse knee injuries and medial tibial stress syndrome, as well as increase running distance. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 1020 soldiers aged 20.9 years (range, 19-26 years) undergoing 3 months of basic military training consecutively enrolled from December 2004 to December 2005. The prevention program consisted of an exercise program of 15 minutes' duration 3 times a week, including 5 exercises for strength, flexibility, and coordination; the placebo program consisted of 5 exercises for the upper body. During the observation period, 223 subjects sustained an injury, with 50 and 48 of these fulfilling the study criteria for overuse knee injuries or medial tibial stress syndrome, respectively. There were no significant differences in incidence of injury between the prevention group and the placebo group (incidence, 0.22 vs 0.19; P = .162; relative risk = 1.05 [range, 0.98-1.11]). The soldiers in the prevention group had the greater improvement in running distance in 12-minute run tests (82 vs 43 m; P = .037). An exercise program with an emphasis on muscular strengthening, coordination, and flexibility based on intrinsic risk factors identified through a literature review did not influence the risk of developing overuse knee injuries or medial tibial stress syndrome in subjects undergoing an increase in physical activity. The program increased maximal running distance in a 12-minute test.

  1. Load, and Modifies the Immune Response in a Patient with HAM/TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Tanajura Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is the known causative agent of a chronic neurologic condition known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Although several therapies have been evaluated for HAM/TSP, none have been approved for use in humans. In this paper, we describe a 55-year-old female patient with HAM/TSP who was treated with interferon beta-1a. This patient, in comparison to 20 female patients with HAM/TSP who were not treated, showed improvement in urinary symptoms over four years of therapy, as well as a reduction in HTLV-1 proviral load and serum cytokine levels typically observed in HAM/TSP. This improved outcome merits further controlled studies on the use and efficacy of interferon beta-1a as a therapy for HAM/TSP.

  2. Energy expenditure during flight in relation to body mass: effects of natural increases in mass and artificial load in Rose Coloured Starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Wellenburg, Carola A; Engel, Sophia; Visser, G Henk

    2008-08-01

    Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus) flew repeatedly for several hours in a wind tunnel while undergoing spontaneous variation in body mass. The treatments were as follows: flying unrestrained (U), with a control harness of 1.2% of their body mass (C), or with a harness of 7.4% of their body mass, which was either applied immediately before the flight (LS) or at least 9 days in advance (LL). Energy expenditure during flight (ef in W) was measured with the Doubly Labelled Water method. Flight costs in L(S) and LL were not significantly different and therefore were pooled (L). The harness itself did not affect ef, i.e. U and C flights were not different. ef was allometrically related with body mass m (in g). The slopes were not significantly different between the treatments, but ef was increased by 5.4% in L compared to C flights (log10(ef) = 0.050 + 0.47 x log10(m) for C, and log10(ef) = 0.073 + 0.47 x log10(m) for L). The difference in ef between C, LS and LL was best explained by taking the transported mass m transp (in g) instead of m into account (log10(ef) = -0.08 + 0.54 x log10(m transp)). Flight costs increased to a lesser extent than expected from interspecific allometric comparison or aerodynamic theory, regardless of whether the increase in mass occurred naturally or artificially. We did not observe an effect of treatment on breast muscle size and wingbeat frequency. We propose that the relatively low costs at a high mass are rather a consequence of immediate adjustments in physiology and/or flight behaviour than of long-term adaptations.

  3. Prevention of overuse injuries by a concurrent exercise program in subjects exposed to an increase in training load: a randomized controlled trial of 1020 army recruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, Christoffer; Larsen, Klaus; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether an exercise program can prevent overuse injuries in the lower extremity. An often encountered and important risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries is an abrupt increase in activity level. HYPOTHESIS: A preventive training program based......: A total of 1020 soldiers aged 20.9 years (range, 19-26 years) undergoing 3 months of basic military training consecutively enrolled from December 2004 to December 2005. The prevention program consisted of an exercise program of 15 minutes' duration 3 times a week, including 5 exercises for strength...

  4. Use of the dosed physical loadings in the increase of physical health and functional state of the cardiorespiratory system of organism of students 18-19 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolova O.V.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The changes of the functional state of the systems of circulation of blood, external breathing and physical health of students are rotined at employments by a step-aerobics. In an experiment students took part 18-19 years. The inspection of 114 students is conducted (61 girl and 53 youths. Plugging in the program of physical education of students of this type of physical exercises is instrumental in the substantial increase of level of the functional state of their organism and physical health.

  5. Residual viraemia in HIV-1-infected patients with plasma viral load increased blood levels of soluble immune activation markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Katzenstein, T L; Pedersen, B K

    2008-01-01

    antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated HIV-1-infected patients with plasma HIV-1 RNA or=1 episode with TMA-RV whereas 9 patients had undetectable TMA-RV throughout the study-period. Time-points with TMA-RV and PCR-RV were associated with higher circulating sTNFrII (+0.234 ng/ml, P = 0.030) and beta(2......-count, CD4+HLA-DR+, CD8+HLA-DR+CD38+, CD4+CD45RA-CD45RO+, CD8+CD45RA-CD45RO+, CD4+CD45RA+CD62L+, CD8+CD45RA+CD62L+ T cells, IgG or IgM. In conclusion, RV was associated with increased blood levels of soluble immune activation markers in HAART-treated HIV-1-infected patients. The finding that RV...

  6. The self-expanding Symetis Acurate does not increase cerebral microembolic load when compared to the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien prosthesis: a transcranial Doppler study in patients undergoing transapical aortic valve implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Erdoes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to quantify potential differences in count, frequency and pattern of high-intensity transient signals (HITS during transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TA-TAVI, by comparing the Symetis Acurate TA (SA with the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien XT (ES system. BACKGROUND: Recently, the Symetis Acurate TA revalving system has been introduced for TA-TAVI. The Symetis Acurate TA aortic bioprosthesis is self-expanding and is deployed by a specific two-step implantation technique. Whether this novel method increases the load of intraprocedural emboli, detected by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD as HITS, or not is not clear. METHODS: Twenty-two patients (n = 11 in each study arm, median logistic EuroScore 20%, median STS score 7% displayed continuous TCD signals of good quality throughout the entire TA-TAVI procedure and were included in the final analysis. Data are presented as median with interquartile ranges. RESULTS: No significant differences were detected in total procedural or interval-related HITS load (SA: 303 [200; 594], ES: 499 [285; 941]; p = 0.16. With both devices, HITS peaked during prosthesis deployment (PD, whereas significantly fewer HITS occurred during instrumentation (SA: p = 0.002; ES: < 0.001 or post-implantation PI (SA: p = 0.007; ES: < 0.001. PD-associated HITS amounted to almost half of the total HITS load. One patient suffered new disabling stroke at 30 days. Thirty-day mortality amounted to 13.6% (3 of 22 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Simplified transapical delivery using the self-expanding SA device does not increase HITS, despite of a two-step deployment technique with more interactions with the native aortic valve, when compared to the balloon-expandable ES valve. The similarity in HITS count, frequency and pattern with the two systems suggests a common mechanism for the release of cerebral microemboli.

  7. The self-expanding Symetis Acurate does not increase cerebral microembolic load when compared to the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien prosthesis: a transcranial Doppler study in patients undergoing transapical aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoes, Gabor; Huber, Christoph; Basciani, Reto; Stortecky, Stefan; Windecker, Stephan; Wenaweser, Peter; Carrel, Thierry; Eberle, Balthasar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify potential differences in count, frequency and pattern of high-intensity transient signals (HITS) during transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TA-TAVI), by comparing the Symetis Acurate TA (SA) with the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien XT (ES) system. Recently, the Symetis Acurate TA revalving system has been introduced for TA-TAVI. The Symetis Acurate TA aortic bioprosthesis is self-expanding and is deployed by a specific two-step implantation technique. Whether this novel method increases the load of intraprocedural emboli, detected by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) as HITS, or not is not clear. Twenty-two patients (n = 11 in each study arm, median logistic EuroScore 20%, median STS score 7%) displayed continuous TCD signals of good quality throughout the entire TA-TAVI procedure and were included in the final analysis. Data are presented as median with interquartile ranges. No significant differences were detected in total procedural or interval-related HITS load (SA: 303 [200; 594], ES: 499 [285; 941]; p = 0.16). With both devices, HITS peaked during prosthesis deployment (PD), whereas significantly fewer HITS occurred during instrumentation (SA: p = 0.002; ES: < 0.001) or post-implantation PI (SA: p = 0.007; ES: < 0.001). PD-associated HITS amounted to almost half of the total HITS load. One patient suffered new disabling stroke at 30 days. Thirty-day mortality amounted to 13.6% (3 of 22 patients). Simplified transapical delivery using the self-expanding SA device does not increase HITS, despite of a two-step deployment technique with more interactions with the native aortic valve, when compared to the balloon-expandable ES valve. The similarity in HITS count, frequency and pattern with the two systems suggests a common mechanism for the release of cerebral microemboli.

  8. How does an increase in undergraduate teaching load affect GP teacher motivation? A grounded theory study using data from a new medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alex; Sweeney, Grace

    2013-07-01

    The opening of a new medical school is a cause for celebration. Starting with a clean slate often gives the opportunity to adopt more modern teaching practices. However, encouraging large numbers of clinicians to start teaching and to adopt these new methods brings its own set of challenges. During the expansion phase of a new medical school, it was often noted that new teachers seemed to have considerable difficulties, and often expressed these as negativity towards student placements. This did not chime with much of the work from established schools, which seemed to evaluate expansion of teaching more positively. We wanted to better understand the issues involved. Semi-structured interviews were conducted involving GPs who had received medical students over the first four years of a newly established medical school. The aims were to assess the impact of the students on the new teachers, and to try to better understand why some teachers were experiencing difficulties. We collected qualitative and quantitative data at the interviews. The qualitative data were analysed using grounded theory which aims to link emerging themes together. The findings suggest that as the quantity of teaching medical students increases, the enjoyment and commitment to teaching may decrease. Concerns over the administration of teaching may begin to predominate. Two factors may help to reduce this: 1 Adequate investment in manpower and premises to reduce time and space constraints on teaching. 2 Practices considering themselves as teaching practices where education is a part of the practice identity.

  9. Replacing a native Wolbachia with a novel strain results in an increase in endosymbiont load and resistance to dengue virus in a mosquito vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowu Bian

    Full Text Available Wolbachia is a maternally transmitted endosymbiotic bacterium that is estimated to infect up to 65% of insect species. The ability of Wolbachia to both induce pathogen interference and spread into mosquito vector populations makes it possible to develop Wolbachia as a biological control agent for vector-borne disease control. Although Wolbachia induces resistance to dengue virus (DENV, filarial worms, and Plasmodium in mosquitoes, species like Aedes polynesiensis and Aedes albopictus, which carry native Wolbachia infections, are able to transmit dengue and filariasis. In a previous study, the native wPolA in Ae. polynesiensis was replaced with wAlbB from Ae. albopictus, and resulted in the generation of the transinfected "MTB" strain with low susceptibility for filarial worms. In this study, we compare the dynamics of DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2 within the wild type "APM" strain and the MTB strain of Ae. polynesiensis by measuring viral infection in the mosquito whole body, midgut, head, and saliva at different time points post infection. The results show that wAlbB can induce a strong resistance to DENV-2 in the MTB mosquito. Evidence also supports that this resistance is related to a dramatic increase in Wolbachia density in the MTB's somatic tissues, including the midgut and salivary gland. Our results suggests that replacement of a native Wolbachia with a novel infection could serve as a strategy for developing a Wolbachia-based approach to target naturally infected insects for vector-borne disease control.

  10. Hippocampal gamma oscillations increase with memory load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vugt, Marieke K.; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Litt, Brian; Brandt, Armin; Kahana, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Although the hippocampus plays a crucial role in encoding and retrieval of contextually mediated episodic memories, considerable controversy surrounds the role of the hippocampus in short-term or working memory. To examine both hippocampal and neocortical contributions to working memory function, we

  11. Estimation of ligament loading and anterior tibial translation in healthy and ACL-deficient knees during gait and the influence of increasing tibial slope using EMG-driven approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qi; MacLeod, Toran D; Manal, Kurt; Buchanan, Thomas S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a biomechanical model to estimate anterior tibial translation (ATT), anterior shear forces, and ligament loading in the healthy and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee joint during gait. This model used electromyography (EMG), joint position, and force plate data as inputs to calculate ligament loading during stance phase. First, an EMG-driven model was used to calculate forces for the major muscles crossing the knee joint. The calculated muscle forces were used as inputs to a knee model that incorporated a knee-ligament model in order to solve for ATT and ligament forces. The model took advantage of using EMGs as inputs, and could account for the abnormal muscle activation patterns of ACL-deficient gait. We validated our model by comparing the calculated results with previous in vitro, in vivo, and numerical studies of healthy and ACL-deficient knees, and this gave us confidence on the accuracy of our model calculations. Our model predicted that ATT increased throughout stance phase for the ACL-deficient knee compared with the healthy knee. The medial collateral ligament functioned as the main passive restraint to anterior shear force in the ACL-deficient knee. Although strong co-contraction of knee flexors was found to help restrain ATT in the ACL-deficient knee, it did not counteract the effect of ACL rupture. Posterior inclination angle of the tibial plateau was found to be a crucial parameter in determining knee mechanics, and increasing the tibial slope inclination in our model would increase the resulting ATT and ligament forces in both healthy and ACL-deficient knees.

  12. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...

  13. Estimation of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral load harbored by lymphocyte subpopulations in BLV-infected cattle at the subclinical stage of enzootic bovine leucosis using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR

    OpenAIRE

    Panei, Carlos Javier; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Omori, Takashi; Nunoya, Tetsuo; Davis, William C.; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Matoba, Kazuhiro; Aida, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infection may remain clinically silent at the aleukemic (AL) stage, cause persistent lymphocytosis (PL), or, more rarely, B cell lymphoma. BLV has been identified in B cells, CD2+ T cells, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, ?/? T cells, monocytes, and granulocytes in infected cattle that do not have tumors, although the most consistently i...

  14. Rats tested after a washout period from sub-chronic PCP administration exhibited impaired performance in the 5-Choice Continuous Performance Test (5C-CPT) when the attentional load was increased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sam A; Young, Jared W; Neill, Jo C

    2012-03-01

    It is well documented that schizophrenia patients exhibit dysfunction in various cognitive domains, including attention/vigilance, as demonstrated by impaired performance in the myriad of Continuous Performance Tests (CPTs). NMDA receptor antagonists provide a pharmacological model in animals of the cognitive disruption presented in the disorder. We therefore examined the effects of a sub-chronic PCP treatment regimen (5.0mg/kg 7-days bi-daily) in the recently developed rodent test of vigilance, the 5-Choice Continuous Performance Test (5C-CPT). We assessed the effects of this regimen after at least a 7-day washout period on both baseline performance and when the attentional load was increased. Sub-chronic PCP treatment impaired 5C-CPT performance in a manner consistent with impaired vigilance in patients with schizophrenia, with reduced hit rate and impaired signal sensitivity. These effects were only evident when performance was challenged following parameter manipulations. These data demonstrate that attention/vigilance is sensitive to disruption following sub-chronic PCP treatment in a pre-clinical task that may demonstrate increased analogy to human vigilance tasks. Although the PCP-induced attentional deficits are not as large as those deficits observed in other domains, these data provide evidence that this pharmacological model can affect multiple cognitive domains and may be useful for assessing putative pro-cognitive therapeutics for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  16. Dielectrically Loaded Biconical Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusseibeh, Fouad Ahmed

    1995-01-01

    Biconical antennas are of great interest to those who deal with broadband applications including the transmission/reception of pulses. In particular, wide-angle conical antennas are an attractive choice in many applications including Electronic Support Measures (ESM) and the measurements of transient surface currents and charge densities on aircraft. Dielectric loading in the interior region of a conical antenna can be used to reduce the size of the antenna especially at low frequencies and/or for structural strength. Therefore, having an analytical solution for the input impedance and the frequency response is very helpful in optimizing the design and understanding the behavior of the antenna. From the quasi-analytical solution for the input impedance and the electric field of a wide-angle conical antenna, it can be seen that the dielectric loading in the antenna region improves the input impedance at low frequencies, but increases the number of resonance points and the magnitude of these peaks. When an inhomogeneous dielectric load is used, the magnitude of the resonance peaks is decreased (depending on the way the load is distributed), improving the input impedance of the antenna significantly. Introducing a dielectric load in the interior region of an electrically short receiving cone makes the antenna behave as an electrically longer antenna. However, this is not true for the case for electrical1y long antennas. For the case of pulse transmission, the dielectric load affects only the amplitude. Of course, if the dielectric fills the whole space, both transmitting and receiving antennas behave as electrically longer antennas.

  17. Concurrent Working Memory Load Can Facilitate Selective Attention: Evidence for Specialized Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soojin; Kim, Min-Shik; Chun, Marvin M.

    2007-01-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent working memory load impairs selective attention and increases distractor interference (N. Lavie, A. Hirst, J. W. de Fockert, & E. Viding, see record 2004-17825-003). Here, the authors present new evidence that the type of concurrent working memory load determines whether load impairs selective attention or not.…

  18. Estimation of Ligament Loading and Anterior Tibial Translation in Healthy and ACL-Deficient Knees During Gait and the Influence of Increasing Tibial Slope Using EMG-Driven Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Qi; MacLeod, Toran D.; Manal, Kurt; Buchanan, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a biomechanical model to estimate anterior tibial translation (ATT), anterior shear forces, and ligament loading in the healthy and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee joint during gait. This model used electromyography (EMG), joint position, and force plate data as inputs to calculate ligament loading during stance phase. First, an EMG-driven model was used to calculate forces for the major muscles crossing the knee joint. The calculated m...

  19. Immediate non-occlusal loading vs. early loading in partially edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testori, Tiziano; Bianchi, Francesca; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Szmukler-Moncler, Serge; Francetti, Luca; Weinstein, Roberto Ludovico

    2003-01-01

    Immediate loading of dental implants can reduce treatment time and management concerns, thus increasing patient acceptance. This paper reports the authors' preliminary experience with partially edentulous patients having received non-occlusally loaded provisional restorations within 24 hours of surgery, compared to patients treated according to an early loading protocol. The present data suggest that implant supported fixed partial prostheses can be immediately non-occlusally loaded and restored with a predictability similar to early loaded implants.

  20. Electrical load detection aparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A load detection technique for a load comprising multiple frequency-dependant sub-loads comprises measuring a representation of the impedance characteristic of the load; providing stored representations of a multiplicity of impedance characteristics of the load; each one of the stored representat...

  1. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  2. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  3. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  4. Epigenetic control and reintegration of extrachromosomal proviral DNA in HL60 cells chronically infected with human T cell leukaemia virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, K; Yonemoto, R; Yoshikura, H

    1988-03-01

    Extrachromosomal human T cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-I) proviruses are persistently maintained in HTLV-I-infected human promyelocytic leukaemia (HL60) cells even 24 months after viral infection. By successive recloning of these HTLV-I-infected clones, and by Southern blot analysis of their HTLV-I proviruses, we concluded the following. The copy number of extrachromosomal proviruses fluctuated, and this fluctuation was probably dependent on the epigenetic conditions in the host cell, HL60. The transient appearance of a high copy number of extrachromosomal proviruses was followed by an increase in the copy number of integrated proviruses. Persistence of extrachromosomal proviruses appeared to be caused by an intracellular rather than an intercellular mechanism.

  5. Comparison of load parameters for stored materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, J.; Nielsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    that the wall friction measured in a silo might be significantly larger than the value obtained from shear tests. The load parameters depend on the load level, perhaps in a way not reflected by the internal friction angle. It is not necessarily on the safe side to determine the parameters for a high load level.......The load parameters listed in the european prestandard and those derived from the material tests conform reasonably well in many cases. There are, however, also many cases where the agreement is not satisfactory, especially due to larger variability of the measured values. This yields cretainly...... in several cases. The measurement of reliable and relevant wall friction coefficients is a severe problem. If the wall friction depends on if the normal load is increasing or decreasing, it is the value for increasing load which should be the relevant load parameter, but for coal and wheat it is seen...

  6. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your calories from carbohydrates. The role of carbohydrates Carbohydrates, also known as starches and sugars, are ... to consume some energy sources during your event. Carbohydrate loading Carbohydrate loading is done the week before ...

  7. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  8. Evaluation of feline monocyte-derived dendritic cells loaded with internally inactivated virus as a vaccine against feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Giulia; Matteucci, Donatella; Mazzetti, Paola; Tarabella, Francesca; Catalucci, Valentina; Ricci, Enrica; Merico, Antonio; Bozzacco, Leonia; Pistello, Mauro; Bendinelli, Mauro

    2008-03-01

    Dendritic cells are the only antigen-presenting cells that can present exogenous antigens to both helper and cytolytic T cells and prime Th1-type or Th2-type cellular immune responses. Given their unique immune functions, dendritic cells are considered attractive "live adjuvants" for vaccination and immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. The present study was carried out to assess whether the reinjection of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells loaded with an aldithriol-2-inactivated primary isolate of feline immune deficiency virus (FIV) was able to elicit protective immune responses against the homologous virus in naive cats. Vaccine efficacy was assessed by monitoring immune responses and, finally, by challenge with the homologous virus of vaccinated, mock-vaccinated, and healthy cats. The outcome of challenge was followed by measuring cellular and antibody responses and viral and proviral loads and quantitating FIV by isolation and a count of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells in blood. Vaccinated animals exhibited clearly evident FIV-specific peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and antibody titers in response to immunization; however, they became infected with the challenge virus at rates comparable to those of control animals.

  9. A gravity loading countermeasure skinsuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, James M.; Newman, Dava J.

    2011-04-01

    Despite the use of several countermeasures, significant physiological deconditioning still occurs during long duration spaceflight. Bone loss - primarily due to the absence of loading in microgravity - is perhaps the greatest challenge to resolve. This paper describes a conceptual Gravity Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) that induces loading on the body to mimic standing and - when integrated with other countermeasures - exercising on Earth. Comfort, mobility and other operational issues were explored during a pilot study carried out in parabolic flight for prototype suits worn by three subjects. Compared to the 1- or 2-stage Russian Pingvin Suits, the elastic mesh of the GLCS can create a loading regime that gradually increases in hundreds of stages from the shoulders to the feet, thereby reproducing the weight-bearing regime normally imparted by gravity with much higher resolution. Modelling shows that the skinsuit requires less than 10 mmHg (1.3 kPa) of compression for three subjects of varied gender, height and mass. Negligible mobility restriction and excellent comfort properties were found during the parabolic flights, which suggests that crewmembers should be able to work normally, exercise or sleep while wearing the suit. The suit may also serve as a practical 1 g harness for exercise countermeasures and vibration applications to improve dynamic loading.

  10. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  11. Load-Bearing Capacity of Roof Trusses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Damkilde, Lars; Munch-Andersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    systems such as roof trusses are established and statistical characteristics of the load bearing capacity are determined. The results show that there is a significant increase in the characteristic (nominal) value and a reduction in the coefficient of variation (COV) for typical loads such as permanent...

  12. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  13. Electrical load modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgas, Helio Moreira; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Franca, Carlos [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da; Pires, Robson Celso; Costa Junior, Roberto Affonso [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Accurate dynamic load models allow more precise calculations of power system controls and stability limits, which are critical mainly in the operation planning of power systems. This paper describes the development of a computer program (software) for static and dynamic load model studies using the measurement approach for the CEMIG system. Two dynamic load model structures are developed and tested. A procedure for applying a set of measured data from an on-line transient recording system to develop load models is described. (author) 6 refs., 17 figs.

  14. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  15. Macrophyte Community Response to Nitrogen Loading and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Empirical determination of nutrient loading thresholds that negatively impact seagrass communities have been elusive due to the multitude of factors involved. Using a mesocosm system that simulated Pacific Northwest estuaries, we evaluated macrophyte metrics across gradients of NO3 loading (0, 1.5, 3 and 6x ambient) and temperature (10 and 20 °C). Macroalgal growth, biomass, and C:N responded positively to increased NO3 load and floating algal mats developed at 20 ºC. Zostera japonica metrics, including C:N, responded more to temperature than to NO3 loading. Z. marina biomass exhibited a negative temperature effect and in some cases a negative NO3 effect, while growth rate increased with temperature. Shoot survival decreased at 20 ºC but was not influenced by NO3 loading. Wasting disease index exhibited a significant temperature by NO3 interaction consistent with increased disease susceptibility. Community shifts observed were consistent with the nutrient loading hypothesis at 20 ºC, but there was no evidence of other eutrophication symptoms due to the short residence time. The Nutrient Pollution Index tracked the NO3 gradient at 10 ºC but exhibited no response at 20 ºC. We suggest that systems characterized by cool temperatures, high NO3 loads, and short residence time may be resilient to many symptoms of eutrophication. Estuarine systems characterized by cool temperatures, high nutrient loads and rapid flushing may be resilient to some symptoms

  16. Effect of Internal Clearance on Load Distribution and Life of Radially Loaded Ball and Roller Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of internal clearance on radially loaded deepgroove ball and cylindrical roller bearing load distribution and fatigue life was determined for four clearance groups defined in the bearing standards. The analysis was extended to negative clearance (interference) conditions to produce a curve of life factor versus internal clearance. Rolling-element loads can be optimized and bearing life maximized for a small negative operating clearance. Life declines gradually with positive clearance and rapidly with increasing negative clearance. Relationships were found between bearing life and internal clearance as a function of ball or roller diameter, adjusted for load. Results are presented as life factors for radially loaded bearings independent of bearing size or applied load. In addition, a modified Stribeck Equation is presented that relates the maximum rolling-element load to internal bearing clearance.

  17. Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic Radial Distribution Systems Load Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Atma Ram; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-08-01

    Distribution system network today is facing the challenge of meeting increased load demands from the industrial, commercial and residential sectors. The pattern of load is highly dependent on consumer behavior and temporal factors such as season of the year, day of the week or time of the day. For deterministic radial distribution load flow studies load is taken as constant. But, load varies continually with a high degree of uncertainty. So, there is a need to model probable realistic load. Monte-Carlo Simulation is used to model the probable realistic load by generating random values of active and reactive power load from the mean and standard deviation of the load and for solving a Deterministic Radial Load Flow with these values. The probabilistic solution is reconstructed from deterministic data obtained for each simulation. The main contribution of the work is: Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on balanced radial distribution load flow. Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on unbalanced radial distribution load flow. Compare the voltage profile and losses with probable realistic ZIP load modeling for balanced and unbalanced radial distribution load flow.

  18. Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic Radial Distribution Systems Load Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Atma Ram; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-12-01

    Distribution system network today is facing the challenge of meeting increased load demands from the industrial, commercial and residential sectors. The pattern of load is highly dependent on consumer behavior and temporal factors such as season of the year, day of the week or time of the day. For deterministic radial distribution load flow studies load is taken as constant. But, load varies continually with a high degree of uncertainty. So, there is a need to model probable realistic load. Monte-Carlo Simulation is used to model the probable realistic load by generating random values of active and reactive power load from the mean and standard deviation of the load and for solving a Deterministic Radial Load Flow with these values. The probabilistic solution is reconstructed from deterministic data obtained for each simulation. The main contribution of the work is: Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on balanced radial distribution load flow. Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on unbalanced radial distribution load flow. Compare the voltage profile and losses with probable realistic ZIP load modeling for balanced and unbalanced radial distribution load flow.

  19. Load Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  20. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-12-01

    This study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates our 1990 study. BPS's long-range planning incorporates resource availability with a range of forecasted electrical consumption. The forecasted future electrical demands-firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, then additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. This study analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional profile, which includes loads and resources in addition to the federal system. This study presents the federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for 1992- 2012.

  1. Mechanical behavior of cyclically loaded PZT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.S.; Hill, M.D.; Freiman, S.W. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Hwang, C.S. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-31

    Uses of intelligent materials which involve the application of force or the generation of displacements will require the incorporation of some form of actuator material into the overall structure. Typically, these types of applications will result in the generation of cyclic loads on the actuator; depending upon the specific application, the frequency of the loading could be low, e.g., for positioning components, or relatively high, e.g., for damping out vibrations in machining tools. Nevertheless, the cyclic nature of the loading raises the specter of damage and, ultimately, failure arising from cyclic loading processes which would not be predicted by traditional mechanical properties test methods. It has been found that PZT loaded cyclically sometimes fails at loads below its nominal strength, as measured by traditional, monotonically increasing load tests. Damage mechanisms which come into play as a result of the cyclic loading conditions have been postulated as the reasons for this behavior. Recent work investigating the cyclic loading of a PZT-8 material at resonance frequency determined that microcracks were generated in the high stress region of the material. Recent results demonstrate that macrocrack extension appears to be accompanied by domain reorientation whereas microcracks can propagate around PZT grains without affecting the domains, (2) morphology and distribution of microcracks generated under different loading conditions can change dramatically that the qualitative mechanical response of PZT-8 to cyclic loading appears to be insensitive to grain morphology. The results presented imply that stresses generated at the tips of macrocracks are much larger than those at microcracks, that temperature strongly affects the rate of microcrack generation, and that wide distributions in grain size and the presence of large voids do not necessarily result in increased microcrack generation over that seen in 2 {micro}m grain size, small pore material.

  2. Load balancing multimodule switching power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.; Wester, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    Regulating system individually adjusts duty cycles of modules so that all share load equally, thus, protects individual modules and their components from overload and increases reliability and life expectancy. Converters are alternative to high-power, single unit systems.

  3. ANTHROPOGENIC LOAD ON RIVERS OF URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Kurochkina Valentina Aleksandrovna; Bogomolova Tat’yana Gennad’evna; Kirov Borislav Lyubomirov

    2016-01-01

    The increasing speed of urbanization and population growth lead to the increasing anthropogenic load on water bodies. The urbanization processes in Russia are more intensive than in other countries. The dense population and great industrial potential lead to the fact that the urbanized territories become the main sources of water pollution. That’s why the environmental control of the state of water objects is needed. In the article the authors study the problem of anthropogenic load impact on...

  4. Mechanism isolates load weighing cell during lifting of load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigler, J. S.

    1966-01-01

    Load weighing cell used in conjuction with a hoist is isolated during lifting and manipulation of the load. A simple mechanism, attached to a crane hook, provides a screw adjustment for engaging the load cell during weighing of the load and isolating it from lift forces during hoisting of the load.

  5. Load flow analysis using decoupled fuzzy load flow under critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The conventional load flow methods like Newton-Raphson load flow (NRLF), Fast Decoupled load flow (FDLF) provide poor performance under critical conditions such as high R/X ratio, heavily loading condition etc. Exploiting the decoupling properties of power system, reliable fuzzy load flow is developed to overcome the ...

  6. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy & Susceptibility to Leading Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Murphy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Load Theory (Lavie, 1995; 2005 states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e. the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator, the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPLEX-ALLOYED STEEL OF INCREASED HARDENABILITY, VISCOSITY AND HEAT-RESISTANCE FOR CUTTING PARTS OF HIGH-SPEED INSTRUMENT, OPERATING IN CONDITIONS OF HEATING UP AND DYNAMIC LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Fedulov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical aspects of development of the complex-alloyed steel compounds for cutting parts of high-speed instrument, particularly influence of alloying elements on its structure and characteristics are considered. It is shown that combined alloying of steel by carbon, chrome, silicon, manganese, vanadium and molybdenum in a certain proportion allows to reach the intended aim, achieving at the same time increase of solidity, impact elasticity and heat stability.

  8. Shoulder joint position sense improves with external load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprak, David N; Osternig, Louis R; van Donkelaar, Paul; Karduna, Andrew R

    2007-11-01

    Joint position sense (JPS) is important in the maintenance of optimal movement coordination of limb segments in functional activities. Researchers have shown that the sensitivity of musculotendinous mechanoreceptors increases as muscle activation levels increase. In the present study, when 25 participants tried to replicate the same presented position, both vector and elevation angle repositioning errors decreased linearly as the external load increased up to 40% above unloaded shoulder torque. However, external load had no effect on plane repositioning error. The results indicated that JPS increased under conditions of increasing external load but only in the direction of the applied load. That finding indicates that JPS acuity improves as muscle activation levels increase.

  9. Handball load and shoulder injury rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M; Nielsen, R O; Attermann, J

    2017-01-01

    by scapular control, isometric shoulder strength or glenohumeral range of motion (ROM). Methods 679 players (14-18 years) provided weekly reports on shoulder injury and handball load (training and competition hours) over 31 weeks using the SMS, phone and medical examination system. Handball load in a given......Background Knowledge of injury patterns, an essential step towards injury prevention, is lacking in youth handball. Aim To investigate if an increase in handball load is associated with increased shoulder injury rates compared with a minor increase or decrease, and if an association is influenced...... week was categorised into (1) 60% relative to the weekly average amount of handball load the preceding 4 weeks. Assessment of shoulder isometric rotational and abduction strength, ROM and scapular control...

  10. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  11. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  12. Plug Load Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We provide MATLAB binary files (.mat) and comma separated values files of data collected from a pilot study of a plug load management system that allows for the...

  13. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Science.gov (United States)

    LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality

  14. HIV Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle ... used each time. Will exercise, nutrition, and other lifestyle modifications help decrease my HIV viral load? There ...

  15. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading density. This dataset is associated with the...

  16. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  17. Concurrent Memory Load Can Make RSVP Search More Efficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Gomez de Liano, Beatriz; Botella, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The detrimental effect of increased memory load on selective attention has been demonstrated in many situations. However, in search tasks over time using RSVP methods, it is not clear how memory load affects attentional processes; no effects as well as beneficial and detrimental effects of memory load have been found in these types of tasks. The…

  18. Ice loads on dams: field measurements and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comfort, G.; Abdelnour, R.; Gong, Y.; Dinovitzer, A. [Fleet Technology Ltd., Kanata, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A four-year study was undertaken to measure ice loads on hydroelectric dams. The various components of ice loads acting on a dam face -- the residual load, the increase in load due to rises in temperature, and the increase in load associated with water level changes -- were studied separately. Results showed that higher line loads were produced with a combination of water level and ice temperature changes, as compared to sites where water level changes were negligible. Knowledge of static ice loads on hydroelectric structures was improved as a result of these studies, permitting the development of preliminary ice load predictors in the laboratory which show good agreement with observed field data. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  19. Composite Load Model Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)

    2007-09-30

    The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: • the model initializes properly, • all the parameter settings are functioning, and • the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

  20. Load power device, system and method of load control and management employing load identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yi; Luebke, Charles John; Schoepf, Thomas J.

    2018-01-09

    A load power device includes a power input, at least one power output for at least one load, a plurality of sensors structured to sense voltage and current at the at least one power output, and a processor. The processor provides: (a) load identification based upon the sensed voltage and current, and (b) load control and management based upon the load identification.

  1. Genetic Risk Score Modelling for Disease Progression in New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Patients: Increased Genetic Load of Islet-Expressed and Cytokine-Regulated Candidate Genes Predicts Poorer Glycemic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A. Brorsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified over 40 type 1 diabetes risk loci. The clinical impact of these loci on β-cell function during disease progression is unknown. We aimed at testing whether a genetic risk score could predict glycemic control and residual β-cell function in type 1 diabetes (T1D. As gene expression may represent an intermediate phenotype between genetic variation and disease, we hypothesized that genes within T1D loci which are expressed in islets and transcriptionally regulated by proinflammatory cytokines would be the best predictors of disease progression. Two-thirds of 46 GWAS candidate genes examined were expressed in human islets, and 11 of these significantly changed expression levels following exposure to proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β + IFNγ + TNFα for 48 h. Using the GWAS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from each locus, we constructed a genetic risk score based on the cumulative number of risk alleles carried in children with newly diagnosed T1D. With each additional risk allele carried, HbA1c levels increased significantly within first year after diagnosis. Network and gene ontology (GO analyses revealed that several of the 11 candidate genes have overlapping biological functions and interact in a common network. Our results may help predict disease progression in newly diagnosed children with T1D which can be exploited for optimizing treatment.

  2. Increased Insulin following an Oral Glucose Load, Genetic Variation near the Melatonin Receptor MTNR1B, but No Biochemical Evidence of Endothelial Dysfunction in Young Asian Men and Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Matuszek

    Full Text Available To identify biochemical and genetic variation relating to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in young, lean male and female adults of different ethnicities.Fasting blood and urine and non-fasting blood following oral glucose intake were analysed in 90 Caucasians, South Asians and South East/East Asians.There were no differences in age, birthweight, blood pressure, body mass index, percent body fat, total energy, percentage of macronutrient intake, microalbumin, leptin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, nitric oxide metabolites, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, von Willebrand factor, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tissue plasminogen activator. Fasting total cholesterol (P = .000, triglycerides (P = .050, low density lipoprotein (P = .009 and non-fasting blood glucose (15 min (P = .024 were elevated in South Asians compared with Caucasians, but there was no significant difference in glucose area under curve (AUC. Non-fasting insulin in South Asians (15-120 min, in South East/East Asians (60-120 min, and insulin AUC in South Asians and South East/East Asians, were elevated compared with Caucasians (P≤0.006. The molar ratio of C-peptide AUC/Insulin AUC (P = .045 and adiponectin (P = .037 were lower in South Asians compared with Caucasians. A significant difference in allele frequency distributions in Caucasians and South Asians was found for rs2166706 (P = 0.022 and rs10830963 (P = 0.009, which are both near the melatonin receptor MTNR1B.Elevated non-fasting insulin exists in young South Asians of normal fasting glucose and insulin. Hepatic clearance of insulin may be reduced in South Asians. No current biochemical evidence exists of endothelial dysfunction at this stage of development. MTNR1B signalling may be a useful therapeutic target in Asian populations in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Knowledge-Based System to Support Plug Load Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical plug loads comprise an increasingly larger share of building energy consumption as improvements have been made to Heating, Ventilation, and Air...

  4. Design and analysis of a novel mechanical loading machine for dynamic in vivo axial loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macione, James; Nesbitt, Sterling; Pandit, Vaibhav; Kotha, Shiva

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes the construction of a loading machine for performing in vivo, dynamic mechanical loading of the rodent forearm. The loading machine utilizes a unique type of electromagnetic actuator with no mechanically resistive components (servotube), allowing highly accurate loads to be created. A regression analysis of the force created by the actuator with respect to the input voltage demonstrates high linear correlation (R(2) = 1). When the linear correlation is used to create dynamic loading waveforms in the frequency (0.5-10 Hz) and load (1-50 N) range used for in vivo loading, less than 1% normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) is computed. Larger NRMSE is found at increased frequencies, with 5%-8% occurring at 40 Hz, and reasons are discussed. Amplifiers (strain gauge, linear voltage displacement transducer (LVDT), and load cell) are constructed, calibrated, and integrated, to allow well-resolved dynamic measurements to be recorded at each program cycle. Each of the amplifiers uses an active filter with cutoff frequency at the maximum in vivo loading frequencies (50 Hz) so that electronic noise generated by the servo drive and actuator are reduced. The LVDT and load cell amplifiers allow evaluation of stress-strain relationships to determine if in vivo bone damage is occurring. The strain gauge amplifier allows dynamic force to strain calibrations to occur for animals of different sex, age, and strain. Unique features are integrated into the loading system, including a weightless mode, which allows the limbs of anesthetized animals to be quickly positioned and removed. Although the device is constructed for in vivo axial bone loading, it can be used within constraints, as a general measurement instrument in a laboratory setting.

  5. Wave Loads on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area.......Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area....

  6. High Nutrient Load Increases Biostabilization of Sediment by Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, K.; Mariotti, G.

    2016-12-01

    Benthic biofilms, matrixes of microbial cells and their secretions, have been shown to stabilize sediment in coastal environments. While there have been numerous studies on the effects of nutrients on the ability of vascular plants to stabilize sediment, few studies have investigated how nutrients affect biofilm growth and their ability to stabilize sediment. Diatom-based biofilms were grown in laboratory experiments on a settled bed of bentonite clay, under a saline water column with varying amounts of nutrients. Erodibility at different stages of biofilm growth was measured using a Gust Erosion Microcosm System, which applied shear stresses from 0.05 to 0.6 Pa. Biofilms more than one week old decreased the erodibility of the sediments in all nutrient treatments compared to abiotic experiments. With high nutrients, the biofilm grew the fastest; the erodibility decreased within two weeks of biofilm growth and remained low for all applied shear stresses. After four weeks of biofilm growth, no erosion of sediment occurred even at the highest applied shear stress (0.6 Pa). With low nutrients the erodibility decreased within three weeks. With no nutrients the biofilms grew similarly to those with low nutrients; the erodibility decreased within three weeks under shear stresses 0.05-0.45 Pa, but the sediments were eroded under high shear stresses. Under low to moderate shear stresses (0.05-0.45 Pa), the total mass eroded by all experiments with biofilms was similar, suggesting that any amount of biofilm decreases erodibility at low shear stresses. In summary, high nutrients allow for faster biostabilization and for resistance to extreme shear stresses. These results suggest that eutrophication would not decrease the biofilm ability to stabilize muddy sediments in coastal environment.

  7. Differences in lumbar spine load due to posture and upper limb external load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Joanna; Roman-Liu, Danuta; Zagrajek, Tomasz; Borkowski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    As the lumbar region of the spine is particularly predisposed to musculoskeletal disorders, the aim of this article was to assess lumbar spine load on the basis of an accurate model of this part of the body. The model was developed with the finite element method and the energy criterion for optimising muscle work. Computer calculations confirmed that stresses and compression forces in intervertebral discs increased with an increase in the load force and that they were significantly larger in the bent forwards posture than in the erect posture. This result clearly shows that lifting light objects and the erect posture are important elements in minimising spine load.

  8. Soil Behavior Under Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    compressive stress of creep loading causes the pore water pressure to increase. If drainage is possible an outflow of water then takes place into...behavior such as creep and temperature-dependency. Those aspects are not discussed here because they are beyond the scopes in this study. 2.2.2...0.00060 0.0012 0.0020 0.0040 0.0060 $ P9 P10 0.0080 0.041 *MAT_USER_DEFINED_MATERIAL_MODELS $ MID RO

  9. Load research and load estimation in electricity distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1996-12-31

    The topics introduced in this thesis are: the Finnish load research project, a simple form customer class load model, analysis of the origins of customers load distribution, a method for the estimation of the confidence interval of customer loads and Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) which utilises both the load models and measurements from distribution networks. The Finnish load research project started in 1983. The project was initially coordinated by the Association of Finnish Electric Utilities and 40 utilities joined the project. Now there are over 1000 customer hourly load recordings in a database. A simple form customer class load model is introduced. The model is designed to be practical for most utility applications and has been used by the Finnish utilities for several years. The only variable of the model is the customers annual energy consumption. The model gives the customers average hourly load and standard deviation for a selected month, day and hour. The statistical distribution of customer loads is studied and a model for customer electric load variation is developed. The model results in a lognormal distribution as an extreme case. Using the `simple form load model`, a method for estimating confidence intervals (confidence limits) of customer hourly load is developed. The two methods selected for final analysis are based on normal and lognormal distribution estimated in a simplified manner. The estimation of several cumulated customer class loads is also analysed. Customer class load estimation which combines the information from load models and distribution network load measurements is developed. This method, called Distribution Load Estimation (DLE), utilises information already available in the utilities databases and is thus easy to apply

  10. Effect of loading rate on creep of phosphorous doped copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Oestling, Henrik C.M.; Sandstroem, Rolf (Swerea KIMAB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    Creep testing of copper intended for nuclear waste disposal has been performed on continuous creep tests machines at a temperature of 75 deg C. The loading time has been varied from 1 hour to 6 months. The rupture strain including both loading and creep strains does not differ from traditional dead weight lever creep test rigs. The loading strain increases with increasing loading time, at the expense of the creep strain. The time dependence of the creep strain has been modelled taking athermal plastic deformation and creep into account. During loading the contribution to the strain from the athermal plastic deformation dominates until the stress is close to the constant load level. When the constant load has been reached there is no more athermal strain and all of the strain comes from creep

  11. The inverse effects of load transfer and load sharing on axial compressive stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haher, T R; Yeung, A W; Ottaviano, D M; Merola, A A; Caruso, S A

    2001-01-01

    The goal of spinal instrumentation is to stabilize involved motion segments while fusion occurs. Although some degree of load sharing is necessary for fusion, the ability of the instrumentation system to transfer the load may vary. The purpose of this study is to formulate a mathematical relationship between load sharing and load transfer of specific spinal instrumentation systems using a well-accepted mechanical model. Forty-eight American Society for Testing Materials standard ultra high molecular weight polyethylene cylinders were used as per designation F 1717-96, standard test methods for static and fatigue for spinal implant constructs in a corpectomy model. Twenty-four spinal assemblies consisting of anterior plates, anterior rod, and posterior rods were subjected to compression bending tests using a MTS Bionix servo-hydraulic material testing apparatus. Each implant was tested in compression bending with and without the addition of a titanium load-sharing cage. The force applied was the independent variable, and the displacement was the dependent variable. The stiffness was determined for each setup with and without the addition of an anterior load-sharing cage. The average axial compressive stiffness of a system increased by a factor of 8.5 with the addition of the load-sharing cage. An inverse relationship existed between the compressive stiffness of the construct and its relative increase achieved with the addition of the load-sharing cage. The compressive stiffness of the system with the addition of the load-sharing cage approached that of the anterior device itself as the system flexibility increased. The ability of instrumentation systems to load share or load transfer and their respective stiffness was determined. The 5-mm rod screw posterior system was compared with the 7-mm Ti posterior system with the addition of one and two devices for transverse traction (DTTs). The rods with the increased diameter had a stiffness of 1723 n/mm with one DTT and

  12. Fuel Load (FL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan C. Lutes; Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fuel Load method (FL) is used to sample dead and down woody debris, determine depth of the duff/ litter profile, estimate the proportion of litter in the profile, and estimate total vegetative cover and dead vegetative cover. Down woody debris (DWD) is sampled using the planar intercept technique based on the methodology developed by Brown (1974). Pieces of dead...

  13. Probabilistic Load Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the probabilistic load flow (PLF) techniques. Applications of the PLF techniques in different areas of power system steady-state analysis are also discussed. The purpose of the review is to identify different available PLF techniques and their corresponding...

  14. Robust surgery loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; van Houdenhoven, Mark; Kazemier, Geert

    2008-01-01

    We consider the robust surgery loading problem for a hospital’s operating theatre department, which concerns assigning surgeries and sufficient planned slack to operating room days. The objective is to maximize capacity utilization and minimize the risk of overtime, and thus cancelled patients. This

  15. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    A duration of load study representing 13 years of testing was recently terminated. Preliminary results have been published over the years. This paper represents the final account of the study, which was focused on the influ-ence of moisture content on time to failure for structural timber subject...

  16. Multifrequency Printed Antennas Loaded with Metamaterial Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Segovia-Vargas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of printed antennas loaded with metamaterial particles. This novel technique allows developing printed antennas with interesting features such as multifrequency (simultaneous operation over two or more frequency bands and multifunctionality (e. g. radiation pattern diversity. Moreover, compactness is also achieved and the main advantages of conventional printed antennas (light weight, low profile, low cost ... are maintained. Different types of metamaterial-loaded printed antennas are reviewed: printed dipoles and patch antennas. Several prototypes are designed, manufactured and measured showing good results. Furthermore, simple but accurate equivalent models are proposed. These models allow an easy and quick design of metamaterial-loaded printed antennas. Finally, two interesting applications based on the proposed antennas are reviewed: the patch antennas are used as radiating elements of emerging active RFID systems in the microwave band and the metamaterial-loaded printed dipoles are employed to increase the performance of log-periodic arrays.

  17. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  18. Enzyme loading dependence of cellulose hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated sugarcane bagasse, either delignified or non-delignified, was studied as a function of enzyme loading. Hydrolysis experiments were carried out using five enzyme loadings (2.5 to 20 FPU/g cellulose and the concentration of solids was 2% for both materials. Alkaline delignification improved cellulose hydrolysis by increasing surface area. For both materials, glucose concentrations increased with enzyme loading. On the other hand, enzyme loadings higher than 15 FPU/g did not result in any increase in the initial rate, since the excess of enzyme adsorbed onto the substrate restricted the diffusion process through the structure.

  19. Thermostat Controlled Loads Flexibility Assessment for Enabling Load Shifting – An Experimental Proof in a Low Voltage Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Kosek, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    reduction by 17 kWh and an increase in the average cold chamber temperature by 1.7°C. The control flexibility of loads increases from 22.5% to 54% by bypassing their thermostat. Based on the results, we can conclude that thermostat controlled appliances can be used for load shifting without compromising......This paper investigates the usability of thermostat controlled domestic appliances for load shift in LV distribution grids. The proposed method uses refrigerators for the demonstration of adaptive load prediction to estimate its flexibility and perform scheduling based on load threshold limit. Two...... 1-week long experiments with real-time fridge measurements from 10 real households are conducted to observe the usability of domestic thermostat controlled loads in solving issues by load shift. The experimental results show that the total threshold crossing time is reduced by 37.48% with energy...

  20. Traditional posterior load carriage: effects of load mass and size on torso kinematics, kinetics, muscle activity and movement stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Khoirul; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2016-01-01

    Traditional posterior load carriage (PLC), done without the use of an assistive device (e.g., backpack), has been associated with low back pain (LBP) development. This study evaluated the effects of important task demands, related to load mass and size, on potential mechanisms linking traditional PLC with LBP. Nine healthy participants completed PLC tasks with three load masses (20%, 35% and 50% of individual body mass) and three load sizes (small, medium and large). Torso kinematics, kinetics, muscle activity and slip risk were evaluated during PLC on a walkway, and torso movement stability was quantified during PLC on a treadmill. Increasing load mass caused increased torso flexion, L5/S1 flexion moment, abdominal muscle activity and torso movement stability in the frontal plane. Increasing load size also caused higher torso flexion, peak torso angular velocity and acceleration, and abdominal muscle activity. Complex interactive effects of load mass and size were found on paraspinal muscle activity and slip risk. Specific task demands, related to load mass and size, may thus influence the risk of LBP during PLC. This study examined the effects of load mass and size on low back pain (LBP) risk using intermediary measures derived from torso kinematics, kinetics and muscle activity. Our current findings, along with earlier work, suggest that load mass and size can influence LBP risk, and that use of smaller and light loads may be beneficial during PLC.

  1. Preview-based Asymmetric Load Reduction of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mathias; Filsø, Jakob; Soltani, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue loads on wind turbines caused by an asymmetric wind field become an increasing concern when the scale of wind turbines increases. This paper presents a model based predictive approach to reduce asymmetric loads by using Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) measurements. The Model Predictive...... to the same controller without LIDAR data. The results showed that the MPC with LIDAR was able to reduce the asymmetric loads compared to the MPC without LIDAR while still maintaining the power reference....

  2. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  3. Voltage-Sensitive Load Controllers for Voltage Regulation and Increased Load Factor in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel controller design for controlling appliances based on local measurements of voltage. The controller finds the normalized voltage deviation accounting for the sensitivity of voltage measurements to appliance state. The controller produces a signal indicating desired pow...

  4. Heavy-Load Lifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Oturai, Peter; Steele, Megan L

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite a paucity of evidence, prevention guidelines typically advise avoidance of heavy lifting in an effort to protect against breast cancer-related lymphedema. This study compared acute responses in arm swelling and related symptoms after low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among...... women at risk of lymphedema while receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy. METHODS: This is a randomized, cross-over equivalence trial. Women receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy for breast cancer who had undergone axillary lymph node dissection (n=21) participated in low- (60-65% 1...... repetition maximum (RM), two sets of 15-20 repetitions) and heavy-load (85-90% 1RM, three sets of 5-8 repetition) upper-extremity resistance exercise separated by a one-week wash-out period. Swelling was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, with breast cancer...

  5. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  6. Optimizing Preseason Training Loads in Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David L; Crow, Justin; Ong, Kok-Leong; Blanch, Peter; Morris, Meg E; Dascombe, Ben J; Crossley, Kay M

    2018-02-14

    To investigate whether preseason training plans for Australian football can be computer generated using current training-load guidelines to optimize injury-risk reduction and performance improvement. A constrained optimization problem was defined for daily total and sprint distance, using the preseason schedule of an elite Australian football team as a template. Maximizing total training volume and maximizing Banister-model-projected performance were both considered optimization objectives. Cumulative workload and acute:chronic workload-ratio constraints were placed on training programs to reflect current guidelines on relative and absolute training loads for injury-risk reduction. Optimization software was then used to generate preseason training plans. The optimization framework was able to generate training plans that satisfied relative and absolute workload constraints. Increasing the off-season chronic training loads enabled the optimization algorithm to prescribe higher amounts of "safe" training and attain higher projected performance levels. Simulations showed that using a Banister-model objective led to plans that included a taper in training load prior to competition to minimize fatigue and maximize projected performance. In contrast, when the objective was to maximize total training volume, more frequent training was prescribed to accumulate as much load as possible. Feasible training plans that maximize projected performance and satisfy injury-risk constraints can be automatically generated by an optimization problem for Australian football. The optimization methods allow for individualized training-plan design and the ability to adapt to changing training objectives and different training-load metrics.

  7. Hydraulic Soft Yaw System Load Reduction and Prototype Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Markussen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a hydraulic soft yaw concept for wind turbines leads to significant load reductions in the wind turbine structure. The soft yaw system operates as a shock absorption system on a car, hence absorbing the loading from turbulent wind conditions instead of leading them into the stiff wind...... turbine structure. Results presented shows fatigue reductions of up to 40% and ultimate load reduction of up to 19%. The ultimate load reduction increases even more when the over load protection system in the hydraulic soft yaw system is introduced and results show how the exact extreme load cut off...... operates. Further it is analyzed how the soft yaw system influence the power production of the turbine. It is shown that the influence is minimal, but at larger yaw errors the effect is possitive. Due to the implemeted functions in the hydraulic soft yaw system such as even load distribution on the pinions...

  8. Modelling of Wind Turbine Loads nearby a Wind Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscher, B.; Werkmeister, A.; Jacobs, G.; Schelenz, R.

    2017-05-01

    Each wind turbine experiences a variety of loads during its lifetime, especially inside a wind farm due to the wake effect between the turbines. This paper describes a possibility to observe a load spectrum while considering wake effects in a wind farm by through the turbulence intensity. The turbulence intensity is distributed along the wind rose of Alpha Ventus. For each turbulence intensity, a Weibull characteristic is calculated. The resulting wind fields are used to determine the loads through a multibody simulation of an imaginary wind turbine located at FINO-1, representing a closely placed wind turbine at the outer edge of a wind farm. These loads are analyzed and summed up. As expected, the change of the turbulence intensity due to the wake effect has an impact on the internal loading of a wind turbine inside a wind farm. Based on the assumed loading conditions, the maximum loads increased by a factor of almost 2.5.

  9. Thermal conductivity of evacuated perlite at low temperatures as a function of load and load history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, W. P.; Sparks, L. L.; Slifka, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    Perlite, a powdered insulation, is commonly used in large cryogenic storage dewars. When these dewars are thermally cycled, the perlite in the evacuated space between the inner and outer vessels of the dewar experiences a changing mechanical load due to thermal expansion and contraction of the inner vessel. Thermal conductivity data were obtained using a boil-off calorimeter. The apparent thermal conductivity of evacuated perlite increases strongly with applied load. Hysteretic behavior of the conductivity was observed when perlite was subjected to cyclic mechanical loading.

  10. ANAEROBIC SLUDGE LOAD IMPACT LOAD OF ORGANIC SUBSTANCES CONTAINED IN THE WHEY OF THE FERMENTATION KINETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Dębowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effect of the load cell model anaerobic load of organic substances contained in the whey acidic fermentation kinetics of transformation. Specified rate of biogas production and the amount and composition of the product gas quality sludge anaerobic metabolism. The highest yield of biogas rate of 945 ml was obtained during the application of the load of 4.0 g / l, the ratio of production rate of 0.25 k 1 / d Biogas production rate increased with the increase of the initial charge of organic compounds introduced into the digester and the model was in the range from 96.3 to 236.5. Biogas composition analysis revealed that the highest concentration of methane was obtained at a load of 1.0 g / l

  11. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  12. Resident Load Influence Analysis Method for Price Based on Non-intrusive Load Monitoring and Decomposition Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenqian; Zeng, Bo; Yang, Zhou; Li, Gang

    2018-01-01

    In the non-invasive load monitoring mode, the load decomposition can reflect the running state of each load, which will help the user reduce unnecessary energy costs. With the demand side management measures of time of using price, a resident load influence analysis method for time of using price (TOU) based on non-intrusive load monitoring data are proposed in the paper. Relying on the current signal of the resident load classification, the user equipment type, and different time series of self-elasticity and cross-elasticity of the situation could be obtained. Through the actual household load data test with the impact of TOU, part of the equipment will be transferred to the working hours, and users in the peak price of electricity has been reduced, and in the electricity at the time of the increase Electrical equipment, with a certain regularity.

  13. Load Estimation from Modal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández

    2007-01-01

    In Natural Input Modal Analysis the modal parameters are estimated just from the responses while the loading is not recorded. However, engineers are sometimes interested in knowing some features of the loading acting on a structure. In this paper, a procedure to determine the loading from a FRF...... the accuracy in the load estimation. Finally, the results of an experimental program carried out on a simple structure are presented....

  14. Research of Impact Load in Large Electrohydraulic Load Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongguang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stronger impact load will appear in the initial phase when the large electric cylinder is tested in the hardware-in-loop simulation. In this paper, the mathematical model is built based on AMESim, and then the reason of the impact load is investigated through analyzing the changing tendency of parameters in the simulation results. The inhibition methods of impact load are presented according to the structural invariability principle and applied to the actual system. The final experimental result indicates that the impact load is inhibited, which provides a good experimental condition for the electric cylinder and promotes the study of large load simulator.

  15. Critical loads - assessment of uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkman, A.

    1998-10-01

    The effects of data uncertainty in applications of the critical loads concept were investigated on different spatial resolutions in Sweden and northern Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity (CL) were calculated for Sweden using the biogeochemical model PROFILE. Three methods with different structural complexity were used to estimate the adverse effects of S0{sub 2} concentrations in northern Czech Republic. Data uncertainties in the calculated critical loads/levels and exceedances (EX) were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Uncertainties within cumulative distribution functions (CDF) were aggregated by accounting for the overlap between site specific confidence intervals. Aggregation of data uncertainties within CDFs resulted in lower CL and higher EX best estimates in comparison with percentiles represented by individual sites. Data uncertainties were consequently found to advocate larger deposition reductions to achieve non-exceedance based on low critical loads estimates on 150 x 150 km resolution. Input data were found to impair the level of differentiation between geographical units at all investigated resolutions. Aggregation of data uncertainty within CDFs involved more constrained confidence intervals for a given percentile. Differentiation as well as identification of grid cells on 150 x 150 km resolution subjected to EX was generally improved. Calculation of the probability of EX was shown to preserve the possibility to differentiate between geographical units. Re-aggregation of the 95%-ile EX on 50 x 50 km resolution generally increased the confidence interval for each percentile. Significant relationships were found between forest decline and the three methods addressing risks induced by S0{sub 2} concentrations. Modifying S0{sub 2} concentrations by accounting for the length of the vegetation period was found to constitute the most useful trade-off between structural complexity, data availability and effects of data uncertainty. Data

  16. IMPACT OF AN UNDERSLUNG LOAD ON A HELICOPTER CONTROLLABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at finding the causes of controllability variations of a helicopter while transporting sling load.The maximum angular acceleration taken by the helicopter at similar controller displacement at different flight speeds was taken as a quantity characteristic of controllability efficiency to study the load impact on the helicopter cont- rollability.This article offers research results obtained with the use of the НеliСargо software. This software has proven to be a great tool for integrated research of the impact of an underslung load on the parameters of a helicopter controllability, and allows carrying out an analysis of the impact of an underslung load on the parameters of controllability under its dyna- mic behavior.The performed computational experiments have shown that the helicopter maximum angular acceleration with an underslung load significantly rises, as compared to a helicopter without cargo or a helicopter carrying the same load inside the cargo compartment. The data obtained during computational experiments corresponds to the results of analytical computations, and is in line with the literature based on the experience of helicopter flight operations.The cause of the variation in the helicopter controllability parameters during transportation of an underslung load has been found, that is - the underslung load considerably increases the main rotor thrust, due to sling load, as compared to a helicopter without cargo. When compared to a helicopter carrying a load inside the cargo compartment, this increased efficiency is mainly attributed to the fact that a helicopter with an underslung load has lower rotational inertia, since the load is not inside the cargo compartment, but outside.The obtained results can be used to improve flight manuals and flight personnel training publications, which could play a significant part in ensuring flight safety and security, and increasing the operational efficiency of

  17. Development of alternative loading solutions in droplet-vitrification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H H; Lee, Y G; Park, S U; Lee, S C; Baek, H J; Cho, E G; Engelmann, F

    2009-01-01

    In plant vitrification protocols, the loading treatment, which involves treating the explants with a moderately concentrated cryoprotectant solution, precedes dehydration of explants with highly concentrated vitrification solutions in order to reduce the toxicity which can be induced by their direct exposure to such highly concentrated solutions. This study aimed at developing alternative loading solutions composed of mixtures of glycerol and sucrose at various concentrations. Differential scanning calorimetry runs of loading solutions and of loaded and dehydrated explants were performed to assay thermal events occurring during cooling and warming. These loading solutions were applied to two model species, viz. garlic and chrysanthemum which were cryopreserved using a droplet-vitrification procedure. The loading treatment proved to be beneficial to both garlic and chrysanthemum and increased recovery of cryopreserved explants. However, response to the loading solutions tested varied between the two model species employed: with garlic, all the loading solutions had a similar effect, whereas survival of chrysanthemum shoot tips was significantly influenced by the composition of the loading solution employed. A loading solution comprising 1.9 M glycerol and 0.5 M sucrose was the most effective. The loading treatment may thus act as an osmotic stress neutralizer and/or induce the physiological adaptation of tissues and cells, including membranes, to both dehydration and freezing.

  18. Pollution Load Estimation Based on Characteristic Section Load Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Song, JinXi; Liu, WanQing

    2017-12-01

    Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section is taken as the research objective in this paper and COD is chosen as the water quality parameter. According to the discharge characteristics of point source pollutions and non-point source pollutions, a new method to estimate pollution loads-Characteristic Section Load Method(CSLM) is proposed and point source pollution and non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section are calculated in the rainy, normal and dry season in the year 2007. The results show that the monthly point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section are discharged stably, the monthly non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section change greatly, the non-point source pollution load proportions of total pollution load of COD are gradually decreased in the rainy, normal and wet periods.

  19. Working memory load attenuates emotional enhancement in recognition memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Aurelia Miendlarzewska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally arousing stimuli are perceived and remembered better than neutral stimuli. Under threat, this negativity bias is further increased. We investigated whether working memory load can attenuate incidental memory for emotional images. Two groups of participants performed the N-back task with two working memory load levels. In one group, we induced anxiety using a threat-of-shock paradigm to increase attentional processing of negative information. During task performance we incidentally and briefly flashed emotional distracter images which prolonged response times in both load conditions. A subsequent unannounced immediate recognition memory test revealed that when load at exposure had been low, recognition was better for negative items in both participant groups. This enhancement, however, was attenuated under high load, leaving performance on neutral items unchanged regardless of the threat-of-shock manipulation. We conclude that both in threat and in normal states working memory load at exposure can attenuate immediate emotional memory enhancement.

  20. Quantification of the virus-host interaction in human T lymphotropic virus I infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Graham P

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-I causes the disabling inflammatory disease HAM/TSP: there is no vaccine, no satisfactory treatment and no means of assessing the risk of disease or prognosis in infected people. Like many immunopathological diseases with a viral etiology the outcome of infection is thought to depend on the virus-host immunology interaction. However the dynamic virus-host interaction is complex and current models of HAM/TSP pathogenesis are conflicting. The CD8+ cell response is thought to be a determinant of both HTLV-I proviral load and disease status but its effects can obscure other factors. Results We show here that in the absence of CD8+ cells, CD4+ lymphocytes from HAM/TSP patients expressed HTLV-I protein significantly more readily than lymphocytes from asymptomatic carriers of similar proviral load (P = 0.017. A high rate of viral protein expression was significantly associated with a large increase in the prevalence of HAM/TSP (P = 0.031, 89% of cases correctly classified. Additionally, a high rate of Tax expression and a low CD8+ cell efficiency were independently significantly associated with a high proviral load (P = 0.005, P = 0.003 respectively. Conclusion These results disentangle the complex relationship between immune surveillance, proviral load, inflammatory disease and viral protein expression and indicate that increased protein expression may play an important role in HAM/TSP pathogenesis. This has important implications for therapy since it suggests that interventions should aim to reduce Tax expression rather than proviral load per se.

  1. Android Fully Loaded

    CERN Document Server

    Huddleston, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Fully loaded with the latest tricks and tips on your new Android! Android smartphones are so hot, they're soaring past iPhones on the sales charts. And the second edition of this muscular little book is equally impressive--it's packed with tips and tricks for getting the very most out of your latest-generation Android device. Start Facebooking and tweeting with your Android mobile, scan barcodes to get pricing and product reviews, download your favorite TV shows--the book is positively bursting with practical and fun how-tos. Topics run the gamut from using speech recognition, location-based m

  2. Variable loading roller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  3. Load Management in District Heating Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Wang, Stephen Jia

    2015-01-01

    Smooth operation of district heating system will avoid installation of expensive peak heat boilers, improve plant partial load performance, increase the system redundancy for further network expansion and improve its resilience to ensure security of supply during severe heating seasons. The peak...

  4. Complex Regression Functional And Load Tests Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Andreevich Krasnopevtsev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes practical approaches for realization of automatized regression functional and load testing on random software-hardware complex, based on «MARSh 3.0» sample. Testing automatization is being realized for «MARSh 3.0» information security increase.

  5. Immediate Loading of Short Implants in Posterior Maxillae: Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Anitua, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Background There is an increasing number of scientific evidence supporting the clinical use of short dental implants. However, few studies have evaluated the long-term outcomes of immediate loading protocols in short implants. This study aims to evaluate immediate loading of short dental implants in the posterior regions of the maxillae. Materials and methods Patients having short implants in maxillae posterior areas inserted before December, 2010 and immediately loaded were selected. The fol...

  6. The effect of altering loading distance on skeleton start performance: Is higher pre-load velocity always beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colyer, Steffi L; Stokes, Keith A; Bilzon, James L J; Holdcroft, Danny; Salo, Aki I T

    2018-01-16

    Athletes initiating skeleton runs differ in the number of steps taken before loading the sled. We aimed to understand how experimentally modifying loading distance influenced sled velocity and overall start performance. Ten athletes (five elite, five talent; 67% of all national athletes) underwent two to four sessions, consisting of two dry-land push-starts in each of three conditions (preferred, long and short loading distances). A magnet encoder on the sled wheel provided velocity profiles and the overall performance measure (sled acceleration index). Longer pre-load distances (12% average increase from preferred to long distances) were related to higher pre-load velocity (r = 0.94), but lower load effectiveness (r = -0.75; average reduction 29%). Performance evaluations across conditions revealed that elite athletes' preferred distance push-starts were typically superior to the other conditions. Short loading distances were generally detrimental, whereas pushing the sled further improved some talent-squad athletes' performance. Thus, an important trade-off between generating high pre-load velocity and loading effectively was revealed, which coaches should consider when encouraging athletes to load later. This novel intervention study conducted within a real-world training setting has demonstrated the scope to enhance push-start performance by altering loading distance, particularly in developing athletes with less extensive training experience.

  7. Omega 3 Chia seed loading as a means of carbohydrate loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illian, Travis G; Casey, Jason C; Bishop, Phillip A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Omega 3 Chia seed loading is a viable option for enhancing sports performance in events lasting >90 minutes and allow athletes to decrease their dietary intake of sugar while increasing their intake of Omega 3 fatty acids. It has been well documented that a high dietary carbohydrate (CHO) intake for several days before competition is known to increase muscle glycogen stores resulting in performance improvements in events lasting >90 minutes. This study compared performance testing results between 2 different CHO-loading treatments. The traditional CHO-loading treatment served as the control (100% cals from Gatorade). The Omega 3 Chia drink (50% of calories from Greens Plus Omega 3 Chia seeds, 50% Gatorade) served as the Omega 3 Chia loading drink. Both CHO-loading treatments were based on the subject's body weight and were thus isocaloric. Six highly trained male subjects V(O2)max 47.8-84.2 ml · kg(-1); mean (SD) of V(O2)max 70.3 ml · kg(-1) (13.3) performed a 1-hour run at ∼65% of their V(O2)max on a treadmill, followed by a 10k time trial on a track. There were 2 trials in a crossover counterbalanced repeated-measures design with a 2-week washout between testing sessions to allow the participants to recover from the intense exercise and any effects of the treatment. There was no statistical difference (p = 0.83) between Omega 3 Chia loading (mean 10k time = 37 minutes 49 seconds) and CHO loading (mean = 37 minutes 43 seconds). Under our conditions, Omega 3 Chia loading appears a viable option for enhancing performance for endurance events lasting >90 minutes and allows athletes to decrease their dietary intake of sugar while increasing their intake of Omega 3 fatty acids but offered no performance advantages.

  8. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...... of nail row, edge distance, fixed nail-plate, bending direction, unloading, and grain direction, plate and load direction on the load-displacement curves are analysed. Mean load-displacement curves from all the tests are given....

  9. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  10. Moderate Load Eccentric Exercise; A Distinct Novel Training Modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400-500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20-30 min. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al., 2014). It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e., drop jumps) that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW) has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically 4-fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2, and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular the rehabilitation after anterior cruciate

  11. Moderate load eccentric exercise; a distinct novel training modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Hoppeler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial three weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400-500W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out 3 times per week for durations of 20-30 minutes. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al. 2014 (LaStayo et al., 2014. It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e. drop jumps that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically four fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2 and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular

  12. Direct contribution of axial impact compressive load to anterior tibial load during simulated ski landing impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, C H; Lee, P V S; Goh, J C H

    2010-01-19

    Anterior tibial loading is a major factor involved in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury mechanism during ski impact landing. We sought to investigate the direct contribution of axial impact compressive load to anterior tibial load during simulated ski landing impact of intact knee joints without quadriceps activation. Twelve porcine knee specimens were procured. Four specimens were used as non-impact control while the remaining eight were mounted onto a material-testing system at 70 degrees flexion and subjected to simulated landing impact, which was successively repeated with incremental actuator displacement. Four specimens from the impacted group underwent pre-impact MRI for tibial plateau angle measurements while the other four were subjected to histology and microCT for cartilage morphology and volume assessment. The tibial plateau angles ranged from 29.4 to 38.8 degrees . There was a moderate linear relationship (Y=0.16X; R(2)=0.64; p<0.001) between peak axial impact compressive load (Y) and peak anterior tibial load (X). The anterior and posterior regions in the impacted group sustained surface cartilage fraying, superficial clefts and tidemark disruption, compared to the control group. MicroCT scans displayed visible cartilage deformation for both anterior and posterior regions in the impacted group. Due to the tibial plateau angle, increased axial impact compressive load can directly elevate anterior tibial load and hence contribute to ACL failure during simulated landing impact. Axial impact compressive load resulted in shear cartilage damage along anterior-posterior tibial plateau regions, due to its contribution to anterior tibial loading. This mechanism plays an important role in elevating ACL stress and cartilage deformation during impact landing. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrated microelectromechanical gyroscope under shock loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterenko, T. G.; Koleda, A. N.; Barbin, E. S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a new design of a shock-proof two-axis microelectromechanical gyroscope. Without stoppers, the shock load enables the interaction between the silicon sensor elements. Stoppers were installed in the gyroscope to prevent the contact interaction between electrodes and spring elements with fixed part of the sensor. The contact of stoppers occurs along the plane, thereby preventing the system from serious contact stresses. The shock resistance of the gyroscope is improved by the increase in its eigenfrequency at which the contact interaction does not occur. It is shown that the shock load directed along one axis does not virtually cause the movement of sensing elements along the crosswise axes. Maximum stresses observed in the proposed gyroscope at any loading direction do not exceed the value allowable for silicon.

  14. Design Load Basis for Offshore Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Wang, Shaofeng

    2016-01-01

    DTU Wind Energy is not designing and manufacturing wind turbines and does therefore not need a Design Load Basis (DLB) that is accepted by a certification body. However, to assess the load consequences of innovative features and devices added to existing offshore turbine concepts or new offshore...... turbine concept developed in our research, it is useful to have a full DLB that follows the current design standard and is representative of a general DLB used by the industry. It will set a standard for the offshore wind turbine design load evaluations performed at DTU Wind Energy, which is aligned...... with the challenges faced by the industry and therefore ensures that our research continues to have a strong foundation in this interaction. Furthermore, the use of a full DLB that follows the current standard can improve and increase the feedback from the research at DTU Wind Energy to the international...

  15. Kinetic changes in gait during low magnitude military load carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Deepti; Pal, Madhu Sudan; Pramanik, Anilendu; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2013-01-01

    Indian infantry soldiers carry smaller magnitudes of loads for operational requirements. The ground reaction forces (GRFs) and impulse responses of 10 healthy male Indian infantry soldiers were collected while they walked carrying operational loads between 4.2 and 17.5 kg (6.5-27.2% of mean body weight (BW)) and a control condition of no external load (NL). The GRF and impulse components were normalised for BW, and data for each load condition were compared with NL in each side applying one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. Right foot data were compared with corresponding left foot GRF data for all load conditions and NL. There were significant increases in vertical and anteroposterior GRFs with increase in load. Left and right feet GRF data in corresponding load conditions were significantly different in anteroposterior plane. No significant change was observed in the temporal components of support phase of gait. Changes in impulse parameter were observed in the anteroposterior and vertical planes while carrying load greater than 23 and 16.6% of BW for the right foot and left foot, respectively. Result indicates that smaller magnitudes of loads produced kinetic changes proportional to system weight, similar to heavier loads with the possibility of increased injury risk. Observed smaller asymmetric changes in gait may be considered as postural adjustment due to load. Unique physical characteristics of Indian soldiers and the probable design shortcomings of the existing backpack might have caused significant changes in GRF and peak impulse during smaller load carriage.

  16. Power transformer additional load losses separation procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miloje M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed procedure is based on the fact that total transformer losses (PLL1,n, determined by short circuit test, can be separated into two components: the eddy current losses in the windings (PEC1,n and stray flux losses (PSL1,n in iron parts of construction as well as in the transformer tank walls. The total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, are determined by short circuit test results, conducted at rated frequency (f1 and at increased harmonic frequency (fh=h*f1. Using so obtained total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, which can be expressed in the form PLLdh=PEC1,n*h2 + PSL1,n*h, the corresponding rate additional load losses values PEC1,n and PSL1,n are derived. At the end, for given load with predefined high harmonics content, (Ih/I1n, relative to rated current, the total additional load losses value ΣPLLdh > PLLd1, is found. In such a way all harmonics up to hmax are taken into account.

  17. Concrete structures under impact loading: general aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Baeră

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic loading conditions distress the structural integrity of a structure differently than the static ones. Such actions transfer high rate strains and instant energy waves to the structure, inducing the possibility of imminent collapse and casualties as a direct consequence. In the latest years, considering the dramatic increase of terrorist threats and global warming, the structural safety criteria imply more than ever the need to withstand this kind of loading (e.g., missiles and blast, projectiles, strong winds, tornados and earthquakes in addition to the static ones. The aim of this paper is to provide a general overview with regard to impact loading in terms of defining the phenomenon from physical and mechanical perspective, its complex local or global effect on the targeted structure, relevant material characteristics, main research approaches, namely theoretical studies and experimental procedures developed for improving the predictability of the dynamic loads and their effects. New directions in developing superior cementitious composites, with better characteristics in terms of dynamic loading performance are also emphasized.

  18. Vocal Loading in Speaking a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Kati; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether speaking a foreign language affects the subjective notions of vocal fatigue, and whether acoustic measurements reveal a higher vocal loading. The speech samples of 20 native Finnish-speaking and 23 native English-speaking subjects were recorded in Finnish and in English. From the speech samples, fundamental frequency, equivalent sound level, total duration of voiced speech, speech rate, alpha ratio and L1-L0 level difference were analyzed. Vocal doses were calculated. According to subjective notions, the voice gets tired more quickly when speaking a foreign language. The mean fundamental frequency increased but the speech rate and total duration of voiced speech decreased significantly when speaking a foreign language. Thus, the vocal doses decreased. The subjective sensations of increased vocal fatigue may be due to increased mental stress rather than to higher vocal loading. However, a trend that speaking a foreign language may involve more loading was found in L1-L0 level difference and in the doses normalized to time dose. Longer speech samples should be studied. Voice quality-based indicators of vocal loading are worth testing in addition to the measures based on the amount of voicing in speech. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation

  20. Estimating constituent loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, T.A.; DeLong, L.L.; Gilroy, E.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Wells, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares the bias and variance of three procedures that can be used with log linear regression models: the traditional rating curve estimator, a modified rating curve method, and a minimum variance unbiased estimator (MVUE). Analytical derivations of the bias and efficiency of all three estimators are presented. It is shown that for many conditions the traditional and the modified estimator can provide satisfactory estimates. However, other conditions exist where they have substantial bias and a large mean square error. These conditions commonly occur when sample sizes are small, or when loads are estimated during high-flow conditions. The MVUE, however, is unbiased and always performs nearly as well or better than the rating curve estimator or the modified estimator provided that the hypothesis of the log linear model is correct. Since an efficient unbiased estimator is available, there seems to be no reason to employ biased estimators. -from Authors

  1. Debonding problem of a transversely loaded single lap joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.H.; Sridhar, I.; Tan, G.E.B. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims to describe the debonding problem of transversely loaded single lap joint using fracture mechanics approach. This is achieved by first solving the deflection problem of the single lap joint. By evaluating the bending moments at the vicinity of crack tip, non-dimensional energy release rate required for the debonding can be found. The effects of relative position of transverse load and overlap length on the debonding propensity are discussed. As for design consideration, any transverse load moving towards critical side of square edge of the joint should be avoided. Increasing the overlap length improves the joint's strength, particularly when the joint is also axially loaded. (Author)

  2. Predicting the Structural Performance of Composite Structures Under Cyclic Loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassapoglou, C.

    2012-01-01

    The increased use of advanced composite materials on primary aircraft structure has brought back to the forefront the question of how such structures perform under repeated loading. In particular, when damage or other stress risers are present, tests have shown that the load to cause failure after a

  3. Investigating the tension load of rubber composites by impact ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An increase in the allowable stress when the belt is tensioned was examined during the test, to determine the effect of impact on the tension load. The obtained values of tension load are assessed using basic mathematical and statistical methods. Using the Design of Experiments method, factors that significantly affect the ...

  4. Prediction onset and dynamic behaviour of liquid loading gas wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, S.P.C.; Schiferli, W.; Alberts, G.J.N.; Veeken, C.A.M.; Biezen, E.

    2008-01-01

    As reservoir pressures decrease in maturing gas wells, liquid drop-out forms an increasing restriction on gas production. Even though virtually all of the world's gas wells are either at risk of or suffering from liquid loading, the modeling of liquid loading behavior is still quite immature and the

  5. Mental load, heart rate and heart rate variability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blitz, P.S.; Hoogstraten, J.; Mulder, G.

    1970-01-01

    "Several investigators have shown that diminished sinus arrhythmia can be seen as an indication of increased mental load. The present experiment deals with the influence of different levels of mental load, operationalized as the number of binary choices per minute, on the regularity of the heart

  6. Upper Bound Limit Load Solutions for Welded Joints with Cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    The present short monograph concerns analytic and semi-analytic techniques for finding an approximate value of the limit load. The limit load is an essential input parameter of flaw assessment procedures. In most cases, finding the limit load involves some numerical calculations of different levels of complexity, including numerical minimization of functions of one or several arguments, the slip-line technique and the finite element method. This book shows in particular how to use singular behavior of the real velocity field in the vicinity of bi-material interfaces in kinematically admissible velocity fields to increase the accuracy of upper bound solutions. An approach to recalculate the limit load for a class of structures with defects with the use of its value for the corresponding structure with no defect is discussed. The upper bound technique is applied to evaluate the limit load of overmatched and undermatched welded joints with cracks subject to various loading conditions of practical importance in c...

  7. Enhanced transdermal deposition and characterization of quercetin-loaded ethosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Nam; Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Hae Soo; Park, Min A; Gu, Hyun A [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    We sought to evaluate the transdermal permeation potential of quercetin-loaded ethosomes. Quercetinloaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized with regard to particle size, loading efficiency, stability, and in vitro skin permeation. The optimized formulation of ethosomes was confirmed using 2% egg phosphatidylcholine and hydrated 20% ethanol. After quercetin was applied using this formulation, the stability of the ethosomes was determined when loaded with up to 0.04% quercetin. We observed that loading efficiency was improved with increasing concentrations of quercetin. Ethosomes loaded with 0.04% quercetin showed both the greatest loading efficiency (63.9%±6.0%) and an optimal size range (132±32 nm). Ethosomes loaded with quercetin were superior in skin permeation ability (29.5±7.0 µg/cm{sup 2}) compared to either ethanolic solution or liposomes. Therefore, we concluded that quercetin-loaded ethosomes increased the skin delivery of quercetin. Our results suggest that quercetin-loaded ethosomes may enhance the effect of cosmetic materials.

  8. Organic matter loading affects lodgepole pine seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M J; Armleder, H M

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  9. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...... the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models which are fitted with a computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer...

  10. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel study of models for forecasting the electrical load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different...

  11. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  12. Metamaterial Loadings for Waveguide Miniaturization

    CERN Document Server

    Odabasi, H

    2013-01-01

    We show that a rectangular metallic waveguide loaded with metamaterial elements consisting of electric-field coupled (ELC) resonators placed at the side walls can operate well below the cutoff frequency of the respective unloaded waveguide. The dispersion diagrams indicate that propagating modes in ELC-loaded waveguides are of forward-type for both TE and TM modes. We also study the dispersion diagram and transmission characteristics of rectangular metallic waveguides simultaneously loaded with ELCs and split ring resonators (SRRs). Such doubly-loaded waveguides can support both forward wave and backward waves, and provide independent control of the propagation characteristics for the respective modes.

  13. ANTHROPOGENIC LOAD ON RIVERS OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurochkina Valentina Aleksandrovna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing speed of urbanization and population growth lead to the increasing anthropogenic load on water bodies. The urbanization processes in Russia are more intensive than in other countries. The dense population and great industrial potential lead to the fact that the urbanized territories become the main sources of water pollution. That’s why the environmental control of the state of water objects is needed. In the article the authors study the problem of anthropogenic load impact on river hydraulics processes and on the properties of river sediments that determine river channels evolution and general ecological state of water bodies. The interrelation between ecological state of water bodies, the quality of water in it and the level of contamination with sediments was determined. It is established that the conditions of long-term aquatic life as a whole and of water quality in particular depend on the contamination level with sediments. The author proposes a method of estimation of anthropogenic load on rivers. The paper analyses the calculation results of the value of anthropogenic load on different rivers of Russia.

  14. Numerical Investigation of Structural Response of Corrugated Blast Wall Depending on Blast Load Pulse Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Min Sohn

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrocarbon explosions are one of most hazardous events for workers on offshore platforms. To protect structures against explosion loads, corrugated blast walls are typically installed. However, the profiles of real explosion loads are quite different depending on the congestion and confinement of Topside structures. As the level of congestion and confinement increases, the explosion load increases by up to 8 bar, and the rising time of the load decreases. This study primarily aims to investigate the structural behavior characteristics of corrugated blast walls under different types of explosion loadings. Four loading shapes were applied in the structural response analysis, which utilized a dynamic nonlinear finite element method.

  15. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  16. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  17. Severity of meningococcal disease associated with genomic bacterial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Tom; Guiver, Malcolm; Naylor, Simone; Jack, Dominic L; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Borrow, Raymond; Read, Robert C

    2009-03-01

    Diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of Neisseria meningitidis has enabled accurate quantification of the bacterial load in patients with meningococcal disease. Quantification of the N. meningitidis DNA level by real time-PCR was conducted on whole-blood samples obtained from patients presenting with meningococcal disease to hospitals throughout England and Wales over a 3-year period. Levels were correlated with clinical outcome, infecting serogroup, and host factors including, interleukin-1 genotype (IL-1). Bacterial loads were available for 1045 patients and were not associated with the age of the patient, delay in sample submission, or administration of antibiotics prior to admission. The median log bacterial load was higher in 95 patients who died (5.29 log(10)copies/mL; interquartile range, 4.41-6.30 log(10)copies/mL) than in 950 patients who survived (3.79 log(10)copies/mL; interquartile range, 2.87-4.71 log(10)copies/mL). Logistic regression revealed that age (odds ratio, 1.04 per 1-year increase in age) and bacterial load (odds ratio, 2.04 per log(10)-copies/mL increase) had a statistically significant effect on the risk of death. Infection with N. meningitidis serogroup C was associated with increased risk of death and an increased bacterial load. Also associated with a higher bacterial load were prolonged hospitalization (duration, >10 days); digit, limb, or soft-tissue loss; and requirement of hemodialysis. Carriage of IL-1RN(+2018) was associated with increased mortality (odds ratio, 2.14; P=.07) but not with a higher bacterial load. In meningococcal disease, bacterial load is associated with likelihood of death, development of permanent disease sequelae, and prolonged hospitalization. The bacterial load was relatively higher in patients infected with N. meningitidis serogroup C than in those infected with other serogroups. The effects of age and IL-1 genotype on mortality are independent of a high genomic bacterial load.

  18. electrical load survey electrical load survey and forecast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    paper reports the results of electrical load demand and forecast for Elebu rural community located in Kwara State,. Nigeria. The expected peak ... Keywords: hybrid system, renewable energy, optimization, electrical energy, load survey and forecasts. 1. ..... vehicle renewable energy, Monaco, March 26-29,. 2009, pp. 1-9.

  19. Reduction of date microbial load with ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Davood; Qorbanpoor, Ali; Rafati, Hasan; Isfeedvajani, Mohsen Saberi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Date is one of the foodstuffs that are produced in tropical areas and used worldwide. Conventionally, methyl bromide and phosphine are used for date disinfection. The toxic side effects of these usual disinfectants have led food scientists to consider safer agents such as ozone for disinfection, because food safety is a top priority. The present study was performed to investigate the possibility of replacing common conventional disinfectants with ozone for date disinfection and microbial load reduction. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, date samples were ozonized for 3 and 5 hours with 5 and 10 g/h concentrations and packed. Ozonized samples were divided into two groups and kept in an incubator which was maintained at 25°C and 40°C for 9 months. During this period, every 3 month, microbial load (bacteria, mold, and yeast) were examined in ozonized and non-ozonized samples. Results: This study showed that ozonization with 5 g/h for 3 hours, 5 g/h for 5 hours, 10 g/h for 3 hours, and 10 g/h for 5 hours leads to about 25%, 25%, 53%, and 46% reduction in date mold and yeast load and about 6%, 9%, 76%, and 74.7% reduction in date bacterial load at baseline phase, respectively. Appropriate concentration and duration of ozonization for microbial load reduction were 10 g/h and 3 hours. Conclusion: Date ozonization is an appropriate method for microbial load reduction and leads to an increase in the shelf life of dates. PMID:24124432

  20. Crane-Load Contact Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Cox, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An electronic instrument has been developed as a prototype of a portable crane-load contact sensor. Such a sensor could be helpful in an application in which the load rests on a base in a horizontal position determined by vertical alignment pins (see Figure 1). If the crane is not positioned to lift the load precisely vertically, then the load can be expected to swing once it has been lifted clear of the pins. If the load is especially heavy, large, and/or fragile, it could hurt workers and/or damage itself and nearby objects. By indicating whether the load remains in contact with the pins when it has been lifted a fraction of the length of the pins, the crane-load contact sensor helps the crane operator determine whether it is safe to lift the load clear of the pins: If there is contact, then the load is resting against the sides of the pins and, hence, it may not be safe to lift; if contact is occasionally broken, then the load is probably not resting against the pins, so it should be safe to lift. It is assumed that the load and base, or at least the pins and the surfaces of the alignment holes in the load, are electrically conductive, so the instrument can use electrical contact to indicate mechanical contact. However, DC resistance cannot be used as an indicator of contact for the following reasons: The load and the base are both electrically grounded through cables (the load is grounded through the lifting cable of the crane) to prevent discharge of static electricity. In other words, the DC resistance between the load and the pins is always low, as though they were always in direct contact. Therefore, instead of DC resistance, the instrument utilizes the AC electrical impedance between the pins and the load. The signal frequency used in the measurement is high enough (.1 MHz) that the impedance contributed by the cables and the electrical ground network of the building in which the crane and the base are situated is significantly greater than the contact

  1. Probabilistic Load Models for Simulating the Impact of Load Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    to simulate the impact of load management. The joint-normal model is superior in modeling the tail region of the hourly load distribution and implementing the change of hourly standard deviation. Whereas the AR(12) model requires much less parameter and is superior in modeling the autocorrelation......This paper analyzes a distribution system load time series through autocorrelation coefficient, power spectral density, probabilistic distribution and quantile value. Two probabilistic load models, i.e. the joint-normal model and the autoregressive model of order 12 (AR(12)), are proposed....... It is concluded that the AR(12) model is favored with limited measurement data and that the joint-normal model may provide better results with a large data set. Both models can be applied in general to model load time series and used in time-sequential simulation of distribution system planning....

  2. GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED CONCEPT DESIGN TO OPTIMIZE NETWORK LOAD BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Jain

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiconstraints optimal network load balancing is an NP-hard problem and it is an important part of traffic engineering. In this research we balance the network load using classical method (brute force approach and dynamic programming is used but result shows the limitation of this method but at a certain level we recognized that the optimization of balanced network load with increased number of nodes and demands is intractable using the classical method because the solution set increases exponentially. In such case the optimization techniques like evolutionary techniques can employ for optimizing network load balance. In this paper we analyzed proposed classical algorithm and evolutionary based genetic approach is devise as well as proposed in this paper for optimizing the balance network load.

  3. Sensor comparison study for load alleviating wind turbine pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    of angle of attack and relative velocity at a radial position of the blades, and upstream inflow measurements from a spinner mounted light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor that enables preview of the incoming flow field. The results show that for stationary inflow conditions, the three different......As the size of wind turbines increases, the load alleviating capabilities of the turbine controller are becoming increasingly important. Load alleviating control schemes have traditionally been based on feedback from load sensor; however, recent developments of measurement technologies have enabled...... measurement types yield similar load reductions, but for varying inflow conditions, the LiDAR sensor-based controller yields larger load reductions than the two others. The results also show that the performance of the LiDAR sensor-based controller is very sensitive to uncertainties relating to the inflow...

  4. Soldier occupational load carriage: a narrative review of associated injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin Marc; Pope, Rodney; Johnston, Venerina; Coyle, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This narrative review examines injuries sustained by soldiers undertaking occupational load carriage tasks. Military soldiers are required to carry increasingly heavier occupational loads. These loads have been found to increase the physiological cost to the soldier and alter their gait mechanics. Aggregated research findings suggest that the lower limbs are the most frequent anatomical site of injury associated with load carriage. While foot blisters are common, other prevalent lower limb injuries include stress fractures, knee and foot pain, and neuropathies, like digitalgia and meralgia. Shoulder neuropathies (brachial plexus palsy) and lower back injuries are not uncommon. Soldier occupational load carriage has the potential to cause injuries that impact on force generation and force sustainment. Through understanding the nature of these injuries targeted interventions, like improved physical conditioning and support to specialised organisations, can be employed.

  5. Does aquatic exercise reduce hip and knee joint loading? In vivo load measurements with instrumented implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Ines; Richter, Anja; Gordt, Katharina; Dymke, Jörn; Damm, Philipp; Duda, Georg N; Günzl, Reiner; Bergmann, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic exercises are widely used for rehabilitation or preventive therapies in order to enable mobilization and muscle strengthening while minimizing joint loading of the lower limb. The load reducing effect of water due to buoyancy is a main advantage compared to exercises on land. However, also drag forces have to be considered that act opposite to the relative motion of the body segments and require higher muscle activity. Due to these opposing effects on joint loading, the load-reducing effect during aquatic exercises remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the joint loads during various aquatic exercises and to determine the load reducing effect of water. Instrumented knee and hip implants with telemetric data transfer were used to measure the resultant joint contact forces in 12 elderly subjects (6x hip, 6x knee) in vivo. Different dynamic, weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities were performed by the subjects on land and in chest-high water. Non-weight-bearing hip and knee flexion/extension was performed at different velocities and with additional Aquafins. Joint forces during aquatic exercises ranged between 32 and 396% body weight (BW). Highest forces occurred during dynamic activities, followed by weight-bearing and slow non-weight-bearing activities. Compared to the same activities on land, joint forces were reduced by 36-55% in water with absolute reductions being greater than 100%BW during weight-bearing and dynamic activities. During non-weight-bearing activities, high movement velocities and additional Aquafins increased the joint forces by up to 59% and resulted in joint forces of up to 301%BW. This study confirms the load reducing effect of water during weight-bearing and dynamic exercises. Nevertheless, high drag forces result in increased joint contact forces and indicate greater muscle activity. By the choice of activity, movement velocity and additional resistive devices joint forces can be modulated individually in the

  6. Fatigue Reliability under Random Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the probability of survival (non-failure) and the probability of safe operation (strength greater than a limiting value) of structures subjected to random loads. These probabilities are formulated in terms of the probability distributions of the loads and the...... propagation stage. The consequences of this behaviour on the fatigue reliability are discussed....

  7. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  8. Simulating tokamak PFC performance using simultaneous dual beam particle loading with pulsed heat loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Gregory; Gonderman, Sean; Tripathi, Jitendra; Ray, Tyler; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    The performance of plasma facing components (PFCs) in a fusion device are expected to change due to high flux particle loading during operation. Tungsten (W) is a promising PFC candidate material, due to its high melting point, high thermal conductivity, and low tritium retention. However, ion irradiation of D and He have each shown to diminish the thermal strength of W. This work investigates the synergistic effect between ion species, using dual beam irradiation, on the thermal response of W during ELM-like pulsed heat loading. Experiments studied three different loading conditions: laser, laser + He+, and laser + He+ + D+. 100 eV He+ and D+ exposures used a flux of 3.0-3.5 x 1020 m-2 s-1. ELM-like loading was applied using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at an energy density of 0.38-1.51 MJ m-2 (3600 1 ms pulses at 1 Hz). SEM imaging revealed that laser + He+ loading at 0.76 MJ m-2 caused surface melting, inhibiting fuzz formation. Increasing the laser fluence decreased grain size and increased surface pore density. Thermally-enhanced migration of trapped gases appear to reflect resultant molten morphology. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation PIRE project.

  9. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel study of models for forecasting the electrical load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different...... methods for predicting the regimes are tested. The dynamic relation between the weather and the load is modeled by simple transfer functions and the non-linearities are described using spline functions. The results are thoroughly evaluated and it is shown that the spline functions are suitable...

  10. Development of an in vivo rabbit ulnar loading model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Andrew P; Aref, Mohammad W; Turnbull, Travis L; Robling, Alex G; Niebur, Glen L; Allen, Matthew R; Roeder, Ryan K

    2015-06-01

    Ulnar and tibial cyclic compression in rats and mice have become the preferred animal models for investigating the effects of mechanical loading on bone modeling/remodeling. Unlike rodents, rabbits provide a larger bone volume and normally exhibit intracortical Haversian remodeling, which may be advantageous for investigating mechanobiology and pharmaceutical interventions in cortical bone. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop and validate an in vivo rabbit ulnar loading model. Ulnar tissue strains during loading of intact forelimbs were characterized and calibrated to applied loads using strain gauge measurements and specimen-specific finite element models. Periosteal bone formation in response to varying strain levels was measured by dynamic histomorphometry at the location of maximum strain in the ulnar diaphysis. Ulnae loaded at 3000 microstrain did not exhibit periosteal bone formation greater than the contralateral controls. Ulnae loaded at 3500, 4000, and 4500 microstrain exhibited a dose-dependent increase in periosteal mineralizing surface (MS/BS) compared with contralateral controls during the second week of loading. Ulnae loaded at 4500 microstrain exhibited the most robust response with significantly increased MS/BS at multiple time points extending at least 2weeks after loading was ceased. Ulnae loaded at 5250 microstrain exhibited significant woven bone formation. Rabbits required greater strain levels to produce lamellar and woven bone on periosteal surfaces compared with rats and mice, perhaps due to lower basal levels of MS/BS. In summary, bone adaptation during rabbit ulnar loading was tightly controlled and may provide a translatable model for human bone biology in preclinical investigations of metabolic bone disease and pharmacological treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance based design of laterally loaded drilled shafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Reliability-based design of deep foundations such as drilled shafts has been increasingly important due to the : heightened awareness of the importance of risk management. The load and resistance factor design has been : implemented by FHWA since 200...

  12. Suppressing cascades of load in interdependent networks

    CERN Document Server

    Brummitt, Charles D; Leicht, E A

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how interdependence among systems affects cascading behaviors is increasingly important across many fields of science and engineering. Inspired by cascades of load shedding in coupled electric grids and other infrastructure, we study the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model on modular random graphs and on graphs based on actual, interdependent power grids. Starting from two isolated networks, adding some connectivity between them is beneficial, for it suppresses the largest cascades in each system. Too much interconnectivity, however, becomes detrimental for two reasons. First, interconnections open pathways for neighboring networks to inflict large cascades. Second, as in real infrastructure, new interconnections increase capacity and total possible load, which fuels even larger cascades. Using a multi-type branching process and simulations we show these effects and estimate the optimal level of interconnectivity that balances their tradeoffs. Such equilibria could allow, for example, power grid ...

  13. Microplastic deformation of polycrystals during cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, E. F.; Pochivalova, G. P.; Nikitina, N. V.

    1990-03-01

    A model of microplastic deformation of polycrystals during zero-start cyclic loading with tensions lower than the yield strength is proposed according to which during cycling, thermally activated movement of dislocations occurs under conditions of stress relaxation. Based on this model and the statistical theory of polycrystalline microdeformation, the accumulation of microplastic deformation is theoretically described as a function of the number of loading cycles and the stress amplitudes. It is theoretically proved that in the cycling process the microplastic deformation that accumulates over one cycle decreases as the number of cycles increases; up to the macroscopic elastic limit it is independent of the stress amplitude, and then sharply increases. Agreement of the theory with experimental data for spring alloys is observed in the density of mobile dislocations, which decreases during cycling.

  14. Hepatitis viral load correlates to glutathione levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Several recent scientific articles have found a direct correlation between Glutathione levels and viral activity for hepatitis B and C. When viral load increases, Glutathione decreases. Researchers from Germany report that adding NAC (N-acetyl cysteine) to HBV producing cells lines can reduce hepatitis viral load 50 fold. Glutathione is used by the liver to help break down toxins. Patients who have chronic infection for more than 90 days should ask their physicians to check their Glutathione levels. A test kit is available from ImmunoSciences Labs; contact information is included. An amino acid, L-Glutamine, can be used with Alpha Lipoic Acid and NAC to increase Glutathione levels. Chlorophyll also offers benefits to people with hepatitis and other infections. Instructions on how to use a special retention enema containing chlorophyll, water, and apple cider vinegar are provided.

  15. Stormwater contaminant loading following southern California wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Eric D; Brown, Jeffrey S; Hogue, Terri S; Burke, Megan P; Kinoshita, Alicia

    2012-11-01

    Contaminant loading associated with stormwater runoff from recently burned areas is poorly understood, despite the fact that it has the potential to affect downstream water quality. The goal of the present study is to assess regional patterns of runoff and contaminant loading from wildfires in urban fringe areas of southern California. Postfire stormwater runoff was sampled from five wildfires that each burned between 115 and 658 km(2) of natural open space between 2003 and 2009. Between two and five storm events were sampled per site over the first one to two years following the fires for basic constituents, metals, nutrients, total suspended solids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results were compared to data from 16 unburned natural areas and six developed sites. Mean copper, lead, and zinc flux (kg/km(2)) were between 112- and 736-fold higher from burned catchments and total phosphorus was up to 921-fold higher compared to unburned natural areas. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon flux was four times greater from burned areas than from adjacent urban areas. Ash fallout on nearby unburned watersheds also resulted in a threefold increase in metals and PAHs. Attenuation of elevated concentration and flux values appears to be driven mainly by rainfall magnitude. Contaminant loading from burned landscapes has the potential to be a substantial contribution to the total annual load to downstream areas in the first several years following fires. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  16. RPL LOAD BALANCING IN INTERNET OF THINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Parsaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:  The wide address space provided by Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6 lets any thing to be identified uniquely. consistency of the modified version of IPv6 protocol stack with smart objects, facilitated the Internet interconnection of the networks of smart objects and introduced Internet of things. A smart object is a small micro-electronic device that consists of a communication device, a small microprocessor and a sensor or an actuator. A network made of such devices is called low-power and lossy network. RPL routing protocol that is consistent to IPv6, is designed to be used in these kinds of networks. Load balancing is not considered in the RPL design process. Whenever RPL is used in large scale low-power and lossy networks some nodes will suffer from congestion and this problem severely degrades network performance. In this paper, we consider solutions provided to tackle RPL load balancing problems. Load balancing algorithms and protoclos are evaluated through simulation. We evaluate IETF RPL implementation and LB-RPL method with Contiki OS Java (COOJA simulator. They are assessed comprehensively through metrics such as Packet delivery Ratio, Average End to End delay, and Gateway Throughput. LB-RPL improves RPL in terms of Packet delivery Ratio and throughput but increases Average End to End delay. Simulations results show that RPL load balancing needs extensive works to be performed yet.

  17. Preparation of embolic NEMs loading capecitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuangang; He, Peng; Wang, Shibin; Sun, Xuezhan; Chen, Aizheng

    2013-01-01

    The nanoparticles-embedded microcapsules (NEMs) with smooth surface, good sphericity, excellent dispersivity and uniform particle size distribution were prepared by emulsification combined with electrospraying to extend the sustained release performance of the embolic microcapsules loading capecitabine (CAP). The sodium alginate and chitosan with good biocompatibility were used as the materials and CAP as a small-molecule model drug. The drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and drug release of CAP in the NEMs were investigated. The results showed that the drug-loading and encapsulation efficiency both increased with the increment of chitosan and CAP concentration. The maximum values of drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were 1.97 and 18.01 % respectively when initial CAP concentration was 5.0 g/L and chitosan molecular weight 100 kDa. The cumulative release rate of CAP released from the NEMs was lower than 30 % in 0.5 h, which indicated that there was no obvious initial burst release behavior. In the subsequent 240 h, the release results confirmed that the NEMs had better sustained release properties compared to pure microcapsules, and it might be a new anticancer drug delivery system in the future studies.

  18. Structural Loads Analysis for Wave Energy Converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Rij, Jennifer A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-03

    This study explores and verifies the generalized body-modes method for evaluating the structural loads on a wave energy converter (WEC). Historically, WEC design methodologies have focused primarily on accurately evaluating hydrodynamic loads, while methodologies for evaluating structural loads have yet to be fully considered and incorporated into the WEC design process. As wave energy technologies continue to advance, however, it has become increasingly evident that an accurate evaluation of the structural loads will enable an optimized structural design, as well as the potential utilization of composites and flexible materials, and hence reduce WEC costs. Although there are many computational fluid dynamics, structural analyses and fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) codes available, the application of these codes is typically too computationally intensive to be practical in the early stages of the WEC design process. The generalized body-modes method, however, is a reduced order, linearized, frequency-domain FSI approach, performed in conjunction with the linear hydrodynamic analysis, with computation times that could realistically be incorporated into the WEC design process.

  19. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Impact of Cyclic Loading on Chloride Diffusivity and Mechanical Performance of RC Beams under Seawater Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to investigate the impact of cyclic loading on the mechanical performance and chloride diffusivity of RC beams exposed to seawater wet-dry cycles. To induce initial damage to RC beam specimen, cyclic loading controlled by max load and cycles was applied. Then beam specimens underwent 240 wet-dry cycles of seawater. Results show that the chloride content increased as max load and cycle increased. The chloride content at steel surface increased approximatively linearly as average crack width increased. Moreover, the max load had more influence on chloride content at steel surface than cycle. The difference of average chloride diffusion coefficient between tension and compression concrete was little at uncracked position. Average chloride diffusion coefficient increased as crack width increased when crack width was less than 0.11 mm whereas the increasing tendency was weak when crack width exceeded 0.11 mm. The residual yield load and ultimate load of RC beams decreased as max load and cycle increased. Based on univariate analysis of variance, the max load had more adverse effect on yield load and ultimate load than cycle.

  1. Effects of trunk muscle fatigue and load timing on spinal responses during sudden hand loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Diane E; Potvin, Jim R

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of the spine during sudden loading in the presence of back and abdominal muscle fatigue, with a primary focus on the implications for spinal stability. Fifteen females were studied and each received sudden loads to the hands, at both known and unknown times. Participants received these loading trials (a) while rested, (b) with back muscle fatigue, and (c) with a combination of back and abdominal muscle fatigue. Measures were taken on the EMG activity of two trunk extensor and two abdominal muscles, and on the trunk angle and centre of pressure. A 3x2 Repeated Measures ANOVA was also performed. There were no preparations made prior to the perturbation even when it could be anticipated. However, the peak responses that followed were greater in the unexpected versus the expected condition. In addition, trunk muscle fatigue led to an increase in the baseline activity of the trunk muscles but no additional increase in activity just prior to loading. There was increased activation of both (opposing) muscle groups when only one muscle group was fatigued. Because the peak responses following the perturbation were enhanced in the unknown timing condition, preparations must have taken place prior to the anticipated perturbations, perhaps in other segments of the body that were not measured. Also, the load impact may not have been great enough to elicit large preparations. The heightened baseline activity with fatigue suggests that there may have been increased spinal stiffness whenever the spine was fatigued, and not just immediately prior to an impending perturbation. The increased activation of opposing muscle groups is evidence of increased cocontraction in response to fatigue, possibly to maintain stability with decreasing coordination.

  2. Working memory load attenuates emotional enhancement in recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A.; van Elswijk, Gijs; Cannistraci, Carlo V.; van Ee, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Emotionally arousing stimuli are perceived and remembered better than neutral stimuli. Under threat, this negativity bias is further increased. We investigated whether working memory (WM) load can attenuate incidental memory for emotional images. Two groups of participants performed the N-back task with two WM load levels. In one group, we induced anxiety using a threat of shock paradigm to increase attentional processing of negative information. During task performance we incidentally and br...

  3. Working memory load attenuates emotional enhancement in recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Aurelia Miendlarzewska; Gijs eVan Elswijk; Carlo Vittorio Cannistraci; Raymond evan Ee

    2013-01-01

    Emotionally arousing stimuli are perceived and remembered better than neutral stimuli. Under threat, this negativity bias is further increased. We investigated whether working memory load can attenuate incidental memory for emotional images. Two groups of participants performed the N-back task with two working memory load levels. In one group, we induced anxiety using a threat-of-shock paradigm to increase attentional processing of negative information. During task performance we incidentally...

  4. Time and Cognitive Load in Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Barrouillet, Pierre Noël; Bernardin, Sophie; Portrat, Sophie; Vergauwe, Evie; Camos, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; According to the time-based resource-sharing model (P. Barrouillet, S. Bernardin, & V. Camos, 2004), the cognitive load a given task involves is a function of the proportion of time during which it captures attention, thus impeding other attention-demanding processes. Accordingly, the present study demonstrates that the disruptive effect on concurrent maintenance of memory retrievals and response selections increases with their duration. Moreover, the effect on recall ...

  5. Left ventricular twist is load-dependent as shown in a large animal model with controlled cardiac load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A’roch Roman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Left ventricular rotation and twist can be assessed noninvasively by speckle tracking echocardiography. We sought to characterize the effects of acute load change and change in inotropic state on rotation parameters as a measure of left ventricular (LV contractility. Methods Seven anesthetised juvenile pigs were studied, using direct measurement of left ventricular pressure and volume and simultaneous transthoracic echocardiography. Transient inflation of an inferior vena cava balloon (IVCB catheter produced controlled load reduction. First and last beats in the sequence of eight were analysed with speckle tracking (STE during the load alteration and analysed for change in rotation/twist during controlled load alteration at same contractile status. Two pharmacological inotropic interventions were also included to examine the same hypothesis in additionally conditions of increased and decreased myocardial contractility in each animal. Paired comparisons were made for different load states using the Wilcoxon’s Signed Rank test. Results The inferior vena cava balloon occlusion (IVCBO load change compared for first to last beat resulted in LV twist increase (11.67° ±2.65° vs. 16.17° ±3.56° respectively, p  Conclusions Peak systolic LV twist and peak early diastolic untwisting rate are load dependent. Differences in LV load should be included in the interpretation when serial measures of twist are compared.

  6. HIV-1 Structural Proteins Serve as PAMPs for TLR2 Heterodimers Significantly Increasing Infection and Innate Immune Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrick, Bethany M; Yao, Xiao-Dan; Rosenthal, Kenneth Lee

    2015-01-01

    Immune activation is critical to HIV infection and pathogenesis; however, our understanding of HIV innate immune activation remains incomplete. Recently we demonstrated that soluble TLR2 (sTLR2) physically inhibited HIV-induced NFκB activation and inflammation, as well as HIV-1 infection. In light of these findings, we hypothesized that HIV-1 structural proteins may serve as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for cellular TLR2 heterodimers. These studies made use of primary human T cells and TZMbl cells stably transformed to express TLR2 (TZMbl-2). Our results demonstrated that cells expressing TLR2 showed significantly increased proviral DNA compared to cells lacking TLR2, and mechanistically this may be due to a TLR2-mediated increased CCR5 expression. Importantly, we show that HIV-1 structural proteins, p17, p24, and gp41, act as viral PAMPs signaling through TLR2 and its heterodimers leading to significantly increased immune activation via the NFκB signaling pathway. Using co-immunoprecipitation and a dot blot method, we demonstrated direct protein interactions between these viral PAMPs and TLR2, while only p17 and gp41 bound to TLR1. Specifically, TLR2/1 heterodimer recognized p17 and gp41, while p24 lead to immune activation through TLR2/6. These results were confirmed using TLR2/1 siRNA knock down assays which ablated p17 and gp41-induced cellular activation and through studies of HEK293 cells expressing selected TLRs. Interestingly, our results show in the absence of TLR6, p24 bound to TLR2 and blocked p17 and gp41-induced activation, thus providing a novel mechanism by which HIV-1 can manipulate innate sensing. Taken together, our results identified, for the first time, novel HIV-1 PAMPs that play a role in TLR2-mediated cellular activation and increased proviral DNA. These findings have important implications for our fundamental understanding of HIV-1 immune activation and pathogenesis, as well as HIV-1 vaccine development.

  7. Measuring training load in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Michael Ian; Borresen, Jill

    2010-09-01

    The principle of training can be reduced to a simple "dose-response" relationship. The "response" in this relationship can be measured as a change in performance or the adaptation of a physiological system. The "dose" of training, or physiological stress associated with the training load, is more difficult to measure as there is no absolute "gold standard" which can be used in the field, making it difficult to validate procedures. Attempts have been made to use heart rate as a marker of intensity during training, but the theoretical attractiveness of this method is not supported by the accuracy and the practicality of using this method during training or competition. The session RPE, based on the product of training duration and perceived intensity is more practical and can be used in a variety of sports. However, the score depends on a subjective assessment, and the intersubject comparisons may be inaccurate. The demands of different sports vary and therefore the methods of assessing training need to vary accordingly. The time has come to reach consensus on assessing training accurately in different sports. There is a precedent for this consensus approach with scientists having already done so for the assessment of physical activity, and for defining injuries in rugby, football and cricket. Standardizing these methods has resulted in the quality of research in these areas increasing exponentially.

  8. Hydrodynamic loading of tensegrity structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroldsen, Anders S.; Johansen, Vegar; Skelton, Robert E.; Sørensen, Asgeir J.

    2006-03-01

    This paper introduces hydrodynamic loads for tensegrity structures, to examine their behavior in marine environments. Wave compliant structures are of general interest when considering large marine structures, and we are motivated by the aquaculture industry where new concepts are investigated in order to make offshore installations for seafood production. This paper adds to the existing models and software simulations of tensegrity structures exposed to environmental loading from waves and current. A number of simulations are run to show behavior of the structure as a function of pretension level and string stiffness for a given loading condition.

  9. Determination of Rational Load of Power Transformers under Conditions of Minimum Power Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Radkevich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical expressions have been obtained that allow to determine a number of transformers being operated either in parallel or separately for a common load and ensuring minimum power losses. An electrical load exists in the case of an unequal load of reciprocally reserved transformers. In order to reduce power losses it is expediently to change the number of operating transformers. It has been found out that a value of the load depends on the rate of transformer utilization at the initial mode. In case of load decrease timely transformer trip reduces consumption of active and reactive power as well. Consequently, such trip increases power factor of a consumer load.

  10. Influence of atmospheric stability on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob; Barlas, Thanasis K.

    2013-01-01

    is up to 3% only. The wind profiles and turbulence under diabatic conditions have contrasting influences on the loads; for example, under stable conditions, loads induced by the wind profile are larger because of increased wind shear, whereas those induced by turbulence are lower because of less......Simulations of wind turbine loads for the NREL 5 MW reference wind turbine under diabatic conditions are performed. The diabatic conditions are incorporated in the input wind field in the form of wind profile and turbulence. The simulations are carried out for mean wind speeds between 3 and 16 m s1...... at the turbine hub height. The loads are quantified as the cumulative sum of the damage equivalent load for different wind speeds that are weighted according to the wind speed and stability distribution. Four sites with a different wind speed and stability distribution are used for comparison. The turbulence...

  11. Contact-Free Cognitive Load Recognition Based on Eye Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive overload not only affects the physical and mental diseases, but also affects the work efficiency and safety. Hence, the research of measuring cognitive load has been an important part of cognitive load theory. In this paper, we proposed a method to identify the state of cognitive load by using eye movement data in a noncontact manner. We designed a visual experiment to elicit human’s cognitive load as high and low state in two light intense environments and recorded the eye movement data in this whole process. Twelve salient features of the eye movement were selected by using statistic test. Algorithms for processing some features are proposed for increasing the recognition rate. Finally we used the support vector machine (SVM to classify high and low cognitive load. The experimental results show that the method can achieve 90.25% accuracy in light controlled condition.

  12. Load alleviation of wind turbines by yaw misalignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2014-01-01

    Vertical wind shear is one of the dominating causes of load variations on the blades of a horizontal axis wind turbine. To alleviate the varying loads, wind turbine control systems have been augmented with sensors and actuators for individual pitch control. However, the loads caused by a vertical...... wind shear can also be affected through yaw misalignment. Recent studies of yaw control have been focused on improving the yaw alignment to increase the power capture at below rated wind speeds. In this study, the potential of alleviating blade load variations induced by the wind shear through yaw...... misalignment is assessed. The study is performed through simulations of a reference turbine. The study shows that optimal yaw misalignment angles for minimizing the blade load variations can be identified for both deterministic and turbulent inflows. It is shown that the optimal yaw misalignment angles can...

  13. 14 CFR 23.301 - Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... load would significantly change the distribution of external or internal loads, this redistribution...) and ultimate loads (limit loads multiplied by prescribed factors of safety). Unless otherwise provided... validated by flight test measurement unless the methods used for determining those loading conditions are...

  14. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is

  15. Structural Impact of Construction Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Numerous bridge construction accidents have occurred across the country because of construction loadings, which are an underemphasized : topic in many DOT specifications and design manuals. Bridge girders are least stable when they are subjected to c...

  16. Engineering analysis of lightweight high-opacity newsprint production by fiber loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Klungness; Matthew L. Stroika; Marguerite S. Sykes; Said M. Abubakr; Werner. Witek; Oliver U. Heise

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the capital effectiveness of fiber loading in regard to producing lightweight high-opacity newsprint. Fiber loading enhances fiber bonding at increased precipitated calcium carbonate levels without significant loss in Canadian standard freeness or additional use of energy. We investigated the return on investment (ROI) for fiber loading precipitated...

  17. Role of bonding defects in a self-reinforced polypropylene (PURE under fatigue loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skotarek Christoph

    2014-06-01

    The paper deals with the fatigue behavior of this type of material and the role of the bonding imperfections on the damage accumulation process. For this purpose local deformation fields using DIC determined after quasi- static loading, step-wise increased loading and cyclic loading are compared with each other. These findings are related to the damage pattern observed after final fracture.

  18. Wind Load Reduction in Hollow Panel Arrayed Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalina Markousi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the wind loading of photovoltaic structures is crucial for their structural stability. In this study, two solar panel arrayed sets were numerically tested for load reduction purposes. All panel surface areas of the arrayed set are exposed to the wind similarly. The first set was comprised of conventional panels. The second one was fitted with square holes located right at the gravity center of each panel. Wind flow analysis on standalone arrayed set of panels at fixed inclination was carried out to calculate the wind loads at various flow velocities and directions. The panels which included holes reduced the velocity in the downwind flow region and extended the low velocity flow region when compared to the nonhole panels. The loading reduction, in the arrayed set of panels with holes ranged from 0.8% to 12.53%. The maximum load reduction occurred at 6.0 m/s upwind velocity and 120.0° approach angle. At 30.00 approach angle, wind load increased but marginally. Current research work findings suggest that the panel holes greatly affect the flow pattern and subsequently the wind load reduction. The computational analysis indicates that it is possible to considerably reduce the wind loading using panels with holes.

  19. Analysis of collaborative communication for linguistic cues of cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, M Asif; Chen, Fang; Marcus, Nadine

    2012-08-01

    Analyses of novel linguistic and grammatical features, extracted from transcribed speech of people working in a collaborative environment, were performed for cognitive load measurement Prior studies have attempted to assess users' cognitive load with several measures, but most of them are intrusive and disrupt normal task flow. An effective measurement of people's cognitive load can help improve their performance by deploying appropriate output and support strategies accordingly. The authors studied 33 members of bushfire management teams working collaboratively in computerized incident control rooms and involved in complex bushfire management tasks. The participants' communication was analyzed for some novel linguistic features as potential indices of cognitive load, which included sentence length, use of agreement and disagreement phrases, and use of personal pronouns, including both singular and plural pronoun types. Results showed users' different linguistic and grammatical patterns with various cognitive load levels. Specifically, with high load, people spoke more and used longer sentences, used more words that indicated disagreement with other team members, and exhibited increased use of plural personal pronouns and decreased use of singular pronouns. The article provides encouraging evidence for the use of linguistic and grammatical analysis for measuring users' cognitive load and proposes some novel features as cognitive load indices. The proposed approach may be applied to many data-intense and safety-critical task scenarios, such as emergency management departments, for example, bushfire or traffic incident management centers; air traffic control rooms; and call centers, where speech is used as part of everyday tasks.

  20. Plantar flexor stretch reflex responses to whole body loading/unloading during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; van Doornik, Johannes; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    perturbation during human walking. Three body load conditions were investigated: normal body load, a 30% increase in body load, and a 30% decrease in body load. Healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at approximately 3.6 km/h with the left ankle attached to a portable stretching device. Dorsiflexion......Numerous animal and human studies have shown that afferent information from the periphery contributes to the control of walking. In particular, recent studies have consistently shown that load receptor input is an important element of the locomotion control mechanism. The objective of this study...... electrodes. Stretch reflex responses were observed in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles for all of the body load conditions; however, increasing or decreasing the body load did not affect the timing and magnitude of the responses. This study provides evidence that load receptor input does not contribute...

  1. Training load quantification in triathlon

    OpenAIRE

    Cejuela Anta, Roberto; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    There are different Indices of Training Stress of varying complexity, to quantification Training load. Examples include the training impulse (TRIMP), the session (RPE), Lucia’s TRIMP or Summated Zone Score. But the triathlon, a sport to be combined where there are interactions between different segments, is a complication when it comes to quantify the training. The aim of this paper is to review current methods of quantification, and to propose a scale to quantify the training load in triathl...

  2. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...... of windhe interaction between wind and structures, where it is shown that wind loading depends strongly on this interaction...

  3. Aircraft ditching loads simulation tool

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanni, A.; Vandewaeter, L.; Havill, C.; Kanyoo, P.; Taunton, D.J.; Blake, J.I.R.; Cropper, E.; Hancock, S.

    2015-01-01

    The present work presents a novel methodology developed for calculating the steady loads acting on aircraft structures in the event of ditching in water. It represents the preliminary result of Stirling Dynamics as part of a NATEP research project. The overall objective of the project is to expand the capabilities of the Stirling Dynamics proprietary software SD-GLOAD (originally designed for ground and crash loads dynamic simulations) to aircraft ditching simulations. The methodology present...

  4. Management of phosphorus load in CKD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Yutaka; Koiwa, Fumihiko; Yokoyama, Keitaro

    2017-03-01

    Disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The term "renal osteodystrophy" has recently been replaced with "CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD)", which includes vascular calcification as well as bone abnormalities. In Japan, proportions of the aged and long-term dialysis patients are increasing which makes management of vascular calcification and parathyroid function increasingly more important. There are three main strategies to manage phosphate load: phosphorus dietary restriction, administration of phosphate binder and to ensure in the CKD 5D setting, an adequate dialysis.

  5. 1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Changes in dynamic plantar pressure during loaded gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffar, Stephen L; Reber, Rett J; Christiansen, Bryan C; Miller, Robert B; Naylor, Jacob A; Rodriguez, Brittany M; Walker, Michael J; Teyhen, Deydre S

    2013-09-01

    Lower extremity overuse injuries are detrimental to military readiness. Extremes of arch height and heavy loads carried by military personnel are associated with increased risk for overuse injury. Little is known regarding the impact of load carriage on plantar pressure distributions during gait. The objective of this study was to determine how load carriage affects plantar pressure distributions during gait in individuals with varying arch types. A cross-sectional, repeated-measures design was used for the study. The study was performed at a research laboratory at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Service members who were healthy and weighing ≥70 kg were enrolled in the study. The participants (97 men, 18 women; mean age=31.3 years, SD=5.6; mean weight=86.0 kg, SD=11.0) were categorized as having high-, normal-, or low-arched feet on the basis of published cutoff values for the arch height index. Plantar pressure measurements were obtained with the use of an in-shoe pressure measurement system while participants wore combat boots and walked on a treadmill under 3 loaded conditions (uniform, 20-kg load, and 40-kg load). Maximal force (MaxF) and force-time integral (FTI) were assessed with the use of a 9-sector mask to represent regions of the foot. A 3 × 3 repeated-measures analysis of variance was used for analysis across the levels of load and arch type. A significant interaction existed between arch type and load for MaxF and FTI in the medial midfoot, with greater force in low-arched feet. In the medial forefoot, MaxF and FTI were greatest in high-arched feet across all load conditions. In the great toe region, low-arched and normally arched feet had greater MaxF and FTI. The relative distribution of FTI increased proportionately in all regions of the foot regardless of arch type for all load conditions. The influence of fatigue, greater loads, and different walking speeds was not assessed. Regardless of arch type, increases in load did not alter the relative

  7. Virological and Immunological Aspects of AIDS Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Conway

    1994-01-01

    fashion. In five patients with high proviral loads and isolates resistant to their current therapy. a mean decrease of 72 CD4 cells/µL was observed over 12 months of observation. In contrast. in six patients with low proviral loads and sensitive isolates. there was a mean increase of 43 CD4 cells/µL. It appears that virological markers are associated with immune disease progression in this small cohort of patients. The association appears most marked when the two virological parameters are considered together rather than individually. The association is not always a tight one. and this may relate to a number of unmeasured factors. including viral phenotype. plasma viremia. and the immune response to HIV infection. Additional work incorporating these parameters into analysis is currently underway in the authors’ centre.

  8. Load Management in Residential Buildings: Considering Techno-Economical and Environmental Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Abaravicius, Juozas

    2004-01-01

    Load problems in electricity markets occur both on the supply and demand side and can have technical, economic and even political causes. Commonly, such problems have been solved by expanding production and/or distribution capacity, importing electricity or by load management. Load management is a techno-economic measure for harmonizing the relations between supply and demand sides, optimizing power generation and transmission and increasing security of supply. Interest in load management dif...

  9. Effect of Load Magnitude and Distribution on Lumbar Spine Posture in Active-duty Marines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Soto, Ana E; Berry, David B; Palombo, Laura; Valaik, Emily; Kelly, Karen R; Ward, Samuel R

    2017-03-01

    Repeated measures. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of operationally relevant loads and distributions on lumbar spine (LS) in a group of active-duty Marines. Low-back pain has been associated with heavy load carriage among military personnel. Although there are data describing the LS posture in response to load, the effect of varying load characteristics on LS posture remains unknown. Magnetic resonance images of Marines (n = 12) were acquired when standing unloaded and when carrying 22, 33, and 45 kg of load distributed both 50% to 50% and 20% to 80% anteriorly and posteriorly. Images were used to measure LS and pelvic postures. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA and posthoc tests were used to compare LS posture across load magnitudes and distributions (α = 0.05). This project was founded by the US Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity, Award No. W81XWH-13-2-0043, under Work Unit No. 1310. No changes in LS posture were induced when load was evenly distributed. When load was carried in the 20% to 80% distribution lumbosacral flexion increased as a result of sacral anterior rotation and overall reduced lumbar lordosis. This pattern was greater as load was increased between 22 and 33 kg, but did not increase further between 33 and 45 kg. We observed that the inferior LS became uniformly less lordotic, independently of load magnitude. However, the superior LS became progressively more lordotic with increasing load magnitude CONCLUSION.: Postural adaptations were found only when load was carried with a posterior bias, suggesting that load-carriage limits based on postural changes are relevant when loads are nonuniformly distributed. Although the tendency would be to interpret that loads should be carried symmetrically to protect the spine, the relationship between postural changes and injury are not clear. Finally, the operational efficiency of carrying load in this distribution needs to be tested. 3.

  10. Effects of load on good morning kinematics and EMG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigotsky, Andrew David; Harper, Erin Nicole; Ryan, David Russell; Contreras, Bret

    2015-01-01

    Many strength and conditioning coaches utilize the good morning (GM) to strengthen the hamstrings and spinal erectors. However, little research exists on its electromyography (EMG) activity and kinematics, and how these variables change as a function of load. The purpose of this investigation was to examine how estimated hamstring length, integrated EMG (IEMG) activity of the hamstrings and spinal erectors, and kinematics of the lumbar spine, hip, knee, and ankle are affected by changes in load. Fifteen trained male participants (age = 24.6 ± 5.3 years; body mass = 84.7 ± 11.3 kg; height = 180.9 ± 6.8 cm) were recruited for this study. Participants performed five sets of the GM, utilizing 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) in a randomized fashion. IEMG activity of hamstrings and spinal erectors tended to increase with load. Knee flexion increased with load on all trials. Estimated hamstring length decreased with load. However, lumbar flexion, hip flexion, and plantar flexion experienced no remarkable changes between trials. These data provide insight as to how changing the load of the GM affects EMG activity, kinematic variables, and estimated hamstring length. Implications for hamstring injury prevention are discussed. More research is needed for further insight as to how load affects EMG activity and kinematics of other exercises.

  11. Effects of load on good morning kinematics and EMG activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew David Vigotsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many strength and conditioning coaches utilize the good morning (GM to strengthen the hamstrings and spinal erectors. However, little research exists on its electromyography (EMG activity and kinematics, and how these variables change as a function of load. The purpose of this investigation was to examine how estimated hamstring length, integrated EMG (IEMG activity of the hamstrings and spinal erectors, and kinematics of the lumbar spine, hip, knee, and ankle are affected by changes in load. Fifteen trained male participants (age = 24.6 ± 5.3 years; body mass = 84.7 ± 11.3 kg; height = 180.9 ± 6.8 cm were recruited for this study. Participants performed five sets of the GM, utilizing 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM in a randomized fashion. IEMG activity of hamstrings and spinal erectors tended to increase with load. Knee flexion increased with load on all trials. Estimated hamstring length decreased with load. However, lumbar flexion, hip flexion, and plantar flexion experienced no remarkable changes between trials. These data provide insight as to how changing the load of the GM affects EMG activity, kinematic variables, and estimated hamstring length. Implications for hamstring injury prevention are discussed. More research is needed for further insight as to how load affects EMG activity and kinematics of other exercises.

  12. Effect of protein load on stability of immobilized enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Lopez, Laura; Pedrero, Sara G; Lopez-Carrobles, Nerea; Gorines, Beatriz C; Virgen-Ortíz, Jose J; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2017-03-01

    Different lipases have been immobilized on octyl agarose beads at 1mg/g and at maximum loading, via physical interfacial activation versus the octyl layer on the support. The stability of the preparations was analyzed. Most biocatalysts had the expected result: the apparent stability increased using the highly loaded preparations, due to the diffusional limitations that reduced the initial observed activity. However, lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) was significantly more stable using the lowly loaded preparation than the maximum loaded one. This negative effect of the enzyme crowding on enzyme stability was found in inactivations at pH 5, 7 or 9, but not in inactivations in the presence of organic solvents. The immobilization using ethanol to reduce the immobilization rate had no effect on the stability of the lowly loaded preparation, while the highly loaded enzyme biocatalysts increased their stabilities, becoming very similar to that of the lowly loaded preparation. Results suggested that CALB molecules immobilized on octyl agarose may be closely packed together due to the high immobilization rate and this produced some negative interactions between immobilized enzyme molecules during enzyme thermal inactivation. Slowing-down the immobilization rate may be a solution for this unexpected problem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Load Estimation from Natural input Modal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández

    2005-01-01

    One application of Natural Input Modal Analysis consists in estimating the unknown load acting on structures such as wind loads, wave loads, traffic loads, etc. In this paper, a procedure to determine loading from a truncated modal model, as well as the results of an experimental testing programme, are presented. The method involves the inversion of the FRF matrix partly solving the numerical problems that appear because of the truncation of the modal space. However, the error in the load est...

  14. Calibration set up for load cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T. V. Govinda; Venkatesh, C. S.; Shivashankar, N.

    1989-05-01

    The planning, designing, fabrication, and calibration of 30, 50, and 100 ton tension load cells and 30 ton shear load cells are described. The tension load cells are for monitoring the force developed by earth moving vehicles and the shear load cells are for monitoring the load that tipplers unload form platform to ground. The shear load cells were incorporated into a rotary wagon tippler.

  15. Gold Loading on Ion Exchange Resins in Non-Ammoniacal Resin-Solution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Muslim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The loading of gold using strong base anion exchange resin in non-ammoniac resin-solution (NARS systems has been studied. The loading of gold onto ion exchange resins is affected by polythionate concentration, and trithionate can be used as the baseline in the system. The results also show that resin capacity on gold loading increases due to the increase in the equilibrium thiosulfate concentration in the NARS system. Gold loading performances show the need of optimization the equilibrium concentrations of thiosulfate in the NARS system. Keywords: equilibrium, gold loading, resin capacity, thiosulfate, trithionate

  16. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  17. Ecosystem Responses to Changed Atmospheric Mercury Load: Results from Seven Years of Mercury Loading to Lake 658

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, C.; Harris, R.; Kelly, C.; Rudd, J.; Amyot, M.; Hurley, J.; Babiarz, C.; Paterson, M.; Blanchfield, P.; Beaty, K.; Sandilands, K.; Hintelmann, H.; Krabbenhoft, D.; Tate, M.; Lindberg, S.; Southworth, G.; St. Louis, V.; Graydon, J.

    2009-05-01

    The response of fish methylmercury concentrations to changes in mercury deposition has been difficult to establish because sediments/soils contain large pools of historical contamination, and many factors in addition to deposition affect fish mercury. To test directly the response of fish contamination to changing mercury deposition, we are conducting the METAALICUS study, a whole-ecosystem experiment, increasing the mercury load to a lake and its watershed by the addition of enriched stable mercury isotopes. The isotopes allowed us to distinguish between experimentally applied mercury and mercury already present in the ecosystem and to examine bioaccumulation of mercury deposited to different parts of the watershed. Loading began in 2001 and ended in 2007. In this paper we will present mercury and methylmercury budgets for the study lake for the entire 7 year loading period. Overall, we increased the total Hg load to L658 and its watershed by roughly a factor of 3. However, we only increased the Hg load the lake itself by about 2X, since, during the seven years of addition, almost none of the Hg spike deposited to the watershed was transported all the way to the lake. Spike Hg concentrations in lake water rose each year during the open-water loading period and declined rapidly each winter. Methylmercury production in the lake responded rapidly to changes in mercury load during the first year of addition. After about 3 years, the increase in MeHg in lake water and in surface sediments slowed, suggesting that MeHg production was approaching a new level, or different rate, in response to the increased Hg load. We will discuss major input and loss terms for newly deposited Hg, the timing and proportionality of response, the timing and locations of MeHg production within the lake.

  18. LOAD THAT MAXIMIZES POWER OUTPUT IN COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: One of the main problems faced by strength and conditioning coaches is the issue of how to objectively quantify and monitor the actual training load undertaken by athletes in order to maximize performance. It is well known that performance of explosive sports activities is largely determined by mechanical power. Objective: This study analysed the height at which maximal power output is generated and the corresponding load with which is achieved in a group of male-trained track and field athletes in the test of countermovement jump (CMJ with extra loads (CMJEL. Methods: Fifty national level male athletes in sprinting and jumping performed a CMJ test with increasing loads up to a height of 16 cm. The relative load that maximized the mechanical power output (Pmax was determined using a force platform and lineal encoder synchronization and estimating the power by peak power, average power and flight time in CMJ. Results: The load at which the power output no longer existed was at a height of 19.9 ± 2.35, referring to a 99.1 ± 1% of the maximum power output. The load that maximizes power output in all cases has been the load with which an athlete jump a height of approximately 20 cm. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering the height achieved in CMJ with extra load instead of power because maximum power is always attained with the same height. We advise for the preferential use of the height achieved in CMJEL test, since it seems to be a valid indicative of an individual's actual neuromuscular potential providing a valid information for coaches and trainers when assessing the performance status of our athletes and to quantify and monitor training loads, measuring only the height of the jump in the exercise of CMJEL.

  19. Effects of military load carriage on kinematics of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Deepti; Pal, Madhu Sudan; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2010-06-01

    Manual load carriage is a universal activity and an inevitable part of the daily schedule of a soldier. Indian Infantry soldiers carry loads on the waist, back, shoulders and in the hands for a marching order. There is no reported study on the effects of load on gait in this population. It is important to evaluate their kinematic responses to existing load carriage operations and to provide guidelines towards the future design of heavy military backpacks (BPs) for optimising soldiers' performance. Kinematic changes of gait parameters in healthy male infantry soldiers whilst carrying no load (NL) and military loads of 4.2-17.5 kg (6.5-27.2% body weight) were investigated. All comparisons were conducted at a self-selected speed. Soldier characteristics were: mean (SD) age 23.3 (2.6) years; height 172.0 (3.8) cm; weight 64.3 (7.4) kg. Walk trials were collected using a 3-D Motion Analysis System. Results were subjected to one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett post hoc test. There were increases in step length, stride length, cadence and midstance with the addition of a load compared to NL. These findings were resultant of an adaptive phenomenon within the individual to counterbalance load effect along with changes in speed. Ankle and hip ranges of motion (ROM) were significant. The ankle was more dorsiflexed, the knee and hip were more flexed during foot strike and helped in absorption of the load. The trunk showed more forward leaning with the addition of a load to adjust the centre of mass of the body and BP system back to the NL condition. Significant increases in ankle and hip ROM and trunk forward inclination (> or =10 degrees ) with lighter loads, such as a BP (10.7 kg), BP with rifle (14.9 kg) and BP with a light machine gun (17.5 kg), may cause joint injuries. It is concluded that the existing BP needs design improvisation specifically for use in low intensity conflict environments. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The present study evaluates spatial, temporal and angular

  20. OBLÍBENÝ OBSAH VYUČOVACÍCH JEDNOTEK TĚLESNÉ VÝCHOVY – POZITIVNĚ HODNOCENÝ PROSTŘEDEK VYŠŠÍHO TĚLESNÉHO ZATÍŽENÍ DĚVČAT [PREFERRED CONTENTS IN THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION LESSONS – POSITIVELY EVALUATED MEANS OF INCREASING PHYSICAL LOAD OF FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Sigmund

    2009-12-01

    physically active and healthy lifestyle. The role of PE is to form positive attitudes in children to regular physical activity (PA and show them the wide scale of types and intensities of PA and ways of teaching them. The aim of this study is to examine relationships and indentify regularities between the evaluation of PE lessons differing in content and PA intensity in girls. To estimate the relationships between PA intensity in PE lessons and their evaluation, data from 2213 girls aged 13-17 monitored in 205 PE lessons with different contents (aerobics n=35, athletics n=30, sport gymnastics n=33, sport games n=61 and dance n=46 between 1997–2003 were used. PA intensity was monitored using the Caltrac (METs/45min accelerometer. To evaluate PE lessons, a standardized PE lesson diagnostics questionnaire was applied (% of positive answers in the emotional, social, relationships, and health dimensions. In case of favorite PA activities in girls (dance, aerobics, sport games, the higher PA intensity was reflected positively in the evaluation of PE lessons. Therefore, favorite activities such as dance, aerobics and sport games in girls are appropriate to carry out PA with higher load. In activities not favored by girls (athletics and sport gymnastics, higher PA intensity was reflected negatively in PE lesson evaluation. Thus, PE lessons with these contents are not suitable devices to increase physical load in girls. The employment of games or game-like lesson guidance can make PE lessons with less favorite content more attractive.

  1. Microtab dynamic modelling for wind turbine blade load rejection

    OpenAIRE

    MacQuart, Terence; Maheri, Alireza; Busawon, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    A dynamic model characterising the effect of microtab deployment on the aerodynamics of its base aerofoil is presented. The developed model predicts the transient aerodynamic coefficients consistent with the experimental and computational data reported in the literature. The proposed model is then used to carry out investigation on the effectiveness of microtabs in load alleviation and lifespan increase of wind turbine blades. Simulating a bang–bang controller, different load rejection scenar...

  2. Features wear nodes mechanization wing aircraft operating under dynamic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.М. Хімко

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available  The conducted researches of titanic alloy ВТ-22 at dynamic loading with cycled sliding and dynamic loading in conditions of rolling with slipping. It is established that roller jamming in the carriage increases wear of rod of mechanization of a wing to twenty times. The optimum covering for strengthening wearied sites and restoration of working surfaces of wing’s mechanization rod is defined.

  3. Mental load: helping clinical learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoff

    2011-09-01

    The quality of an individual's learning is influenced significantly by the quantity of mental processing they are required to manage in a clinical learning situation. Some clinical learning settings require the learner to process high levels of complex knowledge and skills, whilst simultaneously monitoring and responding to challenging social or emotional inputs. This paper introduces the concept of 'cognitive load', its negative impacts upon novice learners in particular, and its real-world implications for teaching and supervision. Narrative review and discussion. The concept of cognitive load is reviewed, and examples of its application to clinical learning and teaching are provided. Teaching and supervision strategies for managing the cognitive load of learners are presented. The clinical teacher has significant capacity to reduce the cognitive load of learners by creating safe and supportive learning environments, establishing trusting relationships with the learner, and implementing structured learning experiences that are designed to support the learner's growth in knowledge, understanding and skills. A threefold focus on the nature of the learning task, the learning environment and the learner's perceptions of these elements, which characterises cognitive load, provides a useful framework for diagnosing poor learning behaviours and maximising learning outcomes. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  4. Spinal loads during cycling on an ergometer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Rohlmann

    Full Text Available Cycling on an ergometer is an effective exercise for improving fitness. However, people with back problems or previous spinal surgery are often not aware of whether cycling could be harmful for them. To date, little information exists about spinal loads during cycling. A telemeterized vertebral body replacement allows in vivo measurement of implant loads during the activities of daily living. Five patients with a severe compression fracture of a lumbar vertebral body received these implants. During one measurement session, four of the participants exercised on a bicycle ergometer at various power levels. As the power level increased, the maximum resultant force and the difference between the maximum and minimum force (force range during each pedal revolution increased. The average maximum-force increases between the two power levels 25 and 85 W were 73, 84, 225 and 75 N for the four patients. The corresponding increases in the force range during a pedal revolution were 84, 98, 166 and 101 N. There were large variations in the measured forces between the patients and also within the same patient, especially for high power levels. In two patients, the maximum forces during high-power cycling were higher than the forces during walking measured on the same day. Therefore, the authors conclude that patients with back problems should not cycle at high power levels shortly after surgery as a precaution.

  5. Load balancing in 5G Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsirakis Christos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expected huge increase of mobile devices and user data demand by 2020 will stress the current mobile network in an unprecedented way. The future mobile networks must meet several strong requirements regarding the data rate, latency, quality of service and experience, mobility, spectrum and energy efficiency. Therefore, efforts for more efficient mobile network solutions have been recently initiated. To this direction, load balancing has attracted much attention as a promising solution for higher resource utilization, improved system performance and decreased operational cost. It is an effective method for balancing the traffic and alleviating the congestion among heterogeneous networks in the upcoming 5G networks. In this paper, we focus on an offloading scenario for load balancing among LTE and Wi-Fi networks. Additionally, network graphs methodology and its abstracted parameters are investigated in order to better manage wireless resource allocation among multiple connections. The COHERENT architectural framework, which consists of two main control components, makes use of such abstracted network graphs for controlling or managing various tasks such as traffic steering, load balancing, spectrum sharing and RAN sharing. As a result, the COHERENT project eventually develops a unified programmable control framework used to efficiently coordinate the underlying heterogeneous mobile networks as a whole.

  6. Statistical estimation of loads from gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeiset, Stian

    1998-12-31

    In the design of structures in the offshore and process industries, the possibility of a gas explosion must always be considered. The main uncertainties in computerized simulation of gas explosions are the assumptions of the gas cloud, the location of the ignition point and the properties of the simulator itself. This thesis quantifies the levels of these uncertainties by performing a large number of simulations on three offshore modules and one onshore plant. It is found that (1) there is an approximate linear relation between pressure and gas volume, (2) it may be possible to find a linear relation between pressure and impulse, (3) there is an inverse relation between pressure and duration, (4) the response of offshore structures exposed to gas explosions are rarely in the impulsive regime, (5) loading rates vary widely in magnitude, (6) an assumption of a triangular explosion pulse is often correct, (7) louvres increase pressure, impulse and duration of an explosion. The effect of ignition point location is studied in detail. It is possible to derive an ignition point uncertainty load factor that shows predictable behaviour by generalizing the non-parametric properties of the explosion pressure. A model for taking into account the uncertainties regarding gas volume, ignition point location and simulator imperfectness is proposed. The model is intended to produce a characteristic load for structural design. 68 refs., 51 figs., 36 tabs.

  7. Dynamic Gust Load Analysis for Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Dai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic load of helicopter rotors due to gust directly affects the structural stress and flight performance for helicopters. Based on a large deflection beam theory, an aeroelastic model for isolated helicopter rotors in the time domain is constructed. The dynamic response and structural load for a rotor under the impulse gust and slope-shape gust are calculated, respectively. First, a nonlinear Euler beam model with 36 degrees-of-freedoms per element is applied to depict the structural dynamics for an isolated rotor. The generalized dynamic wake model and Leishman-Beddoes dynamic stall model are applied to calculate the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic forces on rotors. Then, we transformed the differential aeroelastic governing equation to an algebraic one. Hence, the widely used Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm is employed to simulate the dynamic gust load. An isolated helicopter rotor with four blades is studied to validate the structural model and the aeroelastic model. The modal frequencies based on the Euler beam model agree well with published ones by CAMRAD. The flap deflection due to impulse gust with the speed of 2m/s increases twice to the one without gust. In this numerical example, results indicate that the bending moment at the blade root is alleviated due to elastic effect.

  8. Structural Analysis of the Ignitor Load Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, A.; Cucchiaro, A.; Coppi, B.

    2005-10-01

    The structural analysis of all components of the Ignitor machine, and of their mechanical interactions, has been performed by using the Finite Element Method and ANSYS program for the most advanced plasma scenarios. Friction coefficients have been taken into account at the interfaces between relevant components. The results show that the stresses produced are within the allowable limits at the considered temperatures of the magnet. The out-of-plane loads were carefully evaluated by means of a dedicated code developed in ENEA, both for the reference operating scenario and for the worst plasma disruption. The disruption scenario chosen as representive of the most dangerous plasma conditions in Ignitor is a Vertical Displacement Event followed by a fast thermal and current quench, simulated by the MAXFEA code. The resulting loads were also confirmed by the ANSYS code. The average shear stress at the toroidal field coil interfaces due to these out-of-plane loads is lower than the friction coefficient and do not increase significantly the in-plane maximum equivalent stresses.

  9. Simulation of load traffic and steeped speed control of conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutov, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article examines the possibilities of the step control simulation of conveyor speed within Mathcad, Simulink, Stateflow software. To check the efficiency of the control algorithms and to more accurately determine the characteristics of the control system, it is necessary to simulate the process of speed control with real values of traffic for a work shift or for a day. For evaluating the belt workload and absence of spillage it is necessary to use empirical values of load flow in a shorter period of time. The analytical formulas for optimal speed step values were received using empirical values of load. The simulation checks acceptability of an algorithm, determines optimal parameters of regulation corresponding to load flow characteristics. The average speed and the number of speed switching during simulation are admitted as criteria of regulation efficiency. The simulation example within Mathcad software is implemented. The average conveyor speed decreases essentially by two-step and three-step control. A further increase in the number of regulatory steps decreases average speed insignificantly but considerably increases the intensity of the speed switching. Incremental algorithm of speed regulation uses different number of stages for growing and reducing load traffic. This algorithm allows smooth control of the conveyor speed changes with monotonic variation of the load flow. The load flow oscillation leads to an unjustified increase or decrease of speed. Work results can be applied at the design of belt conveyors with adjustable drives.

  10. Recovery Act. Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yi [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Casey, Patrick [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Du, Liang [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); He, Dawei [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2014-02-12

    In response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE)’s goal of achieving market ready, net-zero energy residential and commercial buildings by 2020 and 2025, Eaton partnered with the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Georgia Institute of Technology to develop an intelligent load identification and management technology enabled by a novel “smart power strip” to provide critical intelligence and information to improve the capability and functionality of building load analysis and building power management systems. Buildings account for 41% of the energy consumption in the United States, significantly more than either transportation or industrial. Within the building sector, plug loads account for a significant portion of energy consumption. Plug load consumes 15-20% of building energy on average. As building managers implement aggressive energy conservation measures, the proportion of plug load energy can increase to as much as 50% of building energy leaving plug loads as the largest remaining single source of energy consumption. This project focused on addressing plug-in load control and management to further improve building energy efficiency accomplished through effective load identification. The execution of the project falls into the following three major aspects; An intelligent load modeling, identification and prediction technology was developed to automatically determine the type, energy consumption, power quality, operation status and performance status of plug-in loads, using electric waveforms at a power outlet level. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed technology through a large set of plug-in loads measurements and testing; A novel “Smart Power Strip (SPS) / Receptacle” prototype was developed to act as a vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of load identification technology as a low-cost, embedded solution; and Market environment for plug-in load control and management solutions

  11. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    to establish partial safety factors for design of such components against this failure mode, structuralreliability methods must be applied. This type of analysis accounts for the variability of the external (wind) loading (as addressed in the analyses of the general wind climate) - and thereby the induced......An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...

  12. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due

  13. Load flow analysis using decoupled fuzzy load flow under critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    mismatch and summation of power mismatches are taken as two inputs for fuzzy logic controller. Considering magnitude of power mismatch and sign of power mismatch, new 25 fuzzy rules are created from two sets of inputs. The proposed Decoupled. Fuzzy Load Flow (FDLF) is applied to IEEE 14 bus, IEEE 30 bus, IEEE ...

  14. RF Loads for Energy Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Caspers, F

    2012-01-01

    Different conceptional designs for RF high power loads are presented. One concept implies the use of solid state rectifier modules for direct RF to DC conversion with efficiencies beyond 80%. In addition, robust metallic low-Q resonant structures, capable of operating at high temperatures (>150 ◦C) are discussed. Another design deals with a very high temperature (up to 800 ◦C) air cooled load using a ceramic foam block inside a metal enclosure. This porous ceramic block is the microwave absorber and is not brazed to the metallic enclosure.

  15. Facile Synthesis of Curcumin-Loaded Starch-Maleate Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Cem Pang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated the loading of curcumin onto starch maleate (SM under mild conditions by mixing dissolved curcumin and SM nanoparticles separately in absolute ethanol and ethanol/aqueous (40 : 60 v/v, respectively. Curcumin-loaded starch-maleate (CurSM nanoparticles were subsequently precipitated from a homogeneous mixture of these solutions in absolute ethanol based on the solvent exchange method. TEM analysis indicated that the diameters of CurSM nanoparticles were ranged between 30 nm and 110 nm with a mean diameter of 50 nm. The curcumin loading capacity of SM as a function of loading duration was investigated using the UV-visible spectrophotometer. The loading of curcumin onto SM increased rapidly initially with loading duration, and the curcumin loading capacity of 15 mg/g was reached within 12 hours. CurSM nanoparticles exhibited substantially higher water solubility of 6.0 × 10−2 mg/mL which is about 300 times higher than that of pure curcumin. With enhanced water solubility and bioaccessibility of curcumin, the potential utility of CurSM nanoparticles in various biomedical applications is therefore envisaged.

  16. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandam, T.M.; Blewitt, G.; Heflin, M.B. [NOAA, Silver Spring, MD (United States)]|[Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)]|[Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged.

  17. Goose`s eggshell strength at compressive loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of the goose eggs behaviour under compressive loading between two plates using testing device TIRATEST. The influences of the loading orientation as well as the effect of compressive velocity are studied. 226 eggs from Landes geese were chosen for the experiment. Eggs have been loaded between their poles and in the equator plane. Five different compressive velocities (0.0167, 0.167, 0.334, 1.67 and 5 mm.s-1 were used. The increase in rupture force with loading rate was observed for loading in all direction (along main axes. Dependence of the rupture force on loading rate was quantifies and described. The highest rupture force was obtained when the eggs were loaded along their axes of symmetry (X-axis. Compression in the equator plane (along the Z-axis required the least compressive force to break the eggshells. The eggshell strength was described by the rupture force, specific rupture deformation and by the absorbed energy. The rupture force is highly dependent on compression speeds. The dependence of the rupture force on the compression velocity can be described by a power function. The same is valid for the rate dependence of the energy absorbed by the egg up to the fracture. The rate sensitivity of the Goose's eggshells strength is significantly higher than that reported for the hen's eggs

  18. Measurement-Based Vehicle Load Model for Urban Expressway Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes in vehicle loads have occurred in China due to the development of the automobile industry and transportation within the past two decades, particularly the rapid increase in traffic flow and the large-scale emergence of heavy trucks. However, research into vehicle loadings on urban bridges is not well developed. In this study, based on traffic flow data collected using a weigh-in-motion system installed on an expressway in an urban logistics zone, we analyzed the traffic flow, vehicle types, and gross vehicle weight (GVW features and developed models for the vehicle load and fatigue load. According to the axle space, axle types, and axle number, the trucks in the traffic flow were classified into 10 representative vehicle types. The probability distribution of the GVW was fitted to a three-class mixed log-normal distribution. Using the improved Gumbel method, we determined the extreme value distribution of the vehicle loadings in the purpose reference period and assessed the vehicle loadings of urban bridges. In addition, using the equivalent damage theory, six equivalent vehicle models were established according to the measurements of the axle weight and axle space, thereby obtaining a simplified model of fatigue vehicle loadings on urban expressway bridges.

  19. Load management for refrigeration systems: Potentials and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grein, Arne, E-mail: a.grein@tu-berlin.de [University of Technology Berlin, Institute for Energy Technology, Department of Energy Systems, Einsteinufer 25 (TA8), 10587 Berlin (Germany); Pehnt, Martin [Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Heidelberg (ifeu), Wilckensstr. 3, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    As a strategy to deal with the increasing intermittent input of renewable energy sources in Germany, the adaptation of power consumption is complementary to power-plant regulation, grid expansion and physical energy storage. One demand sector that promises strong returns for load management efforts is cooling and refrigeration. In these processes, thermal inertia provides a temporal buffer for shifting and adjusting the power consumption of cooling systems. We have conducted an empirical investigation to obtain a detailed and time-resolved bottom-up analysis of load management for refrigeration systems in the city of Mannheim, Germany. We have extrapolated our results to general conditions in Germany. Several barriers inhibit the rapid adoption of load management strategies for cooling systems, including informational barriers, strict compliance with legal cooling requirements, liability issues, lack of technical experience, an inadequate rate of return and organizational barriers. Small commercial applications of refrigeration in the food-retailing and cold storage in hotels and restaurants are particularly promising starting points for intelligent load management. When our results are applied to Germany, suitable sectors for load management have theoretical and achievable potential values of 4.2 and 2.8 GW, respectively, amounting to about 4-6% of the maximum power demand in Germany. - Highlights: > Potential and barriers for implementation of load shifting for refrigeration. > Empirical investigation for time-resolved bottom-up analysis in Mannheim, Germany. > Suitable sectors and further recommendations for introducing load management.> Extrapolation of results from local to national level.

  20. Influence of immediate and early loading on bone metabolic activity around dental implants in rat tibiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Miou; Ogawa, Toru; Yokoyama, Masayoshi; Koyama, Shigeto; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of immediate and early loading on dynamic changes in bone metabolism around dental implants using bone scintigraphy. Two titanium implants were inserted in the right tibiae of 21 rats. Closed coil springs with 4.0-N loads were applied parallel to the upper portion of the implants for 35 days. According to the load application timing, rats were divided into three groups: immediate loading (IL) group, early loading 1 day after implant insertion (1-D early loading [EL]) group, and loading 3 days after implant insertion (3-D EL) group. Rats were intravenously injected with technetium-99 m-methylene diphosphonate (Tc99 m-MDP) (74 MBq/rat) and scanned by bone scintigraphy at 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after load application. The ratio of accumulation of Tc99 m-MDP around the implants to that of a reference site (uptake ratio) was calculated to evaluate bone metabolism. In every group, the uptake ratio increased until 7 days after load application and then gradually decreased. It was significantly higher than baseline at 4, 7, 11, and 14 days (P load timing. Increases in bone metabolic activity differed according to load application timing; the later the load application, the more enhanced the bone metabolism. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of loading speed on the stress-induced magnetic behavior of ferromagnetic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Sheng, E-mail: longtubao@zju.edu.cn; Gu, Yibin; Fu, Meili; Zhang, Da; Hu, Shengnan

    2017-02-01

    The primary goal of this research is to investigate the effect of loading speed on the stress-induced magnetic behavior of a ferromagnetic steel. Uniaxial tension tests on Q235 steel were carried out with various stress levels under different loading speeds. The variation of the magnetic signals surrounding the tested specimen was detected by a fluxgate magnetometer. The results indicated that the magnetic signal variations depended not only on the tensile load level but on the loading speed during the test. The magnetic field amplitude seemed to decrease gradually with the increase in loading speed at the same tensile load level. Furthermore, the evolution of the magnetic reversals is also related to the loading speed. Accordingly, the loading speed should be considered as one of the influencing variables in the Jies-Atherton model theory of the magnetomechanical effect. - Highlights: • Magnetic behaviors induced by different loading speeds were investigated. • Loading speed imposes strong impact on the variation of the magnetic field signals. • The magnetic field amplitude reduces gradually with the increasing loading speed. • The Jies-Atherton model theory should consider the effect of loading speed.

  2. Consideration of higher seismic loads at existing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebig, J.; Pellissetti, M.

    2015-07-01

    Because of advancement of methods in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, plenty of existing plants face higher seismic loads as an obligation from the national authorities. In case of such obligations safety related structures and equipment have to be reevaluated or requalified for the increased seismic loads. The paper provides solutions for different kinds of structures and equipment inside the plant, avoiding cost intensive hardware exchange. Due to higher seismic loads different kinds of structures and equipment inside a plant have to be reevaluated. For civil structures, primary components, mechanical components, distribution lines and electrical and I&C equipment different innovative concepts will be applied to keep structures and equipment qualified for the higher seismic loads. Detailed analysis, including the modeling of non-linear phenomena, or minor structural upgrades are cost competitive, compared to cost intensive hardware exchanges. Several case studies regarding the re-evaluation and requalification of structures and equipment due to higher seismic loads are presented. It is shown how the creation of coupled finite element models and the consistent propagation of acceleration time histories through the soil, building and primary circuit lead to a significant load reduction Electrical and I&C equipment is reinforced by smart upgrades which increase the natural equipment frequencies. Therefore for all devices inside the cabinets the local acceleration will not increase and the seismic qualification will be maintained. The case studies cover both classical deterministic and probabilistic re-evaluations (fragility analysis). Furthermore, the substantial benefits of non-linear limit load evaluation, such as push-over analysis of buildings and limit load analysis of fuel assemblies, are demonstrated. (Author)

  3. Tissue memory in healing tendons: short loading episodes stimulate healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Therese; Eliasson, Pernilla; Aspenberg, Per

    2009-08-01

    Intact tendons adapt slowly to changes in mechanical loading, whereas in healing tendons the effect of mechanical loading or its absence is dramatic. The longevity of the response to a single loading episode is, however, unknown. We hypothesized that the tissue has a "memory" of loading episodes and that therefore short loadings are sufficient to elicit improved healing. The Achilles tendon of 70 female rats was transected and unloaded by tail suspension for 12 days (suspension started on day 2 after surgery). Each day, the rats were let down from suspension for short daily training episodes according to different regimes: 15 min of cage activity or treadmill running for 15, 30, 60, or 2x15 min. Rats with transected Achilles tendons and full-time cage activity served as controls. The results demonstrated that full-time cage activity increased the peak force over three times compared with unloading. Short daily loading episodes (treadmill running) increased the peak force about half as much as full-time activity. Prolongation of treadmill running above 15 min or dividing the daily training in two separate episodes had minimal further effect. This mechanical stimulation increased the cross-sectional area but had no effect on the mechanical properties of the repair tissue. The findings indicate that once the tissue had received information from a certain loading type and level, this is "memorized" and leads to a response lasting many hours. This suggests that patients might be allowed early short loading episodes following, e.g., an Achilles tendon rupture for a better outcome.

  4. Load Estimation by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ivar Chr. Bjerg; Hansen, Søren Mosegaard; Brincker, Rune

    2007-01-01

    When performing operational modal analysis the dynamic loading is unknown, however, once the modal properties of the structure have been estimated, the transfer matrix can be obtained, and the loading can be estimated by inverse filtering. In this paper loads in frequency domain are estimated...... and the errors on the estimated loads are determined....

  5. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false External loads. 27.865 Section 27.865... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 27.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for...

  6. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false External loads. 29.865 Section 29.865... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 29.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for...

  7. Does aquatic exercise reduce hip and knee joint loading? In vivo load measurements with instrumented implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Kutzner

    Full Text Available Aquatic exercises are widely used for rehabilitation or preventive therapies in order to enable mobilization and muscle strengthening while minimizing joint loading of the lower limb. The load reducing effect of water due to buoyancy is a main advantage compared to exercises on land. However, also drag forces have to be considered that act opposite to the relative motion of the body segments and require higher muscle activity. Due to these opposing effects on joint loading, the load-reducing effect during aquatic exercises remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the joint loads during various aquatic exercises and to determine the load reducing effect of water. Instrumented knee and hip implants with telemetric data transfer were used to measure the resultant joint contact forces in 12 elderly subjects (6x hip, 6x knee in vivo. Different dynamic, weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities were performed by the subjects on land and in chest-high water. Non-weight-bearing hip and knee flexion/extension was performed at different velocities and with additional Aquafins. Joint forces during aquatic exercises ranged between 32 and 396% body weight (BW. Highest forces occurred during dynamic activities, followed by weight-bearing and slow non-weight-bearing activities. Compared to the same activities on land, joint forces were reduced by 36-55% in water with absolute reductions being greater than 100%BW during weight-bearing and dynamic activities. During non-weight-bearing activities, high movement velocities and additional Aquafins increased the joint forces by up to 59% and resulted in joint forces of up to 301%BW. This study confirms the load reducing effect of water during weight-bearing and dynamic exercises. Nevertheless, high drag forces result in increased joint contact forces and indicate greater muscle activity. By the choice of activity, movement velocity and additional resistive devices joint forces can be modulated

  8. Snow loads in a changing climate: new risks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Strasser

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In January/February 2006, heavy snowfalls in Bavaria (Germany lead to a series of infrastructural damage of catastrophic nature. Since on many collapsed roofs the total snow load was not exceptional, serious engineering deficiencies in roof construction and a sudden rise in the total snow load were considered to be the trigger of the events. An analysis of the then meteorological conditions reveals, that the early winter of 2005/2006 was characterised by an exceptional continuous snow cover, temperatures remained around the freezing point and no significant snowmelt was evident. The frequent freezing/thawing cycles were followed by a general compaction of the snow load. This resulted in a re-distribution and a new concentration of the snow load on specific locations on roofs. With respect to climate change, the question arises as to whether the risks relating to snow loads will increase. The future probability of a continuous snow cover occurrence with frequent freezing/thawing cycles will probably decline due to predicted higher temperatures. However, where temperatures remain low, an increase in winter precipitation will result in increased snow loads. Furthermore, the variability of extremes is predicted to increase. If heavy snowfall events are more frequent, the risk of a trigger event will likely increase. Finally, an attempt will be made here in this paper to outline a concept for an operational warning system for the Bavarian region. This system envisages to predict the development and risk of critical snow loads for a 3-day time period, utilising a combination of climate and snow modelling data and using this together with a snow pillow device (located on roofs and the results of which.

  9. Power transformer additional load losses separation procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Kostić Miloje M.

    2011-01-01

    The proposed procedure is based on the fact that total transformer losses (PLL1,n), determined by short circuit test, can be separated into two components: the eddy current losses in the windings (PEC1,n) and stray flux losses (PSL1,n) in iron parts of construction as well as in the transformer tank walls. The total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, are determined by short circuit test results, conducted at rated frequency (f1) and at increased harmonic frequency (fh=h*f1). Using so ob...

  10. Soil solution sensitivity to low pollution load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbacheva, Tamara; Kikuchi, Ryunosuke

    2014-05-01

    (Sivertsen et al., 1994), the natural background of S deposition is 0.7 - 1.5 kg per ha per year (Granat et al., 1976, Husar and Holloway, 1982). Our results suggested about high soil solution sensitivity to S pollution load on permissible level even (far from critical load). According to sulfate mass flow estimate, organic horizon on plot (2) functioned as sulfate investment source during most periods, but more pronounced after snow melting (up to 3-4 times increasing compared to atmospheric deposition). In own turn, organic horizon of plot (1) (with lesser pollution load) plays as natural biogeochemical barrier to sulfate load or transit layer. With regard to observed S bioaccumulation in L layer on plots (2) such difference could be explained by well-recognized organic S cycling role over a wide range of atmospheric S inputs (from 13 to 130 kg S per ha per year) in 13 Central European forested catchments (Novark et al., 2000; Alewell, 2001).

  11. Air bending process for load optimised profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abratis, C.; Hirt, G.; Kopp, R. [Inst. of Metal Forming, RWTH Univ., Aachen (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    In this paper the air bending of tailor rolled blanks (TRB) to load optimised profiles is investigated. A new flexible modular tool system has been developed in order to locally adapt the die height to the spring back which is more pronounced in thinner areas in comparison to thicker areas of the TRB. With the new tool system the dies can be modulated according to the thickness distribution of the tailor rolled blank, whereas the amount of die lifting depends on the thickness difference and the corresponding variance of mechanical properties. In bending tests with several specimens having a constant thickness a linear relation between the increasing part angle and a stepwise increased die lifting was observed. With this linear dependency the amount of die lifting can be calculated and thus applied on bending of TRB. Special consideration is required for the die adjustment in the area of the linear thickness transition, therefore three different die arrangements have been investigated. The results of different bending tests are compared and evaluated in order to apply the new technique to form a new car body floor structure in profile intensive construction. By using load optimised profiles in combination with a steel 22MnB5 which has been heat-treated at defined sections the survival space of a car passenger in a side pole impact has been enormously increased by more than 40%. (orig.)

  12. High-Speed Resistance Training Modifies Load-Velocity and Load-Power Relationships in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Meng; Signorile, Joseph F

    2017-10-01

    Muscle power is a major neuromuscular factor affecting motor function and independence in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and it is commonly targeted using high-speed exercise. This study examined the changes in velocities (Vpp) and percent loads (%1RMpp) at peak power and load-velocity (L-V) and load-power (L-P) relationships, resulting from resistance training because of exercise choice and loading in older patients with PD. Fourteen older adults with mild to moderate PD participated in a 12-week randomized controlled power training trial. Changes in L-V and L-P relationships for the biceps curl, chest press, leg press, hip abduction, and seated calf were assessed using pneumatic resistance machines at loads ranging from 30 through 90% of subjects' 1 repetition maximum for each exercise. Significant increases in Vpp were seen for biceps curl, leg press, hip abduction, and seated calf and decreases in %1RMpp were noted for biceps curl and hip abduction. Additionally, unique patterns of change were seen in these relationships across exercises, with biceps curl, chest press, and leg press showing the greatest shifts at the lower load end of the loading spectrum, and hip abduction and seated calf showing greatest responses at the higher end. The patterns of change in L-V and L-P relationships provide evidence for the unique responses of the specific muscle groups and joints to the exercises evaluated and offer a framework for more exacting exercise prescriptions in patients with PD.

  13. Ocular Drug Delivery through pHEMA-Hydrogel Contact Lenses Co-Loaded with Lipophilic Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dasom; Cho, Seungkwon; Park, Hwa Sung; Kwon, Inchan

    2016-09-01

    Ocular drug delivery through hydrogel contact lenses has great potential for the treatment of ocular diseases. Previous studies showed that the loading of lipophilic vitamin E to silicone-hydrogel contact lenses was beneficial in ocular drug delivery. We hypothesized that vitamin E loading to another type of popular hydrogel contact lenses, pHEMA-hydrogel contact lenses, improves ocular drug delivery by increasing the drug loading or the duration of drug release. Loading of vitamin E to pHEMA-hydrogel contact lenses significantly increased the loading of a hydrophilic drug surrogate (Alexa Fluor 488 dye) and two hydrophilic glaucoma drugs (timolol and brimonidine) to the lenses by 37.5%, 19.1%, and 18.7%, respectively. However, the release duration time was not significantly altered. Next, we hypothesized that the lipophilic nature of vitamin E attributes to the enhanced drug loading. Therefore, we investigated the effects of co-loading of another lipophilic vitamin, vitamin A, on drug surrogate delivery. We found out that vitamin A loading also increased the loading of the drug surrogate to pHEMA-hydrogel contact lenses by 30.3%. Similar to vitamin E loading, vitamin A loading did not significantly alter the release duration time of the drug or drug surrogate.

  14. Ocular Drug Delivery through pHEMA-Hydrogel Contact Lenses Co-Loaded with Lipophilic Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dasom; Cho, Seungkwon; Park, Hwa Sung; Kwon, Inchan

    2016-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery through hydrogel contact lenses has great potential for the treatment of ocular diseases. Previous studies showed that the loading of lipophilic vitamin E to silicone-hydrogel contact lenses was beneficial in ocular drug delivery. We hypothesized that vitamin E loading to another type of popular hydrogel contact lenses, pHEMA-hydrogel contact lenses, improves ocular drug delivery by increasing the drug loading or the duration of drug release. Loading of vitamin E to pHEMA-hydrogel contact lenses significantly increased the loading of a hydrophilic drug surrogate (Alexa Fluor 488 dye) and two hydrophilic glaucoma drugs (timolol and brimonidine) to the lenses by 37.5%, 19.1%, and 18.7%, respectively. However, the release duration time was not significantly altered. Next, we hypothesized that the lipophilic nature of vitamin E attributes to the enhanced drug loading. Therefore, we investigated the effects of co-loading of another lipophilic vitamin, vitamin A, on drug surrogate delivery. We found out that vitamin A loading also increased the loading of the drug surrogate to pHEMA-hydrogel contact lenses by 30.3%. Similar to vitamin E loading, vitamin A loading did not significantly alter the release duration time of the drug or drug surrogate. PMID:27678247

  15. Analyses of tunnel stability under dynamic loads

    OpenAIRE

    Oraee, B; Hosseini, N.; Oraee, K; Gholinejad, M

    2011-01-01

    Tunnels as any other structures are affected by different loads and stresses. Generally, the loads on tunnels consist of both static and dynamic loads. These loads must both be considered in the tunnel design process. In this paper, the stability state of Jiroft water-transform tunnel is evaluated. Firstly, the in-situ stresses and then using Kirschs equations the induced stresses due to static loads in walls and crown of tunnel are calculated. Consequently, the strain caused by probable eart...

  16. Numerical prediction of slamming loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, Sopheak; Jensen, Jørgen J; Pedersen, Preben T

    2012-01-01

    It is important to include the contribution of the slamming-induced response in the structural design of large vessels with a significant bow flare. At the same time it is a challenge to develop rational tools to determine the slamming-induced loads and the prediction of their occurrence. Today i...

  17. Resource augmentation in load balancing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Azar; L. Epstein (Lea); R. van Stee (Rob)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe consider load-balancing in the following setting. The on-line algorithm is allowed to use $n$ machines, whereas the optimal off-line algorithm is limited to $m$ machines, for some fixed $m < n$. We show that while the greedy algorithm has a competitive ratio which decays linearly in

  18. Soil Profiles and Seismic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janotka, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution estimates different geotechnical profiles of site condition change and their influences on the computed seismic response spectra and time histories final values and forms applying on the seismic structures loading. The mentioned problems methodics attitude solution is based on the computed seismic motion parameters.

  19. High drug-loading nanomedicines: progress, current status, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shihong; Wu, Youshen; Liu, Yongchun; Wu, Daocheng

    2017-01-01

    Drug molecules transformed into nanoparticles or endowed with nanostructures with or without the aid of carrier materials are referred to as "nanomedicines" and can overcome some inherent drawbacks of free drugs, such as poor water solubility, high drug dosage, and short drug half-life in vivo. However, most of the existing nanomedicines possess the drawback of low drug-loading (generally less than 10%) associated with more carrier materials. For intravenous administration, the extensive use of carrier materials might cause systemic toxicity and impose an extra burden of degradation, metabolism, and excretion of the materials for patients. Therefore, on the premise of guaranteeing therapeutic effect and function, reducing or avoiding the use of carrier materials is a promising alternative approach to solve these problems. Recently, high drug-loading nanomedicines, which have a drug-loading content higher than 10%, are attracting increasing interest. According to the fabrication strategies of nanomedicines, high drug-loading nanomedicines are divided into four main classes: nanomedicines with inert porous material as carrier, nanomedicines with drug as part of carrier, carrier-free nanomedicines, and nanomedicines following niche and complex strategies. To date, most of the existing high drug-loading nanomedicines belong to the first class, and few research studies have focused on other classes. In this review, we investigate the research status of high drug-loading nanomedicines and discuss the features of their fabrication strategies and optimum proposal in detail. We also point out deficiencies and developing direction of high drug-loading nanomedicines. We envision that high drug-loading nanomedicines will occupy an important position in the field of drug-delivery systems, and hope that novel perspectives will be proposed for the development of high drug-loading nanomedicines.

  20. Using modified multiple phosphorus sensitivity indices for mitigation and management of phosphorus loads on a catchment level

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available were identified according to the RPSI and different P load management practices were outlined. The findings of this study are important for restoration and management purposes of increased P loads in conjunction with river characteristics...

  1. Spatial and temporal variation in cadmium body loads of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing urbanization and industrialization along the coastal areas of False Bay in South Africa can endanger coastal ecosystems because of increasing metal pollution. To obtain baseline data on contamination levels in the intertidal zone, cadmium (Cd) body loads of four invertebrate species were measured seasonally ...

  2. Uplift Capacity of Inclined Underreamed Piles Subjected to Vertical Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Akilur; Sengupta, Siddhartha

    2017-12-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Inclined (batter) piles are used to support such structures, and to carry the horizontal and vertical loads resulted from the overturning moments. Though studies have been done with inclined piles having no underream bulb, little information is available in the literature about estimating the uplift capacity of inclined underreamed piles. In the present study laboratory experiments have been done with vertically loaded model piles having no underream as well as with one and two underreams. The piles were positioned at angle of inclination of θ = 0°, 10°, 20°, 30° (with vertical); and placed in locally available sand under vertical uplift load. Three different pile stem diameters (D = 20, 25, and 35 mm) were used. The corresponding pile length to stem diameter (l/D) ratio were 18, 14, and 10 respectively. Experiments had been conducted with two relative different densities (45 and 70%) of sand. The failure uplift loads were obtained in each case. It had been found that for inclined piles increase in number of underream bulbs from 0 to 2 was quite effective in resisting uplift loads corresponding to piles having l/D equals to 10. The percentage decreases in uplift capacity corresponding to increase in inclination angle were more pronounced for piles with double underreams.

  3. Load capacity of a new rope-climbing robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Hao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical analysis and experimental research are carried out on the load capacity of one new kind rope-climbing robot, this robot could lift load along the rope depends on the friction between rope and wheel of the robot. The classic Euler formula is based on the assumption of constant friction coefficient, and this paper establishes a new load capacity model based on non-constant friction coefficient model, presents a method to measure the distribution of friction coefficient, and builds the experimental platform to conduct experimental research on the friction coefficient and load capacity. Experimental results show that the friction coefficient decreases with the increase of wrap angle; the new model fits the results better than Euler formula.

  4. Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The IEA's Smart Grids Technology Roadmap identified five global trends that could be effectively addressed by deploying smart grids. These are: increasing peak load (the maximum power that the grid delivers during peak hours), rising electricity consumption, electrification of transport, deployment of variable generation technologies (e.g. wind and solar PV) and ageing infrastructure. Along with this roadmap, a new working paper -- Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050 -- develops a methodology to estimate the evolution of peak load until 2050. It also analyses the impact of smart grid technologies in reducing peak load for four key regions; OECD North America, OECD Europe, OECD Pacific and China. This working paper is a first IEA effort in an evolving modelling process of smart grids that is considering demand response in residential and commercial sectors as well as the integration of electric vehicles.

  5. How Cognitive Load Influences Speakers' Choice of Referring Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogels, Jorrig; Krahmer, Emiel; Maes, Alfons

    2015-08-01

    We report on two experiments investigating the effect of an increased cognitive load for speakers on the choice of referring expressions. Speakers produced story continuations to addressees, in which they referred to characters that were either salient or non-salient in the discourse. In Experiment 1, referents that were salient for the speaker were non-salient for the addressee, and vice versa. In Experiment 2, all discourse information was shared between speaker and addressee. Cognitive load was manipulated by the presence or absence of a secondary task for the speaker. The results show that speakers under load are more likely to produce pronouns, at least when referring to less salient referents. We take this finding as evidence that speakers under load have more difficulties taking discourse salience into account, resulting in the use of expressions that are more economical for themselves. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Fracture load of ceramic restorations after fatigue loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladhandayutham, Balasudha; Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2015-08-01

    A clinician must decide what ceramic coping and veneer material to prescribe based on the amount of tooth reduction possible and the desired esthetic outcome of the restoration. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the fracture strength of monolithic and bilayered lithium disilicate (IPS e.max) and zirconia (LAVA) crowns at clinically relevant thicknesses after load cycling. Crowns (n=8) were fabricated from 6 groups: 1.2-mm monolithic lithium disilicate, 1.5-mm monolithic lithium disilicate, 1.5-mm bilayered lithium disilicate with hand-layered veneer, 0.6 mm monolithic zirconia, 1.2-mm bilayered zirconia with hand-layered veneer, and 1.2-mm bilayered zirconia with milled veneer (dimension represents thickness at the occlusal pit). Crowns were cemented to identical milled resin dies with resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Cemented crowns were stored at 37°C for 24 hours and load cycled for 200,000 cycles at 25 N at a rate of 40 cycles/minute. The ultimate fracture load for each specimen was measured in a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with a 1-way ANOVA and Tukey honest significant difference post hoc analysis (α=.05). Mean ±SD fracture load values were 1465 ±330 N for monolithic lithium disilicate (1.2-mm thickness) and 2027 ±365 N (1.5-mm thickness) and 1732 ±315 N for bilayered hand-veneered lithium disilicate (1.5-mm thickness). Fracture loads were 1669 ±311 N for monolithic zirconia crowns (0.6mm thickness), 2625 ±300 N for zirconia milled-veneered (1.2-mm thickness), and 2655 ±590N for zirconia hand-veneered crowns (1.2mm thickness). One-way ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference among the groups (PVeneered zirconia crowns showed the highest fracture strength, 1.2-mm hand veneered zirconia was similar to that of 1.5-mm monolithic zirconia, and all other groups were not statistically different. Crowns of 1.2-mm bilayered zirconia had higher fracture loads than 0.6-mm zirconia or 1.2-mm lithium disilicate

  7. Experimental investigation of ultimate loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S.M.; Larsen, G.C.; Antoniou, I.; Lind, S.O.; Courtney, M. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Verification of the structural integrity of a wind turbine involves analysis of fatigue loading as well as ultimate loading. With the trend of persistently growing turbines, the ultimate loading seems to become relatively more important. For wind turbines designed according to the wind conditions prescribed in the IEC-61400 code, the ultimate load is often identified as the leading load parameter. Exemplified by the use of an extensive measurement campaign a procedure for evaluation of the extreme flap-wise bending moments, occurring during normal operating of a wind turbine, is presented. The structural measurements are made on a NEG Micon 650 kW wind turbine erected at a complex high wind site in Oak Creek, California. The turbine is located on the top of a ridge. The prevailing wind direction is perpendicular to the ridge, and the annual mean wind speed is 9.5 m/s. The associated wind field measurement, are taken from two instrumented masts erected less than one rotor diameter in front of the turbine in direction of the prevailing wind direction. Both masts are instrumented at different heights in order to gain insight of the 3D-wind speed structure over the entire rotor plane. Extreme distributions, associated with a recurrence period of 10 minutes, conditioned on the mean wind speed and the turbulence intensity are derived. Combined with the wind climate model proposed in the IEC standard, these distributions are used to predict extreme distributions with recurrence periods equal to one and fifty years, respectively. The synthesis of the conditioned PDF`s and the wind climate model is performed by means of Monte Carlo simulation. (au)

  8. Load Balancing at Emergency Departments using 'Crowdinforming'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Marcia R; Strome, Trevor; Mukhi, Shamir; McLoed, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Emergency Department (ED) overcrowding is an important healthcare issue facing increasing public and regulatory scrutiny in Canada and around the world. Many approaches to alleviate excessive waiting times and lengths of stay have been studied. In theory, optimal ED patient flow may be assisted via balancing patient loads between EDs (in essence spreading patients more evenly throughout this system). This investigation utilizes simulation to explore "Crowdinforming" as a basis for a process control strategy aimed to balance patient loads between six EDs within a mid-sized Canadian city. Anonymous patient visit data comprising 120,000 ED patient visits over six months to six ED facilities were obtained from the region's Emergency Department Information System (EDIS) to (1) determine trends in ED visits and interactions between parameters; (2) to develop a process control strategy integrating crowdinforming; and, (3) apply and evaluate the model in a simulated environment to explore the potential impact on patient self-redirection and load balancing between EDs. As in reality, the data available and subsequent model demonstrated that there are many factors that impact ED patient flow. Initial results suggest that for this particular data set used, ED arrival rates were the most useful metric for ED 'busyness' in a process control strategy, and that Emergency Department performance may benefit from load balancing efforts. The simulation supports the use of crowdinforming as a potential tool when used in a process control strategy to balance the patient loads between EDs. The work also revealed that the value of several parameters intuitively expected to be meaningful metrics of ED 'busyness' was not evident, highlighting the importance of finding parameters meaningful within one's particular data set. The information provided in the crowdinforming model is already available in a local context at some ED sites. The extension to a wider dissemination of information via

  9. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free of...

  10. Impulsive Loading of Cellular Media in Sandwich Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Joseph A.; Gazonas, George A.

    2006-07-01

    Motivated by recent efforts to mitigate blast loading using energy-absorbing materials, this paper investigates the uniaxial crushing of cellular media in sandwich construction under impulsive pressure loading. The cellular core is modeled using a rigid, perfectly-plastic, locking idealization, as in previous studies, and the front and back faces are modeled as rigid, with pressure loading applied to the front face and the back face unrestrained. Predictions of this analytical model show excellent agreement with explicit finite element computations, and the model is used to investigate the influence of the mass distribution between the core and the faces. Increasing the mass fraction in the front face is found to increase the impulse required for complete crushing of the cellular core but also to produce undesirable increases in back-face accelerations. Optimal mass distributions are investigated by maximizing the impulse capacity while limiting the back-face accelerations to a specified level.

  11. Real Time Monitoring and Supervisory Control of Distribution Load Based on Generic Load Allocation: A Smart Grid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Ahmed Memon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Our work is the small part of the smart grid system. This is regarding the check and balance of power consumption at the consumer level. It is a well known fact that the consumers are allocated a fixed load according to their requirement at the time of application for the electricity connection. When the consumer increases its load and does not inform the power company, the result is the overloading of the system. This paper presents a solution regarding distribution and load allocation to each customer. If the customer uses power greater than the load allocated, further power is not provided and consequently that appliance is not turned on unless the total load must not be decreased than the allocated load. This is achieved by designing a processor controlled system that measures the power on main line and also the power taken by each device. Now when a device is turned on, its power is measured by the controller and compares it with the main line power, and when the device consumes some power consequently main line power will also be increased thus this main line power is monitored and if it exceeds particular limit that device is turned off through its relay

  12. The effects of initial rise and axial loads on MEMS arches

    KAUST Repository

    Tella, Sherif Adekunle

    2017-04-07

    Arch microbeams have been utilized and proposed for many uses over the past few years due to their large tunability and bistability. However, recent experimental data have shown different mechanical behavior of arches when subjected to axial loads. This paper aims to investigate in depth the influence of the competing effects of initial rise and axial loads on the mechanical behavior of micromachined arches; mainly their static deflection and resonant frequencies. Based on analytical solutions, the static response and eigenvalue problems are analyzed for various values of initial rises and axial loads. Universal curves showing the variation of the first three resonance frequencies of the arch are generated for various values of initial rise under both tensile and compressive axial loads. This study shows that increasing the tensile or compressive axial loads for different values of initial rise may lead to either increase in the stiffness of the beam or initial decrease in the stiffness, which later increases as the axial load is increased depending on the dominant effect of the initial rise of the arch and the axial load. The obtained universal curves represent useful design tools to predict the tunability of arches under axial loads for various values of initial rises. The use of the universal curves is demonstrated with an experimental case study. Analytical formulation is developed to predict the point of minimum where the trend of the resonance frequency versus axial loads changes qualitatively due to the competing effects of axial loads and initial curvature.

  13. Characteristics impacting on session rating of perceived exertion training load in Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Tania; Cormack, Stuart; Gabbett, Tim; Williams, Morgan; Lorenzen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between external training load and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE) training load and the impact that playing experience, playing position and 2-km time-trial performance had on s-RPE training load were explored. From 39 Australian Football players, 6.9 ± 4.6 training sessions were analysed, resulting in 270 samples. Microtechnology devices provided external training load (distance, average speed, high-speed running distance, player load (PL) and player loadslow (PLslow)). The external training load measures had moderate to very large associations (r, 95% CI) with s-RPE training load, average speed (0.45, 0.35-0.54), high-speed running distance (0.51, 0.42-0.59), PLslow (0.80, 0.75-0.84), PL (0.86, 0.83-0.89) and distance (0.88, 0.85-0.90). Differences were described using effect sizes (d ±95% CL). When controlling for external training load, the 4- to 5-year players had higher s-RPE training load than the 0- to 1- (0.44 ± 0.33) and 2- to 3-year players (0.51 ± 0.30), ruckmen had moderately higher s-RPE training load than midfielders (0.82 ± 0.58), and there was a 0.2% increase in s-RPE training load per 1 s increase in time-trial (95% CI: 0.07-0.34). Experience, position and time-trial performance impacted the relationship between external training load and s-RPE training load. This suggests that a given external training load may result in different internal responses between athletes, potentially leaving individuals at risk of overtraining or failing to elicit positive adaptation. It is therefore vital that coaches and trainers give consideration to these mediators of s-RPE training load.

  14. The Influence of External Load on Quadriceps Muscle and Tendon Dynamics during Jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Jacob E; Newton, Robert U; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2017-11-01

    Tendons possess both viscous (rate-dependent) and elastic (rate-independent) properties that determine tendon function. During high-speed movements external loading increases both the magnitude (FT) and rate (RFDT) of tendon loading. The influence of external loading on muscle and tendon dynamics during maximal vertical jumping was explored. Ten resistance-trained men performed parallel-depth, countermovement vertical jumps with and without additional load (0%, 30%, 60%, and 90% of maximum squat lift strength), while joint kinetics and kinematics, quadriceps tendon length (LT) and patellar tendon FT and RFDT were estimated using integrated ultrasound, motion analysis and force platform data and muscle tendon modelling. Estimated FT and RFDT, but not peak LT, increased with external loading. Temporal comparisons between 0% and 90% loads revealed that FT was greater with 90% loading throughout the majority of the movement (11%-81% and 87%-95% movement duration). However, RFDT was greater with 90% load only during the early movement initiation phase (8%-15% movement duration) but was greater in the 0% load condition later in the eccentric phase (27%-38% movement duration). LT was longer during the early movement (12%-23% movement duration) but shorter in the late eccentric and early concentric phases (48%-55% movement duration) with 90% load. External loading positively influenced peak FT and RFDT but tendon strain appeared unaffected, suggesting no additive effect of external loading on patellar tendon lengthening during human jumping. Temporal analysis revealed that external loading resulted in a large initial RFDT that may have caused dynamic stiffening of the tendon and attenuated tendon strain throughout the movement. These results suggest that external loading influences tendon lengthening in both a load- and movement-dependent manner.

  15. The influence of footwear on knee joint loading during walking--in vivo load measurements with instrumented knee implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Ines; Stephan, Daniel; Dymke, Jörn; Bender, Alwina; Graichen, Friedmar; Bergmann, Georg

    2013-02-22

    Since footwear is commonly used every day, its influence on knee joint loading and thereby on the development and progression of osteoarthritis may be crucial. So far the influence of footwear has been examined only indirectly. The aim of this study was to directly measure the effect of footwear on tibiofemoral contact loads during walking. Instrumented knee implants with telemetric data transmission were used to measure the tibiofemoral contact forces and moments in six subjects. The loads during walking with four different shoes (basic running shoes, advanced running shoes, classical dress shoes and shoes with a soft rounded sole in the sagittal plane (MBT)) were compared to those during barefoot walking. Peak values of all six load components were analyzed. In general, footwear tended to increase knee joint loading slightly, with the dress shoe being the most unfavorable type of footwear. At the early stance phase all load components were increased by all shoe types. The resultant force rose by 2-5%, the internal adduction moment by 7-12% and the forces on the medial compartment by 3-5%. Significant reductions of the resultant force were solely observed for the advanced running shoe (-6%) and the MBT (-9%) shoe at late stance. Also the medial compartment force was slightly yet non-significantly reduced by 2-5% with the two shoes. It is questionable whether such small load changes have an influence on the progression of gonarthrosis. Future research is necessary to examine which factors regarding the shoe design, such as heel height, arch support or flexibility are most decisive for a reduction of knee joint loading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Low reflectance high power RF load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.

    2016-02-02

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first