WorldWideScience

Sample records for provinces estonia livonia

  1. Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Estonian Country Case Study concentrated on the energy sector. Estonia is in the process of intensive transition from a centrally planned to a market economy. The reforming of the whole economy, included the energy sector, is underway at present in Estonia, therefore the current situation is permanently changing. This in its turn complicates the overall characterisation of the situation and makes it difficult to have well founded basis for furhter forecasts and projections. However, the main lines of further development have been worked out in the governmental document `Long Term Development Plan for the Estonian Fuel and Energy Sector`, which was adopted by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in February 1998. The Estonian Country Case Study team has managed with the complicated task to analyse the most probable GHG mitigation options to be used for the period up till 2035. MARKAL and MARKAL-MACRO models were used to build up the energy system development scenarios and to analyse various GHG mitigation options. Two main scenarios, respectively with low and high GDP growth rates, were assumed for the present analysis. Also the impact of carbon tax on the choice of possible energy generation scenarios was studied with the help of the model. The results have been discussed in the context of future socio-economic and political restrictions. Special attention was paid to the problems and prospects of using Estonian main energy resource - oil shale - for the production of electricity. New combustion technologies developed in Estonia allow reducing CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, which makes them highly important in the process of following the binding agreements of international treaties on pollution abatement. The technological mitigation options of GHG emissions have been handled thoroughly, as they are of great interest for Estonia following the requirements of the Kyoto conference. Additionally, renewable energy sources were discussed more thoroughly

  2. [Crusading and Chronicle Writing on the Medieval Baltic Frontier: A Companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia] / Michael Amundsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Amundsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia / edited by Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen. Farnham : Ashgate, 2011

  3. «Aliens» in Religious Conflicts in Livonia at the Beginning of Confessionalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy I. Weber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the relationship between the religious - political events in Livonia and Prussia. Taking into account the existence of close links between this Baltic lands it seems quite natural question, whether there was any - any influence on the Duke of Prussia on processes within Livoniaand how it happened? In the limelight is figure of Albrecht of Brandenburg – Ansbach, previously occupied Grand Master of the Teutonic Orde, and since 1525 became Duke of Prussia. If the 20-s years Prussia's influence was limited only by Riga, then starting with the 30-s traced the geographical expansion of the political influence of Albrecht of Prussia. It can be knit with two phases. The marker can be considered in 1529, after which the influence of the Duke of Prussia, i.e. the "alien" to Livonia political forces intensified, not only because of the burghers, but also the emergence of the possibility of support from the Archbishop and his coadjutor. E. There was a specific mechanism of action both through the city and through the church institutions through his brother Wilhelm.

  4. [Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier: A companion to the chronicle of Henry of Livonia] / Radosław Biskup

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Biskup, Radosław

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the chronicle of Henry of Livonia, eds. Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen. Farnham ; Burlington (Vt.) : Ashgate, c2011

  5. Economy Profile of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Estonia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Estonia ...

  6. Towards sustainable Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtvee, Valdur

    1997-01-01

    Since 1989 the Estonian Green Movement has had a working group on energy issues. This group has tried to influence the energy policy in Estonia towards sustainable development. But the process has been hard. Five years have passed since Estonia has started with taking on its shoulders international environmental obligations. Unfortunately, Estonia is one of the last countries in Europe still to join the obligation on transboundary pollution. A master plan on energy is now prepared in Estonia within the framework of PHARE programme, involving quite a few high level specialists from various institutions in Estonia and assisted by foreign specialists. But the energy sector has not been open to public discussion in Estonia up to now. It's very important not to lose from sight the environmental problems in connection with energy sector development plans. The Estonian Green Movement together with its umbrella organization, the Friends of the Earth Europe, have worked out a new energy strategy for Estonia, based on the concept of environmental space. This concept has been used by some countries already on working out the strategy for their economic progress. The limit values for a set of basic mineral resources and local fuels of Estonia have been calculated on the basis of environmental space and economic targets set for the year 2010

  7. Environmental performance reviews. Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This review of Estonia is the first environmental performance review (EPR) carried out under the auspices of the ECE Committee on Environmental Policy. This pilot ECE study builds, inter alia, on the experience gained in the preparation of pilot environmental performance reviews of Poland and Bulgaria, which were carried out in 1994-1995 by OECD in cooperation with ECE. The report focuses on capacity building; air, water, waste, and nature management; the integration of environmental and economic policies both generally and more specifically within the energy sector; and cooperation of Estonia with the international community. The review examines the current situation, recent and likely future trends, pressures, policy responses and their effectiveness. The principal conclusions and recommendations for improving Estonia's environmental performance are brought together in the concluding chapter.

  8. Gas development plan - Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The total supply of natural gas to Estonia is provided by the Russian company ''Lentransgas'', a 10 year contract is under negotiation. The gas transmission system is physically a part of the transmission network in the Baltic region which previously operated as an integral part of the USSR gas transmission system. The potential market is too small to justify investment in an alternative pipeline from the North Sea. The general reduction in purchasing power in the former COMECON countries has resulted in a decreased industrial production in Estonia and lead to a steep decline in natural gas consumption in all sectors except households. The Danish firm ''Dansk Olie og Naturgas A/S'' has been requested to assist the Estonian company ''AS Eesti Gaas J.S.C.'' in preparing a gas development plan for Estonia. Phase 1 of this plan aims to provide a detailed description of the status of the existing situation under the headings of gas supply and demand, transmission and distribution, economy and organization. The most important problems related to the current transition of the Estonian gas sector towards operation under market conditions are addressed, focussing on gas supply and market conditions, flow control and metering. The general organization of the gas sector in Estonia is described and possible models for future organization are discussed. Some recommendations are given and areas in need of further investigation are identified. (AB)

  9. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  10. [Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia. Hrsg. von Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen] / Volker Honemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Honemann, Volker, 1943-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia. Hrsg. von Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen. Verlag Ashgate. Farnham, 2011

  11. Country report: Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2015-12-01

    The situation of women in education, work, and research in Estonia is relatively good. Nevertheless, science (especially engineering) remains a male-dominated field. The total number of female scientists and engineers in the workforce is about two-thirds that of males. Moreover, the gender imbalance in the researcher population increases with age. Significant pay-gap and power imbalances between the genders remain both in Estonian society in general and in the fields of science and technology. In many practical situations, behavior of both men and women is still guided by gender stereotypes.

  12. Hydropower in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raesaar, Peeter

    1997-01-01

    Long life practice has proved that small hydropower is not a beaten track in the global energy field. Before the Second World War small hydropower was rather well developed in Estonia as well. Being neglected during the years of Soviet occupation, it is rather important to help it to regain its position in the Estonian energy system once again. Our hydropower potential is not big, but it has got a good established position as an energy saving measure. By now we have some good examples of restored hydropower stations on commercial basis to be optimistic about the future

  13. Ethnic Russian Minority in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarska-Frykowska Agata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the position of Russians in Estonia and their relation with ethnic Estonians. The author analyzes models of the society integration introduced by Tallinn after 1991. The results raise questions regarding language education in Estonia, the proficiency level of Estonian is getting widely known by Russians, but on the other hand, there is still a significant part of the population that cannot communicate in Estonian. Those who have a good command of Estonian tend to be better integrated and to coexist with both Estonians and Russians. Russians living in Estonia are supposed to be equally involved in social and political life of the state. The potential of all residents has to be effectively and considerably used, especially when the number of population is decreasing. The position of Russians in Estonia is a major domestic and bilateral issue in the relations with the Russian Federation.

  14. Rahvusooper taastas Estonia balli traditsiooni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Aastavahetusballi operetikavast "Suudluste valss", USA koreograaf-lavastaja Russell Adamsoni dzhässikavast "Black and White" Rahvusooperis Estonia. Kontserdisaalis mängivad tantsuks Rahvusooperi sümfooniaorkester Andres Mustoneni juhatusel ja ansambel Modern Fox

  15. Rabarocki eelsoojendus. Meeleolukas kevadkontsert Estonias

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    13. ja 14. juunil Järvakandis toimuva Rabarocki warm-up peost klubis Rockstars ja esimesest ETV saatest Rabarocki triloogiast 24. mail. Kevadkontserdist "Feeling Good" 26. mail Estonia kontserdisaalis

  16. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  17. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  18. Estonia: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Triin; Kahur, Kristiina; Reinap, Marge; Kiivet, Raul; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Estonian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, the main issue has been the 2008 financial crisis. Although Estonia has managed the downturn quite successfully and overall satisfaction with the system remains high, it is hard to predict the longer-term effects of the austerity package. The latter included some cuts in benefits and prices, increased cost sharing for certain services, extended waiting times, and a reduction in specialized care. In terms of health outcomes, important progress was made in life expectancy, which is nearing the European Union (EU) average, and infant mortality. Improvements are necessary in smoking and alcohol consumption, which are linked to the majority of avoidable diseases. Although the health behaviour of the population is improving, large disparities between groups exist and obesity rates, particularly among young people, are increasing. In health care, the burden of out-of-pocket payments is still distributed towards vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the number of hospitals, hospital beds and average length of stay has decreased to the EU average level, yet bed occupancy rates are still below EU averages and efficiency advances could be made. Going forwards, a number of pre-crisis challenges remain. These include ensuring sustainability of health care financing, guaranteeing a sufficient level of human resources, prioritizing patient-centred health care, integrating health and social care services, implementing intersectoral action to promote healthy behaviour, safeguarding access to health care for lower socioeconomic groups, and, lastly, improving evaluation and monitoring tools across the health system. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  19. [Dennis Hormuth. Livonia est omnis divisa in partes tres : Studien zu mental mapping der livländischen Chronistik in der Frühen Neuzeit (1558-1710) ] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Hormuth, Dennis. Livonia est omnis divisa in partes tre : Studien zu mental mapping der livländischen Chronistik in der Frühen Neuzeit (1558-1710). (Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte des östlichen Europa, 79). Stuttgard, 2012

  20. [Dennis Hormuth. Livonia est omnis divisa in partes tres : Studien zum mental mapping der livländischen Chronistik in der Frühen Neuzeit (1558-1721)] / Anti Selart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Selart, Anti, 1973-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Hormuth, Dennis. Livonia est omnis divisa in partes tres : Studien zum mental mapping der livländischen Chronistik in der Frühen Neuzeit (1558-1721) (Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte des östlichen Europa, 79). Franz Steiner verlag. Stuttgart 2012

  1. First PET scans in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, Sergei

    2003-01-01

    First PET scans in Estonia were performed on 25th November 2002 in North Estonia Regional Hospital, Tallinn. Six patients with melanoma underwent scanning with FDG. This event was a result of thorough extensive preparations first started in 2000 during the European Association of Nuclear Medicine congress in Paris. During the congress first contacts were made with providers of mobile PET units. At the same time negotiations were begun with potential FDG suppliers. For the introduction of PET in Estonia mobile truckmounted scanning technology was chosen due to low level of initial investments. Of particular importance was also availability of maintenance personnel from the device providers. A significant prerequisite was potential availability of FDG from the neighbourhood - Finland and Sweden. The latter avoided the necessity for investments into local cyclotrons and local FDG production. For the first scanning experience the dedicated truckmounted PET-camera Accel, Siemens was brought by the International Hospital Group (IHG, Amersfoort, Netherlands). The device arrived by ferry from Stockholm to Tallinn harbour at 10 o'clock in the morning and left by ferry for Helsinki at 23 o'clock. The team-on-truck consisted of one technician for device operation, two drivers and two company representatives. North Estonia Regional Hospital provided three additional technicians for patient preparation and FDG injection, one nuclear medicine doctor and one specialist of biomedical engineering and medical physics. The FDG was provided by MAP Medical Technologies, Schering, Helsinki, Finland. The shipments were made by air. This was possible due to small distance between Tallinn and Helsinki of approximately 80 km due to the regular flight connections between the two cities. The FDG was shipped in two lots with a time interval of 4 hours. The patient selection was based on clinical and histopathology data. In all six patients the exam was justified for detailied staging and

  2. Financial Participation of Employees in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eamets, Raul; Mygind, Niels; Spitsa, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Presently, legal regulation of participation of employees - financial participation as well as participation in decision-making - is not well developed in Estonia. On the one hand, it is due to the fact that no tradition of employee participation could have been formed after Estonia became...

  3. Sakslased kiidavad Estonia huku filmi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastus 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Eestisse filmi toomisega tegelev produtsent Mati Sepping peab sakslaste kommentaare filmile headeks

  4. Jutta Rabe teeb Estonia hukust uue filmi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Eile alustas Saksa ajakirjanik Jutta Rabe oma filmi "Baltic Storm" võtetega, mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Peale Rabe on stsenaristid veel saksa advokaat Henning Witte ja rootslane Kaj Holmberg

  5. Erastaja varjas osalusi Rail Estonias / Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Päevalehe andmeil on Eesti Raudtee erastamiskonkursi võitnud Rail Estonia suurim aktsionär John Orrison. Vt. samas "Töötasid koos Bushi kabinetis". Väidetavalt salgab J. Orrison Tony Massei tundmise maha

  6. Climate change studies in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallaste, Tiit; Kuldna, Piret

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of papers was compiled on the basis of research papers written by Estonian scientists during the United Nations Environment Programme and Global Environment Facility initiated climate change programme Country Case Study on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations Assessments. The Estonian country case study was finally approved by UNEP/GEF in February 1996, practical work started in September. The priorities for Estonia in the study of global climate change impacts and adaptation have been in the following areas of interest: agriculture, water resources, forestry, the Baltic Sea and Estonian coast, also historical climate and socioeconomic background together with the biggest producer of greenhouse gases, the energy sector. Those areas have been studied more carefully during the one and half year period of the project

  7. Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Järg 2001 nr. 1 lk. 25-31, nr. 2 lk. 41-47, nr. 3 lk. 29-37, 2002 nr. 1 lk. 16-23, nr. 2 lk. 39-47, nr. 3 lk. 25-33, 2003 nr. 1 lk. 23-31, nr. 2 lk. 33-41, nr. 3 lk. 31-39, 2004 nr. 1 lk. 31-39, nr. 2 lk. 35-41; 2005 nr. 1 lk. 37-44, nr. 2 lk. 43-51, nr. 3 lk. 23-27. Ülevaade Eesti peamistest majandusnäitajatest. Lisa: Tabel majandusnäitajatega

  8. Paul Pinna avab Estonia Talveaias omanimelise baari / Christel Karits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karits, Christel, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia sajanda sünnipäeva puhul etendub 12. ja 13. septembril Estonia Talveaias lavastus "Paul Pinnat otsimas". Tekst on 95% osas Paul Pinna ja Karl August Hindrey sulest, dramatiseeris ja lavastas Heidi Sarapuu

  9. Estonia--Going Home Again: Returning to the Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedak-Kari, Maria

    This paper provides background on The National Library of Estonia (NLE), discusses a fellowship project for developing the National Library, and presents the impressions of the author, an Estonian American, who traveled to Estonia. The NLE looks to the West for automation, information, and institutional modeling. The NLE is Estonia's equivalent of…

  10. Estonia 2013: Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    One of the fastest-growing economies in the OECD, Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it provides a large degree of energy security, oil shale is highly carbon-intensive. The government is seeking to lessen the negative environmental impact by phasing out old power plants and developing new technologies to reduce significantly CO2 emissions. The efforts on oil shale complement Estonia’s solid track record of modernising its overall energy system. Since restoring its independence in 1991, Estonia has fully liberalised its electricity and gas markets and attained most national energy policy targets and commitments for 2020. It has also started preparing its energy strategy to 2030, with an outlook to 2050. Estonia is also promoting energy market integration with neighbouring EU member states. The strengthening of the Baltic electricity market and its timely integration with the Nordic market, as well as the establishment of a regional gas market, are therefore key priorities for Estonia. Following its accession to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2010, Estonia applied for International Energy Agency (IEA) membership in 2011. This review of Estonia’s energy policies is part of the IEA accession process. It analyses the energy policy challenges and opportunities facing Estonia, and provides critiques and recommendations for future policy improvements. It is intended to guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  11. Ordovician timescale in Estonia: recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hints, Olle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Over 150 years of progress in the Ordovician geology and stratigraphy of Estonia has resulted in one of the most precise Ordovician timescales in the world. In this paper, an up-to-date version of the Ordovician timescale of Estonia is provided. Recent developments in graptolite, chitinozoan, and conodont biostratigraphy, and the correlation with the global standard are briefly commented upon. Application of the regional subseries rank is discussed and two new names are proposed: “Vinni” for the upper subseries of the Viru Series, and “Atla” for the upper subseries of the Harju Series.

  12. Estonia: In and Out of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Trasberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Estonian economic developments during the first decade of 21st century. Estonia provided in that period a clear-cut example of the classical business cycle with an extreme bubble-burst sequence of economic activities. The author analyses the reasons on such a volatile economic growth pattern and explains economic cycle management particularities in Estonia. In the frames of macroeconomic developments will be analyzed monetary and fiscal policies. The author argues, that Estonia’s fiscal policy has been always pro-cyclical, what has deepened country’s macroeconomic volatility. The paper also analyses critically the government activities and policies during the recent crisis

  13. Rahvusooper Estonia interjööride renoveerimine = Renovation of the Estonia National Opera House interiors

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    2006. a. lõpetati Rahvusooperi Estonia publikuruumide renoveerimine. Sisearhitektid Juta Lember ja Aulo Padar. Siseviimistluse ja laemaali (E. Okas, E. Kits, R. Sagrits) restaureerimine ja konserveerimine: KAR Grupp. Akustik Linda Madalik. 8 värv. vaadet

  14. SMEs in Estonia : Achievements and Worries

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Phare toetusel ja Eesti Väikeettevõtete Assotsiatsiooni abil läbi viidud uurimusest "The State of Small Business in Estonia" (väikeettevõtted Eestis). Tabelid ja diagrammid. Eesti väikeettevõtete probleemid, osalemine eksport/import tegevuses, peamised probleemid pangalaenude taotlemisel

  15. Rural renewable energy (prospects) in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomson, T. [Estonian Energy Research Institute, Tallinn (Estonia); Kaeaermann, L. [Estonian National Maritime Board, Tallinn (Estonia); Raesaar, P. [Tallinn Technological University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Total potential share of renewables (biomass, wind, hydropower and solar) in Estonia is 35 %. Total real share (wood, wood chips) of renewables is only about 4.5 % (1995). The constrains and prospects of the development are discussed. The attention is focused on rural conditions

  16. Estonia purjetab filmiturule / Jüri Laulik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laulik, Jüri, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastub pidulikult 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Režissöör ja üks stsenariste on Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja

  17. Friends of Estonia discuss next move

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    1. juulil 2011 avas Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves Riigikogu konverentsikeskuses Eesti sõprade kokkutuleku raames korraldatava sümpoosioni “Quo vadis, Estonia?”, kus ütles, et Eesti järgmine eesmärk on riiklike ja ühiskondlike struktuuride tugevdamisele keskendumine

  18. Rural renewable energy (prospects) in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomson, T [Estonian Energy Research Institute, Tallinn (Estonia); Kaeaermann, L [Estonian National Maritime Board, Tallinn (Estonia); Raesaar, P [Tallinn Technological University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    Total potential share of renewables (biomass, wind, hydropower and solar) in Estonia is 35 %. Total real share (wood, wood chips) of renewables is only about 4.5 % (1995). The constrains and prospects of the development are discussed. The attention is focused on rural conditions

  19. "Gerontiuse unenägu" Estonias / Igor Garšnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2010-01-01

    2. aprillil Estonia kontserdisaalis toimunud Edward Elgari oratooriumi "Gerontiuse unenägu" ettekandest, esitasid: ERSO, Estonia ooperikoor, Estonia poistekoor, kammerkoor Voces Musicales, Helen Lokuta, Bernhard Gärtner, Priit Volmer, dirigent Carlos Spiereri

  20. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonets Ruth

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on

  1. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väli, Marika; Lang, Katrin; Soonets, Ruth; Talumäe, Marika; Grjibovski, Andrej M

    2007-07-17

    In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0-14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001-2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths) and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths) of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality from external causes in 0-14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on circumstances around death is needed to enable establishing the intent of death.

  2. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väli, Marika; Lang, Katrin; Soonets, Ruth; Talumäe, Marika; Grjibovski, Andrej M

    2007-01-01

    Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths) and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths) of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on circumstances around death is

  3. New data about the climate of Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaagus, Jaak

    1999-01-01

    During last 100-150 years global climate has changed significantly. Climate warming has also observed in Estonia. The aim of this paper is to analyse how different are old climate normals calculated for 1881-1880 from present-day normals (1966-1998). The new normals are calculated for monthly and annual mean air temperature at 22 stations in Estonia. Mean monthly and annual precipitation totals and snow cover duration are found at 69 stations and observation sites. Significant differences were determined between the old and new averages. As a rule, air temperature has increased while 0.4 deg C in case of annual values. Snow cover duration has decreased during this century. Its new normals are lower by 5-10 days, what is a direct consequence of climate warming

  4. Kunstiakadeemia kolib ajutiselt Estonia puiesteele / Mari Kodres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kodres, Mari

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia on 2010. a. alguseks vanadest ruumidest kolinud hoonesse aadressil Estonia pst. 7. Rüütelkonna hoones leidis endale ajutise kodu vabade kunstide teaduskonna enamik erialasid. Veebruari algul toimuvast tühjendamispeost. EKA uue maja arhitektuurikonkursi võitis Taani arhitektuuribüroodes Sea ja Effekt valminud töö "Art Plaza". Uue hoone ehitus algab aprillis, valmimistähtajaks on 2012. a. kevad

  5. Thunderstorms caused by southern cyclones in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaupo Mändla; Sven-Erik Enno; Mait Sepp

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between the frequency and duration of thunderstorms, lightning and southern cyclones over Estonia are presented for the period 1950–2010. A total of 545 southern cyclones and 2106 thunderstorm days were detected, whereas 11.3% of the observed thunder days were associated with southern cyclones. At the same time, 29.2% of all southern cyclones were accompanied by thunderstorms. In the thunder season, however, this percentage was much higher, reaching up to 80% in summer month...

  6. Valmis film parvlaev Estonia katastroofist / Imre Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaas, Imre

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal on valminud poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Film jõuab Eestis linale novembri alul. Produtsent ja esialgse stsenaariumi autor koosHenning Wittega on Jutta Rabe, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja

  7. Detergent zeolite complex "Ceosil", Tallinn, Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department, together with the "Birac", Zvornik Engineering Department designed basic projects for detergent zeolite production, using waste flotation sand and hydrates. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, production plant in Tallinn, Estonia was constructed, with a capacity of 100,000 t/y from 1989. to 1993. This plant became the biggest producer of detergent zeolite in the world.Several goals we...

  8. Youth negotiation and performance of masculine identities in rural Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trell, Elen; van Hoven, Bettina; Huigen, Paulus

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores key shared places and practices through which young men in rural Estonia perform and construct masculine identities. Whereas powerful images of rural places and rural masculinity exist and are reproduced in public discourse in Estonia, not much is known about how masculinities

  9. Ekspert välistab Estonia lepingust taganemise / Aivar Pau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pau, Aivar

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli rahvusvahelise õiguse õppetooli hoidja Lauri Mälksoo peab mõeldamatuks Eesti ühepoolset otsust loobuda riikidevahelisest hauarahulepingust ja tõsta Estonia vrakk merepõhjast üles. Riigikogu erikomisjoni esimees Margus Leivo on algatanud Estonia vraki ülestõstmiseks internetis allkirjade kogumise kampaania

  10. 137Cs in forest ecosystems in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jueri; Martin, Ljudmilla; Paern, Henn; Vilde, Raimolt

    1996-01-01

    Full text: In the recently published 'Europe's Environment' (1995) one can find the map on 1 37C s cumulative deposition in Europe after the Chernobyl accident (source: De Corte et al., 1990). On this map most of the Eastern Europe including Baltic Sea region is practically uncovered. In this reason we decided to present data on accumulation of 1 37C s in the forest ecosystems in Estonia. Field sampling for current study has been conducted in 1986 - 1994. 1 37C s concentrations were measured in different compartments of model trees, ground vegetation layers, debris and topsoil. The amount of 1 37C s varied from 1.9 kBq/m 2 in continental Estonia to 28.8 kBq/m 2 in north-eastern Ne part of Estonia. The results obtained correspond to data presented in Wahlstroem et al., (1992) for Finland. According to the 'Europe's Environment' criteria northeastern Estonia belongs to the third cumulative deposition zone (10 to 32 kBq/m 2 ). In Estonia the total deposition of 1 37C s varies in the range from practically zero to 3.9 kBq/m 2 . The calculations of Realo et al. (1994) back to May 1, 1986 gave figures from 0 to 21 kBq/m 2 . In macro lichens Cetraria, Cladina, Cladonia the rapid changes in 1 37C s concentrations were observed: 0.06 - 0.18 kBq/kg in 1982-85, 0.93 - 6.23 kBq/kg in 1986-87, 0.27 -4.26 kBq/kg in 1988-89, 0.05 - 1.46 kBq/kg in 1990-91 and, finally, 0.03 - 0.46 kBq/kg in 1993-94. At the end of the observation period average value of the 1 37C s concentrations was the same as maximum before the CRA and decline of the concentrations was 4 times during six years. Average concentrations of 1 3 7 C s in two common forest mosses Pleurozium shreberi and Hylocomium splendens was 0.43 kBq/kg of dry matter and in forest debris 0.38 kBq/kg. In 1986 the highest concentration in mushrooms - 16.6 kBq/kg was found in Lactarius sp. (Martin, L., et al., 1991). In 1991 samples of 41 different mushroom species from 63 sample sites mostly in Scots pine stands were analyzed. The

  11. Country policy profile - Estonia. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In Estonia, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in premium tariff. In addition, investment supports are available for specific types of renewable energy production technologies. To encourage the use of renewable energy sources for heating, investment supports are made available for the construction of CHP plants, as well as for private consumers. In transport, the use of renewable energies is currently mainly encouraged through a support scheme to promote the purchasing of electric cars that use power produced from renewable energy sources (RES Legal Europe, 2014)

  12. Country policy profile - Estonia. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Estonia, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in premium tariff. In addition, investment supports are available for specific types of renewable energy production technologies. To encourage the use of renewable energy sources for heating, investment supports are made available for the construction of CHP plants, as well as for private consumers. In transport, the use of renewable energies is currently mainly encouraged through a support scheme to promote the purchasing of electric cars that use power produced from renewable energy sources (RES Legal Europe, 2014)

  13. Mõnitav kõverpeegel Estonia hukust / Heino Levald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levald, Heino, 1930-

    2003-01-01

    Saksa poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku : stsenarist, produtsent Jutta Rabe : režissöör Reuben Leder. Mereakadeemia professori hinnang filmi sõnumile

  14. Uudised : Rossini "Wilhelm Tell" Estonias. Cavalli ooper Amsterdamis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Gioachino Rossini ooperi "Wilhelm Tell" kontsertettekandest 18. ja 20. dets. Rahvusooper Estonias (peaosas Rauno Elp, külalisesinejaks Mario Zeffiri). Itaalia barokihelilooja Francesco Cavalli ooperi "Ercole amante" lavastamisest Madalmaade Ooperis Amsterdamis (lavastaja David Alden, esietendus 11. jaanuaril)

  15. Estonia film venitab saladuste loori / Heiki Suurkask, Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Esilinastuse ja filmi ümber toimuvast. Lisatud lühiintervjuu Riina Kionkaga, Eesti suursaadikuga Saksamaal

  16. Kuulus Ralf Langbacka lavastab Estonias Verdi "Othello" / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia 8. septembril 2005 Rocca al Mares asuvas Coral Clubi spordikeskuses esietenduvast ooperist "Othello", etendus valmib koostöös Tampere Ooperiga. 7. aprillil Tampere Talos toimuvast esietendusest

  17. Henning Witte : Estonia-film tuleb / Villem Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Villem, 1977-

    2000-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastrooffilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et "Estonia" uppus maffiavandenõu tõttu. Stsenaristideks on Juta Rabe, Henning Witte ja Kaj Holmberg. Ka : Nädal nr. 47, lk. 5

  18. Effects of pollution from oil shale mining in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallner, L.; Sepp, K.

    1993-01-01

    The largest commercially exploited oil shale deposit in the world is in northeast Estonia. The accumulation of solid residues by oil shale mines and processing plants has resulted in numerous dumps and ash hills, which are polluting the environment. The groundwater and streams are highly polluted by sulphates, phenols and oil products. A dump hill of radioactive wastes poses a serious threat to the Baltic Sea. Local people suffer from diseases more often than in other regions of Estonia. (author)

  19. Technical assistance for EBRD-PMU, Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The EBRD Energy Sector Emergency Loan to Estonia has resulted in numerous benefits for the Estonian Energy Sector and the Estonian Society and the locals as well as the end users have developed themselves tremendously during the project. The substantial economic, environmental and energy saving effects of the loan project have been: Energy savings and improved energy efficiency in the electricity grid, the district heating networks, the district heating consumer installations, the energy production plants in terms of rehabilitated or converted boilers and burners, industrial consumer installations. The energy efficiency improvements have resulted in energy savings between 5% and 30%; Conversion of boilers from expensive imported heavy fuel oil to indigenous fuels such as peat and wood. The results are higher supply security, improved boiler efficiency, reduced emissions and reduced operation and maintenance costs; Rehabilitated district heating networks resulted in reduced heat and water losses, improved operation of installations and reduced maintenance costs; Rehabilitated electricity grids with fewer break-downs, reduced maintenance costs and improved energy efficiency as results; Improved operation of the larger energy utilities resulting in lower operational costs, improved dispatch of the energy systems and speedier actions in case of break-downs. The economic indicators, pay-back time and Internal Rate of Return show that a large number of the projects have had a substantial impact on the Estonian economy and that the projects have been sound investments. The recommendations for the local completion of the work in Estonia are: The Juri boiler plant should be carefully attended to by the PMU and the Estonian authorities. (Abstract Truncated)

  20. Thunderstorms caused by southern cyclones in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaupo Mändla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the frequency and duration of thunderstorms, lightning and southern cyclones over Estonia are presented for the period 1950–2010. A total of 545 southern cyclones and 2106 thunderstorm days were detected, whereas 11.3% of the observed thunder days were associated with southern cyclones. At the same time, 29.2% of all southern cyclones were accompanied by thunderstorms. In the thunder season, however, this percentage was much higher, reaching up to 80% in summer months. The number of thunder days was largest when the centres of southern cyclones passed a measuring station at a distance less than 500 km. The number of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes related to southern cyclones was larger than that of any other thunder events. The results of our study demonstrate that the intensity of thunderstorms related to southern cyclones is higher than that of other thunderstorms. Correlation analysis revealed statistically significant relationships between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and the frequency of southern cyclones, also between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and days of other thunder events.

  1. University courses on radiation protection in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realo, Enn

    1999-01-01

    A brief overview is given on the educational courses containing topics in the field of radiation protection in the Tallinn Technical University and in the University of Tartu, Estonia. It follows from the analysis that at present there is no complete system for education or training of experts in the field. At the same time a significant deficit in specialists and experts is one of the major barriers in the development of an efficient radiation protection infrastructure in this country. A comparison of the course topics to the syllabus for the training of qualified experts recommended by EC and by IAEA demonstrates the items, which need a further development and an expanded coverage in the existing or in future courses. These items involve, e.g., operational radiation protection and its organisation, waste management, transport, quality assurance, etc. Upgrading of courses for the missing theoretical items is not difficult, but it is not sufficient. The largest void lies in the weakness / absence of an adequate basis for practical work or exercises for students. The examples of co-operation and help provided for the existing courses, especially by the Nordic countries, are encouraging. (au)

  2. Tax wedge in Croatia, Belgium, Estonia, Germany and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabrilo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the taxation of labour income in Croatia, Belgium,Estonia, Germany and Slovakia. Having presented an outline of tax system rules, the paper shows the decomposition of the net average tax wedge for different family types and different income levels based on the OECD methodology. The results show that all observed countries apply a progressive tax schedule, apart from Germany where taxation for higher gross wages is not progressive due to a  cap on the SIC base. When it comes to a taxpayer earning an average gross wage, a Croatian single worker without children has the lowest tax burden, followed by Estonia, Slovakia, Germany and Belgium. However, as regards taxpayers earning 400% of AGW, Estonia has the smallest tax wedge, followed by Slovakia, Germany, Croatia and Belgium. Similar results are obtained by analyzing the tax wedge for couples with two children where one spouse is out of work.

  3. Should Estonia have a nuclear power station?(Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, T.

    1992-01-01

    In developing countries the problem of energy supply can be of paramount importance. Estonia, however, being the small country of a small nation, has to take into account special considerations before deciding on the possible introduction of nuclear electricity. Should another disaster like that of Chernobyl take place on Estonian territory, the whole nation might perish. Therefore, those scientists who place national interests above all have been active looking for alternative sources of energy. The present paper discusses the situation in Northern Europe and draws the readers' attention to the still unsolved problem of nuclear waste disposal. The paper emphasises the fact that the Fifth Estonian Conference on Ecology regarded nuclear energy as entirely unacceptable for Estonia and declared its full support for the decision taken by the Estonian Government not to consider the application of nuclear power in Estonia before the year 2000. (author). 8 figs

  4. Towards unification of terrestrial gravity data sets in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellmann, Artu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Gravity data in Estonia have been collected by different institutions over many decades. This study assesses the suitability of available gravity data for ensuring a 1 cm geoid modelling accuracy over Estonia and in the Baltic Sea region in general. The main focus of this study is on the determination and elimination of discrepancies between three nationwide datasets. It was detected that one tested historic gravity dataset contained inadmissible systematic biases with respect to other tested datasets. Possible ways of gravity data improvement are discussed. More specifically, new field observation campaigns and aspects of using their outcomes in subsequent regional geoid modelling are suggested.

  5. Domestic fuel consumption in Estonia (The first half of 1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    1993-01-01

    According to the data of the Estonian Statistics Department the consumption of fuels in Estonia over the period of January-June 1993 was a follows: coal 77,053 t, oil shale 7,981,840 t, fuel peat 127,376 t, peat briquette 42,041 t, firewood 154,511 solid metres, wood chip 55,648 solid metres. The consumption of fuel peat (chiefly for producing briquette) was more considerable in the town of Kohtla-Jaerve and in the districts of Paernu and Tartu where Estonia's major peat-briquette plants are located. The share of peat in the other industries has been less significant. (author)

  6. Radio synovectomy: First results in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, S.; Samarina, G.; Poksi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In Estonia first radiosynovectomy (RSE) was carried out in 2001 at Tallinn Central Hospital, which has remained the only institution in North Estonia performing these procedures. Purpose of this study was to analyze the results and the clinical experience gained during the period of September 2001 January 2005. We performed RSE in 10 knee joints of 7 patients. Our patient population consisted of 3 males and 4 females (mean age 34, range 16-48). There were 6 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic synovitis and 1 patient with haemophilia (HE) who had one episode of haemarthrosis eight month prior to RSE. In RA the duration of the disease was ranging from 2 month to 20 years. All RA patients were resistant to anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants and intraarticular steroid therapy. Prior to RSE, conventional rheumatologic evaluation and MRI scan were carried out, revealing the thickness of synovia of 2-5 mm, and minimal or no cartilage damage. In our HE patient chronic hypertrophic synovitis associated with haemarthrosis did not respond to haematological treatment: replacement of the missing clotting factor, intermittent steroids, immobilization, physical therapy. According to MRI, the thickness of synovia was patchy, 5-26 mm, the cartilage damage was absent. For RSE, intraarticular injection of radiocolloid was carried out in aseptic conditions and under local anesthesia. Treated joints were immobilized for 2 days. In 5 out of 6 RA patients the injection was performed once, in one RA patient four times. In order to minimize local inflammation and lymphatic clearance glucocorticoids were administered together with radioisotope agents. In three patients (2 with RA and 1 with HE) 27 mCi of 166-Ho-FHMA was injected, and in remaining four patients with RA - 4-6 mCi of 90-Y radiocolloid was used. All joints with Ho-FHMA were checked for radiocolloid leakage by subsequent gamma camera imaging. Treatment response was evaluated from 2 to 6 month

  7. Family doctors' involvement with families in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lember Margus

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family doctors should care for individuals in the context of their family. Family has a powerful influence on health and illness and family interventions have been shown to improve health outcomes for a variety of health problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the Estonian family doctors' (FD attitudes to the patients' family-related issues in their work: to explore the degree of FDs involvement in family matters, their preparedness for management of family-related issues and their self-assessment of the ability to manage different family-related problems. Methods A random sample (n = 236 of all FDs in Estonia was investigated using a postal questionnaire. Altogether 151 FDs responded to the questionnaire (response rate 64%, while five of them were excluded as they did not actually work as FDs. Results Of the respondents, 90% thought that in managing the health problems of patients FDs should communicate and cooperate with family members. Although most of the family doctors agreed that modifying of the health damaging risk factors (smoking, alcohol and drug abuse of their patients and families is their task, one third of them felt that dealing with these problems is ineffective, or perceived themselves as poorly prepared or having too little time for such activities. Of the respondents, 58% (n = 83 were of the opinion that they could modify also relationship problems. Conclusions Estonian family doctors are favourably disposed to involvement in family-related problems, however, they need some additional training, especially in the field of relationship management.

  8. Expert views from Poland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Põlluste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Home care (HC is placed between the health and social welfare systems, and the clients of HC mostly need health services. Along with other providers, family doctors (FDs are usually involved in the provision of care. Objectives. This paper aims to describe and compare the involvement of HC providers to elderly and disabled persons in Poland and Estonia. Material and methods . This study is part of the international project EURHOMA P (Mapping Professional Home Care in Europe. Data was collected in 2008–2010. Experts from different areas of health and social care were queried by using a questionnaire containing structured case narratives, which were hypothetical descriptions of the situations of elderly or disabled persons living at home and in need of care. Results. There are a number of HC services, e.g. nursing, medical and social, available in both countries. The application for HC is mostly made by the patient or a close family member; the point of entry to HC can differ and depends on the client’s primary problem. FDs, together with social workers, play an important role in the provision of HC services in both countries. However, due to a shortage of round-the-clock professional services at a client’s home, families are also expected to play a large role in providing HC . Conclusions . Health care professionals, mainly those working in primary health care, play a remarkable role in access to and provision of HC services. Nevertheless, responsibility for 24-hour care lies, to a large extent, with the client’s immediate family. This situation seems to be typical in Eastern European countries.

  9. Estonia taastusravikeskuse termid : Sääse 7, Pärnu = Baths at SPA Estonia : Sääse 7, Pärnu / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2009-01-01

    Estonia taastusravikeskuse basseini- ja vesiravikompleksist, mille arhitektid ning sisearhitektid on Edda Soolep ja Jüri Soolep (Archimedium OÜ). Žürii hinnang kultuurkapitali aastapreemiale esitatud hoonele

  10. The use of mosses in air pollution monitoring in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liiv, S.; Eensaar, A. [Academy of Sciences of Estonia, Tallinn (Estonia). Tallinn Botanic Garden

    1995-12-31

    Mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens have been proposed as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metals. These mosses are wide-used in biomonitoring studies in Scandinavia as well as in other Nordic countries. Some methodical problems of bryoindication, e.g. other factors than the adsorption of precipitation which influence element concentrations in mosses have been studied in Scandinavia as well. Methodical study for determining the intrasite, local variability in Estonia was started in 1991. Despite of the used uniform methodics in sampling, cleaning, digesting and chemical analysing of moss samples in the same laboratory there is high variability of the content of elements at the reference area. There are many reasons for this variability - errors from instrumental procedures (analytical steps in chemical analysing), biological deviation, etc. In this article the results of the methodical study of intrasite variability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and V in mosses at reference areas of different deposition level in Estonia are presented. The intrasite variability of elemental content in mosses at the reference areas is taken into account in mapping the territorial distribution of the content of elements in mosses, samples of which were collected during the joint Finnish-Estonian-Russian biomonitoring project in 1992 in a more dense network compared with the 1989 and 1990 national moss surveys in Estonia in order to describe more accurately the pollution situation in highly polluted north-eastern Estonia

  11. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  12. Saksa press käsitleb Estonia huku filmi blufina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe, Kaj Holmberg ja Birgit Stein, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder. Filmi vaieldavast konteptsioonist ja vastukajadest Saksa ajakirjanduses. Ka Eesti suursaadiku Riina Kionka arvamus

  13. Estonia hukk jõuab suvel kinodesse / Tarmo Michelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Nädal tagasi alustati Berliinis poliitilise põnevusfilmi "Baltic Storm" võtetega, mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow

  14. A 13th-century kettlehat from Kodasoo, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäll, Jaak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The oldest surviving helmet from Estonia is a 13th-century kettlehat found near village of Kodasoo in northern Estonia. Three samples from different parts of the kettlehat were investigated in a metallographic study. The raw material of the Kodasoo kettlehat was a slag-rich iron of heterogeneous carbon content. It was improved by folding and forge-welding it at least three times, resulting in layered structure with more uniformly distributed carbon content.

    El casco más antiguo encontrado en Estonia es un «chapel de fer» del siglo XIII que proviene de cerca de la aldea de Kodasoo, en el Norte de Estonia. Tres muestras de diversas partes del casco fueron investigadas mediante un estudio metalográfico. El material original del casco de Kodasoo era un hierro de contenido de carbono heterogéneo y con abundantes inclusiones de escoria. Se intentó mejorar su calidad mediante forja, doblándolo y soldándolo a la calda por lo menos tres veces, dando como resultado una estructura estratificada, con el contenido de carbono distribuido más uniformemente.

  15. Elegantne ja värske Rahvusooper Estonia / Maris Takk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Takk, Maris

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia publikuruumide renoveerimine. Sisearhitektid Juta Lember ja Aulo Padar, SAB Lember & Padar. Arhitektuurse projekti autor Indrek Suigusaar (AB Pluss). Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2005. a. ajaloolise interjööri preemia. J. Lemberist ja A. Padarist, nende tähtsamad tööd, autasud. Ill.: plaan, 16 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  16. Cryptosporidiosis - an occupational risk and a disregarded zoonosis in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Ståhl, Marie; Lassen, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Cases of cryptosporidiosis have not been officially reported in Estonia after the year 2000, and the disease appears to be either under-diagnosed or under-reported. Findings Based on a human case of cryptosporidiosis contracted during faecal sampling in dairy farms, cattle considered t...

  17. The use of mosses in air pollution monitoring in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liiv, S; Eensaar, A [Academy of Sciences of Estonia, Tallinn (Estonia). Tallinn Botanic Garden

    1996-12-31

    Mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens have been proposed as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metals. These mosses are wide-used in biomonitoring studies in Scandinavia as well as in other Nordic countries. Some methodical problems of bryoindication, e.g. other factors than the adsorption of precipitation which influence element concentrations in mosses have been studied in Scandinavia as well. Methodical study for determining the intrasite, local variability in Estonia was started in 1991. Despite of the used uniform methodics in sampling, cleaning, digesting and chemical analysing of moss samples in the same laboratory there is high variability of the content of elements at the reference area. There are many reasons for this variability - errors from instrumental procedures (analytical steps in chemical analysing), biological deviation, etc. In this article the results of the methodical study of intrasite variability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and V in mosses at reference areas of different deposition level in Estonia are presented. The intrasite variability of elemental content in mosses at the reference areas is taken into account in mapping the territorial distribution of the content of elements in mosses, samples of which were collected during the joint Finnish-Estonian-Russian biomonitoring project in 1992 in a more dense network compared with the 1989 and 1990 national moss surveys in Estonia in order to describe more accurately the pollution situation in highly polluted north-eastern Estonia

  18. The composition of surrogate and illegal alcohol products in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Szucs, Sándor; Adány, Róza; McKee, Martin

    2006-01-01

    To identify the composition of illegal and surrogate alcohol products consumed in Estonia. The initial source of information was a series of visits made in August 2005 to a soup kitchen in central Tartu, Estonia. Individuals were asked for brief details of their personal circumstances, what they normally drank, and in addition they were asked to bring samples of the substances they usually consumed. In other cases, the substances identified were purchased by the investigators or from informal contacts in north-eastern part of Estonia, an area that is well known for illegal alcohol consumption. Samples were tested for chemical contents. We identified a range of alcohol-containing substances that are consumed, although, not intended for consumption. These comprised medicinal products, aftershaves, illegally produced spirits, and fire-lighting fuel. The medicinal compounds contained, on average, 67% ethanol by volume; the aftershaves contained slightly less. Both were typically pure, with a few containing detectable quantities of isoamyl alcohol. The illegally produced alcohol contained, on average, 43% ethanol by volume, ranging from 32 to 53%. However, many also contained detectable quantities of long chain alcohols. These substances are half the price or less of commercial vodka, with fire lighting fuels especially inexpensive. There is in Estonia a range of alcohol-containing substances easily available at low cost. Some contain substantially higher concentrations of ethanol than commercial spirits and others also contain toxic long chain alcohols.

  19. Estonia juubelihooaeg tuleb tavalisest sisukam / Hille Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Hille, 1941-2014

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia 100. hooaja etendustest: G. Verdi "Othello", G. Puccini ooper "Tosca", Rene Eespere ooper "Gurmaanid-2", P. Mascagni "Talupoja au", R. Leoncavallo "Pajatsid", W. A. Mozarti ooper "Don Giovanni" ja ooperi "La clemenza di Tito" kontsertettekanne, Tiit Härmi ballett "Kameeliadaam", Ludvig Minkuse ballett "Don Quijote". Osavõtust Dalhalla ooperifestivalist Rootsis Puccini ooperiga "Tosca" ja Cannito/Schiavoni balletiga "Cassandra"

  20. Estonia näitas uut logo / Andres Keil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keil, Andres, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Ooperiteatri uue logo autor on Kristjan Kirsfeldt. Liis Kolle lavastab G. Rossini ooperi "Sinjoor Bruschino ehk Poeg juhuse tahtel", kunstnikud Liina Keevallik ja Reili Evart. 2. juunil Rahvusooperis etendunud rahvusooperi näiteringi "Welcome to Estonia" Neeme Kuninga kirjutatud ja lavastatud muusikalist "Minu veetlev Eedi".

  1. Economically viable and environment-friendly hydro energy in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saks, Ants; Velner, Harald

    2001-01-01

    Hydro energy has been in oblivion in Estonia for about 30 years now. During the 1960s, most of Estonia's small hydropower plants were closed down, just as it was done in the whole Soviet Union. As the only larger hydro plant, the 125 MW plant in Narva, was situated on the Russian side of the Narva River, there were only two or three small hydro plants left. Even those were exploited at low capacity and mainly for heating the buildings. It was not until the 1990s that a number of enthusiasts started to re-establish the hydro plants by reconstructing old installations. The pre-feasibility study 'Hydropower in Estonia' proposed by Estonian and Swedish experts, showed that the restoration of the hydropower plants and watermills is economically feasible and technically possible if advanced technology is used. Hydropower as an alternative ('green') energy source should be used in the best technical-economical way. The first pilot plant in Estonia, the 200 kW Kamari plant was constructed in 1998 with compact-propeller units, in co-operation with Waterpumps WP Oy and ABB. Today, ten new plants have been constructed or are under construction. Hydropower plants/watermills should be reconstructed in accordance with the legislative acts on environment protection

  2. Communication of 20 October 2003 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Estonia to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding Estonia's nuclear policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale of 20 October 2003 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Estonia providing information about the nuclear policies and practices of the Republic of Estonia. In light of the wish expressed in the Note Verbale, its text is attached hereto

  3. Estonia katastroofis hukkunute omaste seisukohad ja palve seoses USA presidendi George W. Bushi visiidiga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Estonia protsessiühingu esimehe Helje Kaskeli ja Estonia Hukupõhjuste Väljaselgitamise Mittetulundusühingu esimehe Ülo Veide pöördumises president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese poole tuuakse esile katastroofis hukkunute omaste seisukohad. Ilmunud ka: Kesknädal 29. nov. 2006, lk. 4-5, pealk.: Ilves, avita! Estonia katastroofis hukkunute omaste palvekiri Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele; Vaba Eesti Sõna 30. nov. 2006, lk. 3, 10, pealk.: Avalik kiri Eesti Vabariigi presidendile Toomas H. Ilvesele

  4. Kohtumisel Bushiga tuleks tõstatada ka Estonia huku teema / Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viivik, Allar

    2006-01-01

    Parvlaeval Estonia hukkunute omaste ühendused avaldasid oma pöördumises Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele soovi, et president arutaks kohtumisel USA presidendi George W. Bushiga USA julgeolekuagentuuri NSA käsutuses olevate laevahukku puudutavate salastatud dokumentide üleandmist Eestile. Pöördumisele on alla kirjutanud Estonia Litigation Associationi esimees Helje Kaskel ja Estonia Hukupõhjuste Väljaselgitamise Mittetulundusühingu (EHVM) juht Ülo Veide

  5. Rahmaninov ja Saint-Saens Estonia kontserdisaalis / Tiina Õun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õun, Tiina, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    18. novembril Estonia kontserdisaalis toimuvast Sergei Rahmaninovi Klaverikontsert nr 2 ja "Kellad" ettekandest ja 29. novembril Toimuvast Camille Saint-Saensi ooperi "Simson ja Delila" kontsertettekandest

  6. Sajandi sündmus : Estonia teater jõudis Financial Timesi / Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Krister, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Maailmakuulus majandusleht Financial Times avaldas 4. jaanuaril ajakirjanik George Loomis'e artikli, mis kajastab Rahvusooperis Estonia 14. detsembril 2001 esietendunud Carl Orffi ooperit "Tark naine"

  7. Berliner Zeitung annab Estonia-filmile hävitava hinnangu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Filmi vaieldavast konteptsioonist ja vastukaja Saksa ajakirjanduses

  8. Building up the radiation protection infrastructure in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lust, Merle; Muru, Karin

    2008-01-01

    This paper will provide a timeline overview of the of radiation protection infrastructure following the 1999 declaration of independence. In Estonia, an independent competent authority was inaugurated in 1996 and the first Radiation Act was approved by Parliament the following year, in 1997. This paper will address several important factors and the means which promoted development. International cooperation was and remains an essential factor worthy of discussion. For example participation in International Atomic Energy Agency technical co-operation programme and co-operation with neighbouring countries greatly facilitated greatly the development. Political choices and the long term goal of accession to the European Union had great importance to the process also. Today, the Republic of Estonia is member of European Union and has built up a well functioning radiation protection system according the international standards and requirements. This paper is intended to share the experience and to facilitate the learning process. (author)

  9. The tourism image of Estonia in Spain: a formulative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katlin Savva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We are living in an environment, where information flow is freer than ever. Nowadays everyone has access to global news and can make their own conclu-sions based on the perceived image. Therefore, the role of perception and image is becoming more important for different countries to attract visitors and in-vestors. Tourism is a way of selling the image of a country and the reputation and word of mouth generated from tourism activities are priceless to the image of a destination. This paper analyzes the case of Estonia, which is an emerging tourism market and quite new and unknown for Spain. The authors try to accent the importance of direct promotion, through a survey carried out to 341 Spanish people in Madrid. The result from this quantitative and formulative research method is that Estonia has to promote its tourism image better if the country wants to attract the Spanish tourist.

  10. The preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velbri, T.; Aasmann, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explains the situation of legislation, practical border-control and equipment of different relevant authorities dealing with the control of radioactive materials in Estonia. The overview of legislation concerning radiation and radiation protection is given. The roles of Estonian Customs Authority, Estonian border Guard, National Rescue Board and Police Authority in the preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are shown. The incidents of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are listed. Also the most important border-crossing points and the types of equipment used there are shown. Finally the problems of controlling the borders in Estonia and the future plans in order to make the controlling system more efficient are discussed. (author)

  11. PRODUCTIVITY PERFORMANCE OF ESTONIA IN A GROWTH ACCOUNTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien MOLNAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the economic growth tendencies in Estonia and other formal post-socialist countries and the interaction between productivity growth and their determinants after the transition decades. So this paper is structured as follows. Firstly we will introduce an alternative growth accounting method to determine the components of productivity growth based on this concept. In Section we will also provide our empirical results in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Hungary compared to the EU-15 countries between 1990 and 2011 how TFP (Total Factor Productivity, Physical and Labour Capital Accumulation can contribute to (increase or decrease economic performance of each country. Finally, we can conclude that the relationship between labour and output growth per capita has obviously and temporarily changed after the mid-1990s, which could be determined by the increasing role of such socio-economic factors as technological changes, capital accumulation and demographical fluctuations etc.

  12. Some problems of oil shale retorting in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    1994-01-01

    Oil shale in Estonia will be competitive in the long term as a primary resource for power generating. The price of energy of Estonian oil shale is at present approximately 4 times lower than of coal. The price of electricity is anticipated to grow up to EEK 1.0/kWh in year 2020. The electricity price EEK 0.2/kWh at present in Estonia does not include capital costs needed for refurbishing of Estonian oil-shale-consuming power stations between the years 2000-2010. While all the prices and calculations of the enterprise are presented with no inflation adjustment, the other operation costs of oil shale retorting are anticipated for the prognosed period to remain at the present level: power consumption kWh 280/t crude oils and other operation costs (excluding labour, raw material and power consumption) EEK 100/t of oil

  13. Energy from Waste and Biomass - ALTENER Conference held in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Inge

    1999-01-01

    On November 9-10, 1998 ALTENER Conference Energy from Waste and Biomass took place in the hotel Pirita, Tallinn, Estonia. The Conference was organized by the Swedish National Energy Administration in co-operation with the FEMOPET Estonia and the South Jutland University Centre, Biomass Institute (Denmark). The main topics of the Conference were: collecting biogas from landfall, biogas from municipal sewage treatment, biogas from animal manure, waste heat, biomass from the pulp industry and the sawmill, biomass from forestry, biomass for local and district heating. More than 200 delegates from 14 countries participated in this event. A poster exhibition and two study tours to Paeaeskuela Landfill Plant and Jueri Boiler House were organised too. (author)

  14. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinisso, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  15. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisso, Mark [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tallin (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  16. Estonia ujub Saksamaa kinodesse / Andres Laasik, Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastub pidulikult 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Režissöör ja üks stsenariste on Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja. Põhjamaades on filmi linastamine kahtluse all

  17. How important is business ethics: evidence from Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Gurvitsh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available How important is business ethics: evidence from Estonia During recent decades, more and more attention has been paid to business ethics. There seems to be an increasing interest in the non-financial aspects of business. Stakeholders all over the world express their concern about embedding the principles of professional and business ethics into companies’ everyday activities. The main subject of this research is business ethics and the purpose is to find out the im-portance of professional and business ethics and determine its place in the modern business world as seen by Estonian business students and practitioners. To achieve the goals, the authors conducted a survey among Estonian graduate and undergraduate accounting and business students at Tallinn University of Technology and Estonian business practitioners. 587 responses were collected in the process. This infor-mation was compiled and analyzed based on status, gender, age, and specialization. The survey revealed that in Estonia people are familiar with business ethics; however, it is not of great interest to them. The results also indicate that professional and business ethics merit more attention and should be included as a required course in the curriculum of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs. In general, business ethics in Estonia was not ranked as “high”, which was also the case for both professional ethics at the work-place/university and also the importance and necessity of ethics in the modern business world.

  18. Uudised : Estonia maja renoveerimisest. EMNi juhatuse tegevusest. Meredith Monki kontsert Tallinnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    7. märtsil kiitis rahvusooperi Estonia nõukogu heaks Estonia teatri- ja kontserdimaja renoveerimistööde tehnilise projekti. EMNi juhatuse koosolekul 27. veebr. arutati E. Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumi perspektiive, muusikahariduse probleeme ja EMNi töösuundi. 20. märtsil esineb Tallinnas Sakala keskuses M. Monk

  19. Rahvusooperi Estonia 99. hooaeg algab nädala pärast / Christel Karits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karits, Christel, 1966-

    2004-01-01

    Muusikaturu korraldamisest 18. sept. Estonia teatrihoone taga ajaloolisel turuplatsil. Katri Kaasik-Aaslavi ja Vaino Vahingu näidendi "Teatriromanss" (muusika arranzheerija ja pianist Olav Ehala) esietendusest Estonia kammersaalis 22. oktoobril. Giuseppe Verdi ooperi "Aida" etendamisest Rocca al Mare Onistar Tennisekeskuses 8.-10., 12.-17. oktoobril

  20. The Affective Dimension of Religion and Personal Happiness among Students in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Elken, Ahto; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 150 students in Estonia (119 from a secular university and 31 from a Lutheran theological institute) completed the Oxford Happiness Measure and the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. The data show no significant correlation between these two variables; thus the findings challenge the generalizability to Estonia of the…

  1. Tosca Mikiveri mälestuseks. Estonia Turupäev 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Lavastaja Mikk Mikiveri 70. sünniaastapäeva tähistamisest Giacomo Puccini ooperi "Tosca" esietendusega 4. sept. Tartus Vanemuise väikeses majas. Rahvusooper Estonia 102. hooaja uuslavastuste tutvustamisest 9. sept. Tallinnas Estonia maja taga ajaloolisel turuplatsil

  2. Europeanization in the "Other" Europe: Writing the Nation into "Europe" Education in Slovakia and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Deborah L.; Stevick, E. Doyle

    2009-01-01

    How is the tension between renewed nationalist and European narratives of belonging being unfolded in the curricula, discourse, and practice of civic education in Slovakia and Estonia. As two post-socialist territories that were "reborn" as independent nation-states in the 1990s, Slovakia and Estonia were confronted with pressure to…

  3. Valge Laeva hukk : Estonia katastroof meie peas = The wreck of the White ship : on the catastrophe of the Estonia / Anders Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    "Estonia" katasroofist ja meedia osast selle kajastamisel, Juhan Leinbergist ja maltsvetlusest ning "valge laeva" kui priiuse laeva ja lootuse kujundist Eesti kultuuris ning selle tähendusest eestlaste teadvuses

  4. Vessel-Source Pollution and Coastal State Jurisdiction in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea : National Report of Estonia / Hannes Veinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veinla, Hannes, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Laevadelt lähtuv merereostus ja kaldariigi jurisdiktsioon Balti mere kaguosas : Eesti. - Lisatud: Estonia : Economic Zone Act of Estonia : 28 January 1993 : Annex I, lk. 121-124 ; Estonia : State Borders Act of Estonia : 30 June 1994 : Annex II, lk. 125-138

  5. Underdog or bulldog: introducing biogas technologies in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roose, Antti; Reinsoo, Kadri [University of Tartu, Department of Geography, Tartu (Estonia); Oja, Ahto [Monus Minek Ltd, Aeaesmaee (Estonia); Varzinskas, Visvaldas [Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-12-15

    The production and use of biogas, along with corresponding sector-specific activities and technologies, is a relatively new subject in Estonia. This paper gives an instructive overview of main barriers behind the development incentives, policy support and technological innovation in terms of emerging market for biogas. The article examines the complexity of market-related, political, technological and social obstacles for introduction biogas technologies. There is a major gap between resource potential, technological capacity and practice in Estonia. About 2 % of the theoretical potential of biogas is being used, totalling around 11 million Nm{sup 3}, based primarily on landfill biogas. First, political setting for biogas innovation is still vague, however, consolidated and enhanced since 2010 to compete with other renewables and mainstream energy technologies. The article underlines the statement that the reason why Estonian biogas production has not followed the path of growth and technology transfer is the low renewable electricity feed-in tariff. However, there are many other legal and engineering factors that have held back biogas applications and sector development in general. Stakeholders have established the Estonian Biogas Association, increasing sector's visibility, targeted lobby to support policy-making, technological and social innovation and professional networking. Though getting the biogas sector to succeed demands a comprehensive approach and involvement of more actors in demand side including local leaders and consumers, both enthusiasm and scepticism should be informed by a sound understanding of framework conditions and complexities for path-breaking transformations in energy systems. To promote biogas production, profitable and technologically feasible showcases should demonstrate benefits and issues to the target group and stakeholders. Instead agricultural and CHP development mode, the priority of using biogas in Estonia could be seen as

  6. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  7. Development and problems of radioactive waste management infrastructure in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putnik, H.; Realo, E.

    2001-01-01

    Estonia is one of a few countries where the establishment of radiation protection and radioactive waste management infrastructure started only recently, soon after regaining independence in the beginning of 1990's. Both legislative and regulatory infrastructure had to be built from scratch, in parallel with the beginning of urgent activities and practices to manage waste streams inherited from the past. Despite significant deficiency of local expertise and specialists in the field, the main objectives of the establishment were set up: to enforce national legislation basing on contemporary international principles, criteria, requirements and to implement structures and procedures for an efficient regulation of radiation safety issues, including practices involving radioactive waste management and decommissioning

  8. Historical survey of nuclear non-proliferation in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalmann, I.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation gives an overview about the project initiated in co-operation between the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (ERPC) to carry out a historical survey of the nuclear activities taken place in the territory of Estonia after the World War II. The main purpose of the project was to create transparency in the State's nuclear related past and to submit the results of the conducted historical survey as a volunteer supplement to the Additional Protocol declaration. (author)

  9. Closed nuclear facilities in Estonia: developments and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realo, E.; Realo, K.

    2000-01-01

    At present Estonia has no operating nuclear or a radioactive material production facility. As a legacy of the past the country has become responsible for the decommissioning of two large nuclear cycle facilities of the former USSR. Besides limited funding, major problems arise from deficiencies in legislation, expertise, training and research. International co-operation has been of immense importance to overcome the problems, to establish the national radiation protection and radioactive waste management infrastructure and to launch decommissioning and remediation activities. An overview is given on the status and problems. Copyright (2000) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  10. Estonia hukk jõuab kinolinale / Anari Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Anari

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastub 2. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Film jõuab Eestis linale novembri alul. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teevad kaasa Rein Oja ja väikeses rollis Urmas Alenderi lesk Helje Kaskel. Kõlab ka U. Alenderi laul

  11. Do alcohol excise taxes affect traffic accidents? Evidence from Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the association between alcohol excise tax rates and alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia. Monthly time series of traffic accidents involving drunken motor vehicle drivers from 1998 through 2013 were regressed on real average alcohol excise tax rates while controlling for changes in economic conditions and the traffic environment. Specifically, regression models with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) errors were estimated in order to deal with serial correlation in residuals. Counterfactual models were also estimated in order to check the robustness of the results, using the level of non-alcohol-related traffic accidents as a dependent variable. A statistically significant (P traffic accidents was disclosed under alternative model specifications. For instance, the regression model with ARIMA (0, 1, 1)(0, 1, 1) errors revealed that a 1-unit increase in the tax rate is associated with a 1.6% decrease in the level of accidents per 100,000 population involving drunk motor vehicle drivers. No similar association was found in the cases of counterfactual models for non-alcohol-related traffic accidents. This article indicates that the level of alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia has been affected by changes in real average alcohol excise taxes during the period 1998-2013. Therefore, in addition to other measures, the use of alcohol taxation is warranted as a policy instrument in tackling alcohol-related traffic accidents.

  12. The social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia in 2006. Using a prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach, both direct and indirect costs were considered, including tangible costs associated with health care, criminal justice, rescue services, damage to property, premature mortality, incarceration, incapability of working due to illnesses, and lower labor productivity. The results show that alcohol misuse cost Estonia more than EUR 200 million in 2006. The costs involved are estimated to represent 1.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP), which is relatively high in comparison with many other countries. In addition, the state receives less receipts from the alcohol excise tax than the costs that it incurs as a consequence of alcohol misuse, which points to the existence of economic inefficiency with respect to the alcohol market. The results of this study suggest that there is definitely a need for further cost-benefit analysis to reach a conclusion regarding the possible utility of government intervention. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. 137Cs in soil profiles in NE Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lust, M.; Realo, K.; Realo, E.

    2002-01-01

    Radiocaesium contamination in soil was produced by two fallout's: a global fallout caused by nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere (1950s to 1970s) and a regional one - during/after the Chernobyl accident (1986). The area] distribution of the 137 CS fallout after the 1986 accident was extremely uneven in Estonia. Our previous studies showed that about 60% of its total deposition with the countrywide mean of 2 kBq m -2 occurred predominantly in the north-eastern part of Estonia. In this region the maximum deposition approached the values of 40 kBq m -2 . This is the reason why soil profiles in this region have been of interest. We have also determined the 137 Cs activity concentrations as a function of soil depth during 1991-2000. Attempts have been made to model the found depth-distributions of radiocaesium concentration and to find the possible time-dependent behaviour of these distributions in soil. The migration of radiocaesium into soil is dependent on several factors: soil properties, vegetation, mode of deposition, etc. For this reason, averaged distribution parameters for both total and Chernobyl 137 Cs have been used for deriving general trends of the migration processes. (au)

  14. Design of accounting curriculum: The case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alver Lehte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization sets new requirements for the professional qualification of accountants and auditors. In the business world globalized investment market demands consistent high quality financial information across borders; investors are looking for a global accounting profession to provide it. There is more pressure on accounting professionals to expand and enhance their knowledge, skills, and abilities beyond what they are currently likely to possess. Providers of accounting education must take into account the changed world and create contemporary curricula. In Estonia the change from a command to a market economy has inevitably influenced not only the accounting framework but also the entire system of accounting education. It is clear that without a design of accounting curricula it is practically impossible to fulfill requirements of nowadays high quality financial information. Tallinn University of Technology (TUT holds on the advanced level of accounting education the leading position in Estonia. The accounting curriculum (on the graduate level as well as undergraduate level is the most popular among all curricula at the Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration of TUT. It is a joint system, which consists of undergraduate and graduate degree programs. Small sub specializations: for example in financial accounting, managerial cost accounting, taxation and auditing become evident while interpreting the graduate and undergraduate programs as one united system. The paper explains a new model of accounting curriculum developed at TUT as well as its educational philosophy and principles of designing. It also describes conditions required for development and continuous improvement of competitive curriculum.

  15. Saaremaa lad brings FBI conference to Estonia / Kalle Laanet ; interv. Rein Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanet, Kalle, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Riigikogu liige vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema õpinguid FBI akadeemias, Tallinnas toimuvat FBI konverentsi ning Eesti sisejulgeolekut. Lisa: Estonian Police statistics; Registered crimes in Estonia; From police officer to minister; What happened in April?

  16. Estonia - üks tõeline eestimaine spaa / Dagmar Reinolt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinolt, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Heaoluspaa võtmes renoveeritud Estonia Spa Hotelsi ühest kompleksist. Rekonstrueerimisprojekti arhitektid: Raivo Kotov, Indrek Mikk. Rekonstrueerimisprojekti sisearhitektid: Raili Paling, Liis Lindvere, Kadri Kaldam, Kärt Loopalu. Valmimisaasta: 2015

  17. Reasons for internal migration in Estonia 1989-2000 / Mare Ainsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ainsaar, Mare

    2004-01-01

    Autor tutvustab oma uurimust "Reasons for move: a study on trends and reasons of internal migration with particular interest in Estonia 1989-2000" (Turku University, 2004) Eesti elanikkonna migratsioonist ja selle põhjustest. Skeemid

  18. Estonia juhti kahtlustatakse ettevõtte varade omastamises / Ester Vilgats, Eno-Gerrit Link, Teet Roosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Ester

    2008-01-01

    Endine Pärnu linnapea, taastusravikeskuse Estonia pikaaegne juht Vello Järvesalu peeti kinni kahtlustatuna ettevõtte varade omastamises suures ulatuses. Kommenteerivad: Mart Viisitamm, Jane Mets ja Ahti Kõo

  19. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to the final report on the master plan study on district heating in the municipality in Estonia, chapter nine, gives data related to general economic assumptions for financial and economic calculations, fuel consumption, financing, prices, fuel consumption. (ARW)

  20. Hip-hop ja ooper kohtuvad Estonias / Marko Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillemägi, Marko

    2006-01-01

    10. juunil Rahvusooperis Estonia etenduvast Mozarti ooperi "Cosi fan tutte" tänapäevasest versioonist, mis valmis Inglismaa Glyndebounre'i festivali, Saksamaa komische operi ja Soome Rahvusooperi koostöös, lavastaja Clare Whistler

  1. Estonia ballett üle seitsme aasta taas Pärnus / Silja Joon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Joon, Silja, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia balleti kunstiline juht Toomas Edur Estonia balletitrupist ja 20. veebruaril toimuvast kolmest lühiballetist koosnevast balletiõhtust Pärnu kontserdimajas. Esitatakse Bohuslav Martinu "Enne öö saabumist" (koreograaf Nils Christe), Arnold Schönbergi "Pelléas ja Mélisande" (koreograaf Tiit Härm), Robert Schumanni "Teine sümfoonia" (koreograaf Uwe Scholz)

  2. Japanese tourists in Finland, Estonia and Latvia – a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Suvanto, Hannele; Sudakova, Lea; Kattai, Kaili; Grīnberga-Zālīte, Gunta; Bulderberga, Zane

    2017-01-01

    Based on the results of this literature survey, it can be concluded that the following points are especially interesting from the perspective of rural tourism in Finland, Estonia and Latvia. Characteristics of Japanese tourists Most spend a lot of money but have a short time to spend it. Men have especially short holidays, staying around three nights. The location of Finland is crucial (airport in Helsinki and stopovers) and proximity to Estonia and Latvia convenient. Travel is mainly...

  3. Attitudes of Major Soviet Nationalities. Volume II. The Baltics. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    acquired wide popularity (and probably snob appeal ). Kafka, Ionesco and Dostoyevsky were available to Soviet Estonians earlier than to the Russian reading...Estonia . chided as snob appeal ). Of Estonia’s 757 general schools, 556 (i.e. 71) use Estonian, 90 use Russian and 60 are mixed. 2 The same applies to...novels whicr combine literary quality with national appeal ro 2 ’), collective farm realism at its best (M. Traatl), realisti> lezcription of city life

  4. Radiological accidents/incidents with caesium-137 in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinisoo, M.

    1998-01-01

    A report is provided of an accident and an incident involving radioactive sources in Estonia. In the 1994 occurrence, looters of a depository of radioactive waste manipulated a source containing 137 Cs and received dangerous doses of radiation. One of the persons involved died, others suffered minor burns. Another event, which occurred in early 1995, did not have a tragic outcome: an abandoned 137 Cs source was found in the vicinity of the highway linking Tallinn and Narva and was disposed of safely. Both these accidents draw attention to the potential dangers caused by the insufficient survey of the territory, radiation protection structures not yet fully operable, and the lack of equipment and know-how. The lessons to be drawn from these events are considered on the basis of the chronologies and factual data. The report contains concise descriptions of the accidents, a medical overview of the fate of the injured persons and the lessons learned from these accidents. (author)

  5. "Estonia" müsteerium / Jüri Liim

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liim, Jüri

    2001-01-01

    Järgneb 26. okt., 2.,9.,16.,23.,30. nov., 7.,14. dets. ; 2002, 4.,11.,18.,25. jaan., 1.,8.,15.,22. veebr., 1.,8.,15.,22. märts, 5.,12.,26. aprill, 3.,10.,17.,24.,31. mai, 7.,14.,28. juuni, 5.,12.,19.,26. juuli, 2.,9.,16.,23. aug., 6.,13.,20.,27. sept., 4.,11.,25. okt., 1.,8.,15.,22.,29. nov., 13.,20. dets. ; 10.,17.,24., 31. jaan., 2003, 14. veebr., 7.,28. märts, 4.,11.,25. apr., 16.,23. mai, 6.,27. juuni, 11.,18. juuli. Reisilaev "Estonia" mõistatuslikust hukust

  6. On eco-efficiency and sustainable development in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randla, T.; Kurissoo, T.; Vilu, R.

    2002-01-01

    The basic idea of sustainable development is a firm understanding that all resources, renewable as well as non-renewable, are limited. Human activities should not exceed the buffering capacity of the earth's ecosystems and the replenishment potential of material cycles. Use of non-renewable, mainly mineral, resources should be kept at the minimum possible level, postponing the depletion of resources as far as possible. Concepts of environmental space and dematerialisation lie at the foundation of the practical launching of sustainable development. Analysis of regional sustainability and ecological efficiency of energy production, the balance of CO 2 , water, etc. were analysed for Estonia and Ida-Virumaa, north-eastern region of the country. The analysis carried out should be considered as a first step in the development and implementation of a national 'green' accounting system and environmental tax system based on the concept of environmental space. (author)

  7. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION IN ESTONIA AND SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Mesner Andolšek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the analysis is to make a comparison of HRM practices among New Member States (especially Estonia and Slovenia and how these practices help to create the conditions to develop a knowledge organization. In the paper, the systemic and logical analysis of knowledge management concept and its relations with HRM was used. For empirical research a simple exploratory analysis statistical technique was used on Cranet (the Cranfield Network on Comparative Human Resource Management data on HRM practices across countries was used. Major findings allow stating that two important prerequisites for knowledge organization are met and they are successfully implemented through HRM practices especially in organizations in one country. The empirical research findings showed the trends in global economy and the ability of organizations in the New Member States to adapt through institutionally developed HRM practices.

  8. Retrospective Analysis of Lophodermium seditiosum Epidemics in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANSO, MÄRT

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The needle trace method (NTM, created and developed by the Finnish forest pathologists prof. T. Kurkela, dr. R. Jalkanen and T. Aalto during the last decade of the XX century, has been already used by several researchers of different countries for retrospective analysis of needle diseases (Hypodermella sulcigena, by R. Jalkanen et al. in Finland or herbivorous insect pests of Scots pine (Diprion pini, by T. Kurkela et al. in Finland; Bupalus piniaria, by H. Armour et al. in Scotland, but as well of pests of Sitka spruce (Gilpinia hercyniae, by D.T. Williams et al. in England. Scots pine in forest nurseries and young plantations of Estonia is often but irregularly suffering from the epidemics of the needle cast fungus Lophodermium seditiosum. Current environmental regulations exclude from the regulatory (control measures all the others except of well-argued prophylactic systems, built up on reliable prognoses. The last is inconceivable without the availability of a reliable, as well, and long-lasting retrospective time-series of L. seditiosum epidemics, which, as it is known from the last half of the XX century, are occupying large forest areas, usually not least than a half of (the small Estonia. An appropriate time-series would be useful, as well, for the more basic understanding of the accelerated mortality processes during the stand formation in early pole-age Scots pine plantations. Methodological principles of the use of NTM in an appropriate investigation together with the preliminary results of our research work, looking back for more than a century, are introduced and discussed in this investigation.

  9. Parteilisest tsensuurist Nõukogude Eestis. Party Censorship in Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Kreegipuu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the years of imposed Soviet rule in Estonia from 1940 to its collapse in 1991, Estonian culture and the written word were subject to Soviet censorship which due to its perseverance, extent and rigidity constrained creativity and self-expression. At the same time, archival documents and memories testify that considerable shifting could take place within this censorship which on the surface appeared strict and regulated, depending on the general ideological stance and the officials and party functionaries in place at the time. Soviet censorship is usually studied and described with the activities of the censorship office Glavlit as the focal point. However, for a more complete overview, it would be wise to keep in mind that a whole row of other institutions and authorities with the Communist Party in front also were involved in censorship matters. When it came to censorship, it was the party that had the final word – as it did with everything else – and if needed, it also acted as punisher. Apart from the role of censor, the Communist Party, its departments (with the Department for Propaganda and Agitation or Ideology in front and its officials also took part in hands-on censorship work, both in terms of decision-making and in dealing with concrete incidents (breach of censorship rules and censor mistakes but also in the search for and pointing out of ideological flaws. One area in which the party’s censorship activities manifested itself in a rather vivid manner was the leadership and control of the Soviet press. When analysing materials from the bureau of the Communist Party of Estonia’s Central Committee, it becomes clear that the party’s governing organs were constantly active in this area. The manifestation of problems and discussion of flaws here point to the circumstance that journalists and editors did not accept the censorship rules, but rather tried to find possibilities and means through which to modify or ignore them

  10. Container transport direct call – logistic solution to container transport via Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tolli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Container transport in the world grows up to 12 % every year. Chinese container transport contributes majority of container flows in international container transport. Many world seaports compete for Chinese container flows and make eff orts to get investments and direct calls from China to their ports. Estonia has a possibility to decrease its large dependence and risks due to the transit of oil and oil products and coal with the help of container flows from China. In addition to a favorable geographical location Estonia has several other important arguments, like suffi cient land in the harbours for developing a container terminal to launch extensive container transport transit from China. Port of St. Petersburg, container transport port closest to Estonia by the Baltic Sea, is overloaded. Estonia can compete for container flows directed to Moscow, Nizhniy Novgorod, Kazan and Kaluga. Construction of an international high-tech container terminal in Port of Tallinn serves as one important precondition for directing Russian transit container flows through Estonia. Such a container terminal could service also larger vessels and container flows from China. Container lines and container terminals operating as alliances are jointly able to substantially increase container flows through countries.

  11. Moving the Field Forward: A Micro-Meso-Macro Model for Critical Language Planning. The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates "de facto" language policy in Estonia. It investigates how language choices at the micro (or individual) level are negotiated within the macro (or social and historical) context: how official language policy and other features of the discursive environment surrounding language and its use in Estonia translate into…

  12. Radiocarbon dating in the quarternary geology and archaeology of Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilves, Eh.; Liiva, A.; Punning, Ya.M.

    1974-01-01

    Work of the Tartusk radiocarbon laboratory for the last 15 years is presented. Methodological problems of the radiocarbon method are discussed. The geochemistry of carbon isotopes, principles of radiocarbon dating, and areas of its application are considered. Methods of recording natural radiocarbon and materials used for radiocarbon dating are discussed. Preliminary treatment of the samples and synthesis of the radioactive carbon carrier are presented. The preparation of the counter compound in the form of a liquid scintillator from the synthesized natural radiocarbon carrier is described. The scintillator efficiencies of different scintillators are compared. Data are given on the development of criteria for selecting the photoelectron multiplier. Construction of alumina cuvettes used for scintillation counting is described. It is noted that, in the counter apparatus system, amplitude analyzers with two differential discriminators are used, which allows directing the recording of activity to two 14 C regions. The results of using the radiocarbon method for different aspects of natural science and archeology are considered. Problems of geology of the late Pleistocene and the Pre-Baltic Holocene are considered: base of the mid-Valdaisk Karukyulask interglacier, history of deterioration of the final glacial mantle, development of a drainage system and late glacier, development and paleography of the Holocene, and others. New material on the chronology of primeval cultures in the Estonia region and on growth of meteoric craters are presented

  13. District heating rehabilitation project. Viljandi - Estonia. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Viljandi Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system, and thereby to support the positive development of the district heating system in Viljandi to a more energy efficient and rational system and to achieve a significantly decrease in the pollution from the production of heat energy in Viljandi. The project has also included technical assistance to Viljandi DH company, in order to make them capable of operation and maintaining of the new substations, and also training of the local operational staff for operation of the complete district heating system. Viljandi is a county and is centrally located in Estonia, which makes Viljandi very suitable as recipient for a demonstration project. One important objective was the projects significantly positive environmental impact in reduction of the generated emissions of CO 2 , NO x and SO 2 , as the project includes installation of more efficient energy systems and supply of heat from the 2 existing district heating plants (both are partly fired with wood chips) instead of heating by very old and worn-out coal fired boilers and inexpedient designed substations with the present operational conditions. (EG)

  14. Women in Physics in Estonia: Many Duties, One Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2009-04-01

    In Estonia, women and men have equal legal rights. Women are expected to earn their living like men—and unlike men, to be the main (often the only) caregiver for the children. In the family women do most of the unpaid work, spending twice the amount of time on household duties as men. Laws about public preschool child care and child support obligations for noncustodial parents exist, but these laws are not always realized in practice. A generous policy of benefits for children under 1.5 years provides some relief for mothers. It is a challenge to balance a woman's traditional load of unpaid duties with the high demands of a science career. As in many other countries, with every step up the academic ladder the underrepresentation of women in science becomes more evident. Physics and engineering are perceived as male areas and women active in these areas are often treated as exceptions. Most obstacles met by women in science are difficult to recognize and neutralize because they are deeply informal. Activities for "gender and science" that exceed the limits of sociological study have no long tradition here and are yet finding their place in Estonian society.

  15. Partnership dynamics among migrants and their descendants in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Rahnu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive scholarly literature documents the decline in marriage and increase in non-marital cohabitation and divorce across regions and countries of Europe, but we know less about the extent to which these new family behaviours that have emerged in host societies are adopted by migrants. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine partnership transitions among the migrants and their descendants in Estonia, who mainly originate from the European part of Russia. By investigating an East European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of migrant populations in different socio-economic and cultural settings. Methods: The study is based on the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (2004/2005 and the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (1994/1997, and employs proportional hazards models. Results: The results show that new family formation patterns, associated with the Second Demographic Transition, are less prevalent among migrants. The difference between migrants and native Estonians is most pronounced in the mode of partnership formation and outcomes of cohabiting unions, whereas the results pertaining to union dissolution reveal a less systematic difference between population groups. Reflecting the relatively slow integration, the second-generation migrants exhibit partnership behaviour that differs from that of the native population. The observed differences between migrants and the native population appear largely similar for both men and women. Conclusions: The results lend support to socialisation, cultural maintenance, and adaptation hypotheses, and underscore the importance of contextual factors. The analysis reveals disruption effects of migration on partnership processes.

  16. Remediation of an oily leachate pond in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Marques, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2005-12-01

    Until recent years, waste oil and oil-contaminated waters commonly ended up in landfills. At some dump sites, ponds of oily liquids and leachate were formed. To remediate such ponds, an interdisciplinary approach is now required, keeping costs at an affordable level, particularly in countries with changing economies. From 1974 to 1993, liquid oily wastes taken to the Laguja landfill, in Estonia, were disposed of in a pond with a surface area of 9800 m2. It was estimated that the pond contained 4500-6000 m3 of oily water and 3500 m3 of oil-containing bottom sediments. This study aimed at developing an environmentally sound and cost-effective method for remediation of the oily liquids, leachate and contaminated underlying sediment material, to meet the existing legal demands. It was concluded that treatment of contaminated water is well established and the procedures carried out to meet the regulatory demands achieved satisfactory results. However, regarding treatment of sediments it was concluded that legal and technological aspects, as well as monitoring procedures are not fully established and are usually underestimated. Laboratory investigations can provide valuable information in decision-making, and contribute to effective full-scale remediation planning.

  17. District heating rehabilitation project. Viljandi - Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Viljandi Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system, and thereby to support the positive development of the district heating system in Viljandi to a more energy efficient and rational system and to achieve a significantly decrease in the pollution from the production of heat energy in Viljandi. The project has also included technical assistance to Viljandi DH company, in order to make them capable of operation and maintaining of the new substations, and also training of the local operational staff for operation of the complete district heating system. Viljandi is a county and is centrally located in Estonia, which makes Viljandi very suitable as recipient for a demonstration project. One important objective was the projects significantly positive environmental impact in reduction of the generated emissions of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}, as the project includes installation of more efficient energy systems and supply of heat from the 2 existing district heating plants (both are partly fired with wood chips) instead of heating by very old and worn-out coal fired boilers and inexpedient designed substations with the present operational conditions. (EG)

  18. On the lower boundary of the Floian Stage in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helje Pärnaste

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The lower boundary of the Second Stage of the Lower Ordovician Series, the Floian Stage, is defined by the first appearance of the graptolite Tetragraptus approximatus. In the stratotype section of Diabasbrottet at Hunneberg, southern Sweden, the boundary falls within the Megistaspis planilimbata trilobite Zone and within the Oelandodus elongatus–Acodus deltatus deltatus conodont Subzone of the Paroistodus proteus Zone, and within the Hunneberg Regional Stage. Graptolites, including the index species T. approximatus, are missing in the terrigenous sediment of Estonia. The earliest trilobites are poorly preserved in this terrigenous succession. They represent an interval older than the Megalaspides dalecarlicus Zone but probably younger than the M. planilimbata Zone, and are correlative to the Prioniodus elegans conodont Zone. Thus the lower boundary of the Second Stage can be detected using mainly conodonts. In accordance with conodont occurrence, the base of the Floian (i.e. somewhat higher than the base of the O. elongatus–A. d. deltatus Subzone falls within the Joa Member of the Leetse Formation. Probable levels have been suggested in some localities. Thus the lower part of the Leetse Formation belongs to the Tremadoc Stage, and to the Hunneberg Regional Stage.

  19. Hazardous substances in the aquatic environment of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roots, Ott; Roose, Antti

    2013-09-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to regulate the management of European surface water bodies. Directive 2008/105/EC, which establishes the environmental quality standards of priority substances and certain other pollutants, the content of which in the surface water should be monitored, has been transposed by the Estonian Ministry of Environment 9 September 2010 Regulation No. 49. Sampled hazardous substances were selected primarily based on their toxicity, as well as their lifetime in environment and ability to accumulate in living organisms (bioaccumulation). The contents of hazardous substances and their groups determined from Estonian surface waters remained below the limits of quantifications of used analysis methods in most cases. However, the content of some heavy metals, mono- and dibasic phenols in the surface water/waste water and sewage sludge/bottom sediments can still reach the delicate levels in the Estonian oil shale region in particular. Among new substances analysed in Estonia historically first time in 2010, amounts of organotin compounds in sediments and some alkylphenols, their ethoxylates and phthalates were found in various sample matrices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-01-01

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  1. Conodont dating of some Telychian (Silurian sections in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Männik, Peep

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several Telychian–Sheinwoodian strata exposed in Estonia are precisely dated using conodont biostratigraphy. The beds in the Valgu-1 section correspond to the uppermost Distomodus staurognathoides and Pterospathodus eopennatus ssp. n. 1 zones. In the Valgu-2 and Valgu-3 sections only the P. eopennatus ssp. n. 1 Zone is exposed. The strata in the Velise-Kõrgekalda section correspond to the Lower subzone of the P. amorphognathoides angulatus Zone. Marlstones in the Jädivere section are assigned to the P. a. lennarti Zone. In the Avaste section part of the P. a. lithuanicus Zone is exposed. On the Saastna Peninsula two stratigraphical intervals, the lower corresponding to the Upper subzone of the P. a. amorphognathoides Zone and the upper to the Upper Kockelella ranuliformis Zone, crop out along the shoreline. In Saastna the exposed strata are separated by a covered interval corresponding to five conodont zones, from the Lower Pseudooneotodus bicornis Zone to the Lower K. ranuliformis Zone.

  2. Predictors and consequences of job insecurity: Comparison of Slovakia and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ištoňová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Job insecurity is a significant current social issue in many European countries. Slovakia and Estonia significantly differ in the prevalence of job insecurity. The main aim of the present study was to compare Slovakia and Estonia in regard to job insecurity by looking at socio-demographic, job and organisational predictors and individual and social consequences based on ESS round five data. The secondary aim was to examine relationships between job insecurity and its predictors as well as job insecurity and its consequences. The analysis covered employed people with unlimited or limited contracts, working 40-50 hours per week, within the age range of 20-60. The results suggested significant differences in the predictors of job insecurity for Slovakia and Estonia. However, the individual, social and economic consequences of job insecurity were similar for both countries. This study contributes to an enhanced understanding of job insecurity predictors and consequences in the European region.

  3. Different Labelling of Obstructive Airway Diseases in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallasaho, Paula; Meren, Mari; Raukas-Kivioja, Aet; Roenmark, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Large differences in prevalence of asthma have been reported between westernised countries and the former Eastern European countries, and still no consensus about the reasons for the differences exists. The aim of this study was to assess diagnostic labelling of obstructive airway diseases, comparing subjects with respiratory symptoms and the diagnoses obtained in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden. A postal questionnaire was sent to population-based random samples, and 44,483 (76%) answers were obtained from the 58,661 invited in 1996. Among men, current smoking was most common in Estonia, 60%, followed by Finland, 39%, and Sweden, 28%. In all three countries, 30% of women were current smokers. Most respiratory symptoms including wheezing were most common in Estonia, also among non-smokers. The prevalence of asthma was 2.0% and chronic bronchitis 10.7% in Estonia, while the opposite was found in Sweden with an asthma prevalence of 7.8% and a chronic bronchitis prevalence of 3.1%. The pattern in Finland was similar to that of Sweden. The same differences between the three countries were found also among young subjects. The total proportion of diagnosed obstructive lung diseases in subjects with respiratory symptoms was similar, but the diagnosis of asthma was considerably more common in Finland and Sweden. Chronic bronchitis was favoured in Estonia, also among young adults irrespectively of what symptoms were present. In a multivariate model with correction for confounders, the risk (OR) for having a diagnosis of asthma was 5.65 (95% CI: 4.86-6.56) when living in Sweden, and 3.51 (95% CI: 3.00-4.12) in Finland, whereas risk for chronic bronchitis was 0.28 (0.25-0.31) and 0.22 (0.19-0.25), respectively, compared to Estonia. The study indicates differences in diagnostic practices of obstructive lung diseases between the three countries

  4. Overview of the electricity market of Estonia and the plausibility of nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtveer, M.; Tkaczyk, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Republic of Estonia is a small country in Northern Europe, with electrical energy production dependent mostly on oil shale. The local supply of oil shale has given Estonia its energetic independence but it also presents great challenges: it is waste-intensive and causes massive emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. It also causes damage to the landscape and to the health of the population living near the mining and energy producing area. Due to the above mentioned problems the use of nuclear power has been taken into consideration, but the debate is at its beginning and the need for further analyses is great

  5. Estonia in the system of global climate change. Publication 4/1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punning, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Estonia is among the countries who signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) at the UN Conference in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The FCCC calls on its parties to inventory national sources, to reduction in greenhouse gases and to development of projects responding to climate change. In 1994, an Estonian Country Study Project was initiated within the U.S. Country Studies Program. The Estonian Country Study Project is comprehensive, covering all sectors and directions of activity in Estonia that might impact climate change or be influenced by Global Climate Change. This book contains a collection of papers, covering the aims of the Estonian Country Study Project

  6. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The main deficiencies of the district heating system in Sillamae (Estonia) were identified as being inefficiency of the heat and power production plant, which has a very low capacity, lack of means for consumers to control their energy consumption due to the existing constant flow system, pollution from heat and power production based on oil shale, water and heat losses from the network and unclear agreements between the Silmet factory and Sillamae municipality. The available capital for funding is limited. It was investigated where in the system investments would have the greatest effect. A scenario where heat is supplied from individual gas-fired boilers was calculated. A financially viable scenario would be to change from cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) based on oil shale to either individual natural gas supply or peat-fueled heat production. The Sillamae municipality and the Estonian government should agree on a solution for Sillamae. There will be a cash flow problem if the project is implemented. This can be partly solved by introducing a longer loan period. it is expected that there will be no substantial changes in the consumers` heat demand in the `do nothing`scenario, and in other scenarios ca. 520 Tj/p.a. from the Solmet factory, 530 Tj/p.a. from the town and 260 Tj/p.a. as heat losses, totaling 1310 Tj/p.a.. In another scenario - the introduction of natural gas - the town`s heat demand will be 530 Tj/p.a. and there will be no heat losses. More detailed studies of environmental impacts should be undertaken. (ARW)

  7. Status and management of noble crayfish Astacus astacus in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paaver

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Noble crayfish Astacus astacus (L. is an indigenous and the only crayfish species in Estonia. It is potentially endangered by invasion of alien species, diseases and habitat deterioration but does not have legal protected status and is fished only for recreational purpose. Crayfish Working Group of Ministry of Environment and Department of Aquaculture of the Estonian University of Life Sciences have developed crayfish conservation and management plan. Since 1994 standardized test fishing with traps (which catch only crayfish over 7 cm TL has been carried out and database of these fishings shows, that crayfish is dwelling in more than 255 sites in the lakes, rivers, streams, artificial reservoirs. In 52% of monitored sites populations are weak, catch per trap night is below 1 specimen. Exceptionally rich is the stock on the island Saaremaa, where in 59% of populations catch per trap night is over 4 and can reach 50. Licensed recreational catch is allowed in regions, where monitoring data show good status of crayfish stock. It is not allowed to sell the crayfish caught on recreational license. Crayfishing season is limited with August, size limit in recreational fishery is 11 cm TL. There are 10 operating crayfish farms and 15 are under construction. The farms produce yearly around 1000 kg of commercial size crayfish for export to Finland. Over 200000 juveniles are produced for restocking yearly. Restocking projects e.g. restoration of populations, which have been lost because of plague have been successful. The main threat factor is crayfish plague. In 2006–2007 it destroyed the stock of crayfish farms of companies Veteko, Pähkla, Astacus and wild population of Põduste river on the island Saaremaa.

  8. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The main deficiencies of the district heating system in Sillamae (Estonia) were identified as being inefficiency of the heat and power production plant, which has a very low capacity, lack of means for consumers to control their energy consumption due to the existing constant flow system, pollution from heat and power production based on oil shale, water and heat losses from the network and unclear agreements between the Silmet factory and Sillamae municipality. The available capital for funding is limited. It was investigated where in the system investments would have the greatest effect. A scenario where heat is supplied from individual gas-fired boilers was calculated. A financially viable scenario would be to change from cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) based on oil shale to either individual natural gas supply or peat-fueled heat production. The Sillamae municipality and the Estonian government should agree on a solution for Sillamae. There will be a cash flow problem if the project is implemented. This can be partly solved by introducing a longer loan period. it is expected that there will be no substantial changes in the consumers' heat demand in the 'do nothing'scenario, and in other scenarios ca. 520 Tj/p.a. from the Solmet factory, 530 Tj/p.a. from the town and 260 Tj/p.a. as heat losses, totaling 1310 Tj/p.a.. In another scenario - the introduction of natural gas - the town's heat demand will be 530 Tj/p.a. and there will be no heat losses. More detailed studies of environmental impacts should be undertaken

  9. Remediation and decommissioning of radioactive waste facilities in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putnik, H.; Realo, E.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear training facility at Paldiski was constructed in the early 1960's by the former USSR Navy. The hull sections of Delta and Echo class submarines each housing a full-sized ship reactor were installed in the main building of the site for training of navy personnel in safe operation of the submarine nuclear reactor systems. The first reactor was commissioned in 1968 and the second in 1982, while both was shut down in 1989. After Estonia's reproclamation of independence in 1991 the responsibility for the clean up and decommissioning of the Paldiski site became a subject of negotiations between Russia and Estonia. As the result Estonia took the ownership and control of the site in September 1995. Before the take over the Russian authorities defuelled the reactors and transported the spent fuel to Russia, dismantled the hull sections not related with reactor systems, seal-welded the hull sections housing the reactor vessels with their primary circuitry and enclosed those in reinforced concrete sarcophagi. The auxiliary facilities and radioactive waste were left intact. Main goals of the Conceptual Decommissioning Plan for the Paldiski facilities, developed under the auspices of the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (Pier, a group established at the request of the Estonian government to advise local authorities to maintain the decommissioning and waste management at Paldiski) were defined as following: Establishing the waste management system and a long term monitored interim storage, corresponding to internationally accepted safety standards and capable to condition, receive and store all the waste generated during decommissioning of the facility; Reductions of the extent of radiologically controlled areas as much as possible, in order to minimise maintenance requirements. To achieve these goals the following main tasks were addressed in the short and medium term site management action plans: Rearrangement of site for the needs of

  10. Estonia teater - helikindel ja sinine = Estonian National Opera - soundproof and blue / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia maja teatritiiva interjööri renoveerimine. Sisekujundus: Juta Lember (kavandas ka uued valgustid), Aulo Padar (SAB Lember & Padar). Arhitekt Indrek Suigusaar (AB Pluss OÜ). Restaureerimistööd: KAR-Grupp. Projekt ja valmis 2005. Ill.: 8 värv. sisevaadet

  11. Increasing ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia after the collapse of the Soviet Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinsalu, Mall; Vågerö, Denny; Kunst, Anton E.

    2004-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study examined the change in ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia 1989-2000. DESIGN: Two unlinked cross sectional census based analyses were compared. Total and cause specific mortality was analysed for ethnic Estonians and Russians. The absolute differences in mortality

  12. Between Consumerism and Protectionism: Attitudes towards Children, Consumption and the Media in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Margit; Kalmus, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This study measures attitudes towards children's vulnerability or empowerment within consumer culture, based on data from a representative population survey (N = 1475) conducted in Estonia in 2005. The study use indices comprised of assessments of consumption practices and assertions pertaining to the "endangered vs empowered child"…

  13. Film Estonia katastroofist jääb tegelikkusest kaugele / Kristjan Jaak Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Kristjan Jaak

    2001-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastroofifilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et parvlaev "Estonia" uputati. Stsenaristiks on saksa teleajakirjanik Jutta Rabe, kes koos advokaat Kaj Holmbergiga lõi selleks puhuks stuudio Top Story. Peaosalisi mängivad Greta Scacchi (41) ja Jürgen Prochnow (60)

  14. Estonia huku filmi eesmärk : alustada tuleb uut uurimist / Tarmo Michelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Saksamaa toimuvad poliitilise põnevusfilmi "Baltic Storm" võtted. Film mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Filmivõtetest räägib assistent Helje Kaskel

  15. Galeriiühendus Eesti Panga kvartalisse = Connecting Gallery to the Bank of Estonia Block

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    2003. a. veebruaris toimunud kutsutud arhitektuurikonkursi, mille eesmärgiks oli parandada Eesti Panga kvartali funktsionaalsust Estonia puiestee ja Sakala tänava poolsete osade vahel, töö. Projekterija: AB Urban Mark OÜ. Autorid: Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae. Konstruktsioonid: Inseneribüroo Peipman OÜ

  16. When Public Acts Like Private: The Failure of Estonia's School Choice Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to show the segregating effect of the market-like matching of students and schools at the basic school level. The natural experiment case is Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The current school choice mechanism applied in this case is based on entrance tests. There are increasingly over-subscribed intra-catchment area public…

  17. When Language becomes Power: Russian-Speaking Teachers in the Bilingual General Education System in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    After the re-establishment of independent Estonian statehood in 1991, Russian lost its privileges as the dominant and official language in Estonia, and Estonian continued as the only official language. This paper attempts to map the position of a Russian-speaking teacher within the sociological categories of power and language, based on the…

  18. Welcome to Estonia märk on kaotanud oma sära / Kadi Heinsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinsalu, Kadi, 1966-

    2004-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutus loodab parandada Welcome to Estonia märgi mainet. Märki kasutavad ettevõtjad ei näe märgist olulist kasu toodete müügil. Kommenteerivad Evelin Int-Lambot, Leena Murd ja Olaf Merisalu

  19. Climatic trends in Estonia during the period of instrumental observations and climate scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaagus, J.

    1996-01-01

    Weather conditions in Estonia are quite variable. Long-term periodical fluctuations have been observed in meteorological values. At the same time, the climate change during the last 100-150 years is marked. As a general tendency, the climate has become more maritime. Air pressure is characterized by an increasing trend in spring and summer, and by a decreasing trend in autumn and winter. Mean air temperature has increased, particularly over the colder half of the year. Precipitation area totals have risen, most of all in autumn and winter. Snow cover duration has decreased significantly. General circulation model-based climate change scenarios expect a general increase in air temperature in Estonia with warming in winter more significant than that in summer. Moreover, they indicate an increase in precipitation, but the results of the individual models are quite variable. The transient scenario shows that the main increase in precipitation will not occur during next decades, but only at the end of the transient period, around 2070. It can be stated that observed tendencies of climate change in Estonia concur with expected changes caused by global warming. According to the long-term fluctuations of meteorological values in Estonia, changes different from general trends can take place during the next decade. An increase in mean air pressure, sunshine duration and snow cover duration, as well as a decrease in mean air temperature and precipitation is expected in the following years

  20. University Studies as a Side Job: Causes and Consequences of Massive Student Employment in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerkens, Maarja; Magi, Eve; Lill, Liis

    2011-01-01

    Student employment is increasingly common in many countries. Compared to earlier decades, not only more students work but they also work longer hours. Among European countries Estonia is one of the clear "leaders" in student employment. This study uses survey data from 2,496 students in Estonian public and private universities to examine…

  1. Restrictions to Pharmacy Ownership and Vertical Integration in Estonia-Perception of Different Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Marit; Volmer, Daisy

    2016-04-19

    From 2020, the ownership of community pharmacies in Estonia will be limited to the pharmacy profession, and the vertical integration of wholesale companies and community pharmacies will not be allowed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of different stakeholders in primary healthcare toward the new regulations of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. A qualitative electronic survey was distributed to the main stakeholders in primary healthcare and higher education institutions providing pharmacy education ( n = 40) in May 2015. For data analysis, the systematic text condensation method was used. The study participants described two opposing positions regarding the development of community pharmacies in the future. Reform supporters emphasized increased professional independence and more healthcare-oriented operation of community pharmacies. Reform opponents argued against these ideas as community pharmacists do not have sufficient practical experience and finances to ensure sustainable development of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. Based on the current perception of all respondents, the future operation of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia is unclear and there is urgent need for implementation criteria for the new regulations.

  2. The recertification of the professional accounting qualification in Estonia: the requirements and quality of CPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaidi Kallaste

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The recertification of the professional accounting qualification in Estonia: the requirements and quality of CPD As the purpose of a professional qualification should be to ensure quality to employers/customers, appro-priate requirements for professional training should not be too low. On the other hand, too high require-ments for the amount of training would lead to the situation where maintaining the level is expensive and if the labour market does not consider having a professional certificate necessary, recertification will be discarded. The purpose of the research was to identify the factors that influence an accountant’s decision whether to recertify his/her professional qualification or not. The conditions of recertification were ana-lysed and compared to other countries as were the requirements set up for auditors. The results of the survey revealed that in Estonia the decision not to recertify one’s professional qualification was mainly due to not having fulfilled the required number of qualification hours or not having certificates proving one’s participation in qualification training sessions. At the same time, compared to other countries, the requirements in Estonia are very low. So that the increase in the amount of training would not hinder recertification, alternative solutions for Estonia are proposed in the article.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) hunted for human consumption in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remes, Noora; Kärssin, Age; Must, Kärt

    2018-01-01

    In Estonia, northeastern Europe, antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii are common in many host species, including wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. Our nationwide study aimed to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence and its geographical distribution, and to evaluate plausible risk factors for se...

  4. Estonia vormelitel täitus juba pool sajandit / Tõnu Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Tõnu, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    November tehnika ajaloos: 50 aastat möödus Estonia-1 esimesest võistlusstardist Leningradis Nevski ringrajal. 85 aastat tagasi sai Jacob Schick patendi elektrilisele habemeajamismasinale. 60 aastat tagasi konstrueeris Auguste Piccard batüskaafi. 10 aastat tagasi sai 77aastasest USA senaatorist John Glennist maailma vanim astronaut

  5. Education Policy as Normative Discourse and Negotiated Meanings: Engaging the Holocaust in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevick, E. Doyle

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a socio-cultural approach to analyze the formation and implementation of Estonia's Holocaust Day Policy, a day of both commemoration for victims of the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity, and education about the Holocaust. It investigates both the multi-level development of the policy in light of external pressure (from…

  6. Learning and Developing as a University Teacher: Narratives of Early Career Academics in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmik, Marvi; Karm, Mari; Lepp, Liina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the higher education context in Estonia, as in most European countries, has changed a lot. All changes have an impact on university teachers' practice and their work organisation, and are presenting new challenges. The current research aims at developing an understanding of Estonian early career academics' professional identity by…

  7. Digoxin: use pattern in Estonia and bioavailability of the local market leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pähkla, R; Irs, A; Oselin, K; Rootslane, L

    1999-10-01

    In comparison with neighbouring Scandinavian countries, the use of digoxin in Estonia is high. The present study was carried out to determine the use pattern of digoxin in Estonia and bioavailability of the local market leader preparation in comparison with Lanoxin. Drug use data were evaluated from the annual reports of wholesale companies. For the bioequivalence study, a single-blind cross-over randomised two-way single-dose comparative bioavailability study was performed using 14 healthy volunteers. Digoxin concentrations in serum samples and urine were measured by chemiluminescent competitive immunoassay. The use of digoxin in Estonia has increased by 35% during the period 1994-97. The steady market leader was the local generic drug. No statistically significant differences were found in any pharmacokinetic parameter between the generic preparation and Lanoxin. All parameters showed considerable variability. The total amount of drug excreted was the parameter with lowest inter- individual variation. The present study indicates that the generic digoxin preparation studied is bioequivalent to Lanoxin. The increasing use of digoxin in Estonia is not caused by low bioavailability of the local market leader but by therapeutic traditions.

  8. Prevalence of Long-Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, K; Ounap, K; Zordania, R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) in the general Estonian population and among patients with symptoms suggestive of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects. We collected DNA from a cohort of 1,040 anonymous newborn blo...... prevalence of LCHADD in Estonia would be 1: 91,700....

  9. [Johan Eellend. Cultivating the Rural Citizen : Modernity, Agrarianism and Citizenship in Late Tsarist Estonia] / Kersti Lust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lust, Kersti, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Eellend, Johan. Cultivating the Rural Citizien : Modernity, Agrarianism and Citizenship in Late Tsarist Estonia. Stockholm : Stockholm Universty, 2007. Eesti agraarideoloogia kujunemist ja olemust käsitlevast dissertatsioonist. Tegemist on Eesti ühiskondliku mõtte voolude ja nende mõjuulatuse tavapärasest erineva nägemusega

  10. Costs, health effects and cost-effectiveness of alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, T.; Habicht, J.; Reinap, M.; Chisholm, D.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the population-level costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of different alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia. DESIGN: A WHO cost-effectiveness modelling framework was used to estimate the total costs and effects of interventions. Costs were assessed in Estonian

  11. Technical-economic parameters of the new oil shale mining-chemical complex in Northeast Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmiv, I.; Fraiman, J.

    2006-01-01

    The history of oil shale mining in Estonia has reached its century mark. Three oil shale branches have been formed and have been working on the basis of Estonian oil shale deposits: the mining industry (underground and surface extraction), the power industry (heat and electric energy generation), and the chemical industry (gas and synthetic oils). The authors attempted to summarize the experience of the activities of these branches and to make into a whole the results of their research developments in the past years, as well as to form a notion about perspectives of oil shale in Estonia. Variants of the mining-chemical oil shale complex production and trade patterns differed from used ones. Mining methods, thermal processing of oil shale, and solid, liquid, and gas waste recovery have been studied, analyzed, and worked out up to the present. Setting up a flexible trade structure within the framework of that complex is considered the main economic mechanism capable of balancing production costs of such a complex with its earnings, which could respond properly to any, even peak, fluctuations of the market for final products processed from oil shale. Data of the working 'Estonia' oil shale mine were used as the basis of the analysis and practical conclusions. Information on the mine being projected in the region of Ojamaa in the northeast of Estonia was taken as the data of the worthwhile supplier. Oil shale processing chemical complex is considered in two structural alternatives: in technological chain with the 'Estonia' mine (the first variant), and the projected mine of a new technical level (the second variant). (author)

  12. A feasibility study of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash utilisation in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Hakan; Frey, Ruedi; Voronova, Viktoria; Koroljova, Arina

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the alternative environmental management options for the utilisation of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration fly ash (FA), which is generated at Iru Power Plant where MSW is incinerated in Estonia. To determine sustainable and economically feasible environmental management options for MSW incineration FA in Estonia, CO 2 sequestration with a further carbonation process was examined. A partial Cost & Benefit Analysis has been conducted to compare the carbonation process to the current situation. Two carbonation options were developed. Option 1 is to use carbonated FA in any other processes based on the waste-to-product principle. Option 2 is to send carbonated FA to the non-hazardous landfill in Tallinn, Estonia. Important parameters, such as Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) and Break Even Point (BEP), have been calculated for carbonation options and the current case. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been conducted to examine its robustness. The results showed that the best option is carbonation Option 1 with NPV of 9,209,662 EUR, IRR of 43%, BCR of 2.63 and BEP between 2018 and 2019. Both Options 1 and 2 constitute more sustainable and environmentally friendly management options compared to the current situation. It can be concluded that this preliminary feasibility study showed that running a carbonation plant may be profitable and sustainable for Estonia. Currently, there is no treatment technology for MSW incineration FA in Estonia and FA is sent to a neighbouring country for further utilisation. This is the first study to demonstrate FA management options with economic and environmental benefits.

  13. Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haavik S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient.Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1 by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2 by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3 by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers.Methods: Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4 and Sweden (n=7 and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9.Results: Pharmacists’ in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45% and Sweden (0.38%. Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1% in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9% in Sweden.More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (p<0.05 for prescription types and p<0.01 for countries. However, clinically important errors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified.Conclusion: Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact

  14. Armastus kui vale(m) : Mari Vihmandi ooperi "Armastuse valem" lavastusest Estonias / Ester Võsu ja Kristel Pappel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Võsu, Ester, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Argentiina kirjaniku Esther Vilari romaani "Nina Glucksteini matemaatika" ainetel valminud Mari Vihmandi ooperist "Armastuse valem", libreto Maimu Berg, lavastaja Liis Kolle, tantsu- ja liikumisseaded Ana Mondini. Esietendus 17. oktoobril 2008 Rahvusooperis Estonia

  15. [Anu Mai Kõll. The village and the class war : anti-kulak campaign in Estonia] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Kõll, Anu Mai. The village and the class war : anti-kulak campaign in Estonia (Historical studies in Eastern Europe and Eurasia, 2). Central European University Press. Budapest and New York 2013

  16. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter 7 of the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi (Estonia) present technical data on production units, also with regard to new facilities. (ARW)

  17. [Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940)]/ Svetlana Bogojavlenska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bogojavlenska, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940). (Erfurter Studien zur Kulturgeschichte des orthdoxen Christentums, Bd. 6). Lang, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2012

  18. Ühe (suure kultuurinarratiivi saatus: Noor-Eesti. The Fate of a (Great Cultural Narrative: Young-Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Veidemann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This focus of this article is the fate of the cultural narrative that has most influenced Estonian culture of the 20th century – Young Estonia. The point of departure for the analysis is Tiit Hennoste’s 2005 essay ”Young Estonia – An Unfinished Project for Self-Colonization”, which I interpret as the interruption of Young Estonia’s ”great narrative”. Hennoste’s demythologizing approach should be regarded in the context of postmodernism (or of postcolonial treatments of literature and art. I argue that the fact that Young Estonia’s models for cultural movements were located in Europe did not automatically lead to the assimilation of 20th century Estonia (literary culture. Neither did they engage in an automatic copying of European culture; their activities might better be regarded as a process of intertexual enrichment. In what follows, the fate of the narrative of Young Estonia will be traced both in terms of the literary field of Soviet Estonia in the 1950s and 1960s, and in exile. I claim that renewed awareness of the narrative of Young Estonia can be traced to the publication of a collection of Gustav Suits’ Poems in 1959, edited and with an afterword by Endel Sõgel. If one lowers the volume on the vulgar Soviet ideologization in Sõgel’s text, key words that characterize the Young Estonia canon remain in place undisturbed: innovativeness, intellectual greatness, turning point, the social nature of art and literature, consonance of the aesthetic and the ethical. Sõgel’s framing of Young Estonia stands in contrast to its apologetic treatment in the postwar Estonian diaspora. On the one hand, this line of interpretation follows the basic outlines of a critical narrative that developed in the 1920s; on the other, since most of Young Estonia’s authors and followers among the Estonian literary elite had gone into exile in 1944, diaspora interpretations represent a definite literary-political position. In the 1960s a

  19. The effects of political and economic transitions on health and safety in Estonia: an Estonian-Swedish comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, T; Andersson, R; Hörte, L G

    1998-11-01

    A general and dramatic deterioration of health in Estonia during the transition period 1990-1994 was analysed using Sweden as a comparative example. Though there were diverging trends between Estonia and Sweden in the leading cause of death, cardiovascular diseases, the gap in mortality from injury had increased most rapidly. While the injury mortality rate slightly decreased in Sweden from 1990 to 1994, it almost doubled in Estonia. In 1994, the total injury death rate for men was about 6 times higher in Estonia than in Sweden. The death rates for some types of injuries, such as alcohol intoxication and homicide, were many tenfolds higher in Estonia than in Sweden. Injury contributed the most to the widening health gap between the countries, especially in males. The mechanisms of this sudden health deterioration remain to be fully explained. It could be hypothesised that behind the traditional behavioural risk factors, the influence of socio-political factors related to economic and political reconstruction is present. A widespread risk-taking and unhealthy behaviour among Estonians can likely be partly explained as a way of coping with the distress created by the new demands of transition society. An important challenge on the way to improvement is creating the political will among policy-makers to confront the tremendous problems of controlling the factors in society that affect the population's health in Estonia.

  20. Joint implementation demo project between Denmark and Estonia - Phase 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This project is meant to contribute to form the basis of co-operation between Denmark and Estonia as regards Joint Implementation (JI) and thus gather experience in preparation for practical use of JI. A number of questions can be raised for discussion within this project: What is the scope for JI? What is the role of the host country government? Will JI survive the emerging Emission Trading? The project report gives a status of the present situation within the area of JI both internationally and in Estonia, including a resume of the Estonian National Climate Programme. Furthermore, a stakeholder analysis is presented, along with an illustration of the effect of Joint Implementation in the various energy sectors. (BA)

  1. The Path to and Lessons from the Economic Crisis in Estonia: Employee Compensation Development

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    Janno Reiljan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe Estonia’s economic development strategy in the Baltic Sea region primarily from the perspective of labour costs as a factor in international competitiveness. Estonia’s position in the international division of economic activities will be explored based on expert assessments in the context of a study of theoretical literature about labour compensation as a factor in international competitiveness. The differences between the impact of the economic boom and crisis periods on the level and dynamics of employee compensation (labour related expenditures, and gross and net salary in Estonia at the national level will be empirically analysed. An empirical analysis will also be performed to describe the changes in the structure of economic activities (NACE-classification in Estonia

  2. Cost of Capital in Price-regulated Companies: the Case of Estonia

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    Priit Sander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of price-regulated companies it is the role of appropriate government agencies to introduce clear, internally consistent, theoretically sound, and unambiguous methodology for finding the regulative cost of capital. The aim of the paper is to describe and analyze the cost of capital estimation methodology for regulated companies in Estonia and discuss some issues arising in applying this methodology. The current paper focuses on two topical issues associated with the estimation of regulative cost of capital in Estonia: estimation of market risk premium and inclusion of currency risk premium into the cost of capital. Current turmoil in financial markets has increased investors’ risk aversion as well as level of risks.

  3. Labour market adjustments in Estonia during the 2008/2011 crisis

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    Sandrine LEVASSEUR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available his article provides an assessment of labour market adjustments occurring in Estonia during the 2008/2011 crisis. The strategy of internal devaluation succeeded in shrinking the real (hourly unit labour costs by 25 % per year in 2010 and 2011, thus helping Estonian enterprises gain international competitiveness. The whole gamut of tools available in terms of flexibility was used, at least in the worst time of the financial crisis: massive lay-offs, reduced working time and wage cuts. In 2011, Estonia stood as one of the most dynamic EU countries to recover with exports growth. On the social side, however, the track record is not positive: the purchasing power of workers has been reduced and unemployment still remains strong and persistent despite economic recovery.

  4. Research Policies Rewarding Quantity: Estonia and Ukraine. Kvantiteeti tasustav teaduspoliitika: Eesti ja Ukraina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Ukrainski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is resting on the theoretical model of Braun (2003 describing the delegation modes for public funding of research in the principal-agent framework. It aims to show by using the conceptualisation of utility functions of principal and agents on the various levels, how different motivations for producing different kinds of research outputs emerge for researchers and universities or public research organisations in Estonia and Ukraine. The article attempts to offer one explanation to why in some quantitative research output indicators both countries perform very well compared to much lower levels of innovation system indicators otherwise. Estonia is rewarding publications and Ukraine is rewarding utility model applications throughout different levels of the system.

  5. The origin of barium in the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system, North Estonia

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    Mokrik, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the barium occurrence and its origin is made on the basis of the groundwater chemistry study. High Ba content has been detected in the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system in the coastal vicinity of the Gulf of Finland in Estonia and St Petersburg. The dissolution of Ba from witherite as the primary source was derived from the analysis of the aqueous solution equilibrium with Ba-related minerals. It is reflected in the chemical composition of groundwater and influenced by the galenite–calcite–fluorite polymetallic mineralization in Vendian sandstones. The dissolution and re-deposition of carbonates and baryte are confirmed by mineral saturation states for an aqueous solution and distribution of other species in the groundwater of the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system in North Estonia.

  6. E-Participation in the Legislative Process Lessons from Estonia for Enhancing Democratic Empowerment

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    Andrew Glencross

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the success of an innovative national e-participation project in Estonia. To carry out this task, the paper combines quantitative (aggregate user data, content analysis via tagging and qualitative (individual user survey and interviews with public officials data analysis. The analysis is conducted with two principal research objectives in mind. Firstly, to explain how e-participation has fared in Estonia, both in terms of citizen mobilization and government responses. The second goal is to evaluate a series of procedural and technological changes for enhancing e-participation. The Estonian case provides ample lessons for ensuring that e-participation in practice can better meet the expectations of users and government officials alike.

  7. Historical Survey of Nuclear Non-Proliferation in Estonia, 1946-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maremaee, Ello; Tankler, Hain; Putnik, Henno; Maalmann, Iige

    2003-12-01

    The report presents a historical survey on two of the nuclear facilities under the IAEA safeguards in Estonia - Sillamaee Uranium Extraction Factory and the Paldiski Submarine Training Centre. These facilities were a Soviet legacy and shall be decommissioned and it is only through a close international co-operation and technical assistance that it would be possible to solve all the problems arising at these facilities. The historical survey represents the best available information the authors were able to give on the nuclear facilities, which have functioned on the territory of Estonia. The historical survey was a joint co-operation initiative by the Estonian Radiation Protection Centre and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The historical survey will be presented to the IAEA as a volunteer supplement to the State Declaration according to the Additional Protocol (author)

  8. Spatial Planning in Estonia – From A Socialist to Inclusive Perspective

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    Mart HIOB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning in Eastern Europe has gone through major changes during the years after the Soviet occupation ended around 1990. New planning standards were eagerly accepted but the practice was often carried out in a socialist manner. This article gives an overview of planning law and practice in Estonia during the transition period. The example presented is a district in Tartu, the second largest city of 100,000 inhabitants. The article analyses different master planning documents covering the whole district and compares both their process of compilation and their content to former Soviet era plans. The conclusion is that the transition from socialist to inclusive planning in Estonia has taken at least two decades, and the process is still not fi nished. This shows that the legal framework alone is not suffi cient to transform planning practice – a new ideology has to be accepted by the specialist as well as the politicians and the general public.

  9. Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moks, E; Jõgisalu, I; Saarma, U; Talvik, H; Järvis, T; Valdmann, H

    2006-04-01

    Carcasses of 26 wolves were collected during the 2000/2001 and 2003/2004 hunting seasons and examined for helminths. Thirteen helminth species were recorded: one trematode (Alaria alata), seven cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus), and five nematode species (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella britovi). The most common species were A. alata and U. stenocephala. Mature Echinococcus granulosus was found and described for the first time in Estonia, and its identity verified using PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 (mtND1) gene showed that the E. granulosus strain from Estonia was identical to strain G10, recently characterized in reindeer and moose in Finland.

  10. Commented list of rare and protected vascular plants of inland water bodies of Estonia

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    Helle Mäemets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This presented overview of rare and protected hydrophytes, emergent plants and hygrophytes of inland water bodies of Estonia includes 60 species. In the commented list are indicated their position in the state protection categories I–III (last version in 2014, and under the Red List of Estonia (last version in 2008; marked are Natura 2000 species of the European Union. Most typical habitats for these rare species are: I. soft-water oligotrophic and semidystrophic lakes; II. mesotrophic lakes with Najas (Caulinia flexilis and Potamogeton rutilus; III. alkaline fens and wet meadows; IV. brackish or freshwater coastal lagoons; V. undamaged river stretches; VI. open shallow littoral of the largest lakes of Peipsi (Pskovsko-Chudskoe and of Võrtsjärv. Main threats of these habitats are briefly concerned, as well as the problem of conservation value of hybrids, based on the example of Sparganium species.

  11. Business environments versus corporate survival in Estonia and Poland in 2001–2009

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    Grzegorz Gołębiowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Corporate longevity is - in essence - determined by a company's intrinsic competitive advantage (sometimes dubbed a "moat" as well as exogenous factors: from business doing ease - to broader, macroeconomic and strategic factors. In this study, we have endeavoured to compare the business environments and corporate sectors of two recent entrants into the European Union: Estonia and Poland. Overall, Estonia, thanks to greater resolve in post-communist liberal transition, has consistently ensured a superior corporate governance framework. Surprisingly, it is the macroeconomic and strategic steadiness that led to higher corporate survival in Poland. The global economic crisis of 2007-2009 is expected to further back this claim, as the patterns of macroeconomic growth for both countries are set to widen.

  12. Environmental priority action programme for Leningrad, Leningrad Region, Karelia and Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Finnish Government has drawn up a plan of action concerning co-operation in the near future with Eastern European countries. Go-operation in the field of environmental protection occupies a central position in the plan. In connection with the plan, an Environmental Review and Priority Action Programme for Leningrad, Leningrad region, Karelia and Estonia has been made to determine the main environmental problems and the main measures to reduce them

  13. Uudised : "Eesti väärtorelid" 3. Verdi festival Estonias. Leedu ooper 80 / Tiina Mattisen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mattisen, Tiina

    2001-01-01

    6. jaan. esitleti Jaani kirikus sarja "Eesti väärtorelid" kolmandat CDd, mis jäädvustab A. Terkmanni 1913.a valminud oreli kõla. G. Verdi 100. surma-aastapäevale pühendatud Verdi festivalist Rahvusooperis Estonia 19.-27. jaan. Leedu Rahvuslik Ooperi- ja Balletiteater tähistas leedu ooperikunsti 80. sünnipäeva 30. dets. galakontserdiga, Estoniat esindas M. Palm

  14. Decline in alcohol consumption in Estonia: combined effects of strengthened alcohol policy and economic downturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Jarno

    2011-01-01

    To describe alcohol policy changes in parallel to consumption changes in 2005-2010 in Estonia, where alcohol consumption is among the highest in Europe. Review of pertinent legislation and literature. Alcohol consumption decreased since 2008, while alcohol excise tax, sales time restrictions and ad bans have increased since 2005. An economic downturn started in 2008. The precise roles of policy changes and the economic downturn in the decline of alcohol consumption, and whether the decrease will be sustained, are still unclear.

  15. Cruziana traces from the Late Silurian (Pridoli carbonate shelf of Saaremaa, Estonia

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    Olev Vinn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Late Pridoli Cruziana traces have recently been found in carbonate shelf sediments of the Ohesaare Formation on Saaremaa Island, Estonia. Cruziana isp. is interpreted here as a locomotory trace (repichnia of an arthropod, possibly a trilobite. Cruziana traces previously known from the Silurian of Baltica differ from Cruziana isp., indicating that the diversity of Cruziana traces in the late Silurian of Baltica was higher than previously thought.

  16. Estonia hukk jõuab Eesti kinodesse sügisel / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal peatselt esilinastuv poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena, jõuab Eestis siinse levitaja Mati Seppingu sõnul linale novembri alul. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist on kapten Arvo Kallase rollis Rein Oja

  17. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F.; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC–AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC–AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep. PMID:27732668

  18. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

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    Ene Indermitte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L.

  19. The Phenomenon of Trust in Flat Owners’ Collective Renovation Strategies in Estonia

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    Liis Ojamäe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobilising fl at owners into renovating residential blocks in post-socialist countries has been a complicated process. Evidence from Estonia shows that the success of collective renewal strategies depends not only on economic issues but also on ways investments are organised and, signifi cantly, the relationship of trust between diff erent actors. The paper aims at conceptualising the issue of institutional trust upon the experience of urban housing renewal in Estonia. It is contended that trust is crucial for the joint decision-making in a block as well as for facilitating negotiations between fl at owners’ associations, local municipalities and market actors. The paper draws on three qualitative studies conducted in Estonia during the 2000s, which allow asserting that trust towards new strategies of housing renewal can be achieved and maintained by ‘best practices’, which by concentrating expert knowledge also denote direct communication between experts and fl at owners. While it is important to raise the residents’ technical knowledgeability, it is indispensable to develop abilities to manage and communicate the renovation process between diff erent parties. The public sector is conceived to be a central actor in sustaining trust between actors who have no previous positive experience from collective residential strategies

  20. 25 Years of Change in Management Control Systems and Business Education in Estonia

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    Ülle Pärl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last 25 years, the Estonian economy has transitioned from a centrally planned economy to a market-oriented, globally open, highly competitive economy. Although during these years there has been fast growth and Estonians could tell a lot of success stories, research shows that management practices are still less advanced compared to those in enterprises from developed countries. Increased competition, openness and innovation increased the significance of more sophisticated management control systems (MCS. Researchers accentuate the role of managers and their education and training in using and developing more sophisticated MCS in companies. The objective of the current paper is to better understand how changes in the business environment, managerial training and education are connected to developments in MCS in Estonia. This article provides an overview of the statistics and studies completed in Estonia over the last 25 years. As this study shows, the last decade has brought a different level of internationalization and development in the business environment and business education. The problems associated with developments in MCS , using cloud technology, business education and managerial training are the same in Estonia as in developed countries. To develop the business and economic environment in the country, Estonian entrepreneurs need high-level data processing, analytical and financial education, and practical training courses.

  1. Saksa kirjandus Noor-Eesti ajal. Young Estonia and German Literature

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    Liina Lukas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Impelled by a desire to free themselves from the German influence that had dominated the development of Estonian literature, and from the one-sided relation of cultural dependence that had lasted several hundred years, the Young Estonia movement sought to modernize Estonian literature through borrowing from other European literatures, in particular from French, Scandinavian, and Finnish. This article seeks to clarify the relative importance and selection criteria of translations from German literature for the literary field of the Young Estonia era. Further, I seek to elucidate Young Estonia’s contribution to the renewal of these selection criteria in the first, but more importantly the second decade of the 20th century. The long list of translations from German to Estonian at the beginning of the century speaks of the ”light Muse” of German family newspapers, with an admixture of the following: naturalist light fiction with a social theme and social drama; the historical novel (great favourite of the era of historicism, trendy fiction for both feminine and masculine audiences, and an overwhelming proportion of ”Heimatskunst” (literature of local colour. In the first and second decade of the new century, new names appear on the Estonian literary scene that signal a change in taste. For example, naturalist authors (Kretzer, Hauptmann, Halbe, Dehmel crop up sporadically amidst texts meant for leisure reading. Although the first translations of Nietzsche only appeared in 1901, already in 1902 critics had reason to speak of ”Nietzsche in Estonian literature”. 1910 marked the breakthrough of Viennese modernism in the Estonian literary field (Schnitzler, Altenberg, Bahr. Under the influential protection of the Young Estonians (Suits, Kallas, and published by the Young Estonia Publishing House, Baltic German novellawriter Eduard Keyserling enters the Estonian literary scene. Though ”mass consumption” literature from Germany continued

  2. The state-church relations in Estonia during the years 1944 - 1953

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    Nepochatova Marina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article features an analysis of the nature and dynamic of church-state relations in Estonia during the first years following its integration into the USSR. In 1944 the religious situation in the republic was characterized by a number of distinctive attributes. The local population, which had lived prior to the accession of the Baltics to the USSR in 1944 in an atmosphere of relative religious freedom, presented the Soviet authorities with a new phenomenon that would have to be reckoned with. The Plenipotentiaries for Estonia appointed by the Council on ROC Affairs at the USSR Council of Ministers were able to convince their superiors of the need to tread carefully in light of the local specifics. The article deals with an analysis of the distinctive features of the Estonian Orthodox Church. As a secondary denomination in the region, it felt the powerful influence of Lutheran customs and rites. The ethnic heterogeneity of the fold and pronounced language barrier determined the choice of candidacy for the ruling eparchy. The Estonian diocese was rather well endowed with cathedrals, meaning that the main problem of church life in the USSR since the easing of persecution in 1944-1947 - the opening of new parishes - was not an issue in Estonia. On the whole, the church-state relations that dominated the republic in 1944-1947 were quite stable, just as they were around the country; moreover, they were typified by a cautious policy on the part of the Soviet authorities. In 1948-1949 the situation began to deteriorate across the country and Estonia was no exception. The difference was in the methods used: in Estonia, the decision was made to fight the Church and its clergy primarily through collectivization, which was actively pursued in the Baltics beginning in the early 1950s. Collectivization left rural parishes and their clergy in dire straits, and religious life in the countryside began to wane. Yet, the arrival from the central regions

  3. Improving conditions for transferring family enterprises in Estonia. Pereettevõtte üleandmise võimalustest Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Güldenkoh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Family enterprise is a business entity that belongs to the family. In Estonia the concept of family business, family entrepreneur, or family enterprise has not been defined in legislation. The concepts of business and enterprise have been defined in several pieces of law with some dissensions in their interpretations, however. Differences in legal definitions become obvious when transferring a business. The aim of the article is to assess the legislative conditions of family enterprises in Estonia. Family enterprises can be transferred either by way of transferring the holding status or by transferring the enterprise. Holding can be transferred in companies; a sole proprietor should transfer the business entity either as a whole or transfer the business entity into a company to have a holding there. Family businesses operating as sole proprietors may incur tax liability by transferring the family enterprise. The paper outlines special features of transferring enterprises, including family enterprises in Estonia. Business transfers have been few and there is no unambiguous practice in this sphere. Transfer of family enterprises is identified with transfer of enterprises; differences arise when family business has been registered as a sole proprietor. The paper provides a brief description of the differences in transferring enterprises, including family enterprises in Estonia. A purpose was to evaluate the legal environment of transferring family enterprises. In Estonia guidelines should be formulated for transferring the business of a self-employed family member and legal regulations should be introduced to avoid ill-intentioned transfer of enterprises.

  4. Sajand hiljem. Mida Noor-Eesti tegi ja mida ta ei teinud. A Century Later: What Young Estonia Did – and What it Did Not Do

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Hasselblatt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the position of Young Estonia (Noor-Eesti in four different fields of influence: 1. What is the position of the Young Estonia movement in literary history, i.e. in the different monographs and articles on Estonian literature? What position is given to the movement by the writer(s of the various sketches on Estonian literature between 1908 and 2007, and how important are the writers of the group in the eyes of literary historians? 2. How is the movement represented in the collective (public memory of Estonia, e.g. do we find members of the movement on stamps or banknotes or in street names? 3. How do people in Estonia remember the literary production of the members of the group: what are the most important texts people read today, and how are these texts linked to the Young Estonia movement? 4. Finally, how is the movement represented outside Estonia, i.e. in the reception of Estonian literature abroad? Which texts have been translated, which authors are well-known abroad? In answering these questions the author concludes that the Young Estonia movement was much less important than has been assumed with respect to the production of literature, i.e. yielding literary texts that have been recognized and read up till the present. Rather, the lasting importance of Young Estonia has been in the organization of literary life.

  5. Leisure-time Physical Activity Among Different Social Groups of Estonia: Results of the National Physical Activity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusmägi Peeter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Eurobarometer (European Commission, 2010, 39% of the Estonian adult population is not physically active at all. This percentage is relatively high compared to other countries that are culturally close to Estonia; the corresponding figure of close neighbors Finland and Sweden is below 10%. The article aims to present the results of a survey of physical activity (n=1,009 conducted in Estonia in 2013 and analyzes physical activity levels across various social groups. The results of the article show that employment, age, education, and ethnicity are important factors for engaging in leisure-time physical activity in Estonia. Non-ethnic Estonians, the less educated, the elderly, the unemployed, and those on maternity leave are less engaged in regular leisure exercise than people in other social groups. The results of the article were used to develop Estonia’s Sports 2030 strategy.

  6. Noor-Eesti antifuturismist.On the Anti-Futurism of Young Estonia

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    Virve Sarapik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Young Estonia persists in Estonian cultural memory as a movement of renewal, among other factors through its impetus to the development of urban culture. This article undertakes to juxtapose Young Estonia’s efforts at cultural renewal, its rhetoric of the future, and futurism as a cultural phenomenon. (As such, futurism was vitally engaged with contemporary urban culture, industry, and technology. Four parameters serve as points of departure: (1 Young Estonia’s rhetoric of the new and the future. Though specific about what they rejected, Young Estonia’s texts do not outline a clear vision of the future. Frequently used key words for what they opposed included German- or Russian-mindedness, a people in servitude, the old, flat land, the lack of a unified whole, lack of style. (2 The place of the city in Young Estonia’s texts. Though in earlier publications there were only a few passing references to urban culture, the problems of the city come to the fore in several programmatic texts and in the visual design of the fourth Young Estonia album in 1912. By then the core members of Young Estonia also had had real experience of a large metropolis. If their earlier attitude toward the city had been critical, then in these Young Estonian texts the city finds its positive face. (3 Industry and the proletariat. The Young Estonia movement received stimulus from such general phenomena as factories, technology, and industry. In their imagination working people and educated people seem to live in separate worlds, with different wishes and needs. However, the freedom of the educated would be impossible without political freedom. Although they believed that technological development was a precondition for the creation of urban culture, neither their own literary works nor their other aspirations bore this out. (4 Futurism and film. Young Estonia’s later period coincided with the intensive use of term ”futurism” in Estonian journalism. Young

  7. Pilot projects for the remediation of Sillamaee uranium tailings in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasik, T.; Siinmaa, A.

    2001-01-01

    First Estonian uranium, produced in a pilot plant at Narva, was presented to Soviet military administration in 1945 and just a year later - 1946 - installation of an uranium production plant was started at Sillamaee, Estonia. Estonian local ore - alum shale - containing only 0,026% of uranium was used for uranium production for nearly five years, after the plant was launched in 1948. The uranium mine, having been activated from 1947 to 1952, was left in status of 'active conservation' for 17 years, until finally closed in 1969. Potential threats of this hidden legacy have never been revealed. After close-down of local uranium mine, more than 4 million tons of ore, imported mostly from Central and East European countries: Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Eastern Germany were processed at Sillamaee. These activities have left a large tailings impoundment with the total volume of ca. 8 million cubic meters in the immediate vicinity of the Baltic Sea. Today the plant is privatized, converted to civil purposes and provides together its power generating facilities ca. 1200 jobs in the socially sensitive area of North-East Estonia, while environmental hazards of the history, however, remain: - Continuous seepage of tailing waters into the sea contributes and would contribute over long term to the pollution of the Baltic Sea; - stability of the tailings dam seaside under present conditions can not be guaranteed thus risking a sudden release of partly liquid tailings due to potential dam failure; - uncovered surface of the tailings presents a health hazard due to dusting and radon release and hinders the revitalization of the area. The conceptual design of the Estonia's largest environmental remediation project, done by Wismut, is now complete and first implementation steps are underway. The project for mine area restoration is in initiation phase; it shall reveal the current and potential environmental hazards of the facility and create the concept for necessary rehabilitation

  8. Environmental remediation of the former Soviet military uranium milling site at Sillamae, Estonia: Features of approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassik, T.; Siinmaa, A.

    1999-01-01

    Quick launch of the nuclear program was a high priority for the Soviet military, as a uranium production plant installation was started at Sillamae, Estonia, in 1946. Estonian local ore - alum shale - containing only 0.03% of uranium was used for uranium production for nearly five years, after the plant was launched in 1948. Altogether more than 4 million tons of ore, imported mostly from Central and East European countries (Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Eastern Germany) were processed at Sillamae. These activities have left a large tailings impoundment with the total volume of ca 8 million cubic meters in the immediate vicinity of the Baltic Sea. Today the plant is privatized, converted to civil purposes and provides ca. 1200 jobs in the socially sensitive area of North-East Estonia, while environmental hazards from the past; however, remain: Continuous seepage of tailing waters into the sea contributes and would contribute over long term to the pollution of the Baltic Sea; stability of the tailings dam seaside under present conditions can not be guaranteed thus risking a sudden release of partly liquid tailings due to potential dam failure; and uncovered surface of the tailings presents a health hazard due to dusting and radon release and hinders the revitalization of the area. The conceptual design of the Estonia's largest environmental project is now complete, the completion of practical remedial works by the end of 2005 will render Sillamae project a pioneer among Central and East European restoration projects of this character. This paper presents characteristic features of Sillamae remediation project, planning the use of best technical solutions, especially considering the vulnerability of geotechnical stability. (author)

  9. The earliest cornulitid on the internal surface of the illaenid pygidium from the Middle Ordovician of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Vinn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The earliest cornulitid Cornulites sp. appears in the Darriwilian (Lasnamägi Regional Stage of Estonia. Internal annulation is present in all Middle Ordovician cornulitids and could be a plesiomorphic character for the group. The encrusted trilobites are rare in the Ordovician of Estonia. Illaenid pygidia and cranidia were encrusted by cornulitids and trepostome bryozoans. The encrustation of both Middle Ordovician and Late Ordovician trilobites took place post mortem. The studied hard substrate communities of Middle Ordovician and Late Ordovician trilobite pygidia and cranidia are typical of the Ordovician.

  10. Application of spherical fly-ash particles to study spatial deposition of atmospheric pollutants in northen-eastern Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliksaar, T.

    2000-01-01

    Spherical fly-ash particles, emitted to the atmosphere in the high-temperature combustion process of fossil fuels, were found in considerable amounts in analysed snow samples of north-eastern Estonia. Spatial deposition of particles in snow cover is compared with the results of surface sediment samples of lakes. The results from snow characterise well the distribution of pollution sources and the distance from the main power plants in north eastern Estonia. Variations in particle deposition of closely situated snow samples were found to be negligible. Fly-ash particle influxes in snow samples correlate well with modelled maximum concentration fields of flyash in the near-surface air layer. (author)

  11. Groundwater management for pollution control: a case study for oil shale mining in Northeast Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erg, K.; Raukas, A.

    2001-01-01

    In Estonia oil shale is produced by underground and surface mining. The excavation methods used cause serious damage to the environment, especially to the topography, which hampers the further use of the mined-out areas. The oil shale mining has a serious impact on the environment also due to the pollution of surface and groundwater by polluted mine drainage waters, lowering of groundwater level, changing of soil properties and high air pollution rate. Decline in mining activities and the introduction of new technologies together with economic measures has improved the situation but much should be done during coming years. (author)

  12. Extensive farming in Estonia started through a sex-biased migration from the steppe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saag, Lehti; Varul, Liivi; Scheib, Christiana Lyn

    2017-01-01

    The transition from hunting and gathering to farming in Europe was brought upon by arrival of new people carrying novel material culture and genetic ancestry. The exact nature and scale of the transition—both material and genetic—varied in different parts of Europe [1–7]. Farming-based economies...... Age populations, and European Late Neolithic/Bronze Age populations, while their X chromosomes are in addition equally closely related to European and Anatolian and Levantine early farmers. These findings suggest that the shift to intensive cultivation and animal husbandry in Estonia was triggered...

  13. Quality control and patient dose from X-ray examinations in some hospitals in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.; Rannikko, S.; Parviainen, T.; Holmberg, P.; Kuus, E.; Mueuersepps, T.; Jaerv, V.

    1995-01-01

    Quality control measurements of X ray diagnostic units were carried out in four hospitals in Estonia. Measurements were focused on the unit's technical performance, on image quality and on patient dose and film processing. The main problems are in the areas of image receptors and film processing: image receptors are of low speed type causing high patient doses and manual film processing results in low contrast and high base plus fog. Spatial resolution, both in film imaging and in image intensifiers, is reasonably good. It is recommended that quality assurance programmes be established, that basic measuring equipment be acquired and personnel assigned to perform such measurements be trained. (Author)

  14. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Hepatitis e Virus in Veterinarians in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi

    2017-01-01

    positive with both tests. Antibody-positive samples were further examined for the presence of HEV RNA. Three (2.6%) of the 115 veterinarians tested positive for immunoglobulin G antibodies against HEV, whereas no immunoglobulin M antibodies against the virus were detected. The antibody......-positive veterinarians were small animal practitioners. Pigs comprised no or small part of their working time or patients. No HEV RNA was detected in the antibody-positive samples. The prevalence of antibodies against HEV in veterinarians in Estonia was lower than what has been observed in veterinarians in other...

  15. Real Estate Bubble Bursts and Government Policy during Crisis: Examples of Estonia, Ireland and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmas Varblane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current article is to view previous experience with real estate crises and taking into account such experience find suitable policy reactions to overcome the current Estonian crisis as smoothly as possible. Beside overall theoretical guidelines for overcoming the crisis, examples of Sweden and Ireland are viewed. The policy issues suggested for Estonia include some changes in tax laws, avoiding expansionary fiscal policy, making lending stricter and borrower responsible to higher extent, cooperation of different authorities to tackle problem of bad loans, initiating wage and price cut, paying more attention to exporting sector

  16. Socio-demographic Model of Gender Gap in Expected and Actual Wages in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vassil, Kristjan; Eamets, Raul; Mõtsmees, Pille

    2014-01-01

    Estonia ranks consistently on top of the list of countries with the largest gender pay gap. However, irrespective of abundant aggregate level evidence, little is known what motivates the gap at the individual level. In this paper we precisely address the issue of gender pay gap at the individual level. We examine how large is the gender pay gap in actual and expected wages and how it can be explained. We use a rich dataset from Estonian Labour Force Survey on actual wages, and the data from C...

  17. First union formation in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: patterns across countries and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luule Sakkeus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of first union formation in the Baltic countries between the late 1960s and early 1990s, in the context of societal and family-level gender relations. The analyses employ microdata from the European Family and Fertility Surveys program. Our results on the trends indicate that in Estonia and Latvia the shift from direct marriage to cohabitation started well before the fall of socialist regime. Event-history models provide support for a hypothesised association between union formation and gender system, with Lithuania showing more traditional features in both respect, plausibly embedded in long-standing cultural differences between the countries.

  18. An overview of the digital publishing market in Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arūnas Gudinavičius

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze several aspects of digital publishing markets in Baltic countries. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have their own languages, so there are three different publishing markets. Results show that there are significant differences in the number of available titles, despite the fact that the Baltic e-book market is relatively new. The research on e-book sales identified the main e-book retailers and publishers in Baltic countries. E-books in Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian available on sale were counted and the differences between e-book formats and the pricing in each country were established. The results showed that the smallest Baltic country, Estonia, has more e-books on sale than both Latvia and Lithuania. It is difficult to say if Latvia even has an e-book market at all. Lithuania is somewhere in the middle. Finally, an overview of the largest retailers and publishers is provided and overall publishing dynamics within the past 20 years is described.

  19. Efficiency Assessment of Support Mechanisms for Wood-Fired Cogeneration Development in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres

    2010-01-01

    There are various support mechanisms for wood-fired cogeneration plants, which include both support for cogeneration development and stimulation for increasing consumption of renewable energy sources. The efficiency of these mechanisms is analysed in the paper. Overview of cogeneration development in Estonia is given with the focus on wood-fired cogeneration. Legislation acts and amendments, related to cogeneration support schemes, were described. For evaluating the efficiency of support mechanisms an indicator - fuel cost factor was defined. This indicator includes the costs related to the chosen fuel influence on the final electricity generation costs without any support mechanisms. The wood fuel cost factors were compared with the fuel cost factors for peat and oil shale. For calculating the fuel cost factors, various data sources were used. The fuel prices data were based on the average cost of fuels in Estonia for the period from 2000 till 2008. The data about operating and maintenance costs, related to the fuel type in the case of comparing wood fuel and oil shale fuel were taken from the CHP Balti and Eesti reports. The data about operating and maintenance costs used for peat and wood fuel comparison were taken from the Tallinn Elektrijaam reports. As a result, the diagrams were built for comparing wood and its competitive fuels. The decision boundary lines were constructed on the diagram for the situation, when no support was provided for wood fuels and for the situations, when various support mechanisms were provided during the last 12 years.

  20. Language & authoritarianism in the 20th century: The cases of Estonia and Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaney Michael Skerrett

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century saw the Soviet and Francoist regimes enforce their respective ideologies in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking territories in Spain. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of the mechanisms of censorship and repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders—representing both extremes of the political spectrum—tried to replace the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own—Russian and (Castilian Spanish—as these languages embodied the ideologies and the new orders that they wished to establish. This paper compares and contrasts the diverse methods of control over language carried out in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking areas of Spain in order to demonstrate that highly centralised multilingual states—whatever their political ideology—can make use of surprisingly similar means of control, ultimately depriving local linguistic communities of the ability to use and develop their own language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.16

  1. Perceived Status and National Belonging: The Case of Russian Speakers in Finland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Anna Renvik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundance of research on disadvantaged minority group members, the research field on the ramifications of low group status is largely split between more material and psychological lines of explanation. There is also a lack of research on how subjectively perceived socio-economic status and discrimination cumulatively affect the sense of national belonging of ethnic minority group members. This survey study was conducted among Russian-speaking immigrants in Finland ('N' = 316 and Estonia ('N' = 501. The results in Estonia showed that for national identification to be high, both indicators of subjective group status had to be perceived as relatively high. In Finland, there was no interaction between the two indicators of subjectively perceived low group status. The study shows how perceptions of cumulative disadvantage may provoke a backlash in the form of immigrants’ psychological distancing from the national ingroup. The findings are discussed in relation to the pervasiveness of low status in different intergroup contexts and minority group members’ perceived investments to society.

  2. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) agent Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in brown trout populations in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Megha; Vasemägi, Anti

    2014-05-13

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a serious parasitic disease threatening both farmed and wild salmonid populations, but very little is currently known about the distribution of the parasite in the Baltic Sea region. In this study we (1) report the development of a novel multiplex PCR method for fast and reliable screening of T. bryosalmonae; (2) use this multiplex PCR method to show that the PKD agent T. bryosalmonae is widespread in natural brown trout Salmo trutta L. populations in Estonia; (3) evaluate monthly and yearly variation of T. bryosalmonae prevalence in juvenile trout; (4) assess T. bryosalmonae prevalence in different age-classes of fish (0+ vs. 1+ and older) and report the presence of the PKD agent in the kidneys of returning sea trout spawners; and (5) suggest the freshwater bryozoan Plumatella fungosa as a putative invertebrate host of T. bryosalmonae in Estonia. Our results demonstrate a highly heterogeneous distribution of T. bryosalmonae at the micro-geographic scale, indicating that PKD could have an important negative effect on recruitment in Estonian brown trout populations.

  3. Gentrification in a Post-Socialist Town: The Case of the Supilinn District, Tartu, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele NUTT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the changes that have taken place in the Supilinn district in Tartu, Estonia due to the gentrification process. The gentrification process affects the cultural, social, economic, and physical environment of the area. People have been interested in this topic since the 1960s. Nowadays, there is also reason to discuss this issue in the context of Estonia and of the Supilinn district. Studying and understanding the processes that take place in the living environment, provides an opportunity to be more aware about them and to influence the development of these processes. This article provides an analysis of the conditions necessary for gentrification in the Supilinn district, describes the process of gentrification, and tries to assess the current developmental stage of the gentrification process. Cities are shaped by their people. Every area has a unique look that is shaped not only by the physical environment, but also by the principles, values, and wishes of its residents. Local residents influence the image of the mental and the physical space of the area. What changes has the development of the Supilinn district caused in the population of the area, and how have the residents, in turn, changed the district?

  4. Estland im Sog der Russischen Volkswirtschaft? Estonia Being Caught Up in Russian Turmoil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Friedrich Laaser

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of the Ukraine crisis and Russia’s economic problems, the authors pose the question to what extent the Estonian economy still relies on foreign trade with Russia and which costs Estonia might bear in the course of an aggravation of the lingering East-West conflict. Estonian trade relations with Russia as well as Estonia’s integration in the European and global division of labor are analyzed by a gravity model which also incorporates the trade foreign trade of the Baltic neighbors Latvia and Lithuania as benchmark countries. The authors find that even before the crisis Estonia’s trade with Russia lost weight and the dependency on Russian export and import markets diminished. By an in-depth analysis of Estonia’ sectoral trade patterns these findings were confirmed for the majority of industries. Only in the case of the Estonian milk industry the authors observe significant effects of Russian sanctions. In contrast to this particular case, Estonia becomes increasingly independent from imports of Russian natural gas which in the past made the country vulnerable to political blackmail. The authors conclude that regional and sectoral diversification of Estonian trade patterns induced by the current crisis will help the country to improve its international competitiveness and its economic integration into world markets.

  5. Insect pests and their natural enemies on spring oilseed rape in Estonia : impact of cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. VEROMANN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of different cropping systems, the pests, their hymenopteran parasitoids and predatory ground beetles present in two spring rape crops in Estonia, in 2003, were compared. One crop was grown under a standard (STN cropping system and the other under a minimised (MIN system. The STN system plants had more flowers than those in the MIN system, and these attracted significantly more Meligethes aeneus, the only abundant and real pest in Estonia. Meligethes aeneus had two population peaks: the first during opening of the first flowers and the second, the new generation, during ripening of the pods. The number of new generation M. aeneus was almost four times greater in the STN than in the MIN crop. More carabids were caught in the MIN than in STN crop. The maximum abundance of carabids occurred two weeks before that of the new generation of M. aeneus, at the time when M. aeneus larvae were dropping to the soil for pupation and hence were vulnerable to predation by carabids.

  6. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-06-01

    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. A rapid situation assessment of the market for surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Lang, Katrin; Raju, Kadi; Väli, Marika; McKee, Martin

    2007-01-01

    To understand the phenomenon of consumption of surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, capital of Estonia. This study, conducted in Tallinn in May 2006, used rapid situation assessment. Interviews with key informants in relevant settings such as emergency departments of hospitals, accommodation for the homeless, police etc. (n = 22), with alcohol abusers (n = 33), natural observations of surrogate sale and consumption venues (n = 46), and tracking of trade data were carried out. Key informants confirmed that consumption of illegal and surrogate alcohols are widely used by alcohol abusers, a finding confirmed by the alcohol abusers. Availability of surrogates varied by area of the city, mainly sold from street kiosks. Illegally produced spirits were also easily available. Sales of surrogates appear to have increased in recent years. A range of alcohol-containing substances that appear to be easily available at low cost, and that have high concentration of ethanol or contaminants known to be toxic, were identified in Tallinn. Alcohol policies in Estonia should address the consumption and availability of these substances.

  8. Country Branding and Country Image: Insights, Challenges and Prospects. The Case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Same Siiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaining understanding about customers ’mindset and information on their experiences is a precondition for the formulation of an effective country branding strategy. What potential tourists might learn and how they can be made to feel about a place can help small and not very well-known countries compete with bigger and more popular tourist destinations. The article focuses on the effectiveness of Brand Estonia and claims that it is still a challenge, despite the existence of an ongoing strategy. It also favors the revision of the brand identity selection and the promotion of Estonian brand, and supports a customer-based approach for their assessment. Documentary and empirical evidence show that the image of Estonia among its most important target audiences in the field of tourism does not match the Estonian brand identity. The gap in-between was evidenced by the results and content analysis of 24 in-depth interviews made with a selected group of people well acquainted with the country as well as some branding experts. This article contributes to the existing case study literature with findings that also manifest opportunities to strengthen the country brand, if its formulation develops a realistic brand identity and its promotion is based on accurate, unique and appealing ideas. It proposes academic support to innovative or alternative concepts for the country branding, and comments on applications of this study to more specific fields and further research.

  9. Detection and characterization of Babesia species in Ixodes ticks in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katargina, Olga; Geller, Julia; Vasilenko, Veera; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Järvekülg, Lilian; Vene, Sirkka; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2011-07-01

    The presence of Babesia spp. was studied in 2603 Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected at seven sites in Estonia. By reverse line blot screening, Babesia spp. was detected in 36 (1.4%) ticks, among them 18 (0.7%) were further recognized by a Babesia microti probe, 3 (0.1%) by a Babesia divergens probe, and the other 15 (0.6%) were recognized only by the universal Babesia spp. "catch all" probe. Sequence analyses of 6 of these 15 samples revealed that all of them belonged to Babesia sp. EU1. B. microti was detected in both tick species I. ricinus and I. persulcatus at the seven sites, whereas B. divergens-like and Babesia sp. EU1 were found only in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus, respectively. Genetic characterization based on partial 18S rRNA showed that the Estonian sequences of B. microti, B. divergens-like, and Babesia sp. EU1 share a high rate of similarity and are closely related to sequences from other European countries, Siberia, and United States. The present study demonstrated for the first time the existence and distribution of Babesia spp. in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks in Estonia.

  10. Significance of action plans in the development of occupational well-being in the schools of Finland and Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Sari; Saaranen, Terhi; Pertel, Tiia; Hansen, Siivi; Lepp, Kädi; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a long term project "Promoting the Occupational Well-Being of School Staff-Action Research Project in Finland and Estonia, 2009-2014." The purpose of this article is to describe the significance of action plans in the promotion of the occupational well-being of primary and upper secondary school staff in Finland and Estonia from 2010 to the turn of the year 2011-2012. An electronic open questionnaire was sent to occupational well-being groups in Finland (N=18) and in Estonia (N=39). In Finland, the questionnaire was responded to by 16 (n=16) occupational well-being groups, and in Estonia, by 38 (n=38) groups. The qualitative data were analyzed using the inductive-deductive method and content analysis. The obtained results indicate that the schools had named goals for action plans in all aspects of the promotion of occupational well-being in schools (worker and work, working conditions, professional competence, working community) and that these goals were mainly realized in the schools in a systematic way. Schools felt that the action plan for occupational well-being helped them to set goals for occupational well-being and that the planned actions were realized in a more systematic way than before. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Russian in Estonia's Public Sector: "Playing on the Borderline" between Official Policy and Real-Life Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezkina, Maimu

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the use of Russian in state communication in officially monolingual Estonia. Drawing on interviews with high-level public employees in four central state institutions and an analysis of these institutions' websites, the article shows that while Russian is not specifically mentioned in the laws, it is "de facto"…

  12. Youth sexual health improvement in Estonia, 1990-2009: The role of sexuality education and youth-friendly services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haldre, K.; Part, K.; Ketting, E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives A new school curriculum was introduced in Estonia in 1996 comprising for the first time sexuality education (SE) topics. The first youth counselling centres (YCCs) addressing sexual health matters were set up in 1991-1992. This study describes the development of school-based SE

  13. Perspectives on Tolerance in Education Flowing from a Comparison of Religion Education in Estonia and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2013-01-01

    The question that prompted this investigation into religion education (RE) in Estonia and in South Africa was whether two countries from such totally different parts of the world, with such vastly different populations and cultures though with somewhat parallel histories, had tackled the same or similar problems regarding the provision of RE in…

  14. Does School Admission by Zoning Affect Educational Inequality? A Study of Family Background Effect in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin; Veski, Andre

    2017-01-01

    We indicate the size of family background effects in Sweden, Finland, and Estonia--countries that differ in both the rhetoric and extensiveness of the system-level school choice policies. Family background effect is defined as the dependence of student achievement on family background characteristics, such as parental education, income, and social…

  15. Bilingual Voicing: A Study of Code-Switching in the Reported Speech of Finnish Immigrants in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Maria; Riionheimo, Helka

    2013-01-01

    Through a conversation analytic investigation of Finnish-Estonian bilingual (direct) reported speech (i.e., voicing) by Finns who live in Estonia, this study shows how code-switching is used as a double contextualization device. The code-switched voicings are shaped by the on-going interactional situation, serving its needs by opening up a context…

  16. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter nine of the final report of the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi municipalities (Estonia) present extensive data relating to economic, financial and environmental calculations, fuel consumption, energy balance and prices. (ARW)

  17. Community orientation of services for persons with a psychiatric disability. Comparison between Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. dr. Jean Pierre Wilken; Zsolt Bugarszki; Karin Hanga; Dagmar Narusson; Koidu Saia; Marju Medar

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the way mental health services and social services are orientated on assisting people with a psychiatric disability to participate in different areas of community life. A large research project about community participation in three different countries (Estonia, Hungary and the

  18. Late-glacial to Holocene aeolian deposition in northeastern Europe - The timing of sedimentation at the Iisaku site (NE Estonia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalinska-Nartisa, Edyta; Nartiss, Maris; Thiel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The Late-glacial and Holocene aeolian inland dune complex at Iisaku (NE Estonia) has been investigated using an accurate and detailed compilation of the sedimentary properties and chronological framework. The quartz grains forming the dunes are very variable, reflecting aeolian, weathering...

  19. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  20. Provenance of zircon of the lowermost sedimentary cover, Estonia, East-European Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konsa, M.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulk and accessory mineral composition of fresh and weathered crystalline rocks, and sedimentary deposits overlying the crystalline-sedimentary unconformity have been examined in core samples from 28 drill holes in Estonia. Before the Late Vendian to Early Cambrian regional subsidence and sedimentation, the region represented a flat plateau within the Svecofennian Domain. Palaeo-and Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks, regardless their different initial mineral composition, subcrop under the Upper Vendian/Lower Cambrian sedimentary cover as usually intensely weathered rocks (saprolites composed of residual quartz, altered micas and prevailing clay minerals mainly of the kaolinite group. Thus, the bulk mineral composition of any basement crystalline rocks imparts no specific inherited rock-forming minerals into the covering sedimentary rocks. From the variety of accessory and opaque minerals of crystalline rocks, only zircon populations survived in saprolites. Crystalline rocks of different origin yield different zircons. Relationships between the zircon typology of the basement rocks having specific areas of distribution and the sedimentary rocks immediately overlying those crystalline rocks were the main subject of this study. The result is that siliciclastic sedimentary rocks covering weathered crystalline rocks only in places inherited zircons with typological features characteristic of specific basement areas. In northeastern Estonia, local lenses of the Oru Member (the earliest Upper Vendian sedimentary rocks in Estonia resembling the debris of weathered crystalline rocks yield accessory zircon which in a 1-2 m thick layer above the basement surface is similar to the zircons of the underlying weathering mantle of certain crystalline rocks. In the next unit, the Moldova Member, up to 43 m above the basement surface, a mixture of zircons resembling those of various local basement rocks has been found. Further upwards, in the Vendian and Lower

  1. Estonia-filmi peaosas mängib Greta Scacchi : Jutta Rabe on leidnud oma filmile mõjuvõimsad toetajad / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2001-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastrooffilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et parvlaev "Estonia" uputati. Stsenaristiks ja produtsendiks on saksa teleajakirjanik Jutta Rabe. Peaosalisi mängivad Greta Scacchi (41) ja Jürgen Prochnow (60)

  2. [Martin Klesment. Fertility development in Estonia during the second half of the XX century: the economic context and its implications] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Martin Klesment. Fertility development in Estonia during the second half of the XX century: the economic context and its implications. Tallinn: Tallinna Ülikool, 2010. (Tallinna Ülikooli sotsiaalteaduste dissertatsioonid, 46)

  3. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  4. Midwifery at the crossroads in Estonia: attitudes of midwives and other key stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Rasch, Vibeke; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2005-01-01

    were obtained by sending a 32-question questionnaire, based on an agenda developed through semistructured interviews, to all midwives in Estonia. A nominal group technique was employed with key stakeholders to determine the extent of their agreement with the questionnaire's major findings. RESULTS......: The response rate to the questionnaire was 75%. There was no significant association between work satisfaction and independent variables of age, ethnicity, work abroad, increased responsibility, and involvement in postpartum care and counseling. There was, however, a significant association between work...... satisfaction and salary. The group process revealed that although there is no agreement on the role of family doctors and midwives in antenatal care, there is a general agreement that midwives should be more involved in postpartum care and that their tasks need to be better defined. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half...

  5. Fitness, fatness and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars B; Sardinha, Luis B; Froberg, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Levels of overweight have increased and fitness has decreased in children. Potentially, these changes may be a threat to future health. Numerous studies have measured changes in body mass index (BMI), but few have assessed the independent effects of low fitness, overweight and physical...... inactivity on cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional multi-center study including 1 769 children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal. The main outcome was clustering of CVD risk factors. Independent variables were waist circumference, skinfolds, physical activity and cardio......-respiratory fitness. RESULTS: Both waist circumference and skinfolds were associated with clustered CVD risk. Odds ratios for clustered CVD risk for the upper quartiles compared with the lowest quartile were 9.13 (95% CI: 5.78-14.43) and 11.62 (95% CI: 7.11-18.99) when systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, insulin...

  6. Meteorite impact craters and possibly impact-related structures in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plado, Jüri

    2012-10-01

    Three structures (Neugrund, Kärdla, and Kaali) of proven impact origin make Estonia the most cratered country in the world by area. In addition, several candidate impact structures exist, waiting for future studies to determine their origin. This article is an overview of these proven and possible impact structures, including some breccia layers. It summarizes the information and descriptions of the morphology; geological characteristics; and mineralogical, chemical, and geophysical data available in the literature. The overview was prepared to make information in many earlier publications in local journals (many of which had been published in Estonian or Russian) accessible to the international community. This review summarizes the facts and observations in a historical fashion, summarizing the current state of knowledge with some additional comments, and providing the references.

  7. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A.

    1995-01-01

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  8. Perception of emotional nonsense sentences in China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaramaa, Teija

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on the identification of emotions in cross-cultural conditions on different continents and among subjects with divergent language backgrounds. The aim was to investigate whether the perception of the basic emotions from nonsense vocal samples was universal, dependent on voice quality, musicality, and/or gender. Listening tests for 350 participants were conducted on location in a variety of cultures: China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA. The results suggested that the voice quality parameters played a role in the identification of emotions without the linguistic content. Cultural background may affect the interpretation of the emotions more than the presumed universality. Musical interest tended to facilitate emotion identification. No gender differences were found.

  9. Oil shale mining and processing impact on landscapes in north-east Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toomik, Arvi; Liblik, Valdo

    1998-01-01

    As the world's largest commercial oil shale reserve, the Estonian Oil Shale Deposit has been exploited since 1916. As a result of mining, storing of solid wastes from the oil shale separation, combustion in the power plants and its thermal processing, the landscape in northeastern Estonia has been essentially changed and the man-made landforms have developed: the new microreliefs of natural and artificial structure are formed, as well as 'mountainous' and hilly reliefs in the form of waste heaps, ash plateaus, coke-ash dumps etc. Deformed (stable) and undeformed (unstable) areas from underground mining currently cover about 220km 2 . About 90km 2 (80%) of the area damaged by open pits are recultivated and reformed as forested and agricultural (grassland) areas. The total area occupied by solid waste has reached up to 26km 2 . New technogenic landscape units, i.e. made by technical means, will essentially influence the environment

  10. Long-term deposition patterns of airborne wastes in the North-East of Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasik, M.; Kaasik, H.

    1999-01-01

    The deposition loads of fly ash and sulfur have been high in the North-East Estonia since the late fifties, when the oil shale energetics, chemical and cement industry achieved the remarkable extent. The combined effects of both pollutants have seriously damaged sensitive ecosystems (forest on podsolic soils and bog). Most of sulphur deposition is closely related to the oil shale fly ash deposition. The main effects are related with alkalisation due to accumulation of fly ash components and the Sphagnum growth inhibition due to sulfur load. These effects have the time scale of several years or even more. The pollution loads have been changed during recent 40 years due to launching and reconstruction of enterprises (incl. purification systems) and variations of production capacity. First representative data on air pollution deposition originate from the middle of eighties. Only model estimations could be used to quantify the deposition fluxes before that time, as well as for assessing the future scenarios

  11. Changes in time series of some climate elements in Estonia in early spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russak, Viivi

    1999-01-01

    Systematic changes in some climate elements have become evident in Estonia during the latest decades; the greatest changes have been observed in March. Two possible causes may have led to the observed warming: changes in general atmospheric circulation and in radiation budget. Due to small solar evaluation and shortness of day the role of solar radiation in air temperature formation is not considerable in March. The absence of any significant trend in the time series of net long wave radiation in March seems to be caused by simultaneous and opposite influence of changes in downward and upward infrared radiation fluxes on temperature conditions near ground. In other seasons a significant increase in greenhouse effect has been established. Therefore, the changes in general atmospheric circulation should be considered the main reason of warming, while the role of solar radiation and greenhouse effect is not considerable in March

  12. Deterrence Dilemma in Latvia and Estonia: Finding the Balance between External Military Solidarity and Territorial Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andžāns Māris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While potential threats from Russia and NATO collective defence commitments are similar for Latvia and Estonia, both countries have adopted different approaches in the balancing exercise between territorial defence and military solidarity. Notwithstanding their differences, both are by their nature fully non-aggressive – without room for pre-emptive initiatives, extra territoriality or asymmetrical tools. Given that in a case of a hypothetical large-scale conventional attack both countries would almost entirely have to rest on the allies, external military solidarity is essential. Until the Ukraine crisis, both offered more military solidarity towards their NATO allies than the latter offered to them. As the result of the Ukrainian crisis, allies became more military-solidary with the Baltic nations, especially having established the Enhanced Forward Presence, while Estonian and especially Latvian contributions to international missions and operations dropped. Therefore, it is suggested that both countries increase their efforts to the allied international endeavours.

  13. The need and possible options for the use of renewable energy in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merdikes, M.; Kivistik, J.

    2002-01-01

    The decrease in fossil fuel and the environmental problems arising from their burning force the mankind to change the structure of energy production. In the Estonian primary energy balance of renewable natural resources wood and peat are on the first place with the percentage of ca 11%. Wind, water and solar energy have not up till now been widely used in Estonia. The foundation of a wind plant and the construction of bioenergy boiler plants are promising from the financial point of view. For the feedstock of bioenergy production, waste from logging and timber industry, energy fast-growing trees and grasses, bulrush and biogas produced by fermentation of organic matter, could be used. One of the options is to produce energy field crops - rape and turnip rape. The authors hope that this paper will emphasise the importance of conducting more extensive research of renewable energy resources and the introduction of such projects. (author)

  14. Organization and implementation of a national programme of regulatory control of sources in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, I.

    1998-01-01

    The application of ionizing radiation and radioactive material in fields such as medicine, industry, teaching and research is constantly increasing. Consequently, any country using ionizing radiation and radioactive material in these applications must ensure that they are used safely. In order to achieve this goal a country must establish appropriate national infrastructure related to radiation protection and safety. This requires appropriate regulatory mechanism together with an enforcement ability. The national infrastructure adopted in a country will depend on the actual needs of the country, the size and the complexity of the regulated practices and sources, as well as on the regulatory tradition in the country. The national infrastructure in Estonia comprises of three main components: legislation, regulatory authority, resources. (author)

  15. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V; Kundel, H; Raetsep, A [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  16. One Country, Two Polarised Audiences: Estonia and the Deficiency of the Audiovisual Media Services Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Jõesaar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that until recent times, the Estonian media policy has mainly been interpreted as an economic issue and it did not account for the strategic need to build a comprehensive media field to serve all groups in society. This has happened despite the fact the Estonian media policy is in line with the European Union (EU media policy, which should ensure freedom of information, diversity of opinion and media pluralism. Findings of the Estonian case study show that despite these noble aims, Estonia has two radically different information fields: one for Estonian speaking audiences and one for Russian speakers. Events in Ukraine have added to the democratic media policy paradigm a question of national security. Now it is a challenge for the policy makers to unite polarised media fields and how to minimise the impact of Russian propaganda. On the EU level, one supportive measure could be a revision of the Audiovisual Media Service Directive.

  17. Intergenerational solidarity in family communication and childrearing among Russians living in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järva I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to ascertain the importance of intergenerational solidarity in communication within the family and childrearing among the Russians living in Estonia. Generations see the world differently enough. One of the reasons for that is individualistic worldview which characterizes not only the younger generation, but individualistic tendencies have percolated into other generationsas well. All generations admit the presence of a generation gap, but they disclaim presence of intergenerational conflict. At the same time respondents affirm that there is solidarity between generations in their families and it is based on love and respect. Solidarity between generations in families is revealed both on spiritual level (communicating, love, trust, mutual understanding, common interests as well as in real help given by generations to each other as far as homework, children's upbringing, and economical aid are concerned.

  18. Website Operators’ Liability for Offensive Comments: A Comparative Analysis of Delfi as v. Estonia and MTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šidlauskienė Jūratė

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 and 2015, the ECtHR in the famous case of Delfi AS v. Estonia recognised the possibility for a website operator to be liable for the delayed removal of illegal comments of internet users. In this case the ECtHR formulated criteria for a website operator’s liability for damage caused to a third party by its visitor comments. The judgment of 2016 in the case of MTE & Index v. Hungary the ECtHR modified the criteria for a website operator’s liability, interpreting it to the benefit of web managers. This article seeks to reveal the criteria for the liability of a website operator and to draw some general guidance that can be applied in similar cases.

  19. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  20. Dolomitization and sedimentary cyclicity of the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian rocks in South Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallaste, Toivo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and composition of dolomitized rocks and stoichiometry of dolomite in southern Estonia in the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian were studied on the background of the facies, sedimentary cyclicity (nine shallowing-up cycles, and evolution of the palaeobasins. The composition of rocks and lattice parameters of dolomite were investigated using the X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, titration and gravimetric analyses, and porosity measurements. The formation of dolostones is directly determined by the cyclic evolution of palaeobasins. Dolomitized rocks belong to the shallow-water inner shelf or tidal/lagoonal facies belt of regressive phases of sedimentary cycles. Sediments of the deep shelf/transitional environment and transgressive phases are not dolomitized. The most stoichiometric is secondary replacive dolomite of Silurian and upper Ordovician dolostones, formed during the early diagenesis of normal-marine (saline shallow-shelf calcitic sediments. The content of insoluble residue does not affect the stoichiometry. The changes in lattice parameters are induced by the Ca/Mg ratio in the dolomite lattice. The dolomite of the dolostones contacting limestone or containing calcite has an expanded lattice. The primary (syngenetic dolostone of the lagoonal or tidal flat belt has also an expanded lattice. No dolomitizing effect of the waters of the Devonian palaeobasin on the underlying rocks was revealed. The whole data set of the studied dolostones is consistent with the marine water environment in the palaeobasin at the corresponding time and shows no sign of the inflow of external fluids. It suggests that the microbial model of dolomite formation may characterize the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian in southern Estonia. The occurrence of dolostones between undolomitized rocks limits the time of dolomitization to the early diagenetic stage.

  1. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  2. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children

  3. Late glacial multiproxy evidence of vegetation development and environmental change at Solova, southeastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amon, Leeli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reinvestigation of the late glacial Solova (Remmeski basin, based on plant macro­fossil and diatom record, AMS 14C chronology and sediment composition (loss-on-ignition and magnetic susceptibility data, provided information on vegetation history and palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes since the time of the deglaciation of the area around 14 000 cal yr BP. The chronology of the sequence is based on seven AMS dates on terrestrial macrofossils, providing evidence of rapid sedimentation in between 14 000 and 13 500 cal yr BP. Loss-on-ignition data show a clear short-lived warming episode centred to 13 800 cal yr BP, tentatively correlated with the GI-1c warming of the event stratigraphy of the Last Termination in the North Atlantic region, which suggests that at least parts of the Haanja Heights were ice-free by 14 000 cal yr BP. Macrofossil evidence indicates Betula nana–Dryas octopetala-dominated open tundra communities with Saxifraga on dry ground, and Carex sp. and Juncus on wet ground at that time. The first evidence of the postglacial presence of tree birch (Betula pendula in Estonia is dated back to 13 500 cal yr BP. However, conifer remains were not found in the late glacial sediment sequence of Solova Bog. The late-Allerød (GI-1a organic deposits, which are quite typical of other parts of Estonia and indicate general warming, are missing at Solova, most probably due to a hiatus in sedimentation in this very small and shallow upland basin.

  4. ‘Looking like my favourite Barbie’ – Online Gender Construction of Tween Girls in Estonia and in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Siibak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse how tween girls in Estonia and in Sweden describe and discover their gender identities when selecting profile images for social networking sites (SNSs. To this end, interviews with tweens in Estonia (N=21 and in Sweden (N=31 were carried out. As SNSs largely exist without the recognisable surveillance of adults, children can explore the social matrix of relating to others, and they also feel safe to try out and display different constructions and reconstructions of their identity. At the same time, in communicating online, impression management is formulated with constant worry about how to construct one’s virtual identity so that it will be appreciated and accepted by one’s peer group. In this article, our analysis focuses on the most popular posing strategies used by tween girls, which, it turns out, are often marked by reproduction of the dominant heterosexual cultural norms and values.

  5. [The self-perception of their professional role of the primary care physicians of Estonia and Finland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virjo, I O; Mattila, K J; Lember, M; Kermes, R; Pikk, A; Isokoski, M K

    1997-05-15

    To find out how experienced primary care physicians working in different societies see themselves as doctors. A cross-sectional study. Primary health care in Estonia and Finland. Estonian district doctors (n = 110) and Finnish specialists of general practice (n = 211). In a postal questionnaire the respondents were asked to evaluate how well 18 different expressions described them as doctors on a 5-step scale from "1 = very poorly" to "5 = very well". Four of the five expressions that were thought most accurate and telling--"Listener", "Vocational doctor", "Helper", and "Family physician"--were the same in Estonia and Finland. Even though there are differences in health care systems, the self-images of primary care doctors in both countries were more or less consistent with the international definitions of the general practitioner's job and role.

  6. Independence and Interdependence Values in Changing Societies: A Three-Generation Comparative Study in Estonia, Germany, and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirko Tõugu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Independent and interdependent self-construal values of three generations and the intergenerational similarity of self-construal was compared in three countries. The participants were 837 adolescents, their mothers (227 from Russia, 311 from Germany, and 299 from Estonia and 293 maternal grandmothers. In Germany, all three generations displayed higher scores on independence than participants from other countries. Russian participants had higher scores on interdependence compared to participants from other countries. Adolescents scored significantly higher on the interdependent self-construal than the two older generations, and higher than the mothers’ generation on the independent self-construal. Grandmothers’ self-construal was related to mothers’ in all three countries. In Germany and Estonia, mothers’ interdependent self-construal was related to adolescents’ interdependent self-construal. Grandmothers’ (but not mothers’ independent self-construal predicted adolescents’ independent self-construal. The results are discussed in light of the Family Change Theory and the different roles the participants have.

  7. The oldest ascocerid cephalopod from the Silurian of Estonia and notes on the biogeography of the order Ascocerida (class Cephalopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Aubrechtova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The early Palaeozoic order Ascocerida is a group of morphologically unique and rare cephalopods known from the Ordovician and Silurian rocks of Avalonia, Baltica, Laurentia and Perunica. The limited Estonian record of Silurian ascocerids is complemented with a specimen from the Pähkla locality (Island of Saaremaa; Paadla Regional Stage, Ludlow Series representing the stratigraphically oldest known occurrence of ascocerids in the Silurian of Estonia. The strata that were formerly exposed in Pähkla are likely correlated to the Hemse Group of the Island of Gotland (Sweden having a remarkable record of ascocerids. The appearance of Silurian ascocerids in Estonia is confined to a time interval when the group had the highest species diversity and the widest geographic dispersion, reaching also outside Baltica for the first time.

  8. Health Care Spending Structures in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia Over the Years as Compared to Other EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walczak Renata

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available After joining the European Union in 2004, the post-communist countries have dramatically changed their structure of expenditure for medical services. The cause of this is legislative and ownership changes in the new economy. The study analyzed the expenditure on medical services in the European Union with a special focus on Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. The European Union countries were divided into clusters using different methods, that is, Ward’s, Two Step and Centroid Clustering. In the paper, the structure and changes in health expenses were presented according to the types of expenditures over the years 2004-2015. Countries were assigned to clusters based on three variables: medical products, appliances and equipment, outpatient services and hospital services. Variables were considered as a percentage of household budget. In Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, there is a clear increase in the outpatient services spending compared to the hospital services expenditure.

  9. Problems faced by Western expatriate managers in Eastern Europe: Evidence provided by Finnish expatriates in Russia and Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Suutari, Vesa

    1998-01-01

    A common human resource management strategy among Western companies in international operations is the use of home-country expatriate managers although expatriate adjustment has been found to involve difficulties. In the light of this the present study analyses the issues faced by Finnish expatriate managers working in Russia or Estonia. Three aspects were studied: adaptation to society, adaptation at the work place, and company-level management problems with which expatriates have to deal in...

  10. Rahvusooper Estonia annab 5. V oma 99. hooaja viimase etenduse "Luikede järv" / Kaido Padar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Padar, Kaido

    2005-01-01

    Kella 12-15 on linnaelanikud ja külalised kutsutud hooaega lõpetama ja saatma Estonia maja remonti. Tutvustatakse remondi-ehitusprogrammi, ekraanidel näeb videot Estoniast, lapsed saavad rasvakriidiga joonistada "Unistuste ooperimaja" ja tutvuda kostüümidega, saalis on noorteprojektides osalenute paremate tööde näitus, saab pildistada ja filmida teatri ruume jpm.

  11. Cross-cultural comparisons of bullying among university students : perspectives from Argentina, Estonia, Finland and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Pörhölä, Maili; Cvancara, Kristen; Kaal, Esta; Tampere, Kaja; Torres, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The chapter compares bullying experiences among university students between four countries and aims to provide an understanding of the cultural features which might affect these experiences. We start by providing a summary of the results from a cross-cultural survey conducted among undergraduate students in Argentina, Estonia, Finland and the United States. We continue discussing the ways in which the current cultural, political, historical and economic status and challenges in...

  12. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  13. Iron in the Middle Devonian aquifer system and its removal at Võru County water treatment plants, Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mariina Hiiob; Enn Karro

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater abstracted from the Middle Devonian aquifer system is the main source of drinking water in South Estonia. High iron and manganese concentrations in groundwater are the greatest problems in this region. The total iron concentrations up to 16 mg L–1 are mainly caused by a high Fe2+ content in water, pointing to the dominance of reducing conditions in the aquifer system. A pilot study was carried out to estimate the effectiveness of 20 groundwater purification plants with eight diffe...

  14. How people perceive immigrants’ role in their country’s life: a comparative study of Estonia and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu PAAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on a comparative analysis of people’s attitudes towards immigrants’ role in several aspects of countries’ life depending on the individual’s socio-demographic and economic characteristics in Estonia and Russia. The empirical part of the paper relies on the European Social Survey (ESS fifth round database. The results of the study show that the Estonian people’s attitudes towards immigrants are, on the average, better in all aspects of the country’s life – economy, culture and the country as a living place, compared to the Russian one. Both economic and non-economic factors explain the observed variation of individuals’ opinions regarding the role of immigrants in a country’s life. Ethnic minorities, religious people and people with higher income are more tolerant to immigrants in both countries. Socio-demographic characteristics such as age, gender and education are valid determinants of people’s attitudes towards immigrants only in Estonia. Highly educated people have more positive attitudes towards immigrants compared to less educated people in Estonia but not in Russia. The results of the analysis therefore highlight the necessity to take different factors into account for the design of the migration and integration policies in the countries with ethnically diverse population.

  15. Timing of the deglaciation and the late-glacial vegetation development on the Pandivere Upland, North Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Amon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the deglaciation chronology of the Pandivere Upland is defined, and the late-glacial vegetation trends of north-eastern Estonia are summarised. The multi-proxy study includes accelerated mass spectrometry 14 C dating, plant macrofossil, magnetic susceptibility, loss-on-ignition and grain-size distribution data of the lacustrine sediment record from one previously unpublished study site (Kursi, and the study discusses the results in combination with five previously published study locations from the area. The results indicate that the deglaciation of the Pandivere Upland started at approximately 14 200 cal. yr BP and was completed by 13 800 cal. yr BP. The ice recession rate was approximately 180 m yr -1 . Based on these new radiocarbon dates, the Baltic Ice Lake stage A 1 submerged the northern and western ice-free areas of Estonia by ca. 13 800 cal. yr BP. The prevalent vegetation type in north-eastern Estonia during the late-glacial period was tundra with local variations in the dominant shrub species. The region remained treeless until the Holocene.

  16. Noor eesti teater ja Noor-Eesti. Young Estonian Theatre and Young Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Aaslav-Tepandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article begins by examining points of intersection between two professional theatres, ”Estonia” and ”Vanemuine” (both established in 1906, their young directors – Karl Menning, Paul Pinna, Theodor Altermann, and Karl Jungholz, and the literary movement Young Estonia. Subsequently, we will consider Young Estonia’s theatrical ideals and the influence of these ideas on later Estonian theatrical life. Since not much information has survived regarding direct personal contacts between ”movers and shakers” in the theatre world and Young Estonians, the main focus here shall be on indirect creative connections and influences. One such context is education: like the Young Estonians, theatre activists of the younger generation aspired to place themselves on the larger map of European culture. Thus, their artistic beliefs and goals shall be examined in relation to those of Young Estonians’ quest for modern culture. Pinna, Altermann, Menning, Jungholz, and others went on study tours to Germany and France, where they were energized and inspired by innovative German and Russian theatres, by naturalistic staging, and by psychological realism, both in acting and in performance style. Among their models were A. Antoine’s Théâtre- Libre in Paris, K. Stanislavski’s Art Theatre in Moscow, O. Brahm’s Lessing-Theater, and M. Reinhardt’s Deutsches Theater in Berlin. These models were likewise known to the Young Estonians, but if theatre activists oriented themselves more fundamentally to German naturalist and realist dramatic art, Young Estonians were more taken with ”theatrical theatre” with its symbolist and impressionist influences. The Young Estonians attended performances at both theatres, ”Vanemuine” and ”Estonia”, and wrote numerous theatre reviews. Yet in the Young Estonia albums (yearbooks and in the magazine Young Estonia, theatre topics have a relatively modest representation. Young Estonians did not have direct

  17. THE BOOK PUBLISHING SYSTEM IN ESTONIA DURING THE SOVIET RULE IN 1944–1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Möldre, Aile

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article treats the changes in the direction of the publishing activities, the formation of the network of the state book publishing houses as well as the political and economic conditions of their activities in Estonia during the second Soviet occupation in 1944–1991. These years have been divided in three periods according to political history: the Stalinist era in 1944–1956; the thawand stagnation in 1956–1986 and the political break-through leading to the restoration of independence in 1987–1991.Special attention is paid to the leading role of the Communist Party of the USSR and the Communist Party of the ESSR in publishing activities. For example, only the all-union communist party had a right to decide over the establishment of new publishing houses, the leading officials of the local and all-union communist party studied and confirmed the reports and plans of the publishers etc. For the implementation of the regulations of the communist party a specialadministrative body was established, operating under different names in different years. For example, during the all-union reform of 1949 it was called the Central Board of Printing Industry, Publishing and Book Trade by the Council of Ministers, after the reform of 1963 – the State Publishing Committee. The latter had especially wide authority and gave detailed instructions on organising the work in the publishing houses. The directions included rigid requirements about the planning process and co-ordination of the plans on local and all-union level. The co-ordination of plans became especially complex since 1975 when the publishing houses had to get consent fromthe Head Office of Thematic Planning and Co-ordination of the all-union State Publishing Committee for every manuscript they wished to include in their plans. Although this system was unable to function, it was not revoked. All this demonstrates the dependence of the Estonian publishing from the all-union directions and

  18. Clinical value of FDG-PET in cutaneous malignant melanoma: First experience in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, S.; Niin, M.; Paats, A.; Tonnov, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In November 2002 first 18F-FDG-PET was performed in Estonia using a mobile truck-mounted scanning technology (Accel, Siemens) provided by the International Healthcare Group (IHG, Amersfoort, Netherlands). The FDG was provided by MAP Medical Technologies, Schering, (Helsinki, Finland). In 2003 this scheme was repeated for further scanning sessions. Evaluation of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) using nuclear technique is of particular interest in Estonia as its incidence is on the rise. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in CMM has a well-documented high diagnostic accuracy, especially in staging of the disease. The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of 18F-FDG-PET on detailed staging and clinical management in CMM. 30 patients of CMM, 16 males and 14 females, all non-diabetic, in the age range of 26 to 69 years were studied. Of these 30 patients, 12 were of high risk primary CMM, 7 had regional lymph node metastases and 11 had distant metastases. Patients were asked to consume a low-carbohydrate diet 3 days prior to the FDG-PET scan. 194 to 410 MBq (average 335 MBq) 18F-FDG was administered to the patients who were asked to come fasting for a minimum of 6 hours. Whole body scan was performed 40 to 65 minutes after the administration of FDG on the mobile PET. In 13 of the 30 patients (43%) 18F-FDG-PET changed the staging. In remaining 17 patients (57%) 18F-FDG-PET increased confidence level for the chosen treatment. Lymphadenectomy was planned in 2 patients showing lymph node involvement on FDG-PET. In other 2 patients, one with small pulmonary and other with a liver lesions found on PET but negative on radiological examination 'wait-and-watch' strategy was chosen. An unexpected hypermetabolic lesion seen in 1 case turned out to be a benign focus of connective tissue. One patient shown to have multiple distant metastases was started on chemotherapy. Finally in 8 of the 30 (27%) patients an immediate positive

  19. Product environmental footprint of strawberries: Case studies in Estonia and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soode-Schimonsky, Eveli; Richter, Klaus; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele

    2017-12-01

    The environmental impacts of strawberries have been assessed in several studies. However, these studies either present dissimilar results or only focus on single impact categories without offering a comprehensive overview of environmental impacts. We applied the product environmental footprint (PEF) methodology to broadly indicate the environmental impacts of various strawberry production systems in Germany and Estonia by 15 impact categories. Data for the 7 case studies were gathered from two farms with organic and two farms with conventional open field production systems in Estonia and from one farm with conventional open field and one farm with a polytunnel and greenhouse production system in Germany. The greenhouse production system had the highest environmental impact with a PEF of 0.0040. In the field organic production systems, the PEF was 0.0029 and 0.0028. The field conventional production systems resulted in a PEF of 0.0008, 0.0009 and 0.0002. Polytunnel PEF was 0.0006. Human toxicity cancer effects, particulate matter and human toxicity non-cancer effects resulted in the highest impact across all analysed production systems. The main contributors were electricity for cooling, heating the greenhouse and the use of agricultural machinery including fuel burning. While production stage contributed 85% of the total impact in the greenhouse, also other life cycle stages were important contributors: pre-chain resulted in 71% and 90% of impact in conventional and polytunnels, respectively, and cooling was 47% in one organic system. Environmental impact from strawberry cooling can be reduced by more efficient use of the cooling room, increasing the strawberry yield or switching from oil shale electricity to other energy sources. Greenhouse heating is the overall impact hotspot even if it based on renewable resources. A ranking of production systems based on the environmental impact is possible only if all relevant impacts are included. Future studies should aim

  20. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The main deficiencies of the district heating system in Kohtla-Jaerve, Ahtme and Johvi (Estonia) were identified as being: Inefficiency of the heat and power production plants; Lack of means for the consumers to control their consumption of energy due to the existing constant flow system; The environmental impact from heat and power production based on oil shale; Water and heat losses from the network; Low heat intensity in the Johvi area. Investigations indicate that improvement should have first priority at the Kohtla-Jaerve power plant, total investment is estimated at US D 60,3 million, of which US D 48 million are foreign costs. The cash flow will be negative in the first half of the projects lifetime. Estii Energia should be involved in the financing of the project. At the present price level, introduction of variable flow does not significantly improve the financial viability of the project, and the improvement of the district heating system might be carried out at a later stage, when the tariff has found a more stable level and the financial viability will be more significant. Implementation of new boilers in the Kohtla-Jaerve power plant. Circulating Fluidized Bed boilers, as well as electrostatic filters and estimated to reduce the environmental impact considerably. A more in depth study of the environmental impact from utilisation of oil shale should be carried out, also in order to inform possible investors of risk of investing in the oil shale industry. It will be more expensive to supply Johvi as an independent district heating system than if Johvi is supplied from Ahtme. The results arrived at are based on a range of the crucial assumptions that: the price of oil shale is expected to reach 75% of the price of coal, the sales price of electricity from plants is 62% of the consumer price, the exchange rate of the Estonian currency is kept constant to the DEM and that the inflation is Estonia will decline from 21% to 2,3% in 2005. (ARW)

  1. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  2. Measurement of Community Empowerment in Three Community Programs in Rapla (Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Tanggaard Andersen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Community empowerment approaches have been proven to be powerful tools for solving local health problems. However, the methods for measuring empowerment in the community remain unclear and open to dispute. This study aims to describe how a context-specific community empowerment measurement tool was developed and changes made to three health promotion programs in Rapla, Estonia. An empowerment expansion model was compiled and applied to three existing programs: Safe Community, Drug/HIV Prevention and Elderly Quality of Life. The consensus workshop method was used to create the measurement tool and collect data on the Organizational Domains of Community Empowerment (ODCE. The study demonstrated considerable increases in the ODCE among the community workgroup, which was initiated by community members and the municipality’s decision-makers. The increase was within the workgroup, which had strong political and financial support on a national level but was not the community’s priority. The program was initiated and implemented by the local community members, and continuous development still occurred, though at a reduced pace. The use of the empowerment expansion model has proven to be an applicable, relevant, simple and inexpensive tool for the evaluation of community empowerment.

  3. Analysis of the systems of ventilation of residential houses of Ukraine and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Olena; Zhelykh, Vasyl; Voll, Hendrik

    2017-12-01

    The most common ventilation system in residential buildings in Ukraine is natural ventilation. In recent years, due to increased tightness of structures, an increase in the content of synthetic finishing materials in them, the quality of microclimate parameters deteriorated. One of the measures to improve the parameters of indoor air in residential buildings is the use of mechanical inflow and exhaust ventilation system. In this article the regulatory documents concerning the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine and Estonia and the requirements for air exchange in residential buildings are considered. It is established that the existing normative documents in Ukraine are analogous to European norms, which allow design the system of ventilation of residential buildings according to European standards. However, the basis for the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine is the national standards, in which mechanical ventilation, unfortunately, is provided only for the design of high-rise buildings. To maintain acceptable microclimate parameters in residential buildings, it is advisable for designers to apply the requirements for designing ventilation systems in accordance with European standards.

  4. On the move: explaining migration patterns in Estonia during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaru, T; Sjoberg, O

    1999-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the migration patterns during the transition period in Estonia. A structuration approach was used to analyze data from the Estonian Statistical Office collected in 1997. Findings show that for migration between urban and rural areas, work-related reasons have been the most important motivating factor in urban growth during the transition period. Also considered are the family and education. In relation to sociodemographic structure of the population, men cite work, while women count family-related reasons, as the main motive for migrating. As to nonregistration, the most significant reason relates to issues of ownership. Because migrants are living in rented housing, it is not possible for them to register even if they desire to do so. Other reasons include "temporary", associated with study and work; "juridical", bureaucratic matters; and "multiple places of residence". This analysis, however, is incomplete because the attitudes and patterns of behavior have only partially or perfunctorily been related to the dramatic changes that have occurred in Estonian society. Proper statistical data are needed to help examine trends at a more disaggregated spatial level.

  5. Factors affecting re-vegetation dynamics of experimentally restored extracted peatland in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karofeld, Edgar; Müür, Mari; Vellak, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Increasing human activity continues to threaten peatlands, and as the area of natural mires declines, our obligation is to restore their ecosystem functions. Several restoration strategies have been developed for restoration of extracted peatlands, including "The moss layer transfer method", which was initiated on the Tässi extracted peatland in central Estonia in May 2012. Three-year study shows that despite the fluctuating water table, rainfall events can compensate for the insufficient moisture for mosses. Total plant cover on the restoration area attained 70 %, of which ~60 % is comprised of target species-Sphagnum mosses. From restoration treatments, spreading of plant fragments had a significant positive effect on the cover of bryophyte and vascular plants. Higher water table combined with higher plant fragments spreading density and stripping of oxidised peat layer affected positively the cover of targeted Sphagnum species. The species composition in the restoration area became similar to that in the donor site in a natural bog. Based on results, it was concluded that the method approved for restoration in North America gives good results also in the restoration of extracted peatland towards re-establishment of bog vegetation under northern European conditions.

  6. Mental disorders among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: A clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Kalaus, Katri-Evelin; Tekkel, Mare; Leinsalu, Mall

    2017-08-01

    To assess, at a clinical level, the mental health of former Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia by comparing them with same-age controls. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered during 2011-2012 to 99 cleanup workers and 100 population-based controls previously screened for mental health symptoms. Logistic regression analysis showed that cleanup workers had higher odds of current depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.34, 7.01]), alcohol dependence (OR = 3.47, 95% CI [1.29, 9.34]), and suicide ideation (OR = 3.44, 95% CI [1.28, 9.21]) than did controls. Except for suicide ideation, associations with Chernobyl exposure became statistically nonsignificant when adjusted for education and ethnicity. A quarter of a century after the Chernobyl accident, Estonian cleanup workers were still at increased risk of mental disorders, which was partly attributable to sociodemographic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Reviving wood-pastures for biodiversity and people: A case study from western Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Marlene; Sutcliffe, Laura M E; Sammul, Marek; von Wehrden, Henrik; Newig, Jens; Fischer, Joern

    2016-03-01

    Wood-pastures are associated with high cultural and biodiversity values in Europe. However, due to their relatively low productivity, large areas of wood-pastures have been lost over the last century. In some areas, incentive schemes have been developed to revive wood-pastures. We investigated the effects of one such scheme in western Estonia. We compared the structure of grazed wood-pastures (old and restored) to those of abandoned wood-pastures and ungrazed forest stands to explore the effects of management, and conducted interviews with 24 farmers to investigate their motivations to carry out the management. We found a positive influence of active management on the semi-open structure of wood-pastures. Financial support was vital for management, but personal values related to tradition also played an important role. The interviewees differed widely in their range of motivations, suggesting that other strategies in addition to financial incentives would further improve the management of wood-pastures in the region.

  8. Geological settings of the protected Selisoo mire (northeastern Estonia threatened by oil shale mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hiiemaa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The protected Selisoo mire in northeastern Estonia is located above valuable oil shale resources, partly in the permitted mining area. We describe in detail the geomorphology and geological setting of the mire to understand the natural preconditions for its formation, development and preservation. We used the LiDAR-based digital elevation model for relief analysis, mapped the peat thickness with ground-penetrating radar and described the Quaternary cover through corings. Ridges, oriented perpendicular to the generally southward-sloping terrain, and shallow depressions at the surface of mineral soil have influenced mire formation and its spatio-temporal dynamics. The Quaternary cover under the mire is thin and highly variable. Therefore the mire is hydro­geologically insufficiently isolated from the limestone bedrock that is drained by the nearby oil shale mine and consequently the mining activities approaching the mire may have a negative influence on the wetland and proposed Natura 2000 site. Natura 2000 type wetlands, both protected or currently outside the nature reserves, cover a significant portion of the prospective oil shale mining areas. The distribution and resilience of those sites may significantly influence further utilization of oil shale resources.

  9. First record of Telephina (Trilobita from the Ordovician of northeastern Estonia and its stratigraphical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helje Pärnaste

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time a telephinid trilobite was recorded from the shallow-water rocks of the North Estonian Confacies Belt in the oil-shale mining area of northeast Estonia. A cranidium of Telephina (Telephops biseriata (Asklund was collected from a loose boulder of the kerogenous limestone of the Viivikonna Formation, Kukruse Stage, together with a rich assemblage of other trilobites, bryozoans, ostracods and rare graptolites. In its type area Jämtland, Sweden, T. biseriata occurs together with Pygodus anserinus and Hustedograptus teretiusculus in the Ståltorp Limestone Member of the Andersö Shale Formation, marking the latest Darriwilian. The occurrence in the North Estonian Confacies Belt of Telephina, known as a pelagic trilobite inhabiting deeper-water areas, probably reflects a transgression event at this time. Together with T. biseriata, other trilobite taxa such as Remopleurides and Lonchodomas, common in the Hustedograptus teretiusculus Biozone in deeper-water areas, arrive in the North Estonian Confacies Belt. Graptolites from the other loose boulders at the same locality have been identified as Hustedograptus cf. uplandicus, which occur together with a few dendroids.

  10. Measurement of Community Empowerment in Three Community Programs in Rapla (Estonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmel, Anu; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2011-01-01

    Community empowerment approaches have been proven to be powerful tools for solving local health problems. However, the methods for measuring empowerment in the community remain unclear and open to dispute. This study aims to describe how a context-specific community empowerment measurement tool was developed and changes made to three health promotion programs in Rapla, Estonia. An empowerment expansion model was compiled and applied to three existing programs: Safe Community, Drug/HIV Prevention and Elderly Quality of Life. The consensus workshop method was used to create the measurement tool and collect data on the Organizational Domains of Community Empowerment (ODCE). The study demonstrated considerable increases in the ODCE among the community workgroup, which was initiated by community members and the municipality’s decision-makers. The increase was within the workgroup, which had strong political and financial support on a national level but was not the community’s priority. The program was initiated and implemented by the local community members, and continuous development still occurred, though at a reduced pace. The use of the empowerment expansion model has proven to be an applicable, relevant, simple and inexpensive tool for the evaluation of community empowerment. PMID:21556179

  11. District heating rehabilitation project in Kaerdla on Hiiumaa, Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Kaerdla Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system with Danish technology, and thereby support and make it possible for the Municipality of Kaerdla to develop the district heating sector in Kaerdla and thereby also to reduce emissions of harmful gases to the environment, as well as making a much more rational and energy efficient system. The project would further on demonstrate the use of pre-insulated pipes, which are fully sealed against penetration of water as well as demonstrate the use of compact units as substations including weather compensation control systems for regulation of heat and hot tap water supply for the district heating consumers. Besides the project gives significantly decreases in energy consumption`s and in the pollution from the production of energy, the objective of the project was also to put great stress on providing technical assistance to Kaerdla DH company, in order to make them capable in operation and maintenance of the new district heating system, and also to train the local operational staff in operation of the complete district heating system. The project will have a high demonstration value towards other towns in Estonia with similar problems and configurations of their heating systems. (EG)

  12. Effects of land use on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Siim-Kaarel; Jairus, Teele; Vasar, Martti; Zobel, Martin; Öpik, Maarja

    2018-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities vary across habitat types, as well as across different land use types. Most relevant research, however, has focused on agricultural or other severely human-impacted ecosystems. Here, we compared AM fungal communities across six habitat types: calcareous grassland, overgrown ungrazed calcareous grassland, wooded meadow, farmyard lawn, boreonemoral forest, and boreonemoral forest clear-cut, exhibiting contrasting modes of land use. AM fungi in the roots of a single host plant species, Prunella vulgaris, and in its rhizosphere soil were identified using 454-sequencing from a total of 103 samples from 12 sites in Estonia. Mean AM fungal taxon richness per sample did not differ among habitats. AM fungal community composition, however, was significantly different among habitat types. Both abandonment and land use intensification (clearcutting; trampling combined with frequent mowing) changed AM fungal community composition. The AM fungal communities in different habitat types were most similar in the roots of the single host plant species and most distinct in soil samples, suggesting a non-random pattern in host-fungal taxon interactions. The results show that AM fungal taxon composition is driven by habitat type and land use intensity, while the plant host may act as an additional filter between the available and realized AM fungal species pool.

  13. Quality management and job related factors predicting satisfaction of dental clinic staff in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merisalu, Eda; Männik, Georg; Põlluste, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the role of managerial style, work environment factors and burnout in determining job satisfaction during the implementation of quality improvement activities in a dental clinic. Quantitative research was carried out using a prestructured anonymous questionnaire to survey 302 respondents in Kaarli Dental Clinic, Estonia. Dental clinic staff assessed job satisfaction, managerial style, work stress and burnout levels through the implementation period of ISO 9000 quality management system in 2003 and annually during 2006-2009. Binary logistic regression was used to explain the impact of satisfaction with management and work organisation, knowledge about managerial activities, work environment and psychosocial stress and burnout on job satisfaction. The response rate limits were between 60% and 89.6%. Job satisfaction increased significantly from 2003 to 2006 and the percentage of very satisfied staff increased from 17 to 38 (pwork organisation and working environment, as well as factors related to career, security and planning. The average scores of emotional exhaustion showed significant decrease, correlating negatively with job satisfaction (pwork environment by decreasing burnout symptoms and increased job satisfaction in staff.

  14. Detection and identification of Rickettsia species in Ixodes tick populations from Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katargina, Olga; Geller, Julia; Ivanova, Anna; Värv, Kairi; Tefanova, Valentina; Vene, Sirkka; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-09-01

    A total of 1640 ticks collected in different geographical parts of Estonia were screened for the presence of Rickettsia species DNA by real-time PCR. DNA of Rickettsia was detected in 83 out of 1640 questing ticks with an overall prevalence of 5.1%. The majority of the ticks infected by rickettsiae were Ixodes ricinus (74 of 83), while 9 of the 83 positive ticks were Ixodes persulcatus. For rickettsial species identification, a part of the citrate synthase gltA gene was sequenced. The majority of the positive samples were identified as Rickettsia helvetica (81 out of 83) and two of the samples were identified as Rickettsia monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae, respectively. Genetic characterization based on the partial gltA gene showed that the Estonian sequences within the R. helvetica, R. monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae species demonstrated 100% similarity with sequences deposited in GenBank, originating from Rickettsia species distributed over large territories from Europe to Asia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Smoking differences between university faculties in Tartu, Estonia, and Oulu, Finland, after the disruption of communism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Rauno; Kivastik, Jana; Kingisepp, Peet-Henn; Hirvonen, Leo; Näyhä, Simo

    2006-01-01

    To provide information on smoking differences between university faculties. Data from smoking surveys performed on 1,441 staff members and 2,308 students at the University of Tartu, Estonia, soon after the fall of communism, were analysed by faculties, using similar data from the University of Oulu, Finland (1,830 staff members, 5,947 students) for reference. Wide variations in smoking were found between faculties in Tartu, the prevalence being high among male students of theology (54%) and low among staff and students in the faculties of exercise & sports sciences (< 5%) and mathematics (< 15%). Less variation was seen in Oulu. The medical faculty showed low smoking rates in Oulu but not in Tartu. High percentages of smokers were typical of Tartu faculties representing disciplines closely connected with the country's transition (e.g. theology), and low percentages in faculties emphasising physical and mental performance (e.g. sports). The relatively high percentage of smokers in the Tartu medical faculty compared with that in Oulu can be interpreted as delayed diffusion of medical information beyond the former Iron Curtain.

  16. Assessment of abandoned agricultural land resource for bio-energy production in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukk, Liia; Astover, Alar; Roostalu, Hugo; Suuster, Elsa; Noormets, Merrit; Sepp, Kalev (Estonian Univ. of Life Sciences, Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tartu (Estonia)); Muiste, Peeter (Estonian Univ. of Life Sciences, Inst. of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Tartu (Estonia))

    2010-03-15

    The current study locates and quantifies abandoned agricultural areas using the Geographic Information System (GIS) and evaluates the suitability of abandoned fields for bio-energy production in Tartumaa (Tartu County) in Estonia. Soils of abandoned areas are generally of low quality and thereby limited suitability for crop production; as a result soil-crop suitability analyses could form the basis of knowledge-based bio-energy planning. The study estimated suitable areas for bio-energy production using willow (Salix sp), grey alder [Alnus incana (L.) Moench], hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.Populus tremula L.), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), and Caucasian goat's rue (Galega orientalis Lam.) in separate plantations. A combined land-use strategy is also presented as these crops are partially suitable to the same areas. Reed canary grass and grey alder have the highest energy potentials and each would re-use more than 80% of the available abandoned agricultural land. Energy grasses and short-rotation forestry in combined land-use strategy represents the opportunity of covering approximately a quarter of county's annual energy demand. The study estimates only agronomic potential, so further bio-energy analysis should take into account technical and economic limitations. Developed framework supports knowledge-based decision-making processes from field to regional scale to achieve sustainable bio-energy production

  17. Sedimentary record of heavy metals in Lake Rõuge Liinjärv, southern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepane, Viia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic impact on Lake Liinjärv (Rõuge, southern Estonia was studied back to the mid-19th century on the basis of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Hg and geochemical parameters of a short sediment core dated by 210Pb isotopes. The development of the lake and its sediment composition are heavily influenced by the inflow of saturated calcareous waters that cause precipitation of calcium carbonates. The concentrations of most of the metals started to increase at the end of the 1970s. This is most clearly observable for Zn, Cu, and Pb. At the same time the distribution pattern of Mn seems to be controlled mainly by the redox conditions in the hypolimneon. The main sources of pollutants in Lake Liinjärv, due to its large catchment area, are the influence of agricultural activity and atmospheric input. Organic matter is the main factor affecting heavy metal (Pb, Hg, Cu, and Zn distribution in lake sediments.

  18. District heating rehabilitation project in Kaerdla on Hiiumaa, Estonia. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Kaerdla Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system with Danish technology, and thereby support and make it possible for the Municipality of Kaerdla to develop the district heating sector in Kaerdla and thereby also to reduce emissions of harmful gases to the environment, as well as making a much more rational and energy efficient system. The project would further on demonstrate the use of pre-insulated pipes, which are fully sealed against penetration of water as well as demonstrate the use of compact units as substations including weather compensation control systems for regulation of heat and hot tap water supply for the district heating consumers. Besides the project gives significantly decreases in energy consumption's and in the pollution from the production of energy, the objective of the project was also to put great stress on providing technical assistance to Kaerdla DH company, in order to make them capable in operation and maintenance of the new district heating system, and also to train the local operational staff in operation of the complete district heating system. The project will have a high demonstration value towards other towns in Estonia with similar problems and configurations of their heating systems. (EG)

  19. Quaternary deposits and weathered bedrock material as a source of dangerous radon emissions in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersell Valter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk of dangerous radon emissions in Estonia is high, being among the highest in Europe. In almost 33 per cent of Estonian land area, the content of radon in soil-contained air exceeds the safe limit for unrestricted construction (50 kBq/m3. In such high radon-risk areas the concentration of radon in soil-contained air ranges from 50 to 400 kBq/m3, in a few cases reaching up to 2,100 kBq/m3 exceeding the permitted level for residential areas. The situation is particularly serious in the northernmost part of the country, where uranium-rich graptolite argillite (Dictyonema shale and the Obolus phosphorite are close to ground surface and their particles are constituent parts of Quaternary deposits. Radon emissions from bedrock have been investigated in detail, but to date Quaternary strata as a source of radon emissions are poorly studied. According to our measurements the highest concentrations of radon are related to tills containing clasts and fines of graptolite argillite and phosphorite. Glacial deposits include also granitoidal material, containing U, Th and K, which have been transported by glaciers from the outcrop areas of crystalline basement rocks in Finland and the Gulf of Finland. Due to weathering, outwash and repeated redeposition other genetic types are poorer in radioactive elements and they are weaker sources of radon.

  20. Dose-rate mapping and search of radioactive sources in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylaetalo, S.; Karvonen, J.; Ilander, T.; Honkamaa, T.; Toivonen, H.

    1996-12-01

    The Estonian Ministry of Environment and the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) agreed in 1995 on a radiation mapping project in Estonia. The country was searched to find potential man-made radioactive sources. Another goal of the project was to produce a background dose-rate map over the whole country. The measurements provided an excellent opportunity to test new in-field measuring systems that are useful in a nuclear disaster. The basic idea was to monitor road sides, cities, domestic waste storage places and former military or rocket bases from a moving vehicle by measuring gamma spectrum and dose rate. The measurements were carried out using vehicle installed systems consisting of a pressurised ionisation chamber (PIC) in 1995 and a combination of a scintillation spectrometer (NaI(TI)) and Geiger-Mueller-counter (GM) in 1996. All systems utilised GPS-satellite navigation signals to relate the measured dose rates and gamma-spectra to current geographical location. The data were recorded for further computer analysis. The dose rate varied usually between 0.03-0.17 μSv/h in the whole country, excluding a few nuclear material storage places (in Saku and in Sillamae). Enhanced dose rates of natural origin (0.17-0.5 μSv/h) were measured near granite statues, buildings and bridges. No radioactive sources were found on road sides or in towns or villages. (orig.) (14 refs.)

  1. Analysis of the systems of ventilation of residential houses of Ukraine and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenko Olena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The most common ventilation system in residential buildings in Ukraine is natural ventilation. In recent years, due to increased tightness of structures, an increase in the content of synthetic finishing materials in them, the quality of microclimate parameters deteriorated. One of the measures to improve the parameters of indoor air in residential buildings is the use of mechanical inflow and exhaust ventilation system. In this article the regulatory documents concerning the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine and Estonia and the requirements for air exchange in residential buildings are considered. It is established that the existing normative documents in Ukraine are analogous to European norms, which allow design the system of ventilation of residential buildings according to European standards. However, the basis for the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine is the national standards, in which mechanical ventilation, unfortunately, is provided only for the design of high-rise buildings. To maintain acceptable microclimate parameters in residential buildings, it is advisable for designers to apply the requirements for designing ventilation systems in accordance with European standards.

  2. Carbonate cementation in the late glacial outwash and beach deposits in northern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Rattas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The sedimentary environments, morphology and formation of carbonate cement in the late glacial glaciofluvial outwash and beach deposits in northern Estonia are discussed. Cementation is observed in well-drained, highly porous carbonaceous debris-rich gravel and sand-forming, resistant ledges in otherwise unconsolidated sediments. The cemented units occur as laterally continuous layers or as isolated lenticular patches with thicknesses from a few centimetres to 3 m. The cement is found in two main morphologies: (1 cement crusts or coatings around detrital grains and (2 massive cement almost entirely filling interparticle pores and intraparticle voids. It is exclusively composed of low-Mg calcite with angular equant to slightly elongated rhombohedral and scalenohedral or prismatic crystals, which indicate precipitation from meteoric or connate fresh surface (glacial lake water and/or near-surface groundwater under low to moderate supersaturation and flow conditions. The absence of organic structures within the cement suggests that cementation is essentially inorganic. The cement exhibits both meteoric vadose and phreatic features and most probably occurred close to the vadose–phreatic interface, where the conditions were transitional and/or fluctuating. Cementation has mainly taken place by CO2-degassing in response to fluctuations in groundwater level and flow conditions, controlled by the Baltic Ice Lake water level, and seasonal cold and/or dry climate conditions.

  3. Book review: Large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive compilation of all aspects of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Published in 2014, the book is now the definitive source of information on the petrogenesis of this type of globally important, voluminous magmatic activity. In the first few pages, LIPs are characterized as magmatic provinces with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 that are dominated by mafic magmas emplaced or erupted in intraplate settings during relatively short (1–5 m.y.) time intervals. Given these parameters, particularly areal extent, LIPs clearly represent significant contributions to global geologic evolution through time. This point is underscored, also in the introductory chapter, by a series of figures that aptly characterize the global time-space distribution of LIPs; an accompanying, particularly useful table identifies individual LIPs, quantifies their basic characteristics, and enumerates pertinent references. Accordingly, this compilation is a welcome addition to the geologic literature.

  4. Neotectonics in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.L.

    1988-03-01

    Seismic risk assessment in the Maritime Provinces requires input from not just historical, but also geological sources. A detailed search through published and unpublished geological literature reveals many examples - some probable, some possible -of neotectonic movement in the area. Examples range in tectonic significance from those that reflect exaggerated local imbalance to those that signify deep-seated stress. Evidence for neotectonism in the Maritimes is multidisciplined. It includes deformation in bedrock and quaternary deposits, and regional warping. Recent movement also is indicated by changes in relative sea level, in situ stress fields and geodetic fluctuations. Finally, and most unequivocally, neotectonism in the Maritime Provinces is manifested as the seismic events that have sporadically affected the area throughout its recent geological history, and continue up to the present day. 288 refs

  5. Trait-based analysis of decline in plant species ranges during the 20th century: a regional comparison between the UK and Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanisto, Lauri; Sammul, Marek; Kull, Tiiu; Macek, Petr; Hutchings, Michael J

    2015-02-02

    Although the distribution ranges and abundance of many plant species have declined dramatically in recent decades, detailed analysis of these changes and their cause have only become possible following the publication of second- and third-generation national distribution atlases. Decline can now be compared both between species and in different parts of species' ranges. We extracted data from distribution atlases to compare range persistence of 736 plant species common to both the UK and Estonia between survey periods encompassing almost the same years (1969 and 1999 in the UK and 1970 and 2004 in Estonia). We determined which traits were most closely associated with variation in species persistence, whether these were the same in each country, and the extent to which they explained differences in persistence between the countries. Mean range size declined less in Estonia than in the UK (24.3% vs. 30.3%). One-third of species in Estonia (239) maintained >90% of their distribution range compared with one-fifth (141) in the UK. In Estonia, 99 species lost >50% of their range compared with 127 species in the UK. Persistence was very positively related to original range in both countries. Major differences in species persistence between the studied countries were primarily determined by biogeographic (affiliation to floristic element) and ecoevolutionary (plant strategy) factors. In contrast, within-country persistence was most strongly determined by tolerance of anthropogenic activities. Decline of species in the families Orchidaceae and Potamogetonaceae was significantly greater in the UK than in Estonia. Almost all of the 736 common and native European plant species in our study are currently declining in their range due to pressure from anthropogenic activities. Those species with low tolerance of human activity, with biotic pollination vectors and in the families referred to above are the most vulnerable, especially where human population density is high. © 2015

  6. Institutional Change and Gender Inequalities at Labour Market Entry: A Comparison of Estonia, Russia, and East and West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Kosyakova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigates how gender inequalities in job opportunities evolved during communist and post-communist times in former state-socialist countries. Theoretical arguments (mainly based on studies referring to Western countries led to the expectation of a surge in gender inequalities in these countries after the collapse of communism. Empirically, we explore the gender gap in job authority upon labour market entry by using life-history data from Russia, Estonia, and East Germany, with West Germany serving as a control case. The selection of countries was motivated primarily by the availability of rich life-history data, covering four decades of (post- state socialism but also by divergences in institutional set-ups in the course of transition from state socialism to a liberalised market economy. Our findings yield four major results. First, accounting for education and the branch of economy, women were not disadvantaged during Soviet times; instead, we have even found evidence of a slight female advantage in Estonia and East Germany. Thus, our findings mirror the communist regime’s effectiveness in equalising women’s and men’s opportunities at work. Second, in the pre-collapse decade, the advantage of women in terms of job authority decreased in East Germany and Estonia, whereas in Russia, women fell behind men. Third, with the Soviet Union collapse, a remarkable female disadvantage emerged in all formerly state socialist countries under scrutiny. In addition, we observe a growing gender gap in West Germany in the same period. The latter result strengthens the conclusion that times of economic liberalisation may go hand-in-hand with increasing gender inequalities.

  7. Application of principles of European law in the Supreme Court of Estonia : [doktoritöö] / Carri Ginter ; juhendaja: Raul Narits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ginter, Carri, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Kaitses Tartus 01. 07. 2008. a.. - Koosneb artiklitest: Access to courts for branches - some thoughts under Estonian and EC law // European competition law review : ECLR (2004) nr. 11, lk. 708-715 ; Constitutional review and EC law in Estonia // European Law Review (2006) nr. 6, lk. 912-923 ; Effective implementation of the Trade Mark Directive in Estonia // European competition law review : ECLR (2007) nr. 6, lk. 337-345 ; Procedural issues relating to EU law in the Estonian Supreme Court // Juridica International. XII. Tartu, 2007, lk. 67-79

  8. Physicians’ views on the role of smoking in smoking-related diseases: findings from cross-sectional studies from 1982–2014 in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersti Pärna

    2017-07-01

    From 1982 to 2014, physicians’ attitudes towards the health risks of smoking improved in Estonia. However, their assessment of a causal role of smoking in smoking-related diseases was related to their own smoking habits and ethnicity. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians would require special efforts targeted at physicians. Societal pressure from a national policy could support a further decline in the social acceptability of smoking in Estonia and developments in medical education could provide continuing evidence-based information about the health effects of smoking to Estonian physicians.

  9. A new elasmobranch Karksiodus mirus gen. et sp. nov. from the Burtnieki Regional Stage, Middle Devonian of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ivanov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Teeth of a new elasmobranch Karksiodus mirus gen. et sp. nov. were discovered on two levels in the sandstones of the Karksi outcrop (South Estonia, corresponding to the Härma Beds, lower part of the Burtnieki Regional Stage (Givetian, Middle Devonian. These teeth differ from all known Palaeozoic elasmobranch teeth in the presence of a unique wide transversal tube-shaped basal canal, in very fine and dense striation of cusps and in an arched base without well-developed extensions. The order and family of this taxon are notspecified.

  10. A new elasmobranch Karksiodus mirus gen. et sp. nov. from the Burtnieki Regional Stage, Middle Devonian of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Ivanov; Tiiu Märss; Anne Kleesment

    2011-01-01

    Teeth of a new elasmobranch Karksiodus mirus gen. et sp. nov. were discovered on two levels in the sandstones of the Karksi outcrop (South Estonia), corresponding to the Härma Beds, lower part of the Burtnieki Regional Stage (Givetian, Middle Devonian). These teeth differ from all known Palaeozoic elasmobranch teeth in the presence of a unique wide transversal tube-shaped basal canal, in very fine and dense striation of cusps and in an arched base without well-developed extensions. The order ...

  11. Inclusive educational practices as perceived by prospective special education teachers in Estonia, Finland, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, S

    1997-03-01

    A survey of 125 prospective special education teachers assessed perceptions and beliefs about inclusive education in Estonia, Finland, and the United States (Michigan). The attitudes toward inclusion were rather critical. The Estonians were the most critical group, the Finns the least critical. The meanings attached to a student with severe mental retardation were related to the educational setting assessed as the best for this student. The findings suggest that special educators perceptions about inclusion are related to the prevailing implementation of inclusive education. The results support also the idea that the meanings attached to a person with a disability are connected with behavioural intentions toward this person.

  12. The efficiency of private enforcement of publik law claims in Estonia. Riiginõuete sissenõudmise efektiivsus Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrek Saar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Estonia, since 2001 the function of the enforcement of public law claims, such as fines or taxes, has been transferred to freelance bailiffs. The intention was to create profit motives for private enforcers to increase the effectiveness of the enforcement system. In this paper it is shown that the remuneration scheme for bailiffs that is currently applied tends to lead to inefficiently low level of enforced public law claims. Through quantitative calculations it is illustrated that there might exist alternatives that significantly increase the economic efficiency of the enforcement system.

  13. Danish investors' demands on skills and attributes of local accounting staff, are they met? - the case of Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundgaard, Elin; Thomsen, Jeanette; Alver, Lehte

    2008-01-01

    gaps by examining in depth a specific practice, i.e. the accounting staff of the Danish affiliations in Estonia.  Research on accounting staff is almost non-existing. This paper gives the project description and the research design as well as the results of a pilot interview in a big Danish...... and surprising aspects, e.g. the different roles and skills expectations to accountants and controllers.  These aspects will be considered when interviewing the bulk of Danish-owned Estonian companies to have their answers to the problems. The interviews will be conducted during spring 2009....

  14. Storminess-related rhythmic ridge patterns on the coasts of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülo Suursaar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Buried or elevated coastal ridges may serve as archives of past variations in sea level and climate conditions. Sometimes such ridges or coastal scarps appear in patterns, particularly on uplifting coasts with adequate sediment supply. Along the seacoasts of Estonia, where relative-to-geoid postglacial uplift can vary between 1.7 and 3.4 mm/yr, at least 27 areas with rhythmic geomorphic patterns have been identified from LiDAR images and elevation data. Such patterns were mainly found on faster emerging and well-exposed, tideless coasts. These are mostly located at heights between 1 and 21 m above sea level, the formation of which corresponds to a period of up to 7500 years. Up to approximately 150 individual ridges were counted on some cross-shore sections. Ten of these ridge patterns that formed less than 4500 years ago were chosen for detailed characterization and analysis in search of possible forcing mechanisms. Among these more closely studied cases, the mean ridge spacing varied between 19 and 28 m. Using land uplift rates from the late Holocene period, the timespans of the corresponding cross sections were calculated. The average temporal periodicity of the ridges was between 23 and 39 years with a gross mean value of 31 years. Considering the regular nature of the ridges, they mostly do not reflect single extreme events, but rather a decadal-scale periodicity in storminess in the region of the Baltic Sea. Although a contribution from some kind of self-organization process is possible, the rhythmicity in ancient coastal ridge patterns is likely linked to quasi-periodic 25−40-year variability, which can be traced to Estonian long-term sea level records and wave hindcasts, as well as in regional storminess data and the North Atlantic Oscillation index.

  15. Restructuring of manufacture under global financial and economic crisis: The case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilvits Kaarel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was not possible for Estonia only by raising the technological level of enterprises and increasing so-called technical productivity to catch up in terms of productivity with the developed industrial countries. The structure of Estonian manufacture was out-of-date and required cardinal and fast changes toward greater value added. Every time a crisis hits, it brings about new breakthroughs in science and technology; promotes fundamental changes that take place in a relatively short period of time; gives birth to new industries; forms new growth points in the economy. The crisis has had a far-reaching impact on the world economy and has brought challenges and opportunities to all countries and all fields. In addition to big difficulties, the crisis provided for Estonian manufacture also an exceptionally good chance for change and development. The crisis had a purifying and disciplining effect, enabled to eliminate from the manufacture wrong investments and inefficient enterprises. Assets were redistributed from passive economic agents to active ones and in favour of those who had capital for growth financing. After the crisis the structure of Estonian manufacturing is more effective than before: 1 technological level higher; 2 organization of work more perfect; 3 value added and productivity higher; 4 position of value chain better; 5 maybe also the value chain itself new and better. But there are fewer jobs in the new structure of manufacturing than before the crisis. Economic, social, regional etc. stratification has increased. The influence of crisis is not over yet and there is still a risk of some setback in future. There may also arise new problems and old problems may grow sharper.

  16. Barite mineralization in Kalana speleothems, Central Estonia: Sr, S and O isotope characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikk Gaškov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Barite mineralization in association with calcitic speleothem precipitates in cave structures in Silurian Aeronian carbonate rocks in Kalana quarry, Central Estonia, was studied. Barite mineralization in Kalana occurs in two generations – euhedral bladed-tabular barite zonal crystals from a few to 10 cm in size, growing on the limestone-dolomite wall-rock (generation I, and sparsely placed thin tabular crystals a few millimetres thick and up to 1 cm in size, growing on calcitic crusts (generation II. The barite crystals of generation I are frequently found embedded by paragenetically later calcitic botryoidal crusts. The Sr and S isotopic composition of barite crystals shows a trend of increasing Sr isotope ratios (from 0.7114 to 0.7120 and δ34S values (from 13‰ to 33‰ from the central parts towards the edges of zonal crystals. This suggests barite precipitation by mixing of two endmember fluids at varying ratios during barite formation: warm (up to 70 °C reducing fluid bearing Ba, characterized by an elevated radiogenic Sr- and 34S-enriched isotopic signal, and a cooler ambient fluid bearing an isotopically lighter dissolved sulphate, characterized by lower Sr isotope ratios. The excess of radiogenic 87Sr in barite compared to Phanerozoic seawater values suggests Sr derived from a continental source, whereas sulphate was derived either from oxidized H2S or a modified seawater source. Gradual increase in δ34S values towards the outer zones could also indicate the 34S enrichment due to bacterial sulphate reduction, even though there is no paired 34S and 18O enrichment of sulphate, characteristic of bacterial reworking. This can be interpreted as indicating an open system with limited sulphate resupply where the δ18O composition of sulphate was equilibrated with warm ascending hydrothermal fluid.

  17. Residual Cadmium and Lead Pollution at a Former Soviet Military Airfield in Tartu, Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mander, Ulo; Kull, Ain; Frey, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents data on the levels and dynamics of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentration in the plants, soil, and groundwater of the landing corridor and airfield of a former Soviet military air base in Estonia, immediately at the end of its 40-year service in 1992 and over the following 8 yr. In 1991-92 we found high Cd concentrations in the meadow plants Trifolium pratense and Dactylis glomerata (up to 56 mg kg -1 ). In 1993, the Cd concentration had dropped to 0.12-0.19 mg kg -1 , and stabilized in 1997-2000 at 0.04 mg kg -1 . Cd concentration in plants decreased significantly with increasing distance from the landing strip. Elevated Cd concentration (0.012 mg L -1 ) was found in the fuel of the TU-22M (Backfire) strategic bombers. In 1991 and 1993, leaded fuel influenced the mean Pb concentration in plants (1.8-4.2 mg kg -1 ). Average Pb concentration in both topsoil and the 30-40 cm soil horizon decreased between 1991 and 2000 from 28 to 6.5 and from 13.5 to 4.3 mg kg -1 , respectively. Cd concentration in the topsoil of the landing corridor showed a significant increase between 1991 and 1993 (0.07-0.3 and 0.3-1.2 mg kg -1 , respectively), but stabilized later on the level of 0.04 mg kg -1 . The concentrations of both Pb and Cd in the soil were higher closer to the fuel bunkers. Current assessment of the movement of these metals from the vegetation to the soil and to groundwater is linked to potential leaching to the surrounding environment

  18. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Rahivere peat bog, eastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Plado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The current case study presents results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR profiling at one of the Saadjärve drumlin field interstitial troughs, the Rahivere bog, eastern Estonia. The study was conducted in order to identify the bog morphology, and the thickness and geometry of the peat body. The method was also used to describe the applicability of GPR in the evaluation of the peat deposit reserve as the Rahivere bog belongs among the officially registered peat reserves. Fourteen GPR profiles, ~ 100 m apart and oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the depression, covering the bog and its surrounding areas, were acquired. In order to verify the radar image interpretation as well as to evaluate the velocity of electromagnetic waves in peat, a common source configuration was utilized and thirteen boreholes were drilled on the GPR profiles. A mean value of 0.036 m ns–1 corresponding to relative dielectric permittivity of 69.7 was used for the time–depth conversion. Radar images reveal major reflection from the peat–soil interface up to a depth of about 4 m, whereas drillings showed a maximum thickness of 4.5 m of peat. Minor reflections appear from the upper peat and mineral soil. According to the borehole data, undecomposed peat is underlain by decomposed one, but identifying them by GPR is complicated. Mineral soil consists of glaciolimnic silty sand in the peripheral areas of the trough, overlain by limnic clay in the central part. The calculated peat volumes (1 200 000 m3 were found to exceed the earlier estimation (979 000 m3 that was based solely on drilling data. Ground-penetrating radar, as a method that allows mapping horizontal continuity of the sub-peat interface in a non-destructive way, was found to provide detailed information for evaluating peat depth and extent.

  19. Noor-Eesti tähendust otsides: vanu ja uusi mõtteid. In Quest of the Meaning of Young Estonia: Old and New Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Kivimäe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As an important chapter of Estonian literary history, Young Estonia has been relatively well researched and interpreted. However, its influence as a cultural and intellectual movement in Estonian society in the opening decades of the last century requires further study and verification. What stands reflected in Young Estonia is actually a larger groundswell of history, along with a rupture that took place throughout Estonian society in the course of its modernization. Discussions of the meaning of Young Estonia must therefore concern themselves with literary discourse, but much more so with what transpired outside the boundaries of literary pursuits, in the contexts of social and political history and the history of ideas. In view of historiography, there is no consensus on the definition of Young Estonia: it has been referred to as a movement, a group, or a cluster of seminal ideas. The founding of the group is generally located at the publication of the first Young Estonia album near the high tide of the Russian Revolution of 1905. Young Estonia disintegrated during the First World War, with its ending marked both by the publication of the fifth and final album in 1915 and by the journal Vaba Sõna (Free Word, which carried on the ideology of Young Estonia in the years 1914–1916. Although there are strong parallels between Young Estonia and similar movements and associations in Western and Central Europe in the nineteenth century, the greatest influence being exerted by the politicalliterary movement Nuori-Suomi (Young Finland, the respective group in Estonia was largely autochthonic in its time and milieu. In the rhetoric of the era of national awakening, Baltic Germans referred to Estonian national activists as ”Young Estonians”; the term was also under discussion in the Estonian press, yet there is no direct conceptual connection between this polemic and Young Estonia as a group. The Young Estonia group was mostly composed of young

  20. Transamazonic foundation from Borborema Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackpacher, P.C.; Dantas, E.L.; Van Schums, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Geochronological data obtained in plutonic rocks of the Sao Vicente/Caico Groups present U/Pb values around 2.15 Ga. These rocks may have involved from an initial mantle or lower crust melting and fractionation process by 2.62-2.65 Ga., that is evidenced from Sm/Nd model ages. Relation betwen TTG-sequence and tectonic setting of the area and other localities in NE-Brazil suggest that the Transamazonic orogeny was the main crust-forming episode of the Borborema Province. (author)

  1. WHAT SHOULD ESTONIA DO IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE VALUE OF ITS EXPORTS OF GOODS TO SLOVAKIA AND SLOVENIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Romih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses Estonia’s trade in goods with the world in general and with Slovakia and Slovenia in particular. Additionally, it also proposes some measures to increase the value of Estonia’s exports of goods to the aforementioned countries, both of which are Estonia’s minor export partners in Central and Eastern Europe. In 2013, the value of Estonia’s exports of goods to Slovakia and Slovenia amounted to €51.3 million and €7.4 million respectively. In order to increase the value of its exports of goods to these two countries, Estonia should increase the competitiveness of Estonian enterprises (especially small- and medium-sized ones in the Slovakian and Slovenian markets and adopt other measures such as increasing the sustainability of the aforementioned enterprises with a view to facilitating their entry into new markets. In recent years, sustainability has become an important factor in competitiveness, which is mainly the result of increased environmental awareness of consumers and other stakeholders, foremost in developed countries (including Slovakia and Slovenia. Sustainable innovation has therefore become an important source of competitive advantage, which is especially true for enterprises operating in competitive markets. Therefore, in order to increase the competitiveness of Estonian enterprises in the aforementioned markets, Estonia should promote sustainable innovation and take certain other measures.

  2. Hunting for valuables from landfills and assessing their market opportunities A case study with Kudjape landfill in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Burlakovs, Juris; Kriipsalu, Mait; Hogland, Marika; Hogland, William

    2017-06-01

    Landfill mining is an alternative technology that merges the ideas of material recycling and sustainable waste management. This paper reports a case study to estimate the value of landfilled materials and their respective market opportunities, based on a full-scale landfill mining project in Estonia. During the project, a dump site (Kudjape, Estonia) was excavated with the main objectives of extracting soil-like final cover material with the function of methane degradation. In total, about 57,777 m 3 of waste was processed, particularly the uppermost 10-year layer of waste. Manual sorting was performed in four test pits to determine the detailed composition of wastes. 11,610 kg of waste was screened on site, resulting in fine (40 mm) fractions with the share of 54% and 46%, respectively. Some portion of the fine fraction was sieved further to obtain a very fine grained fraction of size, and the importance of developing and implementing innovative extraction methods for materials recovery from soil-like fractions.

  3. Uudised : Don Juan jõuab Estonia lavale. VII Rudolf Tobiase päevad Hiiumaal. Esineb Laine Leichteri koolkond / Liina Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Liina

    1999-01-01

    3.juunil Estonias esietenduvast Mozarti ooperist "Don Giovanni". 28.-29.05 toimuvatest VII R. Tobiase päevadest, mis on pühendatud helilooja 126. sünniaastapäevale. 3.06 Mustpeade Majas toimuvast L. Leichteri juubelikontserdist

  4. The Occupational Well-Being of School Staff and Maintenance of Their Ability to Work in Finland and Estonia--Focus on the School Community and Professional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaranen, Terhi; Sormunen, Marjorita; Pertel, Tiia; Streimann, Karin; Hansen, Siivi; Varava, Liana; Lepp, Kadi; Turunen, Hannele; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the baseline results of a research and development project targeted to improve the occupational well-being of school staff and maintain their ability to work, in Finland and Estonia. It reveals the most problematic factors in the various aspects of the school community and professional competence and outlines…

  5. Social inequalities in health care services utilisation after eight years of health care reforms: a cross-sectional study of Estonia, 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habicht, Jarno; Kunst, Anton E.

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental health care reforms in Estonia started in 1991 with the introduction of a social health insurance system. While increasing the efficiency of the health care system was one of the targets of the health care reforms, equity issues have received relatively less attention. The objective of

  6. Transformation of Estonia's industrial structure : Continued de-industrialisation or interlude in re-industrialisation? / Garri Raagmaa, Mihkel Laan, Antti Raamat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raagmaa, Garri, 1966-

    2003-01-01

    Autorid analüüsivad Eesti tööstuse senisele arengule tuginedes võimalikke arengusuundi tulevikus. Tabelid ja diagramm. Vt. samas: Competitiveness of the Baltic states has improved; Skanska leaves Latvia and Lithuania but not from Estonia

  7. [Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940] / Raiko Jäärats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jäärats, Raiko, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940 (On the boundary of two worlds. identity, fredom and moral imagination in the Baltics, 35). Hrsg. von Björn M. Felder und Paul J. Weindling. Rodopi, Amsterdam u.a. 2013

  8. Housing Restitution and Privatisation: Both Catalysts and Obstacles to the Formation of Private Rental Housing in the Czech Republic and Estonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lux, Martin; Kährik, A.; Sunega, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2012), s. 137-158 ISSN 1461-6718 R&D Projects: GA MMR WD-05-07-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Czech Republic * Estonia * housing tenure Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14616718.2012.681574

  9. Processes of Localization and Institutionalization of local Managers in Economic Functions in Danish Owned Subsidiaries in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania Around the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    been conducted from 1997 to 2002 among local CEOs, chief accountants and production managers in a Danish SME, using mainly qualitative methods. Data have been compared to primary data from similar companies in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The study has resulted in establishing a model for comparing...

  10. Udder pathogens and their resistance to antimicrobial agents in dairy cows in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orro Toomas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to estimate the distribution of udder pathogens and their antibiotic resistance in Estonia during the years 2007-2009. Methods The bacteriological findings reported in this study originate from quarter milk samples collected from cows on Estonian dairy farms that had clinical or subclinical mastitis. The samples were submitted by local veterinarians to the Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory during 2007-2009. Milk samples were examined by conventional bacteriology. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with the disc diffusion test. Logistic regression with a random herd effect to control for clustering was used for statistical analysis. Results During the study period, 3058 clinical mastitis samples from 190 farms and 5146 subclinical mastitis samples from 274 farms were investigated. Positive results were found in 57% of the samples (4680 out of 8204, and the proportion did not differ according to year (p > 0.05. The proportion of bacteriologically negative samples was 22.3% and that of mixed growth was 20.6%. Streptococcus uberis (Str. uberis was the bacterium isolated most frequently (18.4% from cases of clinical mastitis, followed by Escherichia coli (E. coli (15.9% and Streptococcus agalactiae (Str. agalactiae (11.9%. The bacteria that caused subclinical mastitis were mainly Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus (20% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (15.4%. The probability of isolating S. aureus from milk samples was significantly higher on farms that had fewer than 30 cows, when compared with farms that had more than 100 cows (p Str. agalactiae infection was found on farms with more than 600 cows (p = 0.034 compared with smaller farms. The proportion of S. aureus and CNS isolates that were resistant to penicillin was 61.4% and 38.5%, respectively. Among the E. coli isolates, ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline resistance were observed in 24.3%, 15.6% and 13

  11. Major uranium provinces: Yilgarn block and Gascoyne Province, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Archaean Yilgarn Block and the adjacent Proterozoic Gascoyne Province, Western Australia, form the basement and source rocks for numerous occurrences of surficial uranium mineralization, the largest being the Yeelirrie deposit (35 million tonnes at 0.15% U 3 O 8 ). The mineralization, almost exclusively in the form of carnotite, has been deposited in the regolith and appears to be less than 1 Ma old, with some deposits still forming. The nature and distribution of the mineralization are controlled by basement and surface geology, geomorphology, hydrology and climate, being restricted to deeply weathered, semi-arid terrain with granitoid source rocks. A few small occurrences in the Gascoyne Province may be pedogenic in origin but the majority, in the north of Yilgarn Block, occur in unrejuvenated palaeodrainage channels now choked by colluvial, alluvial and chemical sediments. These sediments, which are aquifers for the present, predominantly sub-surface, drainage, can exceed 10-15 m. Uranium released from the weathering granitoids has been transported in groundwaters in uranyl carbonate complexes and precipitated as carnotite where, (i) concentrations of uranium and potassium have been elevated by evaporation and, (ii) dissolved vanadium has been oxidized to the 5-valent state. Precipitation is in calcretes and associated sediments in the drainage axes, in 'chemical deltas' where the drainages enter playas and in the playas themselves. This style of mineralization was first recognized in 1969-1970 as the result of investigations into the source of radiometric anomalies delineated by airborne surveys. The majority of discoveries have similarly been by radiometric surveys but hydrogeochemical surveys have promise and may become important in future search for blind mineralization and/or young deposits not in radioactive equilibrium. (author). 61 refs, 6 figs

  12. Wind potential assessment of Quebec Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.-L.; Retiveau, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4 o latitude by 1/3 o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)

  13. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (phomicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  15. Milleks teatrilavale ajalugu? : Katri-Aaslav-Tepandi ja Tõnu Tepandi. "President 1939". Estonia kammersaal, esietendus 18. veebruaril 2008; Enn Vetemaa, Erki Aule ja Merle Karusoo. "Sigma Tau-S705". Eesti Draamateater, esietendus 16. märtsil 2008 /

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vseviov, David, 1949-

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus : Katri-Aaslav-Tepandi ja Tõnu Tepandi. "President 1939". Estonia kammersaal, esietendus 18. veebruaril 2008; Enn Vetemaa, Erki Aule ja Merle Karusoo. "Sigma Tau-S705". Eesti Draamateater, esietendus 16. märtsil 2008

  16. Environmental innovation through transport policy. The implementation of the free fare policy on public transport in Tallinn, Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon-Estevan, D.

    2016-07-01

    Urban areas are of increasing relevance when it comes to sustainability: First, about half of the world’s population now lives in cities (increasing to 60% by 2030). Second, cities are nowadays responsible for levels of resource consumption and waste generation that are higher beyond their share on world population. Third, cities are more vulnerable to disruptive events that can lead to restrictions on the provision of resources and to changes on the environment caused by climate change. And fourth, because they concentrate key resources (political, social, cultural…), cities are seen as strategic scenarios where to experiment and develop solutions to cope with the prevailing sustainability challenges driven by the major social and environmental transformations. Urban agglomerations can be seen as complex innovation systems where human activities are shaped in order to transform societies towards sustainable development. For this paper, we focus on the case of an environmental innovation regarding transport policy, the implementation of the fare-free policy on public transport for all inhabitants of Tallinn, Estonia. Tallinn, with 414,000 inhabitants in 2015, is the capital of Estonia and the largest city in the country. Over the last two decades the share of public transport trips decreased dramatically. After a public opinion poll in 2012, in which over 75% of the participants voted for a fare-free public transportation system (FFPTS) in Tallinn, the new policy was implemented on 1st January 2013. From that date on inhabitants of Tallinn could use all public transport services (busses, trams, trolly-busses) operated by city-run operators for free. Later the fare-free system was implemented also on trains within Tallinn. In this paper we analyze the context, in which this policy was implemented, the main characteristics of its implementation and its actual situation. (Author)

  17. Making Distinctions on Autonomous Cultural Field: the Case of Small-scale Alternative Music Festival Organisers in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Mäe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to give a sense of the activities of small-scale cultural practitioners in Estonia. Whereas Western societies experienced the powerful emergence of youth (subcultures and DIY ideology, as well as self-organised low scale cultural production in the 1960s, in Estonia all of these practices are relatively new and born over the last decades. This article discusses the Eastern European specifics of (subcultural production. The main concepts of this study are fields in cultural production and symbolic capital according to Pierre Bourdieu, with consideration of the recent elaborations in the field of (subcultural studies. Interpreting the interests, motives and attitudes that are the basis for the activities of the promoters, this paper addresses the subjects of mainstream/underground, independent/commercial and high culture/subculture, thereby contributing to the relevant discussion in subculture studies.The empirical part of the paper relies mainly on in-depth interviews conducted by the first author (2009, while the interviews conducted by the second author (2010 are supported by fieldwork on club cultures 2002-2003. The data have been analysed and systematised by qualitative data analysis methods, with the help of NVivo research software.While subcultures usually create symbolic boundaries using their distinctive style, music and ideological practices, according to this study, promoters tend to create ‘independent brands’ for the purposes of participation in the small-scale cultural field. These independent brands involve a mix of the promoters’ taste in music, which is communicated through the ‘brand’ to significant others (music critics, lay audience and friends, and constitute an important means for creating symbolic capital.

  18. The formation of ethnically mixed partnerships in Estonia: A stalling trend from a two-sided perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Rahnu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnically mixed partnerships are often regarded as the ultimate evidence of the integration of migrants and their descendants into their host society. A common finding in the literature is an increase in the occurrence of mixed partnerships across migrant generations. Objective: This study investigates the formation of minority-majority partnerships in Estonia, with special attention to the variation associated with the migrants' generation and their exposure to the majority population. Methods: The study uses pooled data from the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (FFS and the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (GGS, and estimates proportional hazards models. Results: The experience of second-generation migrants indicates a stalling trend in the incidence of mixed partnerships between the majority population and migrant groups, which is rooted in contextual features. Apart from residential proximity, the study shows the salience of early acquisition of the host society language. Our results for the majority population highlight the role of international migration, which exposes host populations to mixed partnership formation. Conclusions: The results lend support to the view that the integration of migrant populations through mixed partnering is a lengthy process that stretches across several generations. A linguistically divided school system and residential segregation contribute to the pillarization of society. Contribution: By focussing on an Eastern European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of mixed unions in different socioeconomic and cultural settings. Estonia provides an interesting case as its migrant-origin minorities span several generations. The study underscores the importance of contextual factors for both the minority and majority populations.

  19. DIGITAL PRESERVATION OF PRINTED CULTURAL HERITAGE IN ESTONIA. STRATEGY. METHODOLOGY. PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimo, Tiiu

    2006-12-01

    (different organisations. For reasons of the historical development considerable part of documentary heritage is also located outside Estonia (Sweden, USA, Canada, Australia, Russia etc.The projects of red books as well as different digitisation projects have been in practice for some years in all Estonian memory institutions. Libraries are pioneers in initiating collaborationprojects in digitisation. Due to the joint efforts of the National Library, the Archive Library of the Estonian Literature Museum and the Tallinn University Academic Library a big collection of old Estonian newspapers is available by internet. The project is titled DEA (Digitized Estonian Newspapers. The aim of the project Red Book of Estonian publications, 1535–1850 was to create a theoretical basis for elaborating criteria that would enable decision making and determination preservation priorities of the Estonian book heritage. At the moment there is not much collaboration between different types of memory institutions. The joint projects like DEA and Red Bookof Estonian Publications give hope that together difficult problems of preservation can be better solved and users will get better access to Estonian cultural heritage.

  20. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A A [Nuclear materials authority, El Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs.

  1. Isostatic model for the Tharsis province, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep, N.H.; Phillips, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A crust-upper mantle configuration is proposed for the Tharsis province of Mars which is isostatic and satisfies the observed gravity data. The model is that of a low density upper mantle compensating loads at both the surface and crust-mantle boundary. Solutions are found for lithospheric thickness greater than about 300 km, for which the stress differences are less than 750 bars. This model for Tharsis is similar to the compensation mechanism under the Basin and Range province of the western United States. These provinces also compare favorably in the sense that they are both elevated regions of extensional tectonics and extensive volcanism

  2. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  3. Environmental restoration of uranium contaminated sites in Estonia within the framework of IAEA project (RER/9/022) in 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratas, R.

    1997-01-01

    In Estonia there are several radioactively contaminated sites left from the military and uranium progressing activities by the former Soviet Union. Enhanced radiation levels are prevalent in the Paldiski area, a former nuclear submarine training centre; on the territory of the waste depository at Saku/Tammiku and at Sillamae, where a large depository of uranium milling tailings is situated. During the last two years considerable effort has been put into restoration of these sites. To start with, designing of reasonably achievable remediation projects have been taken up. Estonia has received large contributions from many western countries and organisations. Practical remediation work on contaminated areas, e.g. at Sillamae is, however, delayed due to lack of funds. (author)

  4. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  5. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  6. Maternal and paternal genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Estonia from the Late Bronze Age to the post-medieval period and comparison with other regions in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, E; Lõugas, L; Niemi, M; Kantanen, J; Maldre, L; Kadõrova, N; Saarma, U

    2016-04-01

    Sheep were among the first domesticated animals to appear in Estonia in the late Neolithic and became one of the most widespread livestock species in the region from the Late Bronze Age onwards. However, the origin and historical expansion of local sheep populations in Estonia remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed fragments of the hypervariable D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; 213 bp) and the Y-chromosome SRY gene (130 bp) extracted from 31 archaeological sheep bones dated from approximately 800 BC to 1700 AD. The ancient DNA data of sheep from Estonia were compared with ancient sheep from Finland as well as a set of contemporary sheep breeds from across Eurasia in order to place them in a wider phylogeographical context. The analysis shows that: (i) 24 successfully amplified and analysed mtDNA sequences of ancient sheep cluster into two haplogroups, A and B, of which B is predominant; (ii) four of the ancient mtDNA haplotypes are novel; (iii) higher mtDNA haplotype diversity occurred during the Middle Ages as compared to other periods, a fact concordant with the historical context of expanding international trade during the Middle Ages; (iv) the proportion of rarer haplotypes declined during the expansion of sheep from the Near Eastern domestication centre to the northern European region; (v) three male samples showed the presence of the characteristic northern European haplotype, SNP G-oY1 of the Y-chromosome, and represent the earliest occurrence of this haplotype. Our results provide the first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeographical background of ancient sheep in Estonia and provide basis for further studies on the temporal fluctuations of ancient sheep populations. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  7. A Tale of Two Cities: Stigma and Health Outcomes Among People with HIV who Inject Drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sara E.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Dovidio, John F.; Levina, Olga S.; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M.; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Heimer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of stigma are often associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present work tested the associations between stigma and health-related outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia. These two cities share some of the highest rates of HIV outside of sub-Saharan Africa, largely driven by injection drug use, but Estonia has implemented harm reduction services more comprehensively. People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling; those who indicated being HIV-positive were included in the present sample (n=381 in St. Petersburg; n=288 in Kohtla-Järve). Participants reported their health information and completed measures of internalized HIV stigma, anticipated HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, and anticipated drug stigma. Participants in both locations indicated similarly high levels of all four forms of stigma. However, stigma variables were more strongly associated with health outcomes in Russia than in Estonia. The St. Petersburg results were consistent with prior work linking stigma and health. Lower barriers to care in Kohtla-Järve may help explain why social stigma was not closely tied to negative health outcomes there. Implications for interventions and health policy are discussed. PMID:25703668

  8. Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and STI screening for men who have sex with men in Estonia, 2013: analysis of preliminary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruutel, K; Lohmus, L; Janes, J

    2015-04-16

    The aim of the current project was to develop an Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia in order to collect biological samples during behavioural studies. In 2013, an Internet-based HIV risk-behaviour survey was conducted among MSM living in Estonia. After completing the questionnaire, all participants were offered anonymous and free-of-charge STI testing. They could either order a urine sample kit by post to screen for chlamydia infections (including lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)), trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections, or visit a laboratory for HIV, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus,hepatitis C virus and syphilis screening. Of 301 participants who completed the questionnaire, 265 (88%),reported that they were MSM. Of these 265 MSM,68 (26%) underwent various types of testing. In the multiple regression analysis, Russian as the first language,previous HIV testing and living in a city or town increased the odds of testing during the study. Linking Internet-based behavioural data collection with biological sample collection is a promising approach. As there are no specific STI services for MSM in Estonia,this system could also be used as an additional option for anonymous and free-of-charge STI screening.

  9. A tale of two cities: stigma and health outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sara E; Calabrese, Sarah K; Dovidio, John F; Levina, Olga S; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Heimer, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Experiences of stigma are often associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present work tested the associations between stigma and health-related outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia. These two cities share some of the highest rates of HIV outside of sub-Saharan Africa, largely driven by injection drug use, but Estonia has implemented harm reduction services more comprehensively. People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling; those who indicated being HIV-positive were included in the present sample (n = 381 in St. Petersburg; n = 288 in Kohtla-Järve). Participants reported their health information and completed measures of internalized HIV stigma, anticipated HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, and anticipated drug stigma. Participants in both locations indicated similarly high levels of all four forms of stigma. However, stigma variables were more strongly associated with health outcomes in Russia than in Estonia. The St. Petersburg results were consistent with prior work linking stigma and health. Lower barriers to care in Kohtla-Järve may help explain why social stigma was not closely tied to negative health outcomes there. Implications for interventions and health policy are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Situation analysis in relation to district heating and CHP in the Baltic Sea Region: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Kaliningrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    The situation analysis embraces chapters on: Estonia, Kaliningrad, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia, which experience varying degrees of difficulties with the transition to a market economy, and with integrating into the world market. In the following, the focus is on Lithuania, which has been visited during the project period. Lithuania has specific problems due to the existence of the Ignalina power plant, but has nevertheless characteristics, which apply to Estonia and Latvia as well. The problem with the quality of heat supply is rampant in all the countries, as is legal framework for the sector, except in Poland, which has generally attracted much attention from investors over the last ten years and has experienced a relatively sound political development in the energy sector. The main problem in all countries seem to relate to the policy development. The case of Lithuania confirms this. Following the observations on Lithuania, it is attempted to establish some points of concern, which are relevant to a greater or lesser extent in all countries, as well as some suggestions on how to move towards a solution of those problems. As mentioned Poland is generally in a better position, technically and politically than the three Baltic states, whereas Russia still needs to progress much on those issues. The general recommendations for initiatives in the Baltic countries in question are in brief: Establishing a clear view at governmental level of what the EU and liberalisation will bring, and what needs to be done additionally to secure main energy political objectives. Issues such as security of supply, environmental protection, low cost energy supplies and security of investments need to be thoroughly discussed at national level. It is important to understand that EU Directives provide a framework, not an answer to the future of the energy sector. Reinforcement of governmental bodies that deal with the practical problems of the energy sector. The main task of

  11. Uranium provinces and the exploration industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.; Michie, U.McL.

    1988-01-01

    There is little doubt that exploration by mining companies in established districts or 'provinces' has led to the discovery of substantial additional ore reserves. However, the competition for, and expenses of, land acquisitions in these known districts often prompts companies to search further afield. In some cases, new discoveries can merely be regarded as extensions of known provinces while others are located in completely new areas. Whether the explorers utilized concepts of metallogenic provinces in the course of such discoveries is questionable; rather, they would have sought the particular combinations of geological circumstances required by the model. Once a new deposit is found, however, the concept of a province, whether correct in that situation or not, is usually responsible for stimulating further activity. Recent examples of such behaviour are the Arizona Strip and NE Nebraska (USA) in provincial extensions and Roxby Downs, Lone Gull (NW Territories, Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) in new areas. More routine and scientific application of metallogenic province theory by the uranium exploration industry would require evidence that not only the bulk of the world's uranium reserves but also the majority of the individual world-class deposits fall into geologically definable provinces. Such evidence should include the demonstration that particular areas of the Earth's crust had been enriched in uranium (with or without related elements) and that this enrichment had persisted through periods of crustal reworking and been responsible for concentrations of the metal ore deposits. The evidence described in the volume is critically reviewed in this context. (author). Refs, 4 figs

  12. Jobs, careers, and becoming a parent under state socialist and market conditions: Evidence from Estonia 1971-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunnee Billingsley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Entering employment and achieving a stable position in the labour market are considered important preconditions for childbearing. Existing studies addressing the relationship between work experience and the timing of parenthood focus exclusively on Western Europe and North America. By adding an Eastern European context before and after societal transformation, this study contributes to a more comprehensive account of the role of work experience in first-birth timing in Europe. Objective: We investigate how work experience and career development are related to the timing of parenthood in two diverse contexts in Estonia, state socialism and the market economy, and how it varies by gender and nativity. Methods: The data used come from the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006-2007. We estimate piecewise constant event history models to analyse the transition to first birth. Results: Our results suggest that in the market economy work experience became moreimportant in the decision to enter parenthood. In the market economy the importance of work experience to entering parenthood became more similar for women and men. Non-native-origin men and women's timing of parenthood appears to have become detached from their career developments. The article discusses mechanisms that may underlie the observed patterns. Conclusions: Our study shows how work experience gained importance as a precondition for parenthood in the transition to a market economy. This lends support to the view that the increasing importance of work experience is among plausible drivers of the postponement transition that extended to Eastern Europe in the 1990s.

  13. Iron in the Middle Devonian aquifer system and its removal at Võru County water treatment plants, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariina Hiiob

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater abstracted from the Middle Devonian aquifer system is the main source of drinking water in South Estonia. High iron and manganese concentrations in groundwater are the greatest problems in this region. The total iron concentrations up to 16 mg L–1 are mainly caused by a high Fe2+ content in water, pointing to the dominance of reducing conditions in the aquifer system. A pilot study was carried out to estimate the effectiveness of 20 groundwater purification plants with eight different water treatment systems (aeration combined with Manganese Greensand, Birm, Nevtraco, Hydrolit-Mn, Magno-Dol and quartz sand filters in Võru County. The results demonstrate that in most cases the systems with pre-aeration effectively purify groundwater from iron, but only 13 out of 20 water treatment plants achieved a reduction of iron concentration to the level fixed in drinking water requirements (0.2 mg L–1. Manganese content decreased below the maximum allowed concentration in only 25% of systems and in cases where the filter media was Birm or quartz sand and pre-oxidation was applied. The study showed that the high level of iron purification does not guarantee effective removal of manganese.

  14. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serrano-Fernandez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668, already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls, Latvia (81 cases and controls, Lithuania (123 cases and controls, and Poland (795 cases and controls. Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample. Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers.

  15. The Effect of Gender and Ethnicity and their Intersection on Work Satisfaction and Earnings in Estonia, 1993-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeni Hansson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines trends in the labour market position, defined in terms of three dimensions – earnings, perceived job security and overall job satisfaction – among four population groups in Estonia – Estonian men and women and Russian-speaking men and women. We explore how the labour market position these groups changed between 1993 and 2008. We used data from 1993 and 2008, collected in the population survey Work, Family and Leisure, designed by the Institute of International and Social Studies at Tallinn University. We carried out a two-step analysis: first, we conducted descriptive analysis to explore changes in the labour market situation of men and women of two ethnic groups in the period of 1993-2008; and second, we used models of multivariate analysis of variances to examine how gender, ethnicity and occupational status as well as the intersection of these variables are related to earnings, job security and job satisfaction.We found that Estonian men have emerged as the most successful group in the labour market, while the labour market position of Russian-speaking women is the most disadvantaged compared to other groups in terms of earnings, job security and job satisfaction. We suggest that these labour market inequalities could be increasing, and that the interaction of gender and ethnicity might become increasingly important in shaping labour market outcomes.

  16. The crystalline basement of Estonia: rock complexes of the Palaeoproterozoic Orosirian and Statherian and Mesoproterozoic Calymmian periods, and regional correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirs, Juho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available New data on the Fennoscandian Shield and the Baltic area suggest a need for reinterpretation of the stratigraphy of Estonian Precambrian rock complexes. The rocks of the Tallinn Zone formed in the framework of the Fennian orogeny at the margin of the Bergslagen microcontinent 1.90–1.88 Ga ago. The precise age of the Alutaguse Zone is not known. It may have formed either during the 1.93–1.91 Ga Lapland–Savo orogeny or as a rifted eastern part of the Tallinn Zone in the Fennian orogeny. The granulites of western and southern Estonia belong to the volcanic arcs inside the 1.84–1.80 Ga Svecobaltic orogenic belt and show peak metamorphic conditions of 1.78 Ga. Small shoshonitic plutons formed 1.83–1.63 Ga, the small granitic plutons of the Wiborg Rapakivi Subprovince 1.67–1.62 Ga, and the Riga pluton 1.59–1.54 Ga ago.

  17. Development of the reed bed in Matsalu wetland, Estonia: responses to neotectonic land uplift, sea level changes and human influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Meriste

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied reed bed development in Matsalu wetland and the Kasari River delta, Estonia, since the late 18th century using historical schemes, topographical maps and aerial photographs. Our aim was to understand the mechanisms controlling reed distribution in Matsalu wetland, the largest coastal wetland of the eastern Baltic Sea occupying an area of about 25 km2. Natural development of the reed bed in Matsalu Bay and the Kasari delta is mainly controlled by shoreline displacement due to post-glacial neotectonic land uplift. The dredging of the Kasari delta in the 1920s–1930s caused a rapid seaward migration of reed bed communities due to the dispersal of fragmented rhizomes on the shallow sea bottom and along the canal banks reaching Matsalu Bay, while the landward parts of the former wetland were occupied by meadow communities. The expansion of the reed bed started in between the 1951s and 1970s and a maximum extent of 27 km2 was gained by the late 1970s at the peak of eutrophication. In the last decades the reed bed development has been influenced by sea level rise and increased intensity of cyclonic activity in the Baltic Sea, which has caused the deterioration of the reed bed that was weakened by eutrophication due to nutrient inflow from agricultural landscapes mainly in the 1960s–1980s.

  18. THE USE OF PANAX GINSENG AND ITS ANALOGUES AMONG PHARMACY CUSTOMERS IN ESTONIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Dasy; Raal, Ain; Kalle, Raivo; Sõukand, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to evaluate the pattern of complementary self-treatment with P. ginseng and its analogues amongst pharmacy customers in Estonia. The study instrument consisted of multiple-choice items related to personal knowledge about and experience with the use of P. ginseng and its analogues. In total, 1233 customers participated in the study. Of study participants, 18.1% reported the use of P. ginseng and its analogues in their lives. P. ginseng preparations were used mostly according to the well- known indications (tiredness, weakness and decreased mental and physical capacity). Of P. ginseng users 44.3% reported positive treatment effects and 12.0% had experienced different side effects. With increase of age (p < 0.01) and at lower levels of education (p = 0.04), the use of ginseng or its analogues decreased. The better the users evaluated their health, the better they perceived the effect of P. ginseng preparations (p < 0.01). This study reported rather frequent use of P. ginseng and its analogues. P. ginseng could be seen in the treatment of conditions, where the use of local medicinal plants has not been established. Further research is needed to learn more about public knowledge and experiences about efficacy and safety of P. ginseng and its analogues.

  19. The Policies Concerning the Strength of Intellectual Property Rights Protection: The Choices for Estonia in Wider Context of EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Roolaht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The foreign direct investment (FDI can be substitute for the contractual transfer of intellectual property rights in a situation where these rights are weakly protected. Hence, stronger intellectual property rights protection may reduce incentives for FDI. This is, however, only one line of reasoning. Stronger intellectual property protection can also increase motivation to invest into completely new products and processes. Thus, from the slightly different perspective FDI and strength of intellectual property protection can be seen as complementary. This duality of impact makes the search for efficient protection very difficult and complex. The aim of this paper is to outline the policy choices open for Estonia in influencing the relative strength of intellectual property rights protection and its impact on FDI. The vital secondary research agenda by this concerns the influence of EU-membership on the autonomy of such policy choices. Given the fact that there exist European patents and patent registry, certain intellectual property rights protection measures and legislative practices are undoubtedly pre-determined by this embeddedness into EU-wide protection systems. The national level policies and enforcement issues may still vary.

  20. Biodosimetry of Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia and Latvia using the glycophorin A in vivo somatic cell mutation assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigbee, W.L.; Jensen, R.H.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 necessitated a massive environmental cleanup that involved over 600,000 workers from all 15 Republics of the former Soviet Union. To determine whether the whole-body radiation received by workers in the course of these decontamination activities resulted in a detectable biological response, over 1,500 blood samples were obtained from cleanup workers sent from two Baltic countries, Estonia and Latvia. Here we report the results of studies of biodosimetry using the glycophorin A (GPA) locus in vivo somatic cell mutation assay applied to 734 blood samples from these workers, to 51 control samples from unexposed Baltic populations and to 94 samples from historical U.S. controls. The data reveal inconsistent evidence that the protracted radiation exposures received by these workers resulted in a significant dose-associated increase in GPA locus mutations compared with the controls. Taken together, these data suggest that the average radiation exposure to these workers does not greatly exceed 10 cGy, the minimum levels at which radiation effects might be detectable by the assay. Although the protracted nature of the exposure may have reduced the efficiency of induction of GPA locus mutations, it is likely that the estimated physical doses for these cleanup worker populations (median reported dose 9.5 cGy) were too low to result in radiation damage to erythroid stem cells that can be detected reliably by this method. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Hindcast experiments of the derecho in Estonia on 08 August, 2010: Modelling derecho with NWP model HARMONIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Velle; Männik, Aarne; Luhamaa, Andres; Rõõm, Rein

    2015-05-01

    On August 8, 2010, a derecho swept over Northern Europe, causing widespread wind damage and more than 2 million Euros in economic loss in Estonia during its most destructive stage. This paper presents a modelling study of the derecho-producing storm utilising the Hirlam Aladin Research for Mesoscale Operational Numerical Weather Prediction in Europe (HARMONIE) model. The model setup is chosen to mimic near-future, nearly kilometre-scale, operational environments in European national weather services. The model simulations are compared to remote sensing and in situ observations. The HARMONIE model is capable of reproducing the wind gust severity and precipitation intensity. Moreover, 2.5-km grid spacing is shown to be sufficient for producing a reliable signal of the severe convective storm. Storm dynamics are well simulated, including the rear inflow jet. Although the model performance is promising, a strong dependence on the initial data, a weak trailing stratiform precipitation region and an incorrect timing of the storm are identified.

  2. Suicidal Behavior Among People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in Medical Care in Estonia and Factors Associated with Receiving Psychological Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemsalu, Liis; Rüütel, Kristi; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Lõhmus, Liilia; Raidvee, Aire; Uusküla, Anneli

    2017-06-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed suicidal behavior (ideation and/or attempts, ever and in the past 12 months) among PLHIV receiving outpatient HIV medical care in Estonia and associations between suicidal behavior and psychological treatment. The cross-sectional study collected data from January to November 2013 using a self-report questionnaire. Eight hundred PLHIV participated, 39 % (n = 306) of whom had been suicidal. Lifetime prevalence was 36 % for suicidal ideation and 20 % for attempts. Younger age, incarceration, having ever abused alcohol and also injected drugs, having lived with HIV for more than 10 years, and being depressed were associated with lifetime suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior within the past 12 months was reported by 20 % (n = 156) of respondents. Of these, 27 % received psychological treatment (counseling and/or psychotherapy), 20 % had taken antidepressants, and 49 % sedatives. Individuals perceiving a need for treatment were significantly more likely to receive psychological treatment when experiencing suicidal behavior (OR 25.65, 95 % CI 2.92-225.47). In conclusion, suicidal behavior is frequent among PLHIV but psychological treatment is not often received. One of the barriers to treatment is patients' lack of perceived need for help.

  3. Sedimentary rocks Uranium in Cerro Largo Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaron, P.; Garau Tous, M.

    1976-01-01

    With the aim of the uranium minerals exploration has been carried out several studies by UTE technicians in Cerro Largo Province from 1968 to 1969. In uranium concentration has been found pyrite, phosphate, iron oxides and manganese in uranium. Furthermore in La Divisa Ore were studied concentration Uranium enrichment has been studied in La Divisa ore

  4. Policing powers, Politics, Pragmatism and the Provinces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The draft Western Cape Community Safety Bill, introduced in the provincial legislature in February 2012, is part of a broader provincial government initiative to tackle issues of safety in the province. The Bill sets out to concretise the powers allocated to provincial governments by the Constitution. Specific provisions reflect the ...

  5. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...

  6. Cogeneration opportunities in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    With the arrival of natural gas in New Brunswick in November 1999, the province will be faced with new power generation development opportunities in four different categories of power projects. These include industrial self generation (including cogeneration), merchant power plants, power projects to replace aging facilities, and power projects to help meet future environmental needs. New Brunswick's competitive advantage in harnessing the power generation development opportunities lies in the fact that it is close to major electricity markets in Quebec and New England. It also has many available generation sites. The province's many pulp and paper plants with large process steam needs are also ideal candidates for cogeneration. Some of the major competitive advantages of natural gas over coal are its lower operation and maintenance costs, it is thermally more efficient, produces lower emissions to the environment and prices are competitive. One of the suggestions in New Brunswick Power's new restructuring proposal is to unbundle electricity service in the province into generation and transmission and distribution services. Three gas-fired projects have already been proposed for the province. The 284 MW Bayside Power Project at the Courtenay Bay Generating Station is the most advanced

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Brucellosis in Jazan Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia and assess the ... Conclusion: These results indicate the need for a vaccination program in Jazan Province and for public .... from blue to yellow.

  8. BOOKSELLER AS A CULTURAL AGENT: BOOK TRADE IN ESTONIA IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH AND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantson, Signe

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article handles general developments and changes in book trade which took place in Estonia during the second half of the 19th century. The aim is to show the formation of bookshops trading with Estonian books and to analyse the activities of Estonian booksellers.The survey is based on the research literature and on the master thesis by Signe Jantson “Raamatukaubandus Eestis aastatel 1850–1917: raamatukauplused ja nende omanikud” (Book trade in Estonia 1850–1917: bookshops and their owners [9]. In this study great importance wasattached to the national and social origin of bookshop owners and their activities. Up to the middle of the 19th century the book production and dissemination in Estonia was in the hands of Baltic German entrepreneurs and depended on the political and economic developments not only in Russia but also in Germany. In the middle of the 19th century there were only 5 bookshops in Estonia located in bigger towns – Tallinn and Tartu. In 1870 the number of bookshops reached 13. The greater ascent can be noticed in the last decade of the period – 1870–1880 when 20 new bookshops were opened. In 1867 Heinrich Laakmann, a German origin publisher and the printing shop owner opened the first bookshop in Tartu to sell Estonian language books. The economic and political reforms as well as the national awakening movement favoured the engagement of Estonians in the sphere of book production and dissemination. Increasing publishing of Estonian language books enabled the development of trade. At the end of the national awakening period most of the bookshop owners were already of Estonian origin. Since 1870ies the number of Estonian bookshops started to grow and at the end of the 19th century they outnumbered German and Russian shops. In all over Europe book trade concentrated into the big cities (in the case of Estonia in Tallinn and Tartu, but bookshops were opened also in the rural area (small towns and villages

  9. Large igneous provinces (LIPs) and carbonatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Richard E.; Bell, Keith

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that many carbonatites are linked both spatially and temporally with large igneous provinces (LIPs), i.e. high volume, short duration, intraplate-type, magmatic events consisting mainly of flood basalts and their plumbing systems (of dykes, sills and layered intrusions). Examples of LIP-carbonatite associations include: i. the 66 Ma Deccan flood basalt province associated with the Amba Dongar, Sarnu-Dandali (Barmer), and Mundwara carbonatites and associated alkali rocks, ii. the 130 Ma Paraná-Etendeka (e.g. Jacupiranga, Messum); iii. the 250 Ma Siberian LIP that includes a major alkaline province, Maimecha-Kotui with numerous carbonatites, iv. the ca. 370 Ma Kola Alkaline Province coeval with basaltic magmatism widespread in parts of the East European craton, and v. the 615-555 Ma CIMP (Central Iapetus Magmatic Province) of eastern Laurentia and western Baltica. In the Superior craton, Canada, a number of carbonatites are associated with the 1114-1085 Ma Keweenawan LIP and some are coeval with the pan-Superior 1880 Ma mafic-ultramafic magmatism. In addition, the Phalaborwa and Shiel carbonatites are associated with the 2055 Ma Bushveld event of the Kaapvaal craton. The frequency of this LIP-carbonatite association suggests that LIPs and carbonatites might be considered as different evolutionary ‘pathways’ in a single magmatic process/system. The isotopic mantle components FOZO, HIMU, EM1 but not DMM, along with primitive noble gas signatures in some carbonatites, suggest a sub-lithospheric mantle source for carbonatites, consistent with a plume/asthenospheric upwelling origin proposed for many LIPs.

  10. An inplementation strategy for the utilization of wind energy in Estonia. Phase 1: Pre-feasibility study and project identification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report presents the results of a pre-feasibility and project identification study with the purpose of investigating the possibilities for wind energy in Estonia and to recommend on possible actions, as outlined in Letters of Interest from the Estonian Ministries of Economy and Environment in 1995. Wind as source of energy in Estonia appears not yet to have been analyzed in detail. Available data indicates that wind can constitute a viable domestic source of energy, as average wind speeds of about 6 m/s (at 10 m) are reported at many coastal regions of Estonia. With state-of-the-art wind energy technology this means cost of wind produced electricity about 0.7-0.8 EEK/kWh - comparable to the cost of electricity from a modern coal-fired power plant. Two types of grids exist in these regions: On the mainland and on islands with sea cable grid connected wind turbines can be implemented. On islands without sea cable wind turbines can be connected to the diesel powered local grids. As a first step it is proposed to undertake the detailed planning and feasibility study of grid connected wind energy demonstrations in the framework of the Danish-Estonian country collaboration agreement. If the decision is made to implement this wind energy demonstration project, a certain proportion of grant money should be allocated for the demonstration. Subsequent steps in the Danish-Estonian country collaboration agreement should include the detailed planning and feasibility studies of autonomous wind energy demonstration and the associated capacity building. (EG)

  11. Commentary on Vorobjov et al., "Comparison of injection drug users who obtain syringes from pharmacies and syringe exchange programs in Tallinn, Estonia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werb Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent data suggest that globally, between 5% and 10% of all new HIV cases are the result of unsafe injecting practices, and experts agree that reducing these practices is key to tackling the spread of HIV. And yet, despite the overwhelming evidence that providing sterile syringes to injection drug users (IDU through syringe exchange programs (SEPs or other means is an effective way of reducing HIV transmission among high-risk subpopulations, IDU in most settings still do not have access to sterile injecting equipment or if they do, access remains too restricted to effectively reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Vorobjov and colleagues have presented in this journal an interesting and timely study from Estonia comparing individuals who obtain syringes from SEPs and those who obtain syringes from pharmacies. As the authors point out, Estonia faces an unacceptably high HIV incidence rate of 50 new HIV cases per 100,000, this rate driven primarily by injection drug use. As such, the authors argue that Estonia's SEP network does not have the capacity to serve a growing IDU population at risk of transmitting HIV and pharmacy dispensation of clean syringes may be one potential approach to decreasing syringe sharing among high-risk injectors. It may be overly optimistic to consider the impact of higher threshold interventions such as pharmacy-based SEPs, given that IDU populations that engage in HIV risk behaviours such as syringe sharing are often hidden or hard to reach. Despite the need for a cautious approach, however, the findings presented by Vorobjov et al. may chart one potential course towards a more comprehensive societal response to reducing the health harms associated with injection drug use.

  12. Coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Gui, G.

    1997-01-01

    Shanxi Province is abundant in coal reserve. Taiyuan Coal Gasification Corporation is a large sized union enterprise engaged in comprehensive use of coal in Shanxi province, and significant economic, social, environmental benefits have been brought forth with it. This leads people to believe that coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province in the fields of improvement of environment and development of economy

  13. Eesti julgeoleku tagab üksnes usaldusväärsus : Vabariigi Presidendi Lennart Meri kõne Estonia kontserdisaalis 24. veebruaril 1995 / Lennart Meri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meri, Lennart, 1929-2006

    1995-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi 77 aastapäev. Kõne on ilmunud ka: Päevaleht, 27. veebr. 1995, lk. 1, 6, pealkiri: Eelseisvad valimised kindlustagu poliitika järjepidevust; Eesti Sõnumid, 27. veebr. 1995, lk. 3, pealkiri: "Meie raskemad ajad on nüüd tõepoolest selja taga"; Hommikuleht, 27. veebr. 1995, lk. 2, 5, pealkiri: Raskemad ajad on seljataga; Postimees, 27. veebr., lk. 2, 6, pealkiri: President Lennart Meri kõne Estonia kontserdisaalis 24. veebruaril 1995; Meie Elu, 2. märts, lk. 10; Meie Kodu, 8. märts, lk. 5

  14. The beliefs in the inheritance of risk factors for suicide scale (BIRFSS): cross-cultural validation in Estonia, Malaysia, Romania, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Swami, Viren; Vintilă, Mona; Kõlves, Kairi; Sinniah, Dhachayani; Pillai, Subash Kumar; Ponnusamy, Subramaniam; Sonneck, Gernot; Furnham, Adrian; Lester, David

    2008-12-01

    The genetics of suicide is increasingly recognized and relevant for mental health literacy, but actual beliefs may lag behind current knowledge. We examined such beliefs in student samples (total N = 686) from Estonia, Malaysia, Romania, the United Kingdom, and the United States with the Beliefs in the Inheritance of Risk Factors for Suicide Scale. Cultural effects were small, those of key demographics nil. Several facets of construct validity were demonstrated. Marked differences in perceived plausibility of evidence about the genetics of suicide according to research design, observed in all samples, may be of general interest for investigating lay theories of abnormal behavior and communicating behavioral and psychiatric genetic research findings.

  15. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and other sexually transmitted infections causing urethritis among high-risk heterosexual male patients in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjagur, Stanislav; Mändar, Reet; Punab, Margus

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI, including Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis) among high-risk heterosexual male patients and to clarify their potency to cause complaints and inflammation. The study group included 825 men (18.0-49.5 y) consulting andrologist at Tartu University Hospital (Estonia) due to subjectively perceived risk of STI. Patients completed STI risk behaviour questionnaire. First voided urine was analysed for white blood cells and STIs. In total 193 (23.4%) patients were positive for one or multiple STI. The prevalence of C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis and combined STI was 14.3%, 4.4%, 2.7%, 0.7% and 1.3%, respectively. N. gonorrhoeae had the highest potency to generate inflammatory reaction in first voided urine (100%) followed by C. trachomatis (72.0%), M. genitalium (63.9%) and T. vaginalis (33.3%). N. gonorrhoeae and T. vaginalis caused the highest mean number of complaints while half of T. vaginalis cases and nearly fifth of M. genitalium and C. trachomatis cases were asymptomatic. C. trachomatis has the highest prevalence among Estonian high-risk men but M. genitalium holds an important second place. Prevalence of combined STIs is low. N. gonorrhoeae has the highest potency to generate urethral inflammation followed by C. trachomatis and M. genitalium. The highest number of complaints is also associated with N. gonorrhoeae while half of T. vaginalis cases and nearly a fifth of M. genitalium and C. trachomatis cases are asymptomatic.

  16. International conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2013), 21-24 April 2013, Tartu, Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas

    2014-04-01

    The annual international conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT) was started in 2006 by scientists from the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. The warm welcome and open atmosphere of this scientific conference has turned it into an event where people from different countries and different fields come and meet under the shared umbrella of functional materials and nanotechnology. It is particularly important for early stage scientists who are looking for new knowledge and contacts with people from various fields to build their own network. Our Latvian colleagues, with their success in internationalization, made us neighbouring Estonians so jealous that we could not help but propose organising the conference every second year in Estonia. In a way, this conference is a continuation of the idea of the famous Baltic seminars which took place over several decades in the last century. Due to political constraints, these seminars were only open to scientists of former Eastern Europe countries, but had a great popularity and attendance from over the whole Soviet Union. Many collaborations started from the initial personal contact between scientists at these twice yearly seminars, held alternately in Latvia and Estonia. At the FM&NT 2012 conference, the decision was made that Institute of Physics, University of Tartu would organise the next event in Tartu in 2013. FM&NT-2013 was hence held in Tartu (Estonia) from 21-24 April 2013 at the Dorpat Conference Centre. The main selected topics of the conference were: (i) multifunctional materials, (ii) nanomaterials, (iii) materials for sustainable energy applications and (vi) theory. Additionally, the focus in this conference was on studies with the help of synchrotron radiation and other novel light sources such as free electron lasers. The conference provided an opportunity for 300 scientists from 21 countries to meet, establish contacts, exchange knowledge and discuss their research

  17. Political rotations and cross-province acquisitions in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muratova, Yulia; Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    The underdeveloped institutional framework and trade barriers between China’s provinces make cross-province acquisitions challenging. We explore how Chinese firms can mitigate this problem. Drawing on social network theory we propose that cross-province rotation of political leaders—a key element...... of the promotion system of political cadres in China—is a mechanism enabling growth through cross-province acquisitions. We conceptualize rotated leaders as brokers between two geographically dispersed networks. We contribute to the literature on the characteristics of Chinese social networks, the effect...... of political connections on firm strategy, and the impact of political rotations on firm growth in China’s provinces....

  18. Analysis on the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    YU, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The paper analyzes the development and structure of inbound tourism in Fujian Province by Excel software and conducts the cluster analysis on the inbound tourism market by SPSS 23.0 software based on the inbound tourism data of Fujian Province from 2006 to 2015. The results show: the rapid development of inbound tourism in Fujian Province and the diversified inbound tourist source countries indicate the stability of inbound tourism market; the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province can be divided into four categories according to the cluster analysis, and tourists from the United States, Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore are the key of inbound tourism in Fujian Province.

  19. USMC Rethinking Coin in Helmand Province Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    the national power of Afghanistan, but continued to challenge each other for control at the provincial level . The Akhundzadek clan dominated...external powers dominating the central government of the province through the capital of Lashkar Gah, but demanded some autonomy at the local level .18...commands in a MAGTF are the ground combat element ( GCE ), air combat element (ACE), and logistic combat element (LCE). Flexibility and tempo are the

  20. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following:

  1. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life.Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  2. Complementary treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants--results from two samples of pharmacy customers in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sõukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable.

  3. Public Enterprises in Estonia as Instruments of Foreign Trade. Estnische öffentliche Unternehmen als Instrumente der Außenwirtschaftspolitik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Friedrich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss whether a small country with shrinking population should apply public enterprises to improve its economic situation for purposes of external economic relations policy. The study refers to Estonia as an example. Estonia has developed public enterprises of the central state and of the municipalities since the reestablishment of the Estonian Republic. As public enterprise use private forms of law, some management problems occur because public firms are legally obliged to practice the management by objectives. The operationalization of welfare maximisation or achievement of sustainability of society to formulate goals for public enterprises was yet not successful. However, public firms should increase income, avoid monopoly positions of private firms, provide special public services, and should realize public goals. The activities of Estonian public enterprises and their goals show that Estonian enterprises can be used as instruments for foreign trade. The authors formulate a simple two-country model comprising a small and a big country. They introduce a public interest function referring to production, demand and employment, which allows the authors to argue that under conditions of shrinking population, the small country’s public interests, becomes reduced. They show that employing public enterprises diminishes negative effects on public interests. Even some types of inefficient public firms may lead to improvements.

  4. Economic and trade relations of Estonia as a EU member state, incl. with Russia and Ukraine. Eesti kui Euroopa Liidu liikmesriigi majandus- ja kaubandussidemed, sh Ukraina ja Venemaaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Raudjärv

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the economic relations of Estonia and trends in its exports and imports with the most important countries globally in 2008–2014, and presents its export and import transactions in the main commodity groups in 2009–2014.2 Considering the many different tensions that have appeared in world economy and in politics in the recent years, the aim of this paper is to describe their possible impacts on the Estonian economy. The research tasks set are studying of economic and trade relations with Ukraine as one of the largest countries in the EU Eastern Partnership Programme. Also the range of problems and developments related to signing the association agreement between Ukraine and the European Union, as well as the new complicated trade relations arising from economic policy, and developments both in the European context and that of other countries are examined. Also economic and trade relations with Russia are discussed. All this is treated on the background of the relations between Ukraine and Russia in the recent years and their impact on the behaviour of Estonia, the EU, USA and other Western countries. The above-mentioned issues are also viewed in relation to imposing economic sanctions due to relations between Ukraine and Russia.

  5. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Estonia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (I) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons came into force for the Republic of Estonia on 1 December 2005 [es

  6. Smoking differences between employees in faculties of the University of Tartu, Estonia, and changes during the country's transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingisepp Peet-Henn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study found marked differences in smoking between employees in various university faculties in Tartu, Estonia, soon after the disruption of communism. The present study was conducted to see whether such differences still exist and how the patterns had changed during the country's first transitional decade. Methods All employees at the University of Tartu (UT were surveyed for smoking habits by means of a questionnaire in 1992 and 2003. The present paper is based on respondents whose faculty or workplace was known (1390 people in 1992, 1790 in 2003. Smoking differences were assessed in terms of regression-based adjusted figures. Results While 20% of the male employees smoked daily in 1992, 13% did so in 2003, the figures for females being 10% and 7%, respectively. The prevalence of men's daily smoking varied between faculties and other workplaces in the range 4-30% in 1992, and 0-24% in 2003, with corresponding ranges of 3-21% and 0-10% among females. Men in the medical faculty in both surveys, and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second survey showed higher rates than men in most other faculties, as did women in the faculty of law in the first survey and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second. The figures were usually low in the faculties of sports & exercise, physics & chemistry and mathematics. The sex pattern was reversed in the faculty of law and also in that of economics, where the women smoked more than the men. Conclusions Even in this low-smoking academic community, wide smoking differences existed between the faculties and other workplaces. Faculties where physical or mental performance is of prime importance are leading the way towards a smoke-free community, while men in the faculty of philosophy and, paradoxically, men in the medical faculty are lagging behind. The reversed sex ratio in the faculties of law and economics may indicate women's intensified drive for equality in this

  7. Smoking differences between employees in faculties of the University of Tartu, Estonia, and changes during the country's transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näyhä, Simo; Kivastik, Jana; Kingisepp, Peet-Henn; Heikkinen, Rauno

    2011-03-08

    A previous study found marked differences in smoking between employees in various university faculties in Tartu, Estonia, soon after the disruption of communism. The present study was conducted to see whether such differences still exist and how the patterns had changed during the country's first transitional decade. All employees at the University of Tartu (UT) were surveyed for smoking habits by means of a questionnaire in 1992 and 2003. The present paper is based on respondents whose faculty or workplace was known (1390 people in 1992, 1790 in 2003). Smoking differences were assessed in terms of regression-based adjusted figures. While 20% of the male employees smoked daily in 1992, 13% did so in 2003, the figures for females being 10% and 7%, respectively. The prevalence of men's daily smoking varied between faculties and other workplaces in the range 4-30% in 1992, and 0-24% in 2003, with corresponding ranges of 3-21% and 0-10% among females. Men in the medical faculty in both surveys, and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second survey showed higher rates than men in most other faculties, as did women in the faculty of law in the first survey and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second. The figures were usually low in the faculties of sports & exercise, physics & chemistry and mathematics. The sex pattern was reversed in the faculty of law and also in that of economics, where the women smoked more than the men. Even in this low-smoking academic community, wide smoking differences existed between the faculties and other workplaces. Faculties where physical or mental performance is of prime importance are leading the way towards a smoke-free community, while men in the faculty of philosophy and, paradoxically, men in the medical faculty are lagging behind. The reversed sex ratio in the faculties of law and economics may indicate women's intensified drive for equality in this transitional society. We assume that different professional cultures

  8. The Significance of Tallinn and Livonia to Helsinki in 1550-1600 / Seppo Aalto

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aalto, Seppo

    2013-01-01

    Helsingi oli oma asutamisest peale Tallinnaga tihedalt seotud. Kui Rootsi sai 1560. aastatel Tallinna ja Põhja-Eesti enda valdusesse, siis need sidemed tihenesid ning mõjutasid Helsingi eluolu kõiki aspekte

  9. Prelude to the birth of the "kingdom of Livonia" / Andres Adamson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adamson, Andres, 1964-

    2009-01-01

    Ülevaade rahvusvahelisest ja Liivimaa-sisesest olukorrast Liivimaa vasallkuningriigi tõstatumise eel ning arengutest ja põhjustest, mis viisid hertsog Magnus von Holsteini avalikule koostööle tsaar Ivan Julmaga

  10. The incidence and survival of acute de novo leukaemias in Estonia and in a well-defined region of western Sweden during 1982-1996: a survey of patients aged > or =65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luik, E; Palk, K; Everaus, H; Varik, M; Aareleid, T; Wennström, L; Juntikka, E-L; Safai-Kutti, S; Stockelberg, D; Holmberg, E; Kutti, J

    2004-07-01

    To compare the incidence and survival of acute de novo leukaemias with particular reference to political/socio-economic and environmental factors in two neighbouring countries over the three 5-year periods (1982-1996). The present report covers only patients diagnosed when aged > or =65 years. A well-defined area of Sweden, the so-called Western Swedish Health Care Region and Estonia. Population-wise, the western Swedish Region and Estonia are very similar; area-wise they are also well comparable. The number of acute de novo leukaemias was quite dissimilar in the two countries (Estonia, n = 137, Sweden, n = 354). The age standardized incidence rates regarding the total number of acute de novo leukaemias was 5.31 per 100,000 inhabitants/year for Estonia and 7.99 for Sweden, this difference being statistically significant. However, the difference was merely attributable to incidence rates as regards acute myeloblastic leukaemias (AML); on the contrary, differences as regards acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (ALL) and non-classifiable, undifferentiated or biphenotypic acute leukaemias (uAL) were negligible. The relative survival for the total material of patients was significantly higher for Swedish when compared with Estonian patients (P or =65 years in Estonia at 1 year was 8.5% and at 3 years 3.5% respectively. The corresponding figures for the Swedish patients were considerably higher, 22.7 and 7.7% respectively. This difference, however, applied only for patients with AML (P acute leukemia patients in two neighbouring countries.

  11. Assessing Hospital Disaster Preparedness of Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Vahedparast

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In disasters, large number of causalities rash into the hospitals in order to get health facilities. So, hospitals are the reference point for delivering the health services in all levels for helping to the most percent of injured people. Aim of study was to assess hospital disaster preparedness of Bushehr province. Maretial and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study which has been done in all Bushehr province hospitals. In order to collect data, we used 210 questions checklist with 10 different aims each aim had consisted of 6 different domains (equipment, working stuff, physical space, structure, protocols and functional chart. The checklists were completed by direct observation and evaluation of equipment, programs and documents based on their domains with different people. Results: The hospital preparedness in traffic base was very poor with mean number of 19/04±16/10 evaluation of security education and management domain with mean number 35/29±26/52, 38/65±19/46, 36/36±24/05, respectively were poor. In logistics, workforce, communications, excused transportation and addition to the hospitals with the mean number of 53/26±26/31, 49/65±27/61, 45/53±18/29, 43/33±19/72, and 40/47±20/37 were estimated as average. The most number was belonged to the emergency with the mean number of 53/80±19/18. Conclusion: The Bushehr province hospitals have not enough preparation against unexpected disasters and cannot be a good supporter for disaster happening, and in the occasions of happenings so many serious problems will occur. It will be suggested that the hospital managers should pay more attention to the unexpected disasters.

  12. Laps(epõlv 19. sajandi teise poole Eestis omaelulooliste tekstide näitel. Child(hood in 19th Century Estonia: a Study of Autobiographical Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ave Mattheus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I discuss autobiographical texts which focus on children and childhood in late 19th century Estonia. Childhood memories as well as other autobiographical material became popular in Estonia in the 1920s-1930s, when most of the studied works--the memoirs by Anna Haava, Mait Metsanurk, Jaan Lattik, Jaan Vahtra, Friedebert Tuglas, August Kitzberg and Marta Sillaots--were written. Some texts come from the 19th century (e.g. Lilli Suburg’s autobiographical works or early 20th century (e.g. manuscripts by Hans Leoke, and Johannes Kõrv. Childhood as described in these autobiographical texts covers a period of circa 1850-1900, and the majority of the authors come from the families of South-Estonian peasants or manorial servants. In addition to being written in Estonian and having the same theme, they were all also written by authors of fiction for children or by people who had close contact with children, such as schoolteachers. The article offers a novel approach in the Estonian context by presenting a typology of childhood stories and looking at childhood recollections as an important part of childhood studies. The researchers of childhood investigate how society understands and values children and childhood, what children’s everyday life is like, what possibilities there are for development and if there exists a specific children’s culture in society (such as clothing, food, language, leisure activities, or independent creative work. Childhood studies as a separate discipline does not exist in Estonia, although some important works have been published by educational scholars and art historians. The autobiographical texts under discussion show that in the late 19th century, the majority of Estonian children lived in the countryside in patriarchal families, and childhood was short because children had to help their parents with farmwork quite early, at the age of six. The boundary of childhood was around the age of 10-11, when

  13. Usher syndrome clinical characterization. Holguin province

    OpenAIRE

    Santana Hernández, Elayne Esther; Lantigua Cruz, Paulina Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Fundamento: El síndrome de Usher es una enfermedad determinada genéticamente, con una gran heterogeneidad clínica y genética; está caracterizada por hipoacusia neurosensorial de moderada a severa, retinosis pigmentaria progresiva y puede acompañarse de alteración vestibular. Por la alta prevalencia de esta enfermedad en la provincia de Holguín, se considera necesario este estudio. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínicamente todos los enfermos con diagnóstico clínico de síndrome de Usher en la provinc...

  14. Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in An Giang Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thanh Long; Thanh-Lam Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at sustainably developing rural tourism in An Giang Province, an agricultural province located in the South of Vietnam, by identifying the determinants of the satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From exploratory interviews with experts and comprehensive group discussions, we developed a questionnaire for an official survey of 507 tourists at different tour-sites in An Giang Province. It is found that: (1) there ...

  15. Providential History in the Chronicles of the Baltic Crusades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Kjersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This article examines two medieval chronicles dealing with the crusades in the Baltic. The Chronicon Livoniae by Henry, a German priest — and interpreter — in the region, provides an account of the crusades in Livonia and Estonia from c.1184 to c.1227. Henry was an eyewitness, even if surely biased...... chronicle examined in this article is the Chronicon terre Prussie. This chronicle, authored by a Teutonic Knight named Peter of Dusburg and written c.1326, relates the arrival and history of the Teutonic Order in Prussia from c.1230, also covering the initial submission of the Prussian pagans to Christian......, creating a struggle for autonomy and dominance. The two chronicles made considerable use of Scripture, albeit in different ways. This article investigates the uses of the Bible in both chronicles with a special eye to how ideas of providential history — that is the role assigned by the authors...

  16. The prevalence of genital warts in the Baltic countries: findings from national cross-sectional surveys in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusküla, Anneli; Reile, Rainer; Rezeberga, Dace; Karnite, Anda; Logminiene, Zeneta; Padaiga, Žilvinas; Nygård, Mari

    2015-02-01

    To assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported genital warts (GWs) among women and men aged 18-45 years in the Baltic countries. In 2011-2013 we performed a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire to collect information on the history of clinically diagnosed GWs, sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviour. Probability sampling methods were used to invite 16,959 individuals representing the general population, of whom 7760 (45.8%) participated (Estonia: 1967 women, 1221 men; Latvia: 1525 women, 1525 men; Lithuania: 1522 women). The estimated lifetime prevalence of clinically diagnosed GWs in women was 4.6% (95% CI 3.8 to 5.5) in Estonia, 2.9% (95% CI 2.0 to 3.6) in Latvia and 1.5% (95% CI 1.2 to 2.0) in Lithuania. Among men, the corresponding values were 2.8% (95% CI 1.9 to 4.0) in Estonia and 1.9% (95% CI 1.3 to 2.6) in Latvia. The mean age at first episode of clinically diagnosed GW was 24.6 years (95% CI 23.6 to 25.5) for women and 24.5 years (95% CI 22.9 to 26.0) for men. A lifetime history of clinically diagnosed GW was associated with a history of sexually transmitted infections other than GW (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.3 for women; AOR 5.3, 95% CI 3.0 to 9.2 for men), and a higher number (5+) of lifetime sexual partners (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9 to 4.2 for women; AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.9 for men). Men living comfortably within their household income had higher odds for GW (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.2). Our estimated prevalence of clinically diagnosed GWs was lower than estimates from the general population of other European countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Dynamic biogeochemical provinces in the global ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygondeau, Gabriel; Longhurst, Alan; Martinez, Elodie; Beaugrand, Gregory; Antoine, David; Maury, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, it has been found useful to partition the pelagic environment using the concept of biogeochemical provinces, or BGCPs, within each of which it is assumed that environmental conditions are distinguishable and unique at global scale. The boundaries between provinces respond to features of physical oceanography and, ideally, should follow seasonal and interannual changes in ocean dynamics. But this ideal has not been fulfilled except for small regions of the oceans. Moreover, BGCPs have been used only as static entities having boundaries that were originally established to compute global primary production. In the present study, a new statistical methodology based on non-parametric procedures is implemented to capture the environmental characteristics within 56 BGCPs. Four main environmental parameters (bathymetry, chlorophyll a concentration, surface temperature, and salinity) are used to infer the spatial distribution of each BGCP over 1997-2007. The resulting dynamic partition allows us to integrate changes in the distribution of BGCPs at seasonal and interannual timescales, and so introduces the possibility of detecting spatial shifts in environmental conditions.

  18. Radiogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratov, R.B.; Kozyrev, V.I.; Shchukin, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The principal space-time regularities are studied of the U and Th geochemical evolution as well as ratios of values of the U and Th accumulation in dominating formations of the region to their probable concentrations in a basaltic (0.6x10 -4 per cent of U and 2.2x10 -4 per cent of Th) and a granite-metamorphic (2.7x10 -4 per cent of U and 18x10 -4 per cent of Th) layers. Six types of radiogeochemical provinces are distinguished; 1 - of simatic profile with the continuous tendency to the accumulation of Th accompanied with the deficit of U; 2 - of sialitic profile with the normal distribution of radioactive elements; 3 - of simatic profile with the normal distribution of radioactive elements and with the tendency to the sialitic accumulation; 4 - of sialitic profile with the disturbed distribution of radioactive elements and with the tendency to the U accumulation; 5 - of sialitic profile with the tendency towards the accumulation of radioactive elements; 6 - of sialitic profile with the tendency towards the U accumulation - regions of the spread of Mezozoic - Cenozoic formations of the mantle of Turans plateau. For the U and Th accumulation in provinces of the first four principal types endogeneous factors have been the most essential, the degree of the accumulation of these elements being the function of their concentration in a granite - metamorphic and a basaltic layers. For the 5-th and 6-th types exogenous factors have been determination

  19. Eesti venekeelse kirjanduse nullindate põlvkond: vastuvõtt ja tõrked omaks tunnistamisel / The Generation of the 2000s in the Russian Literature of Estonia: Acceptance and Obstacles to Acknowledgement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kotjuh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the development of Russian-language literature in Estonia through the lens of Estonian literature. The article focuses on what is conditionally referred to as “authors of the younger generation” (born in 1970 and later since the creative works of representatives of this generation have attracted a lot of attention. That is the “naughts-generation”, as the authors of this generation made their debuts in literature in the 2000s.The article views the Estonian reaction to the books of Igor Kotjuh, P. I. Filimonov and Andrei Ivanov translated into Estonian. The analysis makes use of the reception theory of Hans Robert Jauss and Wolfgang Iser, scholars from Konstanz University, which makes it possible to propose two operational hypotheses: (1 numerous reviews hint at the fact that Estonian literary journals and critics do not consider works of Estonian Russian-speaking authors to be foreign literature; (2 as works of the Russian-speaking authors of Estonia have not been represented in a single literary anthology which has appeared in the 2000s, it can be concluded that there are certain obstacles regarding the works of Russian-speaking authors in Estonia.The Russian-speaking writers of Estonia have had good co-operation with Estonian colleagues and media, since they speak Estonian and their works have continuously appeared in Estonian translations. At the same time, the Russian-speaking literature of Estonia has not become a fully valued part of Estonian literature. Three major controversies can be found in the reception, where the horizons of Estonian readers and Russian-speaking Estonian authors do not coincide:(1 Literary-theoretical controversy. Estonian literary science has always identified Estonian literature via the Estonian language, yet the Russian-speaking authors who made their debuts in the 2000s are convinced that their works are, among other things, part of Estonian literature.(2 Political. Readers see

  20. Enrichment of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in ash samples from oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozden, B. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics/Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences (Estonia); Vaasma, T.; Kiisk, M.; Suursoo, S.; Tkaczyk, A.H. [University of Tartu,Institute of Physics (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    Energy production in Estonia is largely dependent on the oil shale industry. Oil shale is a fossil fuel typically characterized by relatively high mineral composition, modest organic fraction (varying between 10 and 65%), high ash content (usually 45% to 50%), and average lower heating value of 8.4 MJ/kg{sup -1}. Oil shale-fired power plants account for 85% of Estonian electricity production and produce up to 6 million tons of oil shale ash annually. This ash contains elevated amounts of natural radionuclides (from the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K), which were bound to oil shale during its formation. These radionuclides become enriched in ash fractions during the combustion process and are partially emitted to the atmosphere via fly ash and flue gases. Oil shale-fired electricity production is foreseen to remain a dominant trend in Estonia, suggesting that the radionuclide emissions to the atmosphere will continue in the future. The natural radionuclides {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, with half-lives of 138 days and 22.3 years respectively, originate from the radioactive decay of radionuclides of {sup 238}U series present in the earth's crust. These radionuclides are also built up artificially in the environment due to waste discharge from phosphate, oil, and gas industries, combustion of fossil fuels and other energy production as technically enhanced natural radionuclides. There are few studies on oil shale power plants influence on the levels of natural radioactivity in the surrounding areas. Realo, et al. reported that the annual doses from fly ash depositions over a 30 year period are in the range 90 - 200 μSv a{sup -1}. A study previously initiated by the University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (IPh) evaluated enrichment in the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K in ash samples collected from Eesti Power Plant's circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. According

  1. Using data from respondent-driven sampling studies to estimate the number of people who inject drugs: Application to the Kohtla-Järve region of Estonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiacheng Wu

    Full Text Available Estimating the size of key risk populations is essential for determining the resources needed to implement effective public health intervention programs. Several standard methods for population size estimation exist, but the statistical and practical assumptions required for their use may not be met when applied to HIV risk groups. We apply three approaches to estimate the number of people who inject drugs (PWID in the Kohtla-Järve region of Estonia using data from a respondent-driven sampling (RDS study: the standard "multiplier" estimate gives 654 people (95% CI 509-804, the "successive sampling" method gives estimates between 600 and 2500 people, and a network-based estimate that uses the RDS recruitment chain gives between 700 and 2800 people. We critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of these statistical approaches for estimating the size of hidden or hard-to-reach HIV risk groups.

  2. Uninvited guests: traditional insect repellents in Estonia used against the clothes moth Tineola bisselliella, human flea Pulex irritons and bedbug Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo; Svanberg, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    Extensive folklore records from pre-modern Estonia give us an excellent opportunity to study a variety of local plant knowledge and plant use among the peasantry in various parts of the country. One important biocultural domain where plant knowledge has been crucial was in the various methods of combating different ectoparasites that cohabited and coexisted with humans and their domestic animals. Some of these methods were widely known (world-wide, Eurasia, Europe, Baltic Rim), while others were more local. Here we discuss ways of reducing clothes moths Tineola bisselliella (Hummel) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), human fleas Pulex irritons L. (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and bedbugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with the help of plants. Various taxa used as traditional repellents have been identified. The use of plants as repellents and their toxic principles are also discussed from a comparative perspective.

  3. δ13C chemostratigraphy of the Middle and Upper Ordovician succession in the Tartu-453 drillcore, southern Estonia, and the significance of the HICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Bauert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The δ13C isotope data from the Tartu-453 core section in southern Estonia enabled creation of a continuous Ordovician carbon isotope record, ranging from the Floian to the end of the Hirnantian. Five positive δ13C excursions and one negative δ13C excursion were recognized. Most of the positive excursions correspond to those defined on the Baltoscandian carbon isotope chemostratigraphic scheme, except for the Paroveja and Rakvere ICEs which are not well expressed in the Tartu-453 curve. Besides the positive δ13C excursions, a distinctive negative δ13C excursion, the Lower Sandbian NICE, was recorded in the Tartu-453 succession. The well-expressed HICE extends about 10 m higher than the traditional Ordovician–Silurian boundary (between the Porkuni and Juuru regional stages into the Juuru Regional Stage, suggesting that the Ordovician–Silurian boundary is positioned significally higher than traditionally suggested for the East Baltic area.

  4. Muusika : TMKK 40. Tüüri Viiulikontsert USAs. Tormise autorikontsert Moskvas. Larsen Strings Eestis. "Jazzkaare" uudised. Itaalia koreograafi balletikeel Estonias / Tiina Mattisen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mattisen, Tiina

    2001-01-01

    8.XI esitles TMKK EMA kammersaalis sünnipäevapuhust raamatut ja CDd. USAs Cincinnati Music Hallis kõlab Erkki-Sven Tüüri Viiulikontsert. 21.X leiab Rahmaninovi-nim. saalis Moskvas aset Veljo Tormise autoriõhtu. 8.ئ10.XI viibis Eestis Morten Drasbek, eksklusiivseid pillikeeli ja muid keelpillitarvikuid tootva Taani firma Larsen Strings esindaja. 7.XI "Jazzkaare" kontserdil "Georg Otsa jälgedes" kõlasid Uno Loobi ja Estonian All Stars bändi esituses Georg Otsa kontsertide menulood. Prantsuse jazzkvartett 32 Janvier esines oma Skandinaavia-turneel 14.XI Von Krahli teatris. Rahvusooperis Estonia alustas 8.XI proove itaalia koreograaf Mauro Bigonzetti, kelle koreograafiat saab näha märtsis esietenduvas Delibes'i balletis "Coppelia"

  5. The system of firm support grants in Estonia: whom does it favor? Summary: Ettevõtlustoetused Eestis: millist ettevõtet need soosivad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Mõttus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available After joining the European Union, remarkable support has been provided to Estonian firms through government grants financed from EU funds, but so far it has not been systematically studied, which firms can get support from them. Current study analyzes all grants for firms financed from EU funds in Estonia in the period of 2007-2013. The paper outlines most supported firms based on activities financed and restrictions set on firms and application. The results indicate that some limitations make only a narrow range of firms eligible to get financial support. The grant measures in different implementing units providing grants vary a lot. Also, grants directed to fixed asset investments have more restrictions when compared with those directed to reimbursement of costs.

  6. Palaeoenvironmental signatures revealed from rare earth element (REE compositions of vertebrate microremains of the Vesiku Bone Bed (Homerian, Wenlock, Saaremaa Island, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fadel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth elements (REEs have been analysed from fossil vertebrate microremains (thelodont scales from the Vesiku Bone Bed, Saaremaa, Estonia, using in situ microsampling by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. Well-preserved scales of three species of the genus Thelodus (T. carinatus, T. laevis and Thelodus sp. show very uniform REE patterns with slightly lower overall REE concentrations in enameloid than in dentine, with enrichment in middle REEs, depletion in heavy REEs and pronounced negative europium anomaly, but no cerium anomaly. The results of this study suggest a similar diagenetic history and possibly contemporaneous habitats for all three Thelodus species, as well as possible suboxic to anoxic conditions of the bottom and pore waters during the formation of the Vesiku Bone Bed.

  7. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans.

  8. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liivi Plumer

    Full Text Available Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47 in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans.

  9. Work-related psychosocial risk factors and mental health problems amongst nurses at a university hospital in Estonia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimann, Tiina; Merisalu, Eda

    2015-07-01

    Rapid changes in the Estonian health care system have placed extra pressure on the nursing profession, but the potential impacts of psychosocial changes have not been investigated. We aimed to explore the work-related psychosocial risk factors and their relationships with mental health problems (MHPs) amongst nurses at the university hospital in Estonia. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken amongst registered nurses at Tartu University Hospital (TUH). Psychosocial work factors and MHPs (stress, somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms and burnout) were measured using version two of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). Descriptive statistics and Pearson's r correlation with sequential Bonferroni correction were used to analyse the data. The analysis was based on 404 nurses (45% of the full-time working population of nurses). The highest mean scores recorded for the positive work-related psychosocial factors studied were meaning of work, role clarity, social relationships and mutual trust between employees. The highest scores for the negative factors studied were the demands for hiding emotions, work pace, cognitive and emotional demands. Stress and burnout showed the highest mean scores amongst the MHPs. Quantitative and emotional demands were positively related to all of the studied MHPs, while work pace and role conflicts had a positive correlation with stress and burnout. All of the studied negative psychosocial factors were significantly correlated with burnout. work-related psychosocial risk factors such as quantitative demands work load, emotional demands, work pace and role conflicts, had significant positive relationships with MHPS in nurses in Estonia, and may contribute to high levels of stress as well as burnout amongst nurses: . © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  10. Management of Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources in Central and Eastern Europe (Czech Rep., Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, M.J.; Moreton, A.D.; Wells, D.A.

    2001-04-01

    This study has been performed to consider the situation relating to the regulation and management of spent sealed radioactive sources (SSRS) in five central and Eastern European (C and EE) countries currently being considered for admission to the EU: the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia. The general aim of this study has been to acquire a thorough understanding of the management of SSRS in these five countries, in order to recommend improvements in management schemes and to establish whether the application of common disposal criteria would be advantageous. This report is structured in the following manner; following the Introduction (Section 1), there is description of current and proposed regulatory requirements in the EU, together with a summarised comparison of the regulatory systems in C and EE countries with EU standards in Section 2. Sections 3 to 7 are dedicated to the situation in each of the five countries. Each of these sections is similarly sub-divided to enable country-by-country and topic-by-topic comparison. In each of Sections 3 to 7 there is an overview, description of the sealed source inventory, regulations, current management practices, retrieval of unregistered SSRS, conclusions and a description of possible future technical assistance projects. Section 8 brings together a summary of the situation in each country, with conclusions and both country-specific and generic recommendations. A common concern in the five countries and also in existing EU member states is the problem of accidental inclusion of SSRS in consignments of scrap-metal. The detection of radioactive material at entrances to scrap metal facilities and at national borders has therefore received considerable attention in recent years. Practical issues regarding the detection of SSRS in scrap metal are described in Appendix A. None of the five countries considered in this report have any plans to develop regional disposal facilities and no specific common

  11. Koolinoorte elustiilist ja selle uurimisest nõukogudeaja Eestis. Research on the Lifestyles of School Students in Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airi Liimets

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been no particular difference in the understanding of lifestyle as such on either theoretical or an empirical level, regardless of whether the corresponding research work was performed in Soviet Estonia or in the German-speaking cultural sphere of Europe in the 1990s. There have been noticeably more similarities than differences. The main difference in the research of school students’ lifestyles is likely the treatment of students’ lives at and outside of school in terms of the two areas either being considered mutually intertwined or not. From the very beginning, Heino Liimets’s school of educational sociology was characterised by the treatment of studies as but one piece of lifestyle as a whole, where studying was an activity which acted as an integrator between the life at school and the life outside of it. In the German-speaking cultural sphere, the connection between these two environments has not been held quite as self-evident, and research has only been focusing on their synergy to a higher degree since the mid-1990s. The empirical data collected and analysed by the scholars of the Liimets school during the years 1975–1998 makes it possible to point out six generally important phenomena in the lifestyles of Estonian students:1 In 1975–1987 a continual decline in the appreciation rankings of learning among interesting activities took place, followed by a continual movement towards an increase already before the end of the Soviet era; 2 In 1975–1987, a strong process of alienation of students from school, studies and themselves; 3 The years 1979–1984, the final decade of the Soviet era, saw a characteristic and increasing stagnation also in the students’ attitudes and value-judgements related to their activities and lifestyles; 4 Simultaneously with the processes of alienation from studies, school and themselves, the so-called ’domestication phenomena’ (appreciation of home in students’ lifestyles increased

  12. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  13. ABB honoured in Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Energeetikafirma ABB pälvis Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse poolt Eesti parimale ettevõttele antava "Ettevõtluse Auhinna 2008" ja Aasta Välisinvestori tiitli. 18. septembril 2008 toimunud pidulikul tseremoonial autasustas president Toomas Hendrik Ilves ABB Balti riikide juhti Bo Henrikssoni

  14. Pictorial Estonia / Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnap, Peeter, 1960-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti pildilisest kujutamisest albumites, postkaartidel, kodulehekülgedel ja filmides, kus domineerib "fassaadi-imagoloogia", mille raamkonstruktsiooniks on utoopiline, mitte heterotoopoline ruumi mõiste

  15. Estonia : [2013] / Allan Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikk, Allan, 1975-

    2014-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti poliitilisest elust 2013. aastal. Käsitletakse kohalikke valimisi, muutusi valitsuse kooseisus, Riigikogu tegemisi, aga ka rahvakogu ettepanekuid, Reformierakonna rahastusskandaali jt sündmusi.

  16. Hearing impairment in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teek, R; Kruustük, K; Zordania, R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The present study was initiated to establish the etiological causes of early onset hearing loss (HL) among Estonian children between 2000-2009. Methods: The study group consisted of 233 probands who were first tested with an arrayed primer extension assay, which covers 199 mutat...... for 115 Estonian patients (49%). This algorithm may be generalized to other populations for clinical application....... performed. Results: In 110 (47%) cases, the etiology of HL was genetic and in 5 (2%) congenital CMV infection was diagnosed. We found mutations with clinical significance in GJB2 (100 children, 43%) and in 2 mitochondrial genes (2 patients, 1%). A single mutation in SLC26A4 gene was detected in 5 probands...... able to conclude that the found abnormalities are definitely pathogenic (12q13.3-q14.2 and 17q22-23.2 microdeletion), but the pathogenity of 2 other findings (3p26.2 and 1p33 microdeletion) remained unknown. Conclusion: This practical diagnostic algorithm confirmed the etiology of early onset HL...

  17. Estonia / Vello Pettai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pettai, Vello, 1968-

    2002-01-01

    Poliitilisest olukorrast Eestis Riigikogu 9. koosseisu ajal, mil võimul oli Reformierakonna, Isamaaliidu ja Mõõdukate koalitsioon ning peaminister Mart Laari valitsus. Tabelid: 1999. aastal Riigikogu valimiste tulemused; 1999. aastal Isamaliidu, Reformierakonna ja Mõõdukate poolt moodustatud valitsus

  18. Estonia : [2012] / Allan Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikk, Allan, 1975-

    2013-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti valitsuses 2012. aastal toimunud muutustest, sisepoliitika olulisematest arengutest (protestid ACTA vastu, Rahvakogu kokkutulek, Silvergate, opositsiooni tegevus, arutelud ESM-i ümber, venekeelsest koolist Eestis)

  19. Estonia : [2011] / Allan Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikk, Allan, 1975-

    2012-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti poliitika olulisematest sündmustest 2011. aastal, mille hulgas on nii Riigikogu kui ka presidendi valimised, märgitakse skandaali ja korruptsiooni seoses viisavaba liikumise võimaldamisega Shengeni viisaruumis, muutused põhiseaduses seoses Kaitsejõudude ülemjuhataja koha kaotamisega

  20. Estonia : [2010] / Allan Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikk, Allan, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti poliitika olulisematest sündmustest 2010. aastal, mille hulgas märgitakse skandaale erakondade rahaasjades, korruptsiooni seoses maamüügitehingutega, muutusi valimisseaduses seoses valimistega Euroopa Parlamenti

  1. Medicinal plants used in traditional herbal medicine in the province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Phyto-therapy studies on Chimborazo province in Ecuador are really limited. This area, located within the Andes, is considered a millenarian and intercultural province, where multiples cultures and ethnic groups coexist. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted through direct interviews with 84 ...

  2. Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China). China has the largest internal migrant population in the world, and women account for nearly half of it. Fujian province has been a traditional source of large numbers of Chinese migrants to Southeast Asia and the United States. Now, with the burgeoning economies of southeast ...

  3. Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province, South Africa. ND MacLeod, CK McDonald, FP van Oudtshoorn. Abstract. Land redistribution schemes (e.g. Settlement Land Acquisition Grant and Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development) initiated since the mid-1990s in Limpopo province under ...

  4. Province of Ontario nuclear emergency plan. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The Province of Ontario Nuclear Emergency Plan has been developed pursuant to Section 8 of the Emergency Plans Act, 1983. This plan replaces the Province of Ontario Nuclear Contingency Off-Site Plan (June 1980) which is no longer applicable. The wastes plan includes planning, preparation, emergency organization and operational responsibilities and policy

  5. A Tiny Bilbao in the Province?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Line Marie Bruun

    2014-01-01

    the size of the province communities have in relation to the application of experience economy thinking in cultural planning. The paper presents a reading of the current 13 Danish “Culture Agreements” made between the ministry of culture and the cultural regions (Kulturstyrelsen) The reading has a special...... the utilization of cultural institutions, creative industries and the demands of the creative class were drivers in the development of the major cities, i.e. the ”Bilbao Effect”. From the major cities these ideas spread to smaller cities, which raised questions about critical mass, etc. This ”second wave...... of the welfare state, which focus on accessibility, a democratic and inclusive approach expressed in the form of culture projects that will enhance the quality of life and liveability in the local community. The paper discusses how and if the two rationales can be executed in the same projects: economic growth...

  6. Geochemistry of volcanic series of Aragats province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meliksetyan, Kh.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss geochemical and isotope characteristics of volcanism of the Aragats volcanic province and possible petrogenetical models of magma generation in collision zone of Armenian highland. We talk about combination of some specific features of collision related volcanism such as dry and high temperature conditions of magma generation, that demonstrate some similarities to intraplate-like petrogenesis and presence of mantle source enriched by earlier subductions, indicative to island-arc type magma generation models. Based on comprehensive analysis of isotope and geochemical data and some published models of magma generation beneath Aragats we lead to a petrogenetic model of origin of Aragats system to be a result of magma mixture between mantle originated mafic magma with felsic, adakite-type magmas

  7. Mutational spectrum of phenylketonuria in Jiangsu province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-fen; Jia, Hai-tao; Chen, Zhong-hai; Song, Jia-ping; Liang, Yu; Pei, Jing-jing; Wu, Zhi-jun; Wang, Jing; Qiu, Ya-li; Liu, Gang; Sun, Dong-mei; Jiang, Xin-ye

    2015-10-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. We systematically investigated all 13 exons of the PAH gene and their flanking introns in 31 unrelated patients and their parents using next-generation sequencing (NGS). A total of 33 different variants were identified in 58 of 62 mutant PAH alleles. The prevalent variants with a relative frequency of 5 % or more were c.721C > T, c.1068C > A, c.611A > G, c.1197A > T, c.728G > A, c.331C > T, and c.442-1G > A. One novel variant was identified in this study-c.699C > G. We studied genotype-phenotype correlations using the Guldberg arbitrary value (AV) system, which revealed a consistency rate of 38 % (8/21) among the 21 predicted phenotypes. The genotype-based prediction of BH4 responsiveness was also evaluated, and 14 patients (45.2 %) were predicted to be BH4 responsive. This study presents the spectrum of PAH variants in Jiangsu province. The information obtained from the genotype-based prediction of BH4 responsiveness might be used for the rational selection of candidates for BH4 testing. • Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. • The spectrum of PAH variants in different Chinese populations has been reported. What is new: • This is the first report on the spectrum of PAH variants in Jiangsu province. • This study identified one novel PAH variant-c.699C>G-and and tries to show a genotype-phenotype relationship also regarding BH4-responsiveness.

  8. Sõdadevaheline vene emigratsioon suures ilmas ja väikeses Eesti / Interwar Russian Emigration in the Larger World and "Little Estonia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Belobrovtseva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Oktoobrirevolutsiooni järgne vene emigratsioon, mida teaduskirjanduses traditsiooniliselt nimeta takse esimeseks laineks, valgus mööda ilma laiali ning oli seninägematult arvukas, haarates kaasa miljoneid endise Tsaari-Venemaa elanikke. Sellele nähtusele on pühendatud tuhandeid humanitaartea duslikke, sotsioloogilisi, politoloogilisi jm uurimusi, mis kajastavad vene eksiilkultuuri eri tahke. Vene emigratsioon puudutas ka Eestit ning enamik käsitletud ilmingutest olid otseselt seotud siinse vene kogukonnaga, ent kohati väga erineva tähendusega. Käesoleva artikli eesmärk on lühidalt kirjeldada vene emigratsiooni sotsiaalset ja demograafilist struktuuri, selle keskusi, emigrantide rolli oma ja võõra kultuuri säilitamisel, põlvkondadevahelist aspekti, eelkõige kirjanduselus, ning haridusküsimusi. Lähemalt on käsitletud vene emigrantide rolli Eesti kultuuris muu maailma taustal.    SU M M A R Y   After the October Revolution a mass of emigrants, all citizens of the former Tsarist Russia dispersed in the world. In the scholarly literature this dispersal of upwards of a million people has come to be referred to as the first wave of Russian emigration. Thousands of scholarly articles from the humanities, sociology, political science and other disciplines have been devoted to various aspects of Russian exile culture: descriptions of exile cultural centres (including Paris, Berlin, Constantinople, Brazil, and the USA; various cultural phenomena (literature, film, theatre, fashion, journalism, art, etc.. As was true of the large part of Europe, the Russian emigration impacted Estonia, as it did across the rest of Europe; however, the fate of the Russian community in Estonia had strikingly original features. Some of these derived principally from Estonia’s position as a border state, as well as from the fact that even in the days of the Russian Empire, over 40000 Russians resided in Estonia. Theoretically, this should have

  9. ‘I’m a feminist, I’m not ashamed and I’m proud’ : young people’s activism and feminist identities in Estonia, Spain and the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Nickie; Wadia, Khursheed; Ferrer-Fons, Mariona; Allaste, Airi-Alina

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the upsurge in young people's activism across Europe by drawing on three ethnographic studies of feminist and LGBT activism. The studies include a feminist organisation, UK Feminista, in a stable liberal democracy, the Feministes Indignades in post-fascist Spain, and the LGBT movement in post-communist Estonia. The paper argues that feminist identities, both individual and collective, are critical to the feminist and LGBT movements studied; that affect, both positive and n...

  10. An Attempt to Construction of Seismotectonic Province Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Myung Hyun; Shim, Taek Mo

    2010-01-01

    A seismotectonic province is a kind of seismic source where, in general, seismic characteristics are assumed to be uniform. It is different from earthquake-generating geological structures such as faults or folds. It is an area or a zone where earthquakes diffusely occur but no specific geological structure is identified to be responsible for those earthquakes. The terminology, a seismotectonic province is originated from a tectonic province of U.S. federal code, with emphasis on earthquakes. The seismotectonic province is called the seismogenic source in the regulatory guides of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the zone of diffuse seismicity in a guide of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In Korea, existing seismotectonic province maps were constructed based on the geological information due to insufficient earthquake data. As understood in its name, however, a seismotectonic province map should be based on the seismic information. Moreover, it should be noted that the Korean (geologic) tectonic structures cannot correctly represent the current tectonic regime because they were formed before the Cenozoic. In this context, we attempted to construct a seismotectonic province map by using seismic and geophysical information as well as geologic information

  11. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from the cooler

  12. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology......: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary ideology did not influence economic liberalization at all. This finding (1) identifies differences between...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ...

  13. Sending our child to college. Heilongjiang province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W

    1994-03-01

    An educational program for female farmers in Keshan County, Heilongjiang Province, originally limited to the topics of women's health care and family planning has not only improved health status, but has also helped increase income level among the participants. Keshan County is one of China's grain bases composed of seventeen townships with a total population of 460,000. The education program resulted from the health check-up for women conducted in 1985 which found 62.1% of local women with gynecological diseases, largely ignorant of health care, and too shy to visit doctors. A textbook was subsequently compiled on women's health care and family planning, and lectures were commenced on the topics. Lectures were soon expanded to cover health care for teenagers, newlyweds, pregnant women, young mothers, and middle-aged and elderly people. It was also found after some time that farmers wanted to be wealthier, to secure good educations for their children, and enjoy good health and longevity. Education topics were again expanded to include subjects relevant to farmers' income-production desires. These education sessions are now being replicated in most rural areas countrywide.

  14. ICT Strategic Planning for Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shojaie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, regarding rapid changes in the environment, any organization, institution or country that overlooks its capabilities, strengths and weaknesses, will face real challenges. Strategic planning in organizations is a common response to these challenges which also facilitate achieving goals in an organization. Today, the importance of ICT is increased, which necessitates ICT strategic planning to use ICT in organizations. So, this study aimed to propose ICT strategic plans for Mazandaran province. For this end, at first using stakeholders' viewpoints, the vision, mission and goals are provided. Then, Internal & External Matrix was suggested and identified factors were ranked using Analytic Network Processing (ANP. Then, concerning strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and using SWOT analysis, ICT strategies were provided. Finally, using QSPM matrix, the strategies were ranked. Regarding this ranking, dedicated budget to ICT in governmental organizations, using integration architecture, developing organizational and inter-organizational information systems, developing mechanisms to absorb national and local financial resources for extending ICT infrastructures and finally concerning ICT trainings for managers and people, were in the top of the list.

  15. Bovine trypanosomosis in north province of cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndamkou, C N; Nchare, A [Laboratoire National Veterinaire de Bokle (LANAVET), Garoua (Cameroon)

    1997-02-01

    The results of the examination of 2959 bovine blood samples collected from four divisions of North Province of Cameroon showed a prevalence of 1.72 for T. brucei, 0.98 for T. congolense and 4.03 for T. vivax using parasitological techniques, such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the microhaematrocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Prevalence rates in tsetse infested areas were higher than in tsetse free areas for T. brucei and T. congolense, but not for T. vivax. The Antigen ELISA was used to detect trypanosomal antigens in serum samples of a subset of the same animals. By using the Ag-ELISA many more animals were detected positive for T. brucei and T. vivax, but not for T. congolense, than when just the two parasitological techniques were used. As a matter of fact 90% of the T. brucei infections were detected by the Ag-ELISA and 10% by using either the BCT or the MHCT. (author).6 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs.

  16. Dinoflagellates of the Trentino Province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna FLAIM

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Trentino Province (Italy has more than 320 lakes diverse in size, geological substrate, altitude and trophic status, and representing most physico-chemical types of temperate lakes. A recent research project (SALTO offered the opportunity to study the dinoflagellate flora of 27 of these water bodies representing all lake types. In this paper 34 taxa of dinoflagellates assigned to eight genera (Ceratium, Glenodiniopsis, Glochidinium, Gymnodinium, Gyrodinium, Peridinium, Peridiniopsis and Tovellia in five families (Ceratiaceae, Glenodiniopsidaceae, Gymnodiniaceae, Peridiniaceae and Tovelliaceae and four genera of uncertain collocation (Baldinia, Borghiella, Durinskia and Staszicella are described. Two previously undescribed species and two new combinations are also included. Classification is based in part on Popovsk´y and Pfiester (1990, modified according to the results of recent molecular and ultrastructural analyses. Dinoflagellate taxonomy is currently undergoing extensive revision, and taxonomic decisions in the present article follow the recent orientations in dinoflagellate systematics. The taxonomical issues of the more problematic genera are discussed. Where appropriate, comments on ecological features of the species are also given.

  17. Bovine trypanosomosis in north province of cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndamkou, C.N.; Nchare, A.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the examination of 2959 bovine blood samples collected from four divisions of North Province of Cameroon showed a prevalence of 1.72 for T. brucei, 0.98 for T. congolense and 4.03 for T. vivax using parasitological techniques, such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the microhaematrocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Prevalence rates in tsetse infested areas were higher than in tsetse free areas for T. brucei and T. congolense, but not for T. vivax. The Antigen ELISA was used to detect trypanosomal antigens in serum samples of a subset of the same animals. By using the Ag-ELISA many more animals were detected positive for T. brucei and T. vivax, but not for T. congolense, than when just the two parasitological techniques were used. As a matter of fact 90% of the T. brucei infections were detected by the Ag-ELISA and 10% by using either the BCT or the MHCT. (author).6 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Floristic study of Khargushan Mountain, Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Dehshiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was plant identification, introduction to the flora, determination of life forms and geographical distribution in Khargushan Mountain. This Mountain, with 6000 hectares, situated on the east of Poldokhtar and south-west of Khorramabad. The maximum altitude of this mountain is thought 2329 m. Plant specimens were collected from different parts of the area during two growing seasons 2013-2014. The plant biological spectrum of the area was plotted by means of life forms results. The position of the area within Iran’s phytogeography classification was studied based on geographical distribution data and references. From 211 identified species in the studied area, 3 Pteridophytes, 1 Gymnosperm, 176 dicotyledons and 31 monocotyledons were presented. These species belong to 50 families and 150 genera. The important families are Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Lamiaceae with 12.79%, 10.42%, 8.05% and 7.58%, respectively. Life forms of the plant species include Therophytes 36.49%, Hemicryptophytes 31.28%, Cryptophytes 18.96%, Phanerophytes 8.06%, and Chamaephytes 5.21%. 138 species (65.4% were endemics of Irano-Turanian region; 32 species of them were endemics of Iran which among them, distribution of 4 species (Astragalus lurorum, Dionysia gaubae, Hedysarum gypsophilum and Phlomis lurestanica limited to Lorestan province.

  19. Church Tourism in Batangas Province, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAYZEL ANN. T. DE CASTRO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Church tourism has clearly increased over the past ten years. Churches are an important part of the tourism product of many parts of the country. This study aimed to determine the contribution of the churches in terms of social, cultural and economic aspects of the place, to identify the problems encountered in the promoting church tourism and propose plan of action to sustain the tourism of the Province of Batangas through churches. The researchers used the descriptive method of research and utilized self-made questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument of the study. The respondents were consisting of 5 people in the offices of the pilgrim churches from Batangas City and 10 churchgoers. The respondents agree that pilgrim churches contribute to tourism in terms of social and economics aspect while they strongly agree in term of cultural aspect. The most commonly experienced problems were the accessibility of the transportation and an action plan was proposed to address the problems encountered. The recommendation addressed that roving guards should be provided to ensure the safety and security of the tourists during their visit in the church. The church personnel may provide creative and command activities that will encourage people. Also they may have a briefing about the history of the church so that if visitor needs information it easy for them to answer and an action plan may be implemented to solve the problem encountered.

  20. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  1. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  2. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids, #1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  3. Lagoa Real uranium province - The History of an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, C.; Matos, E.C. de

    1982-01-01

    It is narrated a historic about the anomalies descovered in Lagoa Real province (BA), focusing the aspects related to geology, mineralization, drillings data and reserves evaluation. Geologic and radiometric maps of the anomalies are shown. (A.B.) [pt

  4. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  5. Zoning Of Apple Trees In Province Of Khorasan Razavi Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Karami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of prone areas for apple cultivation in Razavi Khorasan province. Therefore in this study criteria and sub criteria were considered to determine suitable areas for growing apple trees and due to the importance of data integration Analytic Hierarchy Process AHP was selected to determine the weight of layers. The software ArcGIS version 10.2.2 was used to analyze the spatial and overlapping layers after data analysis in terms of growing apple trees Razavi Khorasan province was divided into four levels very good good average and bad. The results showed that suitable areas for growing apple trees in the studied area are located in the south east northeast and center of the province including Sarakhs Neyshaboor Gonabad and Kashmar stations with an area of over 4364789.32 hectares which is about 48.34 of the total area of the province.

  6. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  7. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  8. Evidences for a volcanic province in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.

    Based on various lines of evidence such as the widespread occurrence of basalts, pumice, volcanic glass shards and their transformational products (zeolites, palagonites, and smectite-rich sediments), we suggest the presence of a volcanic province...

  9. Infertility in Mazandaran province - north of Iran: an etiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Nadali Musanejad; Gholamali Jursarayee; Ayyub Barzegarnejad; Sepideh Peivandi; Narges Moslemizadeh; Amir Esmailnejad Moghaddam; Abbasali Karimpour Malekshah

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable bir...

  10. The Path Analysis of Farmers' Income Structure in Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    XIAO, Yongtian; CUI, Yu; HU, Lijia

    2015-01-01

    The problem of farmers' income growth is the key of issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers, so the farmers’ income growth is the fundamental starting point for agricultural and rural economic development. In this paper, we use the statistics concerning farmers' income in Yunnan Province from 1995 to 2012, to perform the path analysis of components of farmers' income in Yunnan Province, study the path of influence of components of farmers' income on farmers' net income, and t...

  11. Self-Burns in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Zardosht, Mitra; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The alarming incidence of self- burning provoked to set up a multidisciplinary preventive program to decrease the incidence and complications of this harmful issue. This study investigated the incidence and the preventive measures in self-burn in Fars Province, southern Iran. METHODS This study was a longitudinal prospective design on trend of self-inflicted burn injuries in Fars province after setting up a regional multidisciplinary preventive plan (2009-2012). RESULTS From 18862 ...

  12. The The geothermal potentials for electric development in Maluku Province

    OpenAIRE

    Isnaniawardhani, Vijaya; Sukiyah, Emi; Sudradjat, Adjat; Nanlohy, Martha Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    The characteristic of small to medium size islands is the limited amount of natural resources for electric generation. Presently the needs of energy in Maluku Province are supplied by the diesel generation units. The electricity distributes through an isolated grid system of each island. There are 10 separate systems in Maluku Province, namely Ambon, Namlea, Tual, Saumlaki, Mako, Piru, Bula, Masohi, Dobo and Langgur. From the geothermal point of view, this condition is suitable because the na...

  13. DEMAND FOR BEEF IN THE PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  14. Crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China based on seismic ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Guanghua; Feng, Jikun; Lin, Jun

    2016-11-01

    We imaged the crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China with fundamental mode Rayleigh waves recorded by 60 broadband stations deployed in the region. Surface-wave empirical Green's functions were retrieved from cross-correlations of inter-station data and phase velocity dispersions were measured using a frequency-time analysis method. Dispersion measurements were then utilized to construct 2D phase velocity maps for periods between 5 and 35 s. Subsequently, the phase-dispersion curves extracted from each cell of the 2D phase velocity maps were inverted to determine the 3D shear wave velocity structures of the crust. The phase velocity maps at different periods reflected the average velocity structures corresponding to different depth ranges. The maps in short periods, in particular, were in excellent agreement with known geological features of the surface. In addition to imaging shear wave velocity structures of the volcanoes, we show that obvious low-velocity anomalies imaged in the Changbaishan-Tianchi Volcano, the Longgang-Jinlongdingzi Volcano, and the system of the Dunmi Fault crossing the Jingbohu Volcano, all of which may be due to geothermal anomalies.

  15. Laboratory quality improvement in Thailand's northernmost provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitvittaya, S; Suksai, U; Suksripanich, O; Pobkeeree, V

    2010-01-01

    In Thailand nearly 1000 public health laboratories serve 65 million people. A qualified indicator of a good quality laboratory is Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. Consequently, Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center established a development program for laboratory certification for 29 laboratories in the province. This paper seeks to examine this issue. The goal was to improve laboratory service quality by voluntary participation, peer review, training and compliance with standards. The program consisted of specific activities. Training and workshops to update laboratory staffs' quality management knowledge were organized. Staff in each laboratory performed a self-assessment using a standard check-list to evaluate ten laboratory management areas. Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center staff supported the distribution of quality materials and documents. They provided calibration services for laboratory equipment. Peer groups performed an internal audit and successful laboratories received Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. By December 2007, eight of the 29 laboratories had improved quality sufficiently to be certified. Factors that influenced laboratories' readiness for quality improvement included the number of staff, their knowledge, budget and staff commitment to the process. Moreover, the support of each hospital's laboratory working group or network was essential for success. There was no clear policy for supporting the program. Laboratories voluntarily conducted quality management using existing resources. A bottom-up approach to this kind of project can be difficult to accomplish. Laboratory professionals can work together to illustrate and highlight outcomes for top-level health officials. A top-down, practical approach would be much less difficult to implement. Quality certification is a critical step for laboratory staff, which also encourages them to aspire to international quality standards like ISO. The

  16. The Teles Pires volcanic province: A paleogeoproterozoic silicic-dominated large igneous province in southwest Amazon craton and tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Jayme Alfredo Dexheimer; Saes, Gerson Souza; Macambira, Moacir Jose Buenano

    2001-01-01

    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are important features of the Earth history especially recognized during Paleo to Mezosoic times when they are related to the break up of supercontinents (Coffin and Eldhom, 1994). These provinces occur in several different tectonic settings such as volcanic passive margins, submarine ridges and continental and oceanic plateaux. Mafic-dominanted provinces are the most well known among the LIPs and the best examples are the Karoo, Kerguelem and Ontong-Java. LIPs including an important silicic component have been described in some basaltic provinces of southern Africa (Milner et al. 1992). More recently, silicic-dominated LIPs have been recognized in eastern Australia (Bryan et al., 2000), in southern South America (Pankhurst et al. 1998) and in Antartica Penninsula (Riley and Leat, 1999). The common characteristics of this kind of LIP include: 1) large volume of silicic rocks with dominance of ignimbrites, 2) active over 40 to 50 m.y.; and 3) spatially and temporally associated with plate break up. In this paper we present the main geologic and geochronologic characteristics of the Teles Pires volcanic province from southwest Amazon Craton, which allow its classification as a Paleoprotorozoic silicic-dominated LIP. Geologic implications of this suggestion includes the existence of a large cratonic plate as old as 1.81Ga for the Amazon Craton, therefore the proposed 1.85-1.55 Ga magmatic arc of Rio Negro-Juruena Province should be reviewed (au)

  17. Fostering Social Inclusion through Multilingual Habitus in Estonia: A Case Study of the Open School of Kalamaja and the Sakala Private School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana L’nyavskiy-Ekelund

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available After the restoration of independence in 1991, Estonia continued with a parallel school system with separate public schools operating for Russian- and Estonian-speaking children. Seen as a developmental ‘growing pains’ of a transitional state, during the last 27 years the separate school system has contributed to infrastructural difficulties, educational injustice, and societal segregation. This article investigates the role of private schools in addressing this injustice from the analytical angle of new institutionalism, structuration and intergroup contact theories. How do these institutions challenge and aim at changing the state language regime or path dependency in the language of education? Two case studies are presented in this article: The Open School, established in 2017 for children with different home language backgrounds and targeting trilingual competences; The Sakala Private School, established in 2009, offering trilingual education with Russian as a medium of instruction. During this period of nation-state rebuilding and globalization, we investigate whether developing a multilingual habitus is a way to address the issue of social cohesion in the Estonian society in. So far, no other studies of private initiatives in Estonian language acquisition planning have been done.

  18. Trapped in ‘Involuntary’ Work in the Late Career? Retirement Expectations versus the ‘Desire to Retire’ in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lindemann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of recent policies aiming to promote the prolongation of working life, one of the key questions is how people have adjusted their retirement expectations (i.e., realistic plans and preferences (i.e., wishes and desires. We explore which social groups plan to continue working after the statutory retirement age, and whether they wish to do it or whether it is a forced choice (‘involuntary’ work. Overall, almost all employed late career workers plan to work until or beyond retirement age in Estonia, especially men and those who have more educational and health resources. Still, results of a joint analysis of plans and wishes indicate that two groups have a higher risk of ‘involuntary’ work. First, a higher education combined with a low job satisfaction predicts staying longer in the labour despite the wish to retire as early as possible. Second, individuals who have poor health and a low job satisfaction often wish to retire as early as possible but stay in the labour market until reaching to the compulsory retirement age. Thus, policy measures increasing merely the statutory retirement age create tensions, especially among those not satisfied with their jobs. More analytical work and policy measures are needed to provide solutions at the workplace level that would enable a prolonged work career.

  19. Long-term effects of extreme weather events and eutrophication on the fish community of shallow Lake Peipsi (Estonia/Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Külli Kangur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fish kill in lake Peipsi (Estonia/Russia during the extraordinarily hot summer of 2010 evoked an investigation into the effects of environmental extremes and long-term eutrophication on the fish community of the lake. Current data on lake Peipsi indicate that temperature extremes and synergistic interactions with eutrophication have led to a radical restructuring of the fish community. Commercial landings of lake smelt, Osmerus eperlanus eperlanus m. spirinchus (Pallas, the previous dominant species of the fish community, have decreased dramatically since the 1930s, these declines being coupled with summer heat waves coinciding with low water levels. Gradual decline in smelt stock and catches was significantly related to a decline of near-bottom oxygen conditions and to a decrease in water transparency. The first documented fish kill in 1959 occurred only in the southern, most shallow and eutrophic lake (lake Pihkva. Recently, summer fish kill have become more frequent, involving larger areas of the lake. In addition to the cold-water species, e.g. smelt and vendace Coregonus albula (L., the abundance of bottom-dwelling fishes such as ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus (L. and juvenile fish have significantly decreased after the 2010 heat wave probably due to hypoxia and warm water temperatures. This study showed that fish community structure in large shallow lakes may be very vulnerable to water temperature increases, especially temperature extremes in combination with eutrophication.

  20. Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

    2011-12-01

    The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar.

  1. Chronology of Late Saalian and Middle Weichselian episodes of ice-free lacustrine sedimentation recorded in the Arumetsa section, southwestern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Rattas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The information obtained from a 21 m thick open-pit section of silty-clayey sediments in the Arumetsa bedrock valley, southwestern Estonia, revealed that lacustrine to glaciolacustrine sedimentation at the site started prior to 151 ka ago and lasted to about the end of marine isotope stage 6 (MIS6 at 130 ka. Further down from the 151 ka age-level to the bottom of the buried valley there are ca 60 m of lacustrine fine-grained sediments, the age of which remains still unclear. The Late Saalian sediments at Arumetsa are discordantly overlain by Middle Weichselian clay, silt and sand, deposited between ca 44 and 37 ka ago. As testified by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL ages, and pollen and diatom record, the Middle Weichselian fine-grained sediments contain redeposited Holsteinian but no Eemian pollen, and have not been fully bleached during deposition. Chronological, microfossil and sedimentological data show two hiatuses in the Arumetsa section. The first hiatus has left no sedimentary evidence for the period between ca 130 ka and 44 ka ago (MIS5 to older half of MIS3. The younger hiatus from ca 37 to 22 ka occurs between the Middle Weichselian lacustrine silt and the Late Weichselian till layer on top of the section.

  2. CDKL5 Gene-Related Epileptic Encephalopathy in Estonia: Four Cases, One Novel Mutation Causing Severe Phenotype in a Boy, and Overview of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilles, Stella; Talvik, Inga; Noormets, Klari; Vaher, Ulvi; Õunap, Katrin; Reimand, Tiia; Sander, Valentin; Ilves, Pilvi; Talvik, Tiina

    2016-12-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 ( CDKL5 ) gene mutations have mainly been found in females with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE), severe intellectual disability, and Rett-like features. To date, only 22 boys have been reported, presenting with far more severe phenotypic features. We report the first cases of CDKL5 gene-related EIEE in Estonia diagnosed using panels of epilepsy-associated genes and describe the phenotype-genotype correlations in three male and one female patient. One of the mutations, identified in a male patient, was a novel de novo hemizygous frameshift mutation (NM_003159.2:c.2225_2228del (p.Glu742Afs*41)) in exon 15 of CDKL5. All boys have a more severe phenotype than the female patient. In boys with early onset of seizures and poor development with absent or poor eye contact, CDKL5 gene-related EIEE can be suspected and epilepsy-associated genes should be analyzed for early etiological diagnosis. Early genetic diagnosis would be the cornerstone in personalized treatment in the future. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Residents' Self-Reported Health Effects and Annoyance in Relation to Air Pollution Exposure in an Industrial Area in Eastern-Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Hans; Idavain, Jane; Pindus, Mihkel; Orru, Kati; Kesanurm, Kaisa; Lang, Aavo; Tomasova, Jelena

    2018-02-02

    Eastern Estonia has large oil shale mines and industrial facilities mainly focused on electricity generation from oil shale and shale oil extraction, which produce high air pollution emissions. The "Study of the health impact of the oil shale sector-SOHOS" was aimed at identifying the impacts on residents' health and annoyance due to the industrial processing. First, a population-wide survey about health effects and annoyance was carried out. Second, the total and oil shale sectors' emitted concentrations of benzene, phenol, and PM 2.5 were modelled. Third, the differences between groups were tested and relationships between health effects and environmental pollution studied using multiple regression analysis. Compared to the control groups from non-industrial areas in Tartu or Lääne-Viru, residents of Ida-Viru more frequently ( p sector. Next to direct health effects, up to a quarter of the residents of Ida-Viru County were highly annoyed about air pollution. Perceived health risk from air pollution increased the odds of being annoyed. Annoyed people in Ida-Viru had significantly higher odds of experiencing respiratory symptoms during the last 12 months, e.g., wheezing (2.30, 1.31-4.04), chest tightness (2.88, 1.91-4.33 or attack of coughing (1.99, 1.34-2.95).

  4. Changes in climate, catchment vegetation and hydrogeology as the causes of dramatic lake-level fluctuations in the Kurtna Lake District, NE Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Vainu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous lakes in the world serve as sensitive indicators of climate change. Water levels for lakes Ahnejärv and Martiska, two vulnerable oligotrophic closed-basin lakes on sandy plains in northeastern Estonia, fell more than 3 m in 1946–1987 and rose up to 2 m by 2009. Earlier studies indicated that changes in rates of groundwater abstraction were primarily responsible for the changes, but scientifically sound explanations for water-level fluctuations were still lacking. Despite the inconsistent water-level dataset, we were able to assess the importance of changing climate, catchment vegetation and hydrogeology in water-level fluctuations in these lakes. Our results from water-balance simulations indicate that before the initiation of ground­water abstraction in 1972 a change in the vegetation composition on the catchments triggered the lake-level decrease. The water-level rise in 1990–2009 was caused, in addition to the reduction of groundwater abstraction rates, by increased precipitation and decreased evaporation. The results stress that climate, catchment vegetation and hydrogeology must all be considered while evaluating the causes of modern water-level changes in lakes.

  5. The potential for expanding inter-cluster cooperation between the ship-building industries of Estonia, Finland, and North-West Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laaksonen Eini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shipbuilding industry clusters in the Eastern Baltic Sea region, i. e. Estonia, Finland and North-West Russia, may benefit significantly from increased mutual cooperation; however, the international networks between the clusters are still poorly developed. The aim of this article is to analyse the preconditions for cluster internationalization between these clusters, which are rather different but complementary in terms of skills. The research material for this desk study was collected from various sources, including journal articles, media, research reports, and other publications. The results of the study indicate that the increasing cooperation within the triangle of these clusters has a significant potential in terms of combining different areas of expertise and creating a multidimensional maritime industry hub in the region. However, differences in the cluster structure and development stages lead to certain difficulties in achieving these objectives. In conclusion, the authors identify the factors both facilitating and inhibiting networking between the three clusters. This study provides a platform for further research focusing on the factors identified and gives ideas for public discussion on increased inter-cluster cooperation.

  6. Simulation of the hydrogeologic effects of oil-shale mining on the neighbouring wetland water balance: case study in north-eastern Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, Andres; Karro, Enn; Polikarpus, Maile; Jõeleht, Argo; Kohv, Marko; Hang, Tiit; Hiiemaa, Helen

    2013-11-01

    The water balance of wetlands plays an integral role in their function. Developments adjacent to wetlands can affect their water balance through impacts on groundwater flow and increased discharge in the area, and they can cause lowering of the wetland water table. A 430 km2 area was selected for groundwater modelling to asses the effect of underground mining on the water balance of wetlands in north-eastern Estonia. A nature conservation area (encompassing Selisoo bog) is within 3 km of an underground oil-shale mine. Two future mining scenarios with different areal extents of mining were modeled and compared to the present situation. Results show that the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the subsurface is of critical importance to potential wetland dewatering as a result of mining. Significant impact on the Selisoo bog water balance will be caused by the approaching mine but there will be only minor additional impacts from mining directly below the bog. The major impact will arise before that stage, when the underground mine extension reaches the border of the nature conservation area; since the restriction of activities in this area relates to the ground surface, the conservation area’s border is not sufficiently protective in relation to underground development.

  7. The potential for expanding inter-cluster cooperation between the ship-building industries of Estonia, Finland, and North-West Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laaksonen Eini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shipbuilding industry clusters in the Eastern Baltic Sea region, i. e. Estonia, Finland and North-West Russia, may benefit significantly from increased mutual cooperation; however, the international networks between the clusters are still poorly developed. The aim of this article is to analyse the preconditions for cluster internationalization between these clusters, which are rather different but complementary in terms of skills. The research material for this desk study was collected from various sources, including journal articles, media, research reports, and other publications. The results of the study indicate that the increasing cooperation within the triangle of these clusters has a significant potential in terms of combining different areas of expertise and creating a multidimensional maritime industry hub in the region. However, differences in the cluster structure and development stages lead to certain difficulties in achieving these objectives. In conclusion, the authors identify the factors both facilitating and inhibiting networking between the three clusters. This study provides a platform for further research focusing on the factors identified and gives ideas for public discussion on increased inter-cluster cooperation.

  8. Saints and Sainthood around the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection of articles covers most of the Baltic Region with a special focus on the cult of saints in Russia, Prussia, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Latvia (more commonly referred to in the Middle Ages as Livonia). The articles cover a wide range of topics, for example the introduction...... of foreign (and ‘old’) saints into new regions, the creation of new local cults of saints in newly Christianized regions, the role of the cult of saints in the creation of political and lay identities, the adaption of the cult of saints in folk poetry and the potential role of saints in times of war...

  9. Municipal solid waste management in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Nasrabadi, Touraj

    2007-03-01

    Kurdistan Province, with an area of 28,203 square kilometers, is located in a mountainous area in the western part of Iran. From 1967 to 1997, the urban population in the major eight cities of the Kurdistan Province-namely, Baneh, Bijar, Divan Darreh, Saghez, Sanandaj, Ghorveh, Kamyaran, and Marivan-increased from 102,250 to 705,715. The proportion of the population residing in urban areas increased 90 percent during this period. In most of the cities, solid waste handling remains primitive, and well-organized procedures for it have not been established. Traditional methods of disposal, with marginal inclusion of modern conveniences, appear to be the common practice. In general, the shortcomings of the prevailing practices can be summarized as follows: The municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMSs) in this province include unsegregated collection and open dumping of municipal solid wastes. Separation of municipal solid waste in this province is in the hands of scavengers. The MSWMSs in this province lack essential infrastructure. Thus, design and implementation of modern MSWMSs in this province are essential. Principal criteria for and methods of implementing these systems are as follows: (1) rationally evaluating all functional elements so that they operate in a steady-state or equilibrium manner; (2) creating all support elements for the MSWMS in each city; (3) introducing gradual privatization of MSWMS activities; (4) creating guidelines, regulations, and instructions for all elements of MSWMSs; and (5) giving priorities to source separation and recycling programs. This paper reviews the present status of MSWMSs in eight major cities of Kurdistan Province and outlines the principle guidelines and alternatives for MSWMSs.

  10. Fire Behavior in Pelalawan Peatland, Riau Province

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    BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During dry season it is easily recognized that smoke will emerge at certain place both in Sumatra and Kalimantan that is in peatland. The worst situation occurred when fire burnt buried log in the logged over area where the fire fighter did not have any experience and knowledge on how to work with fire in peatland. Finally it had been found that one of the reasons why firefighter failed to fight fire in peatland is because they do not have any knowledge and experience on it. In order to know the fire behavior characteristics in different level of peat decomposition for fire management and sustainable management of the land for the community, research done in Pelalawan area, Riau Province, Indonesia, during dry season 2001. Three level of peat decomposition named Sapric, Hemic, and Fibric used. To conduct the research, two 400 m2 of plot each was established in every level of the peat decomposition. Burning done three weeks following slashing, cutting and drying at different time using circle method. During burning, flame length, rate of the spread of fire, flame temperature and following burning fuel left and the depth of peat destruction were measured. Results of research shown that in sapric site where sapric 2 has fuel load 9 ton ha-1 less than sapric 1, fire behavior was significantly different while peat destructed was deepest in sapric 2 with 31.87 cm. In hemic site where hemic 2 has fuel load 12.3 ton ha-1 more than hemic 1, fire behavior was significantly different and peat destructed deeper than hemic 1 that was 12.6 cm. In fibric site where fibric 1 has fuel load 3.5 ton ha-1 more than fibric 1, fire behavior was significantly different that has no burnt peat found. This results found that the different fuel characteristics (potency, moisture, bed depth, and type at the same level of peat decomposition will have significantly different fire behavior as it happened also on the depth of peat destruction except fibric. The same condition

  11. Magmatic systems of large continental igneous provinces

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    E. Sharkov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Large igneous provinces (LIPs formed by mantle superplume events have irreversibly changed their composition in the geological evolution of the Earth from high-Mg melts (during Archean and early Paleoproterozoic to Phanerozoic-type geochemically enriched Fe-Ti basalts and picrites at 2.3 Ga. We propose that this upheaval could be related to the change in the source and nature of the mantle superplumes of different generations. The first generation plumes were derived from the depleted mantle, whereas the second generation (thermochemical originated from the core-mantle boundary (CMB. This study mainly focuses on the second (Phanerozoic type of LIPs, as exemplified by the mid-Paleoproterozoic Jatulian–Ludicovian LIP in the Fennoscandian Shield, the Permian–Triassic Siberian LIP, and the late Cenozoic flood basalts of Syria. The latter LIP contains mantle xenoliths represented by green and black series. These xenoliths are fragments of cooled upper margins of the mantle plume heads, above zones of adiabatic melting, and provide information about composition of the plume material and processes in the plume head. Based on the previous studies on the composition of the mantle xenoliths in within-plate basalts around the world, it is inferred that the heads of the mantle (thermochemical plumes are made up of moderately depleted spinel peridotites (mainly lherzolites and geochemically-enriched intergranular fluid/melt. Further, it is presumed that the plume heads intrude the mafic lower crust and reach up to the bottom of the upper crust at depths ∼20 km. The generation of two major types of mantle-derived magmas (alkali and tholeiitic basalts was previously attributed to the processes related to different PT-parameters in the adiabatic melting zone whereas this study relates to the fluid regime in the plume heads. It is also suggested that a newly-formed melt can occur on different sides of a critical plane of silica undersaturation and can

  12. A new family programme in Zhejiang province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B

    1994-04-01

    Zhejiang Province in China has promoted a new family planning program since April 1993. The program stresses delayed marriage and childbearing, fewer and healthier births, modernization of family life, and prosperity through hard work. The people are receptive to the new program out of a desire for an improved standard of living. The objective is to build small, modern families who 1) practice deferred marriage and childbearing; 2) voluntarily practice family planning and have no unplanned births; 3) practice avoidance of consanguineous marriage, become sterilized if a carrier of a hereditary disease of chromosomal abnormality, and use premarital education and counseling and proper prenatal care; 4) uphold the laws and maintain discipline in action to avoid criminal behavior; 5) establish families that respect the old, care for children, and help their neighbors; 6) complete 9 years of compulsory education; and 7) create well being through hard work. The program is compatible with the strategy of the "three stresses" and an integrated approach. IEC and service provision are important components in program implementation. The target population are the masses and grassroots cadres, particularly those in the childbearing ages. IEC will be directed in different ways to different groups. Those aged 18-35 years will receive education. Face to face interaction with family planning workers and lectures will be directed to grassroots cadres. The mass media will be employed to reach the masses. The messages will include information and persuasion to adopt new families, accept family planning regulations, and learn about contraceptive use, healthy births and childrearing, education, health care, sex education, and income generation skills. Classes will be conducted for groups, such as teenagers, unmarried youth, pregnant women, and lactating women. Priority will be given to couples that accept the certificates for one child; favoritism will be granted for allocation of

  13. Ilukirjanduse tõlked 20. sajandi esimese poole Eesti ja Soome raamatutoodangus (1900–1940 / Translations of Belles-Lettres in the Book Production of Estonia and Finland during the First Half of the 20th Century (1900–1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aile Möldre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents statistical data on the publications of belles-lettres in Estonia in 1900–1940 – a period when the country developed into a modern European society and gained independence. The topic is treated in the context of book history, which uses publishing statistics to provide a broader context for individual case studies. The research on the quantity and share of translated literature in book production comes close to the statisticalsociological approach in translation history, characterised by Peeter Torop as one of the aspects of the study of translation culture. The statistical indicators have been elaborated on the basis of retrospective bibliographies and on the data, obtained from National Library of Estonia. The analysis includes the share of belles-lettres in book production, the balance of original works and translations, the changes in the quantity of translations during different decades and the share of source literatures. The Estonian statistics have been presented in comparison with corresponding data from Finland, which has been published in the collective monograph on Finnish translation history, issued in 2007. As the Finnish data is organized by decades, the same principle is used for statistics on Estonia. This approach corresponds generally to the political history of the two countries – both belonged to the Russian Empire during the first two decades of the 20th century and existed as independent states during the following two decades. Both nations had passed through the first stage in the development of literary culture, characterised by extensive publication of adaptations and free translations by the beginning of the century. Thus the share of original works started to increase and slightly exceeded the share  of  translations  in  E stonia  as  well  as  in  Finland.  The  selection  of  translated  works  in both countries was varied and their level was unstable. Despite the

  14. The geothermal potentials for electric development in Maluku Province

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    Vijaya Isnaniawardhani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of small to medium size islands is the limited amount of natural resources for electric generation. Presently the needs of energy in Maluku Province are supplied by the diesel generation units. The electricity distributes through an isolated grid system of each island. There are 10 separate systems in Maluku Province, namely Ambon, Namlea, Tual, Saumlaki, Mako, Piru, Bula, Masohi, Dobo and Langgur. From the geothermal point of view, this condition is suitable because the nature of the generation is small to medium and the locations are dispersed. The geological condition of Maluku Province is conducive for the formation of geothermal resources. The advanced utilization of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is in Tulehu located about 8 kilometers NE of Ambon. It is expected that 60 MW electric will be produced at the first stage in 2019. A total of 100 MW resources were estimated. Other places of geothermal potentials are Lauke and Tawen both located in Ambon Island with the potentials of 25 MW respectively. In Oma Haruku, Saparua and Nusa Laut the geothermal potentials were estimated to be 25 MW each. The total amount of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is thus, 225 MW which will contribute significantly to the needs of projected 184 MW in the year 2025.

  15. Spatial distribution of cancer in Kohgilooyeh and Boyerahmad province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fararouei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution of cancer is one of the powerful tools in epidemiology of cancer. The present study is designed to understand the geographical distribution of most frequent types of cancer in K&B province. Methods: All registered cases of cancer are reviewed and duplicate cases were removed. The data was analyzed using Arcgis software. Results: Of all registered cases, 1273  remained for analysis of which 57% were residences of urban areas. Cities including  Sisakht, Yasuj and Dehdsasht were shown to have highest incidence rates among the Urban areas. Dena, Sepidar and Kohmare Khaleghi had the highest rates among the rural areas in the province. Skin cancer was the most common type of cancer which had the highest rates of incidence in Sisakht and Dehdasht and Dena and Sepidar among urban and rural areas respectively. Conclusion: The distribution of cancer was not even in the province. Attitude and consumption of wild and regional plants are introduced as the potential risk factors for such a spatial distribution of the common cancers I the province. The results of this study could be used for further analytical studies to understand the regional etiology of cancer in the province.

  16. Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in An Giang Province, Vietnam

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    Nguyen Thanh Long

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at sustainably developing rural tourism in An Giang Province, an agricultural province located in the South of Vietnam, by identifying the determinants of the satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From exploratory interviews with experts and comprehensive group discussions, we developed a questionnaire for an official survey of 507 tourists at different tour-sites in An Giang Province. It is found that: (1 there are seven key factors affecting the satisfaction of the tourists, including: spirituality, tourism safety and security, people, food and beverage, natural environment, service prices and tourism infrastructure; and (2 revisit intention of tourists is affected by six factors, including: satisfaction, spirituality, tourism safety and security, people, food and beverage and service prices. Among them, spirituality is a new factor to be thoughtfully considered due to its significant influence on both the tourist satisfaction and revisit intention. From these findings, we proposed some managerial implications for the sustainable development of rural tourism in An Giang Province by enhancing the satisfaction and revisit intention of the tourists after they visit the province.

  17. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  18. Central Ukraine Uranium Province: The genetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emetz, A.; Cuney, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ukraine produces ~1,100 t U per year from the Michurinske, Centralne, Novokostantynivske and Vatutinske U deposits in the Kirovograd U district of the Central Ukraine Uranium Province (CUUP) consisting of about 20 deposits and numerous showings related to ~1.8 Ga sodium metasomatites developed in the Lower Paleoproterozoic granite-gneiss and iron formations of the Ingul Megablock of the Ukrainian Shield. Two deposits (the Zhovta Richka and Pervomayske) were mined out tens kilometers eastward in iron formations of the Kryvy Rig – Kremenchug mining district. Nametasomatite fields with scarce sub-economical U-mineralization were revealed by geophysical (magnetometry and gravimetry) and drilling programs northward in granitised gneisses around the younger Korsun-Novomyrgorod rapakivi pluton consisting of A2-type within plate granitoids which were emplaced during decompression melting at ~1.75 Ga. The present work aims to demonstrate structural and geochemical factors related to Na-metasomatism, and to mark out geochemical and tectonical parameters which were favorable for U-accumulation using data on deep seismic survey, geological structure analysis, and mineralogical and geochemical investigations of metasomatites. In the Ingul Megablock, Na-metasomatites occur along shear fault zones mostly oriented N-S. Metasomatites form complicate systems of plate- and lens-like bodies of aegirine-riebeckite albitites surrounded by dequartzified host rocks. Elemental alteration during Na-metasomatism demonstrates simple exchange of Si, K, Rb, Ba and Cs by Na, Ca, and locally V and U. δ 18 O H 2 O (300-400ºC) for albitizing hydrothermal solutions is near “zero”, typically for surficial water. These data suggest host rock interaction with hot marine waters. Persistent Na-metasomatic alterations extend along major tectonic faults for several kilometres with variable thicknesses reaching some hundreds meters in the zones of intense brecciation developed in the places of fault

  19. Some Environmental Consequences of Large Igneous Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, M. F.

    2009-12-01

    The formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs)—continental flood basalts, ‘volcanic’ margins, and oceanic plateaus—may impact the atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere by rapidly releasing huge amounts of particulates, magmatic volatiles (CO2, SO2, Cl, F, etc.), and potentially volatiles (CO2, CH4, SO2, etc.) from intruded sediments (e.g., carbonates, organic-rich shales, evaporites). A key factor affecting the magnitude of volatile release is whether eruptions are subaerial or marine; hydrostatic pressure inhibits vesiculation and degassing of relatively soluble volatile components (H2O, S, Cl, F) in deep water submarine eruptions, although low solubility components (CO2, noble gases) are mostly degassed even at abyssal depths. Directly or indirectly, such injections may cause changes in the atmosphere/ocean system that can lead to perturbations of atmosphere/ocean chemistry, circulation, ecology, and biological productivity. These changes can be global in extent, particularly if environmental conditions were at or near a threshold state or tipping point. LIPs may have been responsible for some of the most dramatic and rapid changes in the global environment. For example, between ~145 and ~50 Ma, the global ocean was characterized by chemical and isotopic variations (especially in C and Sr isotope ratios, trace metal concentrations, and biocalcification), relatively high temperatures, high relative sea level, episodic deposition of black shales (oceanic anoxic events), high production of hydrocarbons, mass extinctions of marine organisms, and radiations of marine flora and fauna. Temporal correlations between the intense pulses of igneous activity associated with LIP formation and environmental changes suggest more than pure coincidence. The 1783-84 eruption of Laki on Iceland provides the only historical record of the type of volcanism that constructs transient LIPs. Although Laki produced a basaltic lava flow representing only ~1% of the volume of a typical

  20. The Emeishan large igneous province: A synthesis

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    J. Gregory Shellnutt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The late Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP covers ∼0.3 × 106 km2 of the western margin of the Yangtze Block and Tibetan Plateau with displaced, correlative units in northern Vietnam (Song Da zone. The ELIP is of particular interest because it contains numerous world-class base metal deposits and is contemporaneous with the late Capitanian (∼260 Ma mass extinction. The flood basalts are the signature feature of the ELIP but there are also ultramafic and silicic volcanic rocks and layered mafic-ultramafic and silicic plutonic rocks exposed. The ELIP is divided into three nearly concentric zones (i.e. inner, middle and outer which correspond to progressively thicker crust from the inner to the outer zone. The eruptive age of the ELIP is constrained by geological, paleomagnetic and geochronological evidence to an interval of ≤3 Ma. The presence of picritic rocks and thick piles of flood basalts testifies to high temperature thermal regime however there is uncertainty as to whether these magmas were derived from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle or sub-lithospheric mantle (i.e. asthenosphere or mantle plume sources or both. The range of Sr (ISr ≈ 0.7040–0.7132, Nd (ɛNd(t ≈ −14 to +8, Pb (206Pb/204Pb1 ≈ 17.9–20.6 and Os (γOs ≈ −5 to +11 isotope values of the ultramafic and mafic rocks does not permit a conclusive answer to ultimate source origin of the primitive rocks but it is clear that some rocks were affected by crustal contamination and the presence of near-depleted isotope compositions suggests that there is a sub-lithospheric mantle component in the system. The silicic rocks are derived by basaltic magmas/rocks through fractional crystallization or partial melting, crustal melting or by interactions between mafic and crustal melts. The formation of the Fe-Ti-V oxide-ore deposits is probably due to a combination of fractional crystallization of Ti-rich basalt and fluxing of CO2-rich fluids

  1. Reference dose levels for dental periapical radiography in Chonnam Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Jae Seo; Kim, Young Hee

    2009-01-01

    To establish reference doses of periapical radiography in Chonnam Province, Korea. The target-skin distances were measured for dental patient's 1235 exposures including 345 mandibular molar areas. Each periapical radiation exposure was simulated with exactly the same patients exposure parameters and the simulated radiation doses were measured utilizing Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billadal, Sweden). The measurements were done in 44 dental clinics with 49 dental x-ray sets in Chonnam Province for one or two weeks at each dental clinic during year 2006. The third quartile patient surface doses were 2.8 mGy for overall periapical exposures and 3.2 mGy for periapical mandibular molar exposures. The third quartile patient surface doses in Chonnam Province can be used as a guide to accepted clinical practice to reduce patient radiation exposure for the surveyed reference doses were below the recommended dental periapical radiography dose of 7 mGy by IAEA.

  2. Location Selection for Hardboard Industry in Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Azizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an optimum framework for hardboard industry location selection in Mazandaran Province. Considering the existence of only two depreciated hardboard plants with very old technology in Iran, the establishment of new plants are vital. To materialize this goal, Mazandaran province enjoys priorities to other provinces based on its resources of raw lignocellulosic materials required for wood and paper industries. The model presented in this article uses AHP benefit/cost ratios. The results indicate that the criterion of ‘material and production’ with a weight of 0.327 and the sub-criterion of ‘reliability of supply’ with a weight of 0.146 have the highest priorities, and the city of Sari is the best alternative.

  3. Reference dose levels for dental periapical radiography in Chonnam Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Seo [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonnan National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hee [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To establish reference doses of periapical radiography in Chonnam Province, Korea. The target-skin distances were measured for dental patient's 1235 exposures including 345 mandibular molar areas. Each periapical radiation exposure was simulated with exactly the same patients exposure parameters and the simulated radiation doses were measured utilizing Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billadal, Sweden). The measurements were done in 44 dental clinics with 49 dental x-ray sets in Chonnam Province for one or two weeks at each dental clinic during year 2006. The third quartile patient surface doses were 2.8 mGy for overall periapical exposures and 3.2 mGy for periapical mandibular molar exposures. The third quartile patient surface doses in Chonnam Province can be used as a guide to accepted clinical practice to reduce patient radiation exposure for the surveyed reference doses were below the recommended dental periapical radiography dose of 7 mGy by IAEA.

  4. The Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera of the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces.

  5. Feasibility analysis of nuclear power development in Sichuan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Qi; Li Jie

    2003-01-01

    Sichuan province should take this opportunity to develop nuclear power actively since the application of nuclear power has been enhanced worldwide. It is accepted that nuclear power is one kind of safe and clean energy, and the economic has been improved greatly. Considering the electricity demands and structure conflict in near 20 years, nuclear power could solve the problem of electricity shortness in Sichuan, optimize the electricity structure and meliorate the environment, and thus maintain the sustainable development of the economy in Sichuan Province

  6. Note on Cladonia species (lichenized Ascomycota from Ardahan province (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Osyczka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report on Cladonia species from Ardahan, a north-eastern province of Turkey. A circumpolar boreal-low arctic species, Cladonia acuminata, rarely reported from Asia, and the recently described Cladonia monomorpha are reported as new for Turkey. Their detailed descriptions and taxonomical remarks are provided. Localities of other ascertained Cladonia species in the province supplement the knowledge of their distribution patterns in the country. In addition, the typically corticolous/lignicolous species Vulpicida pinastri is mentioned as also growing on primary squamules and podetia of C. pyxidata.

  7. The Analysis on Leading industries in Central Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyani Irmawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is for identifying the types of industriesthat become leading industries in Central Java Province. The methods, used are LQ (SLQ and DLQ and Shift Share. The result of this research shows that the the leading industries in Central Java Province are beverage industry, tobacco processing industry, textile industry, apparel industry, wood industry, printing industry, furniture industry and other processing industries.In the future, the development of the industry should not only focus on the leading industries  but also onnon-leading industries, so that the non leading industries will not be left behind.

  8. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.

    1978-01-01

    Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years...... basalt series. No whole-rock coherence is observed between Li and Mg, K, Rb or Ca. Mantle phlogopite is considered to play an insignificant rôle in controlling the Li levels of NE Atlantic basalts....

  9. Establishment and Operation of Crop Genebank in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong WANG; Yingjie LIN; Xiaodong ZHANG; Runfang LI; Shihua LIU; Cun'e WANG; Lingyun LU; Nana LI; Hanfeng DING; Xiaomu WANG; Xiaohong GU

    2017-01-01

    Shandong Province has abundant and diverse crop germplasm resources, but it is in lack of unified and effective preservation and management, leading to the decline and even extinction of many rare germplasm resources. In this study, the necessity for the establishment of crop genebank in Shandong Province was briefly described. In addition, the type, functions and technical indicators, as well as the operation of the crop genebank were introduced comprehensively to provide a reference for the establishment of genebank by other units or organizations.

  10. RTG resource book for western states and provinces: Final proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  11. Social Skills and Their Relationship to Drug Use Among 15-16-Year-Old Students in Estonia: An Analysis Based on the ESPAD Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobjov Sigrid

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM – to investigate the relationship between levels of social skills and drug use among 15–16-year-old students in Estonia. METHODS – A total of 2,460 Estonian schoolchildren, born in 1995, participated in the ESPAD study in 2011. Individual social skills levels were measured with questions on prosocial and antisocial behaviours assessing how children perform within their social milieu. The relationship between social skills levels and drug use was estimated using chi-squared tests and logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR were adjusted for gender, parents’ education and financial well-being, and 95% confidence intervals (CI were used to estimate risks of drug use by social skills level. RESULTS – Students with lower social skills were at greater risk of starting smoking and smoking daily (50% risk increase. Students with low social skills had a higher risk of lifetime use of cannabis (OR=1.4; 95%CI 1.1–1.9, sedatives/tranquillisers without a prescription (OR=2.3; 1.4–3.9, and inhalants (OR=1.9; 1.2–3.0. The number of students with lower social skills was significantly higher among boys than girls: 35% vs 19%. CONCLUSIONS – Students’ social skill levels were related to their licit and illicit drug use. A low level of social skills can increase adolescents’ vulnerability to drug use. As boys’ social skills levels appeared much lower and their drug use higher than that of girls, we suggest that gender-related risk prevention programmes of social skills training could be beneficial in preventing drug use.

  12. Where does the border lie: locally grown plants used for making tea for recreation and/or healing, 1970s-1990s Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-10-28

    Traditional use of local wild and cultivated plants for making recreational tea in Estonia often borders with the medicinal use of the same plants. The aim of this paper is to map the perceptions of plants used for making tea and to define the domains of recreational and medicinal teas in specific cultural settings. Between November 2011 and March 2012 the authors distributed electronic questionnaires on the use of wild food plants in childhood. The questionnaire was answered by 250 respondents. 178 of them reported the use of plants for making recreational teas. The responses were analysed according to the taxonomy of the used plants, the most frequently used taxa and families were detected, the influence of respondents' demographic data on the number of use reports was assessed and the overlapping of medicinal and recreational uses was discussed. The study detected 69 vascular plant species, ten vascular taxa identified on the genera level only, and one lichen. The most popular families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiacea, and 12 taxa were used by at least 10% of the respondents, while only one of them (Tilia) was used by more than 50% and one (Rubus idaeus) by over 33% of the respondents. The next ten most used taxa were: Rosa, Mentha, Primula veris, Matricaria, Achillea millefolium, Hypericum, Carum carvi, Urtica dioica, Thymus serpyllum and Fragaria. Of the 30 most used consolidated taxa mentioned in five or more use records, only four were used exclusively in one domain. The majority of the used plants were situated on the recreational-medicinal continuum, which could be divided into two domains: recreational, medicinal and the "grey" area that lies around the borderline. The predominance of the cold and cold-related diseases on the spectrum treated by plants used for making recreational tea reflects the climatic conditions of the region and suggests that they are the most commonly self-treated diseases in the region, seen from the child's perspective.

  13. Delivery Terms in Transport Process of Export Trade and their Effect on the Risk of Discrepancy in Documentary Letters of Credit; Evidence from Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Alavi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Documentary letters of credit (DLCs are method of payment developed to facilitate the process of international trade by replacing the payment risk of importer with irrevocable payment guarantee of a bank to exporter. Instead, the exporter is supposed to present fully compliant set of documents required by the credit. Documentary nature of DLCs make them vulnerable to the risk of discrepancy. This risk is will affect exporter’s business as he is the one who should absorb it. Therefore, it will be recommended to exporters to negotiate the minimum number of required documents while closing the underlying contract of sales with importer. Since different delivery terms (INCOTERMS require presentation of different documents, this paper studies the correlation between using different terms of delivery with existence of discrepancy in export DLCs in Estonia. For this purpose, author takes empirical approach to answer following research questions: what is the relation between documentary discrepancy and choice of delivery terms and third party documents? and what is the correlation between above mentioned factors and documentary discrepancy in process of DLC operation in Estonian export landscape? The paper is divided into four parts: after the introductory section, the literature review will briefly analyses process of international DLC operation and latest version of INCOTERMS plus their role as delivery terms in international trade. Next section will discuss methodology and results of empirical study done on choice of delivery terms and third party produced documents on discrepancy rate in DLC operation in Estonian export trade. Last but not the least, final section will provide conclusions of the study.

  14. Determinants of Elongation of the Labia Minora in Tete Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    au hasard pour participer. Cette étude est la première étude sur les femmes dans la province de Tete, Mozambique qui a été basée ... sex, or as a symbol of cultural identity. The population-level ... component informed the development of the.

  15. Radon concentrations in well water in Sichuan Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yibin; Wu Qun; Zhang Bo; Chen Daifu

    1998-01-01

    There are 110 million people in Sichuan Province, China. Although most of the people in cities of Sichuan use river water, which contains low levels of radon, as potable water, people in countryside and in some communities of big cities still use well water as domestic consumption. This paper reports the radon concentrations in well water investigated in four cities, i.e. Chengdu, Chongqing, Leshan and Leijiang in Sichuan Province. Of the 80 wells investigated, the radon concentrations range from 3.5 to 181.6 KBqm -3 . Of the four cities, Chongqing has the highest well water radon concentration with the average 49.6 ± 54.1 KBqm -3 and the greatest variation. The investigation in four cities showed that the radon concentrations in well water are much higher than that in tap-water. In Chongqing where there are complex geological structures, mainly granite stratum, for example, the average radon concentration in well water is 112 times higher than that in the tap-water, and even much higher than that in river water in Yangtse River, Jialing River, Jinsha River and Mingjiang River. The population in four cities is about one sixth of the total population in Sichuan Province. Because of the common use of well water and the high radon concentrations in well water in Sichuan Province, the health effect of radon in well water to the public should be stressed. (author)

  16. Child Maltreatment among School Children in the Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…

  17. Life Interference Due to Gambling in Three Canadian Provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Sareen, Jitender; Taillieu, Tamara; Turner, Sarah; Fortier, Janique

    2018-03-28

    The gambling landscape among provinces in Canada is diverse. Yet, few studies have investigated provincial differences related to life interference due to gambling. The objectives of the current study were to examine: (1) provincial differences with regard to gambling types and (2) if gender, family history of gambling, and alcohol or drug use while gambling were related to an increased likelihood of life interference in three Canadian provinces. Data were drawn from the 2013 and 2014 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey from Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia (n = 30,150). Analyses were conducted stratified by provinces and also combined using logistic regression models. Provincial differences were noted with individuals from British Columbia compared to Manitoba being less likely to play VLTs outside of casinos, play live horse racing at a track or off track, and participate in sports gambling. Those in Saskatchewan compared to Manitoba were more likely to play VLTs inside a casino. When examining all provinces combined, family history of gambling was associated with increased odds of life interference. Gender was not associated with life interference. Provincial differences were noted, which may be in part related to differences in gambling landscapes. Family history of gambling may have clinical relevance for understanding which individuals may be more likely to experience life interference due to gambling. Further research is needed to clarify the link between alcohol and drug use while gambling and life interference due to gambling as the models in the current research were likely underpowered.

  18. Strategic planning for Halal tourism development in Gilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam KamalZade Gilani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism as a necessity for economic development in many countries, therefore, in this study we intended to investigate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Halal tourism in Gilan province, by using SWOT model to introduce strategic solutions to further developments. This study is practical based on questionnaire in terms of practical objectives, in terms of data collection. The population of this study was 25 tourism experts, which according to Morgan table, 24 people were selected as sample size.To identify relationships and priority setting criteria , at first internal and external factors were identified and then multi-criteria decision-making models and AHP model was used. After that by using internal factors evaluation matrix (IFE and external (EFE final weight determined and at the end the model was design and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats were analyzed .The result of SWOT analysis in this research indicates that strategies for Gilan provinces according its environmental strengths and opportunities should be offensive strategy. Surveys show that due to the diversity of tourist attractions and geographical location of Gilan province, this province has the necessary capabilities to develop Halal tourism

  19. Hepatitis B virus Genotypes in West Azarbayjan Province, Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Khadem Ansari

    2017-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal that D genotype is the main genotype of HBV in West Azarbayjan province. Presence of this genotype conformed with the low rate of acute liver diseases caused by hepatitis B chronic infection, cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  20. Focus on 14 sewage treatment plants in the Mpumalanga Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify the treatment methods used in different sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the Mpumalanga Province and to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment by these plants, municipal STPs were surveyed, and raw and treated wastewater samples collected. A total of 14 STPs were visited and the ...