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Sample records for province ne china

  1. Late Pleistocene to Holocene soil development and environments in the Long Gang Volcanic Field area, Jilin Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Zhang, Xinrong; Knöbel, Jette; Maerker, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Late Pleistocene to Holocene shifts of climate and vegetation in the Long Gang Volcanic Field in NE China have been reconstructed, e. g. by Steblich et al. (2009), based on Maar lake sediment cores. In this study, we investigated soil development during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene and linked it to the climate and vegetation reported in the literature. Three pedons were described and analyzed on a crater wall surrounding a maar. The lower part of the slope is covered by basic pyroclastics that are obviously younger than the maar itself. Pedon 1 is located on the upper slope, where the younger pyroclastics are not present; thus it developed over the entire Holocene and part of the Late Pleistocene. Pedon 2 is on the toe slope and developed from the young basic pyroclastics. Vegetation remains, charred by fire that was caused by the volcanic ash fall, were found in the lowermost part of the pyroclastics layer, on top of a paleosol. Charcoal fragments were dated to 18950-18830 cal BP (using INTCAL 09). Thus, pedon 2 developed since around 18.9 ka BP, whereas the development of the paleosol that was buried under the pyroclastics (pedon 3), was stopped at this time. Pedons 1 and 2 are Vitric Andosols, developed mainly from basic pyroclastics, as evidenced by the composition of rock fragments in the soils, comprising 78 / 81 mass % lapilli and 22 / 19 mass % gneiss fragments, respectively. Pedon 3 is a Cutanic Luvisol (Chromic) that developed entirely from gneiss fragments produced by the maar explosion. Lab data suggest increasing intensity of pedogenesis in the direction: Pedon 3 (paleosol) climate than the two yellowish-brown surface soils. Since the morphology of the paleosol clearly reflects interglacial climatic conditions and forest cover, it most likely started developing during the Eemian. Steblich et al. (2009) reconstructed for the period 16.7-14.45 ka BP steppe with Betula (and minor proportions of Larix, Alnus, Picea and Salix). We assume a similar

  2. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.

    1978-01-01

    Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years...... basalt series. No whole-rock coherence is observed between Li and Mg, K, Rb or Ca. Mantle phlogopite is considered to play an insignificant rôle in controlling the Li levels of NE Atlantic basalts....

  3. Aves, province of Guizhou, China.

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    Chen, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our inventories of birds observed and collected at three field sites from the province of Guizhou,southeastern China. Our findings detailed herein complement our previous ornithological surveys from Guangxiprovince, as part of a comprehensive biotic survey of the region. Of 153 total bird species recorded, 17 were new for theprovince, among which several taxa of conservational importance, such as: Golden Pheasant Crysolophus pictus,Tawny Fish-Owl Ketupa flavipes, Black-breasted Thrush Turdus dissimilis, Fujian Flycatcher Niltava davidii, RedtailedLaughingthrush Garrulax milnei, and Slaty Bunting Latoucheornis siemsseni. These records provide the mostrecent insight into the current status of the habitats and the avian biodiversity of an important, yet sparsely surveyed andreported biogeographic region.

  4. U-Pb ages of zircons from Mesozoic intrusive rocks in the Yanbian area, Jilin Province, NE China: Transition of the Paleo-Asian oceanic regime to the circum-Pacific tectonic regime

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    Yang, Dong-Guang; Sun, De-You; Gou, Jun; Hou, Xue-Gang

    2017-08-01

    Geology in the Yanbian area, NE China, is a key to understanding the relationship between the Paleo-Pacific tectonic regime and the older Paleo-Asian oceanic regime, especially the transition between the regimes during the Mesozoic. A compilation of 131 U-Pb zircon ages, including 18 obtained in the present study, shows that the late Paleozoic to Mesozoic magmatism in the Yanbian area took place from 285 to 105 Ma (mainly 205-160 Ma) and that there was a peak of activity at ∼175 Ma and a hiatus from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (150-130 Ma). Provisionally, we subdivide the magmatic activity into four dominant stages: Middle Permian to Middle Triassic (280-240 Ma), Late Triassic (230-205 Ma), Early to Middle Jurassic (205-160 Ma) and Early Cretaceous (130-105 Ma). Middle Permian intrusive rocks, including pyroxenite, gabbro, diorite, granodiorite, tonalite and monzogranite, are interpreted to have been emplaced along an Andean-style continental margin in association with the subduction of the Paleo-Asian oceanic plate. The Late Permian-Middle Triassic intrusive rocks are mainly quartz monzonite, monzogranite and syenogranite, and are considered to have been the result of syn-orogenic/post-collisional activities. The Late Triassic magmatism involved not only the emplacement of mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks, but also coeval I- and A-type granitoids, indicating an extensional environment after the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Since the Jurassic, the tectonic setting has been dominated by subduction of the Paleo-Pacific oceanic plate. Previously published data for the Yanbian area and age data from surrounding regions show that the entire region from the Yanbian area to the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese Islands experienced peaks in igneous activities that ranged from 200 to 165 Ma during the Jurassic, and 120 to 110 Ma and 90 to 65 Ma during the Cretaceous. The Jurassic intrusive rocks were emplaced mainly in the west and Cretaceous

  5. Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China). China has the largest internal migrant population in the world, and women account for nearly half of it. Fujian province has been a traditional source of large numbers of Chinese migrants to Southeast Asia and the United States. Now, with the burgeoning economies of southeast ...

  6. Human rabies in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiangping; Gong, Zhenyu; Chen, Enfu; Lin, Junfen; Lv, Huakun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Shelan; Sun, Jimin

    2015-09-01

    To explore the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in Zhejiang Province, China. Descriptive and statistical analyses were performed using data collected through interview with human rabies cases or their relatives during 2007 to 2014. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect the data. Two hundred and one cases of human rabies were diagnosed in Zhejiang Province between 2007 and 2014, with a gradually declining annual incidence. Of the rabies cases identified, 61.2% were aged 40-65 years, and the male to female ratio was 2.30:1; 63.7% of cases occurred in the summer and autumn. The two most reported occupations were farmer (69.2%) and rural laborer (15.4%). Wenzhou, Jinhua, and Huzhou were the three cities with the most reported cases. The majority of cases (92.8%) were attributed to canines, and 71.0% of animal vectors were household animals. Less than half of the cases (41.4%) sought wound treatment after exposure. Post-exposure passive immunization was given to 9.7% and active immunization to 2.3%. Cases with a wound on the head/face only had a significantly shorter incubation than those with wounds at other sites (prabies cases occurred among 40-65-year-old male residents of northern, mid-west, and southeast Zhejiang Province. Further health education is needed to increase the coverage of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in people exposed to possible rabid animals and rabies vaccine use in household animals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. A specialized new species of Ashicaulis (Osmundaceae, Filicales) from the Jurassic of Liaoning, NE China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ning; Wang, Yong-Dong; Philippe, Marc; Zhang, Wu; Jiang, Zi-Kun; Li, Li-Qin

    2014-03-01

    A new species of structurally preserved fern rhizome, Ashicaulis plumites (Osmundaceae, Filicales), is described from the Middle Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation in western Liaoning Province, NE China. The new species is characterized by a peculiar sclerenchyma mass in the petiolar vascular bundle concavity. This sclerenchyma mass varies from a linear-shape to a mushroom-like shape with a remarkable outward protuberance, which distinguishes the present new species from other Ashicaulis species. Such a protuberance is very rare among osmundaceous ferns, and should represent a unique type for sclerenchymatous tissue in the osmundaceous vascular bundle concavity. Recognition of the peculiar structure of this new fossil species enriches anatomical diversity of permineralized osmundaceous ferns, indicating that the family Osmundaceae might have experienced a remarkable diversification during the Middle Jurassic in NE China. The new species show anatomical similarities to Osmunda pluma Miller from the Palaeocene of North America. The occurrence of A. plumites in the Middle Jurassic of China provides a new clue for understanding the evolution of some members of the living subgenus Osmunda.

  8. Dynamic Ecological Footprint in Jiangxi Province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Jinqiao

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the related research progress of ecological footprint theory. According to the data of Jiangxi Province from 1995 to 2004, this paper measures the per capita ecological footprint and supply in recent 10 years. Result shows that ecological deficit of Jiangxi Province of China is relatively low, but is increasing gradually.

  9. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    OpenAIRE

    Xuchao Yang; Wenze Yue; Honghui Xu; Jingsheng Wu; Yue He

    2014-01-01

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With ra...

  10. Women in Educational Management in China: Experience in Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marianne; Haiyan, Qiang; Yanping, Li

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the role of women in educational management in China using case studies on urban and rural schools in the Shaanxi province. Finds that in the majority of the case-study schools men outnumbered women in senior management positions. Addresses the reasons for this inequality and the perception of women as managers. (CMK)

  11. Remediation of Legacy Arsenic Mining Areas in Yunnan Province, China

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    Ian H. von Lindern

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The success of the demonstration project was recognized and has provided direction and momentum for a wider effort by the Province to address mining pollution and water contamination challenges. It demonstrates the success of using known techniques for environmental remediation in the US, with local partners in China responding to their communities’ health and environmental problems.

  12. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 6. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: Constrains from rare earth element, fluid inclusion geochemistry and geochronology. Zhixin Huang Wanming Yuan Changming Wang Xiangwei Liu Xiaotong Xu Liya Yang. Volume ...

  13. Human rabies in Zhejiang Province, China

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    Jiangping Ren

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The majority of rabies cases occurred among 40–65-year-old male residents of northern, mid-west, and southeast Zhejiang Province. Further health education is needed to increase the coverage of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP in people exposed to possible rabid animals and rabies vaccine use in household animals.

  14. Epidemiological analysis of injury in Shandong Province, China

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    Zhang Jiyu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injury is an emerging public health problem with social development and modernization in developing countries. To describe the prevalence and burden of injury and provide elaborate information for policy development, we conducted a community-based household survey in the Shandong Province of China. Methods The survey was conducted in 2004. Participants were selected by a multi-stage random sampling method. Information on injuries occurring in 2003 was collected in four cities and six rural counties in Shandong Province, China. Results The estimated incidence rate of injury in Shandong Province was 67.7 per 1,000. Injury incidence was higher in rural areas (84.3 per 1,000 than in urban areas (42.9 per 1,000, and was higher among males (81.1 per 1,000 than females (54.1 per 1,000. The average years of potential life lost is 37.7 years for each fatal injury. All injuries together caused 6,080,407 RMB yuan of direct and indirect economic loss, with traffic injuries accounting for 44.8% of the total economic loss. Conclusion Injury incidence was higher among males than females, and in rural areas than in urban areas. Youngsters suffered the highest incidence of injury. Injury also caused large losses in terms of both economics and life, with traffic injuries contributing the most to this loss. Strategies for prevention of injury should be developed.

  15. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-02-21

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally.

  16. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and prepa...

  17. Migration and Remittances: Evidence from a Poor Province in China(.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zai; Li, Jiejin; Ma, Zhongdong

    This paper examines patterns of remittances among migrants from Guizhou province of China. Our research is motivated by three lines of theoretical arguments, namely the new economics of migration, a translocal perspective linking remittances and development, and the culture of remittances. Taking individual, household, and village-level characteristics into account, we estimated multilevel logistic models of the decision to remit and multilevel models of the amount of remittances. Our results show that migrant remittance behaviour is responsive to family needs as well as household economic position in the village.. Migrants who come from entrepreneurial households are more likely to remit a large amount than other types of households. We find some evidence of "culture of remittances" in these villages. Consistent with our expectations, migrants who are from villages with higher amount of average remittances are likely to remit a larger amount than otherwise.

  18. Profiling elements in Puerh tea from Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyang; Ma, Guicen; Chen, Liyan; Liu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-09-01

    Puerh tea, as the most representative Chinese dark tea, has attracted global interest in recent years. Profiling the levels of metal elements in Puerh tea is very important since its presence is related to human health. In this study, 41 elements in 98 Puerh tea samples from Yunnan province, China including Puerh raw tea and Puerh ripe tea were evaluated by microwave digestion combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry . The content of toxic elements, essential elements and rare earth elements of Puerh tea from different regions was discussed in detail. The concentrations of Ba, Cr, As, Pb, Bi, Fe, Zn, V, Mn, Be, Ag and Tl showed significant differences (p tea from different regions. This study provided a comprehensive database for Puerh tea quality control and intake risk assessment.

  19. Petrography of the Shuitian bitumen deposit, Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, Geng; Parnell, John

    Solid bitumen vein deposits were mined until recently in Shuitian, Hunan Province, China. The Shuitian bitumen veins occur in Lower Cambrian black siltstones beneath the pre-Cretaceous unconformity. The H/C ratio of the bitumen is very low, suggesting that the bitumen is very mature and can be classified as impsonite. The carbon in both the bitumen and the host rock is completely aromatic. The minerals associated with the bitumen are quartz, calcite, pyrite and barite. Two kinds of vanadium-bearing mineral inclusions, montroseite and roscoelite, occur within the bitumen. It can be deduced that the vein must have formed within the interval from Caledonian Orogeny to Cretaceous sedimentation, although there is not enough evidence to indicate the exact timing of the vein formation.

  20. Migration, fertility, and state policy in Hubei Province, China.

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    Goldstein, A; White, M; Goldstein, S

    1997-11-01

    Despite China's one-child family planning policy, the nation experienced a slight rise in the birth rate in the mid-1980s. Many observers attributed this rise to the heightened fertility of those rural-to-urban migrants who moved without a change in registration (temporary migrants), presumably to avoid the surveillance of family planning programs at origin and destination. Using a sequential logit analysis with life-history data from a 1988 survey of Hubei Province, we test this possibility by comparing nonmigrants, permanent migrants, and temporary migrants. While changing family planning policies have a strong impact on timing of first birth and on the likelihood of higher-order births, migrants generally do not have more children than nonmigrants. In fact, migration tends to lower the propensity to have a child. More specifically, the fertility of temporary migrants does not differ significantly from that of other women.

  1. Trachoma rapid assessment in Shandong province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yi; Bi, Hongsheng; Wen, Ying; Li, Chaofeng; Wu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This research aims at identifying relative interventions on trachoma and testing the effectiveness of control measures adopted by assessing its prevalence and related risk factors in Shandong province of China. Trachoma rapid assessment (TRA) was conducted in 6 sub-districts selected from Shandong province based on primary high risk assessment. Active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years and environmental risk factors of trachoma (unclean faces, absence of running water, and absence of flush toilets) were assessed (TRA 1). Control measures were taken in endemic areas. A second TRA (TRA 2) was conducted after 12 months in the same 6 districts and findings of the two TRAs were compared. In TRA 1, we found trachoma in 3 sub-districts and the detection rate was 4% (95% CI: 0.39%-11.12%), 6% (95% CI: 1.18%-14.17%), and 6% (95% CI: 1.18%-14.17%) respectively. We could not find trachoma cases in TRA 2. Research data supports that children living with environmental risk factors face an increased risk to active trachoma. However, we could not find statistical evidence for this association, which may be caused by the limited data on prevalence. This research indicates that the TRA methodology is easy to assess trachoma and its related risk factors. Based on the results of this study, we have already achieved the goal of "elimination of trachoma" in Shandong province, as the detection rate of trachomatous inflamation follicular/trachomatous inflammation intense in 1-9-year-old children was less than 5%.

  2. Air pollution characteristics and health risks in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fuzhen; Ge, Xinlei; Hu, Jianlin; Nie, Dongyang; Tian, Li; Chen, Mindong

    2017-07-01

    Events of severe air pollution occurred frequently in China recently, thus understanding of the air pollution characteristics and its health risks is very important. In this work, we analyzed a two-year dataset (March 2014 - February 2016) including daily concentrations of six criteria pollutants (PM 2.5 , PM 10 , CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 ) from 18 cities in Henan province. Results reveal the serious air pollution status in Henan province, especially the northern part, and Zhengzhou is the city with the worst air quality. Annual average PM 2.5 concentrations exceed the second grade of Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard (75μg/m 3 ) at both 2014 and 2015. PM 2.5 is typically the major pollutant, but ozone pollution can be significant during summer. Furthermore, as the commonly used air quality index (AQI) neglects the mutual health effects from multiple pollutants, we introduced the aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI) to evaluate the health risks. Results show that based on HAQI, the current AQI system likely significantly underestimate the health risks of air pollution, highlighting that the general public may need stricter health protection measures. The population-weighted two-year average HAQI data further demonstrates that all population in the studied cities in Henan province live with polluted air - 72% of the population is exposed to air that is unhealthy for sensitive people, while 28% of people is exposed to air that can be harmful to healthy people; and the health risks are much greater during winter than during other seasons. Future works should further improve the HAQI algorithm, and validate the links between the clinical/epidemiologic data and the HAQI values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal and child health in Yushu, Qinghai Province, China

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    Tsering Ojen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Surmang, Qinghai Province is a rural nomadic Tibetan region in western China recently devastated by the 2010 Yushu earthquake; little information is available on access and coverage of maternal and child health services. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in August 2004. 402 women of reproductive age (15-50 were interviewed regarding their pregnancy history, access to and utilization of health care, and infant and child health care practices. Results Women's access to education was low at 15% for any formal schooling; adult female literacy was Conclusions While China is on track to achieve national Millennium Development Goal targets for maternal and child health, women and children in Surmang suffer from substantial health inequities in access to antenatal, skilled birth and postpartum care. Institutional delivery, skilled attendance and cesarean delivery are virtually inaccessible, and consequently maternal and infant morbidity and mortality are likely high. Urgent action is needed to improve access to maternal, neonatal and child health care in these marginalized populations. The reconstruction after the recent earthquake provides a unique opportunity to link this population with the health system.

  4. Gendered Responses to Drought in Yunnan Province, China

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    Yufang Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to and perceptions of climate change may be significantly affected by gender. However, in China, gender is rarely addressed in climate adaption or resource management strategies. This paper demonstrates the relevance of gender in responses to climate change in the mountainous province of Yunnan in southwest China. Based on surveys undertaken during a record-breaking drought, the paper explores how women and men in a village in Baoshan Prefecture differ in their perceptions of and responses to drought, and how the changing roles of women and men in the home and the community are influencing water management at the village level. Our results show that despite the increasingly active role of women in managing water during the drought, they are excluded from community-level decision-making about water. The paper argues that given the importance of gender differences in perceptions of and responses to drought, the lack of a gender perspective in Chinese policy may undermine efforts to support local resource management and climate adaptation.

  5. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

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    Xuchao Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China. Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  6. Environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in zhejiang province, East china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-07-11

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  7. Meso- and Micro-scale Modelling in China: Wind atlas analysis for 12 meteorological stations in NE China (Dongbei)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Yang, Z.; Hansen, Jens Carsten

    As part of the “Meso-Scale and Micro-Scale Modelling in China” project, also known as the CMA component of the Sino-Danish Wind Energy Development Programme (WED), microscale modelling and analyses have been carried out for 12 meteorological stations in NE China. Wind speed and direction data from...... density (power curve) and calibrated anemometers are confirmed to be prerequisites for reliable predictions; project-specific wind atlas heights are highly recommended....

  8. The energetic NeUtral Atom Detector Unit (NUADU) for China's Double Star Mission and its calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan E-mail: stil@may.ie; Balaz, Jan; Strharsky, Igor; Barabash, Stas; Brinkfeldt, Klas; Li Lu; Shen Chao; Shi Jiankui; Zong Qingang; Kudela, Karel; Fu Suiyan; Roelof, E.C.; Brandt, Pontus C. son; Dandouras, Iannis

    2004-09-11

    An account is provided of an advanced Energetic NeUtral Atom Detector Unit (NUADU) designed for China's Double Star Mission. Special emphasis is given to describing the detector head of the instrument and its calibration.

  9. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

    2014-10-15

    Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized.

  10. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changtian Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized.

  11. Gammarus emeiensis, a new species of amphipod crustacean from Sichuan Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Zhong-E; Li, Shuqiang; Koenemann, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Specimens of a new species of gammarid Amphipoda, Gammarus emeiensis n. sp., were found on Emei Mt., Sichuan Province, China. A detailed description of this freshwater amphipod is given and differences to related species are discussed.

  12. The first human infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Shaanxi Province, China

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    Jing Wei

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: SFTSV readily infects humans with outdoor exposure. The results of the serological study indicate that the virus circulates widely in Shaanxi Province. SFTSV represents a public health threat in China.

  13. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae

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    Jie Fang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. C. (Z. parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas W. wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  14. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…

  15. Selected non-timber forest products with medicinal applications from Jilin Province in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Ge Huang; Branka Barl; Gerald. Ivanochko

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a brief account of the distribution, production, and use of some non-timber forest products such as medicinal plants, medicinal and nutraceutical mushrooms, pharmaceutical insects, and "wild" vegetables in Jilin Province, China. All materials featured in this paper are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) inside and outside of China...

  16. Prevalence of Balantidium coli infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, De-Ming; Lv, Cong-Cong; Tan, Lei; Zhang, Tie-Niu; Yang, Cheng-Zhi; Liu, Yi; Liu, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a cosmopolitan parasitic-opportunistic pathogen that can be found throughout the world. However, little information is available about prevalence of B. coli in pigs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of B. coli in pigs was investigated in Hunan province, subtropical China, between January 2012 and August 2014. A total of 3925 diarrheic fecal samples from nine representative administrative regions in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined for the presence of B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites using microscopy after sedimentation with water. The overall prevalence of B. coli in pigs was 36.9 % (1450/3925). The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses potential threats to human health. The results of the present investigation have important implications for the control of B. coli infections in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of B. coli prevalence in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  17. Cryptic Species Identification and Composition of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Complex in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu, Min; Hu, Jian; Wang, Lun-Ji; Dong, Jun-Feng; Song, Yue-Qin; Sun, Hui-Zhong

    2017-05-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex, causing significant crop losses in China during the last decade. Although knowledge of cryptic species composition and dynamics within B. tabaci complex is critical for developing sustainable pest management strategies, limited information is available on this pest in the Henan province of China. A systematic survey of the cryptic species composition and distribution of B. tabaci complex in different locations of Henan province was conducted in 2012. The results of RAPD-PCR and the gene for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (mtCOI) based phylogenetic relationships established using Bayesian method indicated there were four known cryptic species MEAM1, MED, Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and a new cryptic species named China 6 in Henan province. In the survey, the invasive cryptic species MED and MEAM1 were found to be predominant with wide spread distribution across the surveyed regions. On the contrary, the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species including Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and China 6 remained with low prevalence in some surveyed regions. Cryptic species MEAM1 and MED have not completely displaced the native B. tabaci in Henan province. This current study for the first time unifies our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci across Henan province of China. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  18. New records of mosses for Zhejiang province,China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Liyuan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have found and reported 31 newly recorded species of mosses of Zhejiang province via investigation and specimen identification for bryophytes in the QingliangFeng.Two of them are new genera of Zhejiang province:Trichodon Schimp.and Zygodon Hook.& Taylor.The maintaxonomic characters,habitats and geographical distributions of these species are presented in this paper.

  19. Impact of climate variability on Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Yan; Yu, Weiwei; Hu, Wenbiao; Lin, Hualiang; Guo, Yuming; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a public health problem in the remote and poor area of Yunnan Province, China. Yunnan faces an increasing risk of imported malaria infections from Mekong river neighboring countries. This study aimed to identify the high risk area of malaria transmission in Yunnan Province, and to estimate the effects of climatic variability on the transmission of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in the identified area. Methods We identified spatial clusters of malaria cas...

  20. Hepatitis C virus genotype diversity among intravenous drug users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, high proportions (15.6%-98.7% of intravenous drug users (IDUs in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV. Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v, of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47% followed by genotypes 3 (41% and 1 (12%. HCV subtypes 6n (30% and 3b (29% were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15% and 6n (11.2% to 30%. In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Diversity among Intravenous Drug Users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenlong; Feng, Ruilin; Wu, Zhongxiang; Cun, Wei; Dong, Shaozhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, high proportions (15.6%–98.7%) of intravenous drug users (IDUs) in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v), of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47%) followed by genotypes 3 (41%) and 1 (12%). HCV subtypes 6n (30%) and 3b (29%) were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15%) and 6n (11.2% to 30%). In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. Conclusion/Significance Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively. PMID:24358211

  2. Seismological mechanism analysis of 2015 Luanxian swarm, Hebei province,China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yipei; Liao, Xu; Ma, Hongsheng; Zhou, Longquan; Wang, Xingzhou

    2017-04-01

    The seismological mechanism of an earthquake swarm, a kind of seismic burst activity, means the physical and dynamic process in earthquakes triggering in the swarm. Here we focus on the seismological mechanism of 2015 Luanxian swarm in Hebei province, China. The process of digital seismic waveform data processing is divided into four steps. (1) Choose the three components waveform of earthquakes in the catalog as templates, and detect missing earthquakes by scanning the continues waveforms with matched filter technique. (2) Recalibrate P and S-wave phase arrival time using waveform cross-correlation phase detection technique to eliminate the artificial error in phase picking in the observation report made by Hebei seismic network, and then we obtain a more complete catalog and a more precise seismic phase report. (3) Relocate the earthquakes in the swarm using hypoDD based on phase arrival time we recalibrated, and analyze the characteristics of swarm epicenter migration based on the earthquake relocation result. (4) Detect whether there are repeating earthquakes activity using both waveform cross-correlation standard and whether rupture areas can overlapped. We finally detect 106 missing earthquakes in the swarm, 66 of them have the magnitude greater than ML0.0, include 2 greater than ML1.0. Relocation result shows that the epicenters of earthquakes in the swarm have a strip distribution in NE-SW direction, which indicates the seismogenic structure may be a NE-SW trending fault. The spatial-temporal distribution variation of epicenters in the swarm shows a kind of two stages linear migration characteristics, in which the first stage has appeared with a higher migration velocity as 1.2 km per day, and the velocity of the second step is 0.0024 km per day. According to the three basic models to explain the seismological mechanism of earthquake swarms: cascade model, slow slip model and fluid diffusion model, repeating earthquakes activity is difficult to explain by

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Liaoning Province, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Li, Hongkui; He, Jianbin; Mu, Mingyang; Yang, Shuhua

    2013-02-01

    There is a lack of information regarding the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep from northeastern China. In the present study, serum samples from 566 domestic sheep were collected from Liaoning Province, northeastern China, to investigate the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies using an indirect hemagglutination antibody test. Twenty-five of 566 samples (4.4%) were seropositive at the cutoff of 1:64 serum dilution. No difference was found among 6 geographic regions (P > 0.05). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Liaoning Province.

  4. A new genus and species of Rhopalidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from the Early Cretaceous of Liaoning Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaotong; Yao, Yunzhi; Ren, Dong

    2015-12-15

    A new fossil Vescisalignus indecorus gen. et sp. nov. (Rhopalidae) is described and illustrated from the Early Cretaceous. All the specimens described here were collected from the Yixian Formantion of Beipiao City, Liaoning Province, northeastern China. This is the first report of rhopalid from Yixian Formation in Liaoning Province, China.

  5. CLIMATIC FACTORS AND ESTABLISHMENT OF QUERCUS ILEX - COMMUNITIES IN TRIESTE PROVINCE (NE ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. FURLANETTO

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal area called "Cernizza" (near Duino. ca 15 km NW from Trieste, at an altitude between 0 and 40 m. is located a wood vegetation complex characterized by Quercus ilex and Carpinus orientalis. The bedrocks of this site is carbonatic. This wood vegetation does not occur in other sites or the Trieste province, where deciduous oak woods (Q. pubescells, Q. petraea s.1. are dominant both on arenaceus and on carbonatic rocks. Other Quercus ilex communities are occurring only as scrubs on the calcareous coastal cliffs characterized by primitive lithosoils. In order to detect if this wood community might be an expression of the c1imate dominating this particular zone, some Duino's c1imatic data, relative lo a record period of 9 years. have been compared with the Trieste's ones. The analysed parameters were the following: air temperature. rainfall, evaporation. wind speed and relative humidity. From the comparison of these paramenters it emerged that the Duino's climate is more humid than the Trieste's one. Only in springtime Duino is less rainy than Trieste according lo the analysis of the monthly mean values of precipitation. From the ecophysiological point of view, a study of the seasonal changes of the root hydraulic conductance in some forest trees (Nardini el al .. 1998 has pointed out the superiority of Quercus ilex compared to Quercus pubescens, as regards the competitive ability of the seedlings during the spring. For this reason, the smaller spring rainfall could explain the occurrence of Quercus ilex stands not only in the neighbourhood of Duino but also at the beginning of the large valleys characterized by S•N direction in the South Eastern Alps.

  6. CLIMATIC FACTORS AND ESTABLISHMENT OF QUERCUS ILEX - COMMUNITIES IN TRIESTE PROVINCE (NE ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CODOGNO

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal area called "Cernizza" (near Duino. ca 15 km NW from Trieste, at an altitude between 0 and 40 m. is located a wood vegetation complex characterized by Quercus ilex and Carpinus orientalis. The bedrocks of this site is carbonatic. This wood vegetation does not occur in other sites or the Trieste province, where deciduous oak woods (Q. pubescells, Q. petraea s.1. are dominant both on arenaceus and on carbonatic rocks. Other Quercus ilex communities are occurring only as scrubs on the calcareous coastal cliffs characterized by primitive lithosoils. In order to detect if this wood community might be an expression of the c1imate dominating this particular zone, some Duino's c1imatic data, relative lo a record period of 9 years. have been compared with the Trieste's ones. The analysed parameters were the following: air temperature. rainfall, evaporation. wind speed and relative humidity. From the comparison of these paramenters it emerged that the Duino's climate is more humid than the Trieste's one. Only in springtime Duino is less rainy than Trieste according lo the analysis of the monthly mean values of precipitation. From the ecophysiological point of view, a study of the seasonal changes of the root hydraulic conductance in some forest trees (Nardini el al .. 1998 has pointed out the superiority of Quercus ilex compared to Quercus pubescens, as regards the competitive ability of the seedlings during the spring. For this reason, the smaller spring rainfall could explain the occurrence of Quercus ilex stands not only in the neighbourhood of Duino but also at the beginning of the large valleys characterized by S•N direction in the South Eastern Alps.

  7. Geographic mapping of Crohn's disease and its relation to affluence in jiangsu province, an eastern coastal province of china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD.

  8. Source contributions to PM2.5 in Guangdong province, China by numerical modeling: Results and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaohong; Huang, Zhijiong; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Zhu, Wenbo; Huang, Xiaobo; Chen, Duohong

    2017-04-01

    As one of the most populous and developed provinces in China, Guangdong province (GD) has been experiencing regional haze problems. Identification of source contributions to ambient PM2.5 level is essential for developing effective control strategies. In this study, using the most up-to-date emission inventory and validated numerical model, source contributions to ambient PM2.5 from eight emission source sectors (agriculture, biogenic, dust, industry, power plant, residential, mobile and others) in GD in 2012 were quantified. Results showed that mobile sources are the dominant contributors to the ambient PM2.5 (24.0%) in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, the central and most developed area of GD, while industry sources are the major contributors (21.5% 23.6%) to those in the Northeastern GD (NE-GD) region and the Southwestern GD (SW-GD) region. Although many industries have been encouraged to move from the central GD to peripheral areas such as NE-GD and SW-GD, their emissions still have an important impact on the PM2.5 level in the PRD. In addition, agriculture sources are responsible for 17.5% to ambient PM2.5 in GD, indicating the importance of regulations on agricultural activities, which has been largely ignored in the current air quality management. Super-regional contributions were also quantified and their contributions to the ambient PM2.5 in GD are significant with notable seasonal differences. But they might be overestimated and further studies are needed to better quantify the transport impacts.

  9. [Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqun; Wan, Xia; Chen, Gongbo; Ma, Xiangyun; Ning, Bofu; Yang, Gonghuan

    2017-08-20

    Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012. We chose 2 towns within each area according to topography and orientation, and randomly picked 4 villages in each town to be our study area. We did a questionnaire about lung cancer related risk factors upon the sample population in the study area. We calculated the exposure percentages of each risk factor, in whole sample population and subgroups, for nowadays and for 10 years ago (only living environmental risk factors), and compared them between areas or time points using standardized rates and the statistical test of standardized rate comparison, or chi-square test. 65%-80% male in the study area has a history of smoking; 60%-90% non-smoker has been exposed to second hand smoke. These situations are worse in high and median lung cancer areas. 50% male in median lung cancer area have coal mining work experience, which is 2 times of the percentages in the other two areas; while 15%-25% people in high lung cancer area have other occupational exposure history to particulate air pollution, which is 3-5 times of the percentages in the other two areas. From ten years ago until nowadays, 80% families in median lung cancer area use 2 tons or more smoky coal per year; more than 90% families burn coal for household heating; more than 60% families suffer from smog in the kitchen during cook; 60% families most frequently use stove in the ground with chimney. Only 20% families in high lung cancer area now use 2 tons or

  10. Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun LIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. Methods Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012. We chose 2 towns within each area according to topography and orientation, and randomly picked 4 villages in each town to be our study area. We did a questionnaire about lung cancer related risk factors upon the sample population in the study area. We calculated the exposure percentages of each risk factor, in whole sample population and subgroups, for nowadays and for 10 years ago (only living environmental risk factors, and compared them between areas or time points using standardized rates and the statistical test of standardized rate comparison, or chi-square test. Results 65%-80% male in the study area has a history of smoking; 60%-90% non-smoker has been exposed to second hand smoke. These situations are worse in high and median lung cancer areas. 50% male in median lung cancer area have coal mining work experience, which is 2 times of the percentages in the other two areas; while 15%-25% people in high lung cancer area have other occupational exposure history to particulate air pollution, which is 3-5 times of the percentages in the other two areas. From ten years ago until nowadays, 80% families in median lung cancer area use 2 tons or more smoky coal per year; more than 90% families burn coal for household heating; more than 60% families suffer from smog in the kitchen during cook; 60% families most frequently use stove in the ground with chimney

  11. Very large cryoturbation structures of Last Permafrost Maximum age at the foot of the Qilian Mountains (NE Tibet Plateau, China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberghe, J.F.; Wang, X.; Vandenberghe, D.

    2016-01-01

    Unusually large cryoturbation structures (4-4.5 m amplitude), developed in channel gravels and overbank fine-grained deposits of a river terrace on the NE Tibet Plateau, China, were formed by loadcasting as late Pleistocene-age permafrost degraded. It is suggested that the oversaturation and

  12. Two new species of Willowsia (Collembola: Entomobryidae from Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Chai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe two new species of Willowsia: W. baoshanensis sp. nov. and W. zhaotongensis sp. nov. This is the first report of Willowsia from Yunnan Province, China. W. baoshanensis sp. nov. is mainly characterized by its chaetotaxy, W. zhaotongensis sp. nov. by its color pattern and chaetotaxy.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2018-02-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.0 billion barrels of oil and 20.3 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China.

  14. Diversity of Penicillium species isolated from heavy metal polluted soil in Guizhou Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qing-Xin, Zhou; Houbraken, J.; Li, Qi-Rui; Hyde, K.D.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Seven Penicillium strains were isolated from soil samples polluted by heavy metals in different zones of Guizhou Province, China. Phenotypic identification proved to be difficult and this data was therefore supplemented with ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region and partial β-tubulin

  15. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment Report of the Guandong Province in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Shaoguan, Guangdong Province, China. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans. It proposes...

  16. Anti-Smoking Practice in Hospitals: An Intercept Survey among Patients in Hubei Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dunjin; Yan, Yaqiong; Yu, Huihong; Xia, Qinghua; Yang, Niannian; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Li, Fang; Gong, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine whether, in the opinion of patients selected in 13 hospitals of Hubei province, China, hospitals are smoke free. Patients were also asked whether their physicians had inquired about their smoking status. Design/methodology/approach: Patients were recruited through an intercept method (i.e. stopped by the…

  17. Prevalence and characterization of human Shigella infections in Henan Province, China, in 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, S.; Xu, B.; Huang, L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, 3531 fecal samples were collected from patients with diarrhea in Henan Province, China. A total of 467 (13.2%) Shigella strains were isolated and serotyped. Seventy-one Shigella flexneri strains were characterized by MIC determination, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and detection...

  18. Rediscovery of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Yingjiang County,Yunnan Province,China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zheng, Xi; Jiang, Xue-Long; Chan, Bosco Pui Lok

    2017-07-18

    The sun bear, Helarctos malayanus (Raffles, 1821), is a forest-dependent bear species distributed in tropical Southeast Asia. The species was previously reported from scattered localities in southwestern China, which is at the northeastern edge of its global range. Due to the scarcity of reliable recent records, some authorities cast doubt on the continued existence of sun bear in China. Here we present the rediscovery of this species in Yingjiang County, western Yunnan Province, China, near the international border with Myanmar's Kachin State.

  19. Assessing the spatial accessibility of hospital care in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Pan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Regional disparities in geographical access to hospital care are found throughout China. Understanding variations in the spatial accessibility of hospital care has the potential to provide decision support in healthcare planning. This study examines the hospital system in the Sichuan Province in China, which provides healthcare for more than 80 million people. We examine the impacts of accessibility characterisation via the conventional measurement approach by comparing the results to those derived using a floating catchment area approach. Employing a geographical information system based on population and hospital administrative data, we conducted a provincewide study of the spatial accessibility of hospital care in Sichuan Province, China. A shortest-path analysis and the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA method were implemented. Substantial differences between these two approaches were found, including a roughly 15% difference in the total number of under-served areas. Generally, spatial accessibility was higher in the eastern regions of Sichuan. More than 5.5 million people were found to have limited access, with large variations across the province. These results indicate that the official method used by policy makers in China may not capture the true nature of spatial accessibility throughout the region. We recommend that the E2SFCA method be implemented for health services research in China, providing decision makers with more accurate information when setting healthcare policies.

  20. A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur (Pterosauria) from Jurassic deposits of Liaoning Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Xu, Li; Wei, Xuefang; Chang, Huali; Kundrát, Martin

    2015-01-16

    Compared to pterosaurs from the Early Cretaceous from China, Late Jurassic pterosaurs are relatively rare. A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur, Orientognathus chaoyngensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected based on an incomplete skeleton from the Upper Jurassic Tuchengzi Formation of Chaoyang, Liaoning Province, China. It is identified by the following characters: the toothless tip of the lower jaw is slightly pointed; the length ratio of wing metacarpal to humerus is 0.38, the ulna is shorter than each wing phalanx and the tibia is nearly equal to femur in length. A phylogenetic analysis recovers Orientognathus chaoyngensis as a rhamphorhynchid pterosaur. Orientognathus chaoyngensis is perhaps the youngest Jurassic pterosaur from western Liaoning Province of China

  1. Occurrence of canine parvovirus in dogs from Henan province of China in 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanqin; Liu, Huisheng; Ding, Ke; Peng, Chunping; Xue, Qiao; Yu, Zuhua; Xue, Yun

    2016-07-04

    There is no information concerning the genotype of Canine parvovirus (CPV) currently circulating in Henan province, China. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide insights into the epidemiology and molecular characterization of CPV circulating in Henan province from 2009 to 2014. Nineteen thousand nine hundred seven dogs from pet hospitals in the cities of Luoyang, Anyang, Jiaozuo, Sanmenxia, Xinxiang, Zhengzhou in Henan province between 2009 and 2014 were investigated. Over the 6-year period, 1169 CPV-positive cases were identified and the morbidity of CPV infection ranged from 4.16 to 8.06 %, although morbidity was not significant (P > 0.05) between 2009 and 2014. Factors associated with morbidity included sampling season, dog age, breed, vaccination status, and sex. CPV co-infection with coccidium (10.00 %), canine distemper virus (4.79 %), hookworm (2.40 %), canine coronavirus (1.11 %), roundworm (1.03 %), tapeworm (0.17 %) and Babesia spp. (0.09 %) were observed. The new CPV-2a variant was more prevalent than the new CPV-2b variant in Henan province. CPV 2c was not observed in this study. The epidemiology of CPV infection and identification of the circulating genotypes in Henan province, China from 2009 to 2014 determined that the new CPV-2a variant was more prevalent.

  2. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the most important gold-mining and production regions in the circum-Pacific metallogenic zone. Research has been conducted in this area since the 1960s, however, the timing of the gold mineralisation is still unresolved, and ...

  3. Rural-urban differences of neonatal mortality in a poorly developed province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of rural-urban disparities in children's health on neonatal death in disadvantaged areas of China is poorly understood. In this study of rural and urban populations in Gansu province, a disadvantaged province of China, we describe the characteristics and mortality of newborn infants and evaluated rural-urban differences of neonatal death. Methods We analyzed all neonatal deaths in the data from the Surveillance System of Child Death in Gansu Province, China from 2004 to 2009. We calculated all-cause neonatal mortality rates (NMR and cause-specific death rates for infants born to rural or urban mothers during 2004-09. Rural-urban classifications were determined based on the residence registry system of China. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences of infant characteristics and cause-specific deaths by rural-urban maternal residence. Results Overall, NMR fell in both rural and urban populations during 2004-09. Average NMR for rural and urban populations was 17.8 and 7.5 per 1000 live births, respectively. For both rural and urban newborn infants, the four leading causes of death were birth asphyxia, preterm or low birth weight, congenital malformation, and pneumonia. Each cause-specific death rate was higher in rural infants than in urban infants. More rural than urban neonates died out of hospital or did not receive medical care before death. Conclusions Neonatal mortality declined dramatically both in urban and rural groups in Gansu province during 2004-09. However, profound disparities persisted between rural and urban populations. Strategies that address inequalities of accessibility and quality of health care are necessary to improve neonatal health in rural settings in China.

  4. Fertility Intention, Son Preference, and Second Childbirth: Survey Findings from Shaanxi Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Ying; Sanchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2016-02-01

    China is characterized by a low fertility intention, a strong preference for sons, as well as a stringent birth control policy. In this study, we used data from a Fertility Intention and Behavior Survey of 2101 questionnaires conducted in 2013 in Shaanxi Province of northwestern China, and event history analysis methods to examine the effect of fertility intention and preference for sons on the probability of having a second child. The results not only validate the correlation of fertility intention with having a second child empirically, even in the low fertility intention and stringent birth control context of China, but also show that women with a preference for sons were less likely to have a second child. Women with son preference turn to sex-selective abortion to ensure that their first child is a son, thus reducing the likelihood of a second child and decreasing the fertility rate. Our findings also shed light on China's potential fertility policy adjustment.

  5. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of Early Jurassic volcanic rocks of the Raohe accretionary complex, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Hui; Ge, Wen-Chun; Yang, Hao; Bi, Jun-Hui; Ji, Zheng; Dong, Yu; Xu, Wen-Liang

    2017-02-01

    The Raohe accretionary complex, located at the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China, is a significant part of the western Pacific Oceanic tectonic regime. Due to lack of precise age and geochemical constraints, the tectonic setting and petrogenesis of the magmatic rocks in this area remain undefined, resulting in debate about crustal growth mechanisms and subduction-related accretionary processes in Northeastern China. Here, we report whole-rock major and trace element and Sr-Nd isotope data, together with zircon U-Pb ages and in situ zircon Hf isotope data for calc-alkaline andesites, dacites, rhyolites, rhyolitic crystal tuffs, Nb-enriched andesites and basaltic andesites, and high-Mg andesites of the Raohe accretionary complex in NE China. Samples were collected from Late Triassic to Early Jurassic strata. However, geochronological results in this study indicated that the studied magmatism occurred in the Early Jurassic (187-174 Ma). The calc-alkaline volcanic rocks possess geochemical characteristics typical of arc magmas that form at active continental margins, such as moderate enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (LREEs), and depletions in high field strength elements (HFSEs). They have positive εHf(t) values of +3.4 to +10.6 and relatively high (87Sr/86Sr)i values of 0.7047-0.7102. While the Nb-enriched andesites and basaltic andesites have higher TiO2, Hf, Nb, and Zr contents and higher Nb/Ta (24.0-87.6), Nb/U (11.9-75.9), (Nb/Th)PM (0.67-2.70), and (Nb/La)PM (1.95-5.00) ratios than typical arc basalts. They have negative εNd(t) values (-5.5 to -6.0) and relatively variable (87Sr/86Sr)i values of 0.7047-0.7114, suggesting an origin via the partial melting of mantle wedge peridotite that had been metasomatized by slab-derived melt. The high-Mg volcanic rocks, characterized by high MgO and Mg#, TiO2, Al2O3, Cr, Ni, (La/Yb)N and (La/Sm)N, but low Ba/Th ratios, are geochemically similar to

  6. Molecular detection and genotypic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii infection in bats in four provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Cong, Wei; Liu, Ye; Li, Nan; Wang, Ze-Dong; Zhang, Fu-Kai; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Quan

    2014-12-03

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a wide variety of warm-blooded hosts, including humans. Limited information about T. gondii infection in bats is available in China. The objective of the present study was to determine prevalence and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection in bats in Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangxi and Guangdong provinces, China. During May 2005 to August 2013, bats were sampled from Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangxi, and Guangdong provinces, China, and liver tissues were collected for the detection of T. gondii by a nested PCR targeting the B1 gene. The positive samples were genotyped at 11 genetic markers (SAG1, 5'-and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, PK1, c22-8, c29-2, and Apico) using multilocus polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total of 626 bats representing 10 species were examined for T. gondii infection, 38 (6.1%) were tested positive with by PCR, 8 positive DNA samples were completely genotyped, of which 3 samples (2 from Cynopterus sphinx, and 1 from Murina leucogaster) represented ToxoDB#10, and 5 samples (2 from Murina leucogaster, 2 from Myotis chinensis, and 1 from Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) belonged to ToxoDB#9 ( http://toxodb.org/toxo/ ). The present study revealed an overall T. gondii prevalence of 6.1% in bats from Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangxi and Guangdong provinces in China, and reported two T. gondii genotypes (ToxoDB#9 and #10) having a wide geographical distribution in China. These results provide new genetic information about T. gondii infection in bats, and have implications for better understanding of the genetic diversity of T. gondii in China and elsewhere.

  7. Diseases and treatment reported by shrimp and tilapia farmers in Guangdong Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Liu, Liping; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    Guangdong province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) culture in China that meet demands from both national consumers and export markets. However, the intensified production has brought increased disease problems, antibiotics and other...... in recent years. However, many farmers from small family farms still mainly relied on their own experiences. The study shows the improving in aquaculture practicing in China, but still an urgent need to increase farmer’s knowledge on how to prevent and control diseases and use chemicals, including...

  8. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs in Henan province, central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in dogs and cats, and also infects humans. However, there has been no study on dirofilariasis in dogs in central China. From March 2015 to February 2016, sera from 1176 randomly selected household dogs from Henan province, central China were examined for D. immitis antigen using the Canine Heartworm Antigen Test Kit. The overall seroprevalence of D. immitis in dogs in Henan province was 13% (155/1176. The prevalence was significantly higher in older dogs and dogs kept outdoors, compared to the younger ones and those sheltered indoors. No significant difference of prevalence was observed between sexes. The results suggest that the risk of exposure to D. immitis in dogs is high in Henan, and prophylaxis against the parasite is advisable to decrease the incidence of canine dirofilariosis in this region.

  9. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs in Henan province, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Nian; Zhang, Zhenchao; Wang, Dong; Yao, Zhijun; Zhang, Haizhu; Ma, Jingbo; Zheng, Bin; Ren, Hongbin; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    The heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in dogs and cats, and also infects humans. However, there has been no study on dirofilariasis in dogs in central China. From March 2015 to February 2016, sera from 1176 randomly selected household dogs from Henan province, central China were examined for D. immitis antigen using the Canine Heartworm Antigen Test Kit. The overall seroprevalence of D. immitis in dogs in Henan province was 13% (155/1176). The prevalence was significantly higher in older dogs and dogs kept outdoors, compared to the younger ones and those sheltered indoors. No significant difference of prevalence was observed between sexes. The results suggest that the risk of exposure to D. immitis in dogs is high in Henan, and prophylaxis against the parasite is advisable to decrease the incidence of canine dirofilariosis in this region. © S. Wang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and risk factors in domestic sheep in Henan province, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nian; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Dong; Li, Chaoying; Zhang, Zhenchao; Yao, Zhijun; Li, Tingting; Xie, Qing; Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Haizhu

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are highly susceptible to infections with Toxoplasma gondii and play a major role in the transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans. In the present study, 779 serum samples from sheep were collected from Henan province, central China from March 2015 to May 2016, and antibodies to T. gondii were detected by modified agglutination test (MAT). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in sheep was 12.71% (99/779). The risk factors significantly associated with T. gondii seroprevalence were the geographical origin, age, presence of cats, and the rearing system. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Henan province, central China, and of an association of seropositivity to T. gondii with risk factors. © N. Zhang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  11. Linking benthic dynamics and cold-water coral occurrences: A high-resolution model study at three carbonate mound provinces in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohn, Christian; Rengstorf, Anna; Grehan, Anthony

    We used the 3-D ocean circulation model with grid refinement ROMS-AGRIF to describe the hydrodynamic conditions at three cold-water coral provinces in the NE Atlantic (Logachev Mounds, Arc Mounds and Belgica Mounds). Modelled fields of currents, temperature and salinity were analysed for observed....... The model bathymetry was taken from highresolution INSS (Irish National Seabed Survey) seafloor mapping data. The model output of 6 hourly benthic currentsm, temperature and salinity was validated against in-situ measurements and compared with main coral assemblage patterns from in-situ Coral...

  12. Spatial analysis of dengue fever in Guangdong Province, China, 2001-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunxiao; Liu, Qiyong; Lin, Hualiang; Xin, Benqiang; Nie, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Guangdong Province is the area most seriously affected by dengue fever in China. In this study, we describe the spatial distribution of dengue fever in Guangdong Province from 2001 to 2006 with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation. Annualized incidence at a county level was calculated and mapped to show crude incidence, excess hazard, and spatial smoothed incidence. Geographic information system-based spatial scan statistics was conducted to detect the spatial distribution pattern of dengue fever incidence at the county level. Spatial scan cluster analyses suggested that counties around Guangzhou City and Chaoshan Region were at increased risk for dengue fever (P dengue fever were found in Guangdong Province, which allowed intervention measures to be targeted for maximum effect.

  13. Risks for fishborne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia production systems in Guangdong province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin

    2013-01-01

    Guangdong province is the most important region for tilapia culture in China. However, it is also an endemic region for fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT), which pose a risk to human food safety and health. A study was designed to assess the status of trematode parasite infections in tilapia...... for tilapia are generally effective in preventing transmission of these parasites into tilapia production systems, the improvement of pond management practices and biosecurity must be maintained at a high level....

  14. Spatiotemporal characteristics of extreme precipitation and temperature: a case study in Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Z. X. Xu; Z. X. Xu; X. J. Yang; D. P. Zuo; D. P. Zuo; Q. Chu; W. F. Liu

    2015-01-01

    Spatiotemporal characteristics of extreme precipitation and temperature in Yunnan Province, China, were analyzed by using observed daily data at 28 meteorological stations from 1958–2013 in this study. Nine extreme precipitation indices and 6 extreme temperature indices were adopted, and the tendency of those indices was investigated by using Mann–Kendal test method. In order to distinguish the spatial characteristics, the region was divided into 5 regions according to clima...

  15. Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Borui; Huang, Qing; Cai, Huajie; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Gui, Mingying

    2015-12-01

    Contamination with heavy metals in several species of edible mushrooms from the Yunnan Province in China was determined. Samples were collected from 16 locations in the Yunnan Province, and the contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the mushrooms were at typical levels. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals (As, Pb and Cd) were higher than the national standard values of China (1.0 mg/kg for As, 0.2 mg/kg for Cd, and 2.0 mg/kg for Pb) in most cases. Bio-concentration factors suggested that it was easier for As and Cd to be accumulated in mushrooms than Pb, and a Health Risk Index assessment also suggested that As and Cd are greater risks to health than Pb. In conclusion, heavy metal pollution in wild edible mushrooms is a serious problem in the Yunnan Province. Among the toxic metals, As and Cd in the edible mushrooms in the area are the main sources of risk, as they may cause severe health problems. The local government needs to take measures in the form of concrete policies to protect the wild edible mushroom resources in the Yunnan Province. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ISSR Analysis on Genetic Diversity of the 34 Populations of Oryza meyeriana Distributing in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-tao WAN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of the 34 populations of wild rice Oryza meyeriana Baill. distributed in Yunnan Province, China was analyzed using 13 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. A total of 168 bands were amplified, of which 135 polymorphic bands were discovered and the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB was 80.36%. A genetic diversity was revealed as Nei's gene diversity (H = 0.2666 and Shannon information index (I = 0.4028 at population level. The 34 populations were divided into different groups based on administrative regions, latitude and longitudes, river areas, altitudes of their origins, and their indexes such as Na (number of alleles, Ne (effective number of alleles, H, I and PPB were calculated. Richer genetic diversity was found in the wild rice populations distributed in Simao Prefecture than that in Lingcang Prefecture or Xishuangbanna Prefecture whereas the least genetic diversity was in Baoshan Prefecture or Dehong Prefecture. Rich genetic diversity was also discovered in the wild rice populations originated from higher than 710 m altitude around the middle and lower reaches of the Lancang River belonging to the Pacific Ocean drainage system. The 34 populations could be classified into two groups, one group covered the wild rice distributing in Simao Prefecture only while the other group covered ones in Lingcang, Xishuangbanna and Dehong Prefectures. The issue on how to effectively conserve the wild rice germplasm was discussed.

  17. Impact of pond aquaculture effluents on seagrass performance in NE Hainan, tropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbeck, Lucia S; Sollich, Miriam; Unger, Daniela; Holmer, Marianne; Jennerjahn, Tim C

    2014-08-15

    The impact of pond aquaculture effluents on the distribution and performance of seagrasses was examined in NE Hainan, tropical China. Samples were taken along transects in three back-reef areas with different extent of aquaculture production in their hinterland. High δ(15)N in seagrass leaves and epiphytes (6-9‰) similar to values in pond effluents documented aquaculture as dominant nitrogen source in the back-reefs with decreasing impact with distance from shore. Seagrass species abundance, shoot density and biomass were lower and concentrations of nutrients, chlorophyll and suspended matter were higher at nearshore sites with high and moderate pond abundance than at the control site. High epiphyte loads and low δ(34)S in seagrass leaves suggest temporal shading and sulphide poisoning of the nearshore seagrasses. Observed gradients in environmental parameters and seagrass performance indicate that the distance from the pond outlets and size of the adjacent pond agglomeration are major determinants of seagrass degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimates of Lung Cancer Mortality at the Province Level in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqiu LI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective At present, population-based cancer registries were not well established and epidemiologic data for cancer were limited at the province level in China. Using the available mortality data for cancer, estimation model of lung cancer was established to provide the mortality profile for the population in 31 provincial regions in China in 2008. Methods Based on the population coverage and accuracy of the available mortality for provinces, the methods used to produce mortality estimates fall into 1 of the 3 categories: data were used directly; a model was developed to calculate annual change of mortality rate based on historical and current data; relative frequency data combining with mortality for all sites were used to estimate site-specific mortality. Results The total estimated deaths of lung cancer in 2008 were 493,348 (338,346 in males and 155,002 in females in the whole country. The age-standardized rates were highest in Jilin (52.29 per 100,000 in males and 24.68 per 100,000 in females, and the lowest rates were in Tianjin (24.12 per 100,000 in males and Chongqing (8.72 per 100,000 in females. Conclusion The models for lung cancer mortality at the province level have been established and the data will provide valuable scientific reference for describing the epidemic of lung cancer as well as estimating other site-specific cancer mortality in China.

  19. [Estimates of lung cancer mortality at the province level in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqiu; Dai, Min; Chen, Yuanli; Zhang, Siwei; Chen, Wanqing; Dai, Zhen; Zou, Xiaonong

    2011-02-01

    At present, population-based cancer registries were not well established and epidemiologic data for cancer were limited at the province level in China. Using the available mortality data for cancer, estimation model of lung cancer was established to provide the mortality profile for the population in 31 provincial regions in China in 2008. Based on the population coverage and accuracy of the available mortality for provinces, the methods used to produce mortality estimates fall into 1 of the 3 categories: data were used directly; a model was developed to calculate annual change of mortality rate based on historical and current data; relative frequency data combining with mortality for all sites were used to estimate site-specific mortality. The total estimated deaths of lung cancer in 2008 were 493,348 (338,346 in males and 155,002 in females) in the whole country. The age-standardized rates were highest in Jilin (52.29 per 100,000 in males and 24.68 per 100,000 in females), and the lowest rates were in Tianjin (24.12 per 100,000 in males) and Chongqing (8.72 per 100,000 in females). The models for lung cancer mortality at the province level have been established and the data will provide valuable scientific reference for describing the epidemic of lung cancer as well as estimating other site-specific cancer mortality in China.

  20. Survey of Veterinary Drug Residues in Raw Milk in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rong-Wei; Yu, Zhong-Na; Zhen, Tian-Yuan; Wang, Jun

    2017-10-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of veterinary drug residues in raw milk from Hebei, the second-largest dairy production province in the People's Republic of China. A total of 192 raw milk samples were collected from 64 milk stations in seven districts. Twenty-eight veterinary drug residues were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry based on a China National Standard. Raw milk samples with multiple residues of veterinary drugs were not found in the present study. Residues of four veterinary drugs, penicillin G, sulfacetamide, trimethoprim, and lincomycin, were detected in 12 (6.25%) raw milk samples, with detection ratios of 1.04, 0.52, 3.13, and 1.56%, respectively. All veterinary drug residues detected were under the maximum residue levels as regulated by China, the European Union, the United States, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In general, raw milk from Hebei province was considered relatively safe for human consumption because of the low prevalence of veterinary drug residues. However, stringent control measurements for veterinary drug residues in raw milk are required because some veterinary drugs were detected in milk from some areas of Hebei province.

  1. Trends in infant/child mortality and life expectancy in Indigenous populations in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianghong; Luo, Chun; de Klerk, Nicholas

    2008-06-01

    The 2000 Census in China registered 55 groups of Indigenous population, including 104.49 million people, making up 8.1% of China's total population. Yunnan Province, located in Southwest China, is the only province where all 55 Indigenous nationalities are represented (14.15 million), making up 33.4% of Yunnan's total population. This study aimed to examine trends in infant and child mortality and life expectancy at birth of the 22 largest Indigenous nationalities and compared these trends with those of the majority Han Chinese in Yunnan and China as a whole. Data sources of mortality and socioeconomic status came from the population censuses of China (1953, 1964, 1982, 1990, and 2000) and Yunnan (1990-2000) and from the Provincial Health Department (1990, 1995, 1996 and 2000). Weighted linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations between infant/child mortality and life expectancy at birth, socioeconomic indicators and the use of preventive health services. In 2000, the infant mortality rate was 26.90 for China and 53.64 for Han Chinese in Yunnan per 1,000 live birth versus 77.75 for the 22 largest minority nationalities in Yunnan, despite improvements in health status indicators since 1990. The inequalities in life expectancy at birth between China as a whole and some minority nationalities remained striking in 2000 (57.18 versus 71.40). Literacy, prenatal examination, hospital deliveries, economic development were important predictors of these health indicators. Efforts to continue to improve these intermediate proximate determinants and to target the most disadvantaged Indigenous groups are likely to further reduce health disparities between the Chinese and Indigenous populations.

  2. Tobacco knowledge among adults in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xu

    Full Text Available The aims of current study were to assess the level of tobacco knowledge, anti-tobacco messages and major information channels in Zhejiang.Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 2112 adults in Zhejiang. Data on demographic information, smoking status, tobacco knowledge, anti-tobacco messages and major information channels was collected.The findings revealed that only 31.87% of the population were aware that smoking could cause all three diseases (stoke, heart disease, and lung cancer, 86.09% were aware that smoking causes lung cancer, 46.43% and 42.40% were aware that smoking causes stroke and heart attack, respectively. Residence and education level had significant effects on awareness, while the effects of smoking status, gender, age, and household monthly income were not significant. There were five major information channels as follows: television (67.52%, newspapers or magazines (40.79%, billboards (30.02%, public walls (24.72, and radio (23.79%. Respondents got the following anti-tobacco messages from mass media: "No smoking in public" (66.34%, "No smoking in front of other people" (35.18% and "Not offering cigarettes to one another" (22.82%.The tobacco knowledge among residents in Zhejiang province is relatively poor. Improved information channels and content of anti-tobacco messages are necessary to increase the public's tobacco knowledge, particularly among rural residents and people with less education.

  3. Implementation of AN Agricultural Environmental Information System (aeis) for the Sanjiang Plain, Ne-China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.; Brocks, S.; Lenz-Wiedemann, V.; Miao, Y.; Jiang, R.; Chen, X.; Zhang, F.; Bareth, G.

    2012-07-01

    The Sino-German Project between the China Agricultural University and the University of Cologne, Germany, focuses on regional agro-ecosystem modelling. One major focus of the cooperation activity is the establishment of joint rice field experiment research in Jiansanjiang, located in the Sanjiang Plain (Heilongjiang Province, north-eastern part of China), to investigate the different agricultural practices and their impact on yield and environment. An additional task is to set-up an Agricultural Environmental Information System (AEIS) for the Sanjiang Plain (SJP), which covers more than 100 000 km2. Research groups from Geography (e.g. GIS & Remote Sensing) and Plant Nutrition (e.g. Precision Agriculture) are involved in the project. The major aim of the AEIS for the SJP is to provide information about (i) agriculture in the region, (ii) the impact of agricultural practices on the environment, and (iii) simulation scenarios for sustainable strategies. Consequently, the AEIS for the SJP provides information for decision support and therefore could be regarded as a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS), too. The investigation of agricultural and environmental issues has a spatial context, which requires the management, handling, and analysis of spatial data. The use of GIS enables the capture, storage, analysis and presentation of spatial data. Therefore, GIS is the major tool for the set-up of the AEIS for the SJP. This contribution presents the results of linking agricultural statistics with GIS to provide information about agriculture in the SJP and discusses the benefits of this method as well as the integration of methods to produce new data.

  4. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-07

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries).

  5. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-01-01

    According to the framework of “Pressure-State-Response”, this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  6. [Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances precursors in human milk from 12 provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Yu, Xinping; Wang, Meng; Li, Jingguang; Wang, Yuxin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2015-06-01

    To explore the level of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) precursors in Chinese human milk samples. The human milk samples were collected during the performance of Stockholm convention on survey of human milk in China in 2007. Based on the geographical location and dietary habits, China was divided into the south area and north area which 6 provinces were chosen from each area and there were 12 provinces in all. In each province, one urban site and two rural sites were selected to collect 80-110 samples. Mothers were randomly selected in each site to collect their breast milk. There were 1 237 individual human milk samples in all. For each province, the individual samples from the urban areas and the rural areas were pooled separately resulting in 24 pooled human milk samples. 11 PFAS precursors were measured in pooled samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadruple mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The dietary exposure assessment of newborns was made. Three PFAS precursors were found above the detection limits, namely, 6:2 FTS, FHUEA, and 6:2 diPAP. Their concentration ranges were PFAS precursor concentration 77.70 pg/ml was found in urban area samples from Shannxi Province. Rural area samples from Hubei had the lowest total PFAS precursor concentration, which was below the LOD. There were significant differences between rural and urban areas in many provinces, such as Shannxi (rural: 1.51 pg/ml; urban: 77.70 pg/ml), Shanghai (rural: 1.13 pg/ml; urban: 71.88 pg/ml), Jiangxi (rural: 65.39 pg/ml; urban: 0.55 pg/ml) and so on. The ranges estimated daily intake of 6:2 FTS, FHUEA and 6:2 diPAP of the samples from 12 provinces were 0.05-4.51, 1.13-6.72 and 1.15-3.34 ng · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹. The results suggested the human exposure of PFAS precursors in China and the potential health impact of postnatal exposure through breastfeeding to infants. The level of PFAS precursors showed differences in regions, rural and urban places.

  7. Geochronology and structuring of the Ceara State: Borborema Province northwestern part, NE Brazil; Geocronologia e estruturacao do estado do Ceara: NW da provincia Borborema, NE, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetter, A.; Van Schmus, W.R. [Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Geology; Santos, Ticiano J. Saraiva dos [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas; Arthaud, M.; Nogueira Neto, J. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    1997-12-31

    The work confirms that the geochronological new data U/Pb in zircon and Samarium/Neodymium from the Ceara State furnished a refined chronology of the geological activity in the NW part of the Borborema Province, indicating an evolutive history since 2,78 Ga and 532 Ma. Furthermore, these data facilitated the different crust domain outlines in the region, putting age maximum limits in the pre-brasilianas supracrusts rocks deposition, and evidencing the epoch and duration of the Brasiliano magmatism and metamorphism in the northwest part of the State

  8. Pesticide residues in market foods in Shaanxi Province of China in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shumei; Wang, Zhilun; Zhang, Yibei; Wang, Jiang; Guo, Rong

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pesticide residues in market vegetables in Shaanxi Province of China. The concentrations of 33 pesticides were determined by gas chromatography (GC) in 285 samples. Ten organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) were found in concentrations ranging from 0.004 to 0.257 mg/kg. The mean levels of omethoate, phorate, chlorpyrifos, methidathion, ethoprophos in vegetables exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) allowed by the Ministry of Health, of China. Other detectable OP pesticide residues levels were below their MRLs. Dicofol were detectable in green pepper and chives samples. Five pyrethroid pesticides (PYRs) were detectable in vegetable samples respectively. The results provide useful information on the current contamination status of a key agricultural area in China, and point to the need for urgent action to control the excessive use of some chemicals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thrips species diversity in urban green spaces of Hangzhou (Zhejiang Province, China

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    M. Mirab-balou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted on the fauna of Thysanoptera in the urban green spaces of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, during 2008- 2012. The thrips were collected in different plant communities (mainly in parks in the city. A total of 26 species from 19 genera in three different families were collected, among them Scolothrips latipennis Priesner, which is newly recorded for the fauna of China. New distribution records of seven species in China are reported. Results of the research indicate that the fauna of thrips of green areas of Hangzhou was quite abundant and diversified, and the occurrence of Selenothrips, Scirtothrips, Thrips, Frankliniella and Haplothrips species seems diverse and should be investigated further.

  10. Geotourism Aspects of the Lufeng Dinosaur National Geopark in Yunnan Province, China

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    Daněk Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lufeng Dinosaur National Geopark in Yunnan province, China, is important part of geoheritage with a great scientific and aesthetic value. The area has been under scientific research since 1938 when the first dinosaur fossils were discovered here by geologist Bian Meinian and technician Wang Cunyi. Professor Yang announced the discovery of new early Jurassic herbivore prosauropod by Lufeng in 1941, which he gave the name Lufengosaurus huenei. In 2004, the area was listed as the China`s National Geopark. It was opened for visitors in 2008. Besides the high scientific value, the geopark is also an important resource for science based and educational tourism. This paper briefly introduces the history of scientific research, the basic geology of the site and the most important fossils discovered here. The main characteristics, geodiversity, and geotourism of fossil geoheritage in the area are discussed here.

  11. Spatiotemporal characterization and mapping of PM2.5concentrations in southern Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Christakos, George; Yang, Xue; He, Junyu

    2018-03-01

    As a result of rapid industrialization and urbanization, China is experiencing severe air pollution problems. Understanding the spatiotemporal variation and trends of air pollution is a key element of an improved understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms and the implementation of the most effective risk assessment and environmental policy in the region. The motivation behind the present work is that the study region of southern Jiangsu province of China is one of the most populated and developed regions in China. The daily concentrations of particulate matter with particle diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) in southern Jiangsu province obtained during the year 2014 were used to derive the variogram model that provided a quantitative characterization of the spatiotemporal (ST) variation of PM 2.5 concentrations in the study region. A spatiotemporal ordinary kriging (STOK) technique was subsequently employed to generate informative maps of the ST pollutant distribution in southern Jiangsu province. The results generated by STOK showed that during 2014 about 29.3% of the area was PM 2.5 polluted (at various severity levels, according to the criteria established by the Chinese government), and that the number of days characterized as polluted varied from 59 to 164 at different parts of the study region. Nanjing, the capital of Jiangsu province, was the place with the highest PM 2.5 pollution (including 3 days of serious pollution). The PM 2.5 pollution exhibited a decreasing spatial trend from the western to the eastern part of southern Jiangsu. A similar temporal PM 2.5 pattern was found from the western to the eastern part of southern Jiangsu, which was characterized by 4 peaks and 3 troughs linked to different meteorological conditions and human factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Novel Workflow for Geothermal Prospectively Mapping Weights-of-Evidence in Liaoning Province, Northeast China

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    Xuejia Sang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Geological faults are highly developed in the eastern Liaoning Province in China, where Mesozoic granitic intrusions and Archean and Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks are widely distributed. Although the heat flow value in eastern Liaoning Province is generally low, the hot springs are very developed. It is obvious that the faults have significant control over the distribution of hot springs, and traditional methods of spatial data analysis such as WofE (weight of evidence usually do not take into account the direction of the distribution of geothermal resources in the geothermal forecast process, which seriously affects the accuracy of the prediction results. To overcome the deficiency of the traditional evidence weight method, wherein it does not take the direction of evidence factor into account, this study put forward a combination of the Fry and WofE methods, Fry-WofE, based on geological observation, gravity, remote sensing, and DEM (digital elevation model multivariate data. This study takes eastern Liaoning Province in China as an example, and the geothermal prospect was predicted respectively by the Fry-WofE and WofE methods from the statistical data on the spatial distribution of the exposed space of geothermal anomalies the surface. The result shows that the Fry-WofE method can achieve better prediction results when comparing the accuracy of these two methods. Based on the results of Fry-WofE prediction and water system extraction, 13 favorable geothermal prospect areas are delineated in eastern Liaoning Province. The Fry-WofE method is effective in study areas where the geothermal distribution area is obviously controlled by the fault. We provide not only a new method for solving the similar issue of geothermal exploration, but also a new insight into the distribution of geothermal resources in Liaoning Province.

  13. Seroprevalence and genotype of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs, dogs and cats from Guizhou province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Nian; Nie, XinWen; Peng, Qun-Yi; Mu, Xiao-Qiong; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Meng-Yuan; Min, Shao-ju

    2015-04-10

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular protozoan that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, domesticated and wild animals. Recent studies of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from animals in different regions of China have shown a limited genetic diversity with the dominance of the ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #9 named as "Chinese 1". However, there is not much published information regarding its prevalence in domestic animals from Guizhou province, a subtropical region in Southwest China. The objectives of this study were to determine seroprevalence and genetic diversity of T .gondii in pigs, dogs and cats in Guizhou province, Southwest China. The anti-T. gondii IgG were detected in 70.0%(49/70) pigs, 20.56%(22/107) dogs and 63.16(12/19) cats. The anti-T. gondii IgM were found in 0.93%(1/107) dogs, 21.53%(4/19) cats, but not in pigs. In addition, the toxoplasma circulating antigen (CAG) were detected in 16.9%18/70)pigs, 13.1% (14/107) dogs and 10.5%(2/19) cats. The T. gondii DNA were detected in 31.5%(22/70) pigs, 3.7%(4/107) dogs and 52.63%(10/19) cats. Five T. gondii isolates were obtained(3 from pigs and 2 from cats). The genotype of these five isolates belonged to the predominant genotype "Chinese 1". The high prevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs,cats and dogs indicated that the T. gondii infection is common in Guizhou province. Additionally, the T. gondii genotype "Chinese 1" was dominant in Southwest China.

  14. Validation of SO2 Retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument over NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; McClure, Brittany; Dickerson, Russell R.; Carn, Simon A.; Li, Can; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Yang, Kai; Krueger, Arlin J.; Li, Zhanqing; Levelt, Pieternel F.; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) launched on the NASA Aura satellite in July 2004 offers unprecedented spatial resolution, coupled with contiguous daily global coverage, for space-based UV measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2). We present a first validation of the OMI SO2 data with in situ aircraft measurements in NE China in April 2005. The study demonstrates that OMI can distinguish between background SO2 conditions and heavy pollution on a daily basis. The noise (expressed as the standard deviation,sigma) is approximately 1.5 DU (Dobson units; 1 DU = 2.69 10 (exp 16) molecules/cm (exp 2)) for instantaneous field of view boundary layer (PBL) SO2 data. Temporal and spatial averaging can reduce the noise to sigma approximetly 0.3 DU over a remote region of the South Pacific; the long-term average over this remote location was within 0.1 DU of zero. Under polluted conditions collection 2 OMI data are higher than aircraft measurements by a factor of two. Improved calibrations of the radiance and irradiance data (collection 3) result in better agreement with aircraft measurements on polluted days. The air mass corrected collection 3 data still show positive bias and sensitivity to UV absorbing aerosols. The difference between the in situ data and the OMI SO2 measurements within 30 km of the aircraft profiles was about 1 DU, equivalent to approximately 5 ppb from 0 to 3000 m altitude. Quantifying the SO2 and aerosol profiles and spectral dependence of aerosol absorption between 310 and 330 nm are critical for an accurate estimate of SO2 from satellite UV measurements.

  15. Nanometer-Scale Pore Characteristics of Lacustrine Shale, Songliao Basin, NE China.

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    Min Wang

    Full Text Available In shale, liquid hydrocarbons are accumulated mainly in nanometer-scale pores or fractures, so the pore types and PSDs (pore size distributions play a major role in the shale oil occurrence (free or absorbed state, amount of oil, and flow features. The pore types and PSDs of marine shale have been well studied; however, research on lacustrine shale is rare, especially for shale in the oil generation window, although lacustrine shale is deposited widely around the world. To investigate the relationship between nanometer-scale pores and oil occurrence in the lacustrine shale, 10 lacustrine shale core samples from Songliao Basin, NE China were analyzed. Analyses of these samples included geochemical measurements, SEM (scanning electron microscope observations, low pressure CO2 and N2 adsorption, and high-pressure mercury injection experiments. Analysis results indicate that: (1 Pore types in the lacustrine shale include inter-matrix pores, intergranular pores, organic matter pores, and dissolution pores, and these pores are dominated by mesopores and micropores; (2 There is no apparent correlation between pore volumes and clay content, however, a weak negative correlation is present between total pore volume and carbonate content; (3 Pores in lacustrine shale are well developed when the organic matter maturity (Ro is >1.0% and the pore volume is positively correlated with the TOC (total organic carbon content. The statistical results suggest that oil in lacustrine shale mainly occurs in pores with diameters larger than 40 nm. However, more research is needed to determine whether this minimum pore diameter for oil occurrence in lacustrine shale is widely applicable.

  16. Controlling chromium slag pollution utilising scavengers: a case of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhao; Côté, Raymond P

    2015-04-01

    The problem of chromium slag pollution is a great challenge for China. It is now an urgent task for China to take effective measures to eliminate chromium slag pollution. This article examines the case of the treatment of chromium slag in Shandong Province and explores how chromium slag pollution can be eliminated in Shandong Province. It shows that the chromium slag stockpiled by the chemical plants was successfully utilised by local steel companies, who act as 'scavenger companies'. The driving mechanism, seeking a potential 'scavenger company' within the local region and the role of the local government on the case of Shandong Province are discussed. This article concludes that local steel companies can be utilised to effectively and efficiently treat the chromium slag while benefiting the steel companies. The local governments need to play multiple roles in solving the problem of chromium slag pollution. Seeking and identifying 'scavenger companies' within a region could be an important approach to reducing pollution within the region. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii in Slaughter Pigs in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Wang, Ya-Lin; Yang, Zhao; Li, Xi-Lai; Li, Zong-Ren; Lin, Qing

    2017-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important food-borne zoonotic protozoan parasite, which can infect endothermic animals, including pigs. However, data on T. gondii in slaughter pigs in Shaanxi Province were still lacking. To detect the seroprevalence and analyze the risk factors of T. gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China, a total of 784 serum samples were collected from four administrative regions and detected by indirect hemagglutination test for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 19.9% (156/784) slaughter pigs. Moreover, the seropositive rate was different among rearing systems (31% in nonintensive pig farms and 6.7% in intensive pig farms), genders (19.8% in male and 20.0% in female), and regions (ranging from 6.7% in Shenmu to 38.2% in Zhouzhi). Rearing system and region were identified as risk factors for T. gondii infection. These results showed that T. gondii is highly prevalent in slaughter pigs in Shaanxi Province, and it could cause a serious risk to public health. This study provided fundamental information for the prevention and control of T. gondii infection in slaughter pigs in China.

  18. Spatiotemporal analysis of indigenous and imported dengue fever cases in Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongjie; Yin, Wenwu; Clements, Archie; Williams, Gail; Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Hang; Zhao, Dan; Guo, Yansha; Zhang, Yonghui; Wang, Jinfeng; Hu, Wenbiao; Yang, Weizhong

    2012-06-12

    Dengue fever has been a major public health concern in China since it re-emerged in Guangdong province in 1978. This study aimed to explore spatiotemporal characteristics of dengue fever cases for both indigenous and imported cases during recent years in Guangdong province, so as to identify high-risk areas of the province and thereby help plan resource allocation for dengue interventions. Notifiable cases of dengue fever were collected from all 123 counties of Guangdong province from 2005 to 2010. Descriptive temporal and spatial analysis were conducted, including plotting of seasonal distribution of cases, and creating choropleth maps of cumulative incidence by county. The space-time scan statistic was used to determine space-time clusters of dengue fever cases at the county level, and a geographical information system was used to visualize the location of the clusters. Analysis were stratified by imported and indigenous origin. 1658 dengue fever cases were recorded in Guangdong province during the study period, including 94 imported cases and 1564 indigenous cases. Both imported and indigenous cases occurred more frequently in autumn. The areas affected by the indigenous and imported cases presented a geographically expanding trend over the study period. The results showed that the most likely cluster of imported cases (relative risk = 7.52, p dengue fever cases has expanded over recent years, and cases were significantly clustered in two heavily urbanised areas of Guangdong province. This provides the foundation for further investigation of risk factors and interventions in these high-risk areas.

  19. A ten years (2000–2009 surveillance of resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Zhejiang Province, China

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    Rong Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Zhejiang Province, there are several highly developed cities near the coast and several relatively under-developed mountain areas. Analysis of the composition of bacteria isolated from patients as well as their antibiotic resistance profile from various areas of this province, and tracing of such data year-by-year, will help to delineate the bacterial resistance profile of these areas and to understand how the stage of socio-economical development impacts on the composition of clinical micro-flora and their resistance profile. Methods: In order to investigate variation in resistance rates and isolation rates of Enterobacteriaceae, from 2000 to 2009 in Zhejiang Province, China, Enterobacteriaceae isolated from 15 hospitals located in different regions of the province were surveyed. Results: The total numbers of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated increased more than 20-fold from 2000 to 2009. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the dominant isolates. The percentage of E. coli and K. pneumoniae that produced detectable extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs increased from 2000 to 2007, and then declined slightly in 2008 and 2009. The percentages of K. pneumoniae and E. coli that were resistant to ceftazidime increased sharply from 2000 to 2009. There were remarkable increases in the carbapenem resistant rates during the decade, but they were much higher for the isolates from the developed cities than from the rural areas. In 2002, carbapenem-resistant E. coli was first found in Hangzhou, one of the highly developed cities in Zhejiang Province. By 2009, carbapenem-resistant bacteria were found for all species of Enterobacteriaceae surveyed in almost all areas of the province, although they were more frequently identified in developed areas than in rural areas. Conclusion: Much restrictive actions have to be taken in terms of rational use of antibiotics and nosocomial control to prevent the further

  20. Assessment of marine debris in beaches or seawaters around the China Seas and coastal provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Zhengwen; Yang, Tiantian; Shi, Linna; Wang, Linlin; You, Suwen; Li, Min; Zhang, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    Compared with United States of America (USA), Brazil, Chile, Australia, limited attention has been paid to marine debris research in China and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this study, firstly the general status and sources of marine debris in China were assessed in the time period between 2007 and 2014, and secondly marine debris situation was evaluated in three China Sea Areas (the North China Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea) from 2009 to 2013, and finally marine debris conditions and sources were analyzed in beaches or seawaters around some coastal provinces of China during 2007-2013. Based on above analysis, the primary conclusions were as follows: (1) The mean number and weight densities of beached marine debris (BMD) and submerged marine debris (SMD) were 4.30, 0.13items/100m(2) and 133.80, 22.60g/100m(2) in China from 2007 to 2014, respectively. The average number density of the large size FMD (LOSFMD) was 0.0024items/100m(2) and that of the small and medium size FMD (SMSFMD) was 0.30items/100m(2), and the mean weight density of the SMSFMD was 1.40g/100m(2) from 2008 to 2014. The SMD and FMD densities were at the low level and the BMD density was at the high level in China. (2) The marine debris primarily was comprised of plastic, Styrofoam, wood, glass, rubber, fabric/fiber and metal, which included almost all major categories of marine debris. (3) Sources of BMD and FMD were as follows: the first source was coastal/recreational activities, followed by other disposal sources, navigation/fishing activities and the activities related smoking, and the least source being those associated with medical/sanitary activities, while the source of SMD remained unknown. (4) The mean number and weight densities of BMD were the biggest in the North China Sea, while those of FMD and SMD were the highest in the northern South China Sea. The results of this study were beneficial to the establishment of

  1. Estimation of Arable Land Loss in Shandong Province, China based on BFAST Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid development of national economy and rise of industrialization, China has been one of the countries which has the fastest urbanization process. From 2001 to 2005, China lost over 2000 km2 fertile arable land every year because of urban expansion. Arable land area declining continuously poses a threat to China's food security. Land survey is the direct way to statistic the arable land status, which lasts long time and needs mounts of financial support. Remote sensing is a perfect way to survey land use and its dynamics at large scale. This paper aims to evaluate the detailed status of agricultural land loss of Shandong Province, China by using BFAST (Breaks for Additive Seasonal and Trend) model. First, the 30m spatial resolution global land cover products GlobeLand30 in 2000 and 2010 are used to locate pixels transforming from agricultural land to artificial cover during this period. Within a MODIS pixel (250m) area, if over half of GlobeLand30 pixels have changed from arable land to artificial cover, then the responding MODIS pixel is classified as changed area, whose phenology reflected by NDVI time series curve will also change. Then, BFAST is used to detect the break point which represents the time of change occurred using MODIS NDVI time series data. From 2002 to 2010, Shandong Province lost its 1063.03 km2 arable land in total. Arable land loss has a declining trend in each year and most loss occurred in 2002 and 2003. Spatially, cities which has higher level of economic development in central and eastern regions lost more arable land. Finally, compare this result with statistical data from China's national Bureau of Statistics, there is a strong positive relationship.

  2. An exploratory survey of money boys and HIV transmission risk in Jilin Province, PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Zixuan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report represents the first exploratory study of Chinese men who provide commercial sex services to other men ("money boys" in Jilin Province, People's Republic of China, through a convenience sample drawn from Changchun and Jilin City. A total of 86 active money boy participants (Changchun, n = 49; Jilin City, n = 37 were surveyed concerning background and demographics, basic HIV transmission knowledge, and sexual practices. The survey indicated that while Jilin Province money boy behavior matches other studies concerning propensity to high risk behavior and significant bridging potential, the Jilin money boys, unlike previous studies, exhibited a high level of basic HIV/AIDS transmission knowledge. In spite of this level of knowledge, none of the participants reported always using a condom in their sexual activities. They also exhibited a high level of awareness of voluntary counseling and testing available in the province, yet relatively few had availed themselves of these services. These preliminary findings will be used as a baseline and springboard for continuing study in the Jilin Province money boy community. Even now, however, it is becoming clear that the dynamics of male commercial sex work may vary greatly depending upon local influences, and will necessitate that future interventions are highly tailored to area-specific circumstances.

  3. Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia during routine physical examination in Guangxi Province, China and related risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Peng; Qin, Jin-Qiu; Wei, Ai-Qiu; Huang, Ping; Lai, Zhan-Feng; Lin, Fa-Quan

    2018-01-01

    Studies on homocysteine (Hcy) have mainly focused on the correlation between the homocysteine concentration and disease development. Few epidemiological investigations have been performed. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) during routine physical examination in Guangxi Province, China and the correlation of serum Hcy with gender, age, serum uric acid (UA), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and blood glucose (GLU) to provide evidence for preventing and treating HHcy. Data of 8043 patients who underwent physical examinations at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, China from 2015 to 2016 were collected. These data included gender, age, and the serum Hcy, UA, GLU, TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C concentrations. The overall prevalence of HHcy was 50.8% (52.3% in males, 48.1% in females). Age, UA, TC, TG, and LDL-C were significantly higher and HDL-C was significantly lower in patients with than without HHcy, regardless of gender (all Pphysical examination in Guangxi Province, China. HHcy was related to gender, age, high concentrations of UA, TC, TG, and LDL-C; and low concentrations of HDL-C. Strengthening early intervention of HHcy can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in Cats from Liaoning Province, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Honglie; Cao, Lili; Ren, Wenzhi; Wang, Dansheng; Ding, He; You, Juan; Yao, Xinhua; Dong, Hang; Guo, Yanbing; Yuan, Shuxian; Zhang, Xichen; Gong, Pengtao

    2017-12-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors for Dirofilaria immitis infection in cats from Liaoning province, northeastern China. From October 2014 to September 2016, sera of 651 cats, including 364 domestic cats and 287 feral cats (332 females and 319 males) were assessed. They were tested for the presence of D. immitis antigen using SNAP Heartworm RT test kit. In this population, the average prevalence was 4.5%. Age and rearing conditions (feral or domestic) were found to be associated with the prevalence of D. immitis. The prevalence was significantly higher in feral cats compared with domestic cats (8.4% vs 1.4%, P0.05), but older cats (≥3 years old) showed a statistically higher prevalence compared with younger cats (0.05), all these results suggest that outdoor exposure time may be one of the most important factors for D. immitis prevalence in cats. Results reveal that D. immitis are prevalence in domestic and feral cats in northeastern China, which indicates that appropriate preventive measures should be taken to decrease the incidence of feline heartworm disease in Liaoning province, northeastern China.

  5. Current status of contraceptive use among rural married women in Anhui Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-J; Wang, G-Y; Shen, Q; Yu, Y-L; Sun, Y-H; Yu, G-B; Zhao, D; Ye, D-Q

    2009-11-01

    This study aims to explore the current status of married women in regard of their use of contraceptive methods (permanent methods versus non-permanent methods) and to find out factors that affect the use of contraceptive methods in rural areas of Anhui Province of China. Survey. Anhui, China. A total of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. A multistage probability sampling method was used to identify a representative sample of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. All women were asked to provide detailed information by completing detailed questionnaires. Contraceptive prevalence and influence factors. The total birth control rate of the sample was 95.2%. Samples choosing the permanent and nonpermanent contraceptive methods have taken up 46.7 and 48.5% respectively. Female sterilisation was the first choice with a usage rate of 43.6%, followed by intrauterine device (IUD), which was used by 41.1% of samples. Single-variable analysis showed that the choice of contraceptive methods was associated with age, education level, parity, frequency of sex intercourses in a month, contraceptive knowledge, RTI symptom and the gender of the last child of rural married women. A significant increase in contraceptive use of rural married women in Anhui Province of China. Female sterilisation and IUD still play the dominant role. Effective family planning methods should be advocated through adequate counselling on the correct use and proper management, with consideration of the background of custom and belief.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus associated with aseptic meningitis in Shandong Province, China, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zexin; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Yan; Liu, Guifang; Xu, Aiqiang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Song, Lizhi; Ji, Feng; Wang, Suting; Cui, Ning; Song, Yanyan

    2014-01-01

    Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are common causes of acute meningitis. However, there is limited information about HEV associated with aseptic meningitis in mainland China because it has not been classified as a notifiable disease. To characterize the HEVs associated with sporadic aseptic meningitis in China and to analyze their genetic features. Cerebrospinal fluid, throat swab and feces specimens were collected from patients with aseptic meningitis in 5 sentinel hospitals in Shandong Province, China between 2006 and 2012. Virological investigation (viral isolation and molecular identification) and phylogenetic analysis were performed. A total of 437 hospitalized patients were reported, and enteroviruses were detected in the specimens from 84 patients (19.2%) and were identified into 17 serotypes. The nine main serotypes were echovirus (E) 30 (27.4%), EV71 (13.1%), coxsackievirus (CV) B1 (9.5%), CVB3 (7.1%), CVB5 (7.1%), E6 (7.1%), E9 (7.1%), CVA9 (6.0%), and CVA10 (3.6%). Monthly distribution of isolated enteroviruses revealed a major peak in summer-fall season and a small second peak in winter constituted totally by EV71. Sequence analysis on VP1 coding region suggested Shandong strains had great genetic divergence with isolates from other countries. Multiple serotypes were responsible for enterovirus meningitis in mainland China. Aseptic meningitis caused by EV71 and coxsackie A viruses-the predominant pathogens for the hand, foot, and mouth disease-is currently an important concern in mainland China.

  7. Comparison of Triton SODAR Data to Meteorological Tower Wind Measurement Data in Hebei Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuechun, Y.; Jixue, W.; Hongfang, W.; Guimin, L.; Bolin, Y.; Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Kline, D.

    2012-01-01

    With the increased interest in remote sensing of wind information in recent years, it is important to determine the reliability and accuracy of new wind measurement technologies if they are to replace or supplement conventional tower-based measurements. In view of this, HydroChina Corporation and the United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a comparative test near a wind farm in Hebei Province, China. We present the results of an analysis characterizing the measurement performance of a state-of-the-art Sound Detection and Ranging (sodar) device when compared to a traditional tower measurement program. NREL performed the initial analysis of a three-month period and sent the results to HydroChina. When another month of data became available, HydroChina and their consultant Beijing Millenium Engineering Software (MLN) repeated NREL's analysis on the complete data set, also adding sensitivity analysis for temperature, humidity, and wind speed (Section 6). This report presents the results of HydroChina's final analysis of the four-month period.

  8. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  9. A New Basal Salamandroid (Amphibia, Urodela) from the Late Jurassic of Qinglong, Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jia; Gao, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    A new salamandroid salamander, Qinglongtriton gangouensis (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on 46 fossil specimens of juveniles and adults collected from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Tiaojishan Formation cropping out in Hebei Province, China. The new salamander displays several ontogenetically and taxonomically significant features, most prominently the presence of a toothed palatine, toothed coronoid, and a unique pattern of the hyobranchium in adults. Comparative study of the new salamander with previously known fossil and extant salamandroids sheds new light on the early evolution of the Salamandroidea, the most species-diverse clade in the Urodela. Cladistic analysis places the new salamander as the sister taxon to Beiyanerpeton, and the two taxa together form the basalmost clade within the Salamandroidea. Along with recently reported Beiyanerpeton from the same geological formation in the neighboring Liaoning Province, the discovery of Qinglongtriton indicates that morphological disparity had been underway for the salamandroid clade by early Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) time.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

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    Luo Houqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis (27%, 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger (20%, 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious (17%, and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus (22% were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus, wild geese (Anser cygnoides, and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus. Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%, 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%, and 4 of 35 cattle (11% were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  11. The genesis of the Hashitu porphyry molybdenum deposit, Inner Mongolia, NE China: constraints from mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and multiple isotope (H, O, S, Mo, Pb) studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Degao; Liu, Jiajun; Tombros, Stylianos; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2017-06-01

    The Hashitu porphyry molybdenum deposit is located in the Great Hinggan Range Cu-Mo-Pb-Zn-Ag polymetallic metallogenic province of NE China, in which the Mo-bearing quartz veins are hosted in approximately coeval granites and porphyries. The deposit contains more than 100 Mt of ore with an average grade of 0.13 wt.% Mo. This well-preserved magmatic-hydrothermal system provides an excellent opportunity to determine the source of the molybdenum, the evolution of the hydrothermal fluids and the controls on molybdenite precipitation in a potentially important but poorly understood metallogenic province. Studies of fluid inclusions hosted in quartz veins demonstrate that the Hashitu hydrothermal system evolved to progressively lower pressure and temperature. Mineralogical and fluid inclusion analyses and physicochemical calculations suggest that molybdenite deposition occurred at a temperature of 285 to 325 °C, a pressure from 80 to 230 bars, a pH from 3.5 to 5.6, and a ∆log fO2 (HM) of -3.0, respectively. Results of multiple isotope (O, H, S, Mo, and Pb) analyses are consistent in indicating a genetic relationship between the ore-forming fluids, metals, and the Mesozoic granitic magmatism (i.e., δ 18OH2O from +1.9 to +9.7‰, δDH2O from -106 to -87‰, δ 34SH2S from +0.3 to +3.9‰, δ 98/95Mo from 0 to +0.37‰, 206Pb/204Pb from 18.2579 to 18.8958, 207Pb/204Pb from 15.5384 to 15.5783, and 208Pb/204Pb from 38.0984 to 42.9744). Molybdenite deposition is interpreted to have occurred from a low-density magmatic-hydrothermal fluid in response to decreases in temperature, pressure, and fO2.

  12. Impact evaluation of HIV/AIDS education in rural Henan province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ben-yan; Xiang, Yuan-xi; Zhao, Rui; Feng, Zhan-chun; Liang, Shu-ying; Wang, Yu-ming

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, there is a trend of HIV prevalence transmitting from high-risk group to average-risk group in China. Rural China is the weak link of HIV prevention, and rural areas of Henan province which is one of the most high-risk regions in China have more than 60% of the AIDS patients in the province. Thus, improving the HIV awareness and implementing health education become the top-priority of HIV/AIDS control and prevention. A multistage sampling was designed to draw 1129 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and 1168 non-PLWHAs in 4 prevalence counties of Henan province. A health promoting and social-psychological support model was constructed to improve the health knowledge of participants. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression were performed to determine the intervention effect and influencing factors. All groups had misunderstandings towards the basic medical knowledge and the AIDS transmission mode. Before the intervention, 59.3% of the HIV/AIDS patients and 74.6% of the healthy people had negative attitudes towards the disease. There was statistically significant difference in the improvement of knowledge, attitude and action with regards to HIV prevention before and after intervention (PAIDS health knowledge, whereas older PLWHAs (OR=0.961) were less likely to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge. However, the intervention effect was associated with the expertise of doctors and supervisors, the content and methods of education, and participants' education level. It was concluded that health education of HIV/AIDS which positively influences the awareness and attitude of HIV prevention is popular in rural areas, therefore, a systematic and long-term program of HIV control and prevention is urgently needed in rural areas.

  13. Outpatient prescription practices in rural township health centers in Sichuan Province, China

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    Jiang Qian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sichuan Province is an agricultural and economically developing province in western China. To understand practices of prescribing medications for outpatients in rural township health centers is important for the development of the rural medical and health services in this province and western China. Methods This is an observational study based on data from the 4th National Health Services Survey of China. A total of 3,059 prescriptions from 30 township health centers in Sichuan Province were collected and analyzed. Seven indicators were employed in the analyses to characterize the prescription practices. They are disease distribution, average cost per encounter, number of medications per encounter, percentage of encounters with antibiotics, percentage of encounters with glucocorticoids, percentage of encounters with combined glucocorticoids and antibiotics, and percentage of encounters with injections. Results The average medication cost per encounter was 16.30 Yuan ($2.59. About 60% of the prescriptions contained Chinese patent medicine (CPM, and almost all prescriptions (98.07% contained western medicine. 85.18% of the prescriptions contained antibiotics, of which, 24.98% contained two or more types of antibiotics; the percentage of prescriptions with glucocorticoids was 19.99%; the percentage of prescriptions with both glucocorticoids and antibiotics was 16.67%; 51.40% of the prescriptions included injections, of which, 39.90% included two or more injections. Conclusions The findings from this study demonstrated irrational medication uses of antibiotics, glucocorticoids and injections prescribed for outpatients in the rural township health centers in Sichuan Province. The reasons for irrational medication uses are not only solely due to the pursuit of maximizing benefits in the township health centers, but also more likely attributable to the lack of medical knowledge of rational medication uses among rural doctors and the

  14. Analysis of Climate Change Effect on Camellia Oil Content in Fujian Province of China

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    YU Hui-kang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fujian Province is one of the main camellia oleifera production areas in China. Camellia oleifera is also an important characteristic varieties of woody oil, which can produce the high quality seed oil. By using of 0.5°(E×0.5°(Nlattice data of China ground temperature and precipitation from 1961 to 2010 which came from National Meteorological Information Center in 2013, this paper extracted the corre-sponding decadal climate data of Fujian Province to carry on statistical and variation analysis, applied climate models of the integrated assess-ment for camellia oil content by using of ArcGIS geographic information technology and probability statistics method to regionalize the oil content of camellia oleifera temporal and spatial distribution from 1961s to 2010s in Fujian Province, analyzed the variation relationship be-tween the oil content and climate essential factor of the monthly decadal mean temperature and precipitation in September at the stage of the key growth period of camellia oil fat accumulation and transformation, evaluated the regional characteristics of camellia oil content variation affected by climate factors in Fujian Province from 1961s to 2010s. The results showed that the decadal mean precipitation in September had a positive significant correlation with oil content change and played a major role of camellia oleifera production in Fujian Province; the signif-icant characteristics of that oil content level in high or low followed the decadal alternate change. There were obviously different oil content level between high oil decadal(1960s, 1980s, 2000sand low oil decadal(1970s, 1990s, and its significant variation period was 20 years. The decadal difference was not significant in temperature coefficient of variation (CvT, which affected the oil content was not obvious either. But there had significant change between precipitation coefficient of variation(CvRand oil content coefficient of variation(Cvf, and their

  15. Impact of One-Year Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Heroin Users in Jiangsu Province, China

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    Guohong Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Although the effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is well-established in many countries, it is a relatively new therapy for heroin users in China. Jiangsu Province, a relatively wealthy province, set up 4 MMT clinics in February 2006. No previous studies have evaluated the impact of MMT in a wealthy Chinese province. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a 1-year MMT among heroin users in Jiangsu Province. We investigated the impact of the treatment by examining the following outcomes: 1 reduction of heroin use, 2 increase of appropriate sexual intercourse, 3 reduction of antisocial behavior, 4 increase of better social and family relationships, and 5 HIV prevalence among heroin users in MMT clinics. Design and Setting Repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and after heroin users in Jiangsu Province received at least 1-year of treatment in the MMT clinics. A questionnaire survey was implemented for those who agreed to participate from March to April 2006, before the initiation of MMT (N = 554. The second survey was from August to September 2007 and was administered to those who received MMT for more than 1 year (N = 804. One hundred and ninety-six patients who were investigated in both surveys were included in a longitudinal study to evaluate the factors attributable to behavior change. Results MMT helped in reducing the percentage of heroin injection and also improved social and familial relationships. Antisocial behavior, including theft, prostitution, and dealing in heroin, decreased after 1-year treatment in the MMT clinics. However, the percentage of patients using condoms was not statistically significant. No case was found to be HIV-positive among those who received more than 1 year MMT. In the longitudinal study of 196 patients who participated in both surveys, no specific demographic variables were found to be associated with heroin use, anti-social behaviors after 1-year

  16. A coxsackievirus B5-associated aseptic meningitis outbreak in Shandong Province, China in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Tao, Zexin; Song, Yanyan; Liu, Guifang; Wang, Haiyan; Liu, Yao; Song, Lizhi; Li, Yan; Lin, Xiaojuan; Cui, Ning; Xu, Aiqiang

    2013-03-01

    In 2009, a major outbreak of aseptic meningitis was noted in Linyi city, Shandong province, China. From June to September 2009, a total of 2,104 cases were involved in this outbreak, and 98.6% of patients were CVB5). Homologous comparison indicated that these isolates had 0-7.7% nucleotide divergence with each other. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed global CVB5 could be separated into four genogroups, and all Linyi CVB5 isolates belonged to the genogroup C which had been circulating for recent 27 years in Asia and Europe. Interestingly, two distinct lineages were observed for the 17 isolates in the phylogenetic tree, indicating that at least two different transmission chains of CVB5 were responsible for this outbreak. This study showed that CVB5-associated aseptic meningitis is an emerging concern in China. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Temporal Trends in Syphilis and Gonorrhea Incidences in Guangdong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Nicholas X.; Tan, Grace X.; Yang, Li-Gang; Yang, Bin; Powers, Kimberly A.; Emch, Michael E.; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    The high burden of syphilis in China presents a unique opportunity to examine temporal trends. This study used wavelet transformation and Fourier analysis to assess the presence of temporal oscillations in the incidence of syphilis among adults, gonorrhea, and congenital syphilis over 11 years in China's largest province. This study found a significant annual oscillation trend in the incidence of adult syphilis, consistent with a peak during July–September, which was 4-fold higher than the trough, which occurred during January–March. A similar but dampened trend was observed in the incidence of gonorrhea, and no trend was observed for the incidence of congenital syphilis. Further research on the temporal oscillation of the incidence of syphilis is needed. PMID:24041788

  18. Marriage Squeeze and Intergenerational Support in Contemporary Rural China: Evidence from X County of Anhui Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoyi; Guo, Qiuju; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-01-01

    With China's gender imbalance and increasingly severe male marriage squeeze, patterns of intergenerational support in rural areas are likely to undergo significant change. Using data from a survey of four towns from X county in Anhui province carried out in 2008, this article analyzes the effects of sons' marital status on intergenerational support. Random-effect regression analysis shows that son's marital status has strong effects on financial support to and coresidence with parents. Compared with married sons, older unmarried sons (so-called forced bachelors) tend to provide less financial support to their parents and are more likely to live with their parents. Parents' support of sons, as well as the parents' own needs and sons' capabilities all affect the support provided by sons. These results show that both theories of exchange and altruism are simultaneously relevant in the context of the marriage squeeze of contemporary rural China. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Upper lower Cambrian (provisional Cambrian Series 2 trilobites from northwestern Gansu Province, China

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    Jan Bergström†

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Upper lower Cambrian (provisional Cambrian Series 2 trilobites are described from three sections through the Shuangyingshan Formation in the Beishan area, northwestern Gansu Province, China. The trilobite fauna is dominated by eodiscoid and corynexochid trilobites, together representing at least ten genera: Serrodiscus, Tannudiscus, Calodiscus, Pagetides, Kootenia, Edelsteinaspis, Ptarmiganoides?, Politinella, Dinesus and Subeia. Eleven species are described, of which seven are identified with previously described taxa and four described under open nomenclature. The composition of the fauna suggests biogeographic affinity with Siberian rather than Gondwanan trilobite faunas, and the Cambrian Series 2 faunas described herein and from elsewhere in northwestern China seem to be indicative of the marginal areas of the Siberian palaeocontinent. This suggests that the Middle Tianshan–Beishan Terrane may have been located fairly close to Siberia during middle–late Cambrian Epoch 2.

  20. Impact of Manufacturing Transfer on SO2 Emissions in Jiangsu Province, China

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    Ying Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of manufacturing transfer in Jiangsu province, China, on the spatial-temporal variations of SO2 emissions is investigated using estimated sector-specific SO2 emissions, and emissions in the different transfer-in and transfer-out regions were quantified during 2000–2011. Our results show that SO2 emissions had undergone three phases: an increase in the period of 2000–2005, a rapid decline in 2005–2008 and a slow decline in 2008–2011. Emissions from the south dominated the total emissions in the province. Cleaner production generally contributed to the reduced emissions, but rather, at the industrial scale. Pollution abatement was occasional and industrial structure was negligible in some years. The three phases also coincided with the three periods of the manufacturing transfer: transferred to the south from outside the province during 2000–2005, to the central from the south within the province during 2005–2008 and to the north from the south or partly from the inner central within the province during 2008–2011. With the manufacturing transfer, SO2 emission magnitudes and distributions were also changed. In the south, −12.36 and −5.62 Mt of SO2 emissions were transferred out during 2005–2008 and 2008–2011, respectively. Forty-three-point-four percent and 56.4% of the SO2 emissions in the south were transferred to the central and north during 2005–2008, respectively. The north region received 77.7% and 22.1% of SO2 emissions from the south and the central region during 2008–2011, respectively. The paper reveals that structure adjustments should be executed in a timely manner in the manufacturing transfer-in process so that the transfer-in regions can benefit from the economic boom without bearing a deteriorated environment.

  1. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in peafowls in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

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    Tian Yi-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds, with a worldwide distribution. Surveys of T. gondii infection in wild birds have been reported extensively in the world, but little is known of T. gondii infection in peafowls worldwide. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in peafowls in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Methods Sera from 277 peafowls, including 272 blue peafowls (Pavo cristatus and 5 green peafowls (Pavo muticus originated from two geographic areas in Yunnan Province were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 35 of 277 (12.64% peafowls (MAT titer ≥ 1:5. Seropositive birds were found in both species, 33 in 272 blue peafowls and 2 in 5 green peafowls. There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between the adolescent birds (6.74% and the adult birds (6.67% (P > 0.05. The geographical origins of peafowls was found to be highly associated with T. gondii infection in the present study, a statistically significant difference in T. gondii seropositivity was observed between peafowls from Kunming (31.08% and those from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (5.91% (OR = 10.956, 95% CI = 1.632-73.545, P = 0.014. Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between ages and geographical origins of peafowls (P > 0.05. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated that infection of peafowls with T. gondii is widespread in Yunnan Province, which has significant public health concerns and implications for prevention and control of toxoplamosis in this province. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of T. gondii infection in China’s southwestern Yunnan Province.

  2. Ore genesis and fluid evolution of the Daheishan giant porphyry molybdenum deposit, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling-li; Zeng, Qing-dong; Liu, Jian-ming; Friis, Henrik; Zhang, Zuo-lun; Duan, Xiao-xia; Chu, Shao-xiong

    2015-01-01

    The Daheishan giant porphyry Mo deposit is located at the eastern segment of the CAOB, NE China. The ore-bearing intrusion of Daheishan deposit is a Jurassic granitic complex that includes Changgangling biotite granodiorite, Qiancuoluo seriate granodiorite, and Qiancuoluo granodioritic porphyry. Mineralization consists of disseminated, breccia and veined types. The hydrothermal fluids show significant magmatic signatures, as evidenced by the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of quartz and sulfur isotopic characteristics of ores. Consistence of lead isotopic compositions of the sulfides and the Daheishan intrusive complex further indicate a close relationship between the mineralization and magma. The fluid inclusions in quartz comprise of predominant aqueous two-phase as well as gas-rich fluid inclusions and a small number of daughter mineral-bearing inclusions. The gas species in the fluid inclusions are H2O, CO2, N2, CH4, C2H6, Ar∗ and minor H2S; the liquid compositions are SO42-, Cl-, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. Raman spectroscopy on individual fluid inclusions reveals a main gaseous composition of H2O, minor H2S and CO2. The fluid system in Daheishan Mo deposit can be described as NaCl-KCl-H2O type. Fluid inclusion microthermometry reveals subsolidus homogenization temperatures for fluid inclusions in the magmatic quartz phenocrysts (Th = 400-450 °C, salinities = ∼21 eq. wt.%), suggesting an obliteration of higher temperature history of the porphyry system by the superimposed processes. Most of the mineralization occurred at temperature range of 220-360 °C, or higher. The temperature and salinity decreased to 100-170 °C and 0-15 eq. wt.%, respectively, when the hydrothermal fluid activities were gradually ending. No distinct evolution pattern based on the homogenization temperature or stable isotopic analyses is observed among the different mineralization stages. Mineralization was supposed to be related to the multi-phased boiling of fluids, instead

  3. Infant formula crisis in china: a cohort study in sichuan province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2015-03-01

    China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers' opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers' opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China.

  4. Molecular Detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Ruminants from Twelve Provinces of China

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    Haixiang Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that are of significant economic importance as they can infect large and small ruminants and also people. There is little information on anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in ruminants in China. 16S rRNA FRET-qPCRs were used to screen convenience whole blood samples from 2,240 domestic ruminants in 12 provinces of China for Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Positive samples were further analyzed with a standard PCR for the gltA. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in the sheep (11.7%; 13/111, goats (81.8%; 219/270, cattle (13.2%; 241/1,830, and water buffaloes (6.9%; 2/29. Ehrlichia spp. DNA was detected in sheep (1.8%; 2/111, goats (1.1%; 3/270, and cattle (3.6%; 65/1830 but not in water buffaloes (0/29. Sequencing of gltA PCR products showed that A. marginale, A. ovis, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia sp. (JX629807 were present in ruminants from China, while the 16S rRNA FRET-qPCR sequence data indicated that there might also be A. platys, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma sp. BL126-13 (KJ410243, and Anaplasma sp. JC3-6 (KM227012. Our study shows that domestic ruminants from China are not uncommonly infected with a variety of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp.

  5. Molecular Detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Ruminants from Twelve Provinces of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Haixiang; Kelly, Patrick John; Zhang, Jilei; Luo, Qinghua; Yang, Yi; Mao, Yongjiang; Yang, Zhangping; Li, Jing; Wu, Hongzhuan

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that are of significant economic importance as they can infect large and small ruminants and also people. There is little information on anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in ruminants in China. 16S rRNA FRET-qPCRs were used to screen convenience whole blood samples from 2,240 domestic ruminants in 12 provinces of China for Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Positive samples were further analyzed with a standard PCR for the gltA. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in the sheep (11.7%; 13/111), goats (81.8%; 219/270), cattle (13.2%; 241/1,830), and water buffaloes (6.9%; 2/29). Ehrlichia spp. DNA was detected in sheep (1.8%; 2/111), goats (1.1%; 3/270), and cattle (3.6%; 65/1830) but not in water buffaloes (0/29). Sequencing of gltA PCR products showed that A. marginale, A. ovis, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia sp. (JX629807) were present in ruminants from China, while the 16S rRNA FRET-qPCR sequence data indicated that there might also be A. platys, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma sp. BL126-13 (KJ410243), and Anaplasma sp. JC3-6 (KM227012). Our study shows that domestic ruminants from China are not uncommonly infected with a variety of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. PMID:28096822

  6. Assessment of tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province, China

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    Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu

    2017-04-01

    Shandong province is located on the east coast of China and has a coastline of about 3100 km. There are only a few tsunami events recorded in the history of Shandong Province, but the tsunami hazard assessment is still necessary as the rapid economic development and increasing population of this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential danger posed by tsunamis for Shandong Province. The numerical simulation method was adopted to assess the tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province. The Cornell multi-grid coupled tsunami numerical model (COMCOT) was used and its efficacy was verified by comparison with three historical tsunami events. The simulated maximum tsunami wave height agreed well with the observational data. Based on previous studies and statistical analyses, multiple earthquake scenarios in eight seismic zones were designed, the magnitudes of which were set as the potential maximum values. Then, the tsunamis they induced were simulated using the COMCOT model to investigate their impact on the coastal areas of Shandong Province. The numerical results showed that the maximum tsunami wave height, which was caused by the earthquake scenario located in the sea area of the Mariana Islands, could reach up to 1.39 m off the eastern coast of Weihai city. The tsunamis from the seismic zones of the Bohai Sea, Okinawa Trough, and Manila Trench could also reach heights of >1 m in some areas, meaning that earthquakes in these zones should not be ignored. The inundation hazard was distributed primarily in some northern coastal areas near Yantai and southeastern coastal areas of Shandong Peninsula. When considering both the magnitude and arrival time of tsunamis, it is suggested that greater attention be paid to earthquakes that occur in the Bohai Sea. In conclusion, the tsunami hazard facing the coastal area of Shandong Province is not very serious; however, disasters could occur if such events coincided with spring tides or other

  7. Carbon monoxide degassing from seismic fault zones in the Basin and Range province, west of Beijing, China

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    Sun, Yutao; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Zheng, Guodong; Li, Jing; Shi, Hongyu; Guo, Zhengfu; Du, Jianguo

    2017-11-01

    Degassing of carbon monoxide (CO), which plays a significant role in the contribution of deep carbon to the atmosphere, commonly occurs within active fault zones. CO degassing from soil to the atmosphere in the Basin and Range province, west of Beijing (BRPB), China, was investigated by in-situ field measurements in the active fault zones. The measured concentrations of CO in soil gas in the BRPB ranged from 0.29 × 10-6 to 1.1 × 10-6 with a mean value of 0.6 × 10-6, which is approximately twice as large as that in the atmosphere. Net fluxes of CO degassing ranged from -48.6 mg m-2 d-1 to 12.03 mg m-2 d-1. The diffusion of CO from soil to the atmosphere in the BRPB was estimated to be at least 7.6 × 103 ton/a, which is comparable to the corresponding result of about 1.2 × 104 ton/a for CO2. CO concentrations were spatially heterogeneous with clearly higher concentrations along the NE-SW trending in the BRPB. These elevated values of CO concentrations were also coincident with the region with low-velocity and high conductivity in deep mantle, and high Poisson's ratio in the crust, thereby suggesting that CO degassing from the soil might be linked to upwelling of the asthenospheric mantle. Other sources of CO in the soil gas are suggested to be dominated by chemical reactions between deep fluids and carbonate minerals (e.g., dolomite, limestone, and siderite) in country rocks. Biogenic processes may also contribute to the CO in soil gas. The spatial distribution patterns of CO concentrations are coincident with the stress field, suggesting that the concentrations of CO could be a potential indicator for crustal stress field and, hence is potential useful for earthquake monitoring in the BRPB.

  8. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China.

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    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each sampled population and the total population displayed high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). In these molecular genetic variants, 91.58% genetic variation was derived from intra-regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. Demographic analysis supported population expansion of T. vaginalis isolates from central China. Our findings showing moderate-to-high genetic variations in the 32 isolates of T. vaginalis provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for the development of future control strategies.

  9. A meta-analysis of coastal wetland ecosystem services in Liaoning Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baodi; Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Kang, Xiaoming; Pan, Xu; Lei, Yinru

    2018-01-01

    Wetlands are impacted by economic and political initiatives, and their ecosystem services are attracting increasing public attention. It is crucial that management decisions for wetland ecosystem services quantify the economic value of the ecosystem services. In this paper, we aimed to estimate a monetary value for coastal wetland ecosystem services in Liaoning Province, China. We selected 433 observations from 85 previous coastal wetland economic evaluations (mostly in China) including detailed spatial and economic characteristics in each wetland, then used a meta-analysis scale transfer method to calculate the total value of coastal wetland ecosystem services in Liaoning Province. Our results demonstrated that, on average, the ecosystem services provided by seven different coastal wetland types were worth US40,648 per ha per year, and the total value was 28,990,439,041 in 2013. Shallow marine waters accounted for the largest proportion (83.97%). Variables with a significant positive effect on the ecosystem service values included GDP per capita, population density, distance from the wetland to the city center and the year of evaluation, while wetland size and latitude had negative relationships.

  10. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium from animal sources in Qinghai province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanis, Panagiotis; Plutzer, Judit; Halim, Norhaliza Abdul; Igori, Khatanbaatar; Nagasawa, Hideyuki; Ongerth, Jerry; Liqing, Ma

    2007-11-01

    The presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 20 zoo animals of the Xining Zoo, 16 farm yaks and 42 farm goats in Qinghai province, China was investigated by an immunofluorescence test (IFT). The species and/or genotypes were determined by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis of a fragment of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 16 zoo animals, 2 yaks, and 15 goats by IFT. The IFT positive samples were further investigated by PCR, and 16 of them were found to be positive by that method also. Sequence analysis of the PCR products derived from Cryptosporidium oocysts from Black leopard (Panthera pardus), Heijing He (Grus nigricollis), Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia), Takin (Budorcas taxicolor), Lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens), and White-eared pheasant (Crossoptilon crossoptilon) fecal samples matched that of Cryptosporidium parvum mouse genotype. Sequence analyses of other PCR products were consistent with cervine genotype Cryptosporidium from Ibex (Capra ibex), a novel Cryptosporidium genotype from a wild yak (Bos mutus), C. bovis-like genotype from one goat sample and also a novel Cryptosporidium genotype from one other separate goat sample. The present work reports the first data on Cryptosporidium infections in animals from the Qinghai province of mountainous central western China and the first findings of the 'cervine' genotype in Capra ibex, C. bovis-like genotype and the new Cryptosporidium spp. in farm goat and in wild yak.

  11. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kun [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Lin, Xian-Dan [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Wen [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Shi, Mang [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Guo, Wen-Ping [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Xiao-He [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Xing, Jian-Guang [Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); and others

    2015-02-15

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not.

  12. Detection of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in White Yaks in Gansu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Gang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the most common zoonotic pathogen of microsporidiosis, has been found in various animals and humans, but no information is available concerning the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in white yaks (Bos grunniens. In the present study, 353 faecal samples from white yaks in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, Gansu Province, Northwestern China, were collected and examined by PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer gene to estimate E. bieneusi prevalence and identify their genotypes. Of the 353 faecal samples, 4 (1.13% were tested E. bieneusi-positive. Sequences analysis revealed that two known genotypes, namely, I (n=1 and BEB4 (n=2, and a novel genotype, namely, WCY1 (n=1, were found in this study. Among them, genotype WCY1 was clustered into Group 1, and genotypes I and BEB4 belonged to Group 2. The present study firstly indicates the existence of E. bieneusi in yaks in Gansu Province, Northwestern China. This is also the first record of E. bieneusi in white yaks. Effective measures should be taken to control E. bieneusi infection in white yaks, other animals, and humans.

  13. Indicators of child health, service utilization and mortality in Zhejiang Province of China, 1998-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei Fang; Xu, Yan Hua; Yang, Ru Lai; Zhao, Zheng Yan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the levels of primary health care services for children and their changes in Zhejiang Province, China from 1998 to 2011. The data were drawn from Zhejiang maternal and child health statistics collected under the supervision of the Health Bureau of Zhejiang Province. Primary health care coverage, hospital deliveries, low birth weight, postnatal visits, breastfeeding, underweight, early neonatal (mortality, neonatal mortality, infant mortality and under-5 mortality were investigated. The coverage rates for children under 3 years old and children under 7 years old increased in the last 14 years. The hospital delivery rate was high during the study period, and the overall difference narrowed. There was a significant difference (Pinfant and under-5 mortality rates decreased from 6.66‰, 8.67‰, 11.99‰ and 15.28‰ to 1.69‰, 2.36‰, 3.89‰ and 5.42‰, respectively (Pmortality rates in rural areas were slightly higher than those in urban areas each year, and the mortality rates were lower in Ningbo, Wenzhou, and Jiaxing regions and higher in Quzhou and Lishui regions. Primary health care services for children in Zhejiang Province improved from 1998 to 2011. Continued high rates of low birth weight in urban areas and mortality in rural areas may be addressed with improvements in health awareness and medical technology.

  14. Evaluation of TRMM 3B43 Precipitation Data for Drought Monitoring in Jiangsu Province, China

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    Hui Tao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based precipitation monitoring at high spatial resolution is crucial for assessing the water and energy cycles at the global and regional scale. Based on the recently released 7th version of the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA product of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, and the monthly precipitation data (3B43 are evaluated using observed monthly precipitation from 65 meteorological stations in Jiangsu Province, China, for the period 1998–2014. Additionally, the standardized precipitation index (SPI, which is derived by a nonparametric approach, is employed to investigate the suitability of the TRMM 3B43 precipitation data for drought monitoring in Jiangsu Province. The temporal correlations between observations and the TRMM 3B43 precipitation data show, in general, reasonable agreement for different time scales. However, in summer, only 50% of the stations present correlation coefficients that are statistically significant at the 95% confidence interval. The overall best agreement of TRMM 3B43 precipitation data at seasonal scale tends to occur in autumn (SON. The comparative analysis of the calculated SPI time series suggests that the accuracy of TRMM3B43 decreases with increasing time scale. Stations with significant correlation coefficients also become less spatially homogeneous with increasing time scale. In summary, the findings demonstrate that TRMM 3B43 precipitation data can be used for reliable short-term drought monitoring in Jiangsu province, while temporal-spatial limitations exist for longer time scales.

  15. Phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates recovered from diarrhea cases in Guangdong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baisheng; Luo, Jinyan; Tan, Hailing; Ke, Bixia; He, Dongmei; Ke, Changwen; Klena, John D.; Zhang, Yonghui

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged as a common foodborne pathogen of global concern. In this study, 108 V. parahaemolyticus isolates that recovered from diarrhea cases (n = 96) and seafood products (n = 12) in Guangdong Province from 2007 to 2011 were characterized by serotyping, tdh and trh toxin gene detection and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The dominant serotypes from the cases were O3:K6, O4:K8 and O1: KUT (untyped). However, most isolates recovered from seafood products belonged to other serotypes. None of the isolates carried the trh gene, while the major isolates from the cases were tdh positive. MLST analysis revealed 31 sequence types (STs); 17 STs were unique in this study. eBURST analysis revealed four clonal complexes (CC), The majority of the isolates (n = 58, all from cases and tdh+) were grouped into the CC3, which included O3:K6, O4:K68 and O1:KUT isolates. The CC3 was the most prevalent clonal complex, and all of the CC3 isolates were recovered from clinical cases of geographically diverse origin. As to the CC345, which was completely constituted by O4:K8, was another important clonal complex affecting Guangdong Province. Ongoing surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus in diarrhea patients and seafood products remains a public health priority for Guangdong Province, China. PMID:25662708

  16. Spatiotemporal analysis the precipitation extremes affecting rice yield in Jiangsu province, southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Islam, A. R. M. Towfiqul; Zhang, Fangmin; Hu, Zhenghua

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing risk of meteorological disasters, it is of great importance to analyze the spatiotemporal changes of precipitation extremes and its possible impact on rice productivity, especially in Jiangsu province, southeast China. In this study, we explored the relationships between rice yield and extreme precipitation indices using Mann-Kendall trend test, Pettitt's test, and K-means clustering methods. This study used 10 extreme precipitation indices of the rice growing season (May to October) based on the daily precipitation records and rice yield data at 52 meteorological stations during 1961-2012 in Jiangsu province. The main findings were as follows: (1) correlation results indicated that precipitation extremes occurred in the months of July, August, and October, which had noticeable adverse effects on rice yield; (2) the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August and October should be considered as three key indicators for the precipitation-induced rice meteorological disasters; and (3) most of the stations showed an increasing trends for the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August, while the number of rainy days of October in all the stations demonstrated a decreasing trend. Moreover, Jiangsu province could be divided into two major sub-regions such as north and south areas with different temporal variations in the three key indicators.

  17. Changing Epidemiological Characteristics of Hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province, China: Increased Susceptibility in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifang; Chen, Yaping; Xie, Shuyun; Lv, Huakun

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis A is a common acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Annually, it affects 1.4 million people worldwide. Between 1991 and 1994, HAV infections were highly endemic in Zhejiang Province (China), with 78,720 reported HAV infections per year. Hepatitis A vaccine came on the market in 1995 and was implemented for voluntary immunization. Since 2008, hepatitis A vaccine has been integrated into the national childhood routine immunization program. To understand the current epidemiological profile of hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province since hepatitis A vaccine has been available for nearly two decades. This study used the 2005-2014 National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System data to evaluate the incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases in Zhejiang Province. The overall trend of incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (Phepatitis A vaccine seemed to be effective in decreasing notified hepatitis A incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years. Those aged ≥20 years were observed to be the most susceptible population. The vast majority of hepatitis A cases were notified among Laborers. Therefore, we strongly suggest that future preventive and control measures should focus more on adults, particularly Laborers, in addition to the current childhood hepatitis A vaccination programme.

  18. A meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi Yong; Lin, Chang Cheng; Liu, Jing Xiong; Wu, De Hui; Lian, Dong Ying; Chen, Bin Bin

    2010-05-01

    Based on the acid rain and concurrent meteorological observational data during the past 10 years in Fujian Province, China, the dependence of distribution characteristics of acid rain on season, rain rate, weather pattern and dominant airflow in four regions of Fujian Province is analyzed. On the annual average, the acid rain frequency is the highest (above 40%) in the southern and mid-eastern regions, and the lowest (16.2%) in the western region. The acid rain occurs most frequently in spring and winter, and least frequent in summer. The acid rain frequency in general increases with the increase of precipitation. It also depend on the direction of dominant airflows at 850 hPa. In the mid-eastern region, more than 40% acid rains appear when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW, S and SE. In the southern region, high acid rain occurrence happens when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW and S. In the northern region, 41.8% acid rains occur when the southwesterly is pronounced. In the western region, the southwesterly is associated with a 17% acid rain rate. The examination of meteorological sounding conditions over Fuzhou, Xiamen and Shaowu cities shows that the acid rain frequency increases with increased inversion thickness. Based on the results above, a meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain is established and tested in 2007. The result is encouraging. The model provides an objective basis for the development of acid rain forecasting operation in the province.

  19. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI, hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention.

  20. Raman micro-spectroscopy on diamond, graphite and other carbon polymorphs from the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic Kimi Complex of the Rhodope Metamorphic Province, NE Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraki, Maria; Proyer, Alexander; Mposkos, Evripidis; Kaindl, Reinhard; Hoinkes, Georg

    2006-01-01

    Raman micro-spectroscopy was applied on carbon inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts from kyanite-biotite-garnet schists of the Rhodope Metamorphic Province (RMP), NE Greece. Diamond and cuboids of poorly to highly ordered graphite were identified either as single phase inclusions or as polyphase inclusions along with CO 2 and/or carbonates (calcite/magnesian calcite). Questionable Raman bands that may be assigned to other C-phases (?nanodiamond/?lonsdaleite/?a different C-polymorph) have been observed. The presence of diamond confirms beyond any doubt the ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism reported by Mposkos and Kostopoulos [1] [E. Mposkos, D. Kostopoulos, Diamond, former coesite and supersilisic garnet in metasedimentary rocks from the Greek Rhodope: a new ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic province established, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 192 (2001) 497-506] in the RMP. Cuboid graphite showing variable degree of disordering most probably formed after diamond. The possible involvement of CO 2 and or C-O-H fluids in the formation of diamond is discussed.

  1. Characterizing a large outbreak of dengue fever in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian-Peng; He, Jian-Feng; Deng, Ai-Ping; Lin, Hua-Liang; Song, Tie; Peng, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Liu, Tao; Li, Zhi-Hao; Rutherford, Shannon; Zeng, Wei-Lin; Li, Xing; Ma, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Hui

    2016-05-03

    Dengue cases have been reported each year for the past 25 years in Guangdong Province, China with a recorded historical peak in 2014. This study aims to describe the epidemiological characteristics of this large outbreak in order to better understand its epidemic factors and to inform control strategies. Data for clinically diagnosed and laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases in 2014 were extracted from the China Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System. We analyzed the incidence and characteristics of imported and indigenous cases in terms of population, temporal and spatial distributions. A total of 45 224 dengue fever cases and 6 deaths were notified in Guangdong Province in 2014, with an incidence of 47.3 per 100 000 people. The elderly (65+ years) represented 11.7 % of total indigenous cases with the highest incidence (72.3 per 100 000). Household workers and the unemployed accounted for 23.1 % of indigenous cases. The majority of indigenous cases occurred in the 37(th) to 44(th) week of 2014 (September and October) and almost all (20 of 21) prefecture-level cities in Guangdong were affected. Compared to the non-Pearl River Delta Region, the Pearl River Delta Region accounted for the majority of dengue cases and reported cases earlier in 2014. Dengue virus serotypes 1 (DENV-1), 2 (DENV-2) and 3 (DENV-3) were detected and DENV-1 was predominant (88.4 %). Dengue fever is a serious public health problem and is emerging as a continuous threat in Guangdong Province. There is an urgent need to enhance dengue surveillance and control, especially for the high-risk populations in high-risk areas.

  2. Seroprevalence of Enterovirus A71 and Coxsackievirus A16 in Healthy People in Shandong Province, China.

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    Jian-Xing Wang

    Full Text Available Hand, foot, and mouth disease has become very common in mainland of China in recent years, and enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 are its major etiologic factors. Here we investigated the seroprevalence of enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 based on a large group of healthy individuals in Shandong province, China.A total of 1378 healthy individuals were tested for serum neutralizing antibodies against enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 using a micro neutralization test.The overall seroprevalence of enterovirus A71 neutralizing antibodies was 74.75%. It increased significantly from 48.84% in children aged 0-1 years old to 88.64% in those aged 20-29 years (p 40 years old with a significant gender-specific difference (p 40 years without a gender-specific difference. Nearly 50% of the children <1 year were susceptible to enterovirus A71 infection versus 40% to coxsackievirus A16 infection. Sample collection time and place also played a role in the enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 positive rates. The overall rates in January were significantly lower than those in April and August (p < 0.01; enterovirus A71 positive rates in Jinan city (capital city of Shandong province were lower than those in Jining city and Zibo city (p < 0.05; and oxsackievirus A16 positive rates in Jining city were significantly higher than those in Jinan city and Zibo city (p < 0.01.There were significant differences among age groups, locations, and time points in the seroprevalence rates of enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 neutralizing antibodies in healthy people in Shandong province.

  3. Impact of climate change on heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Horton, Radley M; Bader, Daniel A; Lesk, Corey; Jiang, Leiwen; Jones, Bryan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-05-01

    A warming climate is anticipated to increase the future heat-related total mortality in urban areas. However, little evidence has been reported for cause-specific mortality or nonurban areas. Here we assessed the impact of climate change on heat-related total and cause-specific mortality in both urban and rural counties of Jiangsu Province, China, in the next five decades. To address the potential uncertainty in projecting future heat-related mortality, we applied localized urban- and nonurban-specific exposure response functions, six population projections including a no population change scenario and five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and 42 temperature projections from 21 global-scale general circulation models and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results showed that projected warmer temperatures in 2016-2040 and 2041-2065 will lead to higher heat-related mortality for total non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes occurring annually during May to September in Jiangsu Province, China. Nonurban residents in Jiangsu will suffer from more excess heat-related cause-specific mortality in 2016-2065 than urban residents. Variations across climate models and RCPs dominated the uncertainty of heat-related mortality estimation whereas population size change only had limited influence. Our findings suggest that targeted climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should be taken in both urban and nonurban areas of Jiangsu Province. Specific public health interventions should be focused on the leading causes of death (stroke, IHD, and COPD), whose health burden will be amplified by a warming climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Climate Change on Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Lesk, Corey; Jiang, Leiwen; Jones, Bryan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    A warming climate is anticipated to increase the future heat-related total mortality in urban areas. However, little evidence has been reported for cause-specific mortality or nonurban areas. Here we assessed the impact of climate change on heat-related total and cause-specific mortality in both urban and rural counties of Jiangsu Province, China, in the next five decades. To address the potential uncertainty in projecting future heat-related mortality, we applied localized urban- and nonurban-specific exposure response functions, six population projections including a no population change scenario and five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and 42 temperature projections from 21 global-scale general circulation models and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results showed that projected warmer temperatures in 2016-2040 and 2041-2065 will lead to higher heat-related mortality for total non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes occurring annually during May to September in Jiangsu Province, China. Nonurban residents in Jiangsu will suffer from more excess heat-related cause-specific mortality in 2016-2065 than urban residents. Variations across climate models and RCPs dominated the uncertainty of heat-related mortality estimation whereas population size change only had limited influence. Our findings suggest that targeted climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should be taken in both urban and nonurban areas of Jiangsu Province. Specific public health interventions should be focused on the leading causes of death (stroke, IHD, and COPD), whose health burden will be amplified by a warming climate.

  5. Snow Cover Monitoring Using MODIS Data in Liaoning Province, Northeastern China

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    Yu Lu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of snow cover monitoring studies in Liaoning Province, northeastern China, using MODIS data. Snow cover plays an important role in both the regional water balance and soil moisture properties during the early spring in northeastern China. In addition, heavy snowfalls commonly trigger hazards such as flooding, caused by rapid snow melt, or crop failure, resulting from fluctuations in soil temperature associated with changes in the snow cover. The latter is a function of both regional, or global, climatic changes, as well as fluctuations in the albedo resulting from variations in the Snow Covered Area (SCA. These impacts are crucial to human activities, especially to those living in middle-latitude areas such as Liaoning Province. Thus, SCA monitoring is currently an important tool in studies of global climate change, particularly because satellite remote sensing data provide timely and efficient snow cover information for large areas. In this study, MODIS L1B data, MODIS Daily Snow Products (MOD10A1 and MODIS 8-day Snow Products (MOD10A2 were used to monitor the SCA of Liaoning Province over the winter months of November–April, 2006–2008. The effects of cloud masking and forest masking on the snow monitoring results were also assessed. The results show that the SCA percentage derived from MODIS L1B data is relatively consistent, but slightly higher than that obtained from MODIS Snow Products. In situ data from 25 snow stations were used to assess the accuracy of snow cover monitoring from the SCA compared to the results from MODIS Snow Products. The studies found that the SCA results were more reliable than MODIS Snow Products in the study area.

  6. [Enterobius vermicularis infection status among children in 9 provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Dan; Wang, Ju-Jun; Zhu, Hui-Hui; Zhu, Ting-Jun; Zang, Wei; Qian, Men-Bao; Li, Hong-Mei; Zhou, Chang-Hai; Wang, Guo-Fei; Xu, Long-Qi

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the infection status of Enterobius vermicularis among children in 9 Provinces/Autonomous regions/Municipalities (P/A/M) of China, and analyze its risk factors. From April to December 2011, one provincial capital (prefecture-level city) and one county (city, district) were chosen as investigation spots from Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Chongqing, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Fujian, Anhui and Guizhou, respectively. Children aged 2 to 12 were examined by using adhesive cellophane anal swab with round-bottom tube. Information of children's family condition, health behavior and school environment were collected by questionnairing. 14 964 children were examined, and 14 582 qualified questionnaires were collected. The total prevalence was 17.8% (2 659/14 964). Of the 9 P/A/M, the prevalence was highest in Hainan Province (51.1%, 869/1 701) and lowest in Anhui Province (0.8%, 13/1 589). The prevalence in urban areas (7.3%, 552/7 581) was lower than that of rural areas (28.5%, 2 107/7 383) (chi2 = 1156.73, P 0.05). The highest prevalence in males (61.2%, 300/490) and females (67.9%, 247/364) was found in children of Wanning City. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that residence, education level of parents, occupation of parents, nail biting, types of classroom ground and type of boarding were the risk factors on E. vermicularis infection. The prevalence of enterobiasis in children is still high in many areas of China, and the prevention and control measures should be taken according to the risk factors.

  7. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haiying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya' an, Sichuan 625014 (China); Zhang Keli, E-mail: keli@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. - Research Highlights: {yields} Environmental geochemistry has an significant impact on birth defects in the regions with an unusually high rate of birth defects. {yields} An excess of S and deficiency of Sr and Al are the distinctive environmental features associated with the high rate of birth defects in the Shanxi Province of China. {yields} Geochemical anomalies is a non-medical basis for effective prevention and cure of birth defects.

  8. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou; Wang, Lan

    2009-10-01

    China's cement industry, which produced 1,388 million metric tons (Mt) of cement in 2008, accounts for almost half of the world's total cement production. Nearly 40% of China's cement production is from relatively obsolete vertical shaft kiln (VSK) cement plants, with the remainder from more modern rotary kiln cement plants, including plants equipped with new suspension pre-heater and pre-calciner (NSP) kilns. Shandong Province is the largest cement-producing Province in China, producing 10% of China's total cement output in 2008. This report documents an analysis of the potential to improve the energy efficiency of NSP kiln cement plants in Shandong Province. Sixteen NSP kiln cement plants were surveyed regarding their cement production, energy consumption, and current adoption of 34 energy-efficient technologies and measures. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Energy conservation supply curves for both fuel and electricity savings were then constructed for the 16 surveyed plants. Using the bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 16% of total electricity use in the 16 surveyed cement plants in 2008. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows the total

  9. Historical analysis and modeling of the forest carbon dynamics using the Carbon Budget Model: an example for the Trento Province (NE, Italy

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    Pilli R

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Historical analysis and modeling of the forest carbon dynamics using the Carbon Budget Model: an example for the Trento Province (NE, Italy. The Carbon Budget Model (CBM-CFS3 developed by the Canadian Forest Service was applied to data collected by the last Italian National Forest Inventory (INFC for the Trento Province (NE, Italy. CBM was modified and adapted to the different management types (i.e., even-aged high forests, uneven-aged high forests and coppices and silvicultural systems (including clear cuts, single tree selection systems and thinning applied in this province. The aim of this study was to provide an example of down-scaling of this model from a national to a regional scale, providing (i an historical analysis, from 1995 to 2011, and (ii a projection, from 2012 to 2020, of the forest biomass and the carbon stock evolution. The analysis was based on the harvest rate reported by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (from 1995 to 2011, corrected according to the last INFC data and distinguished between timber and fuel woods and between conifers and broadleaves. Since 2012, we applied a constant harvest rate, equal to about 1300 Mm3 yr-1, estimated from the average harvest rate for the period 2006-2011. Model results were consistent with similar data reported in the literature. The average biomass C stock was 90 Mg C ha-1 and the biomass C stock change was 0.97 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and 0.87 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, for the period 1995 -2011 and 2012-2020, respectively. The C stock cumulated by the timber products since 1995 was 96 Gg C yr-1, i.e., about 28% of the average annual C stock change of the forests, equal to 345 Gg C yr-1. CBM also provided estimates on the evolution of the age class distribution of the even-aged forests and on the C stock of the DOM forest pools (litter, dead wood and soil. This study demonstrates the utility of CBM to provide estimates at a regional or local scale, using not only the data provided by the forest

  10. Estimates of Forest Biomass Carbon Storage in Liaoning Province of Northeast China: A Review and Assessment

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    Yu, Dapao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yin, You; Zhan, Jinyu; Lewis, Bernard J.; Tian, Jie; Bao, Ye; Zhou, Wangming; Zhou, Li; Dai, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of forest carbon storage and changes in storage capacity are critical for scientific assessment of the effects of forest management on the role of forests as carbon sinks. Up to now, several studies reported forest biomass carbon (FBC) in Liaoning Province based on data from China's Continuous Forest Inventory, however, their accuracy were still not known. This study compared estimates of FBC in Liaoning Province derived from different methods. We found substantial variation in estimates of FBC storage for young and middle-age forests. For provincial forests with high proportions in these age classes, the continuous biomass expansion factor method (CBM) by forest type with age class is more accurate and therefore more appropriate for estimating forest biomass. Based on the above approach designed for this study, forests in Liaoning Province were found to be a carbon sink, with carbon stocks increasing from 63.0 TgC in 1980 to 120.9 TgC in 2010, reflecting an annual increase of 1.9 TgC. The average carbon density of forest biomass in the province has increased from 26.2 Mg ha−1 in 1980 to 31.0 Mg ha−1 in 2010. While the largest FBC occurred in middle-age forests, the average carbon density decreased in this age class during these three decades. The increase in forest carbon density resulted primarily from the increased area and carbon storage of mature forests. The relatively long age interval in each age class for slow-growing forest types increased the uncertainty of FBC estimates by CBM-forest type with age class, and further studies should devote more attention to the time span of age classes in establishing biomass expansion factors for use in CBM calculations. PMID:24586881

  11. Maternal mortality in Henan Province, China: changes between 1996 and 2009.

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    Fengzhi You

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal deaths occur mostly in developing countries and the majority of them are preventable. This study analyzes changes in maternal mortality and related causes in Henan Province, China, between 1996 and 2009, in an attempt to provide a reliable basis for introducing effective interventions to reduce the maternal mortality ratio (MMR, part of the fifth Millennium Development Goal. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This population-based maternal mortality survey in Henan Province was carried out from 1996 to 2009. Basic information was obtained from the health care network for women and children and the vital statistics system, from specially trained monitoring personnel in 25 selected monitoring sites and by household survey in each case of maternal death. This data was subsequently reported to the Henan Provincial Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital. The total MMR in Henan Province declined by 78.4%, from 80.1 per 100 000 live births in 1996 to 17.3 per 100 000 live births in 2009. The decline was more pronounced in rural than in urban areas. The most common causes of maternal death during this period were obstetric hemorrhage (43.8%, pregnancy-induced hypertension (15.8%, amniotic fluid embolism (13.9% and heart disease (8.0%. The MMR was higher in rural areas with lower income, less education and poorer health care. CONCLUSION: There was a remarkable decrease in the MMR in Henan Province between 1996 and 2009 mainly in the rural areas and MMR due to direct obstetric causes such as obstetric hemorrhage. This study indicates that improving the health care network for women, training of obstetric staff at basic-level units, promoting maternal education, and increasing household income are important interventional strategies to reduce the MMR further.

  12. [Analysis of reports of cases of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2006 to 2013].

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    Yu, Bin; Ding, Bangmei; Shen, Han; Zhu, Baoli; Gao, Qianqian

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the characteristics of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province, China, and to provide a scientific basis for developing effective intervention measures and prevention strategies. The data from report cards of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province from 2006 to 2013 were arranged using EXCEL tables, and assessed. Statistical analysis was applied to the epidemiological data using SPSS. From 2006 to 2013, a total of 32672 cases of pesticide poisoning were reported in Jiangsu Province. Most of the cases were caused by non-occupational poisoning (life poisoning) (72.78%). A majority of patients with pesticide poisoning were 35-54 years old (40.85%) or older than 65 years (15.69%). There were more female patients (58.22%) than male patients (41.78%). Among patients with occupational poisoning, male patients (50.90%) were more than female patients. Among patients with non-occupational poisoning, female patients were more than male patients (38.37%). Pesticide poisoning mainly occurred from July to September. The case-fatality rate of occupational poisoning (0.47%) was lower than that of non-occupational poisoning (7.10%). All 13 cities in Jiangsu Province reported cases of pesticide poisoning. There were more cases in the northern regions than in the southern regions. Pesticide poisoning was mainly caused by organophosphorus insecticides including methamidophos, dichlorvos, dimethoate, omethoate, and parathion, which accounted for 65.58%of all cases. Paraquat had the highest case-fatality rate (10.06%) among all pesticides, followed by tetramine (10.00%), dimethoate or omethoate (7.85%), methamidophos (7.79%), and dimehypo (7.68%). Pesticide poisoning cannot be ignored. The management and control should be improved in production and usage of highly toxic pesticides including organophosphorus insecticides, rodenticides, and herbicides. More attention should be paid to the protection of vulnerable groups including women, children, and the elderly.

  13. Is tuberculosis health education reaching the public in China? A cross-sectional survey in Guizhou Province

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    Chen, Wei; Li, Yang; Yang, Haiqin; Ehiri, John; Chen, Zaiping; Liu, Ying; Wang, Mei; Liu, Shili; Tang, He; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Knowledge about tuberculosis (TB) is important for TB control, and China's national TB control guidelines emphasise TB health promotion. A 2010 national TB epidemiology survey showed that the general public had limited knowledge and awareness of TB. Objective To assess the level of TB knowledge after 5?years of TB health promotion in Guizhou Province, one of the regions with the highest TB burden in China. Design and setting A community-based, cross-sectional survey of 10?237 resid...

  14. Prevalence of Hymenolepis nana and H. diminuta from Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Heilongjiang Province, China.

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    Yang, Di; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yichi; Liu, Aiqin

    2017-06-01

    Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta are globally widespread zoonotic cestodes. Rodents are the main reservoir host of these cestodes. Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) are the best known and most common rats, and usually live wherever humans live, especially in less than desirable hygiene conditions. Due to the little information of the 2 hymenolepidid species in brown rats in China, the aim of this study was to understand the prevalence and genetic characterization of H. nana and H. diminuta in brown rats in Heilongjiang Province, China. Total 114 fecal samples were collected from brown rats in Heilongjiang Province. All the samples were subjected to morphological examinations by microscopy and genetic analysis by PCR amplification of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene. In total, 6.1% (7/114) and 14.9% (17/114) of samples were positive for H. nana and H. diminuta, respectively. Among them, 7 and 3 H. nana isolates were successfully amplified and sequenced at the COX1 and ITS2 loci, respectively. No nucleotide variations were found among H. nana isolates at either of the 2 loci. Seventeen H. diminuta isolates produced 2 different COX1 sequences while 7 ITS2 sequences obtained were identical to each other. The present results of H. nana and H. diminuta infections in brown rats implied the risk of zoonotic transmission of hymenolepiasis in China. These molecular data will be helpful to deeply study intra-specific variations within Hymenolepis cestodes in the future.

  15. Epidemiological surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV from poultry in Guangxi Province, Southern China.

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    Yi Peng

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV usually causes mild disease or asymptomatic infection in poultry. However, some LPAIV strains can be transmitted to humans and cause severe infection. Genetic rearrangement and recombination of even low pathogenic influenza may generate a novel virus with increased virulence, posing a substantial risk to public health. Southern China is regarded as the world "influenza epicenter", due to a rash of outbreaks of influenza in recent years. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of LPAIV at different live bird markets (LBMs in Guangxi province, Southern China. From January 2009 to December 2011, we collected 3,121 cotton swab samples of larynx, trachea and cloaca from the poultry at LBMs in Guangxi. Virus isolation, hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, and RT-PCR were used to detect and subtype LPAIV in the collected samples. Of the 3,121 samples, 336 samples (10.8% were LPAIV positive, including 54 (1.7% in chicken and 282 (9.1% in duck. The identified LPAIV were H3N1, H3N2, H6N1, H6N2, H6N5, H6N6, H6N8, and H9N2, which are combinations of seven HA subtypes (H1, H3, H4, H6, H9, H10 and H11 and five NA subtypes (N1, N2, N5, N6 and N8. The H3 and H9 subtypes are predominant in the identified LPAIVs. Among the 336 cases, 29 types of mixed infection of different HA subtypes were identified in 87 of the cases (25.9%. The mixed infections may provide opportunities for genetic recombination. Our results suggest that the LPAIV epidemiology in poultry in the Guangxi province in southern China is complicated and highlights the need for further epidemiological and genetic studies of LPAIV in this area.

  16. A spatial analysis of county-level variation in syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province, China.

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    Nicholas X Tan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI have made a resurgence in many rapidly developing regions of southern China, but there is little understanding of the social changes that contribute to this spatial distribution of STI. This study examines county-level socio-demographic characteristics associated with syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province.This study uses linear regression and spatial lag regression to determine county-level (n = 97 socio-demographic characteristics associated with a greater burden of syphilis, gonorrhea, and a combined syphilis/gonorrhea index. Data were obtained from the 2005 China Population Census and published public health data. A range of socio-demographic variables including gross domestic product, the Gender Empowerment Measure, standard of living, education level, migrant population and employment are examined. Reported syphilis and gonorrhea cases are disproportionately clustered in the Pearl River Delta, the central region of Guangdong Province. A higher fraction of employed men among the adult population, higher fraction of divorced men among the adult population, and higher standard of living (based on water availability and people per room are significantly associated with higher STI cases across all three models. Gross domestic product and gender inequality measures are not significant predictors of reported STI in these models.Although many ecological studies of STIs have found poverty to be associated with higher reported STI, this analysis found a greater number of reported syphilis cases in counties with a higher standard of living. Spatially targeted syphilis screening measures in regions with a higher standard of living may facilitate successful control efforts. This analysis also reinforces the importance of changing male sexual behaviors as part of a comprehensive response to syphilis control in China.

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Enterovirus Associated with Aseptic Meningitis in Shandong Province, China, 2006–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guifang; Xu, Aiqiang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Song, Lizhi; Ji, Feng; Wang, Suting; Cui, Ning; Song, Yanyan

    2014-01-01

    Background Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are common causes of acute meningitis. However, there is limited information about HEV associated with aseptic meningitis in mainland China because it has not been classified as a notifiable disease. Objectives To characterize the HEVs associated with sporadic aseptic meningitis in China and to analyze their genetic features. Study Design Cerebrospinal fluid, throat swab and feces specimens were collected from patients with aseptic meningitis in 5 sentinel hospitals in Shandong Province, China between 2006 and 2012. Virological investigation (viral isolation and molecular identification) and phylogenetic analysis were performed. Results A total of 437 hospitalized patients were reported, and enteroviruses were detected in the specimens from 84 patients (19.2%) and were identified into 17 serotypes. The nine main serotypes were echovirus (E) 30 (27.4%), EV71 (13.1%), coxsackievirus (CV) B1 (9.5%), CVB3 (7.1%), CVB5 (7.1%), E6 (7.1%), E9 (7.1%), CVA9 (6.0%), and CVA10 (3.6%). Monthly distribution of isolated enteroviruses revealed a major peak in summer-fall season and a small second peak in winter constituted totally by EV71. Sequence analysis on VP1 coding region suggested Shandong strains had great genetic divergence with isolates from other countries. Conclusions Multiple serotypes were responsible for enterovirus meningitis in mainland China. Aseptic meningitis caused by EV71 and coxsackie A viruses–the predominant pathogens for the hand, foot, and mouth disease–is currently an important concern in mainland China. PMID:24587020

  18. Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus associated with aseptic meningitis in Shandong Province, China, 2006-2012.

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    Zexin Tao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human enteroviruses (HEVs are common causes of acute meningitis. However, there is limited information about HEV associated with aseptic meningitis in mainland China because it has not been classified as a notifiable disease. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the HEVs associated with sporadic aseptic meningitis in China and to analyze their genetic features. STUDY DESIGN: Cerebrospinal fluid, throat swab and feces specimens were collected from patients with aseptic meningitis in 5 sentinel hospitals in Shandong Province, China between 2006 and 2012. Virological investigation (viral isolation and molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis were performed. RESULTS: A total of 437 hospitalized patients were reported, and enteroviruses were detected in the specimens from 84 patients (19.2% and were identified into 17 serotypes. The nine main serotypes were echovirus (E 30 (27.4%, EV71 (13.1%, coxsackievirus (CV B1 (9.5%, CVB3 (7.1%, CVB5 (7.1%, E6 (7.1%, E9 (7.1%, CVA9 (6.0%, and CVA10 (3.6%. Monthly distribution of isolated enteroviruses revealed a major peak in summer-fall season and a small second peak in winter constituted totally by EV71. Sequence analysis on VP1 coding region suggested Shandong strains had great genetic divergence with isolates from other countries. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple serotypes were responsible for enterovirus meningitis in mainland China. Aseptic meningitis caused by EV71 and coxsackie A viruses-the predominant pathogens for the hand, foot, and mouth disease-is currently an important concern in mainland China.

  19. [A study on health information literacy among urban and suburban residents in six provinces in China].

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    Nie, Xueqiong; Li, Yinghua; Li, Li; Huang, Xianggang

    2014-07-01

    To understand the status and its influencing factors of health information literacy among urban and suburban residents in China, and to explore the method for improving the health information literacy. From March to May in 2013, residents aged 18-60 years in six provinces in China were investigated with Questionnaire of Health Literacy of Diabetes Mellitus of the Public in China about self-reported health information literacy. The results of the survey were standardized by the 6th national census data. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore influencing factors of health information literacy. A total of 4 416 residents were surveyed, and 4 282 (97.0%) valid questionnaires were collected. After weight adjustments, 30.1% of the residents aged 18-60 years had adequate health information literacy in China, and the 95%CI of the rate was 28.5% - 31.6%. Totally, 70.8% of the residents ever actively searched for health information, 43.7% of the residents could easily retrieve the health information, 49.1% of the residents could easily understand the health information, 41.8% of the residents could confidently differentiate the quality of the health information and 51.1% of the residents ever searched health information on the internet. The results of multi-logistic regression showed that the rural residents, the males, those with lower levels of education, those with poor health had a lower health information literacy. The most trusted health information source was from doctors, and the trust rate reached 97.0%, followed by family members, friends or colleagues. The residents trusted the interpersonal communication more than the mass media and the new media. The level of health information literacy of the residents was generally low in China. To improve the health information literacy, high-quality health information services should be delivered to the residents, and the health education on the internet provided by the medical professionals should also be explored.

  20. A Spatial-Dynamic Agent-based Model of Energy Crop Introduction in Jiangsu province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, K.; Schneider, U. A.; Scheffran, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bioenergy, as one promising option to replace a fraction of conventional fossil fuels and lower net greenhouse gas emissions, has gained many countries', in particular developing ones' attention. Their focus is mainly on the design of efficient bioenergy utilization pathways which adapt to both local geographic features and economic conditions. The establishment of a biomass production sector would be the first and pivotal component in the whole industrial chain. Several existing studies have estimated the global biomass for energy potential but arrived at very different results. One reason for the large uncertainty of biomass potential may be ascribed to the diverse nature of biomass leading to different estimates in different circumstances. Therefore, specific research at the local level is essential. Following this thought, our research conducted in the Jiangsu province, a representative region in China, will explore the spatial distribution of biomass production. The employed methodology can also be applied to other locations both in China and similar developing countries if model parameters are adequately adjusted. In this study, we analyze the local situation in the Jiangsu province focusing on the selection of new energy crops, since the cultivation of dedicated crop for energy use is still in experimental phase. We also examine the land use conflict which is especially relevant to China with more than 1.3 billion people and a severe burden on food supply. We develop an agent-based model to find the optimal spatial distribution of biomass (SDA-SDB) in Jiangsu province. Compromising data accessibility and heterogeneity of environmental factors across the province, we resolve our model at county level and consider the aggregated farming community in one county as a single agent. The aim of SDA-SDB is to simulate farmers' decision process of allocating land to either food or energy crops facing limited resources and political targets for bioenergy development

  1. Molecular characterization of three ferret badger (Melogale moschata) rabies virus isolates from Jiangxi province, China.

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    Zhao, Jinghui; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Ying; Mi, Lijuan; Wang, Shuchao; Hu, Rongliang

    2014-08-01

    Ferret badger (FB) rabies viruses JX09-17(fb), JX09-18 and JX10-37 were isolated from three different regions in Jiangxi province, China, in 2009 and 2010. The complete nucleotide sequence identity between these three isolates was 87-93 %. Compared with the other Chinese rabies virus isolates and vaccine strains, 101 substitutions (53 in JX10-37, 23 in JX09-17(fb) and 25 in JX09-18) in the five structural proteins were observed, and 47 of these substitutions (27 in JX10-37, 14 in JX09-17(fb) and 6 in JX09-18) were unique among lyssaviruses. Amino acid substitutions of S231 and Q333 were noted respectively in the G protein antigenic site I of JX10-37 and site III in JX09-17(fb). Phylogenetic analysis showed that JX09-17(fb) is rooted within the China I lineage, JX09-18 is in China II, and JX10-37 is independent. Evolutionary analysis and comparative sequence data indicate that isolate JX10-37 is a variant virus that diverged from canine rabies viruses around 1933 (range 1886-1963).

  2. Assessment of neurologists' knowledge regarding intravenous fibrinolytic therapy for acute stroke in Shanxi province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liansheng; Niu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Wei; Fang, Yalan; Wang, Jie

    2017-05-18

    Limitations in physicians' knowledge regarding fibrinolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke may contribute to low rate of fibrinolytic therapy in China. Here physicians' knowledge was surveyed on intravenous fibrinolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Neurologists (n = 175) from 27 major general hospitals in Shanxi province, P. R. China, were invited to complete questionnaires regarding their basic knowledge of intravenous fibrinolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. The questionnaire contained 12 multiple-choice questions. One point was assigned for a correct answer and zero point for a false or unanswered question. One hundred and thirty-one neurologists (74.9%) responded to the questionnaires. The mean accuracy rate of 12 questions was 54.9 ± 25.01% (range 0.8-96.2%). The mean total score for respondents was 6.59 ± 2.03 (range 2-11). More years of experience and higher academic degrees were independent factors related to the total scores (P = 0.000 and P = 0.004, respectively). The neurologists in this study were knowledge deficient in the area of intravenous fibrinolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. This partially accounts for the low rate of fibrinolytic therapy in China.

  3. Natural Occurrence of Alternaria Toxins in the 2015 Wheat from Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjing; Han, Xiaomin; Li, Fengqin; Zhang, Lishi

    2016-10-26

    The exposure to Alternaria toxins from grain and grain-based products has been reported to be related to human esophageal cancer in China. In this study, a total of 370 freshly harvested wheat kernel samples collected from Anhui province of China in 2015 were analyzed for the four Alternaria toxins tenuazonic acid (TeA), tentoxin (TEN), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS). TeA was the predominant toxin detected followed by TEN, AOH and AME. The concentrations of the four Alternaria toxins varied geographically. The samples from Fuyang district showed higher TEN concentration levels than the other regions studied ( p Alternaria toxins. Positive correlation was observed between concentration levels of TeA and TEN, AOH and AME, TeA and AOH, and the total dibenzopyrone derivatives (AOH + AME) and TeA. Results indicate that there is a need to set the tolerance limit for Alternaria toxins in China, and more data on the contamination of these toxins in agro-products is required.

  4. Stigmatization of people with drug dependence in China: a community-based study in Hunan province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tao; Wang, Jing; Li, Yanhua; Wang, Xuyi; Tan, Linxiang; Deng, Qijian; Thakoor, Jaya Prishni Devi; Hao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse remains a serious problem in China, and has become a major threat to public health and social security. Since the issuance and enforcement of the new Anti-Drug law in 2008, the community has become the primary site for drug rehabilitation. However, the attitudes of members in community toward the people with drug use disorders are unclear. A random sample of household respondents was studied in two communities in Hunan province in China. A total of 848 individuals participated (response rate 83.7%). Respondents initially were asked a set of questions about their knowledge about dug dependence, and then were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 vignette conditions. Three vignettes described different type of drug dependence meeting diagnostic criteria, and the fourth depicted a "normal person." Poor knowledge of drug dependence was common. Negative attitudes towards drug dependent people were widespread. Most respondents believed that drug dependence was caused by the person's own weak will (82.0%) and own hedonistic lifestyle (81.3%), and should be punished as illegal behavior (80.4%). The vast majority labeled the person with drug dependence as an addict, rated them as having undesirable characteristics, and expressed a strong desire for social distance. There were few socio-demographic predictors of both poor knowledge and negative attitudes. A community-based rehabilitation program in China should take into account the widespread stigmatization of people with drug dependence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of Species of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Clinical Isolates from 8 Provinces of China

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    Haican Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are increasing in incidence and prevalence worldwide. In this study, we identified NTM species of the clinical isolates from 8 provinces in China, in order to preliminarily provide some basic scientific data in the different species and distribution of NTM related to pulmonary disease in China. A total of 523 clinical isolates from patients with tuberculosis (TB diagnosed clinically from 2005 to 2012 were identified to the species using conventional and molecular methods, including multilocus PCR, rpoB and hsp65 PCR-PRA, hsp65, rpoB, and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region sequencing. The isolates were identified into 3 bacterium genera, including NTM, Gordonia bronchialis, and Nocardia farcinica, and, for the 488 NTM isolates, 27 species were identified. For all the 27 species of NTM which were found to cause pulmonary infections in humans, the most prevalent species was M. intracellulare, followed by M. avium and M. abscessus. And seven other species were for the first time identified in patients with TB in China. NTM species identification is very important for distinguishing between tuberculosis and NTM pulmonary diseases, and the species diversity drives the creation of diverse and integrated identification methods with higher accuracy and efficacy.

  6. Natural Occurrence of Alternaria Toxins in the 2015 Wheat from Anhui Province, China

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    Wenjing Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to Alternaria toxins from grain and grain-based products has been reported to be related to human esophageal cancer in China. In this study, a total of 370 freshly harvested wheat kernel samples collected from Anhui province of China in 2015 were analyzed for the four Alternaria toxins tenuazonic acid (TeA, tentoxin (TEN, alternariol (AOH and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS. TeA was the predominant toxin detected followed by TEN, AOH and AME. The concentrations of the four Alternaria toxins varied geographically. The samples from Fuyang district showed higher TEN concentration levels than the other regions studied (p < 0.05. Furthermore, 95% (352/370 of the wheat samples were positive for more than one type of Alternaria toxins. Positive correlation was observed between concentration levels of TeA and TEN, AOH and AME, TeA and AOH, and the total dibenzopyrone derivatives (AOH + AME and TeA. Results indicate that there is a need to set the tolerance limit for Alternaria toxins in China, and more data on the contamination of these toxins in agro-products is required.

  7. Natural Occurrence of Alternaria Toxins in the 2015 Wheat from Anhui Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjing; Han, Xiaomin; Li, Fengqin; Zhang, Lishi

    2016-01-01

    The exposure to Alternaria toxins from grain and grain-based products has been reported to be related to human esophageal cancer in China. In this study, a total of 370 freshly harvested wheat kernel samples collected from Anhui province of China in 2015 were analyzed for the four Alternaria toxins tenuazonic acid (TeA), tentoxin (TEN), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS). TeA was the predominant toxin detected followed by TEN, AOH and AME. The concentrations of the four Alternaria toxins varied geographically. The samples from Fuyang district showed higher TEN concentration levels than the other regions studied (p < 0.05). Furthermore, 95% (352/370) of the wheat samples were positive for more than one type of Alternaria toxins. Positive correlation was observed between concentration levels of TeA and TEN, AOH and AME, TeA and AOH, and the total dibenzopyrone derivatives (AOH + AME) and TeA. Results indicate that there is a need to set the tolerance limit for Alternaria toxins in China, and more data on the contamination of these toxins in agro-products is required. PMID:27792182

  8. Anemia and Feeding Practices among Infants in Rural Shaanxi Province in China

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    Renfu Luo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6–11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb. Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6–11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p < 0.01, and that children who had ever been formula-fed had significantly higher Hb concentrations and lower anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p < 0.01. The results suggest the importance of iron supplementation or home fortification while breastfeeding.

  9. Exploring stakeholder perceptions of facilitators and barriers to accessing methadone maintenance clinics in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Morgan M; Zhang, Fujie

    2010-05-01

    Injection drug use is an ongoing public health crisis in China and one of the largest contributors to the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Though the government has rapidly scaled up methadone maintenance treatment clinics, they have not been extensively evaluated to analyze factors influencing rates of attendance. We explored the facilitators and barriers to accessing methadone maintenance clinics in Kunming City, Yunnan Province, China. Using in-depth qualitative interviews conducted from February 2008 to June 2008 with 35 informants - injection drug users (IDUs) and key stakeholders - we explored factors that determine whether drug users decide to present at methadone clinics. Interviews were digitally recorded with consent, transcribed verbatim, and translated. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes which included general attitudes toward methadone treatment, barriers and challenges to access, and suggestions for improvement. Within these, topics included responses to methadone, its side effects, and fear of discrimination, loss of privacy, and police interference. Respondents also listed numerous suggestions for improvement including raising awareness of harm reduction both among drug users and the community, providing additional support in the form of psychological counseling, job training and behavioral therapy, and increasing communication between police, government, and public health officials. High rates of HIV infection among IDUs in China have prompted public health responses including the scale up of methadone maintenance clinics. Our results may inform policy strategists in implementing social-structural changes to create enabling environments that facilitate an increase in access to methadone clinics among IDUs in Kunming.

  10. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in dogs in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Fuchun; Qi, Meng; He, Xiaoyi; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Sumei; Dong, Heping; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-01-17

    Cryptosporidiosis in dogs has been reported worldwide, involving both asymptomatic and diarrheic dogs. Large-scale surveys of Cryptosporidium infection in dogs have been performed in some countries using different diagnostic methods. But, few data are available on the infection rate and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs in China. In this study, 770 fecal samples from 66 locations in Henan Province were examined. The average Cryptosporidium infection rate was 3.8%, with dogs in kennels having the highest rate of 7.0% (χ² = 14.82, P dogs younger than 90 days, which was significantly higher than that in the other age groups (1.1-3.8%;χ² = 18.82, P dogs. Twenty-nine Cryptosporidium-positive samples were amplified at the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), and actin loci using PCR. Sequence analysis of these amplicons identified only Cryptosporidium canis, which showed 100% identity with the published sequences of the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin genes. Our results confirm that C. canis is popular in the dog population in China, considering the large number of dogs in China and the close contact between dogs and humans, the role of C. canis in the transmission of human cryptosporidiosis warrants attention.

  11. Current Situation, Determinants, and Solutions to Drug Shortages in Shaanxi Province, China: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caijun; Wu, Lina; Cai, Wenfang; Zhu, Wenwen; Shen, Qian; Li, Zongjie; Fang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Drug shortages were a complex global problem. The aim of this study was to analyze, characterize, and assess the drug shortages, and identify possible solutions in Shaanxi Province, western China. A qualitative methodological approach was conducted during May-June 2015 and December 2015-January 2016. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information from representatives of hospital pharmacists, wholesalers, pharmaceutical producers, and local health authorities. Thirty participants took part in the study. Eight traditional Chinese medicines and 87 types of biologicals and chemicals were reported to be in short supply. Most were essential medicines. Five main determinants of drug shortages were detected: too low prices, too low market demands, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) issues, materials issues, and approval issues for imported drugs. Five different solutions were proposed by the participants: 1) let the market decide the drug price; 2) establish an information platform; 3) establish a reserve system; 4) enhance the communication among the three parties in the supply chain; and 5) improve hospital inventory management. Western China was currently experiencing a serious drug shortage. Numerous reasons for the shortage were identified. Most drug shortages in China were currently because of "too low prices." To solve this problem, all of the stakeholders, especially the government, needed to participate in managing the drug shortages.

  12. Patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco exposure in tobacco cultivating rural areas of Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco use among adults in tobacco-cultivating regions of rural southwest China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8681 adults aged ≥18 years in rural areas of Yunnan Province, China from 2010 to 2011. A standardized questionnaire was administered to obtain data about participants’ demographic characteristics, individual socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-reported smoking habits, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS. The socioeconomic predictors of current smoking, nicotine addiction, and SHS exposure were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results The prevalence rates of tobacco use were much higher in men compared with women (current smoking 68.5% vs. 1.3%; and nicotine dependence 85.2% vs. 72.7%. However, the rate of SHS exposure was higher in women compared with men (76.6% vs. 70.5%. Tobacco farmers had higher prevalence rates of current smoking, nicotine dependence, and SHS exposure compared with participants not engaged in tobacco farming (P Conclusions This study suggests that tobacco control efforts in rural southwest China must be tailored to address tobacco-cultivating status and socioeconomic factors.

  13. Current Situation, Determinants, and Solutions to Drug Shortages in Shaanxi Province, China: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caijun Yang

    Full Text Available Drug shortages were a complex global problem. The aim of this study was to analyze, characterize, and assess the drug shortages, and identify possible solutions in Shaanxi Province, western China.A qualitative methodological approach was conducted during May-June 2015 and December 2015-January 2016. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information from representatives of hospital pharmacists, wholesalers, pharmaceutical producers, and local health authorities.Thirty participants took part in the study. Eight traditional Chinese medicines and 87 types of biologicals and chemicals were reported to be in short supply. Most were essential medicines. Five main determinants of drug shortages were detected: too low prices, too low market demands, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP issues, materials issues, and approval issues for imported drugs. Five different solutions were proposed by the participants: 1 let the market decide the drug price; 2 establish an information platform; 3 establish a reserve system; 4 enhance the communication among the three parties in the supply chain; and 5 improve hospital inventory management.Western China was currently experiencing a serious drug shortage. Numerous reasons for the shortage were identified. Most drug shortages in China were currently because of "too low prices." To solve this problem, all of the stakeholders, especially the government, needed to participate in managing the drug shortages.

  14. Agricultural water policy reforms in China: a representative look at Zhangye City, Gansu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Tomohiro; Kharrazi, Ali; Li, Jia; Avtar, Ram

    2017-12-07

    Water resources are essential for agricultural production in the grain-producing region of China, and water shortage could significantly affect the production and international trade of agricultural products. China is placing effort in new policies to effectively respond to changes in water resources due to changes in land use/land cover as well as climatic variations. This research investigates the changes in land, water, and the awareness of farmer vis-à-vis the implementation of water-saving policies in Zhangye City, an experimental site for pilot programs of water resources management in China. This research indicates that the water saved through water-saving programs and changes in cropping structure (2.2 × 10 8  m 3  a -1 ) is perhaps lower than the newly increased water withdrawal through corporate-led land reclamation (3.7 × 10 8  m 3  a -1 ). Most critically, the groundwater withdrawal has increased. In addition, our survey suggests that local government is facing a dilemma of water conservation and agricultural development. Therefore, the enforcement of the ban on farmland reclamation and irrigation water quotas in our study area is revealed to be relatively loose. In this vein, the engagement of local stakeholders in water governance is essential for the future sustainable management of water resources.

  15. Regional differences in diabetes prevalence and awareness between coastal and interior provinces in China: a population-based cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shaoyong; Ming, Jie; Xing, Ying; Gao, Bin; Yang, Chunbao; Ji, Qiuhe; Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Background Most studies on diabetes prevalence and awareness in China are regional or about a single province, and differences between coastal and interior provinces have not been discussed even in the nation-based studies. The aim of this study was to determine regional differences in diabetes prevalence and awareness between coastal and interior provinces, and to identify the factors associated with diabetes prevalence and awareness. Methods Provinces Fujian and Shaanxi were chosen to repre...

  16. Detecting spatial-temporal clusters of HFMD from 2007 to 2011 in Shandong Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxia Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD has caused major public health concerns worldwide, and has become one of the leading causes of children death. China is the most serious epidemic area with a total of 3,419,149 reported cases just from 2008 to 2010, and its different geographic areas might have different spatial epidemiology characteristics at different spatial-temporal scale levels. We conducted spatial and spatial-temporal epidemiology analysis to HFMD at county level in Shandong Province, China. METHODS: Based on the China National Disease Surveillance Reporting and Management System, the spatial-temporal database of HFMD from 2007 to 2011 was built. The global autocorrelation statistic (Moran's I was first used to detect the spatial autocorrelation of HFMD cases in each year. Purely Spatial scan statistics combined with Space-time scan statistic were used to detect epidemic clusters. RESULTS: The annual average incidence rate was 93.70 per 100,000 in Shandong Province. Most HFMD cases (93.94% were aged within 0-5 years old with an average male-to-female sex ratio 1.71, and the incidence seasonal peak was between April and July. The dominant pathogen was EV71 (47.35%, and CoxA16 (26.59%. HFMD had positive spatial autocorrelation at medium spatial scale level (county level with higher Moran's I from 0.31 to 0.62 (P<0.001. Seven spatial-temporal clusters were detected from 2007 to 2011 in the landscape of the whole Shandong, with EV71 or CoxA16 as the dominant pathogen for most hotspots areas. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial-temporal clusters of HFMD wandered around the whole Shandong Province during 2007 to 2011, with EV71 or CoxA16 as the dominant pathogen. These findings suggested that a real-time spatial-temporal surveillance system should be established for identifying high incidence region and conducting prevention to HFMD timely.

  17. Impact of climate variability on Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yan; Yu, Weiwei; Hu, Wenbiao; Lin, Hualiang; Guo, Yuming; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Tong, Shilu

    2013-12-17

    Malaria remains a public health problem in the remote and poor area of Yunnan Province, China. Yunnan faces an increasing risk of imported malaria infections from Mekong river neighboring countries. This study aimed to identify the high risk area of malaria transmission in Yunnan Province, and to estimate the effects of climatic variability on the transmission of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in the identified area. We identified spatial clusters of malaria cases using spatial cluster analysis at a county level in Yunnan Province, 2005-2010, and estimated the weekly effects of climatic factors on P. vivax and P. falciparum based on a dataset of daily malaria cases and climatic variables. A distributed lag nonlinear model was used to estimate the impact of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall up to 10-week lags on both types of malaria parasite after adjusting for seasonal and long-term effects. The primary cluster area was identified along the China-Myanmar border in western Yunnan. A 1°C increase in minimum temperature was associated with a lag 4 to 9 weeks relative risk (RR), with the highest effect at lag 7 weeks for P. vivax (RR = 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.05) and 6 weeks for P. falciparum (RR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.11); a 10-mm increment in rainfall was associated with RRs of lags 2-4 weeks and 9-10 weeks, with the highest effect at 3 weeks for both P. vivax (RR = 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.04) and P. falciparum (RR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.06); and the RRs with a 10% rise in relative humidity were significant from lag 3 to 8 weeks with the highest RR of 1.24 (95% CI, 1.10, 1.41) for P. vivax at 5-week lag. Our findings suggest that the China-Myanmar border is a high risk area for malaria transmission. Climatic factors appeared to be among major determinants of malaria transmission in this area. The estimated lag effects for the association between temperature and malaria are consistent with the life cycles of both mosquito vector and malaria

  18. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Yan Jun; Zhang, Yong Hui; Yan, Qing Hua; Song, Xiu Ling; Xie, Hui Yan; Luo, Yuan; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Lin, Hua Liang; Ma, Wen Jun

    2013-10-02

    In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed 7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to heat waves among the public of Guangdong province. People with higher

  19. Phytophthora infestans field isolates from Gansu Province, China are genetically highly diverse and show a high frequency of self fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, M.; Liu, G.; Li, J.P.; Govers, F.; Zhu, X.Q.; Shen, C.Y.; Guo, L.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 85 isolates of Phytophthora infestans collected in 2007 from Gansu province in China was determined and compared with 21 isolates collected before 2004. Among them, 70 belonged to the A1 mating type and 15 were self-fertile (SF). The mitochondrial DNA haplotypes revealed

  20. Triggering conditions and depositional characteristics of a disastrous debris flow event in Zhouqu city, Gansu Province, northwestern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, C.; Rengers, N.; Asch, Th.W.J. van; Yang, Y.H.; Wang, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    On 7 August 2010, catastrophic debris flows were triggered by a rainstorm in the catchments of the Sanyanyu and Luojiayu torrents, Zhouqu County, Gansu Province northwestern China. These two debris flows originated shortly after a rainstorm with an intensity of 77.3 mm h−1 and transported a total

  1. Arsenic and Fluoride Exposure in Drinking Water: Children's IQ and Growth in Shanyin County, Shanxi Province, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    San-Xiang Wang; Zheng-Hui Wang; Xiao-Tian Cheng; Jun Li; Zhi-Ping Sang; Xiang-Dong Zhang; Ling-Ling Han; Xiao-Yan Qiao; Zhao-Ming Wu; Zhi-Quan Wang

    2007-01-01

    ...: We investigated the effects of As and fluoride exposure on children's intelligence and growth. Methods: We report the results of a study of 720 children between 8 and 12 years of age in rural villages in Shanyin county, Shanxi province, China...

  2. Amphibolite of the Xinghuadukou group from the Xinlin-Xiguitu belt, NE China: new evidence for the NE branch of the Paleo-Asian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenzhu

    2017-04-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO) witnessed the cycling of two supercontinents, Rodinia and Pangea, in Earth's geological history. This long-lasting paleo-ocean was initiated by the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia during the Early Neoproterozoic (1,2) and terminated by the final collage of the supercontinent Pangea from Central to Eastern (current coordinates) Asia, likely lasting to the Late Permian or Early Triassic (3,4). Numerous continental and island arcs, seamounts, mid-ocean ridges and micro-blocks were amalgamated responding to the subduction and consumption of the oceanic crust of the PAO, to form the most complex and long-living Phanerozoic accretionary orogenic belt, the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) (5,6). Trapped by the collision and amalgamation of the eastern segment of CAOB, several rock suites of oceanic affinity were reported along the Xinlin-Xiguitu belt that connects the Erguna block to the northwest and the Xing'an block to the southeast in NE China, including the Toudaoqiao blueschist (7), Jifeng ophiolite (although the forming environment remains debatable, see 8 and 9), and Xinlin ophiolite (10,11). All these suites have been proposed to be the relics of the NE branch of the PAO. However, along the northeastern extension of this belt, outcropped the Xinghuadukou group that was previously thought Paleoproterozoic in age yet has been reconsidered to be Cambrian (12), the relationship of which and this belt remains unclear. In this study, a suite of amphibolite was collected from the Xinghuadukou group outcropped in the easternmost Xinlin-Xiguitu belt in NE China and conducted geochemical analysis to discuss their forming environment and tectonic implications. Samples display low SiO2 (45%-49%wt), low K2O (0.55%-1.07%wt) compositions, low in A/CNK, but high in A/NK and FeOt/MgO ratios. REE compositions are relative low (ΣREE=52-122ppm) showing a flat chondrite normative pattern with slight enrichment in LREE

  3. Impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services and its conservation strategies: a case study of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Liu, Jian; Wang, Renqing; Ni, Zirong; Xu, Shipeng; Sun, Yueyao

    2012-05-01

    Ecosystems and their components provide a lot of benefits for the welfare of human beings. Coupled with increasing socioeconomic development, most of the rapidly developing and transitional countries and regions have been experiencing dramatic land use changes. This has resulted in a large amount of forestland, grassland, and wetland being occupied as residential and industrial land or reclaimed for arable land, which in turn results in a sharp deterioration of ecosystem services around the world. Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, was chosen as a case study in order to capture the impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services. By way of the study, land uses and their changes were categorized between 1980 and 2006, and the ecosystem services capital and changes of 111 counties of Shandong Province in different phases were evaluated, as well as the total ecosystem services capital, followed by the zoning of ecosystem services function region of Shandong Province. We found that the counties in mountainous areas and wetlands, where generally the prefectural-level cities are located with a rapid socioeconomic development, experienced a successive deterioration of ecosystem services especially during the 2000s. Finally, three conservation strategies for managing and improving ecosystem services were proposed and discussed with the aim of achieving coordinate and sustainable development of the socioeconomy, environment, and ecosystems not only in Shandong Province but also in other provinces of China, as well as in other developing and transitional countries and regions.

  4. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Dianshu, E-mail: dianshu@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Khuong Minh Vu, E-mail: sppkmv@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  5. The barriers to energy efficiency in China. Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianshu, Feng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Minh Vu, Khuong [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond. (author)

  6. LATEST DEVONIAN (FAMENNIAN TO EARLIEST CARBONIFEROUS (TOURNAISIAN BRACHIOPODS FROM THE BACHU FORMATION OF THE TARIM BASIN, XINJIANG PROVINCE, NORTHWEST CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Q. CHEN

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Brachiopods are described from two horizons of the Bachu Formation from the Bachu area of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Province, northwest China. We assign the brachiopods from the basal Bachu Formation to late Famennian and correlate those from its upper part to the Eochoristites-Martiniella Assemblage of South China, of early Tournaisian age. The brachiopod fauna of the Bachu Formation exhibits strong generic and specific links with coeval South Chinese faunas, suggesting a close biogeographical affinity with the South China block. Eleven species are described, including one new species, Ptychomaletoechia bachuensis sp. nov. 

  7. Perspectives for Li- and Ta-Mineralization in the Borborema Pegmatite Province, NE-Brazil: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurlen, Hartmut; Thomas, Rainer; da Silva, Marcelo R. Rodrigues; Müller, Axel; Rhede, Dieter; Soares, Dwight Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    The increasing strategic importance of Li- and Ta-ores during the last decades due to the strong consumption growth for rechargeable batteries and high temperature and corrosion resistant capacitors reactivated the interest of studies in pegmatite fields around the world, because these rocks supply respectively 25% and 100% of the world consumption in these elements. Research on petrogenetic issues and major and accessory mineral chemistry variations in rare element (REL)-pegmatites of the Borborema Pegmatite Province in Northeast Brazil were tested as tools for the diagnosis of the metallogenetic potential of rare metals in individual pegmatites and in the province as a whole along the last dozen of years. The results allowed to establish the nearly isobaric (3.8 kbar) crystallization conditions of the REL-pegmatites between approximately 580 °C (liquidus) and 400 °C (solidus) from a peraluminous melt saturated in an aquo-carbonic medium to low salinity volatile phase and an immiscible peralkaline flux-enriched (H2O, CO2, F, B, Li etc.) melt fraction, based on melt and fluid inclusion studies. Mineral-chemistry data from 30 selected REL-pegmatites in the province allowed to classify three of them as being of the complex-spodumene or -lepidolite subtype in Černý's classification. Both subtypes are supposed to be potentially fertile, (highly fractionated, and with good chances to bear Li- and Ta-ore concentrations). It was also possible to identify several pegmatitic granite intrusions with textural and lithogeochemical characteristics also found in source granites of REL-pegmatite provinces elsewhere. Preliminary chemical Pb/U/Th geochronological determinations in uraninite and xenotyme crystals of these granites indicate an age of 520 ± 10 Ma and match recently published Ar/Ar in mica and U/Pb ages in columbite-group minerals (CGM) of the REL-pegmatites between 509 and 525 Ma. Mineral-chemistry data from grains of the outer zones of the pegmatites do not

  8. Phase equilibria modelling and zircon dating for Precambrian metapelites from Xinghuadukou Group in Lvlin Forest of Erguna Massif, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiulei; Zheng, Changqing; Tajcmanova, Lucie; Zhong, Xin; Xu, Xuechun; Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhaoyuan

    2017-04-01

    Xinghuadukou Group, the basement metamorphic complex of Erguna Massif in NE China, is considered to be Mesoproterozoic with Sm-Nd age of 1157±32 Ma. However, the new zircon data from these metamorphic supracrustal rocks in Lvlin Forest show that they formed in Neoproterozoic with the age of 800 Ma. Old zircon age with 2.5 Ga, 2.0 Ga and 1.8 Ga, indicate that the Erguna Massif had an affinity to both Columbia and Rodinia continents. Furthermore, we also present 500 Ma metamorphic age in micashists and 500 Ma age of adjacent granitoids that might have thermally influenced its surrounding. No detailed studies have been undertaken on the metamorphic evolution of the Xinghuadukou Complex. The typical paragneissic mineral assemblage of garnet sillimanite mica schist is Grt+Sil+Bt+Mus+Qtz±Kfs. (Zhou et al., 2011) proposed that the Xinghuadukou Complex appears to have undergone similar granulite facies metamorphic conditions based on the similarity of mineral assemblages to the Mashan Complex in the Jiamusi Massif, NE China. However, the new phase equilibria modelling result shows that these rocks are high amphibolite facies product with 650℃. We can easily find K-feldspar formed by partial melting due to the consuming of muscovite. Also the remaining muscovite is directly connected with a fluid channel in thin sections which indicate that the remaining muscovite formed from retrograde with the existence of fluid. The zoned garnet has low MgO and high CaO content in rims and high MgO and low CaO content in core. It seems that this garnet has high pressure and low temperature (HP-LT) in rims and low pressure and high temperature (LP-HT) in core which would point to an anti-clockwise metamorphic evolution. Zhou, J.B., Wilde, S.A., Zhang, X.Z., Zhao, G.C., Liu, F.L., Qiao, D.W., Ren, S.M. and Liu, J.H., 2011b. A> 1300km late Pan-African metamorphic belt in NE China: new evidence from the Xing'an block and its tectonic implications. Tectonophysics, 509(3): 280-292.

  9. New evidence on financing equity in China's health care reform--a case study on Gansu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingsheng; Chen, Wen; Zhao, Yuxin

    2012-12-18

    In the transition from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy, China's state funding for health care declined and traditional coverage plans collapsed, leaving China's poor exposed to potentially ruinous health care costs. In reforming health care for the 21st century, equity in health care financing has become a major policy goal. To assess progress towards this goal, this paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing in a province of northwestern China, comparing the equity performance between urban and rural areas at two different points in time. Analysis of whether health care financing contributions were progressive according to income were made using the Kakwani index for each of the four health care financing channels of general taxes, public and private health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted, the first in 2003 (13,619 individuals in 3946 households) and the second in 2008 (12,973 individuals in 3958 households). Household socio-economic, health care payment, and utilization information were recorded in household interviews. Low-income households have undertaken a larger share of the health care financing burden in recent years, reflected by negative Kakwani indices, which indicate a regressive system. We found that the indices for general taxation were -0.0024 (urban) and -0.0281 (rural) in 2002, and -0.0177 (urban) and -0.0097 (rural) in 2007. Public health insurance presented different financing distributions in urban and rural areas (urban: 0.0742 in 2002, 0.0661 in 2007; rural: -0.0615 in 2002,-0.1436 in 2007.). Out-of-pocket payments were progressive but not equitable. Public health insurance coverage has expanded but financing equity has decreased. Health care financing policies in China need ongoing reform. Given the inequity of general consumption taxes, elimination of these would improve financing equity considerably. Optimizing benefit packages in public health insurance is

  10. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N.; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  11. Comparisons of forecasting for hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using three neural networks models

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    Ruijing Gan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares and evaluates the prediction of hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using back propagation neural networks based genetic algorithm (BPNN-GA, generalized regression neural networks (GRNN, and wavelet neural networks (WNN. In order to compare the results of forecasting, the data obtained from 2004 to 2013 and 2014 were used as modeling and forecasting samples, respectively. The results show that when the small data set of hepatitis has seasonal fluctuation, the prediction result by BPNN-GA will be better than the two other methods. The WNN method is suitable for predicting the large data set of hepatitis that has seasonal fluctuation and the same for the GRNN method when the data increases steadily.

  12. Landslide Event on 24 June in Sichuan Province, China: Preliminary Investigation and Analysis

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    Wanlin Meng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a massive landslide event, in which 8 million cubic meters of earth and rocks slid down from the top of a mountain in the village of Xinmo, located in the county of Maoxian, in the province of Sichuan, China, on 24 June 2017. This landslide resulted in 10 fatalities and 73 people were reported as missing. This paper details the preliminary investigation, the joint-force rescue activity, and the analysis of the nearby topography, rainfall, and seismic fracture zone. The combined effects of large amounts of rainwater, steep topography, deep-seated sliding interface, and significant altitude difference between the highest point of the mountain and the Xinmo villagers’ houses are considered as the main influencing factor that triggered this landslide event. To develop geological disaster-prone areas in the future, four main recommendations to reduce casualties and environmental impacts are provided in this paper.

  13. From House Structure to Gender Relations: Exploring the Na (Mosuo of Yunnan Province, China

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    Wu Yunchuan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Architectural features of houses are frequently loaded with meanings expressing fundamental values embedded in social relations. The symbolism of such features is a convenient starting point for exploring the organization of social life. Among the Na of Yunnan province house symbolism raises a range of questions relating to the character of gender relations and the universality of marriage. The qualitative cultural factors structuring gender interactions are analyzed by drawing on perspectives from role analysis. Finally the quantitative behavioral consequences of these interactions are documented. Key words: Na (Mosuo; China; matrilineality; gender relations; house symbolism. DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v3i0.2780 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.3 2009 19-40

  14. A new species of Scutellaria (Scutellarioideae, Lamiaceae from Sichuan Province in southwest China

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    Fei Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria wuana, a new species discovered from a xeric valley in Muli County of Sichuan Province in southwest China, is described and illustrated. Morphologically, the new species shares similarities with S. mairei, but can be readily distinguished by a suite of morphological characters including a white-pubescent erect stem, conspicuous leaf petioles, and a yellow corolla with a trapeziform lower-middle lip lobe. The habitat and distribution of S. wuana are also distinctive. The position of the new species within Scutellaria is examined in a phylogenetic context using the nuclear ribosomal internal and external transcribed spacers. Additionally, we examine leaf epidermal and pollen grain micromorphology of the new species and putative relatives.

  15. Ethyl carbamate levels in wine and spirits from markets in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y P; Dong, B; Qin, Z S; Yang, N J; Lu, Y; Yang, L X; Chang, F Q; Wu, Y N

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) in wine, grain spirits and wine sauce (145 samples) was analysed using solid-phase extraction and stable isotope dilution GC/MS. Samples were obtained from markets in eight areas (Shijiazhuang, Baoding, Handan, Qinhuangdao, Langfang, Zhangjiakou, Xingtai and Cangzhou) of Hebei Province, China. The method had a limit of detection of 2 µg kg⁻¹, with recoveries varying from 95.7 to 102% and RSD ranging 2.3-5.6%. The average concentrations of ethyl carbamate in wines, grain spirits and wine sauce were 14.7 (<2.0-44.5) µg kg⁻¹, 33.8 (2.9-129) µg kg⁻¹ and 8.7 (<2.0-63.3) µg kg⁻¹, respectively. The results led to the development of limit standards that can be used to predict the concentration of ethyl carbamate in Chinese fermented wines.

  16. Empirical assessment of debris flow risk on a regional scale in Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xilin; Yue, Zhong Qi; Tham, Lesliw George; Lee, Chack Fan

    2002-08-01

    Adopting the definition suggested by the United Nations, a risk model for regional debris flow assessment is presented. Risk is defined as the product of hazard and vulnerability, both of which are necessary for evaluation. A Multiple-Factor Composite Assessment Model is developed for quantifying regional debris flow hazard by taking into account eight variables that contribute to debris flow magnitude and its frequency of occurrence. Vulnerability is a measure of the potential total losses. On a regional scale, it can be measured by the fixed asset, gross domestic product, land resources, population density, as well as the age, education, and wealth of the inhabitants. A nonlinear power-function assessment model that accounts for these indexes is developed. As a case study, the model is applied to compute the hazard, vulnerability and risk for each prefecture of the Yunnan province in southwestern China.

  17. Association between BMI and Dental Caries among School Children and Adolescents in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Hussein Musa, Taha; Gao, Rong; Li, Xiao Shan; Wang, Wei Xiang; Hong, Lei; Wei, Ping Min

    2017-10-01

    Obesity and dental caries are increasing epidemics, especially among children and adolescents. This epidemiological observational cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the possible association between body mass index (BMI) and dental caries among 111,792 school children and adolescents in Jiangsu Province. We found that 13.14% participants of the study sample were overweight, and 7.37% were obese. The prevalence of dental caries was 12.95% in overweight and 7.89% in obese students. There were significant differences in caries prevalence by sex, region, age group, and BMI. Overweight and obesity statuses were associated with dental caries among the study population. BMI and dental caries present a continuous health problem. Thus, we recommend that oral health promotion be used for caries prevention and control. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) PAHs averaged 59.67% of the ΣPAHs. Individual PAH concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the PAHs were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to PAHs in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.

  19. Fluoride exposure from burning coal-clay in Guizhou Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Wang, A.M.; Yu, G.Q. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang (China)

    2004-02-01

    The very high prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in relation to the fluorine content of local coal and clay was investigated in two rural regions with low water fluoride (Hualuo Village and Majianzhuang Village) of Guizhou Province, China. The fluorine content of coal in the two regions is considerably lower than the total fluorine content of the commonly used coal-clay (a mixture of coal and clay). The fluorine released from combustion of the coal itself accounts for less than 15% of the total fluorine emissions during the combustion of coal-clay, thereby indicating that the fluorine source that contaminates the food and air is mainly from the clay rather than the coal.

  20. Magnesium Contamination in Soil at a Magnesite Mining Region of Liaoning Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tai, Peidong; Jia, Chunyun; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Peijun; Xiong, Xianzhe

    2015-07-01

    Magnesite is the world's most important source material for magnesia refractory production, and Haicheng City in Liaoning Province, China has been called "the magnesium capital of the world." However, magnesite mining in these areas has caused serious environmental problems. Field investigations have shown that the soil profile of many sites in the mining region are contaminated by magnesium, and the magnesium-enriched crusts that have formed on the soil surface have affected ecologically important soil functions, particularly reduced water penetration rate. Laboratory experiment revealed that anionic polyacrylamide and calcium dihydrogen phosphate can be used to improve soil condition, and have positive effects on soil function. The findings of this study are of significance in the magnetite mining areas, providing clear options for the remediation of soils that should be carried out immediately.

  1. Exploring stakeholder perceptions of facilitators and barriers to using needle exchange programs in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Morgan M; FuJie, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Injection drug use is an ongoing urban health crisis in China and one of the largest drivers of the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Sentinel surveillance sites in Yunnan province show upwards of 20% of injection drug users (IDUs) are HIV positive. Though the Ministry of Health has scaled-up needle exchange programs (NEPs), they have not received official government recognition nor have they been extensively evaluated to explore factors influencing their acceptability and feasibility. Using in-depth qualitative interviews conducted from February to July 2008 with 35 participants consisting of IDUs and other key stakeholders, we explored facilitators and barriers to accessing needle exchange programs in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan province. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes including attitudes toward NEPs and harm reduction, barriers to access, and suggestions for improvement. Themes that emerged included fears of breached confidentiality and police interference at the exchange sites and tensions between the public health and law enforcement perspective. Low levels of NEP-related knowledge and awareness were uniformly reported among interviewees. Suggestions to facilitate an increase in NEP acceptance included raising awareness of harm reduction and HIV more generally, offering services such as psychological counseling, job training and behavioral therapy at NEPs, and increasing communication between police, government, and public health officials. High rates of HIV infection among injection drug users in China have prompted rapid scale up of NEPs. Additional adaptations are necessary, however, to increase needle exchange use among injection drug users. This study finds that an urgent need to raise awareness of NEPs among policy makers and IDUs and act upon identified steps for developing social-structural interventions to create enabling environments that facilitate increased access to NEPs among injection drug users in Kunming.

  2. Health and human rights concerns of drug users in detention in Guangxi Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Elizabeth Cohen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although confinement in drug detoxification ("detox" and re-education through labor (RTL centers is the most common form of treatment for drug dependence in China, little has been published about the experience of drug users in such settings. We conducted an assessment of the impact of detention on drug users' access to HIV prevention and treatment services and consequent threats to fundamental human rights protections. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Chinese government HIV and anti-narcotics legislation and policy documents were reviewed, and in-depth and key informant interviews were conducted with 19 injection drug users (IDUs and 20 government and nongovernmental organization officials in Nanning and Baise, Guangxi Province. Significant contradictions were found in HIV and antinarcotics policies, exemplified by the simultaneous expansion of community-based methadone maintenance therapy and the increasing number of drug users detained in detox and RTL center facilities. IDU study participants reported, on average, having used drugs for 14 y (range 8-23 y and had been confined to detox four times (range one to eight times and to RTL centers once (range zero to three times. IDUs expressed an intense fear of being recognized by the police and being detained, regardless of current drug use. Key informants and IDUs reported that routine HIV testing, without consent and without disclosure of the result, was the standard policy of detox and RTL center facilities, and that HIV-infected detainees were not routinely provided medical or drug dependency treatment, including antiretroviral therapy. IDUs received little or no information or means of HIV prevention, but reported numerous risk behaviors for HIV transmission while detained. CONCLUSIONS: Legal and policy review, and interviews with recently detained IDUs and key informants in Guangxi Province, China, found evidence of anti-narcotics policies and practices that appear to violate human rights

  3. Evidence for Borna disease virus infection in neuropsychiatric patients in three western China provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Xu, M-M; Zeng, L; Liu, S; Liu, X; Wang, X; Li, D; Huang, R-Z; Zhao, L-B; Zhan, Q-L; Zhu, D; Zhang, Y-Y; Xu, P; Xie, P

    2014-04-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a non-cytolytic, neurotropic RNA virus that can infect a wide variety of vertebrate species from birds and primates to humans. Several studies have been carried out to investigate whether BDV is associated with neuropsychiatric diseases. However, this association is still inconclusive. Two panels of subjects consisting of 1,679 various neuropsychiatric patients and healthy people from three western China provinces were enrolled in this study. BDV p24 or p40 RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected in the first panel of 1,481 subjects using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from the BDV RNA-positive individuals were subjected to BDV p24 antibodies testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). BDV p24 or p40 RNA in PBMCs and p24 antibodies in plasma were detected in the second panel of 198 subjects by RT-qPCR and Western blot. A higher prevalence for BDV RNA was demonstrated in patients with viral encephalitis (6.70%), Guillain-Barré syndrome (6.70%), schizophrenia (9.90%) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) (12.70%) compared to healthy controls in the first panel. CSF p24 antibodies were demonstrated in three viral encephalitis patients, two schizophrenia patients and two major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. The prevalences of p24 antibodies in plasma from patients with viral encephalitis (13.24%), multiple sclerosis (25.00%) and Parkinson's disease (22.73%) were significantly higher than healthy controls. This study demonstrates that BDV infection also exists in humans from three western China provinces, and suggests the involvement of the contribution of BDV in the aetiology of Chinese patients with some neuropsychiatric disorders, including viral encephalitis, schizophrenia, CFS, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.

  4. Exploring stakeholder perceptions of facilitators and barriers to using needle exchange programs in Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan M Philbin

    Full Text Available Injection drug use is an ongoing urban health crisis in China and one of the largest drivers of the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Sentinel surveillance sites in Yunnan province show upwards of 20% of injection drug users (IDUs are HIV positive. Though the Ministry of Health has scaled-up needle exchange programs (NEPs, they have not received official government recognition nor have they been extensively evaluated to explore factors influencing their acceptability and feasibility. Using in-depth qualitative interviews conducted from February to July 2008 with 35 participants consisting of IDUs and other key stakeholders, we explored facilitators and barriers to accessing needle exchange programs in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan province. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes including attitudes toward NEPs and harm reduction, barriers to access, and suggestions for improvement. Themes that emerged included fears of breached confidentiality and police interference at the exchange sites and tensions between the public health and law enforcement perspective. Low levels of NEP-related knowledge and awareness were uniformly reported among interviewees. Suggestions to facilitate an increase in NEP acceptance included raising awareness of harm reduction and HIV more generally, offering services such as psychological counseling, job training and behavioral therapy at NEPs, and increasing communication between police, government, and public health officials. High rates of HIV infection among injection drug users in China have prompted rapid scale up of NEPs. Additional adaptations are necessary, however, to increase needle exchange use among injection drug users. This study finds that an urgent need to raise awareness of NEPs among policy makers and IDUs and act upon identified steps for developing social-structural interventions to create enabling environments that facilitate increased access to NEPs among injection drug users in Kunming.

  5. Spatiotemporal patterns of drought at various time scales in Shandong Province of Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Depeng; Cai, Siyang; Xu, Zongxue; Li, Fulin; Sun, Wenchao; Yang, Xiaojing; Kan, Guangyuan; Liu, Pin

    2018-01-01

    The temporal variations and spatial patterns of drought in Shandong Province of Eastern China were investigated by calculating the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month time scales. Monthly precipitation and air temperature time series during the period 1960-2012 were collected at 23 meteorological stations uniformly distributed over the region. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to explore the temporal trends of precipitation, air temperature, and the SPEI drought index. S-mode principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the spatial patterns of drought. The results showed that an insignificant decreasing trend in annual total precipitation was detected at most stations, a significant increase of annual average air temperature occurred at all the 23 stations, and a significant decreasing trend in the SPEI was mainly detected at the coastal stations for all the time scales. The frequency of occurrence of extreme and severe drought at different time scales generally increased with decades; higher frequency and larger affected area of extreme and severe droughts occurred as the time scale increased, especially for the northwest of Shandong Province and Jiaodong peninsular. The spatial pattern of drought for SPEI-1 contains three regions: eastern Jiaodong Peninsular and northwestern and southern Shandong. As the time scale increased to 3, 6, and 12 months, the order of the three regions was transformed into another as northwestern Shandong, eastern Jiaodong Peninsular, and southern Shandong. For SPEI-24, the location identified by REOF1 was slightly shifted from northwestern Shandong to western Shandong, and REOF2 and REOF3 identified another two weak patterns in the south edge and north edge of Jiaodong Peninsular, respectively. The potential causes of drought and the impact of drought on agriculture in the study area have also been discussed. The temporal variations and spatial patterns

  6. Vehicle emission trends and spatial distribution in Shandong province, China, from 2000 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shida; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Weidong

    2016-12-01

    Vehicle emissions have become a major source of air pollution in Shandong province, which has experienced a sharp growth of vehicle numbers in recent years and now has the largest vehicle population in China. This paper combines the COPERT IV model with the vehicle age distribution to estimate the temporal trends and map the spatial distributions of vehicle emissions in Shandong province during the period ranging from 2000 to 2014. Both conventional air pollutants and greenhouse gases are included. In addition, a high-resolution vehicle emission inventory at the prefecture level is developed and mapped on a 0.05° × 0.05° grid based on road information. Our results show that the emissions of all of the conventional air pollutants have decreased to various extents over the recent past, but greenhouse gas emissions have continued to increase due to the lack of effective control strategies. The total emissions of CO, NMVOC, NOX, PM10, CO2, CH4 and N2O from the Shandong vehicle fleet changed from 1734.5 Gg, 277.9 Gg, 177.0 Gg, 12.4 Gg, 19239.7 Gg, 11.3 Gg and 0.6 Gg, respectively, in 2000 to 1723.3 Gg, 234.2 Gg, 513.8 Gg, 29.5 Gg, 138,419.5 Gg, 15.3 Gg and 3.9 Gg, respectively, in 2014. Vehicle emissions were mainly concentrated in cities and became more dispersed in Shandong province between 2000 and 2014.

  7. Emissions inventory and scenario analyses of air pollutants in Guangdong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Meng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Air pollution, causing significantly adverse health impacts and severe environmental problems, has raised great concerns in China in the past few decades. Guangdong Province faces major challenges to address the regional air pollution problem due to the lack of an emissions inventory. To fill this gap, an emissions inventory of primary fine particles (PM2.5) is compiled for the year 2012, and the key precursors (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) are identified. Furthermore, policy packages are simulated during the period of 2012‒2030 to investigate the potential mitigation effect. The results show that in 2012, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions in Guangdong Province were as high as (951.7, 1363.6, and 294.9) kt, respectively. Industrial production processes are the largest source of SO2 and PM2.5 emissions, and transport is the top contributor of NO x emissions. Both the baseline scenario and policy scenario are constructed based on projected energy growth and policy designs. Under the baseline scenario, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions will almost double in 2030 without proper emissions control policies. The suggested policies are categorized into end-of- pipe control in power plants (ECP), end-of-pipe control in industrial processes (ECI), fuel improvement (FI), energy efficiency improvement (EEI), substitution-pattern development (SPD), and energy saving options (ESO). With the implementation of all these policies, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions are projected to drop to (303.1, 585.4, and 102.4) kt, respectively, in 2030. This inventory and simulated results will provide deeper insights for policy makers to understand the present situation and the evolution of key emissions in Guangdong Province.

  8. Economy-wide material input/output and dematerialization analysis of Jilin Province (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, MingSheng; Zhang, HuiMin; Li, Zhi; Tong, LianJun

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, both direct material input (DMI) and domestic processed output (DPO) of Jilin Province in 1990-2006 were calculated and then based on these two indexes, a dematerialization model was established. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) both direct material input and domestic processed output increase at a steady rate during 1990-2006, with average annual growth rates of 4.19% and 2.77%, respectively. (2) The average contribution rate of material input to economic growth is 44%, indicating that the economic growth is visibly extensive. (3) During the studied period, accumulative quantity of material input dematerialization is 11,543 x 10(4) t and quantity of waste dematerialization is 5,987 x10(4) t. Moreover, dematerialization gaps are positive, suggesting that the potential of dematerialization has been well fulfilled. (4) In most years of the analyzed period, especially 2003-2006, the economic system of Jilin Province represents an unsustainable state. The accelerated economic growth relies mostly on excessive resources consumption after the Revitalization Strategy of Northeast China was launched.

  9. Bacterial community diversity on in-shell walnut surfaces from six representative provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihui; Wang, Shaojin

    2017-08-30

    Walnuts (Juglans regia) have been associated with foodborne illness outbreaks in recent years. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of bacteria on in-shell walnut surfaces from six representative provinces in China. The bacterial populations on walnut surfaces were investigated by high-throughput sequencing based on the bacterial 16 S rRNA hypervariable region V4. Twenty-eight samples were collected from fourteen regions in six provinces and harvested in different periods (the fresh in 2016 and the old in 2015). Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in all samples except for XJ1. In XJ1, and the most abundant phylum was Cyanobacteria, which also accounted for a large proportion of the abundance in YN1, YN11, XJ2 and SC11. In addition, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were also the abundant phyla in the given samples. Some genera belonging to the opportunistic pathogens were detected, such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Burkholderia and Bacillus. The results revealed that the composition and abundance of bacterial consortiums on walnut surfaces varied among the geographical sites where they were harvested. Moreover, the storage time of samples also had impact on the abundance of bacteria. This study may provide a better understanding of the bacterial communities' diversity on in-shell walnut surfaces.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Houqiang; Li, Kun; Zhang, Hui; Gan, Ping; Shahzad, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoxing; Lan, Yanfang; Wang, Jiaxiang

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (27%), 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger) (20%), 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) (17%), and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) (22%) were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus), wild geese (Anser cygnoides), and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%), 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%), and 4 of 35 cattle (11%) were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province. © H. Luo et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  11. Assessing Agricultural Drought Vulnerability by a VSD Model: A Case Study in Yunnan Province, China

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    Jiansheng Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought vulnerability of agriculture is significant to economic development and sustainable food production. In this paper, we proposed a framework to evaluate the regional agricultural-eco environment in the face of drought caused by climate change. Based on a vulnerability scoping diagram (VSD model, we built up a comprehensive system to evaluate the agricultural drought vulnerability of Yunnan Province in China. The model highlights the human-land relationship by considering both natural conditions and human activities. Twelve indicators were generated to construct three components of the model: exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. During the construction of the VSD model, the entropy and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP comprehensive analysis method were adopted to generate the weights and to compute the composite index for each section. Furthermore, the factor analysis method was used to determine the dominant factors of different cities and the main indicators driving the system. The results indicated a spatial pattern that the vulnerability value was high on the eastern and western sides, but low in the middle of Yunnan Province. Most of the vulnerable regions were concentrated in remote areas. Indicators such as population density, irrigation level, annual average precipitation, cultivation land ratio, and difficulty of water supply were the main driving factors. This means that there is a deep connection between agricultural drought vulnerability and urbanization. The evaluation system developed during this research will provide guidance for drought mitigation in regions of complex terrain.

  12. Socio-economic factors of bacillary dysentery based on spatial correlation analysis in Guangxi Province, China.

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    Chengjing Nie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. METHODS: Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. RESULTS: The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other.

  13. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Groundwater Drought and Its Response to Meteorological Drought in Jiangsu Province, China

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    Bo Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the temporal and spatial variations of groundwater drought using a Standardized Groundwater Level Index (SGI were analyzed based on 40 monthly groundwater level observation wells from 1989 to 2012 in Jiangsu Province, China. Meteorological drought, calculated by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, was also included to reveal its propagation and impact on the groundwater drought process. Results showed that the southern region of Jiangsu faced more frequent groundwater droughts and lower intensity, while the northern region faced less frequent groundwater drought with higher intensity. Furthermore, the cross-correlation between the spatial average of SGI and SPI for SPI accumulation periods of q = 1 to 12 was computed. The relationship between SGI and SPI varied in different regions. Detailed analysis of the characteristics of groundwater and meteorological drought for each region showed that meteorological droughts happened more frequently than groundwater drought in Jiangsu Province during the study period, while the mean duration and mean magnitude of groundwater droughts were longer and larger than those of meteorological droughts. It is expected that this study will provide useful information for drought monitoring and mitigation in Jiangsu and similar areas.

  14. Epidemiological Characteristics and Spatial-Temporal Clusters of Mumps in Shandong Province, China, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzi; Cheng, Shenghui; Luo, Cheng; Rutherford, Shannon; Cao, Jin; Xu, Qinqin; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Yanxun; Xue, Fuzhong; Xu, Qing; Li, Xiujun

    2017-04-11

    Mumps presents a serious threat to public health in China. We conducted a descriptive analysis to identify the epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Shandong Province. Spatial autocorrelation and space-time scan analyses were utilized to detect spatial-temporal clusters. From 2005 to 2014, 115745 mumps cases were reported in Shandong, with an average male-to-female ratio of 1.94. Mumps occurred mostly in spring (32.17% of all reported cases) and in children aged 5 to 9 (40.79% of all reported cases). The Moran's I test was significant and local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) analysis revealed significant spatial clusters with high incidence. The results showed that the mid-west of Shandong Province and some coastal regions (Qingdao City and Weihai City) were high-risk areas, particularly in the center of the Jining City and the junction of Dongying City, Binzhou City and Zibo City. The results could assist local and national public health agencies in formulating better public health strategic planning and resource allocation.

  15. Epidemiological Characteristics and Spatial-Temporal Clusters of Mumps in Shandong Province, China, 2005–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzi; Cheng, Shenghui; Luo, Cheng; Rutherford, Shannon; Cao, Jin; Xu, Qinqin; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Yanxun; Xue, Fuzhong; Xu, Qing; Li, Xiujun

    2017-01-01

    Mumps presents a serious threat to public health in China. We conducted a descriptive analysis to identify the epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Shandong Province. Spatial autocorrelation and space-time scan analyses were utilized to detect spatial-temporal clusters. From 2005 to 2014, 115745 mumps cases were reported in Shandong, with an average male-to-female ratio of 1.94. Mumps occurred mostly in spring (32.17% of all reported cases) and in children aged 5 to 9 (40.79% of all reported cases). The Moran’s I test was significant and local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) analysis revealed significant spatial clusters with high incidence. The results showed that the mid-west of Shandong Province and some coastal regions (Qingdao City and Weihai City) were high-risk areas, particularly in the center of the Jining City and the junction of Dongying City, Binzhou City and Zibo City. The results could assist local and national public health agencies in formulating better public health strategic planning and resource allocation. PMID:28397866

  16. Health promotion and education policy and practice in urban schools in Liaoning province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Malcolm; Weng, Wenyan

    2008-12-01

    This paper reviews the status of health education in urban schools in three cities in Liaoning province, China. The cities represent the upper, middle and lower levels of city economy based on the GDP per person within the province. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to 500 primary and secondary schools and 436 questionnaires (87.2%) were returned completed. The questionnaire assessed health education offerings in the schools, permitting the comparison of similarities and differences in school practices, and the identification of obstacles that prevent schools becoming health promoting. The analysis revealed that 0.7% of schools fulfilled criteria for good status of health education. The negative attitudes of school management, teachers and pupils towards health education, as well as the lack of in-service training for staff, were perceived as key obstacles to school health education. Few provincial and school-based policies mentioned pupil involvement in health policy development and only a small number of schools acknowledged the need to improve community and parental involvement. In this paper we discuss the challenges facing provincial education and health authorities, and make recommendations about how to assist Chinese schools to develop and implement high quality health education initiatives.

  17. [Assessment of ecological environment effects of coastal development in Hebei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-Tuo; Li, Zhi-Wei

    2014-07-01

    Through the analysis of the development activities and the ecological environment in coastal of Hebei Province, China, an index system for evaluating the ecological environment effect, composed of 28 indices, was set up by the pressure, state and response subsystems. Using the comprehensive index evaluation method, the integrated effects of ecological environment index (EI) was calculated and its grading criterion was founded. The results showed that the ecological environment effect of Hebei Province coastal development varied from being relatively small, normal and then relatively large from 1984 to 2010, and its acceptance degree evolved from being acceptable to being unacceptable. Because the resource and environment pressures caused by coastal development were serious and a delay existed in the state relative to the response, the improvement of various measures in the response subsystem did not show a positive effect on the state, and the environmental quality of ocean showed a degrading trend. Due to the differences in coastal development pattern and strength, the ecological environment effect of development activities showed some spatial differences. The ecological environment effect of Qinhuangdao coastal development was the minimum, followed by Cangzhou and Tangshan. Cangzhou and Tangshan had reached unacceptable levels and needed to further strengthen the restoration and protection of ecological environment.

  18. Mycotoxins in wheat flour and intake assessment in Shandong province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenghua; Jiang, Dafeng; Zhou, Jingyang; Chen, Jindong; Li, Wei; Zheng, Fengjia

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the occurrence and contamination levels of eight mycotoxins were investigated in wheat flour samples (n = 359) from Shandong Province of China. Samples were determined using a multi-mycotoxin method based on isotope dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the most frequently found mycotoxins were deoxynivalenol (DON) (97.2%), nivalenol (40.4%) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (33.4%), and mean contamination levels in positive samples were 86.7, 3.55 and 3.34 µg kg(-1), respectively. The obtained data were further used to estimate the daily intake of the local population, and indicated that wheat flour consumption contributes little to DON exposure. However, with the aim to keep the contamination levels under control and to establish a more precise evaluation of the mycotoxin burden in Shandong Province, more sample data from different harvest years and seasons are needed in the future.

  19. Explaining the evaporation paradox in Jiangxi Province of China: Spatial distribution and temporal trends in potential evapotranspiration of Jiangxi Province from 1961 to 2013

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    Xianghui Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation acts as an important component and a key control factor in land hydrological processes. In order to analyze the trend of change on potential evapotranspiration from 1961 to 2013 and to discuss the existence of the evaporation paradox in Jiangxi province, China, monthly meteorological data spanning the years 1961–2013 were analyzed in this study, where the data were collected from 15 national meteorological stations in Jiangxi Province. The Penman–Monteith equation was employed to compute the potential evapotranspiration (ET0. Spatial interpolation and data mining technology were used to analyze the spatial and temporal changes of ET0 and air temperature, with the effort to explain the evaporation paradox. By solving the total differential and the partial derivatives coefficients of the independent variables in Penman–Monteith equation, the cause of the paradox was quantitatively evaluated. The results showed that the annual ET0 had been decreasing significantly in Jiangxi Province since 1979, whereas the air temperature had been rising significantly, presenting the evaporation paradox. The decreases in sunshine duration and wind speed reduced ET0 by 0.207 mm and 0.060 mm, respectively, accounting for 92.3% and 26.7% of the total ET0, respectively. It is concluded that sunshine duration and wind speed are the main causes to the decrease in potential evapotranspiration in Jiangxi Province.

  20. Provenance analysis of the Late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Xilinhot Terrane, NE China, and their tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie; Zhou, Jian-Bo; Wilde, Simon A.; Song, Min-Chun

    2017-08-01

    The Xilinhot Terrane is located in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in NE China, and is a key to a hotly debated issue on the Paleozoic tectonic evolution of this giant progenic belt. To constrain the tectonic evolution of the Xilinhot Terrane in the Late Paleozoic, we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical analyses of the Zhesi and Benbatu formations in the Suolun and Xi Ujimqin areas in the Xilinhot Terrane. Samples of the Benbatu Formation yield detrital zircon U-Pb ages ranging from 2659 Ma to 316 Ma, with four age populations at: 2659-1826 Ma, 1719-963 Ma, 590-402 Ma, and 396-316 Ma, whereas samples from the Zhesi Formation yield detrital zircon U-Pb ages ranging from 1967 Ma to 250 Ma, with four age populations at: 1967-1278 Ma, 971-693 Ma, 561-403 Ma, and 399-250 Ma. The age groups of both the Benbatu and Zhesi formations in the Xilinhot Terrane are similar to those in other parts of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This evidence indicates that the Xilinhot Terrane is a microcontinent, and not an accretionary complex as previously thought. Furthermore, the youngest zircon grains in the Benbatu and Zhesi formations yield weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 322 ± 12 Ma (MSDW = 0.12, n = 4) and 257 ± 2.8 Ma (MSDW = 1.6, n = 8), respectively. Combined with fossil data, our new data suggest that the Benbatu and Zhesi formations in the Xilinhot Terrane were possibly deposited at ∼322 Ma and ∼257 Ma, respectively. Based on the provenance of the Carboniferous-Permian sandstones came from the blocks of NE China, we speculate that the Xilinhot Terrane is the western part of the Songliao block.

  1. [Hepatitis B prevalence among women in child-bearing age in Shandong Province, China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Liu, J Y; Lyu, J J; Yan, B Y; Feng, Y; Wu, W L; Song, L Z; Xu, A Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To know the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among women in child-bearing age in Shandong Province, China, providing references to the improvement of HBV control strategy. Methods: The participants were randomly selected by two-stage sampling method from 12 counties which were representative for the whole province. Firstly two townships were selected from each county by probability proportional to size sampling (PPS) method. Then participants aged 1-4 years, 5-14 years, 15-29 years and 30-59 years were selected by stratified random sampling method. The women in child-bearing age (20-49 years) were involved in this study. Questionnaire survey and 5 ml blood collection were conducted among all participants. Blood samples were detected for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Those who were positive for HBsAg were further detected for hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg), antibody against HBeAg (anti-HBe) and the load of HBV DNA. The basic information of the participants including age, gender, occupation, nationality and residence place were collected. The prevalence of HBV infection indicators after weight adjustment were calculated and compared between participants with different demographic characteristics. Results: A total of 1 151 women in child-bearing age were involved in this study. Twenty-seven participants were positive for HBsAg and the prevalence rate was 2.10% (95% CI: 0.97%-3.23%). Five participants were positive for both HBsAg and HBeAg and the prevalence rate was 0.36% (95% CI: 0-0.84%). There were 567 and 291 participants who were positive for anti-HBs and anti-HBc respectively and the corresponding prevalence rates were 47.72% (95%CI: 41.68%-53.75%) and 24.40% (95% CI: 18.50%-30.30%). The number of participants susceptible for HBV was 527 and the percentage of HBV susceptible women was 47.55% (95% CI: 41.63%-53.47%). Conclusion: HBV infection among

  2. HIV drug resistance in HIV positive individuals under antiretroviral treatment in Shandong Province, China.

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    Bin Lin

    Full Text Available The efficacy of antiretroviral drugs is limited by the development of drug resistance. Therefore, it is important to examine HIV drug resistance following the nationwide implementation of drug resistance testing in China since 2009. We conducted drug resistance testing in patients who were already on or new to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART in Shandong Province, China, from 2011 to 2013, and grouped them based on the presence or absence of drug resistance to determine the effects of age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, route of transmission and treatment status on drug resistance. We then examined levels of drug resistance the following year. The drug resistance rates of HIV patients on ART in Shandong from 2011 to 2013 were 3.45% (21/608, 3.38% (31/916, and 4.29% (54/1259, per year, respectively. M184V was the most frequently found point mutation, conferring resistance to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, while Y181C, G190A, K103N and V179D/E/F were the most frequent point mutations conferring resistance to the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. In addition, the protease inhibitor drug resistance mutations I54V and V82A were identified for the first time in Shandong Province. Primary resistance accounts for 20% of the impact factors for drug resistance. Furthermore, it was found that educational level and treatment regimen were high-risk factors for drug resistance in 2011 (P<0.05, while treatment regimen was a high risk factor for drug resistance in 2012 and 2013 (P<0.05. Among the 106 drug-resistant patients, 77 received immediate adjustment of treatment regimen following testing, and 69 (89.6% showed a reduction in drug resistance the following year. HIV drug resistance has a low prevalence in Shandong Province. However, patients on second line ART regimens and those with low educational level need continuous monitoring. Active drug resistance testing can effectively prevent the development

  3. Non-polio enteroviruses from acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Shandong Province, China, 1988-2013.

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    Tao, Zexin; Wang, Haiyan; Liu, Yao; Li, Yan; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Guifang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Li, Manshi; Wang, Suting; Ji, Feng; Feng, Lei; Xiong, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Yi; Fan, Qingying; Yang, He; Yang, Jing; Chen, Peng; Li, Wenfeng; Xu, Aiqiang; Song, Lizhi

    2014-08-22

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are important human pathogens associated with various clinical syndromes. This study represents an overview of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) isolated from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Shandong Province, China from 1988 to 2013. Altogether 792 and 170 NPEV isolates were isolated from stool specimens of 9263 AFP cases and 1059 contacts, respectively. Complete VP1 sequencing and typing on all 962 isolates revealed 53 NPEV types in which echovirus (E) 6 (7.6%), E14 (7.6%), E11 (7.4%), coxsackievirus (CV) B3 (7.4%), E25 (5.6%), CVB5 (4.9%), E7 (4.5%) and EV-A71 (4.4%) were the eight most commonly reported serotypes. Distinct summer-fall seasonality was observed, with June-October accounting for 79.3% of isolation from AFP cases with known month of specimen collection. Increase of isolation of EV-A71 and CVA--the predominant pathogens for the hand, foot, and mouth disease--was observed in recent years. Sequence analysis on VP1 coding region of EV-A71 and E6 suggested Shandong strains had great genetic divergence with isolates from other countries. The results described in this study provide valuable information on the circulation and emergence of different EV types in the context of limited EV surveillance in China.

  4. Non-Polio Enteroviruses from Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance in Shandong Province, China, 1988–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zexin; Wang, Haiyan; Liu, Yao; Li, Yan; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Guifang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Li, Manshi; Wang, Suting; Ji, Feng; Feng, Lei; Xiong, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Yi; Fan, Qingying; Yang, He; Yang, Jing; Chen, Peng; Li, Wenfeng; Xu, Aiqiang; Song, Lizhi

    2014-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are important human pathogens associated with various clinical syndromes. This study represents an overview of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) isolated from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Shandong Province, China from 1988 to 2013. Altogether 792 and 170 NPEV isolates were isolated from stool specimens of 9263 AFP cases and 1059 contacts, respectively. Complete VP1 sequencing and typing on all 962 isolates revealed 53 NPEV types in which echovirus (E) 6 (7.6%), E14 (7.6%), E11 (7.4%), coxsackievirus (CV) B3 (7.4%), E25 (5.6%), CVB5 (4.9%), E7 (4.5%) and EV-A71 (4.4%) were the eight most commonly reported serotypes. Distinct summer–fall seasonality was observed, with June–October accounting for 79.3% of isolation from AFP cases with known month of specimen collection. Increase of isolation of EV-A71 and CVA—the predominant pathogens for the hand, foot, and mouth disease—was observed in recent years. Sequence analysis on VP1 coding region of EV-A71 and E6 suggested Shandong strains had great genetic divergence with isolates from other countries. The results described in this study provide valuable information on the circulation and emergence of different EV types in the context of limited EV surveillance in China. PMID:25145609

  5. An outbreak of sheep pox associated with goat poxvirus in Gansu province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin-Min; Chu, Yue-Feng; Wu, Guo-Hua; Zhao, Zhi-Xun; Li, Jian; Zhu, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-05-04

    Three strains of Capripoxviruses (CaPVs) were isolated from an outbreak of sheep pox in Gansu province of China. They were analyzed by P32 gene-based molecular methods and a species-specific PCR based on the RPO30 gene. Two bands which are specific to goat poxvirus (GTPV) were observed after the PCR products of P32 gene were digested with the endonuclease of Hinf I. Moreover, an amplicon of 172 bp, which is specific to GTPV, was amplified from the viruses by using the RPO30 gene-based PCR. Sequence analysis of the P32 genes showed that three nucleotide bases for coding residue of aspartic acid which are located at 163-165 position of P32 gene of sheep poxvirus (SPPV) were absent, and six single nucleotide substitutions which are characteristic of GTPV were present. The viruses were genetically closer to GTPV strains and clustered into the GTPV branch of the phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of the P32 gene. The results characterized the isolated viruses as GTPV. It is the first report of an outbreak of sheep pox associated with GTPV in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical properties in fruits of mulberry species from the Xinjiang province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Nie, Wen-Jing

    2015-05-01

    Mulberries are a widely cultivated foodstuff both in China and worldwide. However, there are stark differences in the nutritional values of mulberry species. To better appreciate these differences, we here describe the chemical characteristics of white (Morus alba L.), Russian (M. alba var. tatarica L.), and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberry fruits cultivated in the Xinjiang province of China. The chemical composition analysis was performed by official methods procedures. The amino acids were analysed by the phenyl isothiocyanate method. The 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetric method, the aluminium chloride colorimetric method, and the pH differential method were also used in measuring the content of reduced ascorbic acid, total flavonoids, and total monomeric anthocyanins, respectively. The black mulberry fruits had the highest content of reduced ascorbic acid (48.4 mg/100 g fw), titratable acidity (47.1 mg/g fw), and Fe (11.9 mg/100 g fw) of these 3 species. The Russian mulberry fruits had the highest EAA/TAA (essential amino acid/total amino acid) ratio at 44% followed by the white mulberry (42%) and the black mulberry (29%). The black mulberry fruits had found to be richest in terms of total flavonoids and total monomeric anthocyanins. These results are helpful for selecting mulberry species with abundant nutrients and phytochemicals for commercial cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Temporal changes in the characteristics of algae in Dianchi Lake, Yunnan Province, China

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    Ruixia SHEN,Chunyan TIAN,Zhidan LIU,Yuanhui ZHANG,Baoming LI,Haifeng LU,Na DUAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Algal blooms have become a worldwide environmental concern due to water eutrophication. Dianchi Lake in Yunnan Province, China is suffering from severe eutrophication and is listed in the Three Important Lakes Restoration Act of China. Hydrothermal liquefaction allows a promising and direct conversion of algal biomass into biocrude oil. In this study, algal samples were collected from Dianchi Lake after a separation procedure including dissolved air flotation with polyaluminum chloride and centrifugation during four months, April, June, August and October. The algal biochemical components varied over the period; lipids from 0.7% to 2.1% ash-free dry weight (afdw, protein from 20.9% to 33.4% afdw and ash from 36.6% to 45.2% dry weight. The algae in June had the highest lipid and protein concentrations, leading to a maximum biocrude oil yield of 24.3% afdw. Biodiversity analysis using pyrosequencing revealed different distributions of microbial communities, specifically Microcystis in April (89.0%, June (63.7% and August (84.0%, and Synechococcus in April (2.2%, June (12.0% and August (1.0%. This study demonstrated remarkable temporal changes in the biochemical composition and biodiversity of algae harvested from Dianchi Lake and changes in biocrude oil production potential.

  8. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption in Yunnan Province of China: Which Measure is Optimal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianhui; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Cai, Le; McNeil, Edward

    2015-09-01

    Although varied methods are used in estimating alcohol consumption, there has been no methodological comparison of these methods in China. The aim of this study is to compare different methods used for estimating drinking indices, such as annual per capita consumption, and proportions of risk drinking. A cross-sectional household survey using a multistage systematic sampling technique was conducted in Yunnan Province of China. The beverage-specific quantity frequency (BSQF), tri-level, last 7-day (L7D) and beverage-specific yesterday (BSY) methods were used. A total of 977 subjects aged 12-35 years were surveyed. The BSQF yielded the highest annual per capita consumption (2094.2 g), followed by the tri-level (1430.8), L7D (983.0) and BSY (409.7 g) methods. The annual per drinker consumption quantities were 1762.1, 938.5, 865.7 and 493.3 g for tri-level, BSQF, L7D and BSY methods, while the proportions of high-risk drinking were 13.4, 9.4, 4.8 and 2.5%, respectively. The BSQF method is more suitable for measurement of annual per capita alcohol consumption in this population. The tri-level approach is a promising substitution of the graduated quantity frequency (GF) method if implemented with caution for both quantity and pattern of alcohol consumption. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Emergency nurses' knowledge and experience with the triage process in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Karen; Peng, Lingli; Anikeeva, Olga; Arbon, Paul; Du, Huiyun; Li, Yinglan

    2017-11-01

    Triage is implemented to facilitate timely and appropriate treatment of patients, and is typically conducted by senior nurses. Triage accuracy and consistency across emergency departments remain a problem in mainland China. This study aimed to investigate the current status of triage practice and knowledge among emergency nurses in Changsha, Hunan Province, China. A sample of 300 emergency nurses was selected from 13 tertiary hospitals in Changsha and a total of 193 completed surveys were returned (response rate=64.3%). Surveys were circulated to head nurses, who then distributed them to nurses who met the selection criteria. Nurses were asked to complete the surveys and return them via dedicated survey return boxes that were placed in discreet locations to ensure anonymity. Just over half (50.8%) of participants reported receiving dedicated triage training, which was provided by their employer (38.6%), an education organisation (30.7%) or at a conference (26.1%). Approximately half (53.2%) reported using formal triage scales, which were predominantly 4-tier (43%) or 5-tier (34%). The findings highlight variability in triage practices and training of emergency nurses in Changsha. This has implications for the comparability of triage data and transferability of triage skills across hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rabies trend in China (1990–2007 and post-exposure prophylaxis in the Guangdong province

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    Liu Yu-Ge

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies is a major public-health problem in developing countries such as China. Although the recent re-emergence of human rabies in China was noted in several epidemiological studies, little attention was paid to the reasons behind this phenomenon paralleling the findings of the previous reports. The purpose of this study is thus first to characterize the current trends of human rabies in China from 1990 to 2007, and then to define better recommendations for improving the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP schedules delivered to rabies patients. Methods The most updated epidemiological data for 22527 human rabies cases from January 1990 to July 2007, retrieved from the surveillance database of reportable diseases managed by the Ministry of Health of China, were analysed. To investigate the efficiency for the post-exposure treatment of rabies, the details of 244 rabies patients, including their anti-rabies treatment of injuries or related incidents, were ascertained in Guangdong provincial jurisdiction. The risk factors to which the patients were predisposed or the regimens given to 80 patients who received any type of PEP were analysed to identify the reasons for the PEP failures. Results The results from analysis of the large number of human rabies cases showed that rabies in China was largely under control during the period 1990–1996. However, there has been a large jump in the number of reported rabies cases since 2001 up to a new peak (with an incidence rate of 0.20 per 100000 people that was reached in 2004, and where the level has remained until present. Then, we analysed the PEP in 244 rabies cases collected in the Guangdong province in 2003 and 2004, and found that 67.2% of the patients did not seek medical services or did not receive any PEP. Further analysis of PEP for the 80 rabies patients who received any type of PEP indicated that almost all of the patients did not receive proper or timely treatment on the wounds

  11. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients at intake in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam

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    Lauritsen Jens M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all tuberculosis case categories. National tuberculosis programs might utilize such information to identify problems related to referral and access to diagnosis and treatment. Objectives Based on the electronic database we created, our objectives were to provide a detailed description of age and sex characteristics of tuberculosis patients at registration and to provide a comparison of age-specific sex characteristics among incident and prevalent sputum smear-positive cases. Methods A representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2005 was selected in Cambodia, two provinces in China and Viet Nam. Age and sex characteristics of cases in the three separate prevalence surveys in the three jurisdictions (Cambodia: year 2002; China: year 2000; and Viet Nam: year 2006-2007 were obtained for comparison. Results A total 37,635 patients had been registered during the period in the selected units in the three countries. Cases were more frequently male in all three countries with 53%, 71%, and 69% in Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam, respectively. The ratios of the female-to-male odds in the notification system to that in the prevalence survey in smear-positive cases in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam were 2.1, 0.9, and 1.8, respectively. Because of the small proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis registered in China, we limited the analysis on age and sex distribution for extrapulmonary cases to Cambodia and Viet Nam. The proportion with extrapulmonary tuberculosis among all cases was 18.5% in Cambodia and 15.7% in Viet Nam, decreasing in frequency with increasing age. Conclusions Characteristics of patients

  12. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of elbaites from the Alto Quixaba pegmatite, Seridó province, NE Brazil

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    Ana C.M. Ferreira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Alto Quixaba pegmatite, Seridó region, northeastern Brazil, is a 60º/80ºSW-trending subvertical dike discordantly intruded into biotite schists of the Upper Neoproterozoic Seridó Formation. It has three distinct mineralogical and textural zones, besides a replacement body that cuts the pegmatite at its central portion and in which occur, among other gem minerals, colored elbaites. Elbaites usually occur as prismatic crystals, elongate according to the c-axis, with rounded faces and striations parallel to this axis. Optically, crystals are uniaxial negative with strong pleochroism; refractive index extraordinary axis = 1.619-1.622 and ordinary axis = 1.639-1.643, birefringence between 0.019 and 0.021, average relative density of 3.07, and the following unit cell parameters: ao = 15.845 Å, co = 7.085 Å and V = 1540.476 Å. There is alkali deficiency in the X site of 12-17%. The elbaites are relatively enriched in MnO (1.69 to 2.87% and ZnO (up to 2.98%.O pegmatito Alto Quixaba na região do Seridó, nordeste do Brasil, é um corpo subvertical de direção 60°/80°SW intrudindo discordante biotita xistos da Formação Seridó. Apresenta três zonas distintas em termos de mineralogia e textura, al��m de uma zona de alteração em forma de dique na qual ocorre, entre outros minerais-gema, elbaítas coloridas. As elbaítas ocorrem como cristais prismáticos alongados de acordo com o eixo C, com faces arredondadas e estrias paralelas a esse eixo. Os cristais são uniaxiais negativos e apresentam forte pleocroísmo; índices de refração nE = 1,619-1,622 e nO = 1.639-1.643, birrefrigência entre 0,019 e 0,021, densidade relativa de 3,07, e os parâmetros seguintes da célula unitária: ao = 15,845 Å, co = 7,085 Å e V = 1540,476 Å. O sítio X apresenta deficiência em álcalis entre 12 e 17%. As elbaítas são relativamente ricas em MnO (1,69 a 2,87% e ZnO (até 2,98%.

  13. Medical abortion service in rural areas of Henan Province, China: a provider survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ning; Zhou, You; Zhang, Ying; He, Dian; Pang, Cheng; Xi, Maomao; Cheng, Yimin

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices on medical abortion of abortion service providers in rural areas of China. A cross-sectional study via self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 362 abortion service providers from family planning service centers (FPSC) and hospitals in rural areas of Henan Province, China, between November 2009 and May 2010. Most of the providers were female (99.4%) and obstetricians/gynecologists (63.3%). The knowledge score achieved ranged from 9.4 to 78.1 points, with both the median and the mode of 56.3 points. Of the 52.2% (189/362) of providers having a preference on abortion method, 30.2% (57/189) preferred medical abortion, while 69.8% (132/189) preferred surgical abortion. In total, 50.7% (174/343) of the providers indicated the provision of medical abortion should be expanded, with the three biggest challenges in its further expansion being increased complications/failures, poor client knowledge/awareness, and problems with drug/equipment supplies. Of all the providers, 81.7% and 92.2% reported they had experience in providing medical abortion and surgical abortion, respectively. Medical abortion providers were mainly experienced in misoprostol with oral (81.8%)/vaginal (79.6%) prostaglandin (misoprostol/gemeprost). Knowledge on medical abortion of providers working in rural China was at a moderate level. Providers preferred surgical abortion to medical abortion. Providers have more experience in providing surgical abortion than medical abortion. Efforts should be made to overcome the perceived challenges in future expansion of medical abortion. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Who pays for health care in China? The case of Heilongjiang province.

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    Mingsheng Chen

    Full Text Available Health spending by the Chinese government has declined and traditional social health insurance collapsed after economic reforms in the early 1980s; accordingly, the low-income population is exposed to potentially significant healthcare costs. Financing an equitable healthcare system represents a major policy objective in China's current healthcare reform efforts. The current research presents an examination of the distribution of healthcare financing in a north-eastern Chinese province to compare equity status between urban and rural areas at two different times.To analyze the progressivity of healthcare financing in terms of ability-to-pay, the Kakwani index was used to assess four healthcare financing channels: general taxes, social and commercial health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted in 2003 (11,572 individuals in 3841 households and 2008 (15,817 individuals in 5530 households. Household socioeconomic status, healthcare payment, and utilization information were recorded using household interviews.China's healthcare financing equity is unsound. Kakwani indices for general taxation were -0.0212 (urban and -0.0297 (rural in 2002, and -0.0097 (urban and -0.0112 (rural in 2007. Social health insurance coverage has expanded, however different financing distributions were found with respect to urban (0.0969 in 2002 vs. 0.0984 in 2007 and rural (0.0283 in 2002 vs. -0.3119 in 2007 areas. While progressivity of out-of-pocket payments decreased in both areas, the equity of financing was found to have improved among poorer respondents.Overall, China's healthcare financing distribution is unequal. Given the inequity of general taxes, decreasing the proportion of indirect taxes would considerably improve healthcare financing equity. Financial contribution mechanisms to social health insurance are equally significant to coverage extension. The use of flat rate contributions for healthcare funding places a

  15. Patient–physician mistrust and violence against physicians in Guangdong Province, China: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joseph D; Cheng, Yu; Wong, Bonnie; Gong, Ni; Nie, Jing-Bao; Zhu, Wei; McLaughlin, Megan M; Xie, Ruishi; Deng, Yinghui; Huang, Meijin; Wong, William C W; Lan, Ping; Liu, Huanliang; Miao, Wei; Kleinman, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Objective To better understand the origins, manifestations and current policy responses to patient–physician mistrust in China. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews focused on personal experiences of patient–physician mistrust and trust. Setting Guangdong Province, China. Participants One hundred and sixty patients, patient family members, physicians, nurses and hospital administrators at seven hospitals varying in type, geography and stages of achieving goals of health reform. These interviews included purposive selection of individuals who had experienced both trustful and mistrustful patient–physician relationships. Results One of the most prominent forces driving patient–physician mistrust was a patient perception of injustice within the medical sphere, related to profit mongering, knowledge imbalances and physician conflicts of interest. Individual physicians, departments and hospitals were explicitly incentivised to generate revenue without evaluation of caregiving. Physicians did not receive training in negotiating medical disputes or humanistic principles that underpin caregiving. Patient–physician mistrust precipitated medical disputes leading to the following outcomes: non-resolution with patient resentment towards physicians; violent resolution such as physical and verbal attacks against physicians; and non-violent resolution such as hospital-mediated dispute resolution. Policy responses to violence included increased hospital security forces, which inadvertently fuelled mistrust. Instead of encouraging communication that facilitated resolution, medical disputes sometimes ignited a vicious cycle leading to mob violence. However, patient–physician interactions at one hospital that has implemented a primary care model embodying health reform goals showed improved patient–physician trust. Conclusions The blind pursuit of financial profits at a systems level has eroded patient–physician trust in China. Restructuring incentives

  16. Detection, Occurrence, and Survey of Rice Stripe and Black-Streaked Dwarf Diseases in Zhejiang Province, China

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    Heng-mu ZHANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The major viral diseases that occur on rice plants in Zhejiang Province, eastern China, are stripe and rice black-streaked dwarf diseases. Rice stripe disease is only caused by rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV, while rice black-streaked dwarf disease can be caused by rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV and/or southern rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (SRBSDV. Here we review the characterization of these viruses, methods for their detection, and extensive surveys showing their occurrence and spread in the province.

  17. Analysis of the rs35959442 polymorphism in Hb E/β-thalassemia in Guangxi Province of the Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunyan; Chen, Ping; Lin, Weixiong; Luo, Jianming

    2012-01-01

    Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys]/β-thalassemia (β-thal) is a worldwide inherited disorder. We determined the phenotype of 65 unrelated Hb E/β-thal subjects and 70 healthy individuals in the Guangxi Province of the Republic of China (ROC). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs35959442 in HBS1L analysis was performed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/restriction enzyme method. The data suggested that the frequency of the rs35959442 polymorphism was relatively high in patients with Hb E/β-thal in Guangxi Province, ROC, when associated with Hb F augmentation.

  18. New evidence on financing equity in China's health care reform - A case study on Gansu province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the transition from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy, China’s state funding for health care declined and traditional coverage plans collapsed, leaving China’s poor exposed to potentially ruinous health care costs. In reforming health care for the 21st century, equity in health care financing has become a major policy goal. To assess progress towards this goal, this paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing in a province of northwestern China, comparing the equity performance between urban and rural areas at two different points in time. Methods Analysis of whether health care financing contributions were progressive according to income were made using the Kakwani index for each of the four health care financing channels of general taxes, public and private health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted, the first in 2003 (13,619 individuals in 3946 households) and the second in 2008 (12,973 individuals in 3958 households). Household socio-economic, health care payment, and utilization information were recorded in household interviews. Results Low-income households have undertaken a larger share of the health care financing burden in recent years, reflected by negative Kakwani indices, which indicate a regressive system. We found that the indices for general taxation were −0.0024 (urban) and −0.0281 (rural) in 2002, and −0.0177 (urban) and −0.0097 (rural) in 2007. Public health insurance presented different financing distributions in urban and rural areas (urban: 0.0742 in 2002, 0.0661 in 2007; rural: –0.0615 in 2002,–0.1436 in 2007.). Out-of-pocket payments were progressive but not equitable. Public health insurance coverage has expanded but financing equity has decreased. Conclusions Health care financing policies in China need ongoing reform. Given the inequity of general consumption taxes, elimination of these would improve financing equity considerably

  19. Strategies for implementing Health-Promoting Schools in a province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldinger, Carmen; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Liu, Li-Qun; Guo, Jun-Xiang; Yu Sen Hai; Jones, Jack

    2008-01-01

    After successful pilot projects in 10 schools (four schools with tobacco control and six schools with nutrition interventions, plus 10 control schools), Health and Education officials in Zhejiang Province, China, decided to scale up Health-Promoting Schools (HPS) systematically over the entire province, starting with an initial cohort of 51 additional schools, reaching from primary to vocational schools. Interviews with school personnel during the first phase of scaling up illuminated the key pre-implementation, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation activities. Pre-implementation activities included choosing an entry point, setting up a special HPS committee, and establishing a work plan. Implementation activities included conducting mobilization meetings, prioritizing health, popularizing the HPS concept, ensuring community cooperation and participation, acting as role models, offering training, and using new teaching and learning methods. Monitoring and evaluation activities included process, baseline, and final evaluations and changing standards of evaluation to a more holistic evaluation that schools go through to become Health-Promoting Schools. Schools also reported that they faced - and overcame - a number of challenges including understanding and integrating the HPS concept and lack of professional development and support. Results revealed that schools transitioned from a passive model of education to interactive pedagogy put priority on health and viewed it as a co-responsibility, reshaped assessment to a more holistic approach and called for more training and technical support. Participants mentioned that they gained knowledge and skills and developed a deeper understanding about health. Health impact was also demonstrated, for instance in reduced injuries and reduced smoking, and educational impact was demonstrated, for instance in improved relationships of children to parents and teachers, improved social qualities, and improved teacher

  20. Human paleodiet and animal utilization strategies during the Bronze Age in northwest Yunnan Province, southwest China.

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    Lele Ren

    Full Text Available Reconstructing ancient diets and the use of animals and plants augment our understanding of how humans adapted to different environments. Yunnan Province in southwest China is ecologically and environmentally diverse. During the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods, this region was occupied by a variety of local culture groups with diverse subsistence systems and material culture. In this paper, we obtained carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N isotopic ratios from human and faunal remains in order to reconstruct human paleodiets and strategies for animal exploitation at the Bronze Age site of Shilinggang (ca. 2500 Cal BP in northwest Yunnan Province. The δ13C results for human samples from Shilinggang demonstrate that people's diets were mainly dominated by C3-based foodstuffs, probably due to both direct consumption of C3 food and as a result of C3 foddering of consumed animals. Auxiliary C4 food signals can also be detected. High δ15N values indicate that meat was an important component of the diet. Analysis of faunal samples indicates that people primarily fed pigs and dogs with human food waste, while sheep/goats and cattle were foddered with other food sources. We compare stable isotope and archaeobotanical data from Shilinggang with data from other Bronze Age sites in Yunnan to explore potential regional variation in subsistence strategies. Our work suggests that people adopted different animal utilization and subsistence strategies in different parts of Yunnan during the Bronze Age period, probably as local adaptations to the highly diversified and isolated environments in the region.

  1. [Molecular characteristics of dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region, Yunnan province, 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofang; Yang, Mingdong; Jiang, Jinyong; Li, Huachang; Zhu, Chongge; Gui, Qin; Bu, Liqun; Zhou, Hongning

    2016-03-01

    To understand the molecular characteristics of a dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region, Yunnan province, 2015 and provide etiological evidence for the disease control and prevention. Semi-nested RTPCR was conducted to detect the capsid premembrane (CprM) gene of RNA of dengue virus by using dengue virus NS1 positive serum samples collected in Mengdin township, Gengma county, Yunnan province in July, 2015. Some positive samples were then detected by using PCR with specific primers to amplify the full E gene. The positive PCR products were directly sequenced. Then sequences generated in this study were BLAST in NCBI website and aligned in Megalign in DNAstar program. Multiple sequence alignments were carried out by using Mega 5.05 software based on the sequences generated in this study and sequences downloaded from GenBank, including the representative strains from different countries and regions. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using Neighbor-Joining tree methods with Mega 5.05 software. Twenty one of 25 local cases and 10 of 14 imported cases from Myanmar were positive for DENV-1. Eight serum samples were negative for dengue virus. A total of 13 strains with E gene (1485 bp), including 8 local strains and 5 imported strains, were sequenced, which shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities. Twelve strains with CprM gene (406 bp) from 9 local cases and 3 imported cases shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities. Phylogenetic analyses based on E gene showed that the new 13 strains clustered in genotype I of dengue virus and formed a distinct lineage. This outbreak was caused by genotype I of DENV-1, which had the closest phylogenetic relationships with dengue virus from neighboring Burma area. Comprehensive measures of prevention and control of dengue fever should be strengthened to prevent the spread of dengue virus.

  2. The reference values for semen parameters of 1213 fertile men in Guangdong Province in China

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    Yun-Ge Tang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Semen samples were collected from 1213 fertile men whose partners had a time-to-pregnancy (TTP ≤12 months in Guangdong Province in Southern China, and semen parameters including semen volume, sperm concentration, total counts, motility, and morphology were evaluated according to the World Health Organization (WHO 2010 guideline. All semen parameters analyzed were normal in ~62.2% of the total samples, whereas ~37.8% showed at least one of the semen parameters below normal threshold values. The fifth centiles (with 95% confidence intervals were 1.3 (1.2-1.5 ml for semen volume, 20 × 10 6 (18×10 6 -20×10 6 ml−1 for sperm concentration, 40 × 10 6 (38×10 6 -44×10 6 per ejaculate for total sperm counts, 48% (47%-53% for vitality, 39% (36%-43% for total motility, 25% (23%-27% for sperm progressive motility, 5.0% (4%-5% for normal morphology. The pH values ranged from 7.2 to 8.0 with the mean ± standard deviation at 7.32 ± 0.17. No effects of age and body mass index were found on semen parameters. Occupation, smoking and alcohol abuse, varicocele appeared to decrease semen quality. Sperm concentration, but not sperm morphology, is positively correlated with TTP, whereas vitality is negatively correlated with TTP. Our study provides the latest reference values for the semen parameters of Chinese fertile men in Guangdong Province, which are close to those described in the new WHO guidelines (5 th Edition.

  3. Viral Etiology of acute respiratory tract infections in hospitalized children and adults in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ti; Li, Zhong; Zhang, Shengyang; Song, Shaoxia; Julong, Wu; Lin, Yi; Guo, Nongjian; Xing, Chunyan; Xu, Aiqiang; Bi, Zhenqiang; Wang, Xianjun

    2015-10-14

    The dominant viral etiologies responsible for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are poorly understood, particularly among hospitalized patients. Improved etiological insight is needed to improve clinical management and prevention of ARIs. Clinical and demographic information and throat swabs were collected from 607 patients from 2011 to 2013 in Shandong Province, China. Multiplex RT-PCR (SeeplexTM RV detection, Seegene) was performed to detected 12 respiratory viral pathogens. A total of 607 hospitalized patients were enrolled from 2011 to 2013. Viruses were identified in 35.75 % (217/607) of cases, including 78 influenza virus A and B (IVA and IVB), 47 para-influenza viruses (PIVs), 41 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and 38 adenovirus (ADV). For the children under 15 year old, the common detected viruses were influenza viruses, RSV, PIVS and ADV, while the principal respiratory viruses were human coronaviruses (HCoV), PIVs, influenza viruses for the old adults. Co-infections with multiple viruses were detected in 15.67 % of patients. Children under 5 years were more likely to have one or more detectable virus associated with their ARI. The peak of ARI caused by the respiratory viruses occurred in winter. This study demonstrated respiratory viruses were the major cause of hospitalized ARI patients in Shandong Province, influenza virus was the most common detected, RSV was the highest incidence among the young children (≤5 years). These findings also gave a better understand of virus distribution among different age and seasons, which help to consider potential therapeutic approaches and develop effective prevention strategies for respiratory virus infection.

  4. A survey of levels of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages in 2009-2012, Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinping; Wang, Shuhui; Hu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Results of a survey of levels of ethyl carbamate (EC) (urethane) in alcoholic beverages carried out in four successive years from 2009 to 2012 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) are presented. The beverages were purchased for sampling from Hebei Province of China, including eight main areas of production. The samples comprised wines (n = 212), grain spirits (n = 143) and wine sauces (n = 164). The data show that the average EC content in these kinds of alcoholic beverages remains nearly constant over the years. The results provide valuable data for food authorities to establish maximum limits for EC in China.

  5. LC-MS/MS determination of acrylamide in instant noodles from supermarkets in the Hebei province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Xin; Zhang, Gui-Xiang; Yang, Li-Xue; He, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) concentrations in instant noodles (90 samples, covering 10 different brands) from Hebei Province of China were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The instant noodles were sampled from the southern and northern areas of Hebei Province (Shijiazhuang and Tangshan, respectively). The average content of AA for all 10 instant noodle brands was 6-145 µg/kg. The average content of AA in fried instant noodles was 4.47 times of those in non-fried ones, indicating the influence of the frying process. The average content of AA in instant noodles from Shijiazhuang was 1.64 times that of the samples from Tangshan (56 µg/kg). Eighty-four percent of the instant noodle samples in Hebei were contaminated with AA, with an average content of 80 µg/kg. These observations will be helpful for evaluating individual exposure to AA from instant noodles in China.

  6. Indicators of child health, service utilization and mortality in Zhejiang Province of China, 1998-2011.

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    Wei Fang Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the levels of primary health care services for children and their changes in Zhejiang Province, China from 1998 to 2011. METHODS: The data were drawn from Zhejiang maternal and child health statistics collected under the supervision of the Health Bureau of Zhejiang Province. Primary health care coverage, hospital deliveries, low birth weight, postnatal visits, breastfeeding, underweight, early neonatal (<7 days mortality, neonatal mortality, infant mortality and under-5 mortality were investigated. RESULTS: The coverage rates for children under 3 years old and children under 7 years old increased in the last 14 years. The hospital delivery rate was high during the study period, and the overall difference narrowed. There was a significant difference (P<0.001 between the prevalence of low birth weight in 1998 (2.03% and the prevalence in 2011 (2.71%. The increase in low birth weight was more significant in urban areas than in rural areas. The postnatal visit rate increased from 95.00% to 98.45% with a significant difference (P<0.001. The breastfeeding rate was the highest in 2004 at 74.79% and lowest in 2008 at 53.86%. The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years old decreased from 1.63% to 0.65%, and the prevalence was higher in rural areas. The early neonatal, neonatal, infant and under-5 mortality rates decreased from 6.66‰, 8.67‰, 11.99‰ and 15.28‰ to 1.69‰, 2.36‰, 3.89‰ and 5.42‰, respectively (P<0.001. The mortality rates in rural areas were slightly higher than those in urban areas each year, and the mortality rates were lower in Ningbo, Wenzhou, and Jiaxing regions and higher in Quzhou and Lishui regions. CONCLUSION: Primary health care services for children in Zhejiang Province improved from 1998 to 2011. Continued high rates of low birth weight in urban areas and mortality in rural areas may be addressed with improvements in health awareness and medical technology.

  7. Temporal Evolution of Regional Drought Detected from GRACE TWSA and CCI SM in Yunnan Province, China

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    Siyu Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Droughts are one of the most devastating natural disasters, which impose increasing risks to humanity and the environment in the 21st century. The recent and continuous drought in China has led to detrimental effects on the local environment and societies in Yunnan Province, thus there is an urgent need to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of the drought. The characteristics of the spatial distribution of drought processes and the impact of droughts on soil moisture and water storage remains unclear. In this study, the direction, magnitude, start time, and duration of droughts were investigated, based on Total Water Storage Anomalies (TWSA of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE, Climate Change Initiative Soil Moisture (CCI SM, and observed precipitation data. The spatial patterns of TWSA trends at each time duration segment suggest that the evolution of drought processes is very complex, and can be clustered into three zones. The spatial distribution of TWSA revealed that the drought status lasted more than one year longer in the north and east parts compared to other parts of Yunnan Province. Water losses occurred in the south part, while water gains were found in the central, north, and east parts of Yunnan Province, from 2002 to 2014, indicating a higher possibility of droughts in the south part in the future. Both de-seasonalized TWSA and CCI SM effectively captured the serious drought from 2009 to 2010 in Yunnan, and their spatial patterns were found to be consistent. The drought detected from CCI SMA had a one-month lag and TWSA had a two-month lag, in comparison to the meteorological drought from precipitation data, which indicates that the drought data derived from CCI SMA and TWSA are better able to represent the impact of droughts, particularly on agriculture. The contribution of surface SM changes in TWSA was determined to be about 41.94%, suggesting that variations in soil moisture only explain less than half of

  8. Time trends and risk factor associated with premature birth and infants deaths due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China from 2001 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Haiqing; Dai, Qiong; Xu, Yusong; Gong, Zhengtao; Dai, Guohong; Ding, Ming; Duggan, Christopher; Hu, Zubin; Hu, Frank B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nutrition and epidemiologic transition has been associated with an increasing incidence of preterm birth in developing countries, but data from large observational studies in China have been limited. Our study was to describe the trends and factors associated with the incidence of preterm birth and infant mortality due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China. Methods: We conducted a population-based survey through the Maternal and Child Health Care Network in Hubei Province fr...

  9. [Relationship between geopolitical political structure and distribution of dao-di herbs in frontier provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hua-Sheng; Hao, Jin-Da; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-09-01

    Dao-di herbs have both natural and humanistic attribute. Geopolitical political structure of Northeast, Mongolian, Xinjiang, Tibet, Yunnan and Guangxi provinces form frontier inland of China were summarized in this paper. The relationship between distribution of the Dao-di herbs and geopolitical political structure in above-mentioned provinces were described. In a strict sense, humanistic attribute of Dao-di herbs belonged to medical culture of Han Nationality. Distribution range of Dao-di herbs was determined by sphere of influence of central plains dynasty. Development of Dao-di herbs in the frontier inland area was unbalanced. The relationship between distribution of Dao-di herbs and geopolitical political structure proofed that natural attribute and humanistic attribute were inseparable. Recognition of this relationship is helpful to understand and develop genuine medicinal materials in frontier provinces.

  10. Description of Sangeeta sinuomacula sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Megophthalminae: Agalliini) from Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2015-06-19

    A new species, Sangeeta sinuomacula Li, Dai & Li sp. nov., of tribe Agalliini of subfamily Megophthalminae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is described and illustrated from Yunnnan Province of Southwest China. The new species is easily distinguished from other Sangeeta species by the aedeagal shaft with a pair of slender processes instead of lamelliform lateral expansions. A key to Sangeeta species and updated checklist with distribution are provided.

  11. Weather Condition dominates the Regional PM2.5 Pollutions in the Eastern Coastal Provinces of China during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhe; Jiang, Fei; Chen, Jingming; Jiang, Ziqiang

    2017-04-01

    China has been suffering from severe particulate matter (PM) pollution in recent years. Both pollution area and pollution levels are increasing gradually. The PM pollution episodes not only occur in the traditional developed areas like Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, but also frequently happen in the whole eastern coastal provinces (ECPs) of China. Based on hourly PM2.5 concentrations during December 2013 February 2014 of 55 cities located in the ECPs, we investigated the spatial and temporal variabilities of PM2.5 concentrations and the corresponding meteorological conditions during winter. The results shown that basically the seasonal mean concentrations over the whole ECPs exceeded the China's national standard of 75 μg/m3, and the most polluted area with mean concentrations greater than 150 μg/m3 were located in the southwest of Hebei and the west of Shandong provinces. From December to February, there was a decrease trend for the PM2.5 pollution in most areas, especially in the YRD region, while the PM2.5 concentrations over north of Hebei province increased. The spatial distributions and monthly variations are strongly related to the weather conditions. Overall, severe PM pollution was corresponding to a stable weather condition, i.e., small Sea Level Pressure (SLP) gradient, lower Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height and weaker wind fields. Statistics shown that the changes of mean PM2.5 concentrations over the ECPs region usually lagged behind the variations of PBL height and wind speeds about 12 18 hours. The variations of weather conditions could explain about 71% (R2) of the overall changes of PM2.5 concentrations in the ECPs region. This study gives a full insight into the PM2.5 pollution in the area of eastern coastal provinces of China during winter, which would be helpful to predict and control the PM2.5 pollution for this area in the future.

  12. A New Leptoceratopsid (Ornithischia, Ceratopsia) with a Unique Ischium from the Upper Cretaceous of Shandong Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yiming He; Makovicky, Peter J.; Kebai Wang; Shuqing Chen; Corwin Sullivan; Fenglu Han; Xing Xu

    2015-01-01

    The partial skeleton of a leptoceratopsid dinosaur, Ischioceratops zhuchengensis gen. et sp. nov., was excavated from the bone-beds of the Upper Cretaceous Wangshi Group of Zhucheng, Shandong Province, China. This fossil represents the second leptoceratopsid dinosaur specimen recovered from the Kugou locality, a highly productive site in Zhucheng. The ischium of the new taxon is morphologically unique among known Dinosauria, flaring gradually to form an obturator process in its middle portion...

  13. Towards an equitable healthcare in China: evaluating the productive efficiency of community health centers in Jiangsu Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lulin; Xu, Xinglong; Antwi, Henry Asante; Wang, Linna

    2017-05-25

    While the demand for the health service keeps escalating at the grass root or rural areas of China, a substantial portion of healthcare resources remains stagnant in the more developed cities and this has entrenched health inequity in many parts of China. At its conception, the Deepening Health Care Reform in 2012 China was intended to flush out these discrepancies and promote a more equitable and efficient distribution of health resources. Nearly half a decade of this reform, there are uncertainties as to whether the attainment of the objectives of the reform is in sight. We divided Jiangsu Province into 3 zones according to the level of economic and social development i.e. developed, developing, and undeveloped areas. Using a hybrid of Panel data analysis and an augmented Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), we model human resources, capital inputs of Community Health Centers to comprehensively determine the technical and scale efficiency of community health resources in 3 zones in Jiangsu Province. We sampled data and analysed efficiency and productivity growth of 75 Community Health Centers in 13 cities of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2015, which shows that a significant productive growth among Community Health Centers between 2011 and 2015. Mirroring the behavior of Community Health Centers, technological progress was the underlying force for the growth and the deterioration in efficiency change was found. This can be credited partly to the Deepening Health Care Reform measures aimed at improving technology availability in health centers in sub-urban areas. The regional summary of the DEA result shows that the stage of economic development and the efficiency performance of hospital did not necessarily go hand in hand among the 3 zones of Jiangsu. The government of China in general and Jiangsu province in particular could improve the efficiency of health resources allocation by improving the community health service system, rationalizing the allocation of health

  14. Effectiveness of a smartphone app on improving immunization of children in rural Sichuan Province, China: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Li Chen; Xiaozhen Du; Lin Zhang; Michelle Helena van Velthoven; Qiong Wu; Ruikan Yang; Ying Cao; Wei Wang; Lihui Xie; Xiuqin Rao; Yanfeng Zhang; Jeanne Catherine Koepsell

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an EPI smartphone application (EPI app) on improving vaccination coverage in rural Sichuan Province, China. Methods This matched-pair cluster randomized controlled study included 32 village doctors, matched in 16 pairs, and took place from 2013 to 2015. Village doctors in the intervention group used the EPI app and reminder text messages while village doctors in the control group used their usual procedures and text ...

  15. Effectiveness of a smartphone app on improving immunization of children in rural Sichuan Province, China: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, L.; Du, X; Zhang, L; Van Velthoven, MH; Wu, Q.; Yang, R; Cao, Y; Wang, W; Xie, L; Rao, X.; Zhang, Y; Koepsell, JC

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an EPI smartphone application (EPI app) on improving vaccination coverage in rural Sichuan Province, China. Methods This matched-pair cluster randomized controlled study included 32 village doctors, matched in 16 pairs, and took place from 2013 to 2015. Village doctors in the intervention group used the EPI app and reminder text messages while village doctors in the control group used their usual procedures and text messages....

  16. Assessing sustainability of organic apple orchards. The case of small scale apple production in Ningxia Province, PR China

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    China produces 43% of the world apple supply, but low fruit quality remains a problem for export of table fruit. Ningxia province is also facing challenges such as low soil fertility, poor orchard infrastructure and inadequate institutional support for small-scale apple producers. The study was carried out to assess a. the sustainability of organic apple orchards and b. the potential role of Organic and Fair Trade certification to contribute to farm sustainability and improve socio-economic o...

  17. The occurrence of an exotic bisexual Artemia species, Artemia franciscana, in two coastal salterns of Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bo; Sun, Shichun; Ma, Lin

    2004-10-01

    The alien halophilous Artemia species, Artemia franciscana, was found in Chengkou Saltern and Yangkou Saltern of Shandong Province, P.R. China. Although the indigenous parthenogenetic Artemia is detectable, the exotic species is dominant in both salterns. The cross-breeding tests between the exotic A. franciscana and 5 bisexual Artemia species were conducted. The results of hybridization and morphological observations on the exotic A. franciscana are briefly presented in this short communication.

  18. Characteristics of 985 pediatric burn patients in the south of Liaoning province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Zhai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injury due to burns is a serious and common, but preventable, occurrence in children. To analyze the characteristics of pediatric burns in the south of Liaoning province of China, a retrospective review was conducted of information, including general characteristics, demographics, etiology of burns, anatomical areas burned, and severity of injuries, obtained from medical records of pediatric burn patients admitted to the Burn Center of Anshan Hospital of the First Hospital of China Medical University from 2002 to 2011. Differences between age-groups and cause and severity of injuries were examined using Cochran-Mantel-Haenzsel ­(C-M-H statistic or chi-square (χ2 analyses where appropriate. A total of 985 pediatric burn cases were included, with only one death. The maximal burn area recorded was 80% and the maximal third-degree burn area was 45%. The majority of burns (637/985, 64.67% were moderate second-degree wounds, encompassing 5-14% of the total body surface area. The infant age-group (<3 years old had the largest representation (622/985, 63.15%, with more males than females affected. Most of the injuries occurred at home in children living in the local region. Scalding accounted for 89.85% (885/985 of all injuries, with a decreasing incidence with age, whereas injuries due to flames and from electrical sources markedly increased with age. Only a minority of guardians (244/985, 24.77% had burn prevention knowledge, and none of them knew how to provide first-aid treatment for burn injuries. These results indicate that the majority of pediatric burns occur in children less than 3 years of age from scalds received while at home. As a large proportion of these cases occurred in rural areas, programs emphasizing burn prevention and treatment knowledge should therefore be made more available to these families.

  19. Community response to construction noise in three central cities of Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Xia, Bo; Cui, Caiyun; Skitmore, Martin

    2017-11-01

    As a common source of environmental noise in China and many developing countries worldwide, construction work provokes many complaints and deterioration in acoustic climate quality. This paper describes research to obtain an improved understanding of people's community response to, and evaluation of, construction noise in three central cities of Zhejiang province, China. This involved carrying out a social survey using standard questionnaires developed by the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN). A dose-response relationship model is established using a quadratic polynomial regression analysis based on construction noise exposure measurements from 40 construction sites in Hangzhou, Ningbo and Wenzhou. The results of the study indicate that the majority of people have a negative attitude to construction noise; the noise ranges between 60 dB and 80 dB (compared with 50 dB-70 dB traffic noise in Tianjin), with the percentage of highly annoyed people affected increasing from 15%-20% to 30%-40% over the range. There also different levels of annoyance depending on the time of day, and the location and activities of those affected. Other cultural differences are also apparent both between Ningbo/Wenzhou and the more urbane citizens of Hangzhou, and the Chinese people and their more noise-tolerant EU and Vietnam counterparts. The findings of this study provide a new perspective for the study of construction noise that can help local governments have an improved understanding of how residents react to construction noise for the purpose of selecting construction noise-mitigation projects and introducing construction noise-control regulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the impact of hepatitis B vaccination in adults in Jiangsu province, China.

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    Liguo Zhu

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B immunization programs for newborns, children, and adolescents in China have shown remarkable results. To establish whether there would be any benefit in extending the program to cover older individuals, we examined both the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and the coverage of hepatitis B vaccinations among adults born before routine vaccinations were implemented. We then evaluated the impact of hepatitis B vaccination in adults aged 20-59 years. A large-scale cross-sectional epidemiological survey of HBV infection was performed in the province of Jiangsu, south-east China, between September 2009 and March 2010. A total of 86,732 adults aged 20-59 years were included, of which 8,615 (9.9%, 95% CI = 9.7-10.1% were HBsAg sero-positive. Self-reported vaccination status suggested that the coverage was approximately 23.7% (95% CI = 23.4-24.0%. It was shown that higher HBV vaccination coverage was associated with a lower rate of HBsAg seropositivity among adults. There was a negative correlation between hepatitis B vaccination coverage and HBsAg prevalence (correlation coefficient = -0.805, p = 0.016, which might demonstrate the combined effects of vaccination and pre-vaccination HBsAg screening. In the unvaccinated group, the HBsAg-positive rate had an obvious upward trend with age growing among 20-39 year-olds (Trend χ2 = 22.605, P<0.001, while the vaccinated group showed no such trend (Trend χ2 = 3.462, P = 0.063. Overall, hepatitis B vaccination in adults might reduce the rate of HBsAg positivity. Therefore, routine immunization of adults aged 20-39 years should be seriously considered.

  1. The crust and lithospheric mantle beneath SE Tibet and Sichuan Province (SW China) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hilst, R. D.; Yao, H.; Huang, H.; Liu, Q.

    2009-12-01

    Studying the crust and upper mantle beneath SE Tibet and Sichuan Province, SW China, is important for (at least) two reasons. First, this region has been central in discussions about the mechanisms of the formation and (eastward) expansion of the Tibetan plateau and, in particular, about the role of lower crustal flow. Second, as the southern part of the Trans China Seismic Belt the region is often struck by powerful earthquakes - such as the devastating 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and its countless aftershocks along the Longmenshan fault system that separates the (mechanically rigid) Sichuan basin from the actively deforming and slowly eastward moving (eastern) Tibetan plateau (Burchfiel et al., GSA Today, 2008). In 2003-04, MIT and Lehigh University deployed (in separate experiments) a total of 75 broadband seismograph stations in western Sichuan and SE Tibet, and in 2006 the Institute of Geology of the Chinese Earthquake Administration (CEA), installed 300 temporary stations in west Sichuan. Data from these arrays have been used for a wide range of studies of the crust and upper mantle, including shear wave splitting (Lev et al., EPSL, 2006; Sol et al, Geology, 2007), receiver function analysis (Xu et al., PEPI, 2007), surface wave array tomography (Yao et al., 2006, 2008), and travel time tomography (Li et al., 2006, 2008). These analyses reveal substantial 3D heterogeneity as well as complex spatial variations of (azimuthal and radial) anisotropy in the crust and lithospheric mantle. Both the surface wave inversions and the receiver function analyses suggest the existence of low shear velocity (and, presumably, mechanically weak) zones in the middle and lower crust, and the inferred 3D variations in anisotropy are inconsistent with vertically coherent deformation. We will review and summarize the findings of these studies and present the latest results of our ongoing investigation of the lithosphere in this region.

  2. Estimation of net primary productivity using a process-based model in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peijuan; Xie, Donghui; Zhou, Yuyu; E, Youhao; Zhu, Qijiang

    2014-01-16

    The ecological structure in the arid and semi-arid region of Northwest China with forest, grassland, agriculture, Gobi, and desert, is complex, vulnerable, and unstable. It is a challenging and sustaining job to keep the ecological structure and improve its ecological function. Net primary productivity (NPP) modeling can help to improve the understanding of the ecosystem, and therefore, improve ecological efficiency. The boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model provides the possibility of NPP modeling in terrestrial ecosystem, but it has some limitations for application in arid and semi-arid regions. In this paper we improve the BEPS model, in terms of its water cycle by adding the processes of infiltration and surface runoff, to be applicable in arid and semi-arid regions. We model the NPP of forest, grass, and crop in Gansu Province as an experimental area in Northwest China in 2003 using the improved BEPS model, parameterized with moderate resolution remote sensing imageries and meteorological data. The modeled NPP using improved BEPS agrees better with the ground measurements in Qilian Mountain than that with original BEPS, with a higher R2 of 0.746 and lower root mean square error (RMSE) of 46.53 gC/m2 compared to R2 of 0.662 and RMSE of 60.19 gC/m2 from original BEPS. The modeled NPP of three vegetation types using improved BEPS show evident differences compared to that using original BEPS, with the highest difference ratio of 9.21% in forest and the lowest value of 4.29% in crop. The difference ratios between different vegetation types lie on the dependence on natural water sources. The modeled NPP in five geographic zones using improved BEPS are higher than those with original BEPS, with higher difference ratio in dry zones and lower value in wet zones.

  3. Effects of vegetation on debris flow mitigation: A case study from Gansu province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyuan; Meng, Xingmin; Chen, Guan; Guo, Peng; Xiong, Muqi; Zeng, Runqiang

    2017-04-01

    Debris flows are traditionally controlled using civil engineering structures such as check dams. However, the misuse of such strategies may sometimes trigger environmental hazards such as the catastrophic landslide in 2010 in Zouqu county, China, and therefore other methods such as the use of vegetation as an eco-engineering tool are increasingly being adopted. The aim of the present research was to investigate the bioengineering effects of vegetation over time in an area prone to debris flows in Gansu province, China. We collected detailed data from 2012 to 2014 on vegetation type, density, and root system morphology, and measured profiles across the valley. In addition, we assessed the increased soil cohesion provided by the root development of three monospecific stands of Robinia pseudoacacia of different ages growing within the debris valley, and on a larger scale, their effects on channel morphology. These data were incorporated into a modified form of BSTEM (Bank Stability and Toe Erosion Model) and a cellular braided-stream model. The results indicate that with increasing age, the FOS (factor of safety) of the bank would be significantly increased, and that the flooded area in the valley caused by simulated flood events would be decreased by 18-24%, on average. Subsequently, field data were incorporated into a cellular model to simulate sediment movement and the effects of vegetation on the channel dynamics. The results demonstrate that the stability provided by vegetation could result in a less active valley system and that overall the development of debris-controlling vegetation could make a major contribution to ecosystem restoration. However, careful management is essential for making optimum use of the vegetation.

  4. The characteristics of heterosexual STD clinic attendees who practice oral sex in Zhejiang Province, China.

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    Qiaoqin Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The characteristics of heterosexual attendees who visit sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics and practice oral sex have not been revealed in China. This information is important for the development of targeted STD prevention programmes for this population. STUDY DESIGN: A self-administered questionnaire survey with a cross-sectional design was administered to consecutive attendees at four STD clinics in Zhejiang Province, China, between October and December in 2007. Demographic, psychosocial, and behavioural factors associated with oral sex over a lifetime were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Of the 872 attendees, 6.9% engaged in oral sex over their lifetimes. Of the oral-sex group, 96.6% also engaged in vaginal sex. The correlates for oral sex over a lifetime as determined by the multivariate analysis were high income (odds ratio [OR] = 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-4.59, high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-related knowledge (OR = 2.71, 95% CI 1.26-5.81, early sex initiation (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.37-4.27, multiple sexual partners (OR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.58-6.06, and sexually active in the previous 6 months (OR = 7.73, 95% CI 1.04-57.39. CONCLUSIONS: Though the prevalence of oral sex is low, the heterosexual STD clinic attendees practicing oral sex was found to have higher risks associated with STD/HIV transmission than those not. Behavioural and medical interventions conducted by clinicians in Chinese STD clinics should take into account the characteristics and related risks of those who practice oral sex.

  5. Physical maltreatment of children with autism in Henan province in China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Guiqin; Chen, Jingqi; Zhang, Wenjing; Yu, Buyi; Jin, Yanqin; Wang, Yazhe; Yao, Meiling

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of child physical maltreatment (CPM) in children with autism aged 2-5 years in Henan province (China), and to explore the risk factors for severe CPM in these children. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Psychology Clinic of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between September 2012 and September 2013 with 180 parents of children with autism. Children and parents had no history of any cognitive therapy. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS) was used to evaluate the severity of autism in children. Data on parental CPM during the past 3 months were collected from parental self-reporting. Logistic regression was used to investigate the risk factors of severe CPM. CPM was self-reported by 88% of the parents of children with autism. One hundred and fifty four of these cases were in the minor CPM group (86%) and 64 in the severe CPM group (36%). Most cases of severe CPM were unlikely to have caused injury. Univariate analyses showed that child's age (p=.018), age started to speak (p=.043) and CARS score (p=.048) were associated with severe CPM. Child's age (p=.011) and CARS score (p=.041) were independently associated with severe CPM. The risk of severe CPM increased with age and CARS score. Our findings showed that CPM is widespread in families of children with autism in Central China and more knowledge should be provided to parents of children with autism, particularly in cases of severe autism (those with high CARS scores). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Enshi area, western Hubei Province, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Z.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Yan, P.; Zhan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic transition witnessed the largest biotic turnover of Earth life during the Phanerozoic history. Ecosystems in sea and on land have also experienced the most protected restoration following the end-Permian mass extinction. These biocrises were also associated with climatic and environmental extremes through the latest Permian to Middle Triassic. In order to uncover the links among these extreme events, we need to establish high-resolution biochronostratigraphy, which offers precise timescales for reconstructing event sequences and probing the possible causes. Of these, conodont biostratigraphy is an operational tool in enhancing stratigraphic resolution. Although their ancestors and phylogeny remain unclear, conodonts are a rapid evolutionary lineage and extremely abundant in the Triassic marine carbonate successions. Here, we present recent study results of the Lower Triassic conodont zonation from the Ganxi and Jianshi areas, western Hubei Province, South China, which were situated on a carbonate ramp at the southern northern margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform. Therein, the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic successions are well exposed and yield abundant conodonts. A total of nine conodont zones was established: (1) Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi Zone, (2) Hindeodus changxingensis Zone, (3) Hindeodus parvus Zone, (4) Isarcicella staeschei Zone, (5) Clarkina planata Zone, (6) Neoclarkina discrete Zone, (7) Neospathodus dieneri Zone, (8) Novispathodus waageni Zone, and (9) Triassospathodus homeri Zone. The Ns. dieneri M1, Ns. dieneri M2 and Ns. dieneri M3 subzones have also been distinguished from the Ns. dieneri Zone. Both Nv. waageni eowaageni subzones and Nv. waageni waageni subzones are also recognizable from the Nv. waageni Zone. The first occurrence of H. parvus marks the Permian-Triassic boundary(PTB), while the first occurrence of Nv. waageni eowaageni defines the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These conodont zones correlate well with

  7. Syntectonic emplacement of the Triassic biotite-syenogranite intrusions in the Taili area, western Liaoning, NE China: Insights from petrogenesis, rheology and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weimin; Liu, Yongjiang; Jin, Wei; Neubauer, Franz; Zhao, Yingli; Liang, Chenyue; Wen, Quanbo; Feng, Zhiqiang; Li, Jing; Liu, Qing

    2017-05-01

    The North China Craton (NCC) is one of the oldest cratons in the world, and it recently becomes a hot study area because of large volumes of Mesozoic intrusions associated with lithospheric thinning contributing to cratonic destruction in late Mesozoic times. However, the timing of initial thinning and destruction is still controversial. The Taili area, western Liaoning Province, in the northeastern part of the NCC well exposes the Archean basement rocks and the Mesozoic magmatic rocks with variable plastic deformation. This study focuses on the syntectonic emplacement of the Triassic biotite-syenogranite intrusions, in order to understand their petrogenesis, timing as well as the geological significance. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages reveal that the biotite-syenogranites formed between 246 and 191 Ma, and contain many ancient (2564-2317 Ma) zircon xenocrysts. Geochemical data suggests that the biotite-syenogranites display an adakitic affinity with high Sr/Y = 135-167 and (La/Yb)N = 48-69, as well as negligible Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.87-0.94), high negative zircon εHf(t) values (-15.5 to -21.5) and ancient TDM2 ages (2246-2598 Ma). This data suggests that the parent magmas were generated from partial melting of thickened Archean lower crustal rocks probably due to the bidirectional amalgamation of the NCC with the NE China micro-blocks and the Yangtze Craton in its north and south, respectively. In the middle part of the Taili area, magmatic fabrics are well preserved in the biotite-syenogranite intrusion characterized by the strong preferred orientation of biotite and hornblende crystals, which parallel to the intrusion margin and are slightly oblique to the gneissosity of the sheared host Neoarchean granitic gneisses. The quartz grain size piezometer suggests that the paleo-differential stresses weaken toward to the central part of the intrusion, ranging from 21.40-22.22 MPa to 16.74-19.34 MPa, during quartz crystallization in the emplacement stage. This allow

  8. Long-term baited lander experiments at a cold-water coral community on Galway Mound (Belgica Mound Province, NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaleye, Marc; Duineveld, Gerard; Bergman, Magda; van den Beld, Inge

    2017-11-01

    A long-term lander employing a baited camera system was developed to study temporal variation in the presence of scavenging fish and invertebrates at a cold-water coral community on Galway Mound (Belgica Mound Province, NE Atlantic). The camera system was tested during two successful long-term deployments for periods of 6 and 12 months respectively. The baited system, consisting of two separate video cameras with infrared lights and a bait dispenser with 24 bait positions, recorded more than 15,500 clips of 17 s, regularly spread over both periods. New bait, consisting of sardines in oil, was offered at regular time intervals, and attracted scavengers over the whole period of deployment, and especially the crab Chaceon affinis did still eat from it till the end of the deployments. However, the attractiveness for some scavengers, i.e. amphipods, diminished quite quickly. In addition to invertebrate scavengers, namely C. affinis, two other crab species, amphipods, a shrimp and a starfish, also 7 species of fish were recorded near the bait, of which Lepidion eques was by far the most common. Though there was no concrete evidence for seasonal patterns, the observations showed substantial temporal variation in the abundance of several species, especially the crabs C. affinis and Bathynectes maravigna and the fish Phycis blennoides. It is concluded that long-term deployments of such a baited camera system can produce novel data. For instance such a system could be employed for monitoring impacts of disturbances on the deep-sea floor (e.g. mining), as we infer that mobile scavengers will be among the first organisms to show a visible reaction to any chemically and physically (noise, vibrations) alteration of the environment similar to a mine canary.

  9. Rubella Epidemics and Genotypic Distribution of the Rubella Virus in Shandong Province, China, in 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing; Xu, Aiqiang; Fang, Xueqiang; Song, Lizhi; Li, Weixiu; Xiong, Ping; Xu, Wenbo

    2012-01-01

    Background The rubella vaccine was introduced into the immunization program in 1995 in the Shandong province, China. A series of different rubella vaccination strategies were implemented at different stages of measles control in Shandong province. Methodology/Principal Findings The average reported incidence rate of rubella cases remained at a low level in Shandong province after 1999. However, rubella epidemics occurred repeatedly in 2001/2002, 2006, and 2008/2009. The age of the onset of rubella cases gradually increased during 1999–2010, which showed that most cases were found among the 10 years old in 1999 and among the 17 years old in 2010. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the World Health Organization standard sequence window for rubella virus isolates. All rubella viruses isolated in Shandong province were divided into 4 genotypes: 1E, 1F, 2A, and 2B. Genotype 1E viruses accounted for the majority (79%) of all these viruses. The similarity of nucleotide and amino acid sequences among genotype 1E viruses was 98.2–100% and 99.1–100%, respectively. All Shandong genotype 1E strains, differed from international genotype 1E strains, belonged to cluster 1 and interdigitated with the viruses from other provinces in mainland China. The effective number of infections indicated by a Bayesian skyline plot remained constant from 2001 to 2009. Conclusions/Significance The gradual shift of disease burden to an older age group occurred after a rubella-containing vaccine was introduced into the childhood immunization schedule in 1995 in Shandong province. Four genotypes, including 1E, 1F, 2A, and 2B, were found in Shandong province during 2000–2009. Genotype 1E, rather than genotype 1F, became the predominant genotype circulating in Shandong province from 2001. All Shandong genotype 1E viruses belong to the genotype 1E/cluster 1; they have constantly circulated, and co-evolved and co-circulated, with those from

  10. Meso- and Micro-scale modelling in China: Wind measurements at 12 meteorological stations in NE China (Dongbei)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw-Marsden, Petter; Enevoldsen, Karen

    This report is part of the presentation of the results obtained during the CMA component of the Wind Energy Development (WED) program. It describes the techniques and results of the project “A02 Measurements” which produced wind measurements from mast mounted anemometers and vanes in Dongbei...... in North-East China during 2008 to 2010. Main focus is given to the equipment supplied by Risø and the measurements taken by these systems. Specifically it shows the results of a comparison between the P2546A and EL15-1A cup anemometer....

  11. Age and geochemistry of Neoproterozoic granitoids in the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif, NE China: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jin-Peng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Guo, Peng

    2017-10-01

    This study presents new zircon U-Pb ages and geochemical data for Neoproterozoic granitoids in the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif (SZRM) of NE China. This dataset provides insights into the Neoproterozoic tectonic setting of the SZRM and the links between this magmatism and the evolution of the Rodinia supercontinent. The zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Neoproterozoic magmatism within the SZRM can be subdivided into two stages: (1) a ∼917-911 Ma suite of syenogranites and monzogranites, and (2) an ∼841 Ma suite of granodiorites. The 917-911 Ma granitoids contain high concentrations of SiO2 (67.89-71.18 wt.%), K2O (4.24-6.91 wt.%), and Al2O3 (14.89-16.14 wt.%), and low concentrations of TFe2O3 (1.63-3.70 wt.%) and MgO (0.53-0.88 wt.%). They are enriched in the light rare earth elements (LREE) and the large ion lithophile elements (LILE), are depleted in the heavy REE (HREE) and the high field strength elements (HFSE; e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), and have slightly positive Eu anomalies, indicating that they are geochemically similar to high-K adakitic rocks. They have zircon εHf (t) values and TDM2 ages from -4.4 to +1.5 and 1915 Ma to 1592 Ma, respectively, suggesting that they were derived from a primary magma generated by the partial melting of ancient thickened lower crustal material. In comparison, the 841 Ma granodiorites contain relatively low concentrations of Al2O3 (14.50-14.58 wt.%) and K2O (3.27-3.29 wt.%), relatively high concentrations of TFe2O3 (3.78-3.81 wt.%) and the HREE, have negative Eu anomalies, and have zircon εHf (t) values and TDM2 ages from -4.7 to +1.0 and 1875 to 1559 Ma, respectively. These granodiorites formed from a primary magma generated by the partial melting of ancient crustal material. The ∼917-911 Ma magmatism within the SZRM is inferred to have formed in an orogenic setting, whereas the ∼841 Ma magmatism formed in an anorogenic setting related to either a post-orogenic tectonic event or the onset of Neoproterozoic

  12. Late Permian basalts in the Yanghe area, eastern Sichuan Province, SW China: Implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan flood basalt province and Permian global mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; Lü, Linsu; Han, Liu; Liu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    We report the finding of a ∼20 m thick sequence of massive pyroxene-plagioclase-phyric basalt lava flows in the Yanghe area of the northeastern Sichuan Basin, within the Yangtze craton of SW China, which were previously considered to be located outside the Emeishan flood basalt province. This basaltic sequence above the middle Permian Maokou Formation (Fm.) is overlain by the late Permian Longtan Fm. Thus, the Yanghe basalts should be stratigraphically correlated with the Emeishan flood basalts. The Yanghe basalts show typical oceanic island basalt (OIB) affinity, and geochemically resemble Emeishan basalts, especially in the case of high-Ti (HT) basalts from the eastern domain of the Emeishan flood basalt province. The rocks have low age-corrected (87Sr/86Sr)t (t = 260 Ma) ratios (0.704158-0.704929) and Pb isotopic ratios [206Pb/204Pb(t) (18.264-18.524), 207Pb/204Pb(t) (15.543-15.58), and 208Pb/204Pb(t) (38.147-38.519)], and positive εNd(t) values (+3.15 to +3.61), suggesting that the lavas have not undergone any significant crustal contamination. The crystallization temperature of clinopyroxene is estimated to be 1368-1420 °C, suggesting anomalously thermal inputs from a mantle source and a possible plume-head origin. The fractionation of middle rare earth elements (MREE) to heavy REE (HREE) suggests that these rocks were produced by small degrees of partial melting of mantle peridotite within the garnet-spinel transition region. The stratigraphic relationships and similar geochemical signatures with the Emeishan flood basalts suggest that the Yanghe basalts are part of the Emeishan flood basalt province and can be considered as the northeastern limit of the Emeishan flood basalt province. Our finding extends the diameter of the Emeishan flood basalt province to ∼1200-1400 km, covering an area of up to ∼7 × 105 km2, two times more than previously estimated. The larger areal extent and giant eruption volume, incorporating the Sichuan Basin, lend support

  13. Epidemiological Study and Control Trial of Taeniid Cestode Infection in Farm Dogs in Qinghai Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUO, Zhihong; LI, Wei; PENG, Mao; DUO, Hong; SHEN, Xiuying; FU, Yong; IRIE, Takao; GAN, Tiantian; KIRINO, Yumi; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taeniid species in dogs from Xinghai, Haiyan, Gangcha and Chengduo counties. Analysis of 277 dog feces revealed that taeniid cestodes, including Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus, were highly prevalent in Xinghai (34.4%), but eggs were not found in Haiyan where a control trial on canine echinococcosis had been conducted 20 years previously. A control trial involving the administration of 5–10 mg/kg praziquantel to 90 farm dogs at 45-day intervals was conducted in Xinghai. The prevalence of taeniid cestodes in the dogs was reduced to 9.6% and 4.9% after one and two years, respectively, indicating that some dogs were not administered praziquantel properly. A questionnaire survey of farmers in Xinghai and Haiyan revealed that most farmers in Xinghai were not familiar with echinococcosis or the transmission route of the disease, while most farmers in Haiyan had a more thorough understanding of the disease. The findings implied that a program for educating local farmers would be important for efficiently controlling canine taeniid infection in the region. PMID:24257329

  14. Dental caries experience of preschool children from different ethnic groups in Guangxi Province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaojuan; Luo, Yan; Du, Minquan; Bedi, Raman

    2005-01-01

    To describe the caries status and oral health-related behaviors of three- to five-year-old Chinese children by their ethnic background, and to identify potential determinants of caries experience. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in a multi-ethnic province (Guangxi) in Southern China. Representative samples of preschool children from two ethnic groups (Han and an ethnic minority Zhuang: 487 Han and 470 Zhuang children) were examined using decayed, missing, filled teeth/surface (dmft/dmfs) indices. The children's general information as well as their personal oral hygiene practices and dietary habits were collected based on a structured questionnaire. Overall, 60% of children had caries with a mean dmft value of 3.01. Zhuang children had a significantly higher prevalence of rampant caries (13% vs. 9%), mean dmft (3.36 vs. 2.66) and mean dmfs (5.10 vs. 3.76) than the Han children. Decayed teeth/surfaces dominated the dmft/dmfs indices for both Han and Zhuang children. Multiple regression analysis showed that ethnicity and drinking fruit juice from feeding bottles during babyhood were significantly related to dmft. There was a higher level of caries experience in the Zhuang ethnic minority than in Han preschool children.

  15. First human case of avian influenza A (H5N6 in Yunnan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibo He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report clinical, virological, and epidemiological features of the first death caused by a H5N6 avian influenza virus in Yunnan Province, China. Method: The case was described in clinical expression, chest radiography, blood test and treatment. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect H5N6 virus RNA in clinical and environment samples. Epidemiological investigation was performed including case exposure history determinant, close contacts follow up, and environment sample collection. Results: The patient initially developed sore throat and coughs on 27 January 2015. The disease progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. And the patient died on 6 February. A highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N6 virus was isolated from the tracheal aspirate specimen of the patient. The viral genome analyses revealed that the H5 hemmagglutinin gene belongs to 2.3.4.4 clade. Epidemiological investigation showed that the patient had exposure to wild bird. All close contacts of the patient did not present the same disease in seven consecutive days. A high H5 positive rate was detected in environmental samples from local live poultry markets. Conclusion: The findings suggest that studies on the source of the virus, transmission models, serologic investigations, vaccines, and enhancing surveillance in both humans and birds are necessary.

  16. Trends and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Sustainability in Eastern Anhui Province, China

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    Jian Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes and evaluates the status and long-term trend of regional economic sustainability in eastern Anhui Province, China. Based on the triangle model and the definition of economic sustainable development, this study evaluates the interrelationship among regional economic development, resource-energy consumption, environmental pollution, and ecological performance. The sustainable and comprehensive utilization situation in the study region from 1975–2012 is examined. The results show that in 2012, the comprehensive development in the study region had a general status in terms of sustainability. The sustainable development trend of the seven administrative subunits inside the region had a weak and general status in terms of sustainability, while the status of sustainability in the southeastern part of the region was better than that in the northwest. During the period from 1975–1998, the study region’s comprehensive development presented a trend of general sustainability. In the period from 1998–2012, the region experienced a trend of very strong sustainability in its development. These statuses and trends have a certain relationship with the study region’s strong economic development and environmental protection over the past 37 years. The triangle method, as an intuitive platform for illustrating sustainability status and trends in economic development, seems to hold promise as an analytical management tool given its simplicity, ease of use, and flexibility.

  17. Extreme Weather Impacts on Maize Yield: The Case of Shanxi Province in China

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    Taoyuan Wei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather can have negative impacts on crop production. In this study, we statistically estimate the impacts of dry days, heat waves, and cold days on maize yield based on household survey data from 1993 to 2011 in ten villages of Shanxi province, China. Our results show that dry days, heat waves, and cold days have negative effects on maize yield, although these effects are marginal if these extreme events do not increase dramatically. Specifically, a one percent increase in extreme-heat-degree-days and consecutive-dry-days results in a maize yield declines of 0.2% and 0.07%, respectively. Maize yield also is reduced by 0.3% for cold days occurring during the growing season from May to September. However, these extreme events can increase dramatically in a warmer world and result in considerable reduction in maize yields. If all the historical temperatures in the villages are shifted up by 2 degrees Celsius, total impacts of these extreme events would lead to a reduction of maize yield by over 30 percent. The impacts may be underestimated since we did not exclude the offset effect of adaptation measures adopted by farmers to combat these extreme events.

  18. Human hair mercury levels in the Wanshan mercury mining area, Guizhou Province, China.

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    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Li, Guanghui

    2009-12-01

    The total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) concentrations in the hair were measured to evaluate mercury (Hg) exposure for the residents in Da-shui-xi Village (DSX) and Xia-chang-xi Village (XCX) in the Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China. The mean concentrations in the hair of DSX residents were 5.5 ± 2.7 μg/g and 1.9 ± 0.9 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The concentrations in the hair of XCX residents were 3.3 ± 1.4 μg/g and 1.2 ± 0.5 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. Hair Me-Hg concentrations were significantly correlated to T-Hg (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) in the two sites; on average, hair Me-Hg concentration accounted for 40 and 44% of T-Hg for DSX and XCX residents, respectively. Age has no obvious correlation with hair Hg and the hair Hg levels showed a significant gender difference, with higher T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations in the hair from males than females. The rice collected from the two sites showed high levels of T-Hg and Me-Hg concentration. The results indicated a certain Hg exposure for the residents in DSX and XCX in the Wanshan Hg mining area.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus isolates from Sichuan and Gansu provinces of China in 2011.

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    Xu, J; Guo, H-C; Wei, Y-Q; Shu, L; Wang, J; Li, J-S; Cao, S-Z; Sun, S-Q

    2015-02-01

    Canine parvovirus causes serious disease in dogs. Study of the genetic variation in emerging CPV strains is important for disease control strategy. The antigenic property of CPV is connected with specific amino acid changes, mainly in the capsid protein VP2. This study was carried out to characterize VP2 gene of CPV viruses from two provinces of China in 2011. The complete VP2 genes of the CPV-positive samples were amplified and sequenced. Genetic analysis based on the VP2 genes of CPV was conducted. All of the isolates screened and sequenced in this study were typed as CPV-2a except GS-K11 strain, which was typed as CPV-2b. Sequence comparison showed nucleotide identities of 98.8-100% among CPV strains, whereas the Aa similarities were 99.6-100%. Compared with the reference strains, there are three distinctive amino acid changes at VP2 gene residue 267, 324 and 440 of the strains isolated in this study. Of the 27 strains, fourteen (51.85%) had the 267 (Phe-Tyr) and 440 (Thr-Ala) substitution, all the 27 (100%) had 324 (Tyr-Ile) substitution. Phylogenetically, all of the strains isolated in this study formed a major monophyletic cluster together with one South Korean isolate, two Thailand isolates and four Chinese former isolates. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Decomposition Analysis in Decoupling Transport Output from Carbon Emissions in Guangdong Province, China

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    Yalan Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With a continuously growing share of the world’s overall energy consumption, the transport sector has been acknowledged as one of the most important contributors to global carbon emissions. This paper applies a complete decomposition and decoupling analysis to investigate and quantitatively analyze the main factors influencing the energy-related carbon emissions of the transport (TCE sector during 1995–2012 in Guangdong, the richest and most populated province in China. Results showed that decoupling level between transport output and TCE was relatively low, especially when compared with year 1995, in which case it remained as expansive coupling. Optimization of tertiary industry structure was the main factor inhibiting TCE increase. However the rapid growth of GDP per capita and population was more powerful at boosting TCE, resulting in elasticity index rising directly. 2005 was a turning point when environmental friendly policies took action, after which decoupling state improved significantly, achieving weak decoupling when comparing adjacent years. By studying TCE and its components, we found that the National 5-Year Plan policy impacts TCE tremendously, which leads to a 5-year periodic pattern of fluctuations. This highlights policy as potentially the most important factor behind Guangdong’s decoupling effort, dwarfing the impact from energy and other inner-drivers.

  1. A new basal sauropodiform dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic of Yunnan Province, China.

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    Wang, Ya-Ming; You, Hai-Lu; Wang, Tao

    2017-02-16

    The Lufeng Formation in Lufeng Basin of Yunnan Province, southwestern China preserves one of the richest terrestrial Lower Jurassic vertebrate faunas globally, especially for its basal sauropodomorphs, such as Lufengosaurus and Yunnanosaurus. Here we report a new taxon, Xingxiulong chengi gen. et sp. nov. represented by three partial skeletons with overlapping elements. Xingxiulong possesses a number of autapomorphies, such as transversely expanded plate-like summit on top of the neural spine of posterior dorsal vertebrae, four sacral vertebrae, robust scapula, and elongated pubic plate approximately 40% of the total length of the pubis. Phylogenetic analysis resolves Xingxiulong as a basal member of Sauropodiformes, and together with another two Lufeng basal sauropodiforms Jingshanosaurus and Yunnanosaurus, they represent the basalmost lineages of this clade, indicating its Asian origin. Although being relatively primitive, Xingxiulong displays some derived features normally occurred in advanced sauropodiforms including sauropods, such as a four sacral-sacrum, a robust scapula, and a pubis with elongated pubic plate. The discovery of Xingxiulong increases the diversity of basal sauropodomorphs from the Lufeng Formation and indicates a more complicated scenario in the early evolution of sauropodiforms.

  2. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium in yaks in Qinghai Province of China.

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    Rongsheng Mi

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium infecting yaks in the Qinghai Province of Northwestern China. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected by microscopy and nested-PCR. A total of 586 fecal samples were collected from yaks in 6 counties, of which 142 (24.2% samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium. The small subunit (SSU rRNA gene of fifty-five samples were amplified and sequenced successfully and demonstrated that Cryptosporidium bovis (31/55, 56.4% was the most common species, followed by C. parvum (16/55, 29.1% and C. ryanae (5/55, 9.0%. Mixed infections of C. parvum and C. bovis (n = 2, C. ryanae and C. bovis (n = 1 were also detected. All three species were found in yaks ranging in age from 2 years. Cryptosporidium was most commonly detected in spring (28.4%, followed by summer (20.9%, then winter (17.5%. Cryptosporidium parvum positive samples were subtyped using the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene. Subtypes IIaA15G2R1 (n = 8, IIaA16G2R1 (n = 2, IIaA14G1R1 (n = 1, IIaA14G2R1 (n = 1 and IIaA16G3R1 (n = 1 were detected. All of these subtypes are zoonotic, and may pose a potential threat to human health.

  3. A new basal sauropodiform dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic of Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; You, Hai-Lu; Wang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The Lufeng Formation in Lufeng Basin of Yunnan Province, southwestern China preserves one of the richest terrestrial Lower Jurassic vertebrate faunas globally, especially for its basal sauropodomorphs, such as Lufengosaurus and Yunnanosaurus. Here we report a new taxon, Xingxiulong chengi gen. et sp. nov. represented by three partial skeletons with overlapping elements. Xingxiulong possesses a number of autapomorphies, such as transversely expanded plate-like summit on top of the neural spine of posterior dorsal vertebrae, four sacral vertebrae, robust scapula, and elongated pubic plate approximately 40% of the total length of the pubis. Phylogenetic analysis resolves Xingxiulong as a basal member of Sauropodiformes, and together with another two Lufeng basal sauropodiforms Jingshanosaurus and Yunnanosaurus, they represent the basalmost lineages of this clade, indicating its Asian origin. Although being relatively primitive, Xingxiulong displays some derived features normally occurred in advanced sauropodiforms including sauropods, such as a four sacral-sacrum, a robust scapula, and a pubis with elongated pubic plate. The discovery of Xingxiulong increases the diversity of basal sauropodomorphs from the Lufeng Formation and indicates a more complicated scenario in the early evolution of sauropodiforms.

  4. Evaluating historical simulations of CMIP5 GCMs for key climatic variables in Zhejiang Province, China

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    Xuan, Weidong; Ma, Chong; Kang, Lili; Gu, Haiting; Pan, Suli; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the regional impact of climate change on agriculture, hydrology, and forests is vital for sustainable management. Trustworthy projections of climate change are needed to support these assessments. In this paper, 18 global climate models (GCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are evaluated for their ability to simulate regional climate change in Zhejiang Province, Southeast China. Simple graphical approaches and three indices are used to evaluate the performance of six key climatic variables during simulations from 1971 to 2000. These variables include maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, solar radiation, and relative humidity. These variables are of great importance to researchers and decision makers in climate change impact studies and developing adaptation strategies. This study found that most GCMs failed to reproduce the observed spatial patterns, due to insufficient resolution. However, the seasonal variations of the six variables are simulated well by most GCMs. Maximum and minimum air temperatures are simulated well on monthly, seasonal, and yearly scales. Solar radiation is reasonably simulated on monthly, seasonal, and yearly scales. Compared to air temperature and solar radiation, it was found that precipitation, wind speed, and relative humidity can only be simulated well at seasonal and yearly scales. Wind speed was the variable with the poorest simulation results across all GCMs.

  5. A NEW PERLEIDID FROM THE SPATHIAN (OLENEKIAN, EARLY TRIASSIC OF CHAOHU, ANHUI PROVINCE, CHINA

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    ZUOYU SUN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new actinopterygian genus and species, Chaohuperleidus  primus gen. n. n. sp., is described from the Upper Member of the Nanlinghu Formation (Spathian, Olenekian, Early Triassic at Majiashan (Majia Hill, Chaohu City, Anhui Province, Southeast China. The new taxon is assigned to the order Perleidiformes on the base of a combination of features: large wedge-like preoperculum with expanded infraorbital process and sensory canal running almost vertical along the posterior margin of the preoperculum itself, flank scalessomewhat higher than longer in the trunk region and presence of epaxial rays in the caudal fin.AmongPerleidiformes, the new taxonbelongsto thePerleididae, being very similar to Perleidus in the general body shape, pattern of the skull bones, the dentitionmade of peg-like marginal teeth,and number of epaxial rays. The new genus is characterized by the presence of a very large antero-dorsal process on the suboperculum, a high number (about 55 of transversal scale rows and dorsal and anal fin quite posterior. Chaohuperleidus gen. n., beingSpathianin age,represents the oldest record of the order Perleidiformes. 

  6. Utilizing the resource of twins reared apart: their distribution across nine provinces or cities of China.

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    Gao, Wenjing; Zhou, Bin; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Dong, Zhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Jiang, Guohong; Wang, Xiaojie; Wang, Binyou; Li, Liming

    2015-04-01

    Twins reared apart provide a fascinating experiment to distinguish genetic from environmental influences. However, there is as yet no broad report on distribution of twins reared apart, especially in the Chinese population. In this study, information on 18,295 volunteer twin pairs of all age groups was compiled in nine provinces or cities of China, and questionnaires were used for zygosity determination. It was discovered that twins reared apart from 0 to 10 years of age accounted for 2.2% of all twin interviewees, with the proportion of this 0-10 group separated before 1, 2, and 5 years old, accounting for 65.3%, 76.1%, and 91.3%, respectively. The proportion of twins reared apart is not significantly related to zygosity or gender, but it is related to region and twin age. As the age of twins lowers, the proportion of those reared apart gradually decreases. Twins reared apart will become rarer in the future and therefore should be cherished as a resource.

  7. Investigating crash injury severity at unsignalized intersections in Heilongjiang Province, China

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    Yulong Pei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies suggest that more crashes occur due to mixed traffic flow at unsignalized intersections. However, very little is known about the injury severity of these crashes. The objective of this study is therefore to investigate how contributory factors affect crash injury severity at unsignalized intersections. The dataset used for this analysis derived from police crash reports from Dec. 2006 to Apr. 2009 in Heilongjiang Province, China. An ordered probit model was developed to predict the probability that the injury severity of a crash will be one of four levels : no injury, slight injury, severe injury, and fatal injury. The injury severity of a crash was evaluated in terms of the most severe injury sustained by any person involved in the crash. Results from the present study showed that different factors had varying effects on crash injury severity. Factors found to resuit in the increased probability of serious injuries include adverse weather, sideswiping with pedestrians on poor surface, the interaction of rear-ends and the third-class highway, winter night without illumination, and the interaction between traffic signs or markings and the third-class highway. Although there are some limitations in the current study, this study provides more insights into crash injury severity at unsignalized intersections.

  8. Rare earth elements and hypertension risk among housewives: A pilot study in Shanxi Province, China.

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    Wang, Bin; Yan, Lailai; Huo, Wenhua; Lu, Qun; Cheng, Zixi; Zhang, Jingxu; Li, Zhiwen

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that residents living near rare earth mining areas have high concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in their hair. However, the adverse effects of REEs on human health have rarely been the focus of epidemiological studies. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between REEs in hair and the risk of hypertension in housewives. We recruited 398 housewives in Shanxi Province, China, consisting of 163 women with hypertension (cases) and 235 healthy women without hypertension (controls). We analyzed 15 REEs (lanthanum (La), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), lutetium (Lu), Yttrium (Y), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), and neodymium (Nd)) and calcium (Ca) accumulated in housewives hair over a period of two years. The results revealed that, with the exception of Eu, concentrations of the REEs in hair were higher in the cases than in the controls. The univariate odds ratios (ORs) of the 14 REEs were >1, and four of the REEs (Dy, Tm, Yb, and Y) also had adjusted ORs > 1. The increasing dose-response trends of the four REEs further indicated the potential for increased hypertension risk. Moreover, the REEs were negatively correlated with Ca content in hair. These results might suggest an antagonistic effect of REEs on Ca in the human body. It was concluded that high intake of REEs might increase the risk of hypertension among housewives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of heavy metals in some wild edible mushrooms collected from Yunnan Province, China.

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    Zhu, Fangkun; Qu, Li; Fan, Wenxiu; Qiao, Meiying; Hao, Hailing; Wang, Xuejing

    2011-08-01

    Eight heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) in 14 different wild-growing edible mushroom species (Coprinus comatus, Voluariella volvacea, Pleurotus nebrodensis, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Hericium erinaceus, Agrocybe aegerita, Lenfinus edodes, Collybia velutipes, Agaricus bisporus, Russula albida, Clitocybe conglobata, Pleurotus eryngii, Lepista sordida, and Pleurotus ostreatus) collected from Yunnan province, China, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after microwave digestion. All element concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis. The ranges of element concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead were 6.8-31.9, 42.9-94.3, 67.5-843, 13.5-113, 0.06-0.58, 10.7-42.7, 0.76-5.1, and 0.67-12.9 mg/kg, respectively. In general, iron content was higher than other metals in all mushroom species. The levels of zinc, cadmium, and lead in some edible mushroom samples were found to be higher than legal limits. The relative standard deviations were found below 10%. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference material.

  10. A small short-necked hupehsuchian from the lower Triassic of Hubei Province, China.

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    Xiao-hong Chen

    Full Text Available Hupehsuchia is a group of enigmatic Triassic marine reptiles that is known exclusively from two counties in Hubei Province, China. One of the common features of the group was a modestly long neck with nine to ten cervical vertebrae. We report a new species of Hupehsuchia, Eohupehsuchus brevicollis gen. et sp. nov., which for the first time shows a short neck in this group, with six cervicals. The configuration of the skull roof in Eohupehsuchus is also unique among Hupehsuchia, with narrow frontals and posteriorly shifted parietals, warranting recognition of a new species. The taxon superficially resembles Nanchangosaurus in retaining hupehsuchian plesiomorphies, such as low neural spines and small body size. However, its limbs are well-developed, unlike in Nanchangosaurus, although the latter genus is marginally larger in body length. Thus, the individual is unlikely to be immature. Also, Eohupehsuchus shares a suite of synapomorphies with Hupehsuchus, including the second and third layers of dermal ossicles above the dorsal neural spines. A phylogenetic analysis suggests that the new species is not the most basal hupehsuchian despite its short neck, and instead forms the sister taxon of Hupehsuchidae. Until recently, Hupehsuchia contained only two monotypic genera. Now there are at least four genera among Hupehsuchia, and the undescribed diversity is even higher. The left forelimb of the only specimen is incomplete, ending with broken phalanges distally. The breakage could only have occurred pre-burial. The individual may have been attacked by a predator and escaped, given that scavenging is unlikely.

  11. Neogene seismites and seismic volcanic rocks in the Linqu area, Shandong Province, E China

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    Tian H.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Yishu Fault Zone runs through the centre of Shandong Province (E China; it is a deep-seated large fault system that still is active. Two volcanic faulted basins (the Shanwang and Linqu Basins in the Linqu area, west of the fault zone, are exposed to rifting, which process is accompanied by a series of tectonic and volcanic earthquakes with a magnitude of 5-8. Lacustrine sediments in the basins were affected by these earthquakes so that seismites with a variety of soft-sediment deformation structures originated. The seismites form part of the Shanwang Formation of the Linqu Group. Semi-consolidated fluvial conglomerates became deformed in a brittle way; these seismites are present at the base of the Yaoshan Formation. Intense earthquakes triggered by volcanic activity left their traces in the form of seismic volcanic rocks associated with liquefied-sand veins in the basalt/sand intercalations at the base of the Yaoshan Formation. These palaeo-earthquake records are dated around 14-10 Ma; they are responses to the intense tectonic extension and the basin rifting in this area and even the activity of the Yishu Fault Zone in the Himalayan tectonic cycle.

  12. Problematic Internet Use in high school students in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhou, Xiaolan; Lu, Ciyong; Wu, Jie; Deng, Xueqing; Hong, Lingyao

    2011-05-06

    Problematic Internet Use (PIU) is a growing problem in Chinese adolescents. There are many risk factors for PIU, which are found at school and at home. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of PIU and to investigate the potential risk factors for PIU among high school students in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 14,296 high school students were surveyed in four cities in Guangdong province. Problematic Internet Use was assessed by the 20-item Young Internet Addiction Test (YIAT). Information was also collected on demographics, family and school-related factors and Internet usage patterns. Of the 14,296 students, 12,446 were Internet users. Of those, 12.2% (1,515) were identified as problematic Internet users (PIUs). Generalized mixed-model regression revealed that there was no gender difference between PIUs and non-PIUs. High study-related stress, having social friends, poor relations with teachers and students and conflictive family relationships were risk factors for PIU. Students who spent more time on-line were more likely to develop PIU. The habits of and purposes for Internet usage were diverse, influencing the susceptibility to PIU. PIU is common among high school students, and risk factors are found at home and at school. Teachers and parents should pay close attention to these risk factors. Effective measures are needed to prevent the spread of this problem.

  13. Influence of environmental factors on Argulus japonicus occurrence of Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsarakibi, Muhamd; Wadeh, Hicham; Li, Guoqing

    2014-11-01

    To assess the effects of abiotic factors on Argulus japonicus occurrence in freshwater ecosystem, we sampled fish, free-swimming parasites, and submerged objects from rivers, fish farms, and ponds (reservoirs and lakes) at 27 locations in Guangdong province, China, from July, 2010, to March, 2013. Friedman's test and Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) were used to investigate relationship between A. japonicus occurrence and abiotic factors in three aquatic systems. Correlation of monthly density, mean density, prevalence, abundance, and intensity of A. japonicus with water temperature, biochemical oxygen demand of 5 days, chemical oxygen demand, and ammonia were very significant, but negative relation with pH, dissolved oxygen, and total phosphorus components. Nevertheless, total nitrogen components showed an insignificant impact on A. japonicus incidence. In addition, water temperature and stability were two key factors controlling A. japonicus infestation. Our study revealed the capability of A. japonicus to inhabit and prevail in heavily polluted freshwater. Results demonstrate that A. japonicus has good adaptability to the environmental factors' stress but cannot be used as a biological indicator of environmental pollution.

  14. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment and Blindness in Shanxi Province, China.

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    Li, Tong; Du, Liping; Du, Lingzhen

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in Shanxi Province, China. Data were obtained from the Second National Sampling Survey of Disability conducted in 2006. Blindness and visual impairment were defined as best corrected visual acuity Visual acuity (VA) was measured using a Standard Logarithmic Visual Acuity E chart (Snellen) for subjects aged 7 years and older. Participants younger than 7 years were examined using special experiments or the Childhood Graphical Visual Chart. The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in Shanxi was estimated to be 0.6% (466/75,016) among persons up to 80 years old. The prevalence in rural areas (0.7%; 351/48,137) was significantly higher than that in urban areas (0.4%; 115/26,879) and was higher in females (0.8%; 298/36,933) than in males (0.4%; 168/38,083). The most common cause of visual impairment and blindness was cataract (44.9%), followed by retinopathy and choroidopathy (12.5%), hereditary and developmental disorders (10.3%), corneal disease (5.2%), and refractive error (4.9%). Prevalences of visual impairment and blindness in women and in rural areas were higher than in men and urban areas, and increased with age. Cataract was the most prevalent cause of visual impairment and blindness. Based on the findings from this study, we suggest that provision of support and welfare services should be organized.

  15. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China

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    Si-Yuan Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65% samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1 : 16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05. Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution.

  16. Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis

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    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other meteorological and socioeconomic factors, malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.77–7.61), diarrhea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24–3.78), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 1.04–35.84) were significantly related to the 2007 Huai River flood both from the spatial and temporal analyses. Special attention should be given to develop public health preparation and interventions with a focus on malaria, diarrhea, and HAV infection, in the study region. PMID:26903612

  17. Spatial Patterns and the Regional Differences of Rural Settlements in Jilin Province, China

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    Xiaoyan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The spatial patterns of rural settlements are important for understanding the drivers of land use change and the relationship between human activity and environmental processes. It has been suggested that the clustering of houses decreases the negative effects on the environment and promotes the development of the countryside, but few empirical studies have quantified the spatial distribution patterns of houses. Our aim was to explore the regional differences in rural settlement patterns and expand our understanding of their geographic associations, and thus contribute to land use planning and the implementation of the policy of “building a new countryside”. We used spatial statistical methods and indices of landscape metrics to investigate different settlement patterns in three typical counties within different environments in Jilin Province, Northeast China. The results indicated that rural settlements in these three counties were all clustered, but to a varied degree. Settlement density maps and landscape metrics displayed uniformity of the settlement distributions within plain, hill, and mountainous areas. Influenced by the physical environment, the scale, form, and degree of aggregation varied. Accordingly, three types of rural settlements were summarized: a low-density, large-scale and sparse type; a mass-like and point-scattered type; and a low-density and high cluster-like type. The spatial patterns of rural settlements are the result of anthropogenic and complex physical processes, and provide an important insight for the layout and management of the countryside.

  18. Dietary Sodium Intake: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Shandong Province, China, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Xu, Ai-qiang; Ma, Ji-xiang; Shi, Xiao-ming; Guo, Xiao-lei; Engelgau, Michael; Yan, Liu-xia; Li, Yuan; Li, Yi-chong; Wang, Hui-cheng; Lu, Zi-long; Zhang, Ji-yu; Liang, Xiao-feng

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) for dietary sodium intake among adult residents of Shandong Province, China Methods In 2011, we conducted a cross sectional survey among a representative sample of 15,350 adults aged 18 to 69 years using a standardized questionnaire to assess their KAP for sodium. Variation in the KAPs by gender, and residence location were compared using the Chi-square tests. Predictors for the ‘intention to’ and ‘currently taking action to’ reduce sodium intake were determined by multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for confounding factors. Results KAPs for dietary sodium intake among urban residents was generally more favorable than among rural residents. Women were likely to have more favorable KAPs than men. About four fifth of subjects reported that they favored a low sodium diets. However, 31% reported that consumption of less sodium results in less physical strength. Overall, 70% indicated their intention to reduce sodium intake, although only 39 % reported that they had taken action to reduce sodium. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that favorable actions to dietary sodium reduction were more likely to occur among those who were aware of the link between sodium and hypertension, and less likely among those who had unfavorable attitudes towards dietary sodium reduction. Conclusion Increasing knowledge levels about the benefits of sodium reduction will be a key success factor for effective sodium reduction initiatives and is linked to favorable behavioral change. Emphasis should be placed on the rural area. PMID:23527061

  19. Dietary sodium intake: knowledge, attitudes and practices in Shandong Province, China, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Xu, Ai-Qiang; Ma, Ji-Xiang; Shi, Xiao-Ming; Guo, Xiao-Lei; Engelgau, Michael; Yan, Liu-Xia; Li, Yuan; Li, Yi-Chong; Wang, Hui-Cheng; Lu, Zi-Long; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Liang, Xiao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) for dietary sodium intake among adult residents of Shandong Province, China. In 2011, we conducted a cross sectional survey among a representative sample of 15,350 adults aged 18 to 69 years using a standardized questionnaire to assess their KAP for sodium. Variation in the KAPs by gender, and residence location were compared using the Chi-square tests. Predictors for the 'intention to' and 'currently taking action to' reduce sodium intake were determined by multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for confounding factors. KAPs for dietary sodium intake among urban residents was generally more favorable than among rural residents. Women were likely to have more favorable KAPs than men. About four fifth of subjects reported that they favored a low sodium diets. However, 31% reported that consumption of less sodium results in less physical strength. Overall, 70% indicated their intention to reduce sodium intake, although only 39 % reported that they had taken action to reduce sodium. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that favorable actions to dietary sodium reduction were more likely to occur among those who were aware of the link between sodium and hypertension, and less likely among those who had unfavorable attitudes towards dietary sodium reduction. Increasing knowledge levels about the benefits of sodium reduction will be a key success factor for effective sodium reduction initiatives and is linked to favorable behavioral change. Emphasis should be placed on the rural area.

  20. Auditory screening concurrent deafness predisposing genes screening in 10,043 neonates in Gansu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhewen; Ding, Wenjuan; Liu, Xiaowen; Xu, Baicheng; Du, Wan; Nan, Shuling; Guo, Yufen

    2012-07-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combining newborn hearing screening with screening for genetic mutations associated with deafness. Ten thousand forty-three newborn babies, born between December 2009 and April 2011 in Gansu province, China, were screened for hearing loss using the otoacoustic emissions test or automatic auditory brainstem response test and genetic mutations associated with deafness using a standard protocol. In the hearing screening, the referral rate for hearing loss in the first-step screening was 14.4% (1409/9786), decreasing significantly to 3.8% (362/9506) upon retesting. After the second-step screening, a total of 537 newborns were lost to follow-up. The genetic screening found that about 2.29% (230/10,043) individuals carried one or more recessive risk alleles or the mitochondrial mutation. Among them, 18 babies had the pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutation, 92 babies were SLC26A4 heterozygote carriers, one case with both SLC26A4 and 12S rRNA 1555A>G mutation, 117 babies were GJB2 heterozygote carriers, and two babies were GJB2 homozygote carriers. However, 83.5% (192/230) neonates passed the conventional hearing screening among these carriers. It might be effective to complement the conventional hearing screening with gene screening for the purpose of early diagnosis and discovery of the late-onset hearing loss. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrated biochronology for Triassic marine vertebrate faunas of Guizhou Province, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zuoyu; Jiang, Dayong; Ji, Cheng; Hao, Weicheng

    2016-03-01

    The Middle and Upper Triassic marine deposits of Guizhou Province, which yielded exceptionally well-preserved vertebrate faunas, are further investigated. New age-diagnostic conodonts and ammonoids from six measured sections, together with already published data, allow us to construct an integrated biochronology straddling strata from the upper Guanling Formation (Anisian, Middle Triassic) to the basal Xiaowa Formation (Carnian, Upper Triassic). Age constrains for those fossil Lagerstätten are now dated to the substage and zone levels: the Panxian Fauna, within the conodont Nicoraella kockeli Zone and broadly coexisted with the ammonoid 'Schreyerites' binodosus, is suggested as latest Pelsonian (middle Anisian) in age; the Xingyi Fauna is assumed to be not younger than the middle Longobardian (Late Ladinian) because the conodont Paragondolella inclinata with free-blade and the ammonoid Haoceras xingyiensis are recorded from slightly younger strata; the conodont Paragondolella auriformis and the ammonoid Trachyceras multituberculatum and Austrotrachyceras triadicum clearly indicate that the Guanling Fauna is not older than Julian (early Carnian) in age (time interval between Aon Zone or Aonoides Zone). With the new biostratigraphic data, a relative sequence and correlation of the Middle Triassic vertebrate faunas from Guizhou (South China) and Monte San Giorgio (Southern Alps, Switzerland/Italy) is proposed.

  2. Peer Support for Diabetes Management in Primary Care and Community Settings in Anhui Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhimin; Fisher, Edwin B.; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We evaluated a peer leader–support program (PLSP) for diabetes self-management in China in terms of acceptability and feasibility; implementation; perceived advantages; disadvantages and barriers; reach and recruitment; effectiveness in terms of diabetes knowledge and clinical impacts; adoption; and sustainability. METHODS Within each of 3 cities in Anhui Province, 2 subcommunities were randomly assigned to usual care or PLSP. Peer leaders and staff of Community Health Service Centers (CHSCs) co-led biweekly educational meetings. Peer leaders also led biweekly discussion meetings, promoted regular care through the CHSCs, organized informal health promotion activities (eg, walking and tai chi groups), and provided informal individual support to participants through casual contact. RESULTS Qualitative evaluations indicated acceptance of and positive responses to the program among patients, peer leaders, and CHSC staff. Implementation was successful in 2 of 3 subcommunities, the third failing for lack of staff resources. Reported advantages included peer support as a bridge between CHSCs and their patients. In 2 sites where the PLSP was implemented, analyses controlling for baseline differences and site showed significant benefits for PLSP relative to controls (P pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and both fasting and 2-hour post-prandial blood glucose. The Anhui Provincial Health Bureau has extended the PLSP model to other communities and to cardiovascular disease prevention and management. CONCLUSION The PLSP was well accepted, feasible given sufficient administrative and staff resources, effective for those who participated, and generalizable to other sites and health problems. PMID:26304972

  3. GEOCHEMICAL AND CLAY-MINERAL STUDY OF HEALING MUD FROM WUDALIANCHI, NE CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rasskazov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the centuries, people have used healing mud (peloids to draw toxins out of the body, boost the immune system, cure psoriasis, acne, depression, and hair loss. The beauty industry has used mud-clay masks, body wraps, soaps, and baths. The useful properties of mud were established empirically. The most popular healing-mud spars are known in the Dead Sea in Israel, Baden-Baden in Germany, Calistoga in California, Budapest in Hungary, Akhtala and Kumisi in Georgia, Paratunka in Kamchatka, Wudalianchi in China.

  4. Traffic violations in Guangdong Province of China: speeding and drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Gong, Xiangpu

    2014-03-01

    The number of speeding- and drunk driving-related injuries in China surged in the years immediately preceding 2004 and then began to decline. However, the percent decrease in the number of speeding and drunk driving incidents (decrease by 22%) is not proportional to the corresponding percent decrease in number of automobile accident-related injuries (decrease by 47%) from the year 2004 to 2010 (Traffic Management Bureau, Ministry of Public Security, Annual Statistical Reports on Road Traffic Accidents). Earlier studies have established traffic violations as one of the major risks threatening road safety. In this study, we examine in greater detail two important types of traffic violation events, speeding and drunk driving, and attempt to identify significant risk factors associated with these types of traffic violations. Risk factors in several different dimensions, including driver, vehicle, road and environmental factors, are considered. We analyze the speeding (N=11,055) and drunk driving (N=10,035) data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, obtained from the Guangdong Provincial Security Department, are extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report and are the only comprehensive and official source of traffic accident data in China. Significant risk factors associating with speeding and drunk driving are identified. We find that several factors are associated with a significantly higher probability of both speeding and drunk driving, particularly male drivers, private vehicles, the lack of street lighting at night and poor visibility. The impact of other specific and unique risk factors for either speeding or drunk driving, such as hukou, road type/grades, commercial vehicles, compulsory third party insurance and vehicle safety status, also require particular attention. Legislative or regulatory measures targeting different vehicle types and/or driver groups with respect to the various driver

  5. Paleoseismology and slip rate of the western Tianjingshan fault of NE Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinnan; Li, Chuanyou; Wesnousky, Steven G.; Zhang, Peizhen; Zheng, Wenjun; Pierce, Ian K. D.; Wang, Xuguang

    2017-09-01

    We present results from a detailed investigation of the horizontal displacement distribution, timing of paleoearthquakes and left-lateral slip rate on the western Tianjingshan fault. Measurements of 240 offset streams and ridges confirm that the fault is left-lateral and record evidence of repeated ∼3-4 m coseismic offsets along the 60-km-long fault. This suggests that ∼6 earthquakes may have occurred along the entire western Tianjingshan fault with repeated occurrence of earthquakes of Mw 7.2-7.5. Structural and stratigraphic relationships exposed in our five trenches in combination with previously reported studies further indicate that the fault has ruptured in as many as six paleoearthquakes since the late Quaternary. Paleoseismic data show that the average recurrence interval for Holocene earthquakes is approximately 5,000 yr. The most recent earthquake along the western Tianjingshan fault occurred ∼1.2 ± 0.1 kyr BP, indicating that this fault segment did not rupture in the M 7.5 historical earthquake of 1709 that ruptured the central Tianjingshan fault. We estimate that the Holocene slip rate of the western Tianjingshan fault is ∼1.1-1.2 mm/yr based on measurements of the age and offset of stream channels. Compared with the relatively fast slip rate of the Haiyuan fault (∼4-6 mm/yr), we suggest that the Tianjingshan fault acts as an essential active fault accommodating the sinistral displacement and crustal shortening deformation in NE Tibet.

  6. Using detrital zircons from late Permian to Triassic sedimentary rocks in the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (NE China) to constrain the timing of the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhong-Biao; Pei, Fu-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Zhang, Ying

    2017-08-01

    We present new detrital zircon U-Pb-Hf isotope data for seven samples from late Permian to Triassic sedimentary units in Jilin Province, Northeast (NE) China, and use these data to constrain the timing of final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and the late Permian to Triassic tectonic evolution of the Changchun-Yanji suture belt. The late Permian to Early Triassic sedimentary rocks contain material derived from both the northern margin of the North China Craton and the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, suggesting that final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean occurred during the late Permian at latest. Metamorphic zircons within two metasedimentary units record amphibolite-facies retrograde metamorphism and metamorphic recrystallization events at ∼233 Ma, postdating the peak of the collisional event in this area and providing an upper limit for the termination of orogenesis. In comparison, metamorphic zircons with younger ages of ∼223 and ∼210 Ma from Middle-Late Triassic sandstones in eastern Jilin Province provide evidence of later hydrothermal events. These results, combined with the presence of voluminous middle Late Triassic terrestrial sedimentary rocks with bidirectional provenances in this area and coeval A-type granites and rhyolites in adjacent areas, suggest that this region underwent post-orogenic extension after the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. In brief, we suggest that the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean along the Changchun-Yanji belt occurred during the late Permian at latest and that the associated collisional orogeny terminated at ∼233 Ma (i.e. early Late Triassic). This belt was subsequently dominated by post-collisional extensional setting during the middle Late Triassic.

  7. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Passive Smoking among Women in Jilin Province, China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijun; Yao, Yan; Yu, Yaqin; Shi, Jieping; Liu, Yawen; Tao, Yuchun; Kou, Changgui; Zhang, Huiping; Han, Weiqing; Yin, Yutian; Jiang, Lingling; Li, Bo

    2015-10-30

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors of passive smoking among women in Jilin Province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012, using a self-reported questionnaire interview. A representative sample of 9788 non-smoking women aged 18-79 years was collected in Jilin Province of China by a multistage stratified random cluster sampling design. Descriptive data analysis and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were conducted. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associated socio-demographic factors of passive smoking. The overall prevalence of passive smoking among non-smoking women in Jilin Province was 60.6% (95% CI: 59.3-61.8), 58.3% (95% CI: 56.7-59.9) from urban areas, and 63.4% (95% CI: 61.6-65.3) from rural areas. Twenty-six percent (95% CI: 24.9-27.1) of the non-smoking women reported daily passive smoking, of which 42.9% (95% CI: 41.6-44.1) reported passive smoking at home, and 5.1% (95% CI: 4.5-5.7) reported passive smoking in restaurants. Women in urban areas were less likely to be passive smokers than those in rural ones (OR-Odds Ratio: 0.825, 95% CI: 0.729-0.935), elderly women were less likely to be passive smokers than younger women (55-64 years OR: 0.481, 95% CI: 0.342-0.674; 65-79 years OR: 0.351, 95% CI: 0.241-0.511). Seperated/divorced women were less likely to be passive smokers (OR: 0.701, 95% CI: 0.500-0.982), and widowed women (OR: 0.564, 95%CI: 0.440-0.722), as the married were the reference group. Retired women second-hand smoked due to environmental causes significantly less than manual workers (OR: 0.810, 95% CI: 0.708-0.928). Women with a monthly family income of more than 5000 RMB were less likely to be passive smokers than those with an income less than 500 RMB (OR: 0.615, 95% CI: 0.432-0.876). The prevalence of passive smoking is lower than that reported in 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) China, but passive smoking is

  8. A REMAINING OPEN PALEOGEOGRAPHY OF PALEO-ASIAN OCEAN BY EARLY PERMIAN: PALEOMAGNETIC CONSTRAINTS FROM THE PERMIAN VOLCANIC ROCKS IN MIDDLE-EAST INNER MONGOLIA, NE CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghai Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a paleomagnetic investigation on Permian volcanic rocks in the middle-east Inner Mongolia, NE China, aiming to puzzle out the timing and position of the final closure of the eastern Paleo-Asian ocean (PAO and further to better understand tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB. Two pre-folding characteristic components are isolated from the Sanmianjing and Elitu formations (~283–266 Ma in the northern margin of the North China block (NMNCB and the Dashizhai Formation (~280 Ma in the Songliao-Xilinhot block (SXB, respectively.

  9. Bioenergy and Food Supply: A Spatial-Agent Dynamic Model of Agricultural Land Use for Jiangsu Province in China

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    Kesheng Shu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop an agent-based model to explore a feasible way of simultaneously providing sufficient food and bioenergy feedstocks in China. Concerns over the competition for agricultural land resources between food and bioenergy supply hinder the further development of bioenergy, especially in China, the country that needs to feed the world’s largest population. Prior research has suggested the introduction of energy crops and reviewed the resulting agricultural land use change in China. However, there is a lack of quantitative studies which estimate the value, contribution, and impact of bioenergy for specific conditions at the county level and provide adequate information to guide local practices. To fill this gap, we choose the Jiangsu Province in China as a case study, build up a spatial-agent dynamic model of agricultural land use, and perform a sensitivity analysis for important parameters. The simulation results show that straw from conventional crops generally dominates Jiangsu’s biomass supply with a contribution above 85%. The sensitivity analyses reveal severe consequences of bioenergy targets for local land use. For Jiangsu Province, reclaimed mudflats, an alternative to arable lands for energy crop plantation, help to secure the local biomass supply and to alleviate the land use conflict between food and biomass production.

  10. Three-dimensional lithospheric S wave velocity model of the NE Tibetan Plateau and western North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchen; Li, Yonghua; Ding, Zhifeng; Zhu, Lupei; Wang, Chunyong; Bao, Xuewei; Wu, Yan

    2017-08-01

    We present a new 3-D lithospheric Vs model for the NE Tibetan Plateau (NETP) and the western North China Craton (NCC). First, high-frequency receiver functions (RFs) were inverted using the neighborhood algorithm to estimate the sedimentary structure beneath each station. Then a 3D Vs model with unprecedented resolution was constructed by jointly inverting RFs and Rayleigh wave dispersions. A low-velocity sedimentary layer with thicknesses varying from 2 to 10 km is present in the Yinchuan-Hetao graben, Ordos block, and western Alxa block. Velocities from the middle-lower crust to the uppermost mantle are generally high in the Ordos block and low in the Alxa block, indicating that the Alxa block is not part of the NCC. The thickened crust in southwestern Ordos block and western Alxa block suggests that they have been modified. Two crustal low-velocity zones (LVZs) were detected beneath the Kunlun Fault (KF) zone and western Qilian Terrane (QLT). The origin of the LVZ beneath the KF zone may be the combined effect of shear heating, localized asthenosphere upwelling, and crustal radioactivity. The LVZ in the western QLT, representing an early stage of the LVZ that has developed in the KF zone, acts as a decollement to decouple the deformation between the upper and lower crust and plays a key role in seismogenesis. We propose that the crustal deformation beneath the NETP is accommodated by a combination of shear motion, thickening of the upper-middle crust, and removal of lower crust.

  11. Renewable energy markets in China: An analysis of renewable energy markets in Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan provinces, with updated information from Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaupen, S.B.

    1999-12-13

    The People's Republic of China has undergone many changes over the past decade that have led to new growth and created opportunities for many industries, including the renewable energy industry. China has consistently had one of the fastest-growing economies in Asia. This report is a continuation of a market assessment done in 1997, which analyzed six provinces (Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Shandong, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Zhejiang) in China. The information contained in this report comes mainly from interviews conducted with central and local government officials, state and local power bureau officials, and various company executives. The report provides valuable market information necessary for any company interested in entering China's renewable energy market. It also details the legal, competitive, sociocultural, technological, geographic, and economic environments of four provinces in China: Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan. In addition, it outlines the major central government policies and contacts important to renewable energy development within China.

  12. Acute effect of ozone exposure on daily mortality in seven cities of Jiangsu Province, China: No clear evidence for threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-05-01

    Few multicity studies have addressed the health effects of ozone in China due to the scarcity of ozone monitoring data. A critical scientific and policy-relevant question is whether a threshold exists in the ozone-mortality relationship. Using a generalized additive model and a univariate random-effects meta-analysis, this research evaluated the relationship between short-term ozone exposure and daily total mortality in seven cities of Jiangsu Province, China during 2013-2014. Spline, subset, and threshold models were applied to further evaluate whether a safe threshold level exists. This study found strong evidence that short-term ozone exposure is significantly associated with premature total mortality. A 10μg/m3 increase in the average of the current and previous days' maximum 8-h average ozone concentration was associated with a 0.55% (95% posterior interval: 0.34%, 0.76%) increase of total mortality. This finding is robust when considering the confounding effect of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2. No consistent evidence was found for a threshold in the ozone-mortality concentration-response relationship down to concentrations well below the current Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard (CAAQS) level 2 standard (160μg/m3). Our findings suggest that ozone concentrations below the current CAAQS level 2 standard could still induce increased mortality risks in Jiangsu Province, China. Continuous air pollution control measures could yield important health benefits in Jiangsu Province, China, even in cities that meet the current CAAQS level 2 standard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed ingredients and complete feed from different Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was carried out to provide a reference for monitory of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, zearalenone (ZEN and deoxynivalenol (DON contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds were collected from different Province in China from 2013 to 2015. Methods A total of 443 feed ingredients, including 220 corn, 24 wheat, 24 domestic distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS, 55 bran, 20 wheat shorts and red dog, 37 imported DDGS, 34 corn germ meal and 29 soybean meal as well as 127 complete feeds including 25 pig complete feed (powder, 90 pig complete feed (pellet, six duck complete feed and six cattle complete feed were randomly collected from different Province in China, respectively, by high-performance chromatography in combined with UV or fluorescence analysis. Results The incidence rates of AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds were 80.8, 92.3 and 93.9 %, respectively. The percentage of positive samples for DON ranged from 66.7 to 100 %. Domestic DDGS and imported DDGS presented the most serious contamination AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination levels of feeds ranged from 61.5 to 100 %, indicated that serious contamination over the studied 3-year period. Conclusion The current data provide clear evidence that AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds in different Province in China is serious and differs over past 3-year. The use of corn, domestic DDGS, imported DDGS and corn germ meal, which may be contaminated with these three mycotoxins, as animal feed may triggered a health risk for animal. Feeds are most contaminated with DON followed by ZEN and AFB1. Mycotoxins contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds should be monitored routinely in China.

  14. Fluoride concentrations in a range of ready-to-drink beverages consumed in Heilongjiang Province, north-east China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Maguire, Anne; Tianqui, Guan; Yanguo, Shi; Zohoori, Fatemeh V

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of ready-to-drink beverages, as a potential source of fluoride (F), has increased considerably in China over the last decade. To help inform the public and policy makers, this study aimed to measure F concentration of ready-to-drink beverages on sale in Heilongjiang province, north east China. Three batches of 106 drink products manufactured by 26 companies were purchased from the main national supermarkets in Harbin, Heilongjiang province, China. The F concentration of all samples was determined, in triplicate, using a fluoride ion-selective electrode in conjunction with a meter and a direct method of analysis. The products were categorised into 10 groups according to product type. F concentrations of the samples ranged from 0.012-1.625 mg/l with a mean of 0.189 mg/l and a median of 0.076 mg/l. More than half of the products (55%) had an F concentration of ≤0.1 mg/l, while 0.7 mg/l. The 'tea with milk' group contained the highest mean F concentration (1.350 mg/l), whereas the lowest mean F concentration (0.027 mg/l) was found for the 'fruit juice' group. For some products, such as tea, fruit juice and carbonated beverages, there were substantial variations in F concentration between batches, manufacturers and production sites. In conclusion, ready-to-drink products (apart from tea), sold in Heilongjiang province, China, when consumed in moderation are unlikely to constitute a substantial risk factor for the development of dental or skeletal fluorosis.

  15. Agrobiodiversity and in situ conservation in ethnic minority communities of Xishuangbanna in Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shicai; Xu, Gaofeng; Li, Diyu; Clements, David Roy; Zhang, Fudou; Jin, Guimei; Wu, Jianyong; Wei, Pingfang; Lin, Song; Xue, Dayuan

    2017-05-15

    Xishuangbanna of Yunnan Province, southwest of China belongs to a global biodiversity and cultural hotspot. Agrobiodiversity plays an essential role in local livelihoods and traditional culture in the region. However, preliminary studies suggest that diversity of crop plants and livestock species is declining. We hypothesized that agrobiodiversity and traditional means of preserving agrobiodiversity are threatened because of changes in government policy in favor of commercial plantations, land use change and changes in traditional agricultural practices. We investigated whether or not agrobiodiversity was declining, the specific causes, and signs of active biodiversity conservation practices in ethnic minority communities of Xishuangbanna which could form the basis for extensive in situ conservation programmes. A series of field studies to document trends in agrobiodiversity were conducted in different ethnic minority communities in Menghai County, Mengla County and Jinghong City of Xishuangbanna of Yunnan Province, southwest of China between July 2015 and February 2016. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools. A total of 360 ethnic households provided information on current status, functions, characteristics, changes, and threatened factors of farming crop and livestock resources. Some measures for in situ conservation of agricultural biological resources were also researched using PRA methods. Two hundred twenty-six crop varieties belonging to 31 families, 71 genera and 101 species were identified in Xishuangbanna, which included 83 vegetable crops, 77 food crops, 24 spice crops, 22 fruit crops, 13 cash crops, 6 oil crops, and 1 cloth crop, respectively. There were 15 livestock varieties, belonging to 6 major species: cattle, pigs, goats, chickens, ducks, and geese. Different crop and livestock resources had their own characteristics, functions and threatened factors

  16. The effect of urban basic medical insurance on health service utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China: a comparison of two schemes.

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    Zhongliang Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urban population in China is mainly covered by two medical insurance schemes: the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI for urban employees in formal sector and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI for the left urban residents, mainly the unemployed, the elderly and children. This paper studies the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province, Western China. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the 4th National Health Services Survey - Shaanxi Province was studied. The propensity score matching and the coarsened exact matching methods have been used to estimate the average medical insurance effect on the insured. RESULTS: Compared to the uninsured, robust results suggest that UEBMI had significantly increased the outpatient health services utilisation in the last two weeks (p0.10. It was also found that compared with the uninsured, basic medical insurance enrollees were more likely to purchase inpatient treatments in lower levels of hospitals, consistent with the incentive of the benefit package design. CONCLUSION: Basic Medical insurance schemes have shown a positive but limited effect on increasing health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province. The benefit package design of higher reimbursement rates for lower level hospitals has induced the insured to use medical services in lower level hospitals for inpatient services.

  17. Prevalence of dementia, cognitive status and associated risk factors among elderly of Zhejiang province, China in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Jin, Xiaoqing; Yan, Jing; Jin, Yu; Yu, Wei; Wu, Haibin; Xu, Shanhu

    2016-09-01

    the prevalence of dementia in China has risen dramatically in recent decades, but it is not well understood the status in the elderly population in Zhejiang province, eastern China. a cross-sectional survey was conducted in four communities across 12 counties in Zhejiang province from May to November 2014. Recruitment included 2,015 subjects aged 65 or older. Trained assessors performed assessments and interviews and collected information. Dementia was diagnosed according to the NIA-AA criteria in 2011. the age-gender-standardised prevalence rates of dementia, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia were 13.0, 6.9 and 0.5%, respectively. There were significant increasing trends of rates over ages. Elderly, low educational level, heavy smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, diabetes and stroke were associated with dementia; tea consumption was associated with low prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and severe cognitive impairment. dementia and cognitive impairment were relatively high among the elderly in Zhejiang province; more attention and population-based strategies are needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Willingness-to-accept and purchase genetically modified rice with high folate content in Shanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, H; Gellynck, X; Storozhenko, S; Liqun, G; Lambert, W; Van Der Straeten, D; Viaene, J

    2010-02-01

    Neural-tube defects (NTDs) are considered to be the most common congenital malformations. As Shanxi Province, a poor region in the North of China, has one of the highest reported prevalence rates of NTDs in the world, folate fortification of rice is an excellent alternative to low intake of folate acid pills in this region. This paper investigates the relations between socio-demographic indicators, consumer characteristics (knowledge, consumer perceptions on benefits, risks, safety and price), willingness-to-accept and willingness-to-pay genetically modified (GM) rice. The consumer survey compromises 944 face-to-face interviews with rice consumers in Shanxi Province, China. Multivariate analyses consist of multinomial logistic regression and multiple regression. The results indicate that consumers generally are willing-to-accept GM rice, with an acceptance rate of 62.2%. Acceptance is influenced by objective knowledge and consumers' perceptions on benefits and risks. Willingness-to-pay GM rice is influenced by objective knowledge, risk perception and acceptance. Communication towards the use of GM rice should target mainly improving knowledge and consumers' perceptions on high-risk groups within Shanxi Province, in particular low educated women. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Familial Cluster of Human Brucellosis Attributable to Contact with Imported Infected Goats in Shuyang, Jiangsu Province, China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhongming; Huang, Yong; Liu, Genyan; Zhou, Weizhong; Xu, Xilou; Zhang, Zibing; Shen, Qing; Tang, Fenyang; Zhu, Yefei

    2015-10-01

    Brucellosis remains a serious public health issue in developing countries, including China. On August 8, 2013, four cases of brucellosis from one extended family were reported at Shuyang County, Jiangsu Province, China. Active case finding was performed to identify the source and the risk factors of the infection and to prevent additional cases. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used for molecular subtyping analysis. Six people from two extended families met the case definition for brucellosis infection; four were blood culture positive for Brucella melitensis biotype 3. Four additional family members were found seropositive by using a serological test. Isolates from the four patients were indistinguishable by MLVA profiling, displaying a unique type for Jiangsu Province. Field epidemiological data combined with MLVA genotyping supported a common source of the isolates from the different patients. We recommend stronger reinforcement measures for animal quarantine practices, enhanced cooperation with veterinary service organizations, and implementation of measures that strengthen public education on brucellosis to prevent further human outbreaks in Jiangsu Province. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. [Prevalence and risk factors of dyslipidemia in a rural population of Henan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J M; Luo, X P; Wang, S; Yin, L; Pang, C; Wang, G A; Shen, Y X; Wu, D T; Zhang, L; Ren, Y C; Wang, B Y; Yang, X Y; Zhang, H Y; Han, C Y; Zhao, Y; Li, L L; Wang, C J; Feng, T P; Zhao, J Z; Hu, D S; Zhang, M

    2016-09-06

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of dyslipidemia in a rural population of Henan Province, China. Methods: A total of 20 194 participants aged ≥18 years were selected randomly by cluster sampling from two townships(towns)in Henan Province from July to August 2007 and July to August 2008. Investigations included questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profile examination at baseline. A total of 16 155 participants were followed up from July to August 2013 and July to October 2014. Overall, 13 869 participants were included in the study, after excluding 2 286 participants with incomplete dyslipidemia follow-up data. Distributions of the characteristics of dyslipidemia were determined, and prevalence was standardized by age according to data of the 2010 Sixth National Population Census. Risk factors for dyslipidemia were analyzed using a logistic regression model after adjusting for sex, age, education level, marital status, and income status. Results: The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 53.72%(7 450/13 869)for residents aged ≥22 years living in rural areas of Henan Province(59.32%(3 069/5 174)for men and 50.39%(4 381/8 695)for women). The adjusted prevalence of dyslipidemia was 50.50%(59.27% for men and 45.53% for women). The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, and high LDL-C was 4.34%(602/13 868), 20.42%(2 826/13 837), 42.75%(5 927/13 865), and 3.14%(420/13 375), respectively, and the adjusted prevalence was 2.44%, 18.84%, 41.42%, and 1.86%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses showed that alcohol consumption(OR=1.27, 95% CI: 1.05-1.53), family history of hyperlipidemia(OR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.17-1.43), overweight(OR=1.40, 95% CI: 1.22-1.61), obesity(OR= 1.65, 95% CI: 1.39- 1.96), abnormal waist circumference(OR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.04- 1.43), and abnormal waist-height ratio(OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.01-1.45)were significant independent risk factors

  1. Urinary Arsenic Metabolites of Subjects Exposed to Elevated Arsenic Present in Coal in Shaanxi Province, China

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    Linsheng Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to arsenic (As poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin lesions and 21 subjects without skin lesions, who had been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic present in coal in Changshapu village in the south of Shaanxi Province (China, were reported. The urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic (iAs [arsenite (iAsIII and arsenate (iAsV], monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS. The relative distributions of arsenic species, the primary methylation index (PMI = MMAV/iAs and the secondary methylation index (SMI = DMAV/MMAV were calculated to assess the metabolism of arsenic. Subjects with skin lesions had a higher concentration of urinary arsenic and a lower arsenic methylation capability than subjects without skin lesions. Women had a significantly higher methylation capability of arsenic than men, as defined by a higher percent DMAV and SMI in urine among women, which was the one possible interpretation of women with a higher concentration of urinary arsenic but lower susceptibility to skin lesions. The findings suggested that not only the dose of arsenic exposure but also the arsenic methylation capability have an impact on the individual susceptibility to skin lesions induced by coal arsenic exposure.

  2. Technical efficiency and productivity of Chinese county hospitals: an exploratory study in Henan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Tao, Hongbing; Cai, Miao; Lin, Haifeng; Lin, Xiaojun; Shu, Qin; Zhang, Ru-Ning

    2015-09-09

    Chinese county hospitals have been excessively enlarging their scale during the healthcare reform since 2009. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical efficiency and productivity of county hospitals during the reform process, and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors. 114 sample county hospitals were selected from Henan province, China, from 2010 to 2012. Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of sample hospitals. The Malmquist index was used to calculate productivity changes over time. Tobit regression was used to regress against 4 environmental factors and 5 institutional factors that affected the technical efficiency. (1) 112 (98.2%), 112 (98.2%) and 104 (91.2%) of the 114 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with average technical efficiency of 0.697, 0.748 and 0.790, respectively. (2) On average, during 2010-2012, productivity of sample county hospitals increased by 7.8%, which was produced by the progress in technical efficiency changes and technological changes of 0.9% and 6.8%, respectively. (3) Tobit regression analysis indicated that government subsidy, hospital size with above 618 beds and average length of stay assumed a negative sign with technical efficiency; bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency. There was considerable space for technical efficiency improvement in Henan county hospitals. During 2010-2012, sample hospitals experienced productivity progress; however, the adverse change in pure technical efficiency should be emphasised. Moreover, according to the Tobit results, policy interventions that strictly supervise hospital bed scale, shorten the average length of stay and coordinate the proportion among physicians, nurses and beds, would benefit hospital efficiency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  3. Spatial risk profiling of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China

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    Peter Steinmann

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian spatial risk profiling holds promise to enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, and to target interventions in a cost-effective manner. Here, we present findings from a study using Bayesian variogram models to map and predict the seroprevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China, including risk factor analysis. Questionnaire and serological data were obtained through a cross-sectional survey carried out in 35 randomly selected villages with 3,220 people enrolled. Remotely-sensed environmental data were derived from publicly available databases. Bivariate and non-spatial Bayesian multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between the local seroprevalence and demographic (i.e. age and sex, environmental (i.e. location of village, altitude, slope, land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index and socio-economic factors. In the spatially-explicit Bayesian model, S. japonicum seroprevalence was significantly associated with sex, age and the location of the village. Males, those aged below 10 years and inhabitants of villages situated on steep slopes (inclination ≥20° or on less precipitous slopes of >5° above 2,150 m were at lower risk of seroconversion than their respective counterparts. Our final prediction model revealed an elevated risk for seroconversion in the plains of the eastern parts of Eryuan county. In conclusion, the prediction map can be utilized for spatial targeting of schistosomiasis control interventions in Eryuan county. Moreover, S. japonicum seroprevalence studies might offer a convenient means to assess the infection pressure experienced by local communities, and to improve risk profiling in areas where the prevalence and infection intensities have come down following repeated rounds of praziquantel administration.

  4. Ecology-oriented groundwater resource assessment in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. Y.; Wang, W. K.; Wang, Z.; Jiang, G. H.; Li, W. L.

    2016-12-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, a close relationship exists between groundwater and supergene eco-environmental issues such as swampiness, soil salinization, desertification, vegetation degradation, reduction of stream base flow, and disappearance of lakes and wetlands. When the maximum allowable withdrawal of groundwater (AWG) is assessed, an ecology-oriented regional groundwater resource assessment (RGRA) method should be used. In this study, a hierarchical assessment index system of the supergene eco-environment was established based on field survey data and analysis of the supergene eco-environment factors influenced by groundwater in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China. The assessment system comprised 11 indices, including geomorphological type, lithology and structure of the vadose zone, depth of the water table (DWT), total dissolved solids content of groundwater, etc. Weights for all indices were calculated using an analytical hierarchy process. Then, the current eco-environmental conditions were assessed using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE). Under the imposed constraints, and using both the assessment results on the current eco-environment situation and the ecological constraint of DWT (1.5-5.0 m), the maximum AWG (0.408 × 108 m3/a or 24.29 % of the river base flow) was determined. This was achieved by combining the groundwater resource assessment with the supergene eco-environmental assessment based on FCE. If the maximum AWG is exceeded in a watershed, the eco-environment will gradually deteriorate and produce negative environmental effects. The ecology-oriented maximum AWG can be determined by the ecology-oriented RGRA method, and thus sustainable groundwater use in similar watersheds in other arid and semi-arid regions can be achieved.

  5. Technical efficiency and productivity of Chinese county hospitals: an exploratory study in Henan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Tao, Hongbing; Cai, Miao; Lin, Haifeng; Lin, Xiaojun; Shu, Qin; Zhang, Ru-ning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chinese county hospitals have been excessively enlarging their scale during the healthcare reform since 2009. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical efficiency and productivity of county hospitals during the reform process, and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors. Setting and participants 114 sample county hospitals were selected from Henan province, China, from 2010 to 2012. Outcome measures Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of sample hospitals. The Malmquist index was used to calculate productivity changes over time. Tobit regression was used to regress against 4 environmental factors and 5 institutional factors that affected the technical efficiency. Results (1) 112 (98.2%), 112 (98.2%) and 104 (91.2%) of the 114 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with average technical efficiency of 0.697, 0.748 and 0.790, respectively. (2) On average, during 2010–2012, productivity of sample county hospitals increased by 7.8%, which was produced by the progress in technical efficiency changes and technological changes of 0.9% and 6.8%, respectively. (3) Tobit regression analysis indicated that government subsidy, hospital size with above 618 beds and average length of stay assumed a negative sign with technical efficiency; bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency. Conclusions There was considerable space for technical efficiency improvement in Henan county hospitals. During 2010–2012, sample hospitals experienced productivity progress; however, the adverse change in pure technical efficiency should be emphasised. Moreover, according to the Tobit results, policy interventions that strictly supervise hospital bed scale, shorten the average length of stay and coordinate the proportion among physicians, nurses and beds, would benefit hospital efficiency

  6. Genome analysis of orf virus isolates from goats in the Fujian Province of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelin eChi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Orf virus (ORFV, a species of the genus Parapoxvirus of the family Poxviridae, causes nonsystemic, highly contagious and eruptive disease in sheep, goat, and other wild and domestic ruminants. Our previous work shows orf to be ubiquitous in the Fujian Province of China, a region where there is considerable heterogeneity among ORFVs. In this study, we sequenced full genomes of four Fujian goat ORFV strains (OV-GO, OV-YX, OV-NP and OV-SJ1. The four strains were 132 to 139 kb in length, with each containing 124 to 132 genes and about 64% G+C content. The most notable differences between the four strains were found near the genome termini. OV-NP lacked seven and OV-SJ1 lacked three genes near the right terminus when compared against other ORFVs. We also investigated the skin-virulence of the four Fujian ORFVs in goats. The ORFVs with gene deletions showed low virulence while the ORFVs without gene deletions showed high virulence in goats suggesting gene deletion possibly leads to attenuation of ORFVs. Gene 134 was disrupted in OV-NP genome due to the lack of initial code. The phylogenetic tree based on complete Parapoxviruse genomes showed that sheep originated and goat originated ORFVs formed distinctly separate branches with 100% bootstrap. Based on the single gene phylogenetic tree of 132 genes of ORFVs, 32 genes can be easily distinguished as having originated from sheep or goats. Multiple alignment of amino acid sequences of gene 008 from the genome of 5 goat ORFVs and 4 sheep ORFVs revealed 33 unique amino acids differentiating it as having sheep or goats as host. The availability of genomic sequences of four Fujian goat ORFVs aids in our understanding of the diversity of orf virus isolates in this region and can assist in distinguishing between orf strains that originate in sheep and goats.

  7. A New Zincian Greenockite Occurrence in the Saishitang Cu Skarn Deposit, Qinghai Province, Northwest China

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    Jianping Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Cd-S series minerals not only comprise industrial resources for Zn and Cd, but are also significant mineralogical indicators for hydrothermal ore-forming processes. Due to its unique formation conditions and rare occurrence, our understanding of the formation of zincian greenockite in natural systems is limited. Zincian greenockite was discovered during mineralogical studies in the Saishitang Cu skarn deposit, Qinghai Province, Northwest China. This provided an ideal opportunity to assess the occurrence and formation of zincian greenockite in skarn-type deposits. Ore minerals were observed using reflected-light microscopy, and the zincian greenockite was further analyzed using electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The zincian greenockite occurs in the bornite–chalcopyrite ores and is composed of subhedral to anhedral grains approximately 50 × 150 μm2 to 200 × 300 μm2 in size, replaces the bornite, and is replaced by native silver. Two phases (I and II were identified based on back-scattered electron images, X-ray element-distributions maps, and EPMA data. The textural relationship indicated that Phase I was replaced by Phase II. Phase I contained high Zn (14.6 to 21.7 mol % ZnS and low Cd (72.4 to 82.2 mol % CdS, while Phase II contained low Zn (5.6 to 9.1 mol % ZnS and high Cd (85.4 to 89.9 mol % CdS. The zincian greenockite was formed at temperature of 300~270 °C during the transformation from a reducing environment to an oxidizing one in the late stage of the mineralization process in the Saishitang deposit.

  8. Epidemiology of Hemoglobinopathies in the Huzhou Region, Zhejiang Province, Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong-Ying; Shen, Guo-Song; Zhang, Su; He, Ping-Ya

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the frequency of thalassemia traits and other hemoglobinopathies in Huzhou City, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China (PRC), and for the future management of hemoglobinopathies. A total of 8578 pregnant women in the Huzhou region was analyzed for thalassemia traits and other hemoglobinopathies from July 1 2012 to November 30 2015. Complete blood count (CBC), and hemoglobin (Hb) variant analyses were performed with automatic counters and capillary electrophoresis (CE). High resolution melting (HRM) analysis was applied for genetic diagnosis of thalassemia. The prevalence of patients with the α-thalassemia (α-thal) trait was 1.01% (87/8578). β-Thalassemia (β-thal) was carried by 112 women with a frequency of 1.3%. The carrier rate of thalassemia genes in the studied samples was nearly 2.32%. We excluded those without iron studies, with 159 cases as our sample, a total of 63/159 cases (39.6%) also had iron deficiencies. Moreover, Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A), and Hb D-Punjab (HBB: c.364G > C) were the most common Hb variants after thalassemia trait with frequencies of 0.16 and 0.06%, respectively. Only two Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) carriers were detected in 20 months of screening time. Hb A 1c results could be confidently reported on all cases except the Hb D-Punjab and Hb E variants. This study provided a detailed prevalence and molecular characterization of thalassemia in the Huzhou region, and will contribute toward the development of prevention strategies and reducing excessive health care costs in this area, allowing better management of hemoglobinopathies.

  9. [Ecological compensation based on farmers' willingness: A case study of Jingsan County in Hubei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang-liang; Cai, Yin-ying

    2015-01-01

    Farmland protection is a pressing issue in China' s major agricultural regions because of the strategic importance of these regions for national food security. This study quantified the appropriate ecological compensation criteria for farmland protection by way of estimating farmers' opportunity cost and willingness to adopt environment-friendly farming practices. Based on survey data collected from Jingsan County, Hubei Province, a Tobit model was constructed to identify factors affecting farmers' willingness to accept (WTA). The result showed that with appropriate economic compensation for farmland protection, 77.1% and 64.7% of the surveyed households were willing to reduce usage of fertilizers and pesticides. When the reduced rates of fertilizer and pesticide increased from 50%, farmers' opportunity costs of production respectively increased from 1198 and 5850 yuan to 9698 and 9750 yuan per hectare per year, and their WTA increased from 4750 and 7313 yuan to 9781 and 12393 yuan per hectare per year. Farmers' opportunity cost and WTA in reducing pesticide inputs were larger than those in reducing the same rate of fertilizer inputs, and in each case farmers' WTA was greater than their opportunity cost. A farm' s distance from township, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing fertilization, while farmers' education level and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect. The proportion of agriculture income, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing pesticide, while household' cash income and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect.

  10. A methodological framework for coastal development assessment: A case study of Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haiyan; Lindenmayer, David B; Wong, Gabriel T W; Mao, Zhu; Huang, Yi; Xue, Xiongzhi

    2018-02-15

    Decision-makers often have to make trade-offs between economic growth and environmental conservation when developing and managing coastal environments. Coastal development and management need to be subject to rigorous assessments to determine if they are sustainable over time. We propose a methodological framework - the Coastal Development Index (CDI) for the assessment of the changes in sustainability of coastal development over time. CDI is a modified version of the Ocean Health Index (OHI) but with two new indicators - ecological and environmental indicators (EEI), and social and economic indicators (SEI), both of which comprise three sub-indicators (coastal protection, clean waters and species protection for EEI, and food provision, coastal livelihoods and economies and tourism and recreation for SEI). The six sub-indicators represent key aspects of coastal development and the level of exploitation of natural resources that have previously been missing in other conceptual frameworks. We demonstrate the value of CDI with a detailed case study of Fujian Province in China, 2000-2013. The scores of CDI decreased from 1.01 in 2000 to 0.42 in 2013 suggesting that the Fujian coastal zone has experienced unsustainable development in that time. Meanwhile, the scores of EEI decreased from 22.1 to 20.4 while the scores of SEI increased from 21.9 to 48.1 suggesting that environmental values have been eroded by economic growth. Analysis of the scores of sub-indicators reveals a need to integrate economic growth and social development with environmental conservation on Fujian coastal management. Our case study highlights the potential value of the CDI for improving the ecological sustainability of coastal zone management and development practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Population structure and diversity of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates in Hunan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cui; Yao, Run-Xian; Li, Fang; Dai, Su-Ming; Licciardello, Grazia; Catara, Antonino; Gentile, Alessandra; Deng, Zi-Niu

    2017-02-01

    Stem-pitting (SP) is the main type of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) that causes severe damage to citrus trees, especially those of sweet orange, in Hunan province, China. Understanding the local CTV population structure should provide clues for effective mild strain cross-protection (MSCP) of the SP strain of CTV. In this study, markers for the p23 gene, multiple molecular markers (MMMs), and sequence analysis of the three silencing suppressor genes (p20, p23 and p25) were employed to analyze the genetic diversity and genotype composition of the CTV population based on 51 CTV-positive samples collected from 14 citrus orchards scattered around six major citrus-growing areas of Hunan. The results indicated that the CTV population structure was extremely complex and that infection was highly mixed. In total, p23 gene markers resulted in six profiles, and MMMs demonstrated 25 profiles. The severe VT and T3 types appeared to be predominantly associated with SP, while the mild T30 and RB types were related to asymptomatic samples. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of p20, p23 and p25, 19 representative CTV samples were classified into seven recently established CTV groups and a potentially novel one. A high level of genetic diversity, as well as potential recombination, was revealed among different CTV isolates. Five pure SP severe and two pure mild strains were identified by genotype composition analysis. Taken together, the results update the genetic diversity of CTV in Hunan with the detection of one possible novel strain, and this information might be applicable for the selection of appropriate mild CTV strains for controlling citrus SP disease through cross-protection.

  12. Petrography and geochemistry of the Middle Devonian coal from Luquan, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Han, D.; Chou, C.-L.

    2006-01-01

    Coals from Luquan, Yunnan Province, China, have high contents of cutinite and microsporinite, with an average of 55 and 33.5 vol%, respectively, (on a mineral-free basis). The coals are classified as cutinitic liptobiolith, sporinite-rich durain, cutinite-rich durain, and sporinitic liptobiolith. These four liptinite-rich coals are often interlayered within the coal bed section and vary transversely within the coal bed. The vitrinite content varies from as low as 1.6-20.5% (mineral-free basis), and it is dominated by collodetrinite, collotelinite, and corpogelinite. The maceral composition may be attributed to the type of the peat-forming plant communities. Moreover, the Luquan coals are characterized by high contents of volatile matter, hydrogen, and oxygen, and the high values of the atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio as a result of the maceral composition. As compared with the common Chinese coals and the upper continental crust, the Luquan coals are enriched in Li, B, Cu, Ga, Se, Rb, Mo, Ba, Pb, Bi, and U, with averages of 99.9, 250, 111, 24.4, 4.55, 130, 58.8, 1276, 162, 3.85, and 34.1 ??g/g, respectively. The SEM-EDX results show that V, Cr, Ga, and Rb occur mainly in clay minerals, and Cu and Pb are associated with clay minerals and pyrite, and Mo and U are mainly in clay minerals and organic matter. Barite and clay minerals are the main carrier of barium. The high B and U contents are probably resulted from deep seawater influence during coal formation. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Four Methods for Predicting Carbon Stocks of Korean Pine Plantations in Heilongjiang Province, China.

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    Huilin Gao

    Full Text Available A total of 89 trees of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis were destructively sampled from the plantations in Heilongjiang Province, P.R. China. The sample trees were measured and calculated for the biomass and carbon stocks of tree components (i.e., stem, branch, foliage and root. Both compatible biomass and carbon stock models were developed with the total biomass and total carbon stocks as the constraints, respectively. Four methods were used to evaluate the carbon stocks of tree components. The first method predicted carbon stocks directly by the compatible carbon stocks models (Method 1. The other three methods indirectly predicted the carbon stocks in two steps: (1 estimating the biomass by the compatible biomass models, and (2 multiplying the estimated biomass by three different carbon conversion factors (i.e., carbon conversion factor 0.5 (Method 2, average carbon concentration of the sample trees (Method 3, and average carbon concentration of each tree component (Method 4. The prediction errors of estimating the carbon stocks were compared and tested for the differences between the four methods. The results showed that the compatible biomass and carbon models with tree diameter (D as the sole independent variable performed well so that Method 1 was the best method for predicting the carbon stocks of tree components and total. There were significant differences among the four methods for the carbon stock of stem. Method 2 produced the largest error, especially for stem and total. Methods 3 and Method 4 were slightly worse than Method 1, but the differences were not statistically significant. In practice, the indirect method using the mean carbon concentration of individual trees was sufficient to obtain accurate carbon stocks estimation if carbon stocks models are not available.

  14. Emergy Evaluation of the Urban Solid Waste Handling in Liaoning Province, China

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    Lixiao Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste management is a distinct practice aimed at reducing its effects on health and the environment and increasing energy and material recovery. The urban waste management industry has been slow to adopt new technologies, such as sanitary landfills and incineration, which enable better treatment results. The aim of a thorough ecological-economic evaluation of different treatment technologies is to extract the maximum practical benefits from investments and to ensure the minimum environmental impacts of wastes. This paper compares four garbage treatment systems, including sanitary landfills systems, fluidized bed incineration system, grate type incineration system and the current landfills system in Liaoning Province, China. By considering the economic and environmental impacts of waste treatment and disposal, impact of emissions, and contribution of wastes input, this paper constructed an emergy-based urban solid waste model for evaluating the sustainability of the holistic systems. The results in Liaoning indicate that the human health losses caused by the harmful air emissions are ranked in this order: fluidized bed incineration > grate type incineration > current landfills > sanitary landfills, while the ecosystem losses are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. The electricity yield ratios are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. Taken together this suggests that in considering the incineration option, decision makers must weigh the benefits of incineration against the significant operating costs, potential environmental impacts, and technical difficulties of operating. Emergy analysis of the urban solid treatment systems can provide a set of useful tools which can be used to compare the comprehensive performances of different waste treatment processes for decision-making and optimizing the whole process.

  15. Evaluation of Four Methods for Predicting Carbon Stocks of Korean Pine Plantations in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huilin; Dong, Lihu; Li, Fengri; Zhang, Lianjun

    2015-01-01

    A total of 89 trees of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) were destructively sampled from the plantations in Heilongjiang Province, P.R. China. The sample trees were measured and calculated for the biomass and carbon stocks of tree components (i.e., stem, branch, foliage and root). Both compatible biomass and carbon stock models were developed with the total biomass and total carbon stocks as the constraints, respectively. Four methods were used to evaluate the carbon stocks of tree components. The first method predicted carbon stocks directly by the compatible carbon stocks models (Method 1). The other three methods indirectly predicted the carbon stocks in two steps: (1) estimating the biomass by the compatible biomass models, and (2) multiplying the estimated biomass by three different carbon conversion factors (i.e., carbon conversion factor 0.5 (Method 2), average carbon concentration of the sample trees (Method 3), and average carbon concentration of each tree component (Method 4)). The prediction errors of estimating the carbon stocks were compared and tested for the differences between the four methods. The results showed that the compatible biomass and carbon models with tree diameter (D) as the sole independent variable performed well so that Method 1 was the best method for predicting the carbon stocks of tree components and total. There were significant differences among the four methods for the carbon stock of stem. Method 2 produced the largest error, especially for stem and total. Methods 3 and Method 4 were slightly worse than Method 1, but the differences were not statistically significant. In practice, the indirect method using the mean carbon concentration of individual trees was sufficient to obtain accurate carbon stocks estimation if carbon stocks models are not available.

  16. Environmental geochemistry of an abandoned mercury mine in Yanwuping, Guizhou Province, China.

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    Qiu, Guangle; Feng, Xinbin; Meng, Bo; Zhang, Chao; Gu, Chunhao; Du, Buyun; Lin, Yan

    2013-08-01

    The distribution of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in paddy soil and rice grain (polished), and Hg in surface waters and gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) in atmosphere at the Yanwuping Hg mining district (YMM), Guizhou Province, China was investigated. Results exhibited high total Hg (Hg(T)) and MeHg concentrations in soil at sites adjacent to calcine pile and tailings, and ranged from 5.6 to 240mgkg(-1) and 0.66 to 7.3μgkg(-1), respectively. Concentrations of Hg(T) in rice ranged from 10 to 45μgkg(-1), and high MeHg concentrations were also observed ranging from 3.2 to 39μgkg(-1). The elevated Hg(T) and MeHg concentrations in soil in the vicinity of calcine pile and tailings reflected in high MeHg concentrations in rice. Those data were significantly correlated with MeHg concentration in soil confirming that soil is the major source of MeHg in rice. The highest Hg concentrations in water, otherwise rather low, ranging from 3.8 to 51ngl(-1) for Hg(T) and of 0.14 to 2.7ngl(-1) for MeHg(T), were found at the proximity of calcine pile suggesting that untreated mine wastes are the principal source of Hg in the nearby area. Huge emissions of GEM were also detected from calcines affecting the whole area, ranging from 12 to 180ngm(-3) with an average of 46±35ngm(-3). The distribution patterns of Hg and MeHg observed in the environmental compartments suggest an elevated contamination of Hg in the region. Elevated high MeHg concentrations in rice might pose a potential health risk to local populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Freshwater abiotic components' impact on the viability of fish lice, Argulus sp., in Guangdong province, China.

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    Alsarakibi, Muhamd; Wadeh, Hicham; Li, Guoqing

    2012-07-01

    Parasite intensity dynamics can be strongly affected by ecosystem abiotic components. We conducted this study to investigate how the intensity of Argulus sp. is influenced by physicochemical factors in three water bodies - river, fish farm, and reservoir - and to find the occurrence of Argulus sp. under different conditions. Argulus sp. specimens were collected using different methods - gill-netting 30 × 1.5 m, 40 mm mesh monofilament net and set from a small boat, beach seining and plankton net - from July 2010 until Jun 2011 at Guangdong province, China. Main water parameters taken for the assessment consisting of temperature, pH, DO, biochemical oxygen demand of 5 days (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH (4) (+) , total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). The results show that the ratio of female to male Argulus sp. during the studied period was 2.3:1. The presence and intensity of Argulus sp. were temperature-dependent and variable; pH values were lower than standers with high intensity of Argulus sp. Argulus sp. has the ability to live in low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Relatively high concentrations of BOD5, COD, NH (4) (+) , TN and TP were detected with related variable intensity of Argulus sp., which is supposed to be a freshwater fish ectoparasite found in polluted ecosystems. It is concluded that the fish ectoparasite Argulus sp. have a strong potency of genetic adaptation impacted by environmental factors. However, this needs further study in order to gain insight into the question of the likelihood of adaptation to abiotic factors' variation.

  18. Urinary Arsenic Metabolites of Subjects Exposed to Elevated Arsenic Present in Coal in Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianwei; Yu, Jiangping; Yang, Linsheng

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to arsenic (As) poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP) induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin lesions and 21 subjects without skin lesions), who had been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic present in coal in Changshapu village in the south of Shaanxi Province (China), were reported. The urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic (iAs) [arsenite (iAsIII) and arsenate (iAsV)], monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV), were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The relative distributions of arsenic species, the primary methylation index (PMI = MMAV/iAs) and the secondary methylation index (SMI = DMAV/MMAV) were calculated to assess the metabolism of arsenic. Subjects with skin lesions had a higher concentration of urinary arsenic and a lower arsenic methylation capability than subjects without skin lesions. Women had a significantly higher methylation capability of arsenic than men, as defined by a higher percent DMAV and SMI in urine among women, which was the one possible interpretation of women with a higher concentration of urinary arsenic but lower susceptibility to skin lesions. The findings suggested that not only the dose of arsenic exposure but also the arsenic methylation capability have an impact on the individual susceptibility to skin lesions induced by coal arsenic exposure. PMID:21776214

  19. Postglacial fire history and interactions with vegetation and climate in southwestern Yunnan Province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiayun; Haberle, Simon G.; Shen, Ji; Xue, Bin; Burrows, Mark; Wang, Sumin

    2017-06-01

    A high-resolution, continuous 18.5 kyr (1 kyr = 1000 cal yr BP) macroscopic charcoal record from Qinghai Lake in southwestern Yunnan Province, China, reveals postglacial fire frequency and variability history. The results show that three periods with high-frequency and high-severity fires occurred during the periods 18.5-15.0, 13.0-11.5, and 4.3-0.8 ka, respectively. This record was compared with major pollen taxa and pollen diversity indices from the same core, and tentatively related to the regional climate proxy records with the aim to separate climate- from human-induced fire activity, and discuss vegetation-fire-climate interactions. The results suggest that fire was mainly controlled by climate before 4.3 ka and by the combined actions of climate and humans after 4.3 ka. Before 4.3 ka, high fire activity corresponded to cold and dry climatic conditions, while warm and humid climatic conditions brought infrequent and weak fires. Fire was an important disturbance factor and played an important role in forest dynamics around the study area. Vegetation responses to fire after 4.3 ka are not consistent with those before 4.3 ka, suggesting that human influence on vegetation and fire regimes may have become more prevalent after 4.3 ka. The comparisons between fire activity and vegetation reveal that evergreen oaks are flammable plants and fire-tolerant taxa. Alnus is a fire-adapted taxon and a nonflammable plant, but density of Alnus forest is a key factor to decide its fire resistance. The forests dominated by Lithocarpus/Castanopsis and/or tropical trees and shrubs are not easy to ignite, but Lithocarpus/Castanopsis and tropical trees and shrubs are fire-sensitive taxa. Fire appears to be unfavourable to plant diversity in the study area.

  20. Rhizobium albus sp. nov., Isolated from Lake Water in Xiamen, Fujian Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Lei, Xueqian; Xu, Yanting; Zhu, Hong; Xu, Meiying; Fu, Lijun; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Jinli; Zheng, Tianling

    2017-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterial strain, designated Y21 T , was isolated from surface lake water in Xiamen, Fujian Province of China. Growth was observed at temperatures from 4 to 37 °C, at salinities from 0 to 7.0 % and at pH from 6.0 to 10.0. Optimum growth was observed at 28 °C, at pH 7.0 and with 1.5-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The highest similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence between strain Y21 T and the other strains was 96.9 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain was a member of the genus Rhizobium, forming a distinct lineage with R. subbaraonis KCTC 23614 T . The dominant fatty acids were summed feature 8 (comprising C 18:1 ω7c and/or C 18:1 ω6c), C 18:1 ω7c 11-methyl, which accounted for 78.1 %. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 60.9 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10. The polar lipids of strain Y21 T were found to consist of five unidentified phospholipids and three unidentified aminolipids. According to its morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition and 16S rRNA sequence data, strain Y21 T should be regarded as a new species of the genus Rhizobium, for which Rhizobium albus sp. nov. is proposed (type strain Y21 T  = MCCC 1F01210 T  = KCTC 42252 T ).

  1. Incidence of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in the Jiangsu province of China, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fubao; Xu, Yuanling; Chu, Xuhua; Zhang, Jinlin

    2015-01-01

    Background It is important to have an estimate of the incidence of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) because the incidence of ADEM is unknown and the outcomes undefined in China. Objectives This study attempts to describe ADEM incidence in large Chinese populations located in four geographically different and moderately distant areas of the same province. Methods A retrospective investigation was conducted with ADEM patients in Nanjing, Nantong, Yancheng and Xuzhou. The survey was carried out in regions that might have received patients meeting the case definition of ADEM provided by the International Pediatric MS Study Group from 2008 to 2011. A total of 125 hospitals were included and 412 patients were identified through the hospital information systems (HIS). Results The incidence of ADEM was 0.32/100,000/year. There are two peaks on the age-specific ADEM rates curve. One is 0.77/100,000/year among 0- to 9-year-olds, the other is 0.45/100,000/year in those aged 50–59 years. The incidence rate found for ADEM in males was 0.34/100,000/year, and in females was 0.29/100,000/year. The highest incidence rate was in Nanjing (0.40/100,000/year). Conclusions The average annual incidence of ADEM was 0.32/100,000/year. The peak age of onset was 50–59 years old and 0–9 years old. The incidence among males was insignificantly higher than that among females. There was no significant difference in incidence by seasonal variation. PMID:28607697

  2. Early Triassic conodonts of Jiarong, Nanpanjiang Basin, southern Guizhou Province, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanlong; Jiang, Haishui; Lai, Xulong; Yan, Chunbo; Richoz, Sylvain; Liu, Xiaodan; Wang, Lina

    2015-06-01

    Jiarong (Huishui County, Guizhou Province, South China) is a key locality for the study of the Early Triassic recovery after the end-Permian mass extinction. The size reduction of conodonts at the Smithian/Spathian transition was first documented in Jiarong, and it is also a locality that contributes to the documentation of the Early Triassic paleo-seawater temperatures. In the Jiarong sections, thirteen conodont zones were identified for the Early Triassic; in ascending order, they are Hindeodus parvus Zone, Hindeodus sosioensis Zone, Clarkina krystyni Zone, Neoclarkina discreta Zone, Neospathodus cristagalli-Eurygnathodus costatus assemblage zone, Novispathodus waageni eowaageni Zone, Novispathodus waageni waageni Zone, Discretella discreta Zone, Pachycladina-Parachirognathus assemblage zone, Novispathodus pingdingshanensis Zone, Icriospathodus collinsoni Zone, Triassospathodus homeri Zone, Triassospathodus triangularis Zone. These conodont zones in the Jiarong sections improve the global correlation of Early Triassic sections and also provide better regional age constraints in an area that is important for studies of recovery from the extinction. Based on the first appearance of Nv. waageni eowaageni, the Induan/Olenekian boundary is recognized at 3.6 m above the base of the Jiarong III Section. The dominance of blade-shaped (segminate) conodonts was replaced by gondola-shaped (segminiplanate) conodonts twice; the first time was in the late Griesbachian, and the second time was in the early Spathian. The dominance of segminiplanate conodonts probably indicates that the deeper seawater environment became more oxygenated during the late Griesbachian and early Spathian for short time intervals, as it is believed that the Griesbachian segminiplanate conodonts favored deeper oxygenated water habitats. A new genus, Spathogondolella gen. nov., and a new species, Spathogondolella jiarongensis sp. nov., have been recognized.

  3. A review of the microbiology of the Rehai geothermal field in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

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    Brian P. Hedlund

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Rehai Geothermal Field, located in Tengchong County, in central-western Yunnan Province, is the largest and most intensively studied geothermal field in China. A wide physicochemical diversity of springs (ambient to ∼97 °C; pH from ≤1.8 to ≥9.3 provides a multitude of niches for extremophilic microorganisms. A variety of studies have focused on the cultivation, identification, basic physiology, taxonomy, and biotechnological potential of thermophilic microorganisms from Rehai. Thermophilic bacteria isolated from Rehai belong to the phyla Firmicutes and Deinococcus-Thermus. Firmicutes include neutrophilic or alkaliphilic Anoxybacillus, Bacillus, Caldalkalibacillus, Caldanaerobacter, Laceyella, and Geobacillus, as well as thermoacidophilic Alicyclobacillus and Sulfobacillus. Isolates from the Deinococcus-Thermus phylum include several Meiothermus and Thermus species. Many of these bacteria synthesize thermostable polymer-degrading enzymes that may be useful for biotechnology. The thermoacidophilic archaea Acidianus, Metallosphaera, and Sulfolobus have also been isolated and studied. A few studies have reported the isolation of thermophilic viruses belonging to Siphoviridae (TTSP4 and TTSP10 and Fuselloviridae (STSV1 infecting Thermus spp. and Sulfolobus spp., respectively. More recently, cultivation-independent studies using 16S rRNA gene sequences, shotgun metagenomics, or “functional gene” sequences have revealed a much broader diversity of microorganisms than represented in culture. Studies of the gene and mRNA encoding the large subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA and the tetraether lipid crenarchaeol, a potential biomarker for AOA, suggest a wide diversity, but possibly low abundance, of thermophilic AOA in Rehai. Finally, we introduce the Tengchong Partnerships in International Research and Education (PIRE project, an international collaboration between Chinese and U.S. scientists with

  4. Clusters of sudden unexplained death associated with the mushroom, Trogia venenata, in rural Yunnan Province, China.

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    Guo-Qing Shi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the late 1970's, time-space clusters of sudden unexplained death (SUD in northwest Yunnan, China have alarmed the public and health authorities. From 2006-2009, we initiated enhanced surveillance for SUD to identify a cause, and we warned villagers to avoid eating unfamiliar mushrooms. METHODS: We established surveillance for SUD, defined as follows: sudden onset of serious, unexplained physical impairment followed by death in <24 hours. A mild case was onset of any illness in a member of the family or close socially related group of a SUD victim within 1 week of a SUD. We interviewed witnesses of SUD and mild case-persons to identify exposures to potentially toxic substances. We tested blood from mild cases, villagers, and for standard biochemical, enzyme, and electrolyte markers of disease. RESULTS: We identified 33 SUD, a 73% decline from 2002-2005, distributed among 21 villages of 11 counties. We found a previously undescribed mushroom, Trogia venenata, was eaten by 5 of 7 families with SUD clusters compared to 0 of 31 other control-families from the same villages. In T. venenata-exposed persons SUD was characterized by sudden loss of consciousness during normal activities. This mushroom grew nearby 75% of 61 villages that had time-space SUD clusters from 1975 to 2009 compared to 17% of 18 villages with only single SUD (p<0.001, Fisher's exact test. DISCUSSION: Epidemiologic data has implicated T. venenata as a probable cause of clusters of SUD in northwestern Yunnan Province. Warnings to villagers about eating this mushroom should continue.

  5. An economic evaluation of the use of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in the expanded program of immunization of Guizhou province, China.

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    Yin, Zundong; Beeler Asay, Garrett R; Zhang, Li; Li, Yixing; Zuo, Shuyan; Hutin, Yvan J; Ning, Guijun; Sandhu, Hardeep S; Cairns, Lisa; Luo, Huiming

    2012-08-10

    Historically, China's Japanese encephalitis vaccination program was a mix of household purchase of vaccine and government provision of vaccine in some endemic provinces. In 2006, Guizhou, a highly endemic province in South West China, integrated JE vaccine into the provincial Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI); later, in 2007 China fully integrated 28 provinces into the national EPI, including Guizhou, allowing for vaccine and syringe costs to be paid at the national level. We conducted a retrospective economic analysis of JE integration into EPI in Guizhou province. We modeled two theoretical cohorts of 100,000 persons for 65 years; one using JE live-attenuated vaccine in EPI (first dose: 95% coverage and 94.5% efficacy; second dose: 85% coverage and 98% efficacy) and one not. We assumed 60% sensitivity of surveillance for reported JE rates, 25% case fatality, 30% chronic disability and 3% discounting. We reviewed acute care medical records and interviewed a sample of survivors to estimate direct and indirect costs of illness. We reviewed the EPI offices expenditures in 2009 to estimate the average Guizhou program cost per vaccine dose. Use of JE vaccine in EPI for 100,000 persons would cost 434,898 US$ each year (46% of total cost due to vaccine) and prevent 406 JE cases, 102 deaths, and 122 chronic disabilities (4554 DALYs). If we ignore future cost savings and only use EPI program cost, the program would cost 95.5 US$/DALY, less than China Gross Domestic Product per capita in 2009 (3741 US$). From a cost-benefit perspective taking into account future savings, use of JE vaccine in EPI for a 100,000-person cohort would lead to savings of 1,591,975 US$ for the health system and 11,570,989 US$ from the societal perspective. In Guizhou, China, use of JE vaccine in EPI is a cost effective investment. Furthermore, it would lead to savings for the health system and society. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. New Insights to the Mid Miocene Calc-alkaline Lavas of the Strawberry Volcanics, NE Oregon Surrounded by the Coeval Tholeiitic Columbia River Basalt Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, A. R.; Streck, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Strawberry Volcanics (SV) of NE Oregon were distributed over 3,400 km2 during the mid-Miocene and comprise a diverse volcanic suite, which span the range of compositions from basalt to rhyolite. The predominant composition of this volcanic suite is calc-alkaline (CA) basaltic andesite and andesite, although tholeiitic (TH) lavas of basalt to andesite occur as well. The coeval flood basalts of the Columbia River province surround the SV. Here we will discuss new ages and geochemical data, and present a new geologic map and stratigraphy of the SV. The SV are emplaced on top of pre-Tertiary accreted terranes of the Blue Mountain Province, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, and older Tertiary volcanic rocks thought to be mostly Oligocene of age. Massive rhyolites (~300 m thick) are exposed mainly along the western flank and underlie the intermediate composition lavas. In the southern portion of this study area, alkali basaltic lavas, thought to be late Miocene to early Pliocene in age, erupted and overlie the SV. In addition, several regional ignimbrites reach into the area. The 9.7 Ma Devine Canyon Tuff and the 7.1 Ma Rattlesnake Tuff also overlie the SV. The 15.9-15.4 Ma Dinner Creek Tuff is mid-Miocene, and clear stratigraphic relationships are found in areas where the tuff is intercalated between thick SV lava flows. All of the basalts of the SV are TH and are dominated by phenocryst-poor (≤2%) lithologies. These basalts have an ophitic texture dominated by plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine (often weathered to iddingsite). Basalts and basaltic andesites have olivine Fo #'s ranging from 44 at the rims (where weathered to iddingsite) and as high as 88 at cores. Pyroxene Mg #'s range from 65 to 85. Andesites of the SV are sub-alkaline, and like the basalts, are exceedingly phenocryst-poor (≤3%) with microphenocrysts of plagioclase and lesser pyroxene and olivine, which occasionally occur as crystal clots of ~1-3 mm instead of single crystals. In addition, minimal

  7. Black carbon record of the wildfire history of western Sichuan Province in China over the last 12.8 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Enlou; Shen, Ji; Chen, Rong; Liu, Enfeng

    2016-12-01

    Wildfire is recognized as a critical Earth system process which affects the global carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Estimating the potential impact of future climate change on the incidence of fire requires an understanding of the long-term interactions of fire, climate, vegetation, and human activity. Accordingly, we analyzed the black carbon content and the pollen stratigraphy of sediments spanning the past 12.8 ka from Lake Muge Co, an alpine lake in western Sichuan Province, in order to determine the main factors influencing regional fire regimes. The results demonstrate that wildfires occurred frequently and intensively during the late deglaciation and the early Holocene when the regional vegetation was dominated by deciduous forests. Wildfire occurrence decreased significantly during the Holocene climatic optimum between 9.2 and 5.6 cal ka BP. Overall, the wildfire history of western Sichuan Province is similar to that of the Chinese Loess Plateau and of East Asia as a whole, suggesting that regional-scale fires depended mainly on changes in the intensity of the Asian summer monsoon. In addition, the fire regime of western Sichuan Province may have been influenced by the establishment of human settlement and agriculture in western Sichuan Province and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau after about 5.5 cal ka BP, and by an intensification of cereal cultivation coupled with population expansion in southwestern China during the last two millennia.

  8. Geographical information systems-based spatial analysis and implications for syphilis interventions in Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yue-Jia; Norris, Jessie; Bao, Chang-Jun; Liang, Qi; Hu, Jian-Li; Wu, Ying; Tang, Fen-Yang; Liu, Wen-Dong; Ding, Ke-Qin; Zhao, Yang; Peng, Zhi-Hang; Yu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hua; Shen, Hong-Bing; Chen, Feng

    2012-11-01

    Spatial distribution rules and risk factors for syphilis were studied in Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China during 2005 and 2009. Trend surface analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatio-temporal clustering were applied with the incidence rates of the various counties in the province to determine spatial distribution rules and risk factors. Syphilis was found to be most severe in the southern region of the province where many counties could be shown to be hotspots with positive autocorrelation. Clusters were detected in the south-western region of Jiangsu with the county-level city of Yixing as the centre. Temperature, distance from railways and highways, and the normalised difference vegetation index were determined as supporting variables with regard to the transmission of the disease by both univariate and multivariate spatial correlation analyses. Interventions, including health education and awareness campaigns, should be strengthened throughout the province targeting the south-western areas, especially the clusters and hotspots detected in order to improve the situation.

  9. Environmental distribution and associated human health risk due to trace elements and organic compounds in soil in Jiangxi province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yanguo; Li, Jiao; Wu, Jin; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Chen, Haiyang

    2015-12-01

    The government of China launched its first national soil quality and pollution survey (NSQPS) during April 2006 to December 2013. Data gathered in several earlier soil surveys were rarely used to understand the status of pollution. In this study, the dataset collected at the provincial level was analyzed for the first time. Concentrations, distribution, diversity, and human health risks of trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V and Zn) and organic pollutants (benzene hexachloride (BHCs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs)) in surface soil samples collected across Jiangxi province,China were presented. The results showed that, the proportion of contaminants with concentrations higher than their corresponding regulatory reference value ranged from 0.12% to 17%. It is worth note that, the local residents are exposed to moderate non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks at some sites. The comprehensive analysis of soil pollutants provide baseline information for establishing a long-term soil environmental monitoring program in Jiangxi province, China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Did the Establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone Increase Agricultural Labor Productivity in Jiangxi Province, China?

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    Tao Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we take the establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone in 2009 as a quasi-natural experiment, to evaluate its influence on the agricultural labor productivity in Jiangxi Province, China. The estimation results of the DID method show that the establishment of the zone reduced agricultural labor productivity by 3.1%, lowering farmers’ net income by 2.5% and reducing the agricultural GDP by 3.6%. Furthermore, this negative effect has increased year after year since 2009. However, the heterogeneity analysis implies that the agricultural labor productivities of all cities in Jiangxi Province will ultimately converge. We find that the lack of agricultural R&D activities and the abuse of chemical fertilizers may be the main reasons behind the negative influence of the policy, by examining two possible transmission channels—the R&D investment and technological substitution. Corresponding policy implications are also provided.

  11. The survey of serum retinol of the children aged 0~4 years in Zhejiang Province, China

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    Wu Lingling

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A can have a positive impact on growth and development of children, but vitamin A deficiency (VAD was found to be a public health problem in Zhejiang Province, China in 1998. There have been no studies on this topic in Zhejiang Province recently. This study was designed to evaluate the serum retinol levels of children aged 0~4 years in Zhejiang Province, southeast China. This epidemiological data will help design supplementation strategies for vitamin A in high-risk groups and improve their vitamin A status. Methods Children were randomly recruited for this study using a stratified sampling method. A blood sample was collected from each child. Assessment included C-reactive protein (CRP, serum retinol measured with HPLC and a questionnaire completed providing for family information and nutritional status. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors for VAD in children. Results A group of 357 subjects aged 1 day to 4 years were recruited. The mean plasma retinol concentration was 1.653 (sd 0.47 μmol/L. There were 3.08% (11/357 of children affected with VAD, and 7.28% (26/357 of children had low vitamin A status, but none of the children showed any clinical symptoms of VAD. There was no significant difference in the levels of plasma retinol and the incidence rate of VAD between male and female children. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that living in urban region, having parents with good education and taking vitamin A capsule regularly prevented children from VAD, whereas being young (less than 2 years old was a risk factor. Conclusion Low vitamin A status remains a nutritional problem in Zhejiang Province. The high-risk group in this study were young, dwelled in rural regions, had parents with poor education and did not take a regular vitamin A containing supplement.

  12. Change in the biotype composition of Bemisia tabaci in Shandong Province of China from 2005 to 2008.

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    Chu, Dong; Wan, Fang Hao; Zhang, You Jun; Brown, Judith K

    2010-06-01

    Certain biotypes of the Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) complex cause extensive damage and are important pests and virus vectors in agricultural crops throughout the world. Among the most invasive and well studied are the B and Q biotypes. Recent reports in Shandong Province, China, have indicated that the Q biotype was introduced there in approximately 2005, whereas the B biotype has been established there for approximately 10 yr. Even so, the present distribution of the two biotypes in Shandong has not been examined. The results of this study showed that the B and Q biotypes are both present in Shandong Province based on bar-coding using a approximately 450-base fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene. In addition, a B biotype-specific polymerase chain reaction primer pair that amplifies a approximately 300 bp mtCOI fragment was designed and used to examine the biotype composition of B. tabaci in selected crops from six provincial locations, using the general mtCOI primers as an internal positive control for DNA quality. The results of this study indicated that the Q biotype was the predominant B. tabaci colonizing all of the crops in the study sites examined. This suggests that the Q biotype has displaced the B biotype in Shandong Province of China, which until now was the predominant biotype. This is the first report of the displacement of the B by the Q biotype in field grown crops in China, and in a locale where neither the B nor the Q biotype is native. We hypothesize that this phenomenon may have been exacerbated by the widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides for whitefly control, given the sustained efficacy thus far of neonicotinoids against the B biotype, and their failure at times to effectively control the Q biotype.

  13. Geochemical and palaeontological evidence for the definition of the Silurian/Devonian boundary in the Changwantang Section, Guangxi Province, China

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    Wen-jin Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Southern Guangxi Province is one of the important areas for the study of the Silurian/Devonian boundary (SDB in South China. Despite attempts to define the exact level of the SDB in the Yulin (Guangxi Province area using biostratigraphy, no consensus has been reached as the indicator fossils (e.g. graptolite Monograptus uniformis uniformis, conodont Icriodus woschmidti woschmidti and trilobite Warburgella rugulosa rugosa are not coexistent in South China. Since Mann et al. (2001: Dynamics of the Silurian/Devonian boundary sequence: sedimentary cycles vs. organic matter variation. Terra Nostra, 2001, 44–48 reported the first isotope curve based on organic carbon for the SDB at Klonk in the Czech Republic (GSSP, some comparable variation curves of δ13Corg across the SDB have been obtained at several locations including sections in Turkey and China. This distinct variation curve of the isotopic composition of organic carbon across the SDB provides a chemostratigraphic reference for a worldwide correlation of the SDB. In this study, organic geochemistry together with graptolite biostratigraphy is applied as a tool for identifying the SDB at the Changwantang Section in Yulin (Guangxi Province. The results suggest that the variations in some indexes of organic geochemistry can be correlated to the representative curve of the SDB in the Klonk and Esenyali sections. The exact level of the SDB in the Changwantang Section is positioned within the upper part of the Fangcheng Formation, which is consistent with the available palaeontological data from graptolites (e.g. Colonograptus colonus, Plectograptus sp., Monograptus uniformis, M. cf. M. praehercynicus and M. aequabilis.

  14. The prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection in Sichuan Province, southwestern China detected by real time PCR

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    Wu You-xi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is endemic in western China, and becoming an important public health concern. Infected dogs are the main reservoir for Leishmania infantum, and a potential sentinel for human VL in endemic areas. In the present study we investigated the prevalence of Leishmania DNA in dogs from Wenchuan, Heishui and Jiuzhaigou County in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, which are important endemic areas of zoonotic VL, detected by real time PCR. The results will help to design control strategies against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs and humans. Results The overall prevalence of Leishmania DNA in dogs was 24.8% (78/314 in Sichuan Province, with the positive rate of 23.5% (23/98 in Wenchuan County, 28.2% (20/71 in Heishui County, and 24.1% (35/145 in Jiuzhaigou County, and no significant difference was observed among the three counties (P > 0.05. The dogs were further allocated to different groups based on sexes, ages and external clinical symptoms. The logistic regression analysis revealed that a higher prevalence was found in older and external symptomatic dogs, compared to that of younger and asymptomatic dogs (P Conclusions The results revealed that L. infantum infection in dogs is widespread in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, which has a public health significance, due to its contribution to the transmission of the infection to humans by sandflies. It is necessary to take measures, including treatment or eradication of infected dogs, to control canine leishmaniasis, which could be helpful to reduce human VL in this area.

  15. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for

  16. Ostracods (Crustacea associated with microbialites across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Dajiang (Guizhou Province, South China

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    Marie-Beatrice FOREL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 26 samples were processed for a taxonomic study of ostracods from the Upper Permian (Changhsingian - Lower Triassic (Griesbachian interval of the Dajiang section, Guizhou Province, South China. 112 species belonging to 27 genera are recognized. Five new species are described: Acratia candyae sp. nov, Bairdia adelineae sp. nov., Bairdia? huberti sp. nov., Bairdia jeromei sp. nov., Orthobairdia jeanlouisi sp. nov. The unexpected survival faunas associated with microbial formations in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction are documented for the first time. Ostracod biodiversity variations and palaeo-environmental modifications associated with microbial growth through the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB are discussed.

  17. Trend of energy supply and demand in Jilin Province, China; Chugoku Kitsurinsho no energy jukyu doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, T. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The province is naturally under the influence of the Chinese policy toward energy, which consists of the privatization of state-run businesses, liberalization of prices, reinforcement of transportation, and versification of energy resources. The recoverable coal reserve in Jilin accounts for 0.7% of the whole Chinese reserve. The coal, however, is poor in quality and the province has to rely on sources outside the province for the majority of the amount it needs. Although the coal washing rate and the mechanization rate of the coal mining process are low, yet the Chinese price is competitive in the international market. Coal consumption in Jilin Province has levelled off, but the amount consumed for thermal power generation is on the increase. A total of 4.9-million ton of crude oil was consumed in 1995 within the province but, in 2010, 13.68-million ton (61% out of this tonnage to be purchased from outside the province) will be needed thanks to the popularization of motor vehicles. Jilin in 1995 was capable of producing 3.5-million kW by thermal power generation and 3.7-million kW by hydroelectric power generation. It is supposed that an increase in power consumption will be met primarily by coal-fired power generation. Prediction is that Jilin Province will demand 62.1-billion kWh in 2010 with 20% thereof to be purchased from the outside of the province. 1 fig., 22 tabs.

  18. Mortality Rate for Children under 5 Years of Age in Zhejiang Province, China from 1997 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weifang; Chen, Dingwan; Xu, Yanhua; Yang, Rulai; Zhao, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    This is a population based descriptive study that examined the trends in childhood mortality among under five children and the major causes under five mortality in Zhejiang Province, China. A population-based survey was conducted through a province-level surveillance network. The mortality rate and leading causes of death for children under 5 years of age were analyzed. The trend in the mortality rate for children under five and cause-specific mortality rates were analyzed by chi-square with SPSS 13.0 software. In Zhejiang Province, during 1997-2012, mortality rates in neonates, postneonatal infants, and children under 5 years were reduced by 64.2% (from 7.85 to 2.81 per 1000 livebirths), 66.7% (from 12.73 to 4.24 per 1000 livebirths), and 63% (from 15.76 to 5.85 per 1000 livebirths), respectively. The mortality rates in children under 5 years of age decreased by 59.5% (from 11.09 to 4.49 per 1000 livebirths) and 65.8% (from 19.30 to 6.61 per 1000 livebirths) in urban and rural areas, respectively. Prematurity/low birth weight and congenital heart disease were in the top five causes of death in children under 5 years of age during 1997-2012. Zhejiang province has achieved great progress in the reduction of mortality rates in children under five-years-old during the past two decades. The future tasks on reduction of mortality rate still rely on how to improve the management of premature birth/low birth weight, reduce birth defects and prevent accidental deaths in Zhejiang Province.

  19. Differences in reporting of maternal and child health indicators: A comparison between routine and survey data in Guizhou Province, China

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    Du Q

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Qing Du,1,2 Øyvind Næss,1,3 Espen Bjertness,1,4 Gonghuan Yang,5 Linhong Wang,6 Bernadette Nirmal Kumar71Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2Binzhou Medical College, Yantai, China; 3The Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; 4Tibet University Medical College, Lhasa, China; 5Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; 6National Center for Women and Children's Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; 7Norwegian Center for Minority Health Research, Oslo, NorwayBackground: The quality of routine data, such as the maternal mortality ratio (MMR, infant mortality rate (IMR, and under-five mortality rate (U5MR is often questioned. The objective of this study was to compare routine and survey data on key maternal and child health indicators, including the MMR, IMR, and U5MR in the Guizhou Province of China.Methods: In 2008, an urban area and a rural area in the Guizhou Province were randomly selected. All households in the selected areas were included and, of the total 5466 households therein, 5459 were visited. The response rate was 99.9%. Survey data were collected from mothers (46.0%, fathers (32.5%, grandmothers (11.1%, grandfathers (9.0%, and other caregivers (1.4%. Data from routine records of the health bureaus in selected areas were reviewed for the same indicators. The Chi-square test was used to study the differences between routine data and survey data.Results: We found the differences between the routine and survey data live births in the survey data (68 was fewer than in the routine data (94 in the rural area, while live births in the survey data (106 was larger than in the routine data (96 in the urban area. The IMR was higher in the survey data (51.7 per thousand as compared with routine data (31.6 per thousand. The U5MR was higher (69.0 per thousand in the survey data than in the routine data (42.1 per thousand. Indicators related to the

  20. Prevalence, correlates, comorbidity, and age of onset of alcohol use disorders in adult males from five provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michael R; Cheng, Hui G; Li, Xianyun; Zhang, Jingxuan; Shi, Qichang; Xu, Guangming; Song, Zhiqiang; Ding, Zhijie; Pang, Shutao

    2017-04-01

    This study integrates data from high-quality mental health surveys in five provinces in China to examine the prevalence, demographic correlates, age of onset, and comorbidity of alcohol use disorder (AUD). The five cross-sectional surveys initially screened a representative sample of 74,752 community-living adults (94% response rate) from a sampling population including over 12% of China's adult population. Psychiatrists then administered a detailed diagnostic exam to an enriched sample of 21,015 respondents (95% response rate). The prevalence of AUD in females in China is below 0.5%, so we limited our analysis to 9619 males who completed the diagnostic interview. Using meta-analyses to summarize estimates across the five locations, the current (30-day) prevalence of AUD among adult Chinese males was 9.8% (95% CI=5.7-16.9%), but there was wide cross-province variation. After adjusting for age and other demographic variables, the prevalence of AUD was significantly lower in single men than in married men (OR=0.4, CI=0.2-0.7), lower in men who were not currently working than in men who were currently working (OR=0.7, CI=0.5-0.96), and lower in men with comorbid mental disorders than in men without comorbid mental disorders (OR=0.4, CI=0.2-0.8). The risk of developing AUD peaked at 30 years of age. Substantial differences in the demographic correlates and age of onset of AUD in men in China compared to those reported in other countries highlight the importance of understanding the country-specific and region-specific profile of AUD before developing intervention and prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxocara seroprevalence among clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients and associated risk factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China.

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    Wei Cong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection.Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866 was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445 than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431 and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990 was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05-0.08, P<0.001, contact with cats and dogs (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.33-0.53, P<0.001 and exposure with soil (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.28-0.49, P<0.001 were risk factors associated with Toxocara infection.The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. Further studies under controlled conditions are necessary to define potential

  2. The gender gap among school children in poor rural areas of western China: evidence from a multi-province dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Mo, Di; Zhou, Chengchao; Medina, Alexis; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Rozelle, Scott

    2016-09-29

    The gender gap remains a major impediment in the path towards equality and it is especially wide in low-income countries. Up to the early 2000s, many studies documented extensive inequalities in China: girls had poorer health, less nutrition and less education than their male counterparts. The goal of this study is to examine whether the gender gap persists, given that China is now making the transition into the ranks of upper-middle income countries. We consider educational outcomes, mental and physical health status, as well as non-cognitive outcomes. We draw on a dataset containing 69,565 observations constructed by combining data from 7 different school-level surveys spanning 5 provinces. The surveys were all conducted by the authors between 2008 and 2013 using uniform survey instruments and data collection protocols in randomly selected schools across western provinces in rural China. The sample children range in age from 9 to 14 years (with 79 % of the sample being aged 10 to 12). Our analysis compares rural girls with rural boys in terms of 13 different indicators. With the exception of anemia rates, the health outcomes of girls are equal to those of boys. Girls and boys are statistically identical in terms of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and prevalence of intestinal worm infections. Girls performed better than boys on five of six cognitive and educational performance indicators. Girls performed worse than boys on all mental health indicators. All estimates are robust to the inclusion of different age ranges, controlling for the level of household assets, ethnic minority status, as well as the addition of provincial dummies. Our findings suggest that with the exception of non-cognitive outcomes, anemia and standardized math test scores, the gender gap in our study areas in China appears to be diminishing.

  3. Impact factors on expansion of built-up areas in Zhejiang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhu, Qiankun; Li, Yan; Gong, Fang

    2017-10-01

    Built-up areas are the results of human activities. Not only are they the real reflection of human and society activities, but also one of the most important input parameters for the simulation of biogeochemical cycle. Therefore, it is very necessary to map the distribution of built-up areas and monitor their changes by using new technologies and methods at high spatiotemporal resolution. By combining technologies of GIS (Geographic Information System) and RS (Remote Sensing), this study mainly explored the expansion and driving factors of built-up areas at the beginning of the 21st century in Zhejiang Province, China. Firstly, it introduced the mapping processes of LULC (Land Use and Land Cover) based on the method which combined object-oriented method and binary decision tree. Then, it analyzed the expansion features of built-up areas in Zhejiang from 2000 to 2005 and 2005 to 2010. In addition to these, potential driving factors on the expansion of built-up areas were also explored, which contained physical geographical factors, railways, highways, rivers, urban centers, elevation, and slop. Results revealed that the expansions of built-up areas in Zhejiang from 2000 to 2005 and from 2005 to 2010 were very obvious and they showed high levels of variation in spatial heterogeneity. Except those, increased built-up areas with distance to railways, highways, rivers, and urban centers could be fitted with power function (y = a*xb ), with minimum R2 of 0.9507 for urban centers from 2000 to 2005; the increased permillages of built-up areas to mean elevation and mean slop could be fitted with exponential functions (y = a*ebx), with minimum R2 of 0.6657 for mean slop from 2005 to 2010. Besides, government policy could also impact expansion of built-up areas. In a nutshell, a series of conclusions were obtained through this study about the spatial features and driving factors of evolution of built-up areas in Zhejiang from 2000 to 2010.

  4. Growth and development of spring towers at Shiqiang, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the world, high artesian pressures in hydrothermal areas have led to the growth of tall spring towers that have their vents at their summits. The factors that control their development and formative precipitates are poorly understood because these springs, irrespective of location, are mostly inactive. Spring towers found at Shiqiang (Yunnan Province, China), which are up to 4 m high and 3 m in diameter, are formed largely of calcite and aragonite crystal bushes, euhedral calcite crystals and coated grains with alternating Fe-poor and Fe-rich zones, calcite rafts, and cements formed of various combinations of calcite, aragonite, strontianite, Mg-Si reticulate, needle fiber calcite, calcified and non-calcified microbes, diatoms, and insects. Collectively, the limestones that form the towers can be divided into (1) Group A that are friable, porous and form the cores of the towers and have δ18OSMOW values of + 15.7 to + 19.7‰ (average 17.8‰) and δ13CPDB values of + 5.1 to + 6.9‰ (average 5.9‰), and (2) Group B that are hard and well lithified and found largely around the vents and the tower sides, and have δ18OSMOW values of + 13.0 to + 22.0‰ (average 17.6‰) and δ13CPDB values of + 1.4 to + 3.6‰ (average 2.6‰). The precipitates and the isotopic values indicate that these were thermogene springs. Growth of the Shiqiang spring towers involved (1) Phase IA when precipitation of calcite and aragonite bushes formed the core of the tower and Phase IB when calcite, commonly Fe-rich, was precipitated locally, (2) Phase II that involved the precipitation of white cements, formed of calcite, aragonite, strontianite, and Mg-Si reticulate coatings in cavities amid the Phase I precipitates, and (3) Phase III, which formed probably after spring activity ceased, when needle-fiber calcite was precipitated and the mounds were invaded by microbes (some now calcified), diatoms, and insects. At various times during this complex history, pore waters mediated

  5. Prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus among a rural population in China: results from Liaoning Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Guan, H; Zheng, L; Li, Z; Guo, X; Yang, H; Yu, S; Sun, G; Li, W; Hu, W; Guo, L; Pan, G; Xing, L; Zhang, Y; Sun, Y

    2015-03-01

    To clarify the diabetes prevalence trends among the rural population in northern China. All eligible permanent residents aged ≥ 35 years in selected rural villages of Liaoning province were invited to participate in the study. A total of 11 600 people completed all questionnaires and were included in the study. The response rate was 85.3%. Fasting plasma glucose levels were measured after at least 12 h of fasting and diabetes was diagnosed according to WHO criteria, i.e. fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7 mmol/l and/or being on treatment for diabetes. Impaired fasting glucose was defined according to the 1997 and the 2010 American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria (6.1-6.9 and 5.6-6.9 mmol/l, respectively). Previous diagnoses of diabetes were assessed on the basis of self-reports. The prevalence of diabetes among adults in the rural population was 10.6% (10.0% in men and 11.1% in women). The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 13.0 and 36.1% according to the 1997 and the 2010 ADA criteria, respectively. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes was 4.3% among the whole population (3.3% in men and 5.1% in women). The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes was 34.8% in men and 50.2% in women. Only 29.6% of men and 42% of women with diabetes had taken oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin to lower their blood sugar. In multivariate analysis, age, drinking habits, BMI, dyslipidaemia and family history of diabetes were identified as independent risk factors for diabetes, and occupational physical activity, smoking and lean meat intake were identified as independent protective factors for diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose were found to be high in this rural population. Although the rate of treatment of people with diabetes has increased, the glycaemic control rate was still at a low level. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  6. Job-housing imbalance and commuting of coastal industrial town in Liaoning province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Lu, Wei; Cai, Jun; Yang, Qiyao

    2017-11-01

    During the Twelve Five period, China promulgated industrial policies promote the energy-intensive industries relocate to coastal areas in order to utilize marine shipping resources. Consequently, some major state-owned steel and petrochemical enterprises have relocated and resulted in a large scale coastal area development. Restricted by the port construction, most of the coastal industrial areas are located in the outer suburbs. To balance between employment and housing, new industrial coastal towns were constructed. In this paper, we adopt a case-study approach to analysis some typical industrial coastal towns of Liaoning Province situated in the Bohai Bay, which is currently under rapid economic growth. Our investigations reflect the common phenomenon of long distance commuting and massive amount of vacant residences. More specifically, large plant relocation caused hundreds of kilometers of daily commute and enterprises had to provide housing subsidies and education incentives to motivate employees to relocate to coastal areas. Nonetheless, many employees still refuse to relocate due to job stability, diverse needs of family members and access to convenient services. These employees averaged 4 hours of commute daily and some who lived further had to reside in temporary industrial housing units and subject to long-term family separation. As a result, only a small portion of employees purchase new coastal residences but mostly for investment and retirement purposes, leading to massive vacancy and ghost-town phenomenon. In contrast to the low demand, coastal areas tend to develop large amount of residences prior to industrial relocation, which may be directly related to local government finances. Some local governments have sold residential land to developers to general revenue to support the subsequent industrial development. Subject to the strong preference of ocean- view, residential housing developers tend to select coast-line land to construct new residential

  7. Characterization of clinical extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Hunan province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zou, Mingxiang; Dou, Qingya; Hu, Yongmei; Wang, Haichen; Yan, Qun; Liu, Wen' En

    2016-05-23

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains that are classed as extensively drug resistant (XDR-PA) are resistant to all antibiotics except for one or two classes and are frequently the cause of hard-to-treat infections worldwide. Our study aimed to characterize clinical XDR-PA isolates recovered during 2011-2012 at nine hospitals in the Hunan province of China. Thirty-seven non-repetitive XDR-PA strains from 37 patients were investigated for genes encoding antimicrobial resistance determinants, efflux pumps, outer membrane proteins, and movable genetic elements using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The expression of genes encoding the efflux pump component MexA and the outer membrane protein OprD was measured using real-time PCR. In addition, clonal relatedness of these XDR-PA isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Various genes encoding antimicrobial resistance determinants were found in all isolates. In particular, the bla TEM-1, bla CARB, armA, bla IMP-4, bla VIM-2, and rmtB, were found in 100, 37.8, 22, 22, 19 and 5 % of the isolates, respectively. Remarkably, two isolates coharbored bla IMP-4, bla VIM-2, and armA. In all 37 antibiotic-resistant strains, the relative expression of oprD was decreased while mexA was increased compared to the expression of these genes in antibiotic-susceptible P. aeruginosa strains. All of the XDR-PA isolates harbored class I integrons as well as multiple other mobile genetic elements, such as tnpU, tnp513, tnpA (Tn21), and merA. A high genotypic diversity among the strains was detected by PFGE. Multiple antibiotic-resistance mechanisms contributed to the drug resistance of the XDR-PA isolates investigated in this study. Thus, the XDR-PA isolates in this area were not clonally related. Instead, multiple types of movable genetic elements were coharbored within each XDR-PA isolate, which may have aided the rapid development of these XDR-PA strains. This is the first report of XDR-PA strains that coharbor bla IMP-4

  8. Postglacial fire history and interactions with vegetation and climate in southwestern Yunnan Province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xiao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution, continuous 18.5 kyr (1 kyr  =  1000 cal yr BP macroscopic charcoal record from Qinghai Lake in southwestern Yunnan Province, China, reveals postglacial fire frequency and variability history. The results show that three periods with high-frequency and high-severity fires occurred during the periods 18.5–15.0, 13.0–11.5, and 4.3–0.8 ka, respectively. This record was compared with major pollen taxa and pollen diversity indices from the same core, and tentatively related to the regional climate proxy records with the aim to separate climate- from human-induced fire activity, and discuss vegetation–fire–climate interactions. The results suggest that fire was mainly controlled by climate before 4.3 ka and by the combined actions of climate and humans after 4.3 ka. Before 4.3 ka, high fire activity corresponded to cold and dry climatic conditions, while warm and humid climatic conditions brought infrequent and weak fires. Fire was an important disturbance factor and played an important role in forest dynamics around the study area. Vegetation responses to fire after 4.3 ka are not consistent with those before 4.3 ka, suggesting that human influence on vegetation and fire regimes may have become more prevalent after 4.3 ka. The comparisons between fire activity and vegetation reveal that evergreen oaks are flammable plants and fire-tolerant taxa. Alnus is a fire-adapted taxon and a nonflammable plant, but density of Alnus forest is a key factor to decide its fire resistance. The forests dominated by Lithocarpus/Castanopsis and/or tropical trees and shrubs are not easy to ignite, but Lithocarpus/Castanopsis and tropical trees and shrubs are fire-sensitive taxa. Fire appears to be unfavourable to plant diversity in the study area.

  9. Paralava and clinker products of coal combustion, Yellow River, Shanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapes, Rodney; Zhang, Ke; Peng, Zhuo-lun

    2009-12-01

    Combustion of bituminous coal seams in a Carbonifeorus-Permian sequence of siltstone, quartzose sandstone, sideritic mudstone, kaolinite-rich and sulphide-ankerite rocks exposed on the left bank of the Yellow River, western border of Shanxi Province, China, has resulted in the formation of paralava and glassy clinker. Some paralavas have compositions similar to low alkali basalts and contain anorthite, low Ca-pyroxenes (clinoenstatite, pigeonite), ± minor augite, ± olivine, Fe-Ti oxides and K-bearing siliceous glass. In these paralavas the sequence of pyroxene crystallization was Mg-pigeonite → augite → Fe-pigeonite and Mg-clinoenstatite → borderline Fe-clinoenstatite/pigeonite. More siliceous paralava compositions contain anorthite, clinoenstatite, cordierite, Fe-Ti oxides and glass. Fused clinker consists of cordierite, anorthite, tridymite, mullite, Fe-Ti oxides and K-rich siliceous glass. Paralava liquidus temperatures range between ca. 1230 and 1120 °C and the generalized crystallization sequence in a "basaltic" composition was anorthite, pyroxene (low Ca-clinopyroxene, augite), Ti-magnetite, olivine with quench apatite in glass over a cooling interval of ˜ 345 °C. The liquidus temperature of clinker was ca. 1100 °C. In paralavas and clinker, subsolidus exsolution of hemo-ilmenite from Ti-magnetite occurred under log fO 2 = - 9.0 to - 13.9 at temperatures of 907-756 °C, with formation of almost pure ilmenite at lowest temperatures of 536-567 °C at log fO 2 = - 24.9-21.9. Changes in the texture and habit of pyroxene in paralava adjacent clinker (porphyritic to skeletal/plumose towards clinker) reflect the effects of a cooling front moving into the paralava and changing bulk composition. Paralavas formed by melting of different combinations of siltstone, sideritic mudstone and ankerite-rich rock "end-members", and there was also diffusion of Si, Al, Ti and K into paralava from fused clinker blocks within it.

  10. Epidemiological survey of Blastocystis hominis in Huainan City, Anhui Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Xia; Li, Chao-Pin; Wang, Jian; Cui, Yu-Bao

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To provide scientific evidence for prevention and controlling of blastocystosis, the infection of Blastocystis homonis and to study its clinical significance in Huainan City, Anhui Province, China. METHODS: Blastocystis homonis in fresh stools taken from 100 infants, 100 pupils, 100 middle school students and 403 patients with diarrhea was smeared and detected with method of iodine staining and hematoxylin staining. After preliminary direct microscopy, the shape and size of Blastocystis homonis were observed with high power lens. The cellular immune function of the patients with blastocystosis was detected with biotin-streptavidin (BSA). RESULTS: The positive rates of Blastocystis homonis in fresh stools taken from the infants, pupils, middle school students and the patients with diarrhea, were 1.0% (1/100), 1.0% (1/100), 0% (0/100) and 5.96% (24/403) respectively. Furthermore, the positive rates of Blastocystis homonis in the stool samples taken from the patients with mild diarrhea, intermediate diarrhea, severe diarrhea and obstinate diarrhea were 6.03% (14/232), 2.25% (2/89), 0% (0/17) and 12.31% (8/65) respectively. The positive rates of Blastocystis homonis in fresh stools of male and female patients with diarrhea were 7.52% (17/226) and 3.95% (7/177) respectively, and those of patients in urban and rural areas were 4.56% (11/241) and 8.02% (13/162) respectively. There was no significant difference between them (P > 0.05). The positive rates of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ in serum of Blastocystis homonis-positive and-negative individuals were 0.64 ± 0.06, 0.44 ± 0.06, 0.28 ± 0.04 and 0.60 ± 0.05, 0.40 ± 0.05 and 0.30 ± 0.05 respectively, and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ of the two groups were 1.53 ± 0.34 and 1.27 ± 0.22. There was significant difference between the two groups (P Blastocystis hominis as an enteric pathogen in human seems not to be associated with gender and living environment, and that Blastocystis hominis is more common in stool samples of the

  11. Dental and prosthodontic status of an over 40 year-old population in Shandong Province, China

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    Creugers Nico HJ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to (1 describe the dental status using DMFT for the whole dentition and the anterior, premolar and molar regions; (2 determine associations of demographic variables and socio-economic status (SES with DMFT and tooth replacement; (3 analyze to what extent the goal as proposed by the WHO -'the retention of not less than 20 teeth throughout life' is achieved. Methods DMFT and tooth replacement data of 1588 subjects over 40 years from urban and rural sites in Qingdao (Shandong Province, China were collected. Relative D, M, and F scores per dental region were calculated and compared by paired T-tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine relationships with age, gender, place of residence, and SES. Results Mean numbers of D and F were low (1.36 respectively 0.27 at all ages. Molars had highest chance for D and M. For the molar region every additional year of age gave significantly lower chance for D and higher chance for M (OR: 0.98 and 1.02 respectively; both p ≤ 0.01. Mean number of M was associated with age (approximately 1.5 in each jaw at 40 years and 6 at 80 years. Females had higher chance for D (OR: 1.34; p ≤ 0.05 and F (OR: 1.69; p ≤ 0.01, and lower chance for M (OR: 0.60; p ≤ 0.01. Urban and rural subjects had similar chance for D; urban subjects had approximately 5 times more chance for F (p ≤ 0.01. SES had no relationship with D and M, however SES low was associated with F (OR: 0.45; p ≤ 0.01. Replacements were significantly associated with age (all dental regions except anterior region, gender (all dental regions, place of residence (whole dentition and molar region, and SES (whole dentition and premolar and molar regions. Conclusions The majority of subjects presented a reduced dentition. Molars were most frequently affected by D and M. D, M, F and replaced teeth were associated with the background variables, however differently for different dental regions. Above the age

  12. Completely preserved cockroaches of the family Mesoblattinidae from the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation (Liaoning Province, NE China)

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    Wei, Dandan; Ren, Dong

    2013-08-01

    Although cockroaches were the dominant insects in various Paleozoic and Mesozoic insect assemblages, their general morphology was extremely conservative. One of the most common of them, the Jurassic-Cretaceous family Mesoblattinidae, is described here for the first time on the basis of completely preserved specimens. Ninety-two specimens of Perlucipecta aurea gen. et sp. n. reveal details of head, mandible, male tergal glands and terminal hook; cercal, leg and antennal sensilla. Its congener, P. vrsanskyi is described from the same sediments of the Yixian Formation (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous). The forewing venation variability of P. aurea, analysed for the first time in this family is nearly identical (CV = 6.23 %) with variability of two species of family Blattulidae that occur at the same locality (CV = 6.22 %; 5.72 %). The transitional nature of morphological characters represented by asymmetry between left and right wings (simple/branched forewing SC and hind wing M) in P. aurea documents the phylogenetic relation between the families Mesoblattinidae and Ectobiidae

  13. Molecular Identification of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense from 3 Human Cases in Heilongjiang Province with a Brief Literature Review in China

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    Zhang, Weizhe; Che, Fei; Tian, Song; Shu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Human diphyllobothriasis is a widespread fish-borne zoonosis caused by the infection with broad tapeworms belonging to the genus Diphyllobothrium. In mainland China, so far 20 human cases of Diphyllobothrium infections have been reported, and the etiologic species were identified as D. latum and D. nihonkaiense based on morphological characteristics or molecular analysis. In the present study, proglottids of diphyllobothriid tapeworms from 3 human cases that occurred in Heilongjiang Province, China were identified as D. nihonkaiense by sequencing mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) genes. Two different cox1 gene sequences were obtained. One sequence showed 100% homology with those from humans in Japan. The remaining cox1 gene sequence and 2 different nad5 gene sequences obtained were not described previously, and might reflect endemic genetic characterizations. D. nihonkaiense might also be a major causative species of human diphyllobothriasis in China. Meanwhile, the finding of the first pediatric case of D. nihonkaiense infection in China suggests that infants infected with D. nihonkaiense should not be ignored. PMID:26797434

  14. Seroprevalence and genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from pigs intended for human consumption in Liaoning province, northeastern China.

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    Wang, Dawei; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Tiantian; Zhang, Guoxin; Yuan, Gaoming; He, Jianbin; Su, Chunlei; Yang, Na

    2016-04-29

    Genetic information for Toxoplasma gondii isolates from pigs in eastern, south, and southwestern regions of China has been reported previously. However, there are no data from pigs in the northeastern area of the country. To better understand the epidemiology of T. gondii, we determined the seroprevalence and genotypes of T. gondii from pigs slaughtered for human consumption in Liaoning province, northeastern China. Out of 2063 pigs examined, 233 (11.26%) were seropositive for T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT), and viable parasites were isolated by bioassay in mice from 23 (9.87%) of the 233 seropositive pigs. Fifteen out of 23 isolates were genotyped using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico. One isolate was identified as ToxoDB genotype #3 (type II-variant), and one was genotype #1 or #3. The other 13 isolates were ToxoDB #9 (type Chinese 1). To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii isolation and genotyping from pigs in northeastern China. This study indicates that pigs are a potential source for transmission of T. gondii to humans, therefore poses a potential public health concern. The genotyping results revealed the presence of genotype Chinese 1 in northeastern China, enriching the scope of T. gondii genotypes distribution in eastern Asia.

  15. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in captive non-human primates in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, Southwestern China.

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    Zhijun Zhong

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is a common human and animal pathogen. It has been increasingly reported in wild and captive non-human primates (NHPs in recent years. However, multilocus genotyping information for G. duodenalis infecting NHPs in southwestern China is limited. In the present study, the prevalence and multilocus genotypes (MLGs of G. duodenalis in captive NHPs in southwestern China were determined. We examined 207 fecal samples from NHPs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, and 16 specimens were positive for G. duodenalis. The overall infection rate was 7.7%, and only assemblage B was identified. G. duodenalis was detect positive in northern white-cheeked gibbon (14/36, 38.9%, crab-eating macaque (1/60, 1.7% and rhesus macaques (1/101, 0.9%. Multilocus sequence typing based on beta-giardin (bg, triose phosphate isomerase (tpi and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh revealed nine different assemblage B MLGs (five known genotypes and four novel genotypes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, one potentially zoonotic genotype of MLG SW7 was identified in a northern white-cheeked gibbon. A high degree of genetic diversity within assemblage B was observed in captive northern white-cheeked gibbons in Southwestern China, including a potentially zoonotic genotype, MLG SW7. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report using a MLGs approach to identify G. duodenalis in captive NHPs in Southwestern China.

  16. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Shuangcheng City of Heilongjiang Province: the China Nine-Province Survey].

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    Zhang, Liqiong; Cui, Hao; Zhao, Jialiang; Ellwein, Leon B; Li, Zhijian; Li, Mingsheng; Yu, Nannan; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xuecheng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Shuangcheng City of Heilongjiang Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5 841 individuals aged 50 years or above in 28 basic sample units in Shuangcheng City from September to December 2006. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands four hundreds and eighty-one individuals were enumerated and 5 047 persons were examined, the response rate was 92.08%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 1.72% (87/5 047) and 4.69% (237/5 047) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.90% (96/5 047) and 7.23% (365/5 047) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2)=674.44, P visual impairment. The percentage of the retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, high myopic retinopathy and diabetic retinopathy was 11.31% among the eyes with blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment. Un-corrected refractive error(13.38%) also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual

  17. Prevalence of primary infertility in China: in-depth analysis of infertility differentials in three minority province/autonomous regions.

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    Liu, Jihong; Larsen, Ulla; Wyshak, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Following the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development, there was a shift in emphasis on women's reproductive health and there emerged a need for more knowledge about levels and differentials of infertility. Using the data from the 1988 National Two-Per-Thousand Sample Survey on Fertility and Contraception, this paper estimated the prevalence of primary infertility in China. To determine the predictors of primary infertility, multiple logistic regression analyses were done on three minority province/autonomous regions where primary infertility was the highest. A non-contracepting, sexually active woman was considered to have primary infertility if she had not reported a recognized pregnancy after at least seven years of marriage. The analysis shows that the national level of primary infertility was relatively low (1.3%). Primary infertility was higher in Qinghai (2.3%), Tibet (3.7%) and Xinjiang (3.7%) compared with other provinces. Tibetans in Qinghai and Uygurs in Xinjiang had a higher level of primary infertility than the Han Chinese. Ethnic differences remained after adjusting for other background characteristics. Divorced and remarried women had significantly higher odds of primary infertility compared with first-married women in Qinghai and Xinjiang. The elevated level of primary infertility in Qinghai, Tibet and Xinjiang and its disproportionate prevalence among Tibetans and Uygurs highlight the need for further work to understand the causes and social consequences of infertility for the minority population in China.

  18. Isolation and identification of cultivable lactic acid bacteria in traditional yak milk products of Gansu Province in China.

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    Bao, QiuHua; Liu, WenJun; Yu, Jie; Wang, Weihong; Qing, ManJun; Chen, Xia; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jiachao; Zhang, Wenyi; Qiao, Jianmin; Sun, Tiansong; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Various traditional fermented yak milk and raw milk foods could be considered as an abundant resource for obtaining novel lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with unique properties. Eighty-eight samples of yak milk products were collected from Gansu Province in China. Three hundred and nineteen strains of LAB isolated from these samples were identified by phenotypic methods, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology. Among the isolates, one hundred and sixty-four isolates (51.41% of the total) were classified under Lactobacilli, and one hundred and fifty-five (48.59%) belonged to cocci. All the isolates were classified to six genera (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus, Enterococcus and Weissella) and twenty-one species. Lactobacillus helveticus (87 strains), Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides (49 strains), Streptococcus thermophilus (39 strains), Lactobacillus casei (31 strains) and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (19 strains) were considered as the predominant populations in the yak milk products. The results showed that there were abundant genus and species LAB existing in yak milk products in Gansu Province in China. The obtained LAB pure cultures may be a valuable source for further starter selection.

  19. Dynamics of Bemisia tabaci biotypes and insecticide resistance in Fujian province in China during 2005–2014

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    Yao, Feng-Luan; Zheng, Yu; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Ding, Xue-Ling; Zhao, Jian-Wei; Desneux, Nicolas; He, Yu-Xian; Weng, Qi-Yong

    2017-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is an important agricultural insect pest worldwide. The B and Q biotypes are the two most predominant and devastating biotypes prevalent across China. However, there are few studies regarding the occurrence of the Q biotype in Fujian Province, China, where high insecticide resistance has been reported in the B biotype. Differences in some biological characteristics between the B and Q biotypes, especially insecticide resistance, are considered to affect the outcome of their competition. Extensive surveys in Fujian revealed that the B biotype was predominant during 2005–2014, whereas the Q biotype was first detected in some locations in 2013 and widely detected throughout the province in 2014. Resistance to neonicotinoids (that have been used for more than 10 years) exhibited fluctuations in open fields, but showed a continual increasing trend in protected areas. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin exhibited a declining trend. Resistance to novel insecticides, such as nitenpyram, pymetrozine, sulfoxaflor, and cyantraniliprole, in 2014 was generally below a moderate level. A decline in insecticide resistance in the B biotype and the rapid buildup of protected crops under global temperature increase may have promoted the establishment of the Q biotype in Fujian. PMID:28112233

  20. Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis in Urine among Men Attending STD Clinics in Guangdong Province, China, 2016.

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    Xue, Yaohua; Zheng, Heping; Tang, Weiming; Mai, Zhida; Huang, Jinmei; Huang, Shujie; Qin, Xiaolin; Chen, Lei; Zheng, Lei

    2017-12-26

    Studies rarely assessed the genotype distribution of chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in urine among men attending STD clinics (MSCs) in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of CT infection by examining urine samples among MSCs from different geographic areas of Guangdong province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSCs from ten HIV sentinel surveillance sites in Guangdong province. CT DNA in men urine samples were extracted and detected by using the Roche cobas® 4800 CT/NG. The ompA genes were amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. The leukocyte esterase test was performed by routine urine analysis at local clinics. Of the 1903 samples, 163(8.6%, 95%CI3.8- 16.3%) were found to be positive for CT. The highest prevalence (10.5%) of CT infection was observed among participants aged 21-30. One hundred and thirty CT positive specimens (79.8%, 130/163) were successfully genotyped by nested PCR, resulting in eight genotypes. The most prevalent genotypes were D, E, F, and J, with proportions of 20.8%, 20.0%, 17.7%, and 16.9%, respectively. There was no significant difference in geographic area, leukocyte esterase test and genotype distribution. Promotion of detection and molecular epidemiology research is needed for effective and comprehensive prevention and control programs.

  1. Perfluorinated Compounds in Greenhouse and Open Agricultural Producing Areas of Three Provinces of China: Levels, Sources and Risk Assessment.

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    Zhang, Yanwei; Tan, Dongfei; Geng, Yue; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; He, Zeying; Xu, Yaping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2016-12-10

    Field investigations on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) levels in various environmental matrixes were reported, but there is still a lack of PFAA level data for agricultural environments, especially agricultural producing areas, so we collected soil, irrigation water and agricultural product samples from agricultural producing areas in the provinces of Liaoning, Shandong and Sichuan in China. The background pollution from instruments was removed and C₄-C 18 PFAAs were detected by LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFAAs in the top and deep layers of soil were compared, and the levels of PFAAs in different agricultural environments (greenhouses and open agriculture) were analyzed. We found the order of PFAA levels by province was Shandong > Liaoning > Sichuan. A descending trend of PFAA levels from top to deep soil and open to greenhouse agriculture was shown and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was considered as a marker for source analysis. Bean vegetables contribute highly to the overall PFAA load in vegetables. A significant correlation was shown between irrigation water and agricultural products. The EDI (estimated daily intake) from vegetables should be of concern in China.

  2. Perfluorinated Compounds in Greenhouse and Open Agricultural Producing Areas of Three Provinces of China: Levels, Sources and Risk Assessment

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    Yanwei Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field investigations on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA levels in various environmental matrixes were reported, but there is still a lack of PFAA level data for agricultural environments, especially agricultural producing areas, so we collected soil, irrigation water and agricultural product samples from agricultural producing areas in the provinces of Liaoning, Shandong and Sichuan in China. The background pollution from instruments was removed and C4–C18 PFAAs were detected by LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFAAs in the top and deep layers of soil were compared, and the levels of PFAAs in different agricultural environments (greenhouses and open agriculture were analyzed. We found the order of PFAA levels by province was Shandong > Liaoning > Sichuan. A descending trend of PFAA levels from top to deep soil and open to greenhouse agriculture was shown and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA was considered as a marker for source analysis. Bean vegetables contribute highly to the overall PFAA load in vegetables. A significant correlation was shown between irrigation water and agricultural products. The EDI (estimated daily intake from vegetables should be of concern in China.

  3. Physiological traits contributed to the recent increase in yield potential of winter wheat from Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bangwei; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Elazab, Abdelhalim; Shen, Tianmin; Sánchez-Bragado, Rut; Bort, Jordi; Serret, Maria Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2014-05-01

    This experiment aims to test the traits responsible for the increase in yield potential of winter wheat released in Henan Province, China. Seven established cultivars released in the last 20 years and three advanced lines were assayed. The results showed that grain yield was positively correlated with harvest index (HI), kernel number per square meter, and aboveground biomass. In addition, the HI and aboveground biomass showed an increasing trend with the year of release. Therefore, we can conclude that bread wheat breeding advances during recent decades in Henan Province, China, have been achieved through an increase in HI, kernel number per square meter, and aboveground biomass. A higher δ(13)C seems also to be involved in these advances, which suggests a progressive improvement in constitutive water use efficiency not associated with a trend towards lower stomatal conductance in the most recent genotypes. However, genetic advance does not appear related to changes in photosynthesis rates on area basis when measured in the flag leaf or the spike, but only to a higher, whole-spike photosynthesis. Results also indirectly support the concept that under potential yield conditions, the spike contributed more than the flag leaf to kernel formation. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Reasons for Non-Enrollment in Treatment among Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Hunan Province, China

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    Xiao, Tao; Li, Yanhong; Yang, Kunyun; Tang, Yi; Bai, Liqiong

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, only 49% of notified multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients in China were estimated to have initiated treatment, compared with 90% of those worldwide. A case-control study was conducted to identify the reasons for non-enrollment in treatment among MDR-TB patients in Hunan province, China. All detected MDR-TB patients registered in designated MDR-TB hospitals in Hunan province from 2011 to 2014 were included and followed until June 2015 to determine their treatment status. Approximately 33.8% (482/1425) of patients were not enrolled in standardized treatment. Factors associated with lower enrollment rate were: age greater than 60 years, living in rural area, unemployed or occupation unreported. Of those who were not enrolled in MDR-TB treatment, the primary reasons for non-enrollment included economic hardship (23.0%), out-migration for work (18.0%), concerns about work and studies (13.7%), and the belief that they were cured after undergoing drug-sensitive TB treatment (12.4%). Therefore, comprehensive strategies targeting priority populations, especially those enhancing treatment affordability and availability, need to be implemented to improve MDR-TB control. PMID:28114320

  5. Prevalence and correlates of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among female sex workers in a city in Yunnan Province, China.

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    Luo, Li; Reilly, Kathleen H; Xu, Jun-Jie; Wang, Gui-Xiang; Ding, Guo-Wei; Wang, Ning; Wang, Hai-Bo

    2016-05-01

    Sexual transmission is the fastest growing route of HIV transmission in China, and Trichomonas vaginalis(TV) can facilitate HIV transmission and acquisition. Our goal was to determine the prevalence and correlates of TV infection among female sex workers (FSWs). This cross-sectional study was conducted in a city of Yunnan Province in southern China, with confidential face-to-face interviews and laboratory tests for TV (wet mount) and other sexually transmitted infections. A total of 734 FSWs participated in the study. The prevalence of TV was 9.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.02-11.30). In multivariate analyses, adjusted odds ratios of TV infection were 3.0 (95% CI 1.47-6.01) for herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositive, 2.4 (95% CI 1.37-4.14) for Chlamydia trachomatis infection, 2.6 (95% CI 1.30-5.31) for genital ulcer, 1.9 (95% CI 1.11-3.30) for starting age in commercial sex <20 years, and 0.5 (95% CI 0.27-0.87) for vaginal douching. We found a relatively high prevalence of TV infection among FSWs in Yunnan Province. A range of control strategies that include TV screening are recommended among FSWs, which could contribute significantly to the disruption of transmission by the provision of immediate treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Hepatitis B virus infections and risk factors among the general population in Anhui Province, China: an epidemiological study

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    Li Xiaoqing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg among the general population and the risk factors associated with HBV infection in Anhui province, China. Methods A provincial serosurvey was conducted in four cities, and selected through stratified clustering sampling. Data on demographics, immunization history, medical history, family medical history, and life history were collected, along with serum tested for HBsAg. Completed surveys were analysed from 8,875 participants. Results Overall prevalence of HBsAg was 7.44%. Using multivariate analysis, older age was a risk factor for HBsAg infection among children younger than 15 years. Among adults 15-59 years old, the risk factors were male gender, a history of surgical operations, at least one HBsAg-positive family member, and non-vaccination. For adults older than 59 years, the risk factor was a blood transfusion history. Conclusions Though Anhui province has already reached the national goal of reducing HBsAg prevalence to less than 1% among children younger than 5 years, there are still several risk factors for HBsAg infection among the older population. Immunization programs should continue to focus on adults, and interventions should be taken to reduce risk factors associated with being infected with Hepatitis B.

  7. First report of sauropod tracks from the Upper Jurassic Tianchihe Formation of Guxian County, Shanxi Province, China

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    Xu, Huan; Liu, Yong-Qing; Kuang, Hong-Wei; Peng, Nan; Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; Xu, Shi-Chao; Wang, Suo-Zhu; Yi, Jian; Xue, Pei-Lin; Jia, Lei

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the first report of sauropod tracks from the Upper Jurassic of Shanxi Province, China. Dinosaur tracks appear concentrated in five trackways, in different stratigraphic levels of the Late Jurassic Tianchihe Formation. Tracks are dominantly small and medium-size sauropod tracks and are tentatively assigned to Brontopodus based on preserved track morphology, trackway pattern and statistical analysis. The Tianchihe Formation in which the tracks appear shows a gradual change from meandering fluvial to sandy braided fluvial depositional systems developed in a seasonally arid environment. Comparisons of the evaluated speed of bipedal to quadruped trackways indicate that the slower walk more easily produces pes-dominated overprints. Trackways in the Guxian tracksite appear following different orientations, suggesting that these trackways were produced by different sauropods at different times. An unusual trackway following a curved pattern has been identified in the site and could represent a special locomotion character or a social behavior. The presence of eolian deposits in central Shanxi Province could have acted as a paleogeographic and paleoenvironmental barrier for the dispersion of the Yanliao Biota that survived in northern Hebei-western Liaoning and northestern Shanxi Province to the Ordos Basin during the Late Jurassic.

  8. Farm-level returns and costs of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco aquaculture in Guangdong and Zhejiang provinces, China

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    Beibei Jia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater aquaculture in China is expanding and intensifying as this country experiences rapid economic growth, and understanding farm-level profitability is necessary if farmers are to make reasonable decisions about their production plans. We conducted a survey of yellow catfish farmers in 2014 in Guangdong and Zhejiang provinces in order to estimate farm-level profitability of pond aquaculture. We selected representative prefectures from the 2 provinces as study areas and used convenience sampling. Eighty-seven farmers were interviewed between April and May 2014 and the questionnaire collected detailed information on: (1 farmers’ demographics (age, gender, education, training, and experience; (2 production inputs (land, labor, fingerlings, feed, chemicals, machinery, and other miscellaneous costs; and (3 outputs (weight and revenue of harvested fish. Responses of 61 farmers included in the data analysis were post-stratified into 3 categories of farm size (3.67 ha. We calculated production cost components, returns, and returns-costs ratios by farm size in each province. The overall returns-costs ratio was 1.31 in Guangdong and 1.17 in Zhejiang. Farmers in Guangdong invested more in land and machinery and had higher percentages of labor costs and chemical expenditures, but achieved better returns-costs ratios than farmers in Zhejiang. Higher land rent might be associated with greater yields of yellow catfish in Guangdong, which were almost twice those of Zhejiang.

  9. Transformation from Paleo-Asian Ocean closure to Paleo-Pacific subduction: New constraints from granitoids in the eastern Jilin-Heilongjiang Belt, NE China

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    Ma, Xing-Hua; Zhu, Wen-Ping; Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Qiao, Shi-Lei

    2017-08-01

    The eastern Jilin-Heilongjiang Belt (EJHB) of NE China is a unique orogen that underwent two stages of evolution within the tectonic regimes of the Paleo-Asian and Paleo-Pacific oceans. 158 available zircon U-Pb ages, including 26 ages obtained during the present study and 132 ages from the literature, were compiled and analyzed for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic granitoids from the EJHB and the adjacent Russian Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt (SAOB), to examine the temporal-spatial distribution of the granitoids and to constrain the tectonic evolution of the East Asian continental margin. Five stages of granitic magmatism can be identified: Early Triassic (251-240 Ma), Late Triassic (228-215 Ma), latest Triassic to Middle Jurassic (213-158 Ma), Early Cretaceous (131-105 Ma), and Late Cretaceous to Paleocene (95-56 Ma). The Early Triassic granitoids are restricted to the Yanbian region along the Changchun-Yanji Suture, and show geochemical characteristics of magmas from a thickened lower crust source, probably due to the final collision of the combined NE China blocks with the North China Craton. The Late Triassic granitoids, with features of A-type granites, represent post-collisional magmatic activities that were related to post-orogenic extension, marking the end of the tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The latest Triassic to Paleocene granitoids with calc-alkaline characteristics were NE-trending emplaced along the EJHB and SAOB and young towards the coastal region, and represent continental marginal arc magmas that were associated with the northwestwards subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. Two periods of magmatic quiescence (158-131 and 105-95 Ma) correspond to changes in the subduction direction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate from oblique relative to the continental margin to subparallel. Taking all this into account, we conclude that: (1) the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean occurred along the Changchun-Yanji Suture during the Early Triassic; (2) the

  10. MLST subtypes and population genetic structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from dairy cattle and beef cattle in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province.

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    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825 and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16. Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China.

  11. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

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    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China.

  12. Prevalence of prior HIV testing and associated factors among MSM in Zhejiang Province, China: a cross-sectional study

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    Runhua Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM have become one of high-risk population for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, due to their multiple sex partners and unprotected anal intercourse. Promoting HIV testing is an effective strategy for the prevention and control of HIV infection. We assessed the factors associated with a prior HIV testing history, which could provide guidance for implementation of future HIV intervention programs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three cities of Zhejiang Province, namely, Hangzhou, Ningbo and Wenzhou, using respondent-driven sampling, between December 2013 and June 2014. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was employed to collect relevant information about HIV testing. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors associated with a prior HIV testing history. Results The adjusted rate of prior HIV testing among MSM in Zhejiang Province was 55.9 %. The adjusted rates of HIV and syphilis infections among MSM in Zhejiang Province were 14.0 % and 11.4 %, respectively. A weighted multivariate analysis showed that MSM of older age were more likely to be tested, as were MSM with higher level of education, self-reported homosexuality and a higher frequency of receiving AIDS/sexually transmitted infections educational intervention in the past year. MSM with suicidal inclination and self-perceived lower possibility of HIV infection were less likely to report ever having undergone an HIV test. Conclusions The prevalence of prior HIV testing among MSM in Zhejiang Province, China is low. Effective and more frequent interventional measures should be adopted to improve risk awareness and psychosocial support for younger, less educated MSM, and to encourage more MSM to undergo HIV testing.

  13. Estimates of forest biomass carbon storage inLiaoning Province of Northeast China: a review and assessment.

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    Yu, Dapao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yin, You; Zhan, Jinyu; Lewis, Bernard J; Tian, Jie; Bao, Ye; Zhou, Wangming; Zhou, Li; Dai, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of forest carbon storage and changes in storage capacity are critical for scientific assessment of the effects of forest management on the role of forests as carbon sinks. Up to now, several studies reported forest biomass carbon (FBC) in Liaoning Province based on data from China's Continuous Forest Inventory, however, their accuracy were still not known. This study compared estimates of FBC in Liaoning Province derived from different methods. We found substantial variation in estimates of FBC storage for young and middle-age forests. For provincial forests with high proportions in these age classes, the continuous biomass expansion factor method (CBM) by forest type with age class is more accurate and therefore more appropriate for estimating forest biomass. Based on the above approach designed for this study, forests in Liaoning Province were found to be a carbon sink, with carbon stocks increasing from 63.0 TgC in 1980 to 120.9 TgC in 2010, reflecting an annual increase of 1.9 TgC. The average carbon density of forest biomass in the province has increased from 26.2 Mg ha(-1) in 1980 to 31.0 Mg ha(-1) in 2010. While the largest FBC occurred in middle-age forests, the average carbon density decreased in this age class during these three decades. The increase in forest carbon density resulted primarily from the increased area and carbon storage of mature forests. The relatively long age interval in each age class for slow-growing forest types increased the uncertainty of FBC estimates by CBM-forest type with age class, and further studies should devote more attention to the time span of age classes in establishing biomass expansion factors for use in CBM calculations.

  14. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates in import food products of China from 8 provinces between 2005 and 2007.

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    Wang, Ping; Yang, Hairong; Hu, Yue; Yuan, Fei; Zhao, Guiming; Zhao, Yongsheng; Chen, Ying

    2012-04-01

    A total of 48 Listeria monocytogenes isolates of different import food products from 8 provinces between 2005 and 2008 were characterized. The serotype and virulence were confirmed for each strain and molecular subtyping were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Twenty five strains were assigned to serotype 1/2a, and 11 isolates to serotype 1/2b, serotype 4b were found in 7 isolate, and the remaining 5 strains were grouped into serotypes 1/2c, 4a, and 4e. Molecular subtyping schemes found thirty two sequence types (STs) among these isolates and the majority of L. monocytogenes strains belonged to lineage II (56%), followed by lineage I (38%), lineage III (6%). Two molecular subtype clusters, cluster A included all isolates of lineage II, while cluster B contained the isolates of lineages I and lineages III. Two L. monocytogenes strains were not grouped in either of the two clusters. Fifty three isolates were as virulent as L. monocytogenes reference strain EGD in mouse virulence assay, while the isolates 22213 and 22265 had low pathogenicity. These results provide the first molecular insight into the L. monocytogenes strains isolated from import food products of 8 provinces in China and indicate the potential risk to cause human disease if intake by contaminated foods. MLST could be used as a routine subtyping method of L. monocytogenes isolates. In China, inspection and quarantine strategies of imported foods should be strengthened. There is a potential risk of listeriosis in China and routine subtyping of L. monocytogenes isolates is important. It is necessary for food hygiene management to strengthen the supervision of imported foods. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Molecular characterization and multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from captive red kangaroos (Macropus Rfus) in Jiangsu province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuan; Deng, Lei; Li, Junxian; Ren, Zhihua; Ma, Xiaoping; Gu, Xiaobin; He, Changliang; Geng, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common pathogen of microsporidian species infecting humans worldwide. Although E. bieneusi has been found in a variety of animal hosts, information on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos in China is limited. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and genetic diversity of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos. A total of 61 fecal specimens (38 from red kangaroos and 23 from grey kangaroos) were collected from Nanjing Hongshan Forest Zoo and Hongshan Kangaroo Breeding Research Base, Jiangsu province, China. Using the nested PCR amplification ITS gene of rRNA of E. bieneusi, totally 23.0% (14/61) of tested samples were PCR-positive with three genotypes (i.e. one known genotype, CHK1, and two novel genotypes, CSK1 and CSK2). Multi-locus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3, and MS7) and one minisatellite (MS4) revealed one, five, two, and one types at these four loci, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, the two genotypes, CHK1 and CSK1, were clustered into a new group of unknown zoonotic potential, and the novel genotype CSK2 was clustered into a separate clade with PtEb and PtEbIX. To date, this is the first report on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive red kangaroos in Jiangsu province, China. Furthermore, a high degree of genetic diversity was observed in the E. bieneusi genotype and seven MLGs (MLG1-7) were found in red kangaroos. Our findings suggest that infected kangaroo may act as potential reservoirs of E. bieneusi and be source to transmit infections to other animal. PMID:28806735

  16. Prevalence, risk factors and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in sick pigs and stray cats in Jiangsu Province, eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhao-Feng; Su, Shi-Jie; Liu, Dan-Dan; Wang, Le-le; Jia, Chuan-Li; Zhao, Zhen-Xing; Ma, Yi-Fei; Li, Qiao-Qiao; Xu, Jin-Jun; Tao, Jian-Ping

    2018-02-13

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan with a worldwide distribution. The parasites in edible tissues of pigs and oocysts from cats are the major sources of T. gondii infection in humans. However, there are no data from sick pigs in veterinary clinics or from stray cats in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. In total, biological samples from 141 sick pigs and 64 stray cats were collected from this region. The rate of T. gondii infection in sick pigs was 46.81% using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the overall prevalence of toxoplasmosis in stray cats was 34.38% by PCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). T. gondii was significantly more prevalent in lungs and heart than in liver and spleen (P < 0.05). Age and geographic region were considered to be the main risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in these pigs. The DNA samples from 17 sick pigs and seven stray cats, were successfully genotyped by multilocus PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) with 10 genetic markers [SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2, alt. SAG2), SAG3, GRA6, PK1, c22-8, c29-2, BTUB, L358 and Apico]. Six distinct genotypes were found, which were designated ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotypes #9 (Chinese I), #10 (Type I), #213, and #89, and New 1 and New 2. Chinese I is the most prevalent T. gondii genotype in this region. The two new genotypes (designated New 1 and New 2) are reported and the ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #89 is found for the first time in China. Such information will be useful for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of porcine toxoplasmosis in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Flooding Mitigation of seawalls and river embankments to storm surges in the coastal areas of Guangdong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianwei; Wang, Xina

    2017-04-01

    The coastal areas of Guangdong Province, China are susceptible to the destructions of tropical cyclones and storm surges. The projected global warming, coastal subsidence and sea level rise together will bring about greater flooding risk to these areas. The seawall and river embankment have played a significant role in mitigating and preventing the coastal low-land areas from the impairment of storm surges flooding and wave runup. However, few risk assessment studies in this region consider the existence of seawall and river embankment and often overestimate the risk and potential economic loss and population affected due to storm surge flooding. This study utilizes a hydraulic model to simulate the overtop flooding and compare those without seawall and river embankment using several specific tropic storm events and extreme events of tropic storm surges in different return periods of 2, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 years. Most seawalls are 4 or 5 meters plus another meter of wave levee above the local mean sea level. The river embankments are usually 4 or 5 meter higher than the local mean sea level as well and decrease from the outer estuary to the inner riverine. The modeling results considering seawall and river embankments and from real storm surges are in agreement with on-site survey and observations, while those without infusing seawall and river embankments overestimate the inundation condition and economic loss. Modeling results demonstrate that seawall and river embankment greatly reduce the flooding risk and prevent the low-land area from inundation for most tropic storm events, e.g., for extreme events less than 20 to 50 years, in the coastal areas of Guangdong Province, China. However, the seawall and river embankment may also cause catastrophic disasters once there is an engineering failure of seawalls and river embankment, especially once encountering with an extreme typhoon event, e.g., the 1969 super typhoon Viola in Shantou China and the 2005

  18. Molecular characterization and multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from captive red kangaroos (Macropus Rfus) in Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhijun; Tian, Yinan; Song, Yuan; Deng, Lei; Li, Junxian; Ren, Zhihua; Ma, Xiaoping; Gu, Xiaobin; He, Changliang; Geng, Yi; Peng, Guangneng

    2017-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common pathogen of microsporidian species infecting humans worldwide. Although E. bieneusi has been found in a variety of animal hosts, information on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos in China is limited. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and genetic diversity of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos. A total of 61 fecal specimens (38 from red kangaroos and 23 from grey kangaroos) were collected from Nanjing Hongshan Forest Zoo and Hongshan Kangaroo Breeding Research Base, Jiangsu province, China. Using the nested PCR amplification ITS gene of rRNA of E. bieneusi, totally 23.0% (14/61) of tested samples were PCR-positive with three genotypes (i.e. one known genotype, CHK1, and two novel genotypes, CSK1 and CSK2). Multi-locus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3, and MS7) and one minisatellite (MS4) revealed one, five, two, and one types at these four loci, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, the two genotypes, CHK1 and CSK1, were clustered into a new group of unknown zoonotic potential, and the novel genotype CSK2 was clustered into a separate clade with PtEb and PtEbIX. To date, this is the first report on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive red kangaroos in Jiangsu province, China. Furthermore, a high degree of genetic diversity was observed in the E. bieneusi genotype and seven MLGs (MLG1-7) were found in red kangaroos. Our findings suggest that infected kangaroo may act as potential reservoirs of E. bieneusi and be source to transmit infections to other animal.

  19. Molecular characterization and multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from captive red kangaroos (Macropus Rufus in Jiangsu province, China.

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    Zhijun Zhong

    Full Text Available Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common pathogen of microsporidian species infecting humans worldwide. Although E. bieneusi has been found in a variety of animal hosts, information on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos in China is limited. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and genetic diversity of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos. A total of 61 fecal specimens (38 from red kangaroos and 23 from grey kangaroos were collected from Nanjing Hongshan Forest Zoo and Hongshan Kangaroo Breeding Research Base, Jiangsu province, China. Using the nested PCR amplification ITS gene of rRNA of E. bieneusi, totally 23.0% (14/61 of tested samples were PCR-positive with three genotypes (i.e. one known genotype, CHK1, and two novel genotypes, CSK1 and CSK2. Multi-locus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3, and MS7 and one minisatellite (MS4 revealed one, five, two, and one types at these four loci, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, the two genotypes, CHK1 and CSK1, were clustered into a new group of unknown zoonotic potential, and the novel genotype CSK2 was clustered into a separate clade with PtEb and PtEbIX. To date, this is the first report on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive red kangaroos in Jiangsu province, China. Furthermore, a high degree of genetic diversity was observed in the E. bieneusi genotype and seven MLGs (MLG1-7 were found in red kangaroos. Our findings suggest that infected kangaroo may act as potential reservoirs of E. bieneusi and be source to transmit infections to other animal.

  20. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

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    Xinli Lu

    Full Text Available New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF01_AE (53.4%, CRF07_BC (23.4%, subtype B (15.9%, and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%. Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx, unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM. All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%, CRF01_AE/B (23.3%, B/C (16.7%, CRF01_AE/C (13.3%, CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3% and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%, plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  1. Embodied water analysis for Hebei Province, China by input-output modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyuan; Han, Mengyao; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Li, Zhi; Xia, Xiaohua; Ji, Xi

    2016-12-01

    With the accelerating coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, regional economic integration is recognized as a national strategy. As water scarcity places Hebei Province in a dilemma, it is of critical importance for Hebei Province to balance water resources as well as make full use of its unique advantages in the transition to sustainable development. To our knowledge, related embodied water accounting analysis has been conducted for Beijing and Tianjin, while similar works with the focus on Hebei are not found. In this paper, using the most complete and recent statistics available for Hebei Province, the embodied water use in Hebei Province is analyzed in detail. Based on input-output analysis, it presents a complete set of systems accounting framework for water resources. In addition, a database of embodied water intensity is proposed which is applicable to both intermediate inputs and final demand. The result suggests that the total amount of embodied water in final demand is 10.62 billion m3, of which the water embodied in urban household consumption accounts for more than half. As a net embodied water importer, the water embodied in the commodity trade in Hebei Province is 17.20 billion m3. The outcome of this work implies that it is particularly urgent to adjust industrial structure and trade policies for water conservation, to upgrade technology and to improve water utilization. As a result, to relieve water shortages in Hebei Province, it is of crucial importance to regulate the balance of water use within the province, thus balancing water distribution in the various industrial sectors.

  2. [Emergy evaluation and dynamic measurement analysis of agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Cong; Du, Shou-Hu

    2012-03-01

    Agro-ecosystem is the most basic system for human beings survival, while the analysis of the structure and function of the system is the key to solve the problems of agro-ecological environment. In this paper, emergy theory and related economic measurement methods including data envelopment analysis, cointegration test, and error correction model were applied to quantitatively analyze the operation dynamics, environmental loading, operation efficiency, and input-output relation of the agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province and its 21 cities in 1997-2009. In the study period, Sichuan Province was in the transition period from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. The agricultural mechanization level of the Province improved constantly, resources utilization efficiency enhanced continually, overall structural dominant degree was better, but the over-reliance on economic emergy input caused the sustainability of the system weakened gradually. The development status of the agro-ecosystems in the Province varied among regions. Chengdu Plain and Western Sichuan Highland were either in overexploited or in underutilized, while the hilly areas were full of vitality and development potential, tended to be the important areas for the future development of Sichuan agriculture. Generally, the operation efficiency of the agro-ecosystems in the Province was relatively low, with the situation differed in different regions due to the lower technical efficiency or improper scale. There was a long-term equilibrium between the economic emergy indices and output emergy, but the short-term emergy input didn't reach the ideal output.

  3. The occurrence of the strongylid nematodes Kalicephalus brachycephalus, K. bungari and K. indicus in snake species from Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Wang, T; Liu, T B; Tan, L; Lv, C C; Liu, Y

    2017-05-01

    Kalicephalus is a genus of strongylid nematodes infecting snakes and causing serious diseases and even death when it is complicated with secondary bacterial infections. The infection of snakes with Kalicephalus has been reported in many countries in the world. However, little information is available on the prevalence of Kalicephalus in snakes in China. In the present study, the prevalence of Kalicephalus in snakes was investigated. The worms were examined, counted and identified to species according to existing keys and descriptions. Three species of Kalicephalus, namely K. indicus, K. bungari and K. brachycephalus, were found in six species of snakes (Elaphe carinata, Zaocys dhumnade, Naja najaatra, Elaphe taeniura, Bungarus multicinctus and Dinodon rufozonatum). The total prevalence of Kalicephalus in snakes in Hunan Province was 39.7%. The most common species was K. indicus, with the highest prevalence 72.8%, followed by K. bungari (24.0%). The prevalence of K. brachycephalus was 0.9%. This is the first report on the prevalence of Kalicephalus species in snakes in China, and the findings have important implications for the control of Kalicephalus infections in snakes in China.

  4. Remote sensing for predicting potential habitats of Oncomelania hupensis in Hongze, Baima and Gaoyou lakes in Jiangsu province, China

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    Guo-Jing Yang

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Political and health sector reforms, along with demographic, environmental and socio-economic transformations in the face of global warming, could cause the re-emergence of schistosomiasis in areas where transmission has been successfully interrupted and its emergence in previously non-endemic areas in China. In the present study, we used geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques to predict potential habitats of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Focussing on the Hongze, Baima and Gaoyou lakes in Jiangsu province in eastern China, we developed a model using the normalized difference vegetation index, a tasseled-cap transformed wetness index, and flooding areas to predict snail habitats at a small scale. Data were extracted from two Landsat images, one taken during a typical dry year and the other obtained three years later during a flooding event. An area of approximately 163.6 km2 was predicted as potential O. hupensis habitats around the three lakes, which accounts for 4.3% of the estimated snail habitats in China. In turn, these predicted snail habitats are risk areas for transmission of schistosomiasis, and hence illustrate the scale of the possible impact of climate change and other ecological transformations. The generated risk map can be used by health policy makers to guide mitigation policies targetting the possible spread of O. hupensis, and with the aim of containing the transmission of S. japonicum.

  5. Patient satisfaction between primary care providers and hospitals: a cross-sectional survey in Jilin province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinghua; Wang, Pingping; Kong, Xuan; Liang, Hailun; Zhang, Xiumin; Shi, Leiyu

    2016-06-01

    To assess patient satisfaction with outpatient and inpatient care between primary care providers and secondary/tertiary hospitals, and to examine its association with socio-demographic characteristics and type of institution, based on self-reported survey data. Cross-sectional survey. Healthcare facilities within Jilin province, China. In total, 993 outpatients and 925 inpatients aged ≥15 years old were recruited. Patient satisfaction with the care experience. Patient satisfaction with outpatient and inpatient care was significantly associated with type of healthcare delivery setting in Jilin, China. Seeking outpatient care from community health centers (CHCs) was significantly associated with a higher ratio of patient satisfaction. Patients of county and tertiary hospitals complained about long-waiting times, bad attitudes of health workers, high expense of treatment, and their overall satisfaction towards outpatient care was lower. In the terms of inpatient care, patients were more satisfied with treatment expense in CHCs compared with county hospitals. CHCs and hospitals face different challenges regarding patient satisfaction. Further healthcare reform in China need to adopt more measures (e.g. increasing quality of primary care, setting up a referral medical system etc.) to improve patient satisfaction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  6. Phytoplankton species composition of four ecological provinces in Yellow Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqian; Feng, Yuanyuan; Leng, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haijiao; Sun, Jun

    2017-12-01

    The ecological province based on phytoplankton species composition is important to understanding the interplay between environmental parameters and phytoplankton species composition. The aim of this study was to establish phytoplankton species composition ecological pattern thus elucidate the relationship between environmental factors and the phytoplankton species composition in the ecological provinces. Phytoplankton samples were collected from 31 stations in Yellow Sea (121.00°-125.00°E, 32.00°-39.22°N) in November 2014. The samples were enumerated and identified with the Utermöhl method under an optical inverted microscope-AE2000 with magnifications of 200 × or 400 ×. In the present study, a total of 141 taxa belonging to 60 genera of 4 phyla of phytoplankton were identified, among them 101 species of 45 genera were Bacillariophyta, 36 species of 11 genera were Dinophyta, 3 species of 3 genera were Chrysophyta and 1 species of 1 genera was Chlorophyta. The study area was divided into 4 ecological provinces according to an unsupervised cluster algorithm applied to the phytoplankton biomass. A T-S (Temperature-Salinity) scatter diagram depicted with data of water temperature and salinity defined by environmental provinces matched well with the ecological provinces. The results of Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that the phytoplankton species composition was mainly correlated with temperature, salinity and silicate concentration in the studied area. A method of establishing ecological provinces is useful to further understanding the environmental effects on the marine phytoplankton species composition and the consequent marine biogeochemistry.

  7. Seroprevalence Survey of Avian influenza A (H5) in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a highly contagious disease which is a zoonotic pathogen of significant economic and public health concern. The outbreaks caused by HPAIV H5N1 of Asian origin have caused animal and human disease and mortality in several countries of Southeast Asia, such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. For the first time since 1961, this HPAIV has also caused extensive mortality in wild birds and has sparked debate of the role wild birds have played in the spread of this virus. Other than confirmed mortality events, little is known of this virus in wild birds. There is no report on the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province. In this study we examined live wild birds in Yunnan Province for H5 specific antibody to better understand the occurrence of this disease in free living birds. Methods Sera from 440 wild birds were collected from in Kunming and Northern Ailaoshan of Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, and assayed for H5 antibodies using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Results The investigation revealed that the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 was as following: Ciconiiformes 2.6%, Strigiformes 13.04%, Passeriformes 20%, Cuculiformes 21.74%, Gruiformes 0%, Columbiformes 0%, Charadriiformes 0% and Coraciiformes 0%. Statistical analyses showed that there was a significant difference of prevalence between the orders (P < 0.01). Specific avian influenza H5 antibodies were detected in 23 of 440 (5.23%) sera. Mean HI titer 23 positive sera against H5 were 5.4 log2. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated that the proportion of wild birds had previously infected AIV H5 at other times of the year. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in China’ s southwestern Yunnan Province. The results of the present

  8. Using ORYZA2000 to model cold rice yield response to climate change in the Heilongjiang province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingting Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is one of the most important staple crops in China. Increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and associated climate change may greatly affect rice production. We assessed the potential impacts of climate change on cold rice production in the Heilongjiang province, one of China's most important rice production regions. Data for a baseline period (1961–1990 and the period 2010–2050 in A2 and B2 scenarios were used as input to drive the rice model ORYZA2000 with and without accounting for the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. The results indicate that mean, maximum, and minimum temperature during the rice growing season, in the future period considered, would increase by 1.8 °C under the A2 scenario and by 2.2 °C under the B2 scenario compared with those in the baseline. The rate of change in average maximum and minimum temperatures would increase by 0.6 °C per 10-year period under the A2 scenario and by 0.4 °C per 10-year period under the B2 scenario. Precipitation would increase slightly in the rice growing season over the next 40 years. The rice growing season would be shortened and the yield would increase in most areas in the Heilongjiang province. Without accounting for CO2 effect, the rice growing season in the period 2010–2050 would be shortened by 4.7 and 5.8 days, and rice yields would increase by 11.9% and 7.9%, under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. Areas with simulated rice yield increases greater than 30.0% were in the Xiaoxing'an Mountain region. The simulation indicated a decrease in yield of less than 15% in the southwestern Songnen Plain. The rate of change in simulated rice yield was 5.0% and 2.5% per 10 years under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. When CO2 effect was accounted for, rice yield increased by 44.5% and 31.3% under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. The areas of increasing yield were sharply expanded. The area of decreasing yield in the

  9. Effects of insufficient physical activity on mortality and life expectancy in Jiangxi province of China, 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity remains an under-researched field in terms of studying burden of disease at provincial level, and no studies have examined the effects of inactivity on life expectancy (LE in China. The purpose of this study was to estimate mortality risk and LE effects associated with insufficient levels of physical activity in Jiangxi province. METHODS/FINDINGS: Prevalence of risk factors and mortality counts were extracted from Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Survey (CDRFSS and Disease Surveillance Points system (DSP, respectively. Insufficient physical activity (IPA was defined as less than 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity or 60 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity per week, accumulated across work, home, transport and discretionary domains. Population-attributable fractions (PAF were used to calculate the mortality attributable to risk factors, and life table methods were used to estimate the LE gains and LE shifts. Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used for uncertainty analysis. Overall, 5 885 (95% uncertainly interval (UI, 5 047-6 506 and 8 578 (95% UI, 8 227-9 789 deaths in Jiangxi province were attributable to IPA in 2007 and 2010, respectively. The LE gains for elimination of attributable deaths were 0.68 (95% UI, 0.61-076 in 2007, and increased to 0.91 (95% UI, 0.81-1.10 in 2010. If the prevalence of IPA in 2010 had been decreased by 50% or 30%, 3 678 (95% UI, 3 220-4 229 or 2 090 (95% UI, 1 771-2 533 deaths would be avoided, and 0.40 (95% UI, 0.34-0.53 or 0.23 (95% UI, 0.16-0.31 years of LE gained, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adults in Jiangxi province of China have a high and increasing prevalence of IPA. Due to the deaths and potential LE gains associated with IPA, there is an urgent need to promote physical activity, one of the most modifiable risk factors, within China's health care reform agenda.

  10. A Preliminary Investigation into Critical Thinking of In-Service and Pre-Service Middle School Chemistry Teachers in Shaanxi Province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Yan, Chungeng; Zhao, Shuyu; Liu, Liya; Xing, Lijuan

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the development of critical thinking of middle school chemistry teachers in Shaanxi province of China. In-service and pre-service teachers' critical thinking are examined in order to provide evidence for establishing teachers' standard. The sample in this study consisted of 69 in-service and 61 pre-service chemistry…

  11. First Report of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Common Quails (Coturnix coturnix) Intended for Human Consumption in Three Provinces of Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wei; Chi, Wan-Bo; Sun, Wu-Wen; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Kang, Yuan-Huan; Meng, Qing-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2017-05-01

    Common quails are nutritious food and are also used as medicine in some parts of the world. Until now, no information on Toxoplasma gondii infection in common quails intended for human consumption in China is available. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in common quails in six cities from Shandong, Liaoning, and Jilin provinces, China. Out of 620 common quails examined, 59 (9.52%) were seropositive for T. gondii by the modified agglutination test. T. gondii infection in male and female common quails was 8.10% and 10.71%, respectively. The highest prevalence (13.10%) was detected in a group of common quails from Rizhao of Shandong province, followed by common quails from Yantai of Shandong province (13.04%) and the lowest prevalence (5.56%) was detected in a group of common quails from Shenyang of Liaoning province. The results of this survey revealed the presence of T. gondii infection in common quails in China, indicating that common quails are a potential source for transmission of T. gondii to humans, therefore, posing a potential public health concern. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii infection in common quails in China.

  12. Association of smoking, alcohol drinking and dietary factors with esophageal cancer in high- and low-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu Ming,; Zhao, Jin-Kou; Hu, Xiao-Shu; Wang, Pei-Hua; Qin, Yu; Lu, Yin-Chang; Yang, Jie; Liu, Ai-Min; Wu De-Lin,; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Kok, F.J.; Veer, van 't P.

    2006-01-01

    To study the main environmental and lifestyle factors that account for the regional differences in esophageal cancer (EC) risk in low- and high-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China. Since 2003, a population-based casecontrol study has been conducted simultaneously in lowrisk (Ganyu County) and

  13. Analysis on Inter-Provincial Disparities of China's Rural Education and Convergence Rate: Empirical Analysis on 31 Provinces' (Municipalities') Panel Data from 2001 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tongwei

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to analyze inter-provincial disparities of rural education and the convergence rate, and to discuss the effects of compulsory education reform after 2001. Design/methodology/approach: The article estimates the rural average education years and education Gini coefficients of China's 31 provinces (municipalities) beside…

  14. Ediacaran to Cambrian magmatic suites in the Rio Grande do Norte domain, extreme Northeastern Borborema Province (NE of Brazil): Current knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Leite; Galindo, Antonio Carlos; de Medeiros, Vladimir Cruz

    2015-03-01

    The Ediacaran-Cambrian plutonic activity is one of the most important geological features of the Rio Grande do Norte Domain (Borborema Province, NE Brazil). It is represented by several batholiths, stocks and dykes. Based on the petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristic of different rocks, this plutonic activity can be grouped in six separate suites: shoshonitic (Shos), porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline (PHKCalcAlk), equigranular high K calc-alkaline (EHKCalcAlk), calc-alkaline (CalcAlk), alkaline (Alk) and charnockitic alkaline (ChAlk). Geochemically, the Shos, CalcAlk and Alk suites are differentiated from the others, while ChAlc can be distinguished from the others in some diagrams. The greatest difficulty lies in distinguishing between the chemically similar PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk. To this end, existing geochronological data as well as related petrographic and textural field aspects may be used to distinguish the two mentioned suites (PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk). Petrographically, the Shos suite has composition between gabbro/diorite and quartz monzonite. Monzogranites (with subordinate granodiorites and quartz monzonites) predominate in both PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk. Calc is composed of granodiorites to tonalites. Alc is formed by alkali feldspar granites (with subordinate alkali feldspar quartz syenites and syenogranites), whereas ChAlc has quartz mangerites and charnockites. The suites were emplaced between the Ediacaran (635-541 Ma) and Cambrian (541-485 Ma), predominantly in the Ediacaran, based on 34 U-Pb datings (zircon, titanite, monazite and columbite-tantalite), 17 Rb-Sr (whole rock) and 1 Sm-Nd (total rock and mineral) internal isochrons. The Shos suite has U-Pb ages varying from 599 ± 16 (Poço Verde pluton) to 579 ± 7 (Acari and São João do Sabugi plutons), slightly older than those of the PHKCalcAlk suite, which ranges between 591 ± 4 Ma (Totoró pluton) and 544 ± 7 Ma (São José de Espinharas pluton). The Calc

  15. Carbon Emission Trends of Manufacturing and Influencing Factors in Jilin Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chao; MA Yanji

    2016-01-01

    This paper constructed a carbon emission identity based on five factors:industrial activity,industrial structure,energy intensity,energy mix and carbon emission parameter,and analyzed manufacturing carbon emission trends in Jilin Province at subdivided industrial level through Log-Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method.Results showed that manufacturing carbon emissions of Jilin Province increased 1.304 × 107t by 66% between 2004 and 2010.However,2012 was a remarkable year in which carbon emissions decreased compared with 2011,the first fall since 2004.Industrial activity was the most important factor for the increase of carbon emissions,while energy intensity had the greatest impact on inhibiting carbon emission growth.Despite the impact of industrial structure on carbon emissions fluctuated,its overall trend inhibited carbon emission growth.Further,influences of industrial structure became gradually stronger and surpassed energy intensity in the period 2009-2010.These results conclude that reducing energy intensity is still the main way for carbon emission reduction in Jilin Province,but industrial structure can not be ignored and it has great potential.Based on the analyses,the way of manufacturing industrial structure adjustment for Jilin Province is put forward.

  16. Spatiotemporal variations in rainfall erosivity during the period of 1960-2011 in Guangdong Province, southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qinghe; Liu, Qian; Ma, Lijiao; Ding, Shengyan; Xu, Shanshan; Wu, Changsong; Liu, Pu

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall erosivity, which shows a potential risk of soil loss caused by water erosion, is an important factor in soil erosion process. In consideration of the critical condition of soil erosion induced by rainfall in Guangdong Province of southern China, this study analyzed the spatial and temporal variations in rainfall erosivity based on daily rainfall data observed at 25 meteorological stations during the period of 1960-2011. The methods of global spatial autocorrelation, kriging interpolation, Mann-Kendall test, and continuous wavelet transform were used. Results revealed that the annual rainfall erosivity in Guangdong Province, which spatially varied with the maximum level observed in June, was classified as high erosivity with two peaks that occur in spring and summer. In the direction of south-north, mean annual rainfall erosivity, which showed significant relationships with mean annual rainfall and latitude, gradually decreased with the high values mainly distributed in the coastal area and the low values mainly occurring in the lowlands of northwestern Guangdong. Meanwhile, a significant positive spatial autocorrelation which implied a clustered pattern was observed for annual rainfall erosivity. The spatial distribution of seasonal rainfall erosivity exhibited clustering tendencies, except spring erosivity with Moran's I and Z values of 0.1 and 1.04, respectively. The spatial distribution of monthly rainfall erosivity presented clustered patterns in January-March and July-October as well as random patterns in the remaining months. The temporal trend of mean rainfall erosivity in Guangdong Province showed no statistically significant trend at the annual, seasonal, and monthly scales. However, at each station, 1 out of 25 stations exhibited a statistically significant trend at the annual scale; 4 stations located around the Pearl River Delta presented significant trends in summer at the seasonal scale; significant trends were observed in March (increasing

  17. A spatial analysis of county-level variation in syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Nicholas X; Messina, Jane P; Yang, Li-Gang; Yang, Bin; Emch, Michael; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Cohen, Myron S; Tucker, Joseph D

    2011-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI) have made a resurgence in many rapidly developing regions of southern China, but there is little understanding of the social changes that contribute to this spatial distribution of STI...

  18. The impact of climate change on infectious disease transmission: perceptions of CDC health professionals in Shanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Xue, Shulian; Zhao, Shufang; Bi, Peng

    2014-01-01

    There have been increasing concerns about the challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases due to climate change, especially in developing countries including China. Health professionals play a significant role in the battle to control and prevent infectious diseases. This study therefore aims to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of health professionals at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in different levels in China, and to consider adaptation measures to deal with the challenge of climate change. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 staff in CDCs in Shanxi Province, China, whose routine work involves disease control and prevention. Data were analyzed using descriptive methods and logistic regression. A majority of the CDC staff were aware of the health risks from climate change, especially its impacts on infectious disease transmission in their jurisdictions, and believed climate change might bring about both temporal and spatial change in transmission patterns. It was thought that adaptation measures should be established including: strengthening/improving currently existing disease surveillance systems and vector monitoring; building CDC capacity in terms of infrastructure and in-house health professional training; development and refinement of relevant legislation, policies and guidelines; better coordination among various government departments; the involvement of the community in infectious disease interventions; and collaborative research with other institutions. This study provides a snapshot of the understanding of CDC staff regarding climate change risks relevant to infectious diseases and adaptation in China. Results may help inform future efforts to develop adaptation measures to minimize infectious disease risks due to climate change.

  19. The Impact of Climate Change on Infectious Disease Transmission: Perceptions of CDC Health Professionals in Shanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Xue, Shulian; Zhao, Shufang; Bi, Peng

    2014-01-01

    There have been increasing concerns about the challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases due to climate change, especially in developing countries including China. Health professionals play a significant role in the battle to control and prevent infectious diseases. This study therefore aims to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of health professionals at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in different levels in China, and to consider adaptation measures to deal with the challenge of climate change. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 staff in CDCs in Shanxi Province, China, whose routine work involves disease control and prevention. Data were analyzed using descriptive methods and logistic regression. A majority of the CDC staff were aware of the health risks from climate change, especially its impacts on infectious disease transmission in their jurisdictions, and believed climate change might bring about both temporal and spatial change in transmission patterns. It was thought that adaptation measures should be established including: strengthening/improving currently existing disease surveillance systems and vector monitoring; building CDC capacity in terms of infrastructure and in-house health professional training; development and refinement of relevant legislation, policies and guidelines; better coordination among various government departments; the involvement of the community in infectious disease interventions; and collaborative research with other institutions. This study provides a snapshot of the understanding of CDC staff regarding climate change risks relevant to infectious diseases and adaptation in China. Results may help inform future efforts to develop adaptation measures to minimize infectious disease risks due to climate change. PMID:25285440

  20. Spatial Correlation between Type of Mountain Area and Land Use Degree in Guizhou Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuluan Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A scientific definition of the type of mountain area and an exploration of the spatial correlation between different types of mountain areas and regional land use at the county level are important for reasonable land resource utilization and regional sustainable development. Here, a geographic information system was used to analyze digital elevation model data and to define the extent of mountainous land and types of mountain areas in Guizhou province. Exploratory spatial data analysis was used to study the spatial coupling relation between the type of mountain area and land use degree in Guizhou province at the county level. The results were as follows: (1 Guizhou province has a high proportion of mountainous land, with a ratio of mountainous land to non-mountainous land of 88:11. The county-level administrative units in Guizhou province were exclusively mountainous, consisting of eight semi mountainous counties, nine quasi mountainous counties, 35 apparently mountainous counties, 13 type I completely mountainous counties, and 23 type II completely mountainous counties; (2 The land use degree at the county level in Guizhou province have remarkable spatial differentiation characteristics. Counties with a high cultivation coefficient are mainly located in the western area along the line between Yinjiang county and Anlong county in west Guizhou province. Counties with a large proportion of construction land or a high integrated index of land use degree are mainly distributed in the economically developed area of central Guizhou province, including parts of the counties (districts/cities administrated by Guiyang, Zunyi, Liupanshui, Anshun, Duyun, and Kaili; (3 County-level administrative units with relatively flat topography and a low proportion of mountainous land have a large proportion of construction land and a large degree of regional land exploitation. However, the extent of cultivation of county-level administrative units under similar

  1. Ages, geochemistry and tectonic implications of the Cambrian igneous rocks in the northern Great Xing'an Range, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yongjiang; Li, Yanrong; Li, Weimin; Wen, Quanbo; Liu, Binqiang; Zhou, Jianping; Zhao, Yingli

    2017-08-01

    The Xinlin-Xiguitu suture zone, located in the Great Xing'an Range, NE China, in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), represents the boundary between the Erguna and Xing'an micro-continental blocks. The exact location of the Xinlin-Xiguitu suture zone has been debated, especially, the location of the northern extension of the suture zone. In this study, based on a detailed field, geochemical, geochronological and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope study, we focus our work on the Cambrian igneous rocks in the Erguna-Xing'an block. The Xinglong granitoids, mainly include ∼520 Ma diorite, ∼470 Ma monzogranite and ∼480 Ma pyroxene diorite. The granitoids show medium to high-K calc-alkaline series characteristics with post-collision granite affinity. The circa 500 Ma granitoids have low εHf (t) values (-16.6 to +2.2) and ancient two-stage model (TDM2) ages between 1317 Ma and 2528 Ma. These results indicate the primary magmas of the Xinglong granitoids were probably derived from the partial melting of a dominantly Paleo-Mesoproterozoic ;old; crustal source with possible different degrees of addition of juvenile materials, and formed in a post-collision tectonic setting after the amalgamation of the Erguna and Xing'an blocks. Compared with the Xinglong granitoids, the Duobaoshan igneous rocks are consisted of the approximately coeval rhyolitic tuffs (491 ± 5 Ma) and ultramafic intrusions (497 ± 5 Ma) within the Duobaoshan Formation. They are generally enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), consistent with the geochemistry of igneous rocks from island arcs or active continental margins. The ultramafic rocks have high positive εHf (t) values (+1.3 to +15) and εNd (t) (+1.86 to +2.28), and relatively young two-stage model (TDM2) ages and low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70628-0.70853), indicating the partial melting of a depleted mantle source from a subducted slab in

  2. PALAEOECOLOGICAL CHANGES AFTER THE END-PERMIAN MASS EXTINCTION: EARLY TRIASSIC OSTRACODS FROM NORTHWESTERN GUANGXI PROVINCE,SOUTH CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIE CRASQUIN-SOLEAU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Early Triassic (Griesbachian to Spathian ostracod faunas are here first discovered and described form the Guangxi Province, South China. Thirty-seven species belonging to fourteen genera are recognized. Seven species are new: Bairdia fengshanensis n.sp., Bairdia wailiensis n.sp., Liuzhinia guangxiensis n.sp., Ptychobairdia luciaae n.sp., Ptychobairdia aldaae n.sp., Paracypris jinyaensis n.sp. and Paracypris gaetanii n.sp. The Griesbachian assemblage from the basal microbial limestone is well diversified and does not suggest any abnormal palaeoenvironmental conditions in terms of salinity, temperature or oxygen content. Particularly, the ostracods are typical of well oxygenated water and do not reflect any anoxia. Dienerian and Smithian ostracods are evidenced for the first time and the assemblages suggest less favourable palaeoenviromental conditions. Diversity and abundance of ostracod assemblages recovered from the Spathian on. The main taxonomic turnover among ostracod assemblages occurred seemingly between the Griesbachian and the Spathian.

  3. Investigation of Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in Sediments from the Urban Lakes of Anqing City, Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fasong; Huang, Hanyu; Xu, Zhibing; Ni, Hui; Yan, Hao; Chen, Ran; Luo, Yan; Pan, Wei; Long, Jinyun; Ye, Xiaofang; Qian, Xiaofen; Yu, Guangming

    2017-12-01

    Fifteen individual perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were analyzed in 22 sediment samples collected from Anqing urban lakes (Anhui province, China) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Total PFAS concentration was between 0.61 and 26 ng g- 1 dry weight. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFAS contaminant, with a concentration range of PFAS concentrations in lakes located to the northwest of Anqing City than in other regions. Adjacent chemical and industrial factories were hypothesized to be responsible for these higher PFAS levels in those lakes. In comparison to other measurements obtained from other lakes, PFAS concentrations in the urban lakes of Anqing City were relatively high.

  4. A New Leptoceratopsid (Ornithischia, Ceratopsia) with a Unique Ischium from the Upper Cretaceous of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yiming; Makovicky, Peter J; Wang, Kebai; Chen, Shuqing; Sullivan, Corwin; Han, Fenglu; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    The partial skeleton of a leptoceratopsid dinosaur, Ischioceratops zhuchengensis gen. et sp. nov., was excavated from the bone-beds of the Upper Cretaceous Wangshi Group of Zhucheng, Shandong Province, China. This fossil represents the second leptoceratopsid dinosaur specimen recovered from the Kugou locality, a highly productive site in Zhucheng. The ischium of the new taxon is morphologically unique among known Dinosauria, flaring gradually to form an obturator process in its middle portion and resembling the shaft of a recurve bow. An elliptical fenestra perforates the obturator process, and the distal end of the shaft forms an axehead-shaped expansion. The discovery of Ischioceratops increases the known taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity of the Leptoceratopsidae.

  5. A New Leptoceratopsid (Ornithischia, Ceratopsia with a Unique Ischium from the Upper Cretaceous of Shandong Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming He

    Full Text Available The partial skeleton of a leptoceratopsid dinosaur, Ischioceratops zhuchengensis gen. et sp. nov., was excavated from the bone-beds of the Upper Cretaceous Wangshi Group of Zhucheng, Shandong Province, China. This fossil represents the second leptoceratopsid dinosaur specimen recovered from the Kugou locality, a highly productive site in Zhucheng. The ischium of the new taxon is morphologically unique among known Dinosauria, flaring gradually to form an obturator process in its middle portion and resembling the shaft of a recurve bow. An elliptical fenestra perforates the obturator process, and the distal end of the shaft forms an axehead-shaped expansion. The discovery of Ischioceratops increases the known taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity of the Leptoceratopsidae.

  6. [Trend of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and intake of added sugar in China nine provinces among adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghua; Yu, Dongmei; Zhao, Liyun

    2014-01-01

    To describe sugar-sweetened beverage ( SSB) consumption status and intake of added sugar in China nine provinces among adult from 2004 to 2009. Use of "U.S.D.A. Database for the Added Sugars Content of Selected Foods" to calculate the intake of added sugar from sugar-sweetened beverage. SSB consumption was basic on the rise. The daily average intake of added sugar from SSB was 13.4 g. Men were significantly higher than women, urban was higher than rural areas. Added sugar from soft drinks was higher than that from fruit juice. Added sugar intake level in our country is low relative to other developed countries, also did not exceed WHO and the AHA recommends. But it's on the rise in generally.

  7. Variations in Element Levels Accumulated in Different Parts of Boletus edulis Collected from Central Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Mei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ICP-AES and microwave assisted digestion were applied to determine P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Na, Cu, Ba, Ni, V, Cd, Sr, Co, and Li in the caps and stipes of Boletus edulis collected from six spatially distant sites in Yunnan province, China. Fruiting bodies of King Bolete are abundant in P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Na, followed by Ba, Cd, Ni, V, Li, Sr, and Co. Contents of P, Mg, Zn, and Cu are more abundant in caps than in stipes of King Bolete. However, elements such as Na, Ba, Cd, Ni, V, Li, Sr, and Co prefer to accumulate in stipes of mushrooms from Yaoan, Chuxiong. The results of this study indicate that spatial variations of elements between caps and stipes are mainly related to different bedrock soil geochemistry and enrichment capability for various elements.

  8. Isolation, molecular characterization and evaluation of the pathogenicity of a porcine rotavirus isolated from Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hewei; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Xin; Xia, Mingqi; Wu, Hua

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a porcine rotavirus was isolated from a fecal sample from a diarrheic piglet in Jiangsu Province, China. Rotavirus-specific cytopathic effects were observed after 12 blind passages on MA-104 cells, yielding a virus titer of 10(6.125) TCID50/ml. By applying an 80 % nucleotide cutoff value and the RotaC(2.0) automated genotyping tool, the Vp4 genotype of the new isolate was identified as P[7]. The Vp7 genotype was identified as G[9], lineage VI, and sublineage c. Experimentally infected piglets showed severe diarrhea symptoms 16-24 h post-inoculation, indicating that this new porcine rotavirus isolate is a pathogenic strain.

  9. Overuse of antibiotics for the common cold - attitudes and behaviors among doctors in rural areas of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Dyar, Oliver J; Zhao, Lingbo; Tomson, Göran; Nilsson, Lennart E; Grape, Malin; Song, Yanyan; Yan, Ling; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2015-03-31

    Irrational antibiotic use is common in rural areas of China, despite the growing recognition of the importance of appropriate prescribing to contain antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze doctors' attitudes and prescribing practices related to antibiotics in rural areas of Shandong province, focusing on patients with the common cold. A survey was conducted with doctors working at thirty health facilities (village clinics, township health centers and county general hospitals) in three counties within Shandong province. Questions were included on knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic prescribing. Separately, a random selection of prescriptions for patients with the common cold was collected from the healthcare institutions at which the doctors worked, to investigate actual prescribing behaviors. A total of 188 doctors completed the survey. Most doctors (83%, 149/180) had attended training on antibiotic use since the beginning of their medical practice as a doctor, irrespective of the academic level of their undergraduate training. Of those that had training, most had attended it within the past three years (97%, 112/116). Very few doctors (2%, 3/187) said they would give antibiotics to a patient with symptoms of a common cold, and the majority (87%, 156/179) would refuse to prescribe an antibiotic even if patients were insistent on getting them. Doctors who had attended training were less likely to give antibiotics in this circumstance (29% vs. 14%, p common cold was the only diagnosis reported on 1590 out of 8400 prescriptions. Over half (55%, 869/1590) of them included an antibiotic. Prescriptions from village clinics were more likely to contain an antibiotic than those from other healthcare institutions (71% vs. 44% [township] vs. 47% [county], p common cold, even when placed under pressure by patients. However, more than half of the prescriptions from these healthcare institutions for patients with the common cold included an antibiotic

  10. Forecasting optimal solar energy supply in Jiangsu Province (China): a systematic approach using hybrid of weather and energy forecast models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuli; Asante Antwi, Henry; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, "least-cost," and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor.

  11. Forecasting Optimal Solar Energy Supply in Jiangsu Province (China): A Systematic Approach Using Hybrid of Weather and Energy Forecast Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuli; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, “least-cost,” and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor. PMID:24511292

  12. Combinations of Hd2 and Hd4 genes determine rice adaptability to Heilongjiang Province, northern limit of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiufeng; Liu, Huazhao; Wang, Maoqing; Liu, Hualong; Tian, Xiaojie; Zhou, Wenjia; Lü, Tianxiao; Wang, Zhenyu; Chu, Chengcai; Fang, Jun; Bu, Qingyun

    2015-08-01

    Heading date is a key trait in rice domestication and adaption, and a number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified. The rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars in the Heilongjiang Province, the northernmost region of China, have to flower extremely early to fulfill their life cycle. However, the critical genes or different gene combinations controlling early flowering in this region have not been determined. QTL and candidate gene analysis revealed that Hd2/Ghd7.1/OsPRR37 plays a major role in controlling rice distribution in Heilongjiang. Further association analysis with a collection of rice cultivars demonstrated that another three major QTL genes (Hd4/Ghd7, Hd5/DTH8/Ghd8, and Hd1) also participate in regulating heading date under natural long day (LD) conditions. Hd2/Ghd7.1/OsPRR37 and Hd4/Ghd7 are two major QTLs and function additively. With the northward rice cultivation, the Hd2/Ghd7.1/OsPRR37 and Hd4/Ghd7 haplotypes became non-functional alleles. Hd1 might be non-functional in most Heilongjiang rice varieties, implying that recessive hd1 were selected during local rice breeding. Non-functional Hd5/DTH8/Ghd8 is very rare, but constitutes a potential target for breeding extremely early flowering cultivars. Our results indicated that diverse genetic combinations of Hd1, Hd2, Hd4, and Hd5 determined the different distribution of rice varieties in this northernmost province of China. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. [Effect of climatic mean value change on the evaluation result of rice delayed cold damage in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui-peng; Yu, Wen-ying; Wu, Jin-wen; Feng, Rui; Zhang, Yu-shu

    2015-06-01

    The anomaly of mean temperature summation from May to September (ΔT5-9) was commonly used to assess delayed cold damage of rice in Northeast China, but whether the change of statistics years for climatic mean value (ΣT5-9) would affect the, evaluation results of Liaoning rice under cold damage needed to be further studied. By using the meteorological industry standard of the People's Republic of China "technical standard on rice cold damage evaluation" (QX/T 182- 2013) and the supplemental indices (ΔT5-9), the index (ΣT5-9) was calculated in four periods 1961-1990 (S1), 1971-2000 (S2), 1981-2010 (S3) and 1961-2010 (S4), and the spatial and temporal changes of cold damage in Liaoning Province were analyzed based on the ratio between cold damage stations and total stations (IOC) and the occurrence frequency. The results showed that the heat condition (Σ T5-9) in rice growing season increased obviously and the spatial and temporal changes were significant from 1961 to 2010. The original meteorological index of rice cold damage was improved by using quadratic polynomial model. The identification results were similar between S2 and S4. The variation coefficient of IOC in S3 was lower than that of the other three. Compared with the typical rice yield reduction years, the evaluation results accorded better with the actual situation in evaluating the rice delayed cold damage in Liaoning during study period by using the S3 climate mean value. The results could provide evidence for accurately evaluating the variation of rice cold damage in spatial and temporal distribution in Liaoning Province under the background of global climate change.

  14. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province: the China Nine-Province Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; He, Mingguang; Zhao, Jialiang; Fang, Min; Ellwein, Leon B; He, Ning; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xuecheng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5 531 individuals aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County from September 2006 to January 2007. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated using village registers followed by door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and thirty-one individuals were enumerated and 4 589 persons were examined, the response rate was 82.97%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 2.38% (109/4 589) and 9.44% (433/4 589) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 2.68% (123/4 589) and 18.15% (833/4 589) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 1 239.34, P visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment is higher among older adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County. Cataract remains as the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment.

  15. Changes in Reference Evapotranspiration and Its Contributing Factors in Jiangsu, a Major Economic and Agricultural Province of Eastern China

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    Ronghao Chu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Reference evapotranspiration (ETref is a key parameter of hydro-meteorological studies as well as water resource planning. In this study, we adopted the Penman–Monteith FAO 56 model to estimate ETref and through the differential equation and detrending method to determine sensitivities and the contributions of four meteorological parameters to ETref based on daily weather data from 60 stations of Jiangsu province during 1961–2015. Results reveal that ETref and its trends in the three sub-regions of the Jiangsu province had a significant spatial heterogeneity. A significant decreasing tendency of ETref (p < 0.001 was observed in the Huaibei region, while a slightly increasing tendency was identified in the Jianghuai and Sunan regions. These changes of ETref were caused by a significant increasing trend in air temperature (TA and significant decreasing trends in wind speed (WS, sunshine duration (SD as well as a non-significant change trend in actual vapor pressure (VP. However, the VP was the meteorological parameter to which ETref was most sensitive, whereas ETref was more sensitive to TA and SD in the summer but less so in the winter; the least sensitive factor, WS, had the opposite trend. Across the whole region, WS contributed most to ETref, followed by SD, while the positive contribution of TA to ETref could not offset the negative contributions of WS and SD. Although the effect of VP on changes in ETref is small, it could not be ignored, especially in the winter. The reverse relationship between increasing TA and decreasing ETref, namely the “evaporation paradox,” occurred in Jiangsu province. Thus, the outcomes of this study will contribute to thorough insight into the response to changes in ETref to the provincial water planning and management in eastern China.

  16. Indoor air pollution and the risk of orofacial clefts in a rural population in Shanxi province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingying; Wang, Bin; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Le; Liu, Jufen; Ren, Aiguo

    2016-08-01

    Shanxi Province is a region in China with a high incidence of orofacial clefts (OFCs). Our objective is to investigate the effect of maternal exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from coal combustion and tobacco smoke on the risk of an infant being born with orofacial clefts. Data were derived from an ongoing population-based case-control study of major external structural birth defects in Shanxi Province. Subjects included 213 cases with OFCs and 1319 healthy babies born between November 2002 and December 2014 in four rural counties. Exposure information was collected by face-to-face interview with mothers within 1 week of delivery or pregnancy termination. The authors derived an exposure index by integrating a series of IAP-related characteristics concerning dwelling and lifestyle. Increased odds of OFC were associated with IAP exposure from heating (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-4.5) and from smoking (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.5), but not with exposure from cooking (aOR = 0.9; 95% CI, 0.6-1.4). Compared with women without IAP exposure, the aORs of OFC for children of women with exposure indices of 1, 2, 3 and ≥ 4 were 1.1 (95% CI, 0.6-1.8), 1.4 (95% CI, 0.8-2.4), 1.8 (95% CI, 1.0-3.2), and 3.4 (95% CI, 1.6-7.4), respectively, demonstrating a clear dose-response trend (p < 0.001). Periconceptional exposure to IAP from coal combustion and tobacco smoking may increase the risk of OFCs in offsprings of women in Shanxi Province. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:708-715, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The current status of syphilis prevention and control in Jiangsu province, China: A cross-sectional study.

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    Yuan-Fang Chen

    Full Text Available To analyze the midterm evaluation data from the National Syphilis Prevention and Control Plan (2010-2020 and evaluate the current status of syphilis prevention and control in Jiangsu province, China.We collected data via (1 field surveys conducted in 2015 and (2 data recorded in existing syphilis surveillance systems. We conducted descriptive statistical analysis to evaluate the current landscape of syphilis control initiatives and their potential effect in syphilis control.The incidence of all cases of syphilis decreased from 2010 (32.3 per 100,000 to 2015 (30.1 per 100,000, with an annual growth of -1.17% (x2trend = -7.52, P<0.001 in Jiangsu province. The incidence of primary and secondary syphilis and congenital syphilis both decreased significantly from 2010 to 2015. The average awareness rate of syphilis knowledge among professional personnel was 95.4% (3781/3963. Rural residents had the lowest awareness rate (83.5%, 1875/2245 and commercial sex workers had the highest awareness rate (92.1%, 7804/8474 in 2015. Only 47.8% (33908/70894 of patients received provider-initiated syphilis counseling and testing (PISTC services in sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics, but 94.5% (87927/93020 of all syphilis patients received free testing for syphilis. Overall, 97.2% (9378/9648 of syphilis reported cases of syphilis at medical institutions were confirmed to be accurate, and 92.2% (5850/6345 of patients diagnosed with syphilis at medical institutions received treatment with penicillin.The syphilis incidence rate in Jiangsu has decreased in recent years, but remains at a high level. It is essential to promote PISTC services to improve knowledge of syphilis and rates of testing and treatment in Jiangsu province.

  18. Application of remote sensing technology in the study of vegetation: Example of vegetation of zhejiang province in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHU, MengRu

    2015-04-01

    Application of remote sensing technology in the study of vegetation: Example of vegetation of zhejiang province in China Remote sensing technology , is one of the pillars of the space information technology in the 21st century ,play an important role in the study of vegetation. Vegetation coverage as an important parameter reflecting surface information, has been an important research topic in the field of vegetation remote sensing. Administrative region in zhejiang Province as the study area, use of microwave remote sensing and hyperspectral remote sensing technology, combined with the related data, to survey the area of forest resources in zhejiang Province, establishes an index system of sustainable forest resources management ability in zhejiang, and to evaluate its ability. Remote Sensing is developed in the 1960 s of the earth observation technology, comprehensive instruments refers to the application, not contact with the object detection phase, the target characteristics of electromagnetic waves recorded from a distance, through the analysis, reveals the characteristics of the object properties and changes of comprehensive detection technology. Investigation of vegetation is an important application field of remote sensing investigation. Vegetation is an important factor of environment, and also is one of the best sign to reflect the regional ecological environment, at the same times is the interpretation of soil, hydrological elements such as logo, individual or prospecting indicator plant. Vegetation imaging and interpretation of research results for environmental monitoring, biodiversity conservation, agriculture, forestry and other relevant departments to provide information services.Microwave remote sensing hyperspectral remote sensing technology and application in the research of vegetation is an important direction of remote sensing technology in the future. This paper introduces the principle of microwave remote sensing and hyperspectral remote

  19. Prevalence of and risk factors for the occurrence of symptomatic osteoarthritis in rural regions of Shanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Feng; Song, Ling-Hua; Wei, Jun-Ni; Zhang, Ai-Lian; Dong, Hai-Yuan; Wen, Hong-Yan; Luo, Jing; Liu, Guifen

    2016-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) in rural regions of Shanxi Province, China, and to identify factors increasing the prevalence of OA. Residents over 16 years of age of targeted towns and villages in rural regions of Shanxi Province were sampled using a stratified multi-stage cluster method. Those exhibiting symptoms of rheumatism were referred to rheumatologists and those in whom rheumatism was suspected were X-rayed within 10 days of interview. OA was diagnosed by consensus (two or three rheumatologists). Factors associated with the presence of OA were identified. A total of 7126 permanent residents were surveyed and 1734 (24.3%) had OA. Knee OA was the most prevalent form of OA (13.8%), followed by lumbar (7.4%), cervical (3.4%), hand (3.3%), shoulder (3.0%), elbow (2.9%), ankle (0.7%), hip (0.6%), wrist (0.5%), thoracic (0.5%) and foot OA (0.5%). All of knee, ankle, shoulder and hand OA exhibited a gender bias. Advanced age, a sweet tooth, poor home ventilation, poor home heating, separation, divorce, or death of a partner, low-grade occupation, low educational level, high body mass index and the presence of concomitant cardiovascular disease, were associated with the presence of OA. Symptomatic OA is very prevalent in rural regions of Shanxi Province. Many factors increase the prevalence of the condition. Primary and secondary prevention programs seeking to improve living conditions, to reduce obesity, and to effectively treat concomitant cardiovascular disease, are required. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Trends in prevalence of clonorchiasis among patients in Heilongjiang province, Northeast China (2009-2012: implications for monitoring and control.

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    Su Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis is an important zoonotic parasitic disease worldwide. Past estimates showed the prevalence increased based on studies undertaken ten years or more ago. However, control strategies, changing ecology and migration may have resulted to changes in the prevalence of clonorchiasis. The purpose of the present study was to analysis the prevalence and epidemiological characterisation of clonorchiasis in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 4951 clinically suspected outpatients were examined from January 2009 to December 2012. Overall prevalence of clonorchiasis was 25.93% (1284/4951 by the combination strategy of the Kato-Katz technique (KK and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, with a significant increase from 22.53% in 2009 to 34.25% in 2012. Apart from Daxinganling city, clonorchiasis was reported throughout Heilongjiang Province and mainly along the Songhua River and Nen River basin, with an increased annual prevalence. The annual prevalence in men increased significantly in 2012 and was higher than that in women over 4 years. A similar pattern was seen for the annual infection rate in rural and urban areas. Farm labourers accounted for the majority of cases (65.93%, with a higher prevalence than in other occupations. Consumption of freshwater fish was considered the strongest risk factor of clonorchiasis. The infection rates in the 40-49 and 50-59 years age groups showed a significant increasing trend in 2012. Cases of re-infection were common. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study revealed that clonorchiasis remained widespread and prevalent in Heilongjiang Province. An integrated control programme is urgently needed to reduce the public health impact of clonorchiasis in this endemic area.

  1. Infection rate and genetic diversity of Giardia duodenalis in pet and stray dogs in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Meng; Dong, Haiju; Wang, Rongjun; Li, Junqiang; Zhao, Jinfeng; Zhang, Longxian; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an important protozoan parasite that is known to be zoonotic. To assess the potential zoonotic transmission of giardiasis from dogs and to identify genetic diversity of G. duodenalis in dog populations, we examined the infection rate and genotypes of G. duodenalis in both pet dogs (from pet dog farms, pet shops, pet hospitals, pet markets) and stray dogs of different ages in Henan Province, China. A total of 940 fresh fecal specimens were collected from 2007 to 2013 in Henan Province. The overall infection rate of G. duodenalis was 14.3% (134/940) as determined by microscopy, with the highest infection rate (17.3%) observed in dogs from shelters. Young dogs were more likely to be infected with G. duodenalis than adult dogs, and G. duodenalis cysts were found more frequently in diarrheic dogs. All G. duodenalis-positive isolates were characterized at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and β-giardin (bg) loci, and 37, 51, and 48 sequences were obtained, respectively. The dog-specific assemblages C and D were identified using multi-locus sequence analysis. Six novel sequences of the tpi locus, one novel sequence of the gdh locus and two novel sequences of the bg locus were detected among the G. duodenalis assemblage C isolates, while two novel sequences of the gdh locus were found among the G. duodenalis assemblage D isolates. Our data indicate that G. duodenalis is a common parasite and cause of diarrheal disease in dogs in Henan Province. However, there was no evidence for zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblages in the study population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of air quality management policies in China with integrated model framework: Case study for Hebei province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhao, Q.; Zheng, B.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.; Yang, W.; He, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Chinese government has pledged to clean urban air within five years from 2013 to 2017, to promote annual average PM2.5 concentration decline by 25%, 20% and 15% in the North China Plain, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, respectively. The national targets are disaggregated into provinces, where region-specific action plan is designed and implemented by local government. It is particularly important to timely assess the effectiveness of local emission control measures and guarantee local efforts are in line with the national goal. We develop an integrated model framework for air quality management and policy evaluation, by integrating a dynamic high-resolution emission model, an emission scenarios analysis tool, and a 3-D air quality model. We then put the model system into pilot use in Hebei province for policy making to achieve the air quality target of 2017. We first integrate over 3000 point source facilities into this system to develop a high-resolution emission inventory. Upon the base emission dataset, the efforts to mitigate emissions with current and enacted measures are tracked and quantified to dynamic account of emission changes monthly. Strict policies are designed within the model framework through analyzing the potential to cut emissions for each point source. The finalized policy package can reduce emissions of major air pollutants by 20%-40%, respectively, leading to large decrease of ambient PM2.5 concentration.

  3. Detection and characterization of carbendazim resistance in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from oilseed rape in Anhui Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Pan, Y; Zhang, H; Li, X; Dai, Y; Cao, S; Gao, Z

    2015-12-11

    Stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a devastating disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Anhui Province of China. The fungicide carbendazim (methyl benzimidazole-2-yl carbamate; MBC) has been used to control this fungal disease since the 1980s. In the present study, 74 isolates of S. sclerotiorum from 13 regions of Anhui were collected, and the sensitivities of these isolates to MBC were examined to monitor fungicide resistance. We found that 22 of the 74 isolates showed resistance to MBC, indicating that S. sclerotiorum has developed resistance in parts of Anhui Province. PCR assays and DNA sequence analysis showed that isolates with high MBC resistance had a point mutation at position 198 in the β-tubulin gene that caused a glutamic acid-to-alanine change in the protein. The β-tubulin gene in low-resistance isolates did not have the mutation. These results indicate that the mutation in β-tubulin gene may be associated with high MBC resistance in S. sclerotiorum. The present study also found no correlation between MBC resistance and pathogenicity of S. sclerotiorum isolates, suggesting that the pathogenicity of S. sclerotiorum isolates on oilseed rape did not vary with MBC resistance status.

  4. Impacts of Grain-for-Green and Grain-for-Blue Policies on Valued Ecosystem Services in Shandong Province, China

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    Wei Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available China launched a series of ecological restoration policies to mitigate its severe environmental challenges in the late 1990s. From the beginning, the effects and influences of the ecological restoration policies have been hotly debated. In the present study, we assessed the effects of two vital ecological restoration policies (Grain-for-Green and Grain-for-Blue on valued ecosystem services in Shandong province. A new method based on the net primary productivity and soil erosion was developed to assess the ecosystem service value. In the areas implementing the Grain-for-Green and Grain-for-Blue policies, the ecosystem service value increased by 24.01% and 43.10% during 2000–2008, respectively. However, comparing to the average increase of ecosystem service value (46.00% in the whole of Shandong province in the same period, Grain-for-Green and Grain-for-Blue did not significantly improve overall ecosystem services. The ecological restoration policy led to significant tradeoffs in ecosystem services. Grain-for-Green improved the ecosystem service function of nutrient cycling, organic material provision, and regulation of gases but decreased that of water conservation. Grain-for-Blue increased the water conservation function but led to a reduction in the function of soil conservation and nutrient cycling.

  5. Interactions between Climate, Socioeconomics, and Land Dynamics in Qinghai Province, China: A LUCD Model-Based Numerical Experiment

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    Xiangzheng Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This simulation-based research produces a set of forecast land use data of Qinghai Province, China, applying the land use change dynamics (LUCD model. The simulation results show that the land use pattern will almost keep being consistent in the period from 2010 to 2050 with that in 2000 in Qinghai Province. Grassland and barren or sparsely vegetated land will cover more than 80% of the province’s total area. The land use change will be inconspicuous in the period from 2010 to 2050 involving only 0.49% of the province’s land. The expansion of urban and built-up land, grassland, and barren or sparsely vegetated land and the area reduction of mixed dryland/irrigated cropland and pasture, water bodies, and snow or ice will dominate land use changes of the case study area. The changes of urban and built-up land and mixed dryland/irrigated cropland and pasture will slow down over time. Meanwhile, the change rates of water bodies, snow and ice, barren or sparsely vegetated land, and grassland will show an inverted U-shaped trajectory. Except for providing underlying surfaces for RCMs for future climate change assessment, this empirical research of regional land use change may enhance the understanding of land surface system dynamics.

  6. [The prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome among adult residents in Guangdong and Jiangsu provinces in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Shi, Yi-ming; Yan, Jin-hua; Xu, Wen; Weng, Jian-ping

    2013-08-01

    To determine the current prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MS) among adult residents in Chinese developed areas. The clinical data of 6614 adult residents, including 4051 women, from Guangdong and Jiangsu provinces from China Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study (2007-2008) were analyzed. Age and sex standardized prevalences of MS were calculated according to the criteria of Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS), US National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS), respectively. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors of MS. Age and sex standardized prevalences of MS were 17.88% (CDS), 28.50% (ATPIII), 21.99% (IDF) and 31.50% (JIS), respectively. The prevalences of residents with at least one metabolic abnormality were 67.86% (CDS) 79.56% (ATPIII), 79.62% (IDF) and 80.74% (JIS), respectively. MS was more common in female than in male by the ATPIII and IDF criterion (ATPIII: 30.63% vs 26.45%, P ATPIII and JIS criteria were most homogenous (κ = 0.95, P < 0.01). The risk factors for MS by the logistic regression model were male, older age, lower degree of education, family history of hypertension and obesity, drinker as well as uncontrolled diet. The prevalence of MS is high in the adult residents of Chinese developed areas (Guangdong and Jiangsu provinces), whatever diagnostic criterion was used .Effective measures should be taken to control the modifiable MS risk factors.

  7. Spatio-temporal trends and risk factors for Shigella from 2001 to 2011 in Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.

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    Fenyang Tang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the spatial and temporal trends of Shigella incidence rates in Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China. It also intended to explore complex risk modes facilitating Shigella transmission. METHODS: County-level incidence rates were obtained for analysis using geographic information system (GIS tools. Trend surface and incidence maps were established to describe geographic distributions. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis and autocorrelation analysis were used for detecting clusters. Based on the number of monthly Shigella cases, an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model successfully established a time series model. A spatial correlation analysis and a case-control study were conducted to identify risk factors contributing to Shigella transmissions. RESULTS: The far southwestern and northwestern areas of Jiangsu were the most infected. A cluster was detected in southwestern Jiangsu (LLR = 11674.74, P<0.001. The time series model was established as ARIMA (1, 12, 0, which predicted well for cases from August to December, 2011. Highways and water sources potentially caused spatial variation in Shigella development in Jiangsu. The case-control study confirmed not washing hands before dinner (OR = 3.64 and not having access to a safe water source (OR = 2.04 as the main causes of Shigella in Jiangsu Province. CONCLUSION: Improvement of sanitation and hygiene should be strengthened in economically developed counties, while access to a safe water supply in impoverished areas should be increased at the same time.

  8. Crustal structure beneath the western Hubei Province of China from joint inversion of ambient noise and receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, S.; Zhu, L.; Luo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate crustal S-wave structure beneath the western Hubei Province, which is located at a topographic step in China with high-rising plateaus to the west and low-elevation plains to the east. We collected two-year continuous seismic waveform records of 22 permanent broadband stations and six-month records of 29 portable stations and did cross-correlations of the waveform data between stations. We then measured phase/group velocity dispersion curves from 8 to 35s using frequency-time analysis (FTAN) method and performed surface wave tomography using the fast marching method to obtain phase/group velocity maps. We finally constructed high resolution 3-D shear-wave velocity structure beneath the western Hubei Province from joint inversion of surface wave dispersion data and receiver functions. The 3D model shows shear velocity variations are well correlated with geological features, such as sedimentary basins and mountain ranges. In particular, a high velocity anomaly beneath the Three Gorges Reservoir Dam indicates that it is located in a tectonic stable region.

  9. Estimation of the Disease Burden Attributable to 11 Risk Factors in Hubei Province, China: A Comparative Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fangfang; Zhang, Lan; Yu, Chuanhua; Hu, Songbo; Zhang, Yunquan

    2016-09-23

    In order to estimate the health losses caused by common risk factors in the Hubei province, China, we calculated the deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to 11 risk factors. We estimated the exposure distributions of risk factors in Hubei Province in 2013 from the monitoring system on chronic disease and related risk factors, combined with relative risk (RR) in order to calculate the population attributable fraction. Deaths and DALYs attributed to the selected risk factors were then estimated together with cause-specific deaths and DALYs. In total, 53.39% of the total deaths and 36.23% of the total DALYs in Hubei were a result of the 11 selected risk factors. The top five risk factors were high blood pressure, smoking, high body mass index, diet low in fruits and alcohol use, accounting for 14.68%, 12.57%, 6.03%, 3.90% and 3.19% of total deaths, respectively, and 9.41%, 7.22%, 4.42%, 2.51% and 2.44% of total DALYs, respectively. These risk factors, especially high blood pressure, smoking and high body mass index, significantly influenced quality of life, causing a large number of deaths and DALYs. The burden of chronic disease could be substantially reduced if these risk factors were effectively controlled, which would allow people to enjoy healthier lives.

  10. Does the ``National Free Health Care'' have financial sustainability in China? A case of Shenmu County, Shaanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijian

    2015-01-01

    The most populous country in the world, China needs more health care. Shenmu's practices show that National Free Health Care (NFHC) system has played an active role in fulfilling the citizen's needs of health care, and alleviating the difficulties in affording the medical costs and seeing doctors. But NFHC system needs substantial financial supporting. It is worth in-depth discussing and reflecting on whether the NFHC system suits China's national conditions. The paper establishes the population age structure forecasting model and NFHC financial burden model by decomposition methodology and actuarial modelling. And it finds than the financial burden of NFHC system in Shenmu will be increased from 256.64 million Yuan to 656.04 million Yuan in 2013-2020, with the growth rate 12.45%. Meanwhile, the percentage of the financial burden in government's annual revenue is less than 2% in 2013-2020, NFHC system has financial sustainability in Shenmu. According to the successful experience abroad and the calculated results in Shenmu, to extend the NFHC system to the whole of China has financial sustainability and realistic possibility.

  11. Types of Obesity and Its Association with the Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Jilin Province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD has become a serious public health problem in recent years in China. Aggregation of CVD risk factors in one individual increases the risk of CVD and the risk increases substantially with each additional risk factor. This study aims to explore the relationship between the number of clustered CVD risk factors and different types of obesity. A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this population-based cross-sectional study in 2012. Information was collected by face to face interviews. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple logistic regression were used in this study. The prevalence of general obesity, central obesity and compound obesity were 0.3%, 36.1% and 14.7%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in the compound obesity group were higher than those in other groups (compound obesity > central obesity > general obesity > non-obesity, while smoking rate in the non-obesity group was higher than those in other groups (non-obesity > general obesity > central obesity > compound obesity. People with obesity were more likely to have one or more CVD risk factor compared with non-obesity subjects (general obesity (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.13–4.56, central obesity (OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 2.41–2.89, compound obesity (OR: 5.09, 95% CI: 4.38–5.90. The results were similar when the number of clustered CVD risk factors was ≥ 2 and ≥ 3. As a conclusion, more than half of the residents in Jilin Province have a problem of obesity, especially central obesity. Government and health department should take measures to improve people’s awareness of central obesity in Jilin Province of China. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes are associated with obesity types. Compound obesity has a greater risk to cluster multiple CVD risk factors than central obesity and general obesity. Taking measures to control

  12. Risk perception of aquatic pollution originated from chemical industry clusters in the coastal area of Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Liu, Bo; You, Zhen; Zhao, Li

    2018-02-01

    According to "the Layout Scheme of the Chemical Industry in Jiangsu Province From 2016 to 2030" and "the Development Planning in the Coastal Area of Jiangsu Province, China," several chemical industry clusters will be located in the coastal area of Jiangsu province, China, and the risk of surface water pollution will be inevitably higher in the densely populated region. To get to know the risk acceptance level of the residents near the clusters, public perception was analyzed from the five risk factors: the basic knowledge about the pollution, the negative effects on aquatic environment imposed by the clusters, the positive effects brought by the clusters, the trust of controlling aquatic pollution, and the acceptance of the clusters. Twenty-four statements were screened out to describe the five factors, and about 600 residents were covered in three typical clusters surveyed. On the whole, the youth showed a higher interest on the survey, and middle-aged people were likely to be more concerned about aquatic pollution incident. There was no significant difference on risk perception of the three clusters. The respondents investigated had good knowledge background on aquatic pollution and the residents identified with the benefits brought by the clusters. They were weak in risk awareness of pollution originated from the chemical enterprises' groups. Although the respondents regarded that chemical industry clusters did not expose all points of pollutants' generation to the public, they inclined to trust the administration agencies on controlling the pollution and welcome the construction of chemical clusters in their dwelling cities. Besides, risk perception showed obvious spatial distribution. The closer were the samples' sites to the clusters and the rivers receiving pollutants, the higher were the residents' perceived risk, benefit, and trust. However, there was no identical spatial difference on risk acceptance, which might be comprehensively influenced by various

  13. Types of Obesity and Its Association with the Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Jilin Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Lv, Xin; Jiang, Lingling; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Yuhan; Li, Bo

    2016-07-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a serious public health problem in recent years in China. Aggregation of CVD risk factors in one individual increases the risk of CVD and the risk increases substantially with each additional risk factor. This study aims to explore the relationship between the number of clustered CVD risk factors and different types of obesity. A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this population-based cross-sectional study in 2012. Information was collected by face to face interviews. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple logistic regression were used in this study. The prevalence of general obesity, central obesity and compound obesity were 0.3%, 36.1% and 14.7%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in the compound obesity group were higher than those in other groups (compound obesity > central obesity > general obesity > non-obesity), while smoking rate in the non-obesity group was higher than those in other groups (non-obesity > general obesity > central obesity > compound obesity). People with obesity were more likely to have one or more CVD risk factor compared with non-obesity subjects (general obesity (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.13-4.56), central obesity (OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 2.41-2.89), compound obesity (OR: 5.09, 95% CI: 4.38-5.90). The results were similar when the number of clustered CVD risk factors was ≥ 2 and ≥ 3. As a conclusion, more than half of the residents in Jilin Province have a problem of obesity, especially central obesity. Government and health department should take measures to improve people's awareness of central obesity in Jilin Province of China. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes are associated with obesity types. Compound obesity has a greater risk to cluster multiple CVD risk factors than central obesity and general obesity. Taking measures to control obesity will reduce the

  14. Prevalence and risk profile of cervical human papillomavirus infection in Zhejiang Province, southeast China: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lü Weiguo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benign or malignant lesions caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV produce considerable health burden worldwide. Since limited cross-protection would be offered between HPV types, heterogeneity in HPV type-specific distribution should be taken into account when predicting the effect of current prophylactic vaccines and forming the basic for the second-generation vaccines targeted to specific regions. Here, we investigated the prevalence of cervical HPV infection, as well as predictors concerned, in Zhejiang Province, southeast China. Results Totally 4987 cervical samples from five randomly chosen counties in Zhejiang Province were detected. The overall HPV prevalence was 13.3%. Established high-ri