Sample records for providing substantial conflicting

  1. Analysis of inter-provider conflicts among healthcare providers


    Stecker, Mona; Epstein, Nancy; Mark M Stecker; Ausman, James I.; Harrigan, Noyes


    Background: Patient safety is a top priority of healthcare organizations. The Joint Commission (TJC) is now requiring that healthcare organizations promulgate polices to investigate and resolve disruptive behavior among employees. Methods: Our aims in this investigation utilizing the Provider Conflict Questionnaire (PCQ: Appendix A) included; determining what conflicts exist among a large sample of healthcare providers, how to assess the extent and frequency of disruptive behaviors, and what ...

  2. Conflicts between ethics and law for military mental health providers. (United States)

    Johnson, W Brad; Grasso, Ian; Maslowski, Kate


    Military mental health providers routinely experience mixed-agency ethical dilemmas when obligations to patients and the military conflict. Particularly difficult mixed-agency dilemmas occur when a military psychiatrist, psychologist, or social worker encounters an apparent conflict between an ethical obligation--enumerated in a professional code of ethics--and a federal statute. This article explores ethical-legal conflicts for uniformed mental health providers. Three case vignettes illustrate situations in which military providers may find themselves stuck between incongruent ethical and legal demands. The authors conclude with several recommendations designed to prevent and resolve ethical-legal conflicts for military mental health providers.

  3. Work-home conflicts have a substantial impact on career decisions that affect the adequacy of the surgical workforce. (United States)

    Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Freischlag, Julie; Kaups, Krista L; Oreskovich, Michael R; Satele, Daniel V; Hanks, John B; Sloan, Jeff A; Balch, Charles M; Shanafelt, Tait D


    To evaluate factors associated with work-home conflicts (W-HCs) of US surgeons and their potential personal and professional consequences. Cross-sectional study. Members of the American College of Surgeons. Burnout, depression, quality of life, alcohol use, career satisfaction, and career decisions (ie, reduce work hours or leave current practice). Of 7197 participating surgeons, 3754 (52.5%) had experienced a W-HC in the previous 3 weeks. On multivariate analysis, hours worked per week, having children, sex, and work location (Veterans Administration or academic center) were independently associated with an increased risk for W-HC (all P alcohol abuse/dependency (17.2% vs 14.4%; P = .003), and were less likely to recommend surgery as a career option to their children (46.0% vs 54.4%; P Work-home conflicts were also independently associated with surgeons reporting a moderate or higher likelihood of planning to reduce clinical work hours (odds ratio, 1.769) and leave their current practice in the next 24 months for a reason other than retirement (odds ratio, 1.706) after controlling for other personal and professional factors. Integrating personal and professional lives is a substantial challenge for US surgeons. Conflict in this balance appears to be a major factor in their decision to reduce work hours and/or move to a new practice, with potential substantive manpower implications for the surgical workforce.

  4. Virus-specific memory CD8 T cells provide substantial protection from lethal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. (United States)

    Channappanavar, Rudragouda; Fett, Craig; Zhao, Jincun; Meyerholz, David K; Perlman, Stanley


    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused an acute human respiratory illness with high morbidity and mortality in 2002-2003. Several studies have demonstrated the role of neutralizing antibodies induced by the spike (S) glycoprotein in protecting susceptible hosts from lethal infection. However, the anti-SARS-CoV antibody response is short-lived in patients who have recovered from SARS, making it critical to develop additional vaccine strategies. SARS-CoV-specific memory CD8 T cells persisted for up to 6 years after SARS-CoV infection, a time at which memory B cells and antivirus antibodies were undetectable in individuals who had recovered from SARS. In this study, we assessed the ability of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells to mediate protection against infection in the absence of SARS-CoV-specific memory CD4 T or B cells. We demonstrate that memory CD8 T cells specific for a single immunodominant epitope (S436 or S525) substantially protected 8- to 10-month-old mice from lethal SARS-CoV infection. Intravenous immunization with peptide-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) followed by intranasal boosting with recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) encoding S436 or S525 resulted in accumulation of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), lungs, and spleen. Upon challenge with a lethal dose of SARS-CoV, virus-specific memory CD8 T cells efficiently produced multiple effector cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and interleukin 2 [IL-2]) and cytolytic molecules (granzyme B) and reduced lung viral loads. Overall, our results show that SARS-CoV-specific memory CD8 T cells protect susceptible hosts from lethal SARS-CoV infection, but they also suggest that SARS-CoV-specific CD4 T cell and antibody responses are necessary for complete protection. Virus-specific CD8 T cells are required for pathogen clearance following primary SARS-CoV infection. However, the role of SARS-CoV-specific memory CD

  5. Poured of corporate culture on overcoming conflicts on enterprise as important direction of providing of efficiency manager’s labour


    Galyna, Nagornyak; Vasyl, Muliarchuk


    In the article the features of origin and problem of overcoming conflicts on an enterprise are considered, role of corporate culture in providing of efficiency of manager’s labour and the various ways of prevention and removal of heavy consequences of conflicts situations are offered.

  6. Influenza vaccination and decisional conflict among regulated and unregulated direct nursing care providers in long-term-care homes. (United States)

    Sullivan, Shannon M; Pierrynowski-Gallant, Donna; Chambers, Larry; O'Connor, Annette; Bowman, Sherry; McNeil, Shelly; Strang, Robert; Knoefel, Frank


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether direct nursing care providers have decisional conflict about receiving influenza vaccinations and characteristics associated with decisional conflict. The researchers used a self-administered questionnaire mailed to direct nursing care providers in two long-term-care organizations. Most direct nursing care providers in both organizations (80% and 93%, respectively) intended to get the influenza vaccine. Unregulated direct nursing care providers had more decisional conflict than regulated providers, especially related to feeling uninformed about the pros and cons of influenza vaccination. Unclear valuing of the pros and cons of influenza vaccination was related to the age of the direct care providers in both organizations. Decisional conflict and influenza vaccination practices may be determined, in part, by age and by the culture of a health care organization. A decision aid to improve knowledge and clarify values may improve decision quality and increase influenza vaccination rates.

  7. Aiding Education in Conflict: The Role of International Education Providers Operating in Afghanistan and Pakistan (United States)

    Harmer, Adele; Stoddard, Abby; DiDomenico, Victoria


    Amid rising violence against civilian aid operations in insecure environments, attacks on the education sector pose a unique set of challenges for international aid actors. In recent years incidents of violence targeting the education sector in Afghanistan and the conflict-affected areas of Pakistan have increased. This article synthesizes recent…

  8. Conflict and Care: Israeli Healthcare Providers and Syrian Patients and Caregivers in Israel. (United States)

    Young, Savannah S; Lewis, Denise C; Gilbey, Peter; Eisenman, Arie; Schuster, Richard; Seponski, Desiree M


    Israel has provided immediate healthcare to Syrian children, civilians and fighters since early 2013 despite being in an official state of war with Syria since 1973. We present qualitative findings from a larger mixed-methods phenomenological study to understand how the geopolitical and social history of Israel and Syria influences healthcare providers and Syrian patient caregivers in northern Israel. Theories of humanization and cognitive dissonance guided this study and frame the beliefs and experiences of healthcare providers who treated wounded Syrians in Israeli hospitals. Findings indicate healthcare providers and Syrian caregivers adjusted their beliefs to allow for positive healthcare experiences. Qualitative analysis revealed two major themes: supportive and hindering systemic elements contributing to the healthcare provider-patient-caregiver relationship. Internal psychological developments, contextual factors, and relational processes influenced humanization of the other within the relationship. This study illuminates unique ethical and humanitarian demands relevant for healthcare workers and those with whom they interact.

  9. Disruptive staff interactions: a serious source of inter-provider conflict and stress in health care settings. (United States)

    Stecker, Mona; Stecker, Mark M


    This study sought to explore the prevalence of workplace stress, gender differences, and the relationship of workplace incivility to the experience of stress. Effects of stress on performance have been explored for many years. Work stress has been at the root of many physical and psychological problems and has even been linked to medical errors and suboptimal patient outcomes. In this study, 617 respondents completed a Provider Conflict Questionnaire (PCQ) as well as a ten-item stress survey. Work was the main stressor according to 78.2% of respondents. The stress index was moderately high, ranging between 10 and 48 (mean = 25.5). Females demonstrated a higher stress index. Disruptive behavior showed a significant positive correlation with increased stress. This study concludes that employees of institutions with less disruptive behavior exhibited lower stress levels. This finding is important in improving employee satisfaction and reducing medical errors. It is difficult to retain experienced nurses, and stress is a significant contributor to job dissatisfaction. Moreover, workplace conflict and its correlation to increased stress levels must be managed as a strategy to reduce medical errors and increase job satisfaction.

  10. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics (United States)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  11. The Canadian birth place study: examining maternity care provider attitudes and interprofessional conflict around planned home birth. (United States)

    Vedam, Saraswathi; Stoll, Kathrin; Schummers, Laura; Fairbrother, Nichole; Klein, Michael C; Thordarson, Dana; Kornelsen, Jude; Dharamsi, Shafik; Rogers, Judy; Liston, Robert; Kaczorowski, Janusz


    Available birth settings have diversified in Canada since the integration of regulated midwifery. Midwives are required to offer eligible women choice of birth place; and 25-30% of midwifery clients plan home births. Canadian provincial health ministries have instituted reimbursement schema and regulatory guidelines to ensure access to midwives in all settings. Evidence from well-designed Canadian cohort studies demonstrate the safety and efficacy of midwife-attended home birth. However, national rates of planned home birth remain low, and many maternity providers do not support choice of birth place. In this national, mixed-methods study, our team administered a cross-sectional survey, and developed a 17 item Provider Attitudes to Planned Home Birth Scale (PAPHB-m) to assess attitudes towards home birth among maternity providers. We entered care provider type into a linear regression model, with the PAPHB-m score as the outcome variable. Using Students' t tests and ANOVA for categorical variables and correlational analysis (Pearson's r) for continuous variables, we conducted provider-specific bivariate analyses of all socio-demographic, education, and practice variables (n=90) that were in both the midwife and physician surveys. Median favourability scores on the PAPHB-m scale were very low among obstetricians (33.0), moderately low for family physicians (38.0) and very high for midwives (80.0), and 84% of the variance in attitudes could be accounted for by care provider type. Amount of exposure to planned home birth during midwifery or medical education and practice was significantly associated with favourability scores. Concerns about perinatal loss and lawsuits, discomfort with inter-professional consultations, and preference for the familiarity of the hospital correlated with less favourable attitudes to home birth. Among all providers, favourability scores were linked to beliefs about the evidence on safety of home birth, and confidence in their own ability

  12. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  13. Consumer Behavior Under Conflicting Information Provided by Interested Parties: Implications for Equilibrium in the Market for Credence Goods. (United States)

    Russo, Carlo; Tufi, Eleonora


    Incomplete information in food consumption is a relevant topic in agricultural economics. This paper proposes a theoretical model describing consumer behavior, market equilibrium and public intervention in an industry where consumers must rely on the information of interested parties such as producers or associations. We provide simple game theory model showing the link between price competition and the strategic use of information. If information are unverifiable (as in the case of credence attributes) firms may have no incentive to advertise true claims and consumer decisions may be biased. Our model incorporates the opportunistic behavior of self-interested information providers. The result is a model of competition in prices and information finding a potential for market failure and public intervention. In the paper we discuss the efficiency of three possible regulations: banning false claims, subsidizing advertising campaigns, and public statement if favor of true claims. In that context, some recent patents related to both the regulatory compliance in communication and to the reduction of asymmetric information between producers and consumers have been considered. Finally, we found that the efficiency of these policy tools is affected by the reputation of trustworthiness of the firms.

  14. [Types of conflicts and conflict management among Hungarian healthcare workers]. (United States)

    Csupor, Éva; Kuna, Ágnes; Pintér, Judit Nóra; Kaló, Zsuzsa; Csabai, Márta


    Efficient communication, conflict management and cooperation are the key factors of a successful patient care. This study is part of an international comparative research. The aim of this study is to unfold conflicts among healthcare workers. 73 healthcare workers were interviewed using a standardized interview protocol. The in-person interviews used the critical incident method. 30 interviews (15 doctors, 15 nurses) were analysed with the Atlas.ti 7 content analysis software. The sources, types, effects of conflicts and conflict management strategies were investigated. The content analysis unfolded the specificities of conflicts in healthcare based on personal experiences. Organizational hierarchy was a substantial source of conflict, especially among physicians, which originates from implicit rules. As a result of the avoiding conflict management the conflicts remain partly unresolved which has negative individual and group effect. Our conceptual framework helps to develop a proper intervention specific to healthcare. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(16), 625-632.

  15. Conflict Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Munteanu


    It is advisable to tackle conflicts as part of organizational life. It is necessary to be aware thatan employee brings with itself at different work values, and strategies of the individual workingunder these conditions conflict opportunities are numerous.

  16. Peace-building and reconciliation dividends of integrated health services delivery in post-conflict Burundi: qualitative assessments of providers and community members. (United States)

    Christensen, Cathryn; Edward, Anbrasi


    While demonstrating causality remains challenging, several 'health-peace' mechanisms have been proposed to describe how health systems contribute to peace-building and stability in post-conflict settings. A qualitative study was undertaken in southern Burundi to identify drivers of social tension and reconciliation in the catchment area of Village Health Works, a health services organisation. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in early 2014 with a total of one hundred and twenty community members and staff representing a range of conflict and recovery experience. Themes emerging from these interviews indicated mechanisms at the individual, household, community, and regional levels through which health provision mitigates tensions and promotes social cohesion. This peace dividend was amplified by the clinic's integrated model, which facilitates further community interaction through economic, agricultural and education programmes. Land pressure and the marginalisation of repatriated refugees were cited as drivers of local tension.

  17. Intercultural conflict styles: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batkhina A.A.


    Full Text Available Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.

  18. Conflictes laborals


    Jiménez Planells, Eduard


    Bibliografia El treball consisteix en una aprofundiment dintre del que engloben els conflictes laborals. Començant amb una descripció del conflicte en general, els tipus, les causes, l'estructura, els elements, les dinàmiques, i per últim el posicionament davant del conflicte i la presa de decisions. Aquest punts, formen part del primer bloc, amb els quals ens posem en situació per tal de passar al següent bloc que es centra en els conflictes dintre de les organitzacions. En aquest bloc es...

  19. Children in Conflict. (United States)

    Galen, Nancy; Johns, Jerry L.


    Presents an annotated bibliography of books which may provide bibliotherapy to primary grade students experiencing emotional or social conflict in coping with competition, divorce or change in family status, failure, peer group pressure, and alienation/rejection. (CMV)

  20. Conflict: Organizational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Stewart; Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Sewell, Graham


    This article examines four contemporary treatments of the problem of organizational conflict: social psychological, anthropological, neo-Darwinian, and neo-Machiavellian. Social psychological treatments of organizational conflict focus on the dyadic relationship between individual disputants....... In contrast, anthropological treatments take a more socially and historically embedded approach to organizational conflict, focusing on how organizational actors establish negotiated orders of understanding. In a break with the social psychological and anthropological approaches, neo-Darwinians explain...... the characteristics of organizational conflict by appealing to the concept of natural selection: all forms of organizational behavior, including conflictual relations, stem from the effects of heritable traits associated with a universal human nature. Finally, this article proposes a neo-Machiavellian view...

  1. Confronting conflict: addressing institutional conflicts of interest in academic medical centers. (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim


    Individual conflicts of interest are rife in healthcare, and substantial attention has been given to address them. Yet a more substantive concern-institutional conflicts of interest ("ICOIs") in academic medical centers ("AMCs") engaged in research and clinical care-have yet to garner sufficient attention, despite their higher stakes for patient safety and welfare. ICOIs are standard in AMCs, are virtually unregulated, and have led to patient deaths. Upon review of ICOIs, we find a clear absence of substantive efforts to confront these conflicts. We also assess the Jesse Gelsinger case, which resulted in the death of a study participant exemplifying a deep-seated culture of institutional indifference and complicity in unmanaged conflicts. Federal policy, particularly the Bayh-Dole Act, also creates and promotes ICOIs. Efforts to address ICOIs are narrow or abstract, and do not provide for a systemic infrastructure with effective enforcement mechanisms. Hence, in this paper, we provide a comprehensive proposal to address ICOIs utilizing a "Centralized System" model that would proactively review, manage, approve, and conduct assessments of conflicts, and would have independent power to evaluate and enforce any violations via sanctions. It would also manage any industry funds and pharmaceutical samples and be a condition of participation in public healthcare reimbursement and federal grant funding. The ICOI policy itself would provide for disclosure requirements, separate management of commercial enterprise units from academic units, voluntary remediation of conflicts, and education on ICOIs. Finally, we propose a new model of medical education-academic detailing-in place of current marketing-focused "education." Using such a system, AMCs can wean themselves from industry reliance and promote a culture of accountability and independence from industry influence. By doing so, clinical research and treatment can return to a focus on patient care, not profits.

  2. conflict Liberia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “War is hell... it has an impact on the people who take part that never heals.”1 The traumatic events and stress of societal conflict on individuals can be quite severe ...... Overcoming barriers: Human Mobility and development. 2009. 6. Rost N, Schneider G, Kleibl J. A global risk assessment model for civil wars. Social Science ...

  3. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.


    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  4. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    their everyday life in Denmark, and to single out specific contemporary political events like the publishing of the cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad, local clashes with the Danish police and the Israeli invasion of Gaza. The ethnography discloses that the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is not a chronological...

  5. Conflict interaction management as a cultural phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е L Ryabova


    Full Text Available The article provides the definition for the concept of conflict interaction culture, reveals its functions as well as the structure of its elements and components. Conflict interactions are also examined in the paper.

  6. Digital Images and Globalized Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette; Mortensen, Mette; Neumayer, Christina


    As the number of digital images of globalized conflicts online grow, critical examination of their impact and consequence is timely. This editorial provides an overview of digital images and globalized conflict as a field of study by discussing regimes of visibility and invisibility, proximity...

  7. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (United States)

    Whitson, Signe


    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  8. Conceptions of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Clegg, Stewart


    Diverse and often unacknowledged assumptions underlie organizational conflict research. In this essay, we identify distinct ways of conceptualizing conflict in the theoretical domain of organizational conflict with the aim of setting a new critical agenda for reflexivity in conflict research....... In doing so, we first apply a genealogical approach to study conceptions of conflict, and we find that three distinct and essentially contested conceptions frame studies of conflict at work. Second, we employ two empirical examples of conflict to illustrate how organizational conflict research can benefit...... from a more reflexive approach and advance our understanding of conflict. In this essay, we emphasize how philosophical and political assumptions about conflict frame knowledge production within the field and we encourage future theory development to build on different notions of conflict to become...

  9. Conflict in Cyber Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karsten; Ringsmose, Jens

    hostility from theoretical, political, strategic and legal perspectives. In doing so, and in contrast to current literature, cyber-security is analysed through a multidimensional lens, as opposed to being treated solely as a military or criminal issues, for example. The individual chapters map out......?; how do states and non-state actors make use of cyber-weapons when pursuing strategic and political aims?; and, how does the advent of conflict in cyberspace challenge our established legal framework? By asking important strategic questions on the theoretical, strategic, ethical and legal implications...... the different scholarly and political positions associated with various key aspects of cyber conflict and seek to answer the following questions: do existing theories provide sufficient answers to the current challenges posed by conflict in cyberspace, and, if not, could alternative approaches be developed...

  10. Conflict in Cyber Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karsten; Ringsmose, Jens

    hostility from theoretical, political, strategic and legal perspectives. In doing so, and in contrast to current literature, cyber-security is analysed through a multidimensional lens, as opposed to being treated solely as a military or criminal issues, for example. The individual chapters map out...... the different scholarly and political positions associated with various key aspects of cyber conflict and seek to answer the following questions: do existing theories provide sufficient answers to the current challenges posed by conflict in cyberspace, and, if not, could alternative approaches be developed......?; how do states and non-state actors make use of cyber-weapons when pursuing strategic and political aims?; and, how does the advent of conflict in cyberspace challenge our established legal framework? By asking important strategic questions on the theoretical, strategic, ethical and legal implications...

  11. Education in conflict. (United States)

    Smyth, I


    The provision of education is affected in many different ways by political and civil unrest and armed conflict. During armed conflict, the lack of adequate financial support for the maintenance of school buildings, supplies and teacher's salaries becomes particularly acute. Other factors include the destruction of school buildings and other infrastructures in time of war, and the targeting of teachers by acts of violence. This paper explores the impact of conflict on the educational opportunities of men and women. Interventions to address the educational needs of children are also discussed. Among these programs are the Oxfam programs in Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Nicaragua, Bosnia, and Eritrea which have provided psychosocial support and human rights education to refugee and displaced women and children through the provision of educational material and by training teachers.

  12. 77 FR 34785 - Substantial Business Activities (United States)


    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK86 Substantial Business Activities AGENCY: Internal... regulations regarding whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities in a foreign country... substantial business activities in a foreign country, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and the Department of...

  13. 77 FR 34887 - Substantial Business Activities (United States)


    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK85 Substantial Business Activities AGENCY: Internal... substantial business activities in a foreign country. These regulations affect certain domestic corporations... whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities in a foreign country for purposes of...

  14. Celebritizing Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima


    literature on celebrities in north-south relations, analyzes the celebrity discourses and practices of the professional entertainer Ben Affleck and his engagement in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in order to understand how celebrities intersect with and popularize representations of poverty...... In the policy realm, celebrity endorsement may shift attention, shape decisions, and build or erode key alliances. Meanwhile, the figure of the celebrity offers an enticing lens to refract critical issues of power, influence, and voice within neoliberal north-south relations. This essay, using emerging......, conflict, and development in Africa....

  15. Group conflict and faculty engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob


    In educational settings, substantial scholarly interest has focused on student engagement as an antecedent for educational development and positive school outcomes. Very limited research, however, has focused on the engagement of academic staff members. This may be a crucial oversight because...... engagement has been argued to lead to more satisfied, more productive and healthier staff. In this study, based on a sample consisting of 489 members of multicultural university departments, we set out to investigate the relationship between trust, conflict and academic staff engagement. More specifically we...... assessed the effect of group trust, group relational conflict and group task conflict on indicators of behavioural, cognitive and emotional engagement. Our findings show a strong positive association between group trust and all academic staff engagement variables as well as a strong negative association...

  16. Conflict Termination: Every Conflict Must End

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garza, Mario


    .... The operational commander and his staff must understand the nature of conflict termination and the post-conflict activities so that they will be able to effectively translate the desired end state...

  17. Healthy Conflict Management


    Brower, Naomi


    Without healthy conflict management skills, conflict can often escalate or intensify over time. This fact sheet gives tips on utilizing key negotiation skills to help individuals effectively address and cope with conflict and potentially build stronger relationships with others.

  18. Conflict engagement: workplace dynamics. (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra


    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.

  19. Conflict engagement: collaborative processes. (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra


    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE;, highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alcoholism, prostitution, gambling, rape, robbery and kidnapping since an 'idle mind is the devil׳s workshop׳. Thompson (1960) identifies three factors that give rise to conflict in organizations, viz: structural conflict, that is, conflict arising out of the need to manage the interdependence between different organisational ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The former suggests that conflict is destructive and promotes conflict-elimination as a formula for organisational success and progress while the latter perceives conflict as an inevitable phenomenon in any social interaction and considers its proper management the primary responsibility and concern of all administrators.

  2. Intergroup Conflict Self-Perpetuates via Meaning: Exposure to Intergroup Conflict Increases Meaning and Fuels a Desire for Further Conflict. (United States)

    Rovenpor, Daniel R; O'Brien, Thomas C; Roblain, Antoine; De Guissmé, Laura; Chekroun, Peggy; Leidner, Bernhard


    We investigated whether violent conflict provides individuals with a sense of meaning that they are hesitant to let go of, thus contributing to the perpetuation of intergroup conflict. Across a wide variety of contexts, we found that making intergroup conflict salient increased the meaning people found in conflict and, in turn, increased support for conflict-perpetuating beliefs, ideologies, policies, and behaviors. These effects were detected among participants exposed to reminders of intergroup conflict (the American Revolutionary War and the U.S.-led campaign against ISIS; Studies 1A and 1B), participants living through actual intergroup conflict (the 2014 Israel-Gaza war; Study 2), and participants who perceived actual intergroup conflicts to be larger versus smaller in scope (the November 2015 Paris attacks; Studies 3 and 4). We also found that directly manipulating the perceived meaning in conflict (in the context of the 2014 NYC "hatchet attack"; Study 5) led to greater perceived meaning in life in general and thereby greater support for conflict escalation. Together, these findings suggest that intergroup conflict can serve as a source of meaning that people are motivated to hold on to. We discuss our findings in the context of the meaning making and threat compensation literatures, and consider their implications for perspectives on conflict escalation and resolution. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Ethics of conducting research in conflict settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Edward J


    Full Text Available Abstract Humanitarian agencies are increasingly engaged in research in conflict and post-conflict settings. This is justified by the need to improve the quality of assistance provided in these settings and to collect evidence of the highest standard to inform advocacy and policy change. The instability of conflict-affected areas, and the heightened vulnerability of populations caught in conflict, calls for careful consideration of the research methods employed, the levels of evidence sought, and ethical requirements. Special attention needs to be placed on the feasibility and necessity of doing research in conflict-settings, and the harm-benefit ratio for potential research participants.

  4. Timing of cyber conflict. (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert; Iliev, Rumen


    Nations are accumulating cyber resources in the form of stockpiles of zero-day exploits as well as other novel methods of engaging in future cyber conflict against selected targets. This paper analyzes the optimal timing for the use of such cyber resources. A simple mathematical model is offered to clarify how the timing of such a choice can depend on the stakes involved in the present situation, as well as the characteristics of the resource for exploitation. The model deals with the question of when the resource should be used given that its use today may well prevent it from being available for use later. The analysis provides concepts, theory, applications, and distinctions to promote the understanding strategy aspects of cyber conflict. Case studies include the Stuxnet attack on Iran's nuclear program, the Iranian cyber attack on the energy firm Saudi Aramco, the persistent cyber espionage carried out by the Chinese military, and an analogous case of economic coercion by China in a dispute with Japan. The effects of the rapidly expanding market for zero-day exploits are also analyzed. The goal of the paper is to promote the understanding of this domain of cyber conflict to mitigate the harm it can do, and harness the capabilities it can provide.

  5. Automated conflict resolution issues (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.


    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  6. Coercive Sanctions and International Conflicts: A Sociological Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    international sanctions work, and more substantially, what are the social conditions within sanctions conflicts that are conducive to either cooperation or non-cooperation? Arguing that coercive sanctions and international conflicts are socially-constructed facts, the book explores the processes involved...... in the formation of meaning that sanctions and conflicts acquire. From a sociological perspective, the answer to the question depends on the meaning that sanctions acquire for opponents in on-going conflict. On the other hand, sanctions contribute differently to the way in which opponents construct conflict...

  7. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantiation requirements. 725.94 Section 725.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... following questions must be answered: (i) What harmful effects to the company's or institution's competitive...

  8. Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition (United States)

    Jenson, Cinnamon Ann


    Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray ALAGÖZLÜ


    Full Text Available The way conflicts are solved is thought to be culturally learned (Hammer, 2005; therefore, this is reflected through language use. Conflicts, as inevitable parts of communication, naturally mirror cultural differences. Intercultural conflict styles have been studied so far by various researchers. How conflicts are initiated, maintained and escalated or terminated are all culture bound (Leung, 2002 and all the related stages vary from one culture to another. In the related literature, there have been attempts to describe different conflict handling classifications. Using Hammer’s (2005 categorization that was found to be more refined and summative, conflict resolution styles of Turkish and American College students were explored using Discourse Completion Tests (DCT with eight conflict situations where the respondents were required to write verbal solutions to overcome the conflicts described in the test. Those utterances were categorized according to Directness/Indirectness Scale modified from Hammer’s (2005 “International Conflict Style Inventory (ICSI” that classifies intercultural conflict resolution styles as high/low level of directness and high/low level of emotional expressiveness. It is believed that the study provides insight into intercultural communication as there are culturally generalizable (etic and learned patterns of conflict resolution styles pertinent to different cultures (Hammer, 2009, p. 223; Ting-Toomey, 1994.

  10. Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the capitalization of a conflict planning programme and the adoption of decentralized institutional arrangements for conflict monitoring and evaluation. Such processes are 'sine qua non' to pre-conflict and post-conflict prevention. KEY WORDS: Decentralization, Conflict, Pre-conflict, Post-conflict, Planning, Management ...

  11. Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Income and human development indices provide even less confirmation of the development/democracy ... 'Declaration on Democracy, Political, Economic and Corporate Governance' of the new African Union and ... good governance and multi—party democratisation, as well as economic struc- tural adjustment. In its view ...

  12. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Gaal

    Full Text Available In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked or unconsciously (strongly masked primes. We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  13. Conflict and HIV: A framework for risk assessment to prevent HIV in conflict-affected settings in Africa. (United States)

    Mock, Nancy B; Duale, Sambe; Brown, Lisanne F; Mathys, Ellen; O'maonaigh, Heather C; Abul-Husn, Nina Kl; Elliott, Sterling


    In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS and violent conflict interact to shape population health and development in dramatic ways. HIV/AIDS can create conditions conducive to conflict. Conflict can affect the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Conflict is generally understood to accelerate HIV transmission, but this view is simplistic and disregards complex interrelationships between factors that can inhibit and accelerate the spread of HIV in conflict and post conflict settings, respectively. This paper provides a framework for understanding these factors and discusses their implications for policy formulation and program planning in conflict-affected settings.

  14. Conflict and HIV: A framework for risk assessment to prevent HIV in conflict-affected settings in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mock Nancy B


    Full Text Available Abstract In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS and violent conflict interact to shape population health and development in dramatic ways. HIV/AIDS can create conditions conducive to conflict. Conflict can affect the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Conflict is generally understood to accelerate HIV transmission, but this view is simplistic and disregards complex interrelationships between factors that can inhibit and accelerate the spread of HIV in conflict and post conflict settings, respectively. This paper provides a framework for understanding these factors and discusses their implications for policy formulation and program planning in conflict-affected settings.

  15. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol


    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  16. Mixed and Complex Mixed Migration during Armed Conflict: Multidimensional Empirical Evidence from Nepal. (United States)

    Williams, Nathalie E

    Historically, legal, policy, and academic communities largely ascribed to a dichotomy between forced and voluntary migration, creating a black and white vision that was convenient for legal and policy purposes. More recently, discussions have begun addressing the possibility of mixed migration, acknowledging that there is likely a wide continuum between forced and voluntary, and most migrants likely move with some amount of compulsion and some volition, even during armed conflict. While the mixed migration hypothesis is well-received, empirical evidence is disparate and somewhat blunt at this point. In this article, I contribute a direct theoretical and causal pathway discussion of mixed migration. I also propose the complex mixed migration hypothesis, which argues that not only do non-conflict related factors influence migration during conflict, but they do so differently than during periods of relative peace. I empirically test both hypotheses in the context of the recent armed conflict in Nepal. Using detailed survey data and event history models, results provide strong evidence for both mixed migration and complex mixed migration during conflict hypotheses. These hypotheses and evidence suggest that armed conflict might have substantial impacts on long-term population growth and change, with significant relevance in both academic and policy spheres.

  17. Determinants of civil conflict in Colombia : How robust are they?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Acosta, M.A.; Daza, N.A.


    We analyze how the determinants of the civil conflict in Colombia at the municipal level respond to changes in the empirical strategy. We estimate several econometric models that vary in three dimensions: 1) the data set, 2) the measure of conflict, and 3) the estimation method. We find substantial

  18. 167 History, Land and Conflict in Nigeria: The Aguleri- Umuleri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    over Otuocha land as the sole cause of the conflict, neglecting the aspect on ... religious and inter-personal, among other forms of conflicts. ... relationship. This led to the distortion in the reconstruction of their history, as Umuleri community changed their name to. Umueri, to substantiate their claim of being the direct descent.

  19. Pulsating combustion: Theoretical and empirical substantiation of ecological effect (United States)

    Berg, I. A.; Porshnev, S. V.; Oshchepkova, V. Y.


    There are two primary parameters that characterize operation of modern energy generation units that burn fuel, namely - unit efficiency and the amount of noxious emissions. Usually units that operate at the maximum efficiency produce maximum potential emissions of noxious substances (as NOx) into the atmosphere. This work provides theoretical substantiation for control of the combustion process by superimposing controlled irregularities to the fuel supply rate in order to suppress NOx generation while retaining the unit's technical parameters and cost efficiency. The substantiation uses known empirically obtained NOx generation dependency from the air excess ratio. Evaluation of the generated NOx content was performed using numerical integration of the composed time sequences describing changes in the NOx concentration in the combustion products for various types of control actions. Evaluation of bands of operating frequencies for the proposed method of combustion control are presented. The proposed theoretical substantiation made it possible to determine conditions and technics for experimental work.

  20. Indicators of Potential Conflict.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed)


    textabstractSummary: This paper focuses on the main factors that contribute to the dangers of violent internal conflict erupting, or re-igniting after a peace has been concluded. The conflict literature has identified greed and grievance as the principle causes of conflict. But for either of them to

  1. Kantian fractionalization predicts the conflict propensity of the international system. (United States)

    Cranmer, Skyler J; Menninga, Elizabeth J; Mucha, Peter J


    Network science has spurred a reexamination of relational phenomena in political science, including the study of international conflict. We introduce a new direction to the study of conflict by showing that the multiplex fractionalization of the international system along three key dimensions is a powerful predictor of the propensity for violent interstate conflict. Even after controlling for well-established conflict indicators, our new measure contributes more to model fit for interstate conflict than all of the previously established measures combined. Moreover, joint democracy plays little, if any, role in predicting system stability, thus challenging perhaps the major empirical finding of the international relations literature. Lastly, the temporal variability of our measure with conflict is consistent with a causal relationship. Our results have real-world policy implications as changes in our fractionalization measure substantially aid the prediction of conflict up to 10 years into the future, allowing it to serve as an early warning sign of international instability.

  2. Substantiating powder metal life methodologies for engines (United States)

    Domas, P. A.


    The application of powder metal (PM) superalloys in aircraft turbine engine rotating components is prompted by performance driven high strength and creep resistance requirements. Fine grain, precipitation strengthened nickel-base alloys such as IN100, Rene'95, and Rene'88DT meet these requirements up to operating temperatures in the 1200-1300F (649-704C) range. In addition to burst and deformation limits, design constraints include durability (fatigue) and damage tolerance (crack growth resistance) capability to insure reliability and safety. Fatigue life for these alloys can be influenced by inhomogeneities (inclusions) intrinsic to the microstructure as the result of processing, and by perturbations of the surface integrity during component manufacture and subsequent usage. Understanding of PM fatigue behavior and substantiation of life assessment methodology must appropriately recognize these potential influences. New testing, modeling, and analysis schemes are necessitated in engineering development programs addressing generation and validation of life prediction techniques for these materials. This paper outlines one approach to substantiating PM fatigue life prediction that attempts to recognize homogeneous fatigue initiation by incorporating probabilistic models and development testing methods that address material volume and component feature effects. Complications and limitations being addressed in ongoing work are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Харченко


    Full Text Available Enhancement of requirements for air traffic efficiency at increasing of flights intensity determines the necessity of development of new optimization methods for aircraft conflict resolutions. The statement of problem of optimal conflict resolutions at Cooperative Air Traffic Management was done. The method for optimal aircraft conflict  resolution by course maneuvering has been  developed. The method using dynamic programming provides planning of aircraft conflict-free trajectory with minimum length. The decomposition of conflict resolution process on phases and stages, definition of states, controls and recursive  equations for generation of optimal course control program were done. Computer modeling of aircraft conflict resolution by developed method was done

  4. Religious and sacred imperatives in human conflict. (United States)

    Atran, Scott; Ginges, Jeremy


    Religion, in promoting outlandish beliefs and costly rituals, increases ingroup trust but also may increase mistrust and conflict with outgroups. Moralizing gods emerged over the last few millennia, enabling large-scale cooperation, and sociopolitical conquest even without war. Whether for cooperation or conflict, sacred values, like devotion to God or a collective cause, signal group identity and operate as moral imperatives that inspire nonrational exertions independent of likely outcomes. In conflict situations, otherwise mundane sociopolitical preferences may become sacred values, acquiring immunity to material incentives. Sacred values sustain intractable conflicts that defy "business-like" negotiation, but also provide surprising opportunities for resolution.

  5. Conflict Resolution at Work for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Vivian


    A practical workplace guide to handling conflict effectively. Managing employees and encouraging them to work together toward a common goal is an essential skill that all leaders should possess. Conflict Resolution at Work For Dummies provides the tools and advice you need to restore peace, train your colleagues to get along better with others, prevent conflicts from ever starting, and maintain better productivity while boosting morale.: One of the only trade publications that takes the manager's perspective on how to address conflicts, resolve disputes, and restore peace and productivity to t

  6. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, M.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834343


    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is

  7. Rethinking Ethnic Conflict: Somalia and Fiji. (United States)

    McFerson, Hazel M.


    Compares and contrasts the recent years of ethnic conflict in Somali and Fiji. The widely divergent reactions of both populations dispels the belief that ethnic pluralism is both a necessary and sufficient condition for violent conflict in a society. Provides succinct portraits of both societies and their cultures. (MJP)

  8. Rectifying Horizontal Inequalities: Lessons from African Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most prevalent and underrepresented root causes of conflict in Africa and worldwide is that of horizontal inequalities. In that light, the goal of this paper is to provide practical solutions for the long-term resolution of conflict by addressing one of its root causes, that of horizontal inequalities. Reference will be made ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTS AND HUMANITIES ... as globalization. These have thrown up a lot of conflicts in African. The struggle for economic resources has led to conflicts, electoral violence and thuggery amongst the .... most of the state left the state in the business of providing consumables, employment.

  10. Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Dec 5, 2008 ... Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution will be of interests to students and scholars of trade, international relations, and conflict studies. ... This project will provide evidence on the role of high-quality, affordable daycare in allowing mothers to work in paid employment in poor urban contexts.

  11. The Development of Community Conflict Intervention. (United States)

    Laue, James H.


    Conflict intervention employs an outside party to influence the outcome of a conflict by applying negotiation, conciliation, mediation, and arbitration. Originally used in labor-management disputes, these techniques have been applied in family and neighborhood disputes, in provider-consumer disputes, and in environmental and international…

  12. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã


    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  13. Managing intercultural conflict effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Ting-Toomey, Stella


    In this volume, Ting-Toomey and Oetzel accomplish two objectives: to explain the culture-based situational conflict model, including the relationship among conflict, ethnicity, and culture; and, second, integrate theory and practice in the discussion of interpersonal conflict in culture, ethnic, and gender contexts. While the book is theoretically directed, it is also a down-to-earth practical book that contains ample examples, conflict dialogues, and critical incidents. Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively helps to illustrate the complexity of intercultural conflict interactions and readers will gain a broad yet integrative perspective in assessing intercultural conflict situations. The book is a multidisciplinary text that draws from the research work of a variety of disciplines such as cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, marital and family studies, international management, and communication.

  14. Peace and conflict in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many interpretations of peace and conflict in Africa are too simplistic. The book under review, therefore, seeks to deviate from those interpretations and provide a more detailed perspective. A collection of essays edited by David J. Francis, the book is touted as an introduction text to key themes with regard to peace and.

  15. Intragroup Conflict during Study Abroad (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter


    Co-national groups of individuals from the same country can provide members with psychological and sociocultural support when coping with the stresses of studying abroad. This article examines intragroup task and relationship conflict that occurred in one co-national group during a 14-week short-term study abroad program. Findings reveal the…

  16. Conflict, health care and professional perseverance: a qualitative study in the West Bank. (United States)

    Sousa, Cindy; Hagopian, Amy


    The past three decades have been a time of considerable global conflict, affecting over 50 countries and causing substantial impacts on civilian health. While many effects are direct results of violence, conflict also impinges on health through indirect means. The restricted mobility of health care staff and patients, targeting of health care workers, and stressful working conditions disrupt the ability of health care workers in conflict zones to function effectively. This paper explores the challenges experienced by health care workers in West Bank, Palestine, as well as their strategies of persistence. Research activities included participant observation and interviews with health care providers, which were then analysed for common themes. Results demonstrated that the Israeli military occupation of the West Bank considerably impacts civilians' access to both urgent and preventive care. While attempting to deliver care, providers encountered disruptions, harassment and violence, which interrupted care and contributed to job stress. Professional perseverance was evident, but its influence was limited by enduring constraints. This study thus underscores the importance of accountability to international law regarding the rights of civilians to health care in conflict zones. Health professionals may play a particular role in advocating for just and dignified resolutions to conflicts.

  17. Conflict Resolution, Can It Really Make a Difference in the Classroom: Conflict Resolution Strategies for Classroom Teachers (United States)

    Pollan, Savannah; Wilson-Younger, Dylinda


    This article discusses conflict and provides five resolutions for teachers on managing negative behaviors within the classroom. Acknowledging and implementing conflict resolution strategies in the classroom enables every student to fully participate in the learning process.

  18. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation (United States)

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn; Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhu


    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production, but the natural reversal of the process--carbonation--has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global CO2 uptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry. We find that carbonation of cement materials over their life cycle represents a large and growing net sink of CO2, increasing from 0.10 GtC yr-1 in 1998 to 0.25 GtC yr-1 in 2013. In total, we estimate that a cumulative amount of 4.5 GtC has been sequestered in carbonating cement materials from 1930 to 2013, offsetting 43% of the CO2 emissions from production of cement over the same period, not including emissions associated with fossil use during cement production. We conclude that carbonation of cement products represents a substantial carbon sink that is not currently considered in emissions inventories.

  19. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering (United States)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.


    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1-x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  20. Belief Functions: A Revision of Plausibility Conflict and Pignistic Conflict


    Daniel, M. (Milan)


    Plausibility conflict of belief functions is based on decisional support / opposition of elements of a frame of discernment. It distinguishes conflict between belief functions from internal conflicts of individual functions. This contribution presents a revision of plausibility conflict between belief functions. According to four types of conflicting sets, four variants of plausibility conflict are defined. Further, a new alternative approach - pignistic conflict - based on pignistic probabil...

  1. Conflict in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Smolinski, Remigiusz; Speakman, Ian


    : the repetitive character of routine, disagreement over the “validity” of the existing routines, disagreement concerning the definition of new targets, and resistance towards change processes. Further the authors point to the inherent tendency to routinize conflict management strategies and the risks......The goal of this conceptual paper is to apply the insights of recent routine research in the area of conflict and conflict management. As a result, the authors identify four different types of conflict sources that are rooted in routines and the specific difficulties connected with their change...... that are associated with this process. As a result, this paper offers new insights into the causes and structure of conflicts triggered by change processes as well as into the management of repetitive conflicts....

  2. Conflict or Consensus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Poulsen, Birgitte

    administrators working on every-day basis with citizen involvement with a better understanding of conflicts and how to resolve conflicts. The empirical part is based on previous qualitative studies with public administrators that worked as facilitators in urban regeneration projects and in local environmental...... forms of institutional design of citizen participation processes, less attention has been paid to the role of public administrators, and their role in facilitating processes of citizen participation. Public administrators have to work with diverse groups of citizens with diverging, and often conflicting......, interests. However, many public administrators have not been adequately exposed to the rationales of conflicts and the skills in resolving conflicts. The aim of this paper is to analyse the different types of conflicts that public administrators experience in formal processes of citizen involvement. Whereas...

  3. Marital conflict, divorce, and children's adjustment. (United States)

    Kelly, J B


    This article summarizes current research on children's adjustment after separation and divorce, and then focuses on the contributions of marital conflict, marital violence, and hostile family environments to children's adjustment during marriage and after divorce. Children living in marriages with frequent and intense conflict are significantly more likely to have substantial adjustment problems before parental divorce and compromised parent-child relationships. These findings suggest that the deleterious effects of divorce per se have been overstated, with insufficient attention paid in the clinical and research literature to the damaging effects of highly troubled marriages on children's adjustment.

  4. New Evidence on the Relationship Between Climate and Conflict (United States)

    Burke, M.


    We synthesize a large new body of research on the relationship between climate and conflict. We consider many types of human conflict, ranging from interpersonal conflict -- domestic violence, road rage, assault, murder, and rape -- to intergroup conflict -- riots, coups, ethnic violence, land invasions, gang violence, and civil war. After harmonizing statistical specifications and standardizing estimated effect sizes within each conflict category, we implement a meta-analysis that allows us to estimate the mean effect of climate variation on conflict outcomes as well as quantify the degree of variability in this effect size across studies. Looking across more than 50 studies, we find that deviations from moderate temperatures and precipitation patterns systematically increase the risk of conflict, often substantially, with average effects that are highly statistically significant. We find that contemporaneous temperature has the largest average effect by far, with each 1 standard deviation increase toward warmer temperatures increasing the frequency of contemporaneous interpersonal conflict by 2% and of intergroup conflict by more than 10%. We also quantify substantial heterogeneity in these effect estimates across settings.





    At a time of global economic crisis followed by resource crisis, a period in which the world seeks alternative resources through eco-investment, environmental conflicts are inevitable. Romania is among the few countries that do not pay enough attention to environmental conflicts and to the advantages to of solving them through mediation procedure. The present paper deals with areas in which conflicts can be applied in environmental mediation and its benefits.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available At a time of global economic crisis followed by resource crisis, a period in which the world seeks alternative resources through eco-investment, environmental conflicts are inevitable. Romania is among the few countries that do not pay enough attention to environmental conflicts and to the advantages to of solving them through mediation procedure. The present paper deals with areas in which conflicts can be applied in environmental mediation and its benefits.

  7. Conflict cultures in organizations: how leaders shape conflict cultures and their organizational-level consequences. (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Leslie, Lisa M; Keller, Kirsten; de Dreu, Carsten


    Anecdotal evidence abounds that organizations have distinct conflict cultures, or socially shared norms for how conflict should be managed. However, research to date has largely focused on conflict management styles at the individual and small group level, and has yet to examine whether organizations create socially shared and normative ways to manage conflict. In a sample of leaders and members from 92 branches of a large bank, factor analysis and aggregation analyses show that 3 conflict cultures-collaborative, dominating, and avoidant-operate at the unit level of analysis. Building on Lewin, Lippitt, and White's (1939) classic work, we find that leaders' own conflict management behaviors are associated with distinct unit conflict cultures. The results also demonstrate that conflict cultures have implications for macro branch-level outcomes, including branch viability (i.e., cohesion, potency, and burnout) and branch performance (i.e., creativity and customer service). A conflict culture perspective moves beyond the individual level and provides new insight into the dynamics of conflict management in organizational contexts. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Merkusheva


    Full Text Available The article prepared for the ‘Psychological and Methodological Aspects of Professional Personnel Training at Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation’ scholar tradition looks at the applied aspect of handling security issues by traffic police officers. It presents the results of empirical study of the employees’ psychological characteristics conducted to substantiate their attributional style, which determines the specific character as well as the qua-lity and reliability of traffic police officers’ performance. Traffic police officers’ attributional style of behavior is researched with the help of attributional cognitive techniques for hazard phenomena detection as well as social perception and attribution technique and is viewed as the most stable entity, which reflects the employee’s personal and professional focus.Goal: to provide empirical substantiation of attributional style in traffic police officers’ behavior as an integral personality characteristic that ensures timely detection of hazard phenomena.

  9. The Stratway Program for Strategic Conflict Resolution: User's Guide (United States)

    Hagen, George E.; Butler, Ricky W.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.


    Stratway is a strategic conflict detection and resolution program. It provides both intent-based conflict detection and conflict resolution for a single ownship in the presence of multiple traffic aircraft and weather cells defined by moving polygons. It relies on a set of heuristic search strategies to solve conflicts. These strategies are user configurable through multiple parameters. The program can be called from other programs through an application program interface (API) and can also be executed from a command line.

  10. Why Having a (Nonfinancial) Interest Is Not a Conflict of Interest


    Bero, Lisa A.; Grundy, Quinn


    A current debate about conflicts of interest related to biomedical research is to question whether the focus on financial conflicts of interest overshadows "nonfinancial" interests that could put scientific judgment at equal or greater risk of bias. There is substantial evidence that financial conflicts of interest such as commercial sponsorship of research and investigators lead to systematic biases in scientific research at all stages of the research process. Conflation of "conflicts of int...

  11. Sexual conflict in plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In dioecious species, the two sexes often make different investments in reproduction, or have different reproductive strategies, leading to divergent selection pressures across sexes. This, combined with a shared genome, can poten- tially result in an intragenomic conflict called sexual conflict. (Chapman et al. 2003). Sexual ...

  12. Conflict in Cyber Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karsten; Ringsmose, Jens

    Over the past two decades, a new man-made domain of conflict has materialized. Alongside armed conflict in the domains of land, sea, air, and space, hostilities between different types of political actors are now taking place in cyberspace. This volume addresses the challenges posed by cyberspace...

  13. Schaamte, conflict en gezondheid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baneke, J.J.


    Shame, conflict and health ¿ the Antigone as paradigm.Shame or avoidance of shame are two possible reactions to unexpected negative exposure in front of another person. In particular public exposure, as in court, politics, or other public arena¿s, often culminates in destructive conflicts. According

  14. Multicultural team conflict management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Heinz


    Full Text Available The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  15. Multicultural team conflict management


    Krystyna Heinz


    The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  16. Managing Conflict during Divorce (United States)

    ... the underlying emotional issues that may be fueling conflict and keeping them from negotiating an agreement. The “strategic mediation” model is a ... approach that focuses on addressing hidden dimensions of conflict in order to move ... agreement. Collaborative Divorce Collaborative divorce is an ...

  17. Mediation in Violent Conflict


    Baumann, Jonas; Clayton, Govinda


    Mediation is a process in which a third party assists the disputants, with their consent, in preventing, managing, or resolving a conflict. It is a widely used conflict resolution tool. Nevertheless, to improve its effectiveness, concepts need to be clarified, its strengths and limits recognized, and the field professionalized.

  18. High-Conflict Divorce. (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.


    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  19. Stimulus conflict predicts conflict adaptation in a numerical flanker task. (United States)

    Notebaert, Wim; Verguts, Tom


    Conflict monitoring theory states that response conflict triggers conflict adaptation, resulting in reduced congruency effects after response-incongruent trials (Botvinick, Braver, Barch, Carter, & Cohen, 2001). Verbruggen, Notebaert, Liefooghe, and Vandierendonck (2006) observed conflict adaptation after stimulus-incongruent trials without any response conflict. In this study, we further explorethe hypothesis that stimulus conflict is an important trigger for conflict adaptation. We propose a measure for stimulus conflict that adequately explains the data of Verbruggen et al. and new data from a numerical flanker task. We conclude that stimulus conflict and response conflict have dissociable effects on behavior. Whereas response conflict is a good predictor of response times, stimulus conflict is a better predictor of the adaptation effect.

  20. Fulani herdsmen's pastoral activities, conflict and conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of crop farmers and nomads respectively had less than 20 years of farming experience Also the results showed that problems encountered by the crop farmers were crop destruction (22.89 %) and sexual harassment (20.65 %) while cattle theft (69.57 %) and language barrier (30.43 %) were those of the nomads. Conflicts ...

  1. Conflict and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Brescó, Ignacio


    This introduction to the special issue on conflict and memory aims to underscore the importance of memory (whether individual and collective) in relation to intergroup conflicts. We argue that the way in which societies reconstruct and bring the past into the present—especially, the historical past......—is crucial when it comes to the study of intergroup conflict dynamics. In this regard, we also highlight the growing importance of memory studies within the area of social sciences as well as the multiple ways of approaching memory. Drawing from this wide theoretical framework, we introduce the articles...... of this issue, eight articles that tackle the role of memory in different conflicts, whether currently under way, in progress of being resolved, in postwar settings, or in contexts conflicts expected to happen do not arise....

  2. Automatic filtering and substantiation of drug safety signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bauer-Mehren

    Full Text Available Drug safety issues pose serious health threats to the population and constitute a major cause of mortality worldwide. Due to the prominent implications to both public health and the pharmaceutical industry, it is of great importance to unravel the molecular mechanisms by which an adverse drug reaction can be potentially elicited. These mechanisms can be investigated by placing the pharmaco-epidemiologically detected adverse drug reaction in an information-rich context and by exploiting all currently available biomedical knowledge to substantiate it. We present a computational framework for the biological annotation of potential adverse drug reactions. First, the proposed framework investigates previous evidences on the drug-event association in the context of biomedical literature (signal filtering. Then, it seeks to provide a biological explanation (signal substantiation by exploring mechanistic connections that might explain why a drug produces a specific adverse reaction. The mechanistic connections include the activity of the drug, related compounds and drug metabolites on protein targets, the association of protein targets to clinical events, and the annotation of proteins (both protein targets and proteins associated with clinical events to biological pathways. Hence, the workflows for signal filtering and substantiation integrate modules for literature and database mining, in silico drug-target profiling, and analyses based on gene-disease networks and biological pathways. Application examples of these workflows carried out on selected cases of drug safety signals are discussed. The methodology and workflows presented offer a novel approach to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse drug reactions.

  3. Managing Conflict: A Guide for the Pharmacy Manager. (United States)

    Haumschild, Ryan J; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J


    Managing conflict among a variety of people and groups is a necessary part of creating a high performance pharmacy department. As new pharmacy managers enter the workforce, much of their success depends on how they manage conflict. The goal of this article is to provide a guide for the pharmacy director on conflict in the workplace. By evaluating each type of conflict, we can learn how to respond when it occurs. Resolving conflict requires a unique and individualized approach, and the strategy used may often be based on the situational context and the personality of the employee or manager. The more that pharmacy leaders can engage in conflict resolution with employees and external leaders, the more proactive they can be in achieving positive results. If pharmacy directors understand the source of conflicts and use management strategies to resolve them, they will ensure that conflicts result in a more effective patient-centered pharmacy service.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiyar Fayzullaevich Akhanov


    Full Text Available Purpose: consider the essence of the concept of tolerance, identify features of organizational and pedagogical activity to form a tolerant behavior of students.Method or methodology of work: systematic, comparative analysis, etymological analysis, scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, axiomatic, generalization.Results: the article deals with consideration of essence of the phenomenon of «tolerance», «multicultural education». The article explains the principles of organizational-pedagogical activity on the formation of subjects of tolerant behavior, mechanisms providing the successful formation of tolerant attitude and behavior, the main peculiarity of the program of cultivation of tolerance, initiated by the institutions of General education.Practical implications. The results of the research and formulated conclusions can be used in the development of programs extracurricular educational activities for schools and included in the course of socio-humanitarian disciplines of organizations of professional education.

  5. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care. (United States)

    Pârvan, Alexandra


    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Economic Dimensions of Civil Conflicts (United States)


    dialogue3_ballentine_nitzschke.pdf 14 Paivi Lujala, Siri Aas Rustad and Philippe Le Billon, “Valuable Natural Resources in Conflict Affected States,” in Mats and shelter. He emphasizes the need for providing health facilities, educational systems , and a socially secure environment to system after the Cold War, due to changes in the nature of war, and globalization. First, before the Cold War, insurgent movements were dependent

  7. Conflict Engagement: A Relational Approach. (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra


    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE;, highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.

  8. Cultural influences on cognitive representations of conflict: interpretations of conflict episodes in the United States and Japan. (United States)

    Gelfand, M J; Nishii, L H; Holcombe, K M; Dyer, N; Ohbuchi, K I; Fukuno, M


    This article integrates theory from the cognitive tradition in negotiation with theory on culture and examines cultural influences on cognitive representations of conflict. The authors predicted that although there may be universal (etic) dimensions of conflict construals, there also may be culture-specific (emic) representations of conflict in the United States and Japan. Results of multidimensional scaling analyses of U.S. and Japanese conflict episodes supported this view. Japanese and Americans construed conflicts through a compromise versus win frame (R. L. Pinkley, 1990), providing evidence of a universal dimension of conflict construal. As the authors predicted, Japanese perceived conflicts to be more compromise-focused, as compared with Americans. There were also unique dimensions of construal among Americans and Japanese (infringements to self and giri violations, respectively), suggesting that identical conflict episodes are perceived differently across cultures.

  9. 50 CFR 80.13 - Substantiality in character and design. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantiality in character and design. 80... Substantiality in character and design. All projects proposed for funding under the Acts must be substantial in character and design. A substantial project (for fish and wildlife purposes) is one which: (a) Identifies...

  10. Conflict Resolution in Headquarters-Subsidiary Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Gammelgaard, Jens


    -subsidiary relationships with regulatory focus, moral emotions, and conflict resolution. The chapter outlines the relationships between the regulatory focus of a headquarters’ boundary spanner, and his or her manner of engagement, conflict sensitivity, violation of code, moral emotions, and the way conflicts are resolved....... The theoretical framework developed here provides a starting point for future research on bargaining processes between boundary spanners of a multinational corporation (MNC). This chapter is the first one to discuss regulatory focus, and moral emotions, in the contexts of a MNC headquarters...

  11. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...... Common Security and Defence Policy with the explicit purpose to help manage violent conflicts beyond its borders. This book develops a definition and a set of criteria for success in military conflict management and applies this new analytical framework in a comparative case study of the five EU military...

  12. The NPD team conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Tanev, Stoyan


    elaborates on the role of culture diversity and geographical dispersion in NPD team conflict. A simulation is conducted where organizations may be regarded as complex systems to affect the team conflict with a variety of influences. The results firstly indicate that there are two dimensions of NPD team...... conflict: stable and unstable dimensions with four elements: task characteristics, group members’ relationship, cultural diversity and geographical dispersion; secondly, there are two phenomena whereby the geographical dispersion influences the NPD team interaction, and the influence between cultural...

  13. Indicators of Potential Conflict


    Murshed, Syed


    textabstractSummary: This paper focuses on the main factors that contribute to the dangers of violent internal conflict erupting, or re-igniting after a peace has been concluded. The conflict literature has identified greed and grievance as the principle causes of conflict. But for either of them to take the form of large-scale violence there must be other factors at work, specifically a weakening of the ʻsocial contractʼ. Such a viable social contract can be sufficient to restrain opportunis...

  14. Ethnic Conflicts and Governmental Conflict Management (United States)


    manipulation by ethnic leaders. Thus, there are bidirectional relationships between hegemonic aspirations and ethnic leaders. Most of the time ethnic...perhaps the strongest and clearest statement of national identity. In essence, they serve as modern totems that bear a special relationship to the...Assessment of Interracial /Interethnic Conflict in Los Angeles,” 2002, Center for Research in Society and Politics, University of California. Serwer, Daniel

  15. Conflict, Memory, and Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio


    The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basq...... with a discussion on the role of history teaching in promoting a more critical, reflexive, and pluralistic way of dealing with memory, and hence with conflict....... conflict adopted their respective positions, and interpretation of the conflict, and how, in light of same, they reconstruct the failed peace process that took place in 2006 between the terrorist group ETA (Euzkadi ta Azcatasuna, or Basque Country and Freedom in English) and the Spanish government. Results...


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H. F. Moskalyk; M. O. Bulach


    ... women. The causes of the emergence of gender conflicts in individual social groups and the strategies for their solution have not been sufficiently explored and require further study and, therefore, are relevant...

  17. Caring after conflict. (United States)

    Dallaire, Roméo


    Senator Roméo Dallaire commanded the UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda in 1994. He spoke to Ben Jones about helping combatants after conflict, child soldiers and why writing his books meant "going back to hell".

  18. Resolving Marital Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islami Hatixhe


    Full Text Available Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.

  19. Resolving Environmental Conflicts (United States)

    McCarthy, Jane E.


    An experimental approach now being tried to resolve environmental conflicts is the use of the negotiation-mediation process. The role of the mediator and the nature of the mediation process as applied to environmental disputes are outlined. (BT)

  20. Conflict and Moral Judgment (United States)

    Peterson, Candida; And Others


    A conflict procedure in which reliance on adult values was opposed to reliance on damage as a measure of blame was found to facilitate second-grade children's use of intention in making moral judgments of story pairs. (ST)

  1. Deterring Spoilers: Peace Enforcement Operations and Political Settlements to Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manseau, Nicole C


    .... In Somalia, Operation Restore Hope provided a strong peace enforcement operation, but ultimately failed to deter spoilers to United Nations negotiations for a political settlement to the conflict...

  2. Beyond Masculinity: Gender, Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notwithstanding the central role women have played in the armed conflict in Northern Uganda, they have been side-lined in the processes of peace negotiation and post conflict reconstruction of the region. This paper looks at how masculinity is manipulated in conflict and the role women have played in the conflict, peace ...

  3. Playing With Conflict: Teaching Conflict Resolution through Simulations and Games (United States)

    Powers, Richard B.; Kirkpatrick, Kat


    Playing With Conflict is a weekend course for graduate students in Portland State University's Conflict Resolution program and undergraduates in all majors. Students participate in simulations, games, and experiential exercises to learn and practice conflict resolution skills. Graduate students create a guided role-play of a conflict. In addition…

  4. Parent-Adolescent Conflicts, Conflict Resolution Types, and Adolescent Adjustment (United States)

    Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim


    The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…

  5. Approaches to Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Toddler Relationships (United States)

    Ashby, Nicole; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine


    The importance of conflict and its resolution for children's short- and long-term adjustment has been well established within the research literature. Conflict and conflict resolution differs according to a number of constructs, including age, gender and relationship status. The purpose of this study was to explore conflict origins, resolution…

  6. Women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution among the Issa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article tries to show the impacts of conflict on women, the role of women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution, and the participation of women in social institutions and ceremonies among the Issa and Gurgura clans of the Somali ethnic group. It explores the system of conflict resolution in these clans, and ...

  7. The substantiation of development of mousses technology using wheat starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Мriachenko


    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the substantiation of development of technology of fruit and vegetable mousses using wheat starch and surfactant – Tween 20. The innovative idea of product with foamy structure was expounded, the implementation of which will allow to provide obtaining of the final product with stable quality indicators, new consumer characteristics and will give an opportunity to carry out the production technological process with distinct industrial signs.The foaming capacity and foam stability of “wheat starch-Tween 20” model systems depending on the heat treatment temperature and starch concentration were investigated. The rational foaming zone was determined that will allow to obtain foamy structure of mousses. The model systems behavior was studied by the determining of their viscosity. It was confirmed that the controlled regulation of dynamic phase transitions of starch with surfactant provides food systems’ colloidal stability.

  8. Substantial Research Secures the Blue Future for our Blue Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdel Maksoud


    Full Text Available Earth, the blue planet, is our home, and seas and oceans cover more than 70% of its surface. As the earth’s population rapidly increases and available resources decrease, seas and oceans can play a key role in assuring the long-term survival of humankind. Renewable maritime energy has huge potential to provide a considerable part of the earth’s population with decarbonised electricity generation systems. Renewable maritime energy is very flexible and can be harvested above the water’s free surface by using offshore wind turbines, on the water’s surface by using wave energy converters or below the water’s surface by using current or tidal turbines. The supposed conflict between environmental protection measures and economic interests is neither viable nor reasonable. Renewable maritime energy can be the motor for considerable substantial economic growth for many maritime regions and therefore for society at large. The fastest growing sector of renewable maritime energy is offshore wind. The annual report of the European Wind Energy Association from the year 2015 confirms the growing relevance of the offshore wind industry. In 2015, the total installed and grid-connected capacity of wind power was 12,800 MW in the EU and 6,013.4 MW in Germany. 38% of the 2015 annual installation in Germany was offshore, accounting for a capacity of 2,282.4 MW. However, there are a limited number of available installation sites in shallow water, meaning that there is an urgent need to develop new offshore structures for water depths greater than 50m. The persistent trend towards deeper waters has encouraged the offshore wind industry to look for floating wind turbine structures and larger turbines. Floating wind turbine technologies are at an early stage of development and many technical and economic challenges will still need to be faced. Nonetheless, intensive research activities and the employment of advanced technologies are the key factors in

  9. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    Common Security and Defence Policy with the explicit purpose to help manage violent conflicts beyond its borders. This book develops a definition and a set of criteria for success in military conflict management and applies this new analytical framework in a comparative case study of the five EU military......This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...... operations undertaken in Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Chad and the Central African Republic. Having evaluated their success the book goes on to explore the conditions under which military conflict management operations conducted by international organizations...

  10. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...... are successful and explores the implications of its findings for the future theory and practice of military conflict management....... Common Security and Defence Policy with the explicit purpose to help manage violent conflicts beyond its borders. This book develops a definition and a set of criteria for success in military conflict management and applies this new analytical framework in a comparative case study of the five EU military...

  11. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...... Common Security and Defence Policy with the explicit purpose to help manage violent conflicts beyond its borders. This book develops a definition and a set of criteria for success in military conflict management and applies this new analytical framework in a comparative case study of the five EU military...... operations undertaken in Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Chad and the Central African Republic. Having evaluated their success the book goes on to explore the conditions under which military conflict management operations conducted by international organizations...

  12. Role of Managers in Solving Conflicts in the Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Conflict means a clash of opinions in the simplest term. It is clear that clash of opinions will be everywhere if human is there and this will cause conflicts. In that case, it is possible and should be expected there will be conflicts in the organizations in which many different people work together, have different cultures and world views, with different education and equipments, different expectations and purposes. Firstly, this study defines conflict and conflict in the organization. It tries to emphasize the importance of the issue of conflict in the organization by focusing on reasons, sources, types and phases of the conflicts. The cause-effect relations are examined and suggestions for both managers and academicians are provided.

  13. Food Insecurity and Conflict Dynamics: Causal Linkages and Complex Feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cullen Hendrix


    Full Text Available This paper addresses two related topics: 1 the circular link between food insecurity and conflict, with particular emphasis on the Sahel, and 2 the potential role of food security interventions in reducing the risk of violent conflicts. While we eschew mono-causal explanations of conflict, acute food insecurity can be a factor in popular mobilization and a risk multiplier. Moreover, violent conflict itself is a major driver of acute food insecurity. If food insecurity is a threat multiplier for conflict, improving food security can reduce tensions and contribute to more stable environments. If these interventions are done right, the vicious cycle of food insecurity and conflict can be transformed into a virtuous cycle of food security and stability that provides peace dividends, reduces conflict drivers, enhances social cohesion, rebuilds social trust, and builds the legitimacy and capacity of governments.

  14. 19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing or...

  15. 45 CFR 1355.34 - Criteria for determining substantial conformity. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for determining substantial conformity... GENERAL § 1355.34 Criteria for determining substantial conformity. (a) Criteria to be satisfied. ACF will determine a State's substantial conformity with title IV-B and title IV-E State plan requirements based on...

  16. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conformity and substantial compliance. 604.6... FOR ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.6 Conformity and substantial compliance. (a) In... for the administration of its UC program. (b) Resolving Issues of Conformity and Substantial...

  17. Financial conflicts of interest in science. (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K


    containing hypothetical situations in which a conflict may arise. The combination of the psychology literature and our empirical study can provide support to the creation of new policies. Policy proposals include implementation of default rules, education, and changes to academic requirements. Furthermore, this Article considers ways to incentivize medical centers to implement effective policies as well as changes to intellectual property law.

  18. Organizational power and conflict regarding the hospital-physician relationship: symbolic or substantive? (United States)

    Rivers, P A; Woodard, B; Munchus, G


    The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of organizational power and conflict regarding the hospital-physician relationship. The issue of power being symbolic and/or substantive is discussed. The classification (Mintzberg Model) of organizations as simple structures, machine bureaucracies, professional bureaucracies, divisionalized forms and adhocracies are reviewed. Also, the issue of whether the perceived autonomy that professional employees enjoy increases the likelihood that an executive level manager in a professional bureaucracy (hospital entity) will devote substantial attention to influencing symbolic outcomes as opposed to substantive outcomes in a machine bureaucracy is discussed. In conclusion, conflicts between hospitals and physicians can be resolved in two ways: (1) by avoiding controversial decisions that might threaten the powers and prerogatives of professional groups; and (2) by agreeing to decisions that hold something for everyone involved in the hospital-physician power relationship.

  19. A Reinforcement Model of the Relationships of Supervisors' General Communication Styles and Conflict Management Styles to Task Attraction. (United States)

    Wheeless, Lawrence R.; Reichel, Lisa S.


    Investigates the relationship between general styles of communicating and more situation-specific conflict management styles. Finds substantial relationships between general communication styles and conflict management styles, as well as very substantial relationships between the style constructs and task attraction of supervisors. (SR)

  20. Patient Advocacy Organizations, Industry Funding, and Conflicts of Interest. (United States)

    Rose, Susannah L; Highland, Janelle; Karafa, Matthew T; Joffe, Steven


    Patient advocacy organizations (PAOs) are influential health care stakeholders that provide direct counseling and education for patients, engage in policy advocacy, and shape research agendas. Many PAOs report having financial relationships with for-profit industry, yet little is known about the nature of these relationships. To describe the nature of industry funding and partnerships between PAOs and for-profit companies in the United States. A survey was conducted from September 1, 2013, to June 30, 2014, of a nationally representative random sample of 439 PAO leaders, representing 5.6% of 7865 PAOs identified in the United States. Survey questions addressed the nature of their activities, their financial relationships with industry, and the perceived effectiveness of their conflict of interest policies. Amount and sources of revenue as well as organizational experiences with and policies regarding financial conflict of interest. Of the 439 surveys mailed to PAO leaders, 289 (65.8%) were returned with at least 80% of the questions answered. The PAOs varied widely in terms of size, funding, activities, and disease focus. The median total revenue among responding organizations was $299 140 (interquartile range, $70 000-$1 200 000). A total of 165 of 245 PAOs (67.3%) reported receiving industry funding, with 19 of 160 PAOs (11.9%) receiving more than half of their funding from industry. Among the subset of PAOs that received industry funding, the median amount was $50 000 (interquartile range, $15 000-$200 000); the median proportion of industry support derived from the pharmaceutical, device, and/or biotechnology sectors was 45% (interquartile range, 0%-100%). A total of 220 of 269 respondents (81.8%) indicated that conflicts of interest are very or moderately relevant to PAOs, and 94 of 171 (55.0%) believed that their organizations' conflict of interest policies were very good. A total of 22 of 285 PAO leaders (7.7%) perceived pressure to conform

  1. Identities in Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Ahuja


    Full Text Available Kashmir has witnessed violent conflict for many years, and India has been one of the main players in this conflict. This study used the method of drawings to assess how this ongoing conflict has shaped the identities of young Muslims in Kashmir. The identities they expressed were compared with those expressed by young Muslims in Delhi. At each location, one group of participants was asked to draw on the theme “Me and my country” while the other group was asked to draw whatever they desired. When allowed to draw what they wished, adolescents in Kashmir drew symbols of regional identity more often and symbols of India less often than adolescents in Delhi. “I dominant” identities were depicted only by the Delhi-based sample. Drawings from Kashmir did not represent high levels of violence or a fractured relationship with the Indian state. Possible reasons have been discussed.

  2. Dialectic and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte; Kousholt, Dorte

    are at one hand historical, and they demand situated handling and coordination in concrete situations to make things work. The involved experience the contradictions from different positions, types of responsibilities and with insight from different locations. In this way contradictions have potential...... to turn into conflicts and the conflicts have personal and existential meanings to the participant in social practice (related to their possibilities for conducting everyday life) and they are historical and political (related to societal questions about education). We draw on conceptualizations of social...... practice as contradictory and developed through its contradictions (Lave, Dreier, Axel). The theoretical discussion will be illustrated through examples from conflicts between children and between parents - in relation to dealing with focus on the tasks of the school as well as flexibility in relation...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Moskalyk


    Full Text Available Actuality of work. Student age has the most favourable conditions for psychological, biological and social development; however, there are reasons why such natural advantages over other social groups can be completely or partially levelled. One of them is the presence of conflicts in the life of a student, a special group, among which there are women. The causes of the emergence of gender conflicts in individual social groups and the strategies for their solution have not been sufficiently explored and require further study and, therefore, are relevant. Purpose of the article is to investigate the causes of gender conflicts among students as a separate social group and to develop measures to address them and prevent them. Methodology. The research conducted in the work is based on the analysis and generalization of the causes of the emergence of gender conflicts among students, the identification of the main sources of information that form the consciousness of children and adolescents, and also influence their attitude to gender equality. Originality. The nature of gender conflicts has been quite effectively studied for a long time. However, the scope of research is limited to the most numerous social groups, such as the family, labour collective, political and public organizations, etc. Being a dynamic and socio-demographic formation, the students perform an important function in society – it takes a direct part in the transformation of all spheres of the life activity of the society. Based on the study of the objective conditions of the social environment with certain models of socialization that form the consciousness of students from early childhood, a three-component system of influence was first proposed, which is aimed at overcoming gender inequality and preventing gender conflicts among students. At the same time, the interaction of the components of the system will allow to minimize the gender inequality index in our country

  4. Automated Conflict Resolution, Arrival Management and Weather Avoidance for ATM (United States)

    Erzberger, H.; Lauderdale, Todd A.; Chu, Yung-Cheng


    The paper describes a unified solution to three types of separation assurance problems that occur in en-route airspace: separation conflicts, arrival sequencing, and weather-cell avoidance. Algorithms for solving these problems play a key role in the design of future air traffic management systems such as NextGen. Because these problems can arise simultaneously in any combination, it is necessary to develop integrated algorithms for solving them. A unified and comprehensive solution to these problems provides the foundation for a future air traffic management system that requires a high level of automation in separation assurance. The paper describes the three algorithms developed for solving each problem and then shows how they are used sequentially to solve any combination of these problems. The first algorithm resolves loss-of-separation conflicts and is an evolution of an algorithm described in an earlier paper. The new version generates multiple resolutions for each conflict and then selects the one giving the least delay. Two new algorithms, one for sequencing and merging of arrival traffic, referred to as the Arrival Manager, and the other for weather-cell avoidance are the major focus of the paper. Because these three problems constitute a substantial fraction of the workload of en-route controllers, integrated algorithms to solve them is a basic requirement for automated separation assurance. The paper also reviews the Advanced Airspace Concept, a proposed design for a ground-based system that postulates redundant systems for separation assurance in order to achieve both high levels of safety and airspace capacity. It is proposed that automated separation assurance be introduced operationally in several steps, each step reducing controller workload further while increasing airspace capacity. A fast time simulation was used to determine performance statistics of the algorithm at up to 3 times current traffic levels.

  5. Models of conflict and cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Gillman, Rick


    Models of Conflict and Cooperation is a comprehensive, introductory, game theory text for general undergraduate students. As a textbook, it provides a new and distinctive experience for students working to become quantitatively literate. Each chapter begins with a "dialogue" that models quantitative discourse while previewing the topics presented in the rest of the chapter. Subsequent sections develop the key ideas starting with basic models and ending with deep concepts and results. Throughout all of the sections, attention is given to promoting student engagement with the material through re

  6. Conflict of interest in oncology publications: a survey of disclosure policies and statements. (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Lee, Joy L; Avorn, Jerry; Servi, Amber; Shrank, William H; Choudhry, Niteesh K


    Disclosure of conflicts of interest in biomedical research is receiving increased attention. The authors sought to define current disclosure policies and how they relate to disclosure statements provided by authors in major oncology journals. The authors identified all oncology journals listed in the Thomson Institute for Scientific Information and sought their policies on conflict-of-interest disclosure. For a subset of journals with an Impact Factor >2.0, they catalogued the number and type of articles and the details of the published disclosures in all papers from the 2 most recent issues. Disclosure policies were provided by 112 of 131 journals (85%); 99 (88%) of these requested that authors disclose conflicts of interest (mean Impact Factor for these journals: 4.6), whereas the remaining 13 (12%) did not (mean Impact Factor: 2.9). Ninety-three journals (94%) required financial disclosure, and 42 (42%) also sought nonfinancial disclosures. For a subset of 52 higher-impact journals (Impact Factor >2.0), we reviewed 1734 articles and identified published disclosures in 51 journals (98%). Many of these journals (31 of 51, 61%) included some disclosure statement in >90% of their articles. Among 27 journals that published editorials/commentaries, only 14 (52%) included disclosures with such articles. There was no publication of any nonfinancial conflicts of interest in any article reviewed. Disclosure policies and the very definition of conflict of interest varied considerably among journals. Although most journals had some policy in this area, a substantial proportion did not publish disclosure statements consistently, with deficiencies particularly among editorials and commentaries. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  7. Conflicts in interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, G.; Hendriks, P.; Hoop, H. de; Krämer, I.; Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwarts, J.


    The leading hypothesis of this paper is that interpretation is a process of constraint satisfaction, conflict resolution, and optimization, along the lines of Optimality Theory. Support for this view is drawn from very different domains, and based on both experimental and theoretical research. We

  8. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten


    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  9. Constructive conflict at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; Nauta, A.; Giebels, E.; Janssen, O.

    Two field studies of interpersonal conflict in organizations and a simulated dyadic negotiation show that problem solving and forcing are frequently combined simultaneously and sequentially. As a robust finding, conglomerations of problem solving and forcing appear to enhance the parties' joint

  10. Children and Ethical Conflict. (United States)

    Coles, Robert


    Relates a narrative of a boy's life from his elementary school years through his early adult years. Reports on how his early empathy for the economic and social status of migrant workers changed as a result of parental pressure. Concludes that parents often send children conflicting messages about ethics and values. (CFR)

  11. Leading through Conflict (United States)

    Gerzon, Mark


    This article talks about leading significant learning opportunities through conflict of ideas in a school system. Catalyzing school change can turn emotional differences of opinion into learning opportunities. Leaders who want to deal effectively with these challenging, often tense situations need to be more than good managers. They need to be…

  12. Conflict and Tao. (United States)

    Crawford, Lyall

    What can philosophical Taoism teach us about interpersonal conflict and effective approaches for dealing with it? Examination of selected portions of the R. Hendricks translation of the "Lao-Tzu" or "Te-Tao Ching," and experiences recorded in fieldnotes while a member of a Taoist commune suggest a four-point protocol for…

  13. Disengaging from Conflict Cycles (United States)

    Long, Nicholas J.


    Youth in pain often show self-defeating and destructive patterns of behavior which should be seen as calls for help and positive support. Instead, deep-seated brain programs and cultural beliefs about discipline can trigger angry or avoidant behavior by adults who deal with these young people. This brief introduction to the Conflict Cycle…

  14. Peace, Conflict and Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    In war, the saying “a picture is worth a thousand words” applies all too well. Images of bullet-riddled houses, children injured by land- mines, and mass graves are striking and disturbing to view. Still, they are only glimpses into the reality of those whose daily lives are dominated by violent conflict. The resulting damage goes ...

  15. Islamophobia, Conflict and Citizenship (United States)

    Inman, Sally; Mc Cormack, Pip; Walker, Sarah


    This article discusses some preliminary findings of the English part of a European Commission Fundamental Rights and Citizenship funded project "Children's Voices" (2011-2013) concerned with exploring and understanding children and young people's experiences of interethnic conflict and violence in primary and secondary schools. This is a…

  16. Interpretation as conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwart, J.

    Semantic interpretation is not a simple process. When we want to know what a given sentence means, more is needed than just a simple ‘adding up’ of the meanings of the component words. Not only can the words in a sentence interact and conflict with each other, but also with the linguistic and

  17. Conflicts and conflict regulation in hospices: nurses? perspectives


    Walker, Andreas; Breitsameter, Christof


    The present article considers conflicts and conflict regulation in hospices. The authors carried out a qualitative study in three hospices in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, to explore how conflicts arise and how conflict regulation proceeds. Hospice nurses should act according to a set of ethical codes, to mission statements of the institution and to professional standards of care. In practice the subjective interpretations of codes and/or models concerning questions of care are causes of c...

  18. Intersexual conflict during mate guarding in an androdioecious crustacean


    Chiara Benvenuto; Stephen C. Weeks


    Traditional interpretations of mating behaviors assume cooperation between the sexes. The field of sexual conflict provides a contrasting view: The sexes are commonly in conflict because they diverge in benefits/costs of reproduction. Precopulatory mate guarding, wherein males attempt to monopolize mates by physically pairing before fertilization, is one expected case of conflict. Initial guarding models focused mainly on male reproductive success, considering mate guarding as a pure male mat...

  19. Conflict and conflict management: A springboard for success and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conflict and conflict management: A springboard for success and progress in organisations in Nigeria. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... In this paper, which is basically a literature review, the writer undertook a critical analysis of the causes and consequences of organisational conflict.

  20. Causes of Conflict and Conflict Resolution Styles among Bahir Dar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Causes of Conflict and Conflict Resolution Styles among Bahir Dar University Students. ... Results from quantitative analysis, on other hand, showed that integration, compromise, and obliging were the most frequently used styles of conflict resolution. ANOVA showed that sex differences were found in dominating in favour of ...

  1. Controlled-release fertilizer composition substantially coated with an impermeable layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankeny, Mark


    A controlled-release fertilizer composition is provided that is substantially coated with an impermeable layer. The fertilizer composition may further include one or more hollow sections to allow for root penetration and efficient delivery of nutrients.

  2. Long distance managerial intervention in overseas conflicts: helping missionaries reframe conflict along multiple dimensions


    Dunaetz, David R.


    Effective ways of conflict management must be found for missionaries when no trusted mediator in the region is available. Home office management or leaders in other regions can intervene through context rich media, such as the telephone and video conferencing, to provide help. Intervention through context poor media, such as email, is much less likely to succeed. Effective managerial intervention involving interaction with each party can lead to reframing the conflict into an opportunity to ...

  3. Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center (United States)

    The Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center is EPA's primary resource for services and expertise in the areas of consensus-building, collaborative problem solving, alternative dispute resolution, and environmental collaboration and conflict resolution.

  4. 48 CFR 970.0905 - Organizational and consultant conflicts of interest. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organizational and... Qualifications 970.0905 Organizational and consultant conflicts of interest. Management and operating contracts shall contain an organizational conflict of interest clause substantially similar to the clause at 952...


    Kuchuloria, T; Akhvlediani, T; Akhvlediani, N


    This root cause analysis concerns the conflict in the Eastern Ukraine and its impact on healthcare delivery in the context of treating internally displaced persons (IDPs). Inadequate treatment of tuberculosis (TB) was selected as a major topic for intervention planning in conflict areas in Ukraine. With respect to treating TB among IDPs, rapid diagnosis and adequate nutrition and shelter are important components of care and disease control. The DOT, supported by trained primary healthcare providers equipped with rapid MDR TB diagnostic capacities, need to provide appropriate shelter and nutrition to IDPs. In addition to active disease management, this paper discusses the important role of ongoing project monitoring and communicating evaluation findings with all the major stakeholders shaping the national TB strategy in Ukraine. A comprehensive strategy is essential for successful transitioning and re-structuring of TB healthcare delivery both during after conflict resolution.

  6. Armed conflict and child health. (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti


    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.

  7. Sovereignty in Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Besson


    Full Text Available Never has sovereignty been as fashionable as since its explanatory and normative force first came into doubt and its knell was tolled in the European Union. With the shift in authority away from the state to new sub-state, supra-state, post-state and non-state entities, an important question is whether the concept of ultimate authority or sovereignty is to be abandoned or, on the contrary, retained and, if so, in which form. This paper aims at exploring a third way that would allow us to escape from the two types of dualism that contrast state and sovereignty, first, and rejecting and saving sovereignty, second. This paper's argument is that sovereignty is neither the simple reflection of the new European and international reality nor the application of a pre-established concept whose criteria are immutable and risk corseting the post-national order. As an essentially contestable concept, sovereignty is at once a state of affairs, a question pertaining to the nature and justification of that state of affairs and a justification of the latter. The correct use of the concept of sovereignty consists therefore in constantly contesting one's conceptions of the concept and hence one's exercize of sovereignty. As such, the reflexive concept of sovereignty can be described as cooperative in the post-national constellation where sovereign entities overlap in their claims to sovereignty over the same territory and population. Read together with the principle of subsidiarity, cooperative sovereignty implies allocating competences to those authorities that are best placed to ensure the protection of shared sovereign values and principles, such as the values of democracy and fundamental rights. In the European context, cooperative sovereignty provides the normative framework for the development of a dynamic and reflexive form of constitutionalism. Through its duties of cooperation and coherence, cooperative sovereignty countervails the risks of erosion

  8. Conflict Resolution in Computer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Mojarov


    Full Text Available A conflict situation in computer systems CS is the phenomenon arising when the processes have multi-access to the shared resources and none of the involved processes can proceed because of their waiting for the certain resources locked by the other processes which, in turn, are in a similar position. The conflict situation is also called a deadlock that has quite clear impact on the CS state.To find the reduced to practice algorithms to resolve the impasses is of significant applied importance for ensuring information security of computing process and thereupon the presented article is aimed at solving a relevant problem.The gravity of situation depends on the types of processes in a deadlock, types of used resources, number of processes, and a lot of other factors.A disadvantage of the method for preventing the impasses used in many modern operating systems and based on the preliminary planning resources required for the process is obvious - waiting time can be overlong. The preventing method with the process interruption and deallocation of its resources is very specific and a little effective, when there is a set of the polytypic resources requested dynamically. The drawback of another method, to prevent a deadlock by ordering resources, consists in restriction of possible sequences of resource requests.A different way of "struggle" against deadlocks is a prevention of impasses. In the future a prediction of appearing impasses is supposed. There are known methods [1,4,5] to define and prevent conditions under which deadlocks may occur. Thus the preliminary information on what resources a running process can request is used. Before allocating a free resource to the process, a test for a state “safety” condition is provided. The state is "safe" if in the future impasses cannot occur as a result of resource allocation to the process. Otherwise the state is considered to be " hazardous ", and resource allocation is postponed. The obvious

  9. Quantifying the Influence of Climate on Human Conflict (United States)

    Hsiang, S. M.; Burke, M.; Miguel, E.


    A rapidly growing body of research examines whether human conflict can be affected by climatic changes. Drawing from archaeology, criminology, economics, geography, history, political science, and psychology, we assemble and analyze the most rigorous quantitative studies and document, for the first time, a striking convergence of results. We find strong causal evidence linking climatic events to human conflict across a range of spatial and temporal scales and across all major regions of the world. The magnitude of climate's influence is substantial: for each one standard deviation (1sd) change in climate toward warmer temperatures or more extreme rainfall, median estimates indicate that the frequency of interpersonal violence rises 4% and the frequency of intergroup conflict rises 14%. Because locations throughout the inhabited world are expected to warm 2sd to 4sd by 2050, amplified rates of human conflict could represent a large and critical impact of anthropogenic climate change.

  10. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the...

  11. Recreation conflicts on Mt. Evans (United States)

    Jerry J. Vaske; Karin Wittmann; Susan Laidlaw; Maureen P. Donnelly


    This study examines recreation conflict at Mt. Evans, Colorado; a high visibility area that attracts both hunters and non-hunters. Two types of conflict were distinguished: goal interference and conflict of values. Data were obtained from a series of on-site and mailed surveys. For hunting related events (e.g. seeing an animal being shot, hearing...

  12. The Logic of Animal Conflict

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Logic of Animal Conflict. It is not surprising that ani- mals are often in conflict because they compete for limited resources. What is surprising however is that such conflict is often re- solved by a trial of strength, followed by the weaker ani- mal surrendering resources to the stronger rival, with- out an injurious fight until.

  13. Introduction: Negotiation in intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, S.; de Dreu, C.K.W.


    Although conflicts most often occur between groups, research and theory on conflict management and negotiation have largely focused on the interpersonal system and ignored how groups negotiate a solution to their intergroup conflict. Thus we have a thorough understanding of the motivational,

  14. Monitoring Financial Conflict of Interest (United States)

    Hickson, Lorraine


    Conflict of interest is heavily intertwined with research. The purpose of this study was to examine the literature and regulations in order to describe efforts required to properly monitor and disclose conflict of interest as researchers become steadily involved in innovation and discovery. The public assumes that when a conflict is disclosed, it…

  15. Intralocus sexual conflict and environmental stress. (United States)

    Berger, David; Grieshop, Karl; Lind, Martin I; Goenaga, Julieta; Maklakov, Alexei A; Arnqvist, Göran


    Intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) occurs when selection at a given locus favors different alleles in males and females, placing a fundamental constraint on adaptation. However, the relative impact of IaSC on adaptation may become reduced in stressful environments that expose conditionally deleterious mutations to selection. The genetic correlation for fitness between males and females (rMF ) provides a quantification of IaSC across the genome. We compared IaSC at a benign (29°C) and a stressful (36°C) temperature by estimating rMF s in two natural populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus using isofemale lines. In one population, we found substantial IaSC under benign conditions signified by a negative rMF (-0.51) and, as predicted, a significant reduction of IaSC under stress signified by a reversed and positive rMF (0.21). The other population displayed low IaSC at both temperatures (rMF : 0.38; 0.40). In both populations, isofemale lines harboring alleles beneficial to males but detrimental to females at benign conditions tended to show overall low fitness under stress. These results offer support for low IaSC under stress and suggest that environmentally sensitive and conditionally deleterious alleles that are sexually selected in males mediate changes in IaSC. We discuss implications for adaptive evolution in sexually reproducing populations. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Cognitive style and religiosity: the role of conflict detection. (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Barr, Nathaniel; Koehler, Derek J; Fugelsang, Jonathan A


    Recent research has indicated a negative relation between the propensity for analytic reasoning and religious beliefs and practices. Here, we propose conflict detection as a mechanism underlying this relation, on the basis of the hypothesis that more-analytic people are less religious, in part, because they are more sensitive to conflicts between immaterial religious beliefs and beliefs about the material world. To examine cognitive conflict sensitivity, we presented problems containing stereotypes that conflicted with base-rate probabilities in a task with no religious content. In three studies, we found evidence that religiosity is negatively related to conflict detection during reasoning. Independent measures of analytic cognitive style also positively predicted conflict detection. The present findings provide evidence for a mechanism potentially contributing to the negative association between analytic thinking and religiosity, and more generally, they illustrate the insights to be gained from integrating individual-difference factors and contextual factors to investigate analytic reasoning.

  17. Exploring how Conflict Management Training Changes Workplace Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima


    While many organisations offer conflict management training to both staff and management, there has been little research investigating the changes resulting from such training. Using an interpretive framework of analysis, a qualitative case study was conducted to understand how 'sensemakings' about...... conflicts change when enacted from the perspective of staff and management in a non-profit organisation that participated in conflict management training. The case study was constructed as a longitudinal investigation with ethnographic fieldwork as the primary method of inquiry. The training worked....... Some conflicts did not change through training, where the perpetual structural bases of the conflicts remained intact. Insights from the study call attention to the embedding of conflict in the organisation's social fabric. As a practical implication of the study, trainers in conflict management...

  18. Population genetics of sexual conflict in the genomic era. (United States)

    Mank, Judith E


    Sexual conflict occurs when selection acts in opposing directions on males and females. Case studies in both vertebrates and invertebrates indicate that sexual conflict maintains genetic diversity through balancing selection, which might explain why many populations show more genetic variation than expected. Recent population genomic approaches based on different measures of balancing selection have suggested that sexual conflict can arise over survival, not just reproductive fitness as previously thought. A fuller understanding of sexual conflict will provide insight into its contribution to adaptive evolution and will reveal the constraints it might impose on populations.

  19. Conflict-of-interest, copyright and other declarations. (United States)

    Peh, W C; Ng, K H


    Declarations of exclusive publication, author contribution, conflict-of-interest and copyright transfer are important formalities required by most biomedical journals. Conflict-of-interest may be personal, commercial, political, academic or financial. It is particularly important for authors to provide a full and complete disclosure of any financial relationship with a commercial organisation that may have an interest in the contents of the submitted manuscript. Editors, editorial board members and reviewers should also declare any possible conflicts-of-interest. The handling of conflict-of-interest during manuscript preparation, peer review and editorial decision making impacts the credibility of published articles and scientific research in general.

  20. Conflict in schools: student nurses' conflict management styles. (United States)

    Kantek, Filiz; Gezer, Nurdan


    Unless conflicts between the students and the instructors can be successfully managed, they will certainly result in negative outcomes for the students. The conflict management styles of the students should be recognized in detail in order to attain positive outcomes in regard to the conflict management styles. The purpose of this study was to examine the conflict management styles used by nursing students in conflict with faculty members and the differences in use of style from the aspect of some variables. This study was conducted with 151 students in a public university nursing school. Data were collected using a personal information form and the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory II (ROCI II). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Tukey test, Kruskal Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test and Cronbach alpha coefficient analyses. The students were found to use integrating (X=3.82) and obliging (X=3.81) styles the most, and dominating style (X=3.02) the least. In addition there were differences determined in management style between classes, frequency of experiencing conflict, and feeling of success in the conflict (pstyles were used more by those who evaluated themselves as successful in conflict management, but the avoiding and compromising styles were used more by students who evaluated themselves as unsuccessful. It was determined that the students preferred to use styles that produced positive results in conflict resolution and that the frequency of experiencing conflict and the feeling of success in conflict had an effect on choice of style. It will be helpful to analyze the relationship between the causes of conflict between the student and the instructor in the practice field and the uses of conflict management styles.

  1. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas


    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  2. The post-conflict treatment of child soldiers: A study of Liberian child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of child soldiering. This article takes issue with this universalism as neither deterring the use of children in conflict nor providing appropriate post-conflict reintegration of child soldiers. The article instead provides a critical pluralist approach to the post-conflict treatment of child soldiers. In particular, the discussion focuses on ...

  3. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance. (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B


    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  4. Conflict, education and the global south: New critical directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novelli, M.; Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.


    This paper seeks to provide a starting point for a broader discussion on the development of a critical research agenda in the field of ‘Education and Conflict Studies’. We begin the paper with a brief overview of the field of Education and Conflict drawing on a series of recent ‘overviews’ of the

  5. From Complementarity to Conflict: A Historical Analysis of Farmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides a socio-historical analysis of conflict between Fulbe pastoralists and farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. The discussion examines various structural factors that have fostered conditions conducive to conflict generation and intensification, including international development projects, demographic changes ...

  6. The evolution of parent-offspring conflict over mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Pieter; Fawcett, Tim W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Weissing, Franz J.


    In human societies, parents often have a strong influence on the mate choice of their offspring. Moreover, empirical studies show that conflict over mate choice between parents and offspring is widespread across human cultures. Here we provide the first theoretical investigation into this conflict,

  7. Methods of Conflict Resolution in African Traditional Society | Ajayi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the patterns or mechanism for conflict resolution in traditional African societies with particular reference to Yoruba and Igbo societies in Nigeria and Pondo tribe in South Africa. The paper notes that conflict resolution in traditional African societies provides opportunity to interact with the parties ...

  8. Architect-School Client Conflicts: The Contractual Agreement. (United States)

    Day, C. William


    Conflict often occurs between architects and superintendents during the school building process. Expanding the "Standard Form of Agreement between Owner and Architect, "provided by the American Institute of Architects, to include terms written specifically for the protection of the owner can help resolve such conflict. (MLF)

  9. Institutional Conflicts of Interest in Academic Research. (United States)

    Resnik, David B


    Financial relationships in academic research can create institutional conflicts of interest (COIs) because the financial interests of the institution or institutional officials may inappropriately influence decision-making. Strategies for dealing with institutional COIs include establishing institutional COI committees that involve the board of trustees in conflict review and management, developing policies that shield institutional decisions from inappropriate influences, and establishing private foundations that are independent of the institution to own stock and intellectual property and to provide capital to start-up companies.

  10. Conflict management: importance and implications. (United States)

    McKibben, Laurie


    Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.

  11. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.


    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  12. Minimizing conflict between recreation and nature conservation (United States)

    David N. Cole


    Most greenways are created with multiple goals in mind. Two of the foremost are providing recreational opportunities and conserving nature. Although these two goals frequently enhance each other, sometimes pursuing both simultaneously can result in conflicts. In some cases, recreational use can so severely degrade an area that not only is the environment damaged but...

  13. Does zoning winter recreationists reduce recreation conflict? (United States)

    Aubrey D. Miller; Jerry J. Vaske; John R. Squires; Lucretia E. Olson; Elizabeth K. Roberts


    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation - often by nonmotorized and motorized activity - is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation...

  14. Parent-offspring conflict in mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Dubbs, Shelli L.

    Prevailing evolutionary approaches to human mating have largely ignored the fact that mating decisions are heavily influenced by parents and other kin. This is significant because parents and children often have conflicting mate preferences. We provide a brief review of how parents have influenced

  15. Remittances and Conflict : Somalia Case Study | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will attempt to elucidate the role of the Somali Diaspora in the conflict and peace effort, drawing recommendations that can be used by various stakeholders to reduce the level of violence. The project is also expected to provide the basis for a strong North-South research network to conduct further transnational ...

  16. [Conflict management in the workplace]. (United States)

    Mola Sanna, Bruna; Igual Ayerbe, Blanca


    Our sanitary system and our health organizations have to confront the conflicts which have derived from the successive social and sanitary changes which have developed over the most recent decades. These new realities in the health fields oblige the professionals dedicated to them, the administrators of our organizations, the politicians, and society in general, as those who make use of the health services provided, to search for strategies and resources for the prevention, and transformation of those conflicts which can develop due to these situations, having as their final objective to preserve the basic principle of universal health care which is included in our Constitution. For this reason, the authors propose a profile for mediators in the health field, understanding that for mediation to really be useful, and to avoid or reduce improper litigation in our health system, values which belong to the culture of peace should be introduced into the culture of our health organizations. To that end, it is essential to count on not only professional mediators but also on an elenchus of natural mediators and informal mediators.

  17. Conflicts and alliances in insect families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundström, L.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan


    to forgo reproduction and instead help others reproduce. Social Hymenoptera are also special because relatedness patterns within families can be asymmetrical, so that optimal sex-ratios, preferred male parentage or preferred mating frequencies become objects of reproductive conflict. The now extensive...... inclusive fitness theory provides precise qualitative predictions with respect to the emergence of such conflicts. Recent advances in the power of genetic markers applied to resolve family structure in insect societies have brought about a series of studies that have tested these predictions. In support...... for these conflicts is only just beginning to be gathered. Recent studies tend to include issues such as 'information' and 'power' (i.e. the ability to perceive signals and the opportunity to act upon this information), and to address selection for selfishness at the individual level with costs of social disruption...

  18. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  19. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict? (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.


    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  20. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict? (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D; Vaske, Jerry J; Squires, John R; Olson, Lucretia E; Roberts, Elizabeth K


    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation-often by non-motorized and motorized activity-is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists (n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  1. Features of conflict sensitivity implementation mechanisms’ in the public sector projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Маматоvа


    have been defined. As the mechanisms of implementation of the «conflict sensitivity» in public sector projects have been poorly researched in Ukraine and taking into account the significant level of conflict in the environment, where local development projects are implemented, the need for further scientific research in this subject area has been proven. In particular, the scientific substantiation of the mechanisms of Ukrainian local development projects’ managers and teams competence improvement has been described in the sphere of conflict-sensitive project / program management’s implementation.

  2. Goal conflict, goal facilitation, and health professionals' provision of physical activity advice in primary care: An exploratory prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Neil C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The theory of planned behaviour has well-evidenced utility in predicting health professional behaviour, but focuses on a single behaviour isolated from the numerous potentially conflicting and facilitating goal-directed behaviours performed alongside. Goal conflict and goal facilitation may influence whether health professionals engage in guideline-recommended behaviours, and may supplement the predictive power of the theory of planned behaviour. We hypothesised that goal facilitation and goal conflict contribute to predicting primary care health professionals' provision of physical activity advice to patients with hypertension, over and above predictors of behaviour from the theory of planned behaviour. Methods Using a prospective predictive design, at baseline we invited a random sample of 606 primary care health professionals from all primary care practices in NHS Grampian and NHS Tayside (Scotland to complete postal questionnaires. Goal facilitation and goal conflict were measured alongside theory of planned behaviour constructs at baseline. At follow-up six months later, participants self-reported the number of patients, out of those seen in the preceding two weeks, to whom they provided physical activity advice. Results Forty-four primary care physicians and nurses completed measures at both time points (7.3% response rate. Goal facilitation and goal conflict improved the prediction of behaviour, accounting for substantial additional variance (5.8% and 8.4%, respectively in behaviour over and above intention and perceived behavioural control. Conclusions Health professionals' provision of physical activity advice in primary care can be predicted by perceptions about how their conflicting and facilitating goal-directed behaviours help and hinder giving advice, over and above theory of planned behaviour constructs. Incorporating features of multiple goal pursuit into the theory of planned behaviour may help to better

  3. Conflicting Signals for Cancer Treatment. (United States)

    Sujobert, Pierre; Trautmann, Alain


    Next-generation sequencing technologies have provided us with a precise description of the mutational burden of cancers, making it possible to identify targetable oncogene addictions. However, the emergence of resistant clones is an inevitable limitation of therapies targeting these addictions. Alternative approaches to cancer treatment are therefore required. We propose here a novel approach, based on the notion of conflicting signals and on a phenotypic description of cancer cells. "Phenotype" is an inherently complex notion that we describe in the conceptual framework of the epigenetic landscape, with a view to bridging the gap between theory and practice at the patient's bedside. By passing from theory to the description of several examples, we will illustrate how this approach can facilitate data analysis and the design of new strategies for cancer treatment. Cancer Res; 76(23); 6768-73. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Sexual conflict over the duration of copulation in Drosophila montana: why is longer better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoikkala Anneli


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflicts of interest between the sexes are increasingly recognized as an engine driving the (co-evolution of reproductive traits. The reproductive behaviour of Drosophila montana suggests the occurrence of sexual conflict over the duration of copulation. During the last stages of copulation, females vigorously attempt to dislodge the mounting male, while males struggle to maintain genital contact and often successfully extend copulations far beyond the females' preferred duration. Results By preventing female resistance, we show that females make a substantial contribution towards shortening copulations. We staged matings under different sex ratio conditions, and provide evidence that copulation duration is a form of male reproductive investment that responds to the perceived intensity of sperm competition as predicted by game theoretical models. Further, we investigated potential benefits to persistent males, and costs to females coerced into longer matings. While males did not benefit in terms of increased progeny production by protracting copulation, female remating was delayed after long first copulations. Conclusion Copulation time is a trait subject to sexual conflict. Mating durations exceeding female optima serve males as a form of 'extended mate guarding': by inducing mating refractoriness in the female, a male extends the time over which its sperm is exclusively used to sire progeny and reduces the likelihood of the female being reinseminated by a competitor.

  5. Sexual conflict over the duration of copulation in Drosophila montana: why is longer better? (United States)

    Mazzi, Dominique; Kesäniemi, Jenni; Hoikkala, Anneli; Klappert, Kirsten


    Conflicts of interest between the sexes are increasingly recognized as an engine driving the (co-)evolution of reproductive traits. The reproductive behaviour of Drosophila montana suggests the occurrence of sexual conflict over the duration of copulation. During the last stages of copulation, females vigorously attempt to dislodge the mounting male, while males struggle to maintain genital contact and often successfully extend copulations far beyond the females' preferred duration. By preventing female resistance, we show that females make a substantial contribution towards shortening copulations. We staged matings under different sex ratio conditions, and provide evidence that copulation duration is a form of male reproductive investment that responds to the perceived intensity of sperm competition as predicted by game theoretical models. Further, we investigated potential benefits to persistent males, and costs to females coerced into longer matings. While males did not benefit in terms of increased progeny production by protracting copulation, female remating was delayed after long first copulations. Copulation time is a trait subject to sexual conflict. Mating durations exceeding female optima serve males as a form of 'extended mate guarding': by inducing mating refractoriness in the female, a male extends the time over which its sperm is exclusively used to sire progeny and reduces the likelihood of the female being reinseminated by a competitor.

  6. Friendship and gender in preschoolers’ conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania M. Sperb


    Full Text Available Investigated the role of friendship and gender on conflict episodes of 48 preschoolers aged approximately 5 years and 8 months. Children were organized in dyads of same-sex friends and non-friends. Conflict situations were coded according to incidence, type, termination strategies, and finalizations. Gender differences were detected for type of conflict, with girls using more reasons for oppositions than boys. Termination strategies were used with a joint effect of friendship and gender: girl-friends preferred the tactic of standing firm whereas boy-friends chose more negotiation as means to deal with a disagreement, compared to the non-friend dyads. As for the results on conflict finalizations, friendship relations accounted for a significant difference found for agreement, while gender showed to be related to the use of disengagement among girls. Combined analysis between termination strategies and conflict finalizations indicated two significant differences: the first was related to friendship, through which children used more negotiation leading to agreement; the second showed a joint effect of friendship and gender, where non-friend girls tended to negotiate to reach disengagement, more often that non-friend boys. Findings for termination strategies – with girl-friends being more incisive and firm with their partners – diverge from the results provided by empirical literature, where boys are described as more autonomy- and domain oriented, and girls are prone to intimacy and social well-being in their relationships. Results are discussed with basis on previous studies conducted on conflict among preschoolers with considerations about the effects of gender and type of relationship.

  7. Automated Conflict Resolution For Air Traffic Control (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz


    The ability to detect and resolve conflicts automatically is considered to be an essential requirement for the next generation air traffic control system. While systems for automated conflict detection have been used operationally by controllers for more than 20 years, automated resolution systems have so far not reached the level of maturity required for operational deployment. Analytical models and algorithms for automated resolution have been traffic conditions to demonstrate that they can handle the complete spectrum of conflict situations encountered in actual operations. The resolution algorithm described in this paper was formulated to meet the performance requirements of the Automated Airspace Concept (AAC). The AAC, which was described in a recent paper [1], is a candidate for the next generation air traffic control system. The AAC's performance objectives are to increase safety and airspace capacity and to accommodate user preferences in flight operations to the greatest extent possible. In the AAC, resolution trajectories are generated by an automation system on the ground and sent to the aircraft autonomously via data link .The algorithm generating the trajectories must take into account the performance characteristics of the aircraft, the route structure of the airway system, and be capable of resolving all types of conflicts for properly equipped aircraft without requiring supervision and approval by a controller. Furthermore, the resolution trajectories should be compatible with the clearances, vectors and flight plan amendments that controllers customarily issue to pilots in resolving conflicts. The algorithm described herein, although formulated specifically to meet the needs of the AAC, provides a generic engine for resolving conflicts. Thus, it can be incorporated into any operational concept that requires a method for automated resolution, including concepts for autonomous air to air resolution.

  8. International Conflict Studies as a Research and Teaching Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Viktorovna Khudaykulova


    Full Text Available The article analyzes international conflict studies as a science and an educational discipline. The analysis of the subject field and professional terminology adopted in this area both in Russian and in English is provided. Formation of international conflict studies as a distinct field of study in the United States and Western Europe is described. The results of analysis of 10 leading foreign schools on international conflict studies are presented. The main factors that were taken into account in identifying the leading centers were the existence of a separate research (educational analysis units of international conflicts, the world's leading scientific journals on conflict resolution, as well as databases for the analysis of international conflicts. The role of professional associations, education consortia and international organizations (UNESCO in the study of international conflicts is described. An analysis of the leading think tanks on defense and national security (as rated by Philadelphia think tank ranking is also provided. Particular attention is given to interdisciplinary research methodology of international conflicts and the structure of educational programs at leading schools in the world in international relations. The author summarizes the recommendations of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs (APSIA to create educational programs of this kind.

  9. Understanding ethnic conflict: a framework


    Roberson, Patrick B.


    Within the last ten years the phrase ethnic conflict has become extremely common. I spent the majority of my time as a Special Forces Detachment Commander dealing with ethnic conflict situations in Northern Iraq, Turkey, and the Balkans. While in these places it became apparent to me that ethnic conflict is very complicated and that most Americans have a difficult time comprehending it My purpose in writing this thesis is to offer Special Forces soldiers or other US military personnel a frame...

  10. Increasing temperature exacerbated Classic Maya conflict over the long term (United States)

    Carleton, W. Christopher; Campbell, David; Collard, Mark


    The impact of climate change on conflict is an important but controversial topic. One issue that needs to be resolved is whether or not climate change exacerbates conflict over the long term. With this in mind, we investigated the relationship between climate change and conflict among Classic Maya polities over a period of several hundred years (363-888 CE). We compiled a list of conflicts recorded on dated monuments, and then located published temperature and rainfall records for the region. Subsequently, we used a recently developed time-series method to investigate the impact of the climatic variables on the frequency of conflict while controlling for trends in monument number. We found that there was a substantial increase in conflict in the approximately 500 years covered by the dataset. This increase could not be explained by change in the amount of rainfall. In contrast, the increase was strongly associated with an increase in summer temperature. These finding have implications not only for Classic Maya history but also for the debate about the likely effects of contemporary climate change.

  11. Brazil and International Conflict Resolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alla Yuryevna Borzova; Anastasiya Vladimirovna Kuzmina


    The article considers features of Brazilian participation in peacekeeping missions under the auspices of the United Nations related to the commitment to preventive diplomacy in resolving the conflict...

  12. The cultural contagion of conflict (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y.; Bruss, C. Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar


    Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

  13. Why Having a (Nonfinancial) Interest Is Not a Conflict of Interest. (United States)

    Bero, Lisa A; Grundy, Quinn


    A current debate about conflicts of interest related to biomedical research is to question whether the focus on financial conflicts of interest overshadows "nonfinancial" interests that could put scientific judgment at equal or greater risk of bias. There is substantial evidence that financial conflicts of interest such as commercial sponsorship of research and investigators lead to systematic biases in scientific research at all stages of the research process. Conflation of "conflicts of interest" with "interests" in general serves to muddy the waters about how to manage conflicts of interest. We call for heightened disclosure of conflicts of interest and policy action beyond disclosure as the sole management strategy. We propose a different strategy to manage interests more broadly to ensure fair representation and accountability.

  14. Why Having a (Nonfinancial Interest Is Not a Conflict of Interest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Bero


    Full Text Available A current debate about conflicts of interest related to biomedical research is to question whether the focus on financial conflicts of interest overshadows "nonfinancial" interests that could put scientific judgment at equal or greater risk of bias. There is substantial evidence that financial conflicts of interest such as commercial sponsorship of research and investigators lead to systematic biases in scientific research at all stages of the research process. Conflation of "conflicts of interest" with "interests" in general serves to muddy the waters about how to manage conflicts of interest. We call for heightened disclosure of conflicts of interest and policy action beyond disclosure as the sole management strategy. We propose a different strategy to manage interests more broadly to ensure fair representation and accountability.

  15. Interpersonal Conflicts and Styles of Managing Conflicts among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed that the major sources of conflicts were ethnic differences, religious diversity, sexual abuse, theft and insulting. It was also noted that compromising, avoiding and collaborating were frequently used conflict management styles between students. It is recommended that university leaders and students be ...

  16. Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 2, 2012 ... The consequences of such conflicts on the people have been enormous. Referring to the subject matter, Harris (1999:15) in a study of “The Cost of Armed Conflicts in Developing Countries,” indicated that violence had several economic implications including closed health posts, absence of teachers, empty.

  17. Conflict generation, conflict management and self-organizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article argues that, at a time of increased agitation for local control, this study of conflict generation and conflict management presents a model for understanding ... in order to reduce the inherent dissonance between policy prescription and the reality of the local communities in Nigeria and, indeed, in Africa as a whole.

  18. Family conflicts and conflict resolution regarding food choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria; Brunsø, Karen


    Previous studies on family decision‐making show that not only parents but also children participate actively in and achieve influence on the decision process, for instance during food buying. When decision‐making includes several active participants, conflicts may occur, but not much research deals...... with food‐related conflicts, conflict resolutions or specific influence techniques with a focus on parents and tweens in family decision‐making. This article focuses on parents and tweens’ joint decision processes in evaluation and choice of food, specifically conflicts and conflict resolution. Assumptions...... are explored in an empirical study of Danish families with children. The main results show that during food buying family communication is open for opinion statements and discussions between parents and their tweens. However, not everything is that overt in family communication. One of the most interesting...

  19. How Important is Conflict Detection to the Conflict Resolution Task? (United States)

    Mercer, Joey; Gabets, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Edwards, Tamsyn; Bienert, Nancy; Claudatos, Lauren; Homola, Jeffrey R.


    To determine the capabilities and limitations of human operators and automation in separation assurance roles, the second of three Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) part-task studies investigates air traffic controllers ability to detect and resolve conflicts under varying task sets, traffic densities, and run lengths. Operations remained within a single sector, staffed by a single controller, and explored, among other things, the controllers conflict resolution performance in conditions with or without their involvement in the conflict detection task. Whereas comparisons of conflict resolution performance between these two conditions are available in a prior publication, this paper explores whether or not other subjective measures display a relationship to that data. Analyses of controller workload and situation awareness measures attempt to quantify their contribution to controllers ability to resolve traffic conflicts.

  20. Poverty and Violent Conflict: A Micro-Level Perspective on the Causes and Duration of Warfare


    Patricia Justino


    This paper argues that endogenous mechanisms linking processes of violent conflict and household poverty provide valuable micro foundations to the ongoing debate on the causes and duration of armed conflicts. Household poverty affects the onset, sustainability and duration of violent conflict due to the direct and indirect effects of violence on the economic behaviour and decisions of households in conflict areas. These effects lead to the emergence of symbiotic relationships between armed gr...

  1. The Seversity of the Colombian Conflict: Cross-Country Datasets versus New Micro Data


    Spagat, M; Restrepo, J; Vargas, J


    This article compares the treatment of Colombia in large cross-country conflict datasets with the information of a unique dataset on the Colombian conflict (CERAC). The big datasets display a strong tendency to record fewer killings than does CERAC. Moreover, when the big datasets provide annual time series on the conflict these figures look either erratic or flat compared to CERAC'S and often move in different directions. This article also examines the criteria of the Uppsala Conflict Data P...

  2. Documenting the Effects of Armed Conflict on Population Health. (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W


    War and other forms of armed conflict have profound adverse effects on population health. It is important to document these effects to inform the general public and policy makers about the consequences of armed conflict, provide services to meet the needs of affected populations, protect human rights and document violations of international humanitarian law, and help to prevent future armed conflict. Documentation can be accomplished with surveillance, epidemiological surveys, and rapid assessment. Challenges include inadequate or absent data systems, social breakdown, forced migration, reporting biases, and the fog of war. The adverse effects of the Iraq War on population health demonstrate how the effects of armed conflict on population health can be documented. We recommend the establishment of an independent mechanism, operated by the United Nations or a multilateral organization, to investigate and document the effects of armed conflict on population health.

  3. Modelling Participatory Geographic Information System for Customary Land Conflict Resolution (United States)

    Gyamera, E. A.; Arko-Adjei, A.; Duncan, E. E.; Kuma, J. S. Y.


    Since land contributes to about 73 % of most countries Gross Domestic Product (GDP), attention on land rights have tremendously increased globally. Conflicts over land have therefore become part of the major problems associated with land administration. However, the conventional mechanisms for land conflict resolution do not provide satisfactory result to disputants due to various factors. This study sought to develop a Framework of using Participatory Geographic Information System (PGIS) for customary land conflict resolution. The framework was modelled using Unified Modelling Language (UML). The PGIS framework, called butterfly model, consists of three units namely, Social Unit (SU), Technical Unit (TU) and Decision Making Unit (DMU). The name butterfly model for land conflict resolution was adopted for the framework based on its features and properties. The framework has therefore been recommended to be adopted for land conflict resolution in customary areas.

  4. Conflicts in operating room: Focus on causes and resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joginder Pal Attri


    Full Text Available The operation theater (OT environment is the most complex and volatile workplace where two coequal physicians share responsibility of one patient. Difference in information, opinion, values, experience and interests between a surgeon and anesthesiologist may arise while working in high-pressure environments like OT, which may trigger conflict. Quality of patient care depends on effective teamwork for which multidisciplinary communication is an essential part. Troubled relationships leads to conflicts and conflicts leads to stressful work environment which hinders the safe discharge of patient care. Unresolved conflicts can harm the relationship but when handled in a positive way it provides an opportunity for growth and ultimately strengthening the bond between two people. By learning the skills to resolve conflict, we can keep our professional relationship healthy and strong which is an important component of good patient care.

  5. 24 CFR 3282.359 - Conflict of interest. (United States)


    ... that the submitting party is independent in that it does not have any actual or potential conflict of... with respect to members of councils, committees or similar bodies providing advice to the designated...

  6. Conflicts on Parade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    These three papers would speak (from a distance) to the themes of ‘Attacks on popular culture, culture debates and wars’, ‘The idea of ‘the people’ in politics and history’ and ‘The visual iconography of the popular (in media, the street, museums)’ from the vantage point of the Northern Irish...... rehearse a master commemorative narrative composed of a sectarian selection of events, reminding a group of its distinct social identity and historical development in a ritual performance (cf Zerubavel 1995, Connerton 1989). The protestant and loyalist master narrative commemorates a seamless sequence...... complicated notions of ‘the people’, and the place of popular culture in divided societies, as parades literally traverse terrains of political and social conflict. We start from a classical cultural studies position that a) culture is a site of struggle over meaning and b) to understand a particular aspect...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Gurinovich


    Full Text Available While taking an example of reconstruction and modernization of OJSC «Construction and Mounting Trust No.16, Novopolotsk» the paper substantiates solutions for complex production reconstruction. The production reconstruction is divided in three start-up facilities ensuring continuous finished-product output.

  8. A Study of Interpersonal Conflict Among Operating Room Nurses. (United States)

    Chang, Tsui-Fen; Chen, Chung-Kuang; Chen, Ming-Jia


    constructive interpersonal conflict management strategies; (b) prior experience in other departments should be one of the most important factors of consideration when recruiting new nurses for the OR; and (c) hospitals should provide more interpersonal conflict management training courses to support the capability of OR nursing staffs in terms of adopting cooperativeness strategies and coping effectively with all types of interpersonal conflicts.

  9. Detecting misinformation and knowledge conflicts in relational data (United States)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Jackobsen, Matthew; Riordan, Brian


    Information fusion is required for many mission-critical intelligence analysis tasks. Using knowledge extracted from various sources, including entities, relations, and events, intelligence analysts respond to commander's information requests, integrate facts into summaries about current situations, augment existing knowledge with inferred information, make predictions about the future, and develop action plans. However, information fusion solutions often fail because of conflicting and redundant knowledge contained in multiple sources. Most knowledge conflicts in the past were due to translation errors and reporter bias, and thus could be managed. Current and future intelligence analysis, especially in denied areas, must deal with open source data processing, where there is much greater presence of intentional misinformation. In this paper, we describe a model for detecting conflicts in multi-source textual knowledge. Our model is based on constructing semantic graphs representing patterns of multi-source knowledge conflicts and anomalies, and detecting these conflicts by matching pattern graphs against the data graph constructed using soft co-reference between entities and events in multiple sources. The conflict detection process maintains the uncertainty throughout all phases, providing full traceability and enabling incremental updates of the detection results as new knowledge or modification to previously analyzed information are obtained. Detected conflicts are presented to analysts for further investigation. In the experimental study with SYNCOIN dataset, our algorithms achieved perfect conflict detection in ideal situation (no missing data) while producing 82% recall and 90% precision in realistic noise situation (15% of missing attributes).

  10. Resolving environmental disputes: from conflict to consensus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sidaway, Roger


    ... The Function of Social Conflict Conflicts Spiralling out of Control Dynamic Analyses of Natural Resource Conflicts and Cooperation in Natural Resource Management Dynamic Analysis of the Conflict over the Designation of the Pentland Hills Regional Park, 1983- 1985 Dynamic Analysis of Moorland Access in the Peak District Ways of Dealing with Conflict ...

  11. The dynamic nature of conflict in Wikipedia (United States)

    Gandica, Y.; Sampaio dos Aidos, F.; Carvalho, J.


    The voluntary process of Wikipedia edition provides an environment in which the outcome is clearly a collective product of interactions involving a large number of people. We propose a simple agent-based model, developed from real data, to reproduce the collaborative process of Wikipedia edition. With a small number of simple ingredients, our model mimics several interesting features of real human behaviour, namely in the context of edit wars. We show that the level of conflict is determined by a tolerance parameter, which measures the editors' capability to accept different opinions and to change their own opinion. We propose to measure conflict with a parameter based on mutual reverts, which increases only in contentious situations. Using this parameter, we find a distribution for the inter-peace periods that is heavy tailed. The effects of wiki-robots in the conflict levels and in the edition patterns are also studied. Our findings are compared with previous parameters used to measure conflicts in edit wars.

  12. African Journal on Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Envisaged readers are academic researchers, teachers and students and practitioners in the field of dealing with conflict. The African Journal on Conflict Resolution (AJCR) publishes the writings of a wide range of African and international authors in the field, but emphasis has deliberately been kept on African writers and ...

  13. Coping with public value conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; Huberts, L.W.J.C.; Smulders, R.


    Good governance involves managing conflicting values, leading to the main research question, which consists of three parts: Which public value profiles do public administrators have, which value conflicts do they experience, and which coping strategies are used? Here, previous literature on public

  14. Preventing Trustee Conflicts of Interest. (United States)

    Harpool, David


    The potential for conflict of interest in college and university trustees is high. A 1974 court decision (Stern vs. Sibley Memorial Hospital) established guidelines for trustees of nonprofit organizations, and a survey of 566 colleges and universities reveals how institutions are managing such conflicts through policy statements and…

  15. Conflict-Induced Perceptual Filtering (United States)

    Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Jacobsen, Thomas


    In a variety of conflict paradigms, target and distractor stimuli are defined in terms of perceptual features. Interference evoked by distractor stimuli tends to be reduced when the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials is decreased, suggesting conflict-induced perceptual filtering (i.e., adjusting the processing weights assigned to stimuli…

  16. Worldview conflict in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, M.J.; Crawford, Jarret; van Tongeren, D.R.


    Building on laboratory- and survey-based research probing the psychology of ideology and the experience of worldview conflict, we examined the association between worldview conflict and emotional reactions, psychological well-being, humanity esteem, and political ideology in everyday life using

  17. Leadership Strategies for Managing Conflict. (United States)

    Kormanski, Chuck


    Discusses the impact of conflict in small group development theory. Views conflict as a positive, normally occurring behavior and presents leadership strategies involving withdrawal, suppression, integration, compromise, and power. Examines situational contingencies and presents a rationale for strategy selection and intervention. (Author)

  18. Stimulus ambiguity elicits response conflict. (United States)

    Szmalec, Arnaud; Verbruggen, Frederick; Vandierendonck, André; De Baene, Wouter; Verguts, Tom; Notebaert, Wim


    Conflict monitoring theory [M.M. Botvinick, T. Braver, D. Barch, C. Carter, J.D. Cohen, Conflict monitoring and cognitive control, Psychol. Rev. 108 (2001) 625-652] assumes that perceptual ambiguity among choice stimuli elicits response conflict in choice reaction. It hence predicts that response conflict is also involved in elementary variants of choice reaction time (RT) tasks, i.e., those variants that, by contrast with the Stroop task or the Go/No-Go task for instance, are rarely associated with cognitive control. In order to test this prediction, an experiment was designed in which participants performed a simple RT task and a regular between-hand 2-choice RT task under three different levels of stimulus ambiguity. The data show that response conflict, as measured by the N2 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP), was elicited in the 2-choice RT task but not in the simple RT task and that the degree of response conflict in the 2-choice RT task was a function of stimulus ambiguity. These results show that response conflict is also present in a regular choice RT task which is traditionally not considered to be a measure of cognitive conflict.

  19. International Dimensions of Internal Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metternich, N.W.; Gleditsch, K.S.; Dorussen, H.; Ruggeri, A.; Brown, G.K.; Langer, A.


    Civil wars are by definition violent conflicts between a state and some form of non-state actors (Sambanis 2004b). Perhaps not surprisingly, most scholars have looked for features within countries to account for why such conflicts break out and how they evolve (Blattman and Miguel 2010). However, it

  20. Reward Modulates Adaptations to Conflict (United States)

    Braem, Senne; Verguts, Tom; Roggeman, Chantal; Notebaert, Wim


    Both cognitive conflict (e.g. Verguts & Notebaert, 2009) and reward signals (e.g. Waszak & Pholulamdeth, 2009) have been proposed to enhance task-relevant associations. Bringing these two notions together, we predicted that reward modulates conflict-based sequential adaptations in cognitive control. This was tested combining either a single…

  1. Structural embeddedness and intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takacs, K


    Social structure affects the likelihood of group conflicts, although it has been disregarded by previous explanations. This study extends the intergroup public goods game model and integrates the influence of structural embeddedness and social incentives in the analysis of harmful group conflict.

  2. 6 Steps to Conflict Resolution (United States)

    Lindt, Suzanne


    Adolescents struggle with many types of conflicts in their lives. They must define relationships with friends, teachers, parents, and themselves. Disagreements will arise, and without the proper training, many teens are left feeling angry, confused, or depressed. Teaching middle school students to deal with conflict productively at an early age…

  3. Email Adaptation for Conflict Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Joyce Yi‐Hui; Panteli, Niki; Bülow, Anne Marie


    This paper explores the context of email‐based communication in anestablished but fragile, inter‐organisational partnership, which wasoften overlain with conflict. Drawing upon adaptation theory, thisstudy explores how participants adapt to the use of email to handleconflict. Extensive data were...... obtained during a 6‐month field studyof a case of cross‐border inter‐organisational collaboration in EastAsia. We observed that the individuals involved in the cross‐borderpartnership used email as a lean form of communication to stopcovert conflict from explicitly emerging. In contrast to prior researchon...... the leanness of email in managing conflict, we found that underthe described conflict situation the very leanness of emailwas appreciated and thus, exploited by those concerned tomanage the conflict situation. Specifically, we identified 4 keyconflict‐triggered adaptation strategies, namely...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyranyan Margarita Yuryevna


    Full Text Available The conflict discourse as a communicative event reveals the characteristics of its participants as linguistic personalities. In this respect, this study enables us to reveal and describe their personal and social features. Undoubtedly, the individual characteristics of participants, their cultural and ideological differences and similarities have a great impact on the interaction process in general and on the use of linguistic means in particular. To better understand the nature of conflict discourse, its causes and consequences, one should take into account that adverse behaviour depends on the personality type and the role the speaker plays in different situations. Conflict personality is referred to as an archetype, transcendental phenomenon common to everybody. The research revealed such key characteristics typical of conflict personality as: verbal (use of language units with "conflict" connotation, the "manipulation" of speech means that convey negative, conflict meaning in particular contexts and non-verbal (communicative aim, communication medium, pre- and post-supposition of the speaker and the listener, mode of behaviour. It also proved that conflict patterns of behavior may lead to confrontation and/or transfer of collaborative interaction into an adverse one.

  5. Is consciousness necessary for conflict detection and conflict resolution? (United States)

    Xiang, Ling; Wang, Baoxi; Zhang, Qinglin


    Is conflict control dependent on consciousness? To answer this question, we used high temporal resolution event-related potentials (ERPs) to separate conflict detection from conflict resolution in a masked prime Stroop task. Although behavioral interference effect was present in both the masked and unmasked conditions, the electrophysiological findings revealed more complex patterns. ERP analyses showed that N450 was greater for incongruent trials than for congruent trials and that it was located in the ACC and nearby motor cortex, regardless of whether the primes were masked or unmasked; however, the effects were smaller for the masked than unmasked condition. These results suggest that consciousness of conflict information may not be necessary for detecting conflict, but that it may modulate conflict detection. The analysis of slow potential (SP) amplitude showed that it distinguished incongruent trials from congruent trials, and that this modulation effects was reduced to a greater extent for the masked condition than for the unmasked condition. Moreover, the prefrontal-parietal control network was activated under the unmasked but not under the masked condition. These results suggest that the consciousness of conflict information may be a necessary boundary condition for the subsequent initiation of control operations in the more extended PFC-parietal control network. However, considering that the conflict interference effect was significantly reduced in the masked condition, it may be that, with larger unconscious conflict effects, more extensive cognitive control networks would have been activated. These findings have important implications for theories on the relationship between consciousness and cognitive control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. In the mood for adaptation: how affect regulates conflict-driven control. (United States)

    van Steenbergen, Henk; Band, Guido P H; Hommel, Bernhard


    Cognitive conflict plays an important role in tuning cognitive control to the situation at hand. On the basis of earlier findings demonstrating emotional modulations of conflict processing, we predicted that affective states may adaptively regulate goal-directed behavior that is driven by conflict. We tested this hypothesis by measuring conflict-driven control adaptations following experimental induction of four different mood states that could be differentiated along the dimensions of arousal and pleasure. After mood states were induced, 91 subjects performed a flanker task, which provided a measure of conflict adaptation. As predicted, pleasure level affected conflict adaptation: Less pleasure was associated with more conflict-driven control. Arousal level did not influence conflict adaptation. This study suggests that affect adaptively regulates cognitive control. Implications for future research and psychopathology are discussed.

  7. Substantiation of the road toll for heavy transport vehicles


    Burmaka, N.; Chernykh, A.


    The existing and possible additional sources of developing state and local road funds of Ukraine have been considered. The formula for calculating monthly road toll for heavy transport vehicles has been proposed. This formula includes the payment rate per every kilometer of distance, the vehicle capacity utilization factor and the run with the load. The payment rate per every kilometer of distance for transport vehicles depending on the allowed total weight has been substantiated. The given r...

  8. Intergenerational Conflicts among Latinos in Early Adulthood: Separating Values Conflicts with Parents from Acculturation Conflicts (United States)

    Dennis, Jessica; Basanez, Tatiana; Farahmand, Anahita


    An investigation of Latino and non-Latino college students sought to examine the ways in which perceived intergenerational conflicts with parents are related to acculturation, family dynamics, and psychosocial functioning. Participants reported the extent to which they experienced two types of intergenerational conflicts with parents:…

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone (ID 330) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly....... In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that the results from the two human intervention studies provided which investigated the effects of potassium citrate on bone mineral density in post-menopausal women are conflicting, and that the adequately powered intervention study of longer duration...

  10. Influence of Conflict Resolution Training on Conflict Handling Styles of College Students (United States)

    Waithaka, Abel Gitimu; Moore-Austin, Shante'; Gitimu, Priscilla N.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of conflict resolution skills training on conflict handling styles, and conflict orientation of college students. Conflict handling styles was measured by the Thomas-Kilmann MODE instrument, while Conflict orientation was measured by conflict orientation survey instrument. A sample of 135…

  11. Approaches To Conflict Management Among Transport Associations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and objectives; organizational characteristic (contextual and structural) job specializations, expertise, discretion and organization policies, reward systems, physical environment are some of the factors that cause conflict in various organization. Keywords: Conflict Management, Organization, Transport Association, Conflict

  12. Conflict Engagement: Emotional and Social Intelligence. (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra


    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE;, highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.

  13. Conflict Engagement: Creating Connection and Cultivating Curiosity. (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra


    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE;, highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.

  14. Conflict engagement: a new model for nurses. (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra


    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.

  15. A Mathematical Basis for the Safety Analysis of Conflict Prevention Algorithms (United States)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dowek, Gilles


    In air traffic management systems, a conflict prevention system examines the traffic and provides ranges of guidance maneuvers that avoid conflicts. This guidance takes the form of ranges of track angles, vertical speeds, or ground speeds. These ranges may be assembled into prevention bands: maneuvers that should not be taken. Unlike conflict resolution systems, which presume that the aircraft already has a conflict, conflict prevention systems show conflicts for all maneuvers. Without conflict prevention information, a pilot might perform a maneuver that causes a near-term conflict. Because near-term conflicts can lead to safety concerns, strong verification of correct operation is required. This paper presents a mathematical framework to analyze the correctness of algorithms that produce conflict prevention information. This paper examines multiple mathematical approaches: iterative, vector algebraic, and trigonometric. The correctness theories are structured first to analyze conflict prevention information for all aircraft. Next, these theories are augmented to consider aircraft which will create a conflict within a given lookahead time. Certain key functions for a candidate algorithm, which satisfy this mathematical basis are presented; however, the proof that a full algorithm using these functions completely satisfies the definition of safety is not provided.

  16. Climate change, conflict and health. (United States)

    Bowles, Devin C; Butler, Colin D; Morisetti, Neil


    Future climate change is predicted to diminish essential natural resource availability in many regions and perhaps globally. The resulting scarcity of water, food and livelihoods could lead to increasingly desperate populations that challenge governments, enhancing the risk of intra- and interstate conflict. Defence establishments and some political scientists view climate change as a potential threat to peace. While the medical literature increasingly recognises climate change as a fundamental health risk, the dimension of climate change-associated conflict has so far received little attention, despite its profound health implications. Many analysts link climate change with a heightened risk of conflict via causal pathways which involve diminishing or changing resource availability. Plausible consequences include: increased frequency of civil conflict in developing countries; terrorism, asymmetric warfare, state failure; and major regional conflicts. The medical understanding of these threats is inadequate, given the scale of health implications. The medical and public health communities have often been reluctant to interpret conflict as a health issue. However, at times, medical workers have proven powerful and effective peace advocates, most notably with regard to nuclear disarmament. The public is more motivated to mitigate climate change when it is framed as a health issue. Improved medical understanding of the association between climate change and conflict could strengthen mitigation efforts and increase cooperation to cope with the climate change that is now inevitable. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  17. Handling Trajectory Uncertainties for Airborne Conflict Management (United States)

    Barhydt, Richard; Doble, Nathan A.; Karr, David; Palmer, Michael T.


    Airborne conflict management is an enabling capability for NASA's Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept. DAGTM has the goal of significantly increasing capacity within the National Airspace System, while maintaining or improving safety. Under DAG-TM, autonomous aircraft maintain separation from each other and from managed aircraft unequipped for autonomous flight. NASA Langley Research Center has developed the Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP), an onboard decision support system that provides airborne conflict management (ACM) and strategic flight planning support for autonomous aircraft pilots. The AOP performs conflict detection, prevention, and resolution from nearby traffic aircraft and area hazards. Traffic trajectory information is assumed to be provided by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). Reliable trajectory prediction is a key capability for providing effective ACM functions. Trajectory uncertainties due to environmental effects, differences in aircraft systems and performance, and unknown intent information lead to prediction errors that can adversely affect AOP performance. To accommodate these uncertainties, the AOP has been enhanced to create cross-track, vertical, and along-track buffers along the predicted trajectories of both ownship and traffic aircraft. These buffers will be structured based on prediction errors noted from previous simulations such as a recent Joint Experiment between NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers and from other outside studies. Currently defined ADS-B parameters related to navigation capability, trajectory type, and path conformance will be used to support the algorithms that generate the buffers.

  18. Win at Work! The Everybody Wins Approach to Conflict Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Diane


    Proven techniques for resolving workplace conflicts. After years of seeing clients struggling and their businesses suffering with destructive conflicts, Diane Katz developed The Working Circle, a step-by-step process that helps everyone in business resolve conflict in a non-confrontational, creative, collaborative way. Win at Work! provides you with a no-nonsense guide based on real-life examples of people at pivotal points in their careers. Filled with practical wisdom, it reveals how you can move around the roadblocks that, if left unattanded, can stop you in your tracks. Win at Work! also h

  19. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems have substantially less brain gray matter volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish S Dalwani

    Full Text Available Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate, valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum.We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8 toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in inhibition, conflict processing, valuation

  20. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems have substantially less brain gray matter volume. (United States)

    Dalwani, Manish S; McMahon, Mary Agnes; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Young, Susan E; Regner, Michael F; Raymond, Kristen M; McWilliams, Shannon K; Banich, Marie T; Tanabe, Jody L; Crowley, Thomas J; Sakai, Joseph T


    Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate), valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex) and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum). We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years) with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8) toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at pbrain cluster-level threshold. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in inhibition, conflict processing, valuation of outcomes, decision-making, reward, risk-taking, and rule

  1. Asymmetries in altruistic behavior during violent intergroup conflict. (United States)

    Rusch, Hannes


    Recent theoretical and experimental investigations of altruistic behavior in intergroup conflict in humans frequently make use of the assumption that warfare can be modeled as a symmetrical n-person prisoner's dilemma, abstracting away the strategic differences between attack and defense. In contrast, some empirical studies on intergroup conflict in hunter-gatherer societies and chimpanzees indicate that fitness relevant risks and potential benefits of attacks and defenses might have differed substantially under ancestral conditions. Drawing on these studies, it is hypothesized that the success of defenses was much more important for individual and kin survival and that a disposition to act altruistically during intergroup conflict is thus more likely to evolve for the strategic situation of defense. It is then investigated empirically if such asymmetries in the occurrence of altruistic behavior during intergroup conflict can be found. Analyzing detailed historical case data from 20th century wars, this study finds that altruistic behavior towards members of the in-group indeed seems to occur more frequently when soldiers are defending themselves and their comrades against enemy attacks. It is proposed that this asymmetry reflects adaptive behavioral responses to the materially different strategic character of attacks and defenses under ancestral conditions. If true, this would call for a refinement of theories of the evolutionary interaction of intergroup conflict and altruism.

  2. Types of conflict, types of relationships and preferred conflict resolution strategies: Implications for constructive conflict resolution programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela S.


    Full Text Available Constructive conflict resolution programmes are based on the idea that children and youth do no have sufficient knowledge of the procedures and skills for conflict resolution, which is why the conflicts they take part in soon become destructive. Notwithstanding the indubitable practical significance of the constructive conflict resolution programmes, it can be objected that they are not sufficiently based on empirical findings about the characteristics of conflicts in childhood and adolescence. Hence, this paper explores different types of conflict with peers and friends with the aim of determining the preferred conflict resolution strategies and using the obtained results to consider the implications for the improvement of constructive conflict resolution programmes. The research was conducted on the sample of 286 adolescents. The method of hypothetical conflict situations was used for studying the preferred conflict resolution strategies. The key results, which should be taken into account when developing constructive conflict resolution programmes, indicate that the preference for a conflict resolution strategy varies depending on conflict type (problem solving is mostly used in conflicts occurring due to opinion differences and disrespect of agreement, unlike the conflicts arising due to provocations, stubbornness and dishonesty and relationship types (in conflicts with friends, adolescents prefer problem solving, while in peer conflicts they more frequently opt for competition. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije

  3. Metatheory Building in the Conflict Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Fathi


    conflict management. c. The integral approach can be understood as a “Theory of Everything“ presupposing that no perspective can be 100% wrong (but “partially true”. Its methodology is based on “map making” by categorizing established paradigms, methods and theories in a holistic metacontext. By means of five categories – quadrants, levels, lines, types, states (altogether AQAL: All Quadrants All Lines – the integral approach claims to consider as many aspects of reality as possible in a holistic concept. 2. Outline of an integration model: a. Possibility of an epistemological integration of the introduced methods: The five AQAL-dimensions enable the epistemological foci of the approaches by Galtung and Glasl to be revealed. A point in which both approaches may complement each other becomes apparent by combining a vertical spectrum of escalation levels (Glasl and a horizontal axis of different fields of violence (Galtung. It might be of further research interest to analyse the potential extent of a correlation to evolution oriented level schemes (Wilber, e.g., referring to development psychology or evolution theory. Are there different development levels (Wilber of direct, cultural and structural violence (Galtung? Is there a correlation between levels of development (Wilber and regression (Glasl? This paper concludes for both cases a cautious “yes.” In doing so, the consideration of the other AQAL-dimensions (types, lines, states provides further information. b. Proposal for an integral heuristic: The consideration of vertical (levels and horizontal (quadrants, types, lines AQAL-categories is also useful to integrate heuristics. However, the integral approach itself does not represent a method of heuristic and practical effect, though it is useful to adapt the AQAL-categories and to consider new tools that are highly relevant for the Peace and Conflict Studies. The heuristic integral concept is based on the vertical conflict scheme by Galtung (three

  4. Ethical Conflicts Experienced by Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Mendes Menezes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The current study aimed to identify and analyze the prevalence of ethical conflicts experienced by medical students. This study is a cross-sectional and analytical research that was conducted in a public school in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The instrument used for the data collection was a self-administered questionnaire. The data collected were presented in absolute and percentage values. For the analytical statistical treatment of the data, the level of significance was considered p <0.05. The outcome variables were: Experiences of ethical conflicts in interpersonal relations within the medical course and Ethical conduct in health care. The identification of the prevalence of ethical conflicts in the undergraduate program adopted the perspective of different interpersonal relations (academic-teaching, academic-academic, academic-employee, academic-patient, teacher-teacher, teacher-patient, teacher-employee and employee-patient. (Importance of identifying themselves to the health services user and requesting consent to perform the physical examination, assistance without the supervision of the teacher, issuance of health documents without the signature of the professional responsible and use of social networks to share data Of patient. It was verified the association of the outcome variables with sex, year of graduation and course evaluation. A total of 281 undergraduate students enrolled in all undergraduate courses in Medicine of both sexes, with a predominance of female (52.7%. The students reported having experienced conflicting situations in interpersonal relations with teachers (59.6%, provided assistance without proper supervision of a teacher (62.6%, reported having issued health documents without the accompaniment of teachers (18, 5%. The highest frequency was observed among those enrolled in the most advanced years of the undergraduate program (p <0.05. The use of social networks for the purpose of sharing patient

  5. Performance measurement in horizontal LSP cooperation as a field of conflict: the preventive role of collaborative processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallenburg, Carl Marcus; Schäffler, Thorsten


    .... This situation provides a fertile soil for conflict. The literature outlines that conflict, the experience that goals or interests are in opposition, emerges in areas of essential activities and that performance measurement is such an...

  6. Impact of conflict in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Touré


    Full Text Available Since independence, few African countries have beenspared violence and armed conflict. Two West Africanresearch networks recently organised an internationalcolloquium to assess the impact and develop linkagesbetween education, peace and democracy.

  7. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals (United States)


    ... greater public awareness of the source of issuers' conflict minerals and to promote the exercise of due... directly relate to the manufacturing of the product); (2) the issuer affixes its brand, marks, logo, or...

  8. 42 CFR 418.66 - Condition of participation: Nursing services-Waiver of requirement that substantially all nursing... (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nursing services-Waiver of requirement that substantially all nursing services be routinely provided directly by a hospice... Services § 418.66 Condition of participation: Nursing services—Waiver of requirement that substantially all...

  9. Moving beyond the blame game: toward a discursive approach to negotiating conflict within couple relationships. (United States)

    Sinclair, Stacey L; Monk, Gerald


    The concept of discourse is an important tool in negotiating conflict and facilitating conversations within therapy. This article offers a useful framework for negotiating conflict in a couple relationship by highlighting the manner in which individual's expectations are mutually emergent from particular discursive positions. Specific discursive practices and approaches that make more visible the cultural production of conflicts are presented via a case illustration. These practices provide more freedom to couples in relationships to explore conflicts with less totalizing descriptions of the other as blameworthy. In addition, a discursive analysis of conflict invites therapists to be more intentional, reflexive, and socially responsible in their work.

  10. Competing interests in healthcare: a conflict of quality. Part I: definition, background, and evidence. (United States)

    Fiack, Kelly J; Knapp, Kenneth M; Lee, Doohee


    This policy paper investigates whether physician conflicts of interest have an effect on physicians' quality of care and whether implementation of conflict-of-interest policies will ameliorate any negative effects of divergent interests. Some government regulations are discussed in a policymaking perspective. We also suggest that healthcare organizations establish specific policies guarding against potential negative outcomes related to conflicts of interest. At the pinnacle of the conflict-of-interest debate resides the patient. One of the most important effects of disclosure is providing patients with the opportunity to make informed decisions regarding their healthcare. Research supports that conflicts of interest are inherent and oftentimes unavoidable in the healthcare setting.

  11. Player-Specific Conflict Handling Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charline Hondrou


    Full Text Available This paper presents an ontology that leads the player of a serious game - regarding conflict handling - to the educative experience from which they will benefit the most. It provides a clearly defined tree of axioms that maps the player’s visually manifested affective cues and emotional stimuli from the serious game to conflict handling styles and proposes interventions. The importance of this ontology lies in the fact that it promotes natural interaction (non-invasive methods and at the same time makes the game as player-specific as it can be for its educational goal. It is an ontology that can be adapted to different educational theories and serve various educational purposes.

  12. Information system conflicts: causes and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boonstra


    Full Text Available Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. Information Systems (IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they understand the nature and causes of information system conflicts (IS conflicts. To contribute to such an understanding, this study focuses on the analysis of IS conflicts. In so doing, it aims to identify various types of IS conflicts and to develop a framework that can be helpful in assessing these conflicts. To this end, we have conducted a meta-ethnographic study – that is, we synthesized earlier case studies in which IS conflicts are described. We purposefully selected 11 descriptions of IS conflicts and we analyzed the topics, contexts, and processes of these conflicts. Based on this analysis, we propose a two-dimensional framework of IS conflicts that leads to a categorization involving four IS conflict types: task; implementation process; structure; and value conflicts. Based on the conflicts that were studied, this paper also reveals that, in reality, many IS conflicts have a hybrid form and develop from one type to another over time.

  13. Is the balkanization of the ukrainian-russian conflict probable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Petrovich Koshkin


    Full Text Available Objective to determine the possibility and probability of Balkanization of the UkrainianRussian intersocietal relations. Methods the need to study the main factors affecting the state of the modern RussianUkrainian conflict in its ethnopolitical dimension with the predominat focus on intersocietal relations determined the use of the historicalgenetic comparativehistorical and typological methods of investigation integrated with the systemic approach. Results the main parallels are shown that occur when comparing the ethnopolitical situation in the Balkans and above all the SerbianCroatian relations with the current RussianUkrainian conflict mainly at the level of relations of Russians and Ukrainians as ethnic groups. The ethnosocial and ethnopolitical differences of the genesis and current state of both conflicts do not provide a sufficient basis for specific predictions about the inevitable Balkanization of the RussianUkrainian conflict. Scientific novelty the article proves the inconsistency of unambiguous similes of the RussianUkrainian conflict and interethnic SerbianCroatian conflict at intersocietal and associated levels it shows the significant differences of the conflict situations that do not lead to dogmatic conclusions about the development of the RussianUkrainian relations by the Yugoslavia scenario. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity in the study of ethnos and ethnicity in the analysis of ethnopolitical processes in modern Ukraine and consideration of the status and prospects of the development of RussianUkrainian relations. nbsp

  14. Ammonia Emissions May Be Substantially Underestimated in China. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuming; Wu, Yiyun; Liu, Xuejun; Reis, Stefan; Jin, Jiaxin; Dragosits, Ulrike; Van Damme, Martin; Clarisse, Lieven; Whitburn, Simon; Coheur, Pierre-François; Gu, Baojing


    China is a global hotspot of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) emissions and, as a consequence, very high nitrogen (N) deposition levels are documented. However, previous estimates of total NH3 emissions in China were much lower than inference from observed deposition values would suggest, highlighting the need for further investigation. Here, we reevaluated NH3 emissions based on a mass balance approach, validated by N deposition monitoring and satellite observations, for China for the period of 2000 to 2015. Total NH3 emissions in China increased from 12.1 ± 0.8 Tg N yr(-1) in 2000 to 15.6 ± 0.9 Tg N yr(-1) in 2015 at an annual rate of 1.9%, which is approximately 40% higher than existing studies suggested. This difference is mainly due to more emission sources now having been included and NH3 emission rates from mineral fertilizer application and livestock having been underestimated previously. Our estimated NH3 emission levels are consistent with the measured deposition of NHx (including NH4(+) and NH3) on land (11-14 Tg N yr(-1)) and the substantial increases in NH3 concentrations observed by satellite measurements over China. These findings substantially improve our understanding on NH3 emissions, implying that future air pollution control strategies have to consider the potentials of reducing NH3 emission in China.

  15. Sustainability Frames in the Context of the Energy Wood Conflict in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörte Marie Peters


    Full Text Available Interpretations of the concept of sustainability vary substantially in relation to forests and their management, and they are usually present in conflicts about forest use. In this article, we consider underlying interests relating to conflicts of forest use as a given. Our aim is therefore not to reveal those interests, but rather to explore understandings of sustainability hiding behind them—sustainability frames. To this end, we use frame theory to investigate the following research question: How are different sustainability frames of interest groups reflected in a forest use conflict situation in Germany? The energy wood conflict serves as the example for our research, as it is currently the most prominent forest management conflict in Germany. Using 12 stakeholder interviews within three interest groups as the empirical data basis, it becomes clear that sustainability understandings reflect particular positionings in conflicts, or vice versa. In the energy wood conflict, the classic dichotomy between forestry and conservation groups becomes a trichotomy in which the forestry group splits into an interest group that profits from energy wood production and one that competes with it. We suggest that sustainability understandings do not represent worldviews that guide how actors understand conflicts, but rather that they are shaped according to actors’ particular interests in conflicts.

  16. Conflict between Israel and Hamas (United States)


    excellent advices. I also want to thank my brother in law Tamir Mittelman for the generous assistance of grammar and translation. Finally I want to...on the battlefield. A war of attrition against Hamas is probably Israel’s fate for the long-term. As past experience teaches , it will not solve the...its initiative, Israel will be dragged into a military conflict with Hamas. As history teaches us, the conflicts will escalate, will last longer and

  17. Conflicted Pasts and National Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    With reference to current theories of cultural memory, the book explores how memories of war and conflict are passed from generation to generation, how these complex processes have transformed and shaped collective identities, and how they still inform national "conversations".......With reference to current theories of cultural memory, the book explores how memories of war and conflict are passed from generation to generation, how these complex processes have transformed and shaped collective identities, and how they still inform national "conversations"....

  18. Environmental changes and violent conflict (United States)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Böhmelt, Tobias; Koubi, Vally


    This letter reviews the scientific literature on whether and how environmental changes affect the risk of violent conflict. The available evidence from qualitative case studies indicates that environmental stress can contribute to violent conflict in some specific cases. Results from quantitative large-N studies, however, strongly suggest that we should be careful in drawing general conclusions. Those large-N studies that we regard as the most sophisticated ones obtain results that are not robust to alternative model specifications and, thus, have been debated. This suggests that environmental changes may, under specific circumstances, increase the risk of violent conflict, but not necessarily in a systematic way and unconditionally. Hence there is, to date, no scientific consensus on the impact of environmental changes on violent conflict. This letter also highlights the most important challenges for further research on the subject. One of the key issues is that the effects of environmental changes on violent conflict are likely to be contingent on a set of economic and political conditions that determine adaptation capacity. In the authors' view, the most important indirect effects are likely to lead from environmental changes via economic performance and migration to violent conflict.

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to acetic acid and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 1447) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to acetic acid and maintenance of normal blood pressure. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders....... The food that is the subject of the health claim is apple vinegar drink. From the references provided for the scientific substantiation of the claim, the Panel assumes that the food constituent which is responsible for the claimed effect is acetic acid. The Panel considers that acetic acid is sufficiently...... that maintenance of normal blood pressure is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that although one animal study showed an effect of acetic acid administration on systolic blood pressure, results from two human intervention studies are conflicting...

  20. Conflict, peace and development: A spatio-thematic analysis of violent conflicts in Northern Ghana between 2007 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Osei-Kufuor


    Full Text Available This study provides in text and in maps the spatial and temporal dynamics of violent conflicts in Northern Ghana focusing on their structure, causes and status. Primary data was collected from identified conflict hotspots to validate secondary information collected from two national dailies. Conflict zones tended to be generally clustered in the eastern corridor of Northern Ghana due the high degree of heterogeneity of ethnic groups and the struggle for recognition and dominance amongst them. The causes of conflicts included ethnicity, chieftaincy, religion, politics, urbanisation, struggles over resources and the fight for recognition. Many of the conflicts recorded remain unresolved. Generally, mediation efforts have only succeeded in yielding short term stability due to emphasis on addressing the triggers rather than the issues under contention. For durable peace in northern Ghana, the government and civil society groups must pay greater attention to the structural factors that shape these conflicts. The National House of Chiefs must codify customs and practices and usages in relation to heirs to positions of authority. Land titling has to be expedited by the state to establish boundaries to reduce land related conflicts.

  1. Characteristics of the Colombian armed conflict and the mental health of civilians living in active conflict zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Vaughan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that the Colombian armed conflict has continued for almost five decades there is still very little information on how it affects the mental health of civilians. Although it is well established in post-conflict populations that experience of organised violence has a negative impact on mental health, little research has been done on those living in active conflict zones. Médecins Sans Frontières provides mental health services in areas of active conflict in Colombia and using data from these services we aimed to establish which characteristics of the conflict are most associated with specific symptoms of mental ill health. Methods An analysis of clinical data from patients (N = 6,353, 16 years and over, from 2010–2011, who consulted in the Colombian departments (equivalent to states of Nariño, Cauca, Putumayo and Caquetá. Risk factors were grouped using a hierarchical cluster analysis and the clusters were included with demographic information as predictors in logistic regressions to discern which risk factor clusters best predicted specific symptoms. Results Three clear risk factor clusters emerged which were interpreted as ‘direct conflict related violence’, ‘personal violence not directly conflict-related’ and ‘general hardship’. The regression analyses indicated that conflict related violence was more highly related to anxiety-related psychopathology than other risk factor groupings while non-conflict violence was more related to aggression and substance abuse, which was more common in males. Depression and suicide risk were represented equally across risk factor clusters. Conclusions As the largest study of its kind in Colombia it demonstrates a clear impact of the conflict on mental health. Among those who consulted with mental health professionals, specific conflict characteristics could predict symptom profiles. However, some of the highest risk outcomes, like depression, suicide risk

  2. Neural communication patterns underlying conflict detection, resolution, and adaptation. (United States)

    Oehrn, Carina R; Hanslmayr, Simon; Fell, Juergen; Deuker, Lorena; Kremers, Nico A; Do Lam, Anne T; Elger, Christian E; Axmacher, Nikolai


    In an ever-changing environment, selecting appropriate responses in conflicting situations is essential for biological survival and social success and requires cognitive control, which is mediated by dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). How these brain regions communicate during conflict processing (detection, resolution, and adaptation), however, is still unknown. The Stroop task provides a well-established paradigm to investigate the cognitive mechanisms mediating such response conflict. Here, we explore the oscillatory patterns within and between the DMPFC and DLPFC in human epilepsy patients with intracranial EEG electrodes during an auditory Stroop experiment. Data from the DLPFC were obtained from 12 patients. Thereof four patients had additional DMPFC electrodes available for interaction analyses. Our results show that an early θ (4-8 Hz) modulated enhancement of DLPFC γ-band (30-100 Hz) activity constituted a prerequisite for later successful conflict processing. Subsequent conflict detection was reflected in a DMPFC θ power increase that causally entrained DLPFC θ activity (DMPFC to DLPFC). Conflict resolution was thereafter completed by coupling of DLPFC γ power to DMPFC θ oscillations. Finally, conflict adaptation was related to increased postresponse DLPFC γ-band activity and to θ coupling in the reverse direction (DLPFC to DMPFC). These results draw a detailed picture on how two regions in the prefrontal cortex communicate to resolve cognitive conflicts. In conclusion, our data show that conflict detection, control, and adaptation are supported by a sequence of processes that use the interplay of θ and γ oscillations within and between DMPFC and DLPFC. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410438-15$15.00/0.

  3. Conflict between Family Caregivers and Staff in Nursing Homes: Feasibility of the Daily Diary Method. (United States)

    Konnert, Candace; Speirs, Calandra; Mori, Camille


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the daily diary method (DDM) for assessing family-staff conflicts in nursing homes, to provide descriptive information on conflict, and to examine the relationship between conflict and mood among family caregivers. Participants were nine caregivers that experienced conflict with staff on an ongoing basis. They were contacted daily by telephone for 14 days and were asked (1) whether a conflict had occurred, (2) to describe the severity and type of conflict, and (3) to rate their positive and negative affect. Compliance was excellent with no attrition, and there were only 2 missing data points over 126 potential observations. Conflicts occurred on 22% of the days, were rated as moderately severe, and were related to poor resident care, lack of information, and staff attitudes. Participants reported significantly lower positive affect (p < .05) and higher negative affect (p < .001) on conflict versus no-conflict days. Exit interviews indicated positive attitudes towards the DDM. These results support the feasibility of the DDM for providing an in-depth understanding of family-staff conflict and its relationship to caregivers' mood. The DDM would ideally be used as an outcome measure in studies that assess interventions that target high-conflict family-staff relationships.

  4. Pathogenetic substantiation of surgical treatment of recurrent inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilіanskyі L.S.


    Full Text Available Research purpose was to investigate tissue reactions on implantation of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen, after plastic surgery of experimental defect in rats in preperitoneal prosthesis localization. Research was performed in two experimental groups. Group 1 – in 17 rats an experimental defect of anterior abdominal wall with 3 cm of size with further preperitoneal fixation of the polypropylene mesh of 0,5×1,0 cm size was performed. Group 2 – in 20 rats under analogous conditions preperitoneal fixation of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen was performed. Morphological analysis of stages of scar tissue formation in the implantation region in the preperitoneal cavity of rats by stereological characteristics of cellular and fiber structures of connective tissue considering hemodynamic characteristics shows substantial benefits of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen, during 2 montha after experimental hernioplasty.

  5. Prevention of conflicts among teaching staff


    Komilova Gavkhar Karshievna


    Prevention of pedagogical conflicts among teaching staff is considered in the article. This prevention is based on integration of theoretical knowledge and practical skills about the teacher’s behavior in conflict situations, as well as knowledge about reasons of conflict origin and ways of solving conflict.

  6. Information system conflicts : causes and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan


    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they

  7. The pseudohomophone effect: evidence for an orthography-phonology-conflict. (United States)

    Briesemeister, Benny B; Hofmann, Markus J; Tamm, Sascha; Kuchinke, Lars; Braun, Mario; Jacobs, Arthur M


    The standard pseudohomophone effect in the lexical decision task, i.e. longer response times and higher error rates for pseudohomophones compared with spelling controls, is commonly explained by an orthography-phonology-conflict. This study tested this conflict account, using a multi-method approach including participant's behavioral responses, confidence ratings, pupillary responses and event-related potentials (ERPs). The classic pseudohomophone effect was replicated using relatively long, multi-syllabic stimuli. Pseudohomophones were rated less confidently as being nonwords than spelling controls, and they affected the pupillary response by increasing the peak pupil diameter. Both findings are interpreted in terms of increased conflict and higher cognitive demands leading to uncertainty while solving the task. The ERP revealed an N400 component for spelling controls, showing a graded effect: wordspelling control. This can be seen as evidence for (partial) semantic activation through pseudohomophones. Taken together, the results provide strong multi-method evidence for the conflict account of the pseudohomophone effect.

  8. Conflict and Care (United States)

    Young, Savannah S.; Lewis, Denise C.; Gilbey, Peter; Eisenman, Arie; Schuster, Richard; Seponski, Desiree M.


    Israel has provided immediate healthcare to Syrian children, civilians and fighters since early 2013 despite being in an official state of war with Syria since 1973. We present qualitative findings from a larger mixed-methods phenomenological study to understand how the geopolitical and social history of Israel and Syria influences healthcare providers and Syrian patient caregivers in northern Israel. Theories of humanization and cognitive dissonance guided this study and frame the beliefs and experiences of healthcare providers who treated wounded Syrians in Israeli hospitals. Findings indicate healthcare providers and Syrian caregivers adjusted their beliefs to allow for positive healthcare experiences. Qualitative analysis revealed two major themes: supportive and hindering systemic elements contributing to the healthcare provider-patient-caregiver relationship. Internal psychological developments, contextual factors, and relational processes influenced humanization of the other within the relationship. This study illuminates unique ethical and humanitarian demands relevant for healthcare workers and those with whom they interact. PMID:28508018

  9. Conflict and Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savannah S. Young


    Full Text Available Israel has provided immediate healthcare to Syrian children, civilians and fighters since early 2013 despite being in an official state of war with Syria since 1973. We present qualitative findings from a larger mixed-methods phenomenological study to understand how the geopolitical and social history of Israel and Syria influences healthcare providers and Syrian patient caregivers in northern Israel. Theories of humanization and cognitive dissonance guided this study and frame the beliefs and experiences of healthcare providers who treated wounded Syrians in Israeli hospitals. Findings indicate healthcare providers and Syrian caregivers adjusted their beliefs to allow for positive healthcare experiences. Qualitative analysis revealed two major themes: supportive and hindering systemic elements contributing to the healthcare provider-patient-caregiver relationship. Internal psychological developments, contextual factors, and relational processes influenced humanization of the other within the relationship. This study illuminates unique ethical and humanitarian demands relevant for healthcare workers and those with whom they interact.

  10. An evolutionary resolution of manipulation conflict. (United States)

    González-Forero, Mauricio


    Individuals can manipulate the behavior of social partners. However, manipulation may conflict with the fitness interests of the manipulated individuals. Manipulated individuals can then be favored to resist manipulation, possibly reducing or eliminating the manipulated behavior in the long run. I use a mathematical model to show that conflicts where manipulation and resistance coevolve can disappear as a result of the coevolutionary process. I find that while manipulated individuals are selected to resist, they can simultaneously be favored to express the manipulated behavior at higher efficiency (i.e., providing increasing fitness effects to recipients of the manipulated behavior). Efficiency can increase to a point at which selection for resistance disappears. This process yields an efficient social behavior that is induced by social partners, and over which the inducing and induced individuals are no longer in conflict. A necessary factor is costly inefficiency. I develop the model to address the evolution of advanced eusociality via maternal manipulation (AEMM). The model predicts AEMM to be particularly likely in taxa with ancestrally imperfect resistance to maternal manipulation. Costly inefficiency occurs if the cost of delayed dispersal is larger than the benefit of exploiting the maternal patch. I discuss broader implications of the process. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Professional and cultural conflicts for intensive care nurses. (United States)

    Høye, Sevald; Severinsson, Elisabeth


    This paper is a report of a study exploring intensive care nurses' experiences of conflicts related to practical situations when they encounter culturally diverse families of critically ill patients. Conflicts can arise in critical care settings as a result of differing cultural and professional values. Nurses and families with diverse cultural backgrounds bring beliefs and understandings to the care situation that can have an impact on the care process. Such families are challenged in their efforts to maintain traditions, while some nurses are not sufficiently culturally aware. A limited number of studies have focused on such conflicts. Sixteen critical care nurses took part in multistage focus group interviews conducted from October 2005 to June 2006. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The main theme, 'conflict between professional nursing practice and family cultural traditions', was based on three pairs of conflicting themes: 'culturally based need to participate actively in the care vs. nurses' professional perceptions of themselves as total care providers'; 'nurses' professional obligation to provide comprehensible information vs. culturally based communication difficulties and responses to illness'; and 'families' needs for cultural norms and self-determination vs. nurses' professional responsibility for the clinical environment'. In addition, each pair of themes contained several sub-themes. Nurses need to negotiate with culturally diverse family members to address conflicts. In their encounters with such families, they should establish a balance between ethnocentricity and cultural sensitivity. An implication for practice is to increase nurses' competence in assessment of diversity.

  12. The conciliation of collective labour conflicts


    Iulia Badoi


    The present article envisages presenting the conciliation as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts. The conciliation was stipulated as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts even from the first acts that regulated this domain, being foreseen as a mandatory phase within the process of solving this type of conflicts. The subject of conciliation was approached before within the doctrine, from this juridical in...

  13. Conflict and the women of Chad. (United States)

    Sy, A D


    Chad was used as an example of how women and children were the most affected during national and international conflicts. The conditions of women before and during the conflict were described. Chad has been a country involved in a war provoked by psychological differences between the way of life, economic activity, and culture of Arab Muslims who are nomadic pastoralists, and Animist and Christian farmers. The important year was 1979, when the country was torn apart by civil war. Women before the conflict were part of a patriarchal society of men heading households and sole producers for the family. One decision maker controlled family matters: the man. Men also possessed all household goods. Women were biological and social producers, and value was placed on having large numbers of children. Muslim women lived in seclusion. Married women, who engaged in commercial activity, were mocked and exposed their husbands to the humiliation of not being able to provide sufficiently for the family. Between 1979 and 1982, many men were exiled to other countries nearby, which sometimes meant the abandonment of women and children. The remaining men were limited in their ability to earn money, and reverted to fishing, farming, and hunting. Gender relations changed. Survival strategies were developed, such as women working as domestics or selling products. Petty trading and agricultural and market gardening enterprises were flourishing. Women learned skills in dressmaking, embroidery, or knitting. Sometimes long distances were traveled in order to secure income. Women set up their own banking system with a system of "tontines" or savings cooperatives. The war's impact was to disrupt social and private life, which allowed women to enter the public domain and contribute to economic security. The downside of the conflict was the toll in human life and poverty for vast numbers of women and children. The physical, financial, and psychological exhaustion helped to create an awareness

  14. Fighting over forest : toward a shared analysis of livelihood conflicts and conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Kyereh, B.; Dietz, A.J.


    Conflicts undermine forest-based livelihoods for the rural poor. Conflict management is key to preventing such conflicts. This article analyzes actor perceptions of forest- and tree-related conflicts and conflict management in Ghana's high forest zone. It also assesses a phased methodology that

  15. Substantial soil organic carbon retention along floodplains of mountain streams (United States)

    Sutfin, Nicholas A.; Wohl, Ellen


    Small, snowmelt-dominated mountain streams have the potential to store substantial organic carbon in floodplain sediment because of high inputs of particulate organic matter, relatively lower temperatures compared with lowland regions, and potential for increased moisture conditions. This work (i) quantifies mean soil organic carbon (OC) content along 24 study reaches in the Colorado Rocky Mountains using 660 soil samples, (ii) identifies potential controls of OC content based on soil properties and spatial position with respect to the channel, and (iii) and examines soil properties and OC across various floodplain geomorphic features in the study area. Stepwise multiple linear regression (adjusted r2 = 0.48, p analysis indicates limited separation between geomorphic floodplain features based on predictors of OC content. A lack of significant differences among floodplain features suggests that the systematic random sampling employed in this study can capture the variability of OC across floodplains in the study area. Mean floodplain OC (6.3 ± 0.3%) is more variable but on average greater than values in uplands (1.5 ± 0.08% to 2.2 ± 0.14%) of the Colorado Front Range and higher than published values from floodplains in other regions, particularly those of larger rivers.

  16. Electrophysiological measures of conflict detection and resolution in the Stroop task. (United States)

    Coderre, Emily; Conklin, Kathy; van Heuven, Walter J B


    Conflict detection and resolution is crucial in a cognitive task like the Stroop task. Previous studies have identified an early negativity component (N(inc)) as a prominent marker of Stroop conflict in event-related potentials (ERPs). However, to what extent this ERP component reflects conflict detection and/or resolution is still unclear. Here, we report a Stroop task in which the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of color and word stimuli presentation was manipulated in order to disentangle the roles of conflict detection and conflict resolution in generating Stroop-related ERP components. Separating the word from the color information gives us precise control over the timing of conflict. If the N(inc) is related with conflict resolution it should be absent when the word appears during response preparation, as in a long-latency positive SOA. Our data shows that the N(inc) occurs in all SOAs, even after a response has been made, supporting its role in the detection of stimulus conflict rather than conflict resolution. The use of SOA manipulation therefore allows for the examination of a wider temporal spectrum of interference in order to specify the functions of this conflict-related component. These results provide insight into the neural signatures of conflict processes, and have implications for models of cognitive control mechanisms in the brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Revisiting peace and conflict studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias


    In this article, I will first draw attention to the surprising, but ultimately problematic trajectory of peace studies from the period of the Cold War to the present day. This is a trajectory from ‘peace’ as a critique of dominant geopolitics to one of ‘peace’ that has become part of the very...... dominant geopolitics it initially set out to criticise. Secondly, I will map – undoubtedly in cursory and incomplete fashion – the scholarly communities and literatures dealing with questions of peace and conflict. Rather than a literature review or an attempt at synthesis, my purpose is to highlight...... the broad variety of existing units of analysis, motivations, theories and methodologies of peace and conflict studies. Thirdly, I will propose a number of suggestions for a research attitude that, in absence of a better word, I subsume under the heading of ‘critical peace and conflict research’, striving...

  18. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle


    In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...... al, 2007; Nguyen, 2007; Mweemba, C.E. 2007). The purpose of these overviews was to position the research findings on the extent and nature of local-level water-related conflict and cooperation in the context of ongoing efforts to improve the policy, legal and administrative water governance framework...

  19. It's the nature of the work: examining behavior-based sources of work-family conflict across occupations. (United States)

    Dierdorff, Erich C; Ellington, J Kemp


    The consequences of work-family conflict for both individuals and organizations have been well documented, and the various sources of such conflict have received substantial attention. However, the vast majority of extant research has focused on only time- and strain-based sources, largely neglecting behavior-based sources. Integrating two nationally representative databases, the authors examine 3 behavior-based antecedents of work-family conflict linked specifically to occupational work role requirements (interdependence, responsibility for others, and interpersonal conflict). Results from multilevel analysis indicate that significant variance in work-family conflict is attributable to the occupation in which someone works. Interdependence and responsibility for others predict work-family conflict, even after controlling for several time- and strain-based sources.

  20. 75 FR 71391 - Implementation of Conflicts of Interest Policies and Procedures by Swap Dealers and Major Swap... (United States)


    ... potential conflicts of interest in the preparation and release of research reports by SDs and MSPs; the... research report, or to identify any potential conflicts of interest, provided that: (A) Any written... Conflicts of Interest. A swap dealer or major swap participant must disclose in research reports and a...

  1. Machine Learning and Conflict Prediction: A Use Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Perry


    Full Text Available For at least the last two decades, the international community in general and the United Nations specifically have attempted to develop robust, accurate and effective conflict early warning system for conflict prevention. One potential and promising component of integrated early warning systems lies in the field of machine learning. This paper aims at giving conflict analysis a basic understanding of machine learning methodology as well as to test the feasibility and added value of such an approach. The paper finds that the selection of appropriate machine learning methodologies can offer substantial improvements in accuracy and performance. It also finds that even at this early stage in testing machine learning on conflict prediction, full models offer more predictive power than simply using a prior outbreak of violence as the leading indicator of current violence. This suggests that a refined data selection methodology combined with strategic use of machine learning algorithms could indeed offer a significant addition to the early warning toolkit. Finally, the paper suggests a number of steps moving forward to improve upon this initial test methodology.

  2. Cooperation and conflict between women in the family. (United States)

    Mace, Ruth


    Here I review recent research on reproductive conflict between females in families and how it influences their reproductive behaviour. Kin selection can favor cooperation between parent and offspring, siblings, or unrelated co-residents who share interests in other family members such as grand-offspring. However, these are also the individuals most likely to be sharing resources, and so conflict can also emerge. While substantial interest has arisen in evolutionary anthropology, especially over the last two decades, in the possibility of cooperative breeding in humans, less attention has been paid to reproductive conflict among female kin. Communal breeding in animals is generally understood as emerging from competition over the resources needed to breed. Competition for household resources is a problem that also faces human families. Models suggest that in some circumstances, inclusive fitness can be maximized by sharing reproduction rather than harming relatives by fighting with them, even if the shares that emerge are not equal. Thus, competition and cooperation turn out to be strongly related to each other. Reproductive competition within and between families may have underpinned the biological evolution of fertility patterns (such as menopause) and the cultural evolution of marriage, residence, and inheritance norms (such as late male marriage or primogeniture), which can enhance cooperation and minimize the observed incidence of such conflicts. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Armed Conflict in Colombia : Different Resources Different Conflicts ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will endeavor to shed light on how natural resources - specifically, coffee, oil, bananas, flowers, emeralds, coal and minerals (gold and nickel) - feed the various forms of armed conflict that occur in different parts of the country. Focusing on eight resources researchers will engage a variety of governmental and ...

  4. Conflict and conflict resolution in Africa: Engaging the colonial factor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The critical question then is how we understand the problem of conflict resolution in Africa when the actors, mainly external to ..... a colonial conspiracy masterminded by Britain and the West within the Cold. War context to deprive the territory of its ..... Letter from Birmingham jail. In: Washington, James M. ed. 1992. I have a ...

  5. Women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution among the Issa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia: The case study of Ma'eso district. Unpublished synthesis paper. Bates, Prue A. 2000. Women and peacemaking. Australian National University. Development Bulletin 53. Canberra, Australian National University. Burton, John and Frank Dukes eds. 1990. Conflict readings in management and resolution. New York ...

  6. Conflict Northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Template analysis involves reducing large amount of data into a framework of a few pages to simplify the .... The Village Savings and Loans Association (VSLA) model of community economic financing provides an ..... employment, with even bias on financial assistance to promote male interest and less resources are made ...

  7. Embracing conflict: building a healthy community. (United States)

    Porter-O'Grady, Tim


    All human dynamics include the potential for conflict. Communication processes have deeply embedded in them all the elements of essential conflict. The acknowledgment of differences across the human community is a recognition that all conflict is normative. In healthcare systems, leaders must recognize this factor as an essential part of the expression of the leadership role. Therefore, understanding conflict, applying conflict resolution strategies in the leader's role, building approaches to addressing essential conflict, and resolving it are critical to effective leadership. Understanding the elements of conflict, the processes associated with managing conflict, and the characteristics of conflict resolution are outlined here as essential to the exercise of the leadership role at every level of the organization.

  8. Specificity of peer conflicts in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela


    Full Text Available The results of the survey conducted on the sample of 530 adolescents are presented in this paper. The sample included two age groups (13 and 16 years. The research was realized in 11 town and 26 schools. The method of the retrospection of the conflict contents, with one week retrospection interval, was used to research the perception of the conflict characteristics. The distinctive characteristics and the effects of the peer conflicts in adolescence have been identified by comparing them to the conflicts with friends, romantic partners, siblings and teachers. According to the results peer conflicts have certain specificity. Although less frequent than conflicts with parents and siblings, the peer conflicts in adolescence are widen phenomenon - on average, the adolescents get in conflict with their peers more than 13 times in a week, almost twice in a day. The most frequent causes are teasing and inappropriate jokes, deliberate provoking, gossips, insults and not respecting the differences in opinion. Peers follow the teachers as the least important persons in the conflict. Compared to the conflicts in other types of the social relations, the conflicts with peers are the least uncomfortable. Yielding is the least, competition the most present resolution strategy in peer conflicts. As well as the most conflicts in this age conflicts with peers are short time episode.

  9. Substantial Lateral Motions Accompany Tectonic Deformation on Venus (United States)

    Byrne, P. K.; Sengor, A. M. C.; Ghail, R.; Klimczak, C.; Solomon, S. C.


    Absent plate tectonics, deformation accompanying large-scale relative horizontal motion of the lithosphere on Venus is much more evenly distributed than that on Earth, which is mainly concentrated at plate boundaries. Yet Earth's plates, especially those of the continental lithosphere, are themselves internally deformed, often in a spatially distributed manner. Tectonic deformation on Venus thus has parallels to intraplate deformation on Earth, and so the morphology and kinematics of large-scale tectonics on Venus can be compared with structurally similar intraplate regions here. For example, numerous low-lying plains on Venus delineated by fold belts are analogous to mountain-range-bound sedimentary basins on Earth. One such site, northeast of Artemis Corona, is elliptical in plan and, at 1100 km in east-west and 620 km in north-south dimension, is akin to the Tarim Basin in northwest China (1250 km × 560 km). The fold belts demarcating this plain structurally resemble the Tian Shan range to the northwest and the Altun Shan to the southeast of the Tarim Basin, as well as the southern mountain range of the Sichuan Basin in southwest China. Notably, the Sichuan Basin is comparable in size (560 km × 390 km) to two other elliptical, fold-belt-bordered plains in the northeastern portion of Lada Terra on Venus (400 km × 300 km and 400 km × 370 km, respectively). The mountain ranges that delimit both the Tarim and Sichuan basins have accommodated substantial transpressive deformation: the Altun Shan range is situated atop the major Altyn Tagh left-lateral strike-slip fault, and the Longmenshan thrust belt to the northwest of the Sichuan Basin includes right-lateral shear. The fold belts on Venus may therefore possess a greater component of transpressive deformation than currently recognized, and these structures may thereby have facilitated more large-scale lateral mobility of the planet's lithosphere than previously thought.

  10. New theory of arrhythmia. Conceptual substantiation of arrhythmia mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Ermoshkin


    Full Text Available Aims A new attempt is made to substantiate the concept of the mechanism of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Methods The paper is based on a theoretical analysis of special literature, personal experience of participation in conferences and discussions with leading Russian cardiologists. Results We have succeeded in demonstrating the fact that researchers ignore the fact that cardiomyocytes can be excited by mechanical pulses, when considering the arrhythmia mechanisms. We have conducted trials using the Cardiocode device. Under stress in a human, opened may be large and small arteriovenous anastomoses, via which blood under high pressure is ejected into veins. It leads to pressure surges in arteries and veins. The vena cava dilates, its tonus increases. In some cases, the pulse waves travel via anastomoses along the vena cava walls to the atria and the ventricles. An above-threshold concentration of tensions from mechanical pulses may excite cardiomyocytes from different points of the myocardium, disturbing the sinus rhythm. As a result, extrasystoles, tachycardia attacks, blocking of blood circulation in the peripheral segments of the venous arterial networks, edemata, thrombosis and metabolism disorders appear. Arrhythmia, tachycardia attacks and concomitant myocardial ischemia lead to progression of heart fibrosis. Such changes increase the probability of fibrillations and sudden cardiac death. Conclusion Unhealthy lifestyle, the presence of opening and not properly closing anastomoses may provoke a number of diseases. To avoid the cardiac arrhythmia attacks and prevent SCD, it is necessary to suppress travel of the mechanical waves within the following circuitry: aorta – artery – anastomosis – vein – vena cava – atria – ventricles. The travel of the mechanical waves within the same vessel circuitry explains the fact that the fixed couplings under extrasystoles are observed, and the beat-to-beat RR intervals under tachycardia

  11. Reexamining the Role of Cognitive Conflict in Science Concept Learning (United States)

    Kang, Sukjin; Scharmann, Lawrence C.; Noh, Taehee


    In this study, we defined and quantified the degree of cognitive conflict induced by a discrepant event from a cognitive perspective. Based on the scheme developed, we investigated the relationship between cognitive conflict and conceptual change, and the influences of students'' cognitive characteristics on conflict in learning the concept of density. Subjects were 171 seventh-grade girls from two city middle schools in Korea. Tests regarding logical thinking ability, field dependence/independence, and meaningful learning approach were administered. A preconception test and a test of responses to a discrepant event were also administered. Computer-assisted instruction was then provided to students as a conceptual change intervention. A conception test was administered as a posttest. In analysing students'' responses to the discrepant event, seven types of responses were identified: Rejection, reinterpretation, exclusion, uncertainty, peripheral belief change, belief decrease, and belief change. These types were then ordered into four levels. The results indicated that there existed a significant correlation between cognitive conflict and conceptual change. t-test results revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the degree of cognitive conflict by the levels of students'' logical thinking ability and field dependence/independence. Meaningful learning approach, however, was found to have no statistically significant effect on cognitive conflict. Educational implications are discussed.

  12. The role of the applied epidemiologist in armed conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonnell Sharon M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applied epidemiologists are increasingly working in areas of insecurity and active conflict to define the health risks, suggest feasible means to reduce these risks and, monitor the capacity and reconstruction of the public health system. In 2001, The Carter Center and the United States Institute for Peace sponsored a conference within which "Violence and Health" was discussed and a working group on applied epidemiology formed. The group was tasked to describe the skills that are essential to effective functioning in these settings and thereby provide guidance to the applied epidemiology training programs. Methods We conducted a literature review and consultation of a convenience sample of practitioners of applied epidemiology with experience in conflict areas. Results and conclusions The health programs designed to prevent and mitigate conflict are in their early stages of implementation and the evaluation measures for success are still being defined. The practice of epidemiology in conflict must occur within a larger humanitarian and political context to be effective. The skills required extend beyond the normal epidemiological training that focuses on the valid collection and interpretation of data and fall into two general categories: (1 Conducting a thorough assessment of the conflict setting in order to design more effective public health action in conflict settings, and (2 Communicating effectively to guide health program implementation, to advocate for needed policy changes and to facilitate interagency coordination. These are described and illustrated using examples from different countries.

  13. The application of international environmental law in armed conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Zoran


    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of environment protection during armed conflicts. The authors primarily focus on examining the possibility of applying international environmental law in armed conflicts. In the first part of the paper, the authors provide an overview of relevant rules of international humanitarian law which are important for environment protection and contained in different sources of law governing this area (international treaties, international customs and general principles. In this part, the authors point out to the weaknesses and shortcomings of the IHL environmental provisions, including both the traditional rules which have an indirect effect on environment protection and the contemporary rules which in most cases directly protect the environment. The second part of the article deals with the rules of international environmental law applicable in armed conflicts. The authors first examine the possibility of applying multilateral environmental treaties in armed conflicts. In that context, the authors point out to different types of such treaties, with specific reference to the treaties which do not contain provisions on their applicability during armed conflicts. Further on, the authors analyze the application of customary environmental rules in armed conflicts. These rules are considerably less important than international treaties and they commonly comprise a few general principles which may be considered nowadays as the rules of customary law. Finally, the authors explore the possibility of applying the rules of environmental soft law, such as the rules contained in different declarations and resolutions adopted at international conferences or within the framework of international organizations.

  14. Conflict Networks: Collapsing the Global into the Local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Srnicek


    Full Text Available Recent decades have seen a dual and simultaneous shift in conflict trends. With the end of the Cold War and superpower support, conflicts have become increasingly intrastate and increasingly localized, dependent for their sustenance upon local assistance and national resources. Yet this localization of conflict has coincided with the increasingly international aspect of conflicts, with humanitarian intervention and UN peacekeeping becoming ever more prevalent. The aim of this paper is to provide a framework for understanding these shifting relations between the global and the local. This is accomplished through an analysis of actor-network theory and its rejoinders to reductionist understandings of conflict. Rather than reducing the eruption of violence down to greed, grievance, or ancient hatred, actor-network theory aims to examine conflict networks and their specific composition of local, material, and global actors. Three aspects of these networks are highlighted in particular: the personal networks of local individuals, the material actors, and theconflict network as a system. With these clarified the final section turns to an analysis of some of the primary modalities through which global actors relate and embed themselves within local networks.

  15. Subliminal unconscious conflict alpha power inhibits supraliminal conscious symptom experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard eShevrin


    Full Text Available Our approach is based on a tri-partite method of integrating psychodynamic hypotheses, cognitive subliminal processes, and psychophysiological alpha power measures. We present ten social phobic subjects with three individually selected groups of words representing unconscious conflict, conscious symptom experience, and Osgood Semantic negative valence words used as a control word group. The unconscious conflict and conscious symptom words, presented subliminally and supraliminally, act as primes preceding the conscious symptom and control words presented as supraliminal targets. With alpha power as a marker of inhibitory brain activity, we show that unconscious conflict primes, only when presented subliminally, have a unique inhibitory effect on conscious symptom targets. This effect is absent when the unconscious conflict primes are presented supraliminally, or when the target is the control words. Unconscious conflict prime effects were found to correlate with a measure of repressiveness in a similar previous study (Shevrin et al., 1992, 1996. Conscious symptom primes have no inhibitory effect when presented subliminally. Inhibitory effects with conscious symptom primes are present, but only when the primes are supraliminal, and they did not correlate with repressiveness in a previous study (Shevrin, et al., 1992, 1996. We conclude that while the inhibition following supraliminal conscious symptom primes is due to conscious threat bias, the inhibition following subliminal unconscious conflict primes provides a neurological blueprint for dynamic repression: it is only activated subliminally by an individual’s unconscious conflict and has an inhibitory effect specific only to the conscious symptom. These novel findings constitute neuroscientific evidence for the psychoanalytic concepts of unconscious conflict and repression, while extending neuroscience theory and methods into the realm of personal, psychological meaning.

  16. Abacus of frozen conflicts


    Karimov, Reshad.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited One of the central topics of international relations study is the function of military threats as a mean to deter international crises and war. Rational choice models provide the groundwork for theorizing circumstances under which conventional deterrence is likely to thrive or fail. According to Paul Huth, rational deterrence theorists have focused on four sets of variables: the balance of military forces, costly signaling and bargaini...

  17. The Geopolitical Setting of Conflict Diamonds. (United States)

    Haggerty, S. E.


    September 11, 2001 will live in infamy. Ideological differences have also led to senseless atrocities in Angola, Congo Republic, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Hundreds of thousands have died, scores mutilated, and millions displaced. These have gone virtually unnoticed for decades. Unnoticed that is until it became evident that these barbaric acts were fueled by the sale or bartering of diamonds for arms, or by more ingenious ways that are less traceable. There is no end in sight. Industry has long recognized that about 20% of diamonds reaching the open market are smuggled from operating mines, and more recently that an additional 4% originates from conflict diamond sources. Diamond identification by laser inscription, ion implantation, or certification protocols are subject to fraudulent tampering. And these applied methods are thwarted if cutting and polishing centers are infiltrated, or if terrorist facilities are independently established. Mark ups are substantial (40-60%) from raw material to finished product. Tracking the paths of rough stones from mines to faceted gems is impractical because some 30-50 million cts of top quality material, or about 100 million stones, would require branding each year. Moreover, the long standing tradition of site-holdings and the bourse system of mixing or matching diamonds, inadvertently ensures regional anonymity. Conflict diamonds are mined in primary kimberlites and from widely dispersed alluvial fields in tropical jungle. Landscapes, eroded by 1-5 vertical km over 100 Ma, have transformed low grade primary deposits into unconsolidated sedimentary bonanzas. The current value of stones retrieved, by motivated diggers and skillful jiggers, in rebel held territories, is impossible to determine, but in 1993 amounted to tens of millions USD. Diamonds over 100 cts continue to surface at premier prices. Borders are porous, diamonds flow easily, and armed networks are permeable and mobile. Diamonds form at great depths (over 200 km

  18. Role of dynamics in enzyme catalysis: substantial versus semantic controversies. (United States)

    Kohen, Amnon


    CONSPECTUS: The role of the enzyme's dynamic motions in catalysis is at the center of heated contemporary debates among both theoreticians and experimentalists. Resolving these apparent disputes is of both intellectual and practical importance: incorporation of enzyme dynamics could be critical for any calculation of enzymatic function and may have profound implications for structure-based drug design and the design of biomimetic catalysts. Analysis of the literature suggests that while part of the dispute may reflect substantial differences between theoretical approaches, much of the debate is semantic. For example, the term "protein dynamics" is often used by some researchers when addressing motions that are in thermal equilibrium with their environment, while other researchers only use this term for nonequilibrium events. The last cases are those in which thermal energy is "stored" in a specific protein mode and "used" for catalysis before it can dissipate to its environment (i.e., "nonstatistical dynamics"). This terminology issue aside, a debate has arisen among theoreticians around the roles of nonstatistical vs statistical dynamics in catalysis. However, the author knows of no experimental findings available today that examined this question in enzyme catalyzed reactions. Another source of perhaps nonsubstantial argument might stem from the varying time scales of enzymatic motions, which range from seconds to femtoseconds. Motions at different time scales play different roles in the many events along the catalytic cascade (reactant binding, reprotonation of reactants, structural rearrangement toward the transition state, product release, etc.). In several cases, when various experimental tools have been used to probe catalytic events at differing time scales, illusory contradictions seem to have emerged. In this Account, recent attempts to sort the merits of those questions are discussed along with possible future directions. A possible summary of current

  19. Bariatric surgery in Medicare patients: greater risks but substantial benefits. (United States)

    Yuan, Xiang; Martin Hawver, Lisa R; Ojo, Peter; Wolfe, Luke M; Meador, Jill G; Kellum, John M; Maher, James W


    Recent reports have documented greater mortality for bariatric surgery in Medicare (MC) patients compared with patients from other payors. We reviewed our database for the mortality and outcomes of 282 MC and 3169 non-Medicare (NMC) patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Of the MC patients, 27 were >65 years of age, and 255 were receiving disability. The average age was 48.45 +/- 11.8 years, and the average BMI was 52.4 +/- 10.0 kg/m2. NMC patients had average age of 40.0 +/- 10.1 years and a BMI of 50.6 +/- 9.1 kg/m2. The co-morbidities were greater in the MC patients than in the NMC patients (hypertension 71.9% versus 48.4%, diabetes mellitus 39.72% versus 19.4%, obstructive sleep apnea 46.45% versus 28.46%, and obesity hypoventilation syndrome 9.93% versus 2.71%). The mortality rate was 2.48% in the MC patients and .76% in the NMC patients. Mortality was absent in MC patients >65 years old. The percentage of excess weight lost was less in the MC patients (60.8%) than in the NMC patients (66.5%, P obstructive sleep apnea 79.17% versus 54.51%; and obesity hypoventilation syndrome 26.39% versus 7.64%). The operative mortality rate was 5.6% for the male MC patients and 1.5% for the female MC patients. The weight loss was similar for the male MC and male NMC patients. The male MC patients had slightly better resolution of both hypertension (MC patients 54.8% versus NMC patients 26.7%, P = .0025) and diabetes mellitus (MC patients 30% versus NMC patients 22.5%, P = .745). When the patients were stratified into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups using a previously validated risk scale, patients with similar risk factors had similar mortality in both groups. The results of our study have shown that disabled MC patients have greater operative mortality than NMC patients that appears to be associated with more prevalent risk factors. However, the risk was counterbalanced by a substantial improvement in health.

  20. Intergenerational Conflicts in Everyday Life (United States)

    Smol'kin, A. A.


    Conflicts between younger and older generations can take on a character that goes beyond personal experience to become a narrative of more general social conditions. In times of change, this phenomenon may play an important role in defining new social realities. This seems to be occurring in Russia today. Available studies of intergenerational…

  1. The paradox of intragroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Franciscus Remendus Cornelis de


    During group decision making, people often experience disagreements in which they need to choose between their own viewpoint and the viewpoint of another group member, for example, when cabinet members disagree about the best decision to tackle a crisis. These intragroup conflicts often pose a

  2. Parent-Child Conflict Resolved. (United States)

    Rosner, Joseph


    Discusses methods used to settle the emotional debt of love and nurturance withheld by the parent and owed to the child. The child, as an adult in a therapy setting, is responsible for the resolution of the conflict created by the parent-child relationship. (Author/ABB)

  3. Discussing Conflict in Contemporary China (United States)

    Miletic, Tania; Bretherton, Diane


    The research suggests there is a gap in the peace studies and conflict resolution literature, with little representation or understanding of Chinese perspectives. In a project to address this gap, the researchers conducted interviews individually with 30 participants identified as "emerging leaders," who came from diverse universities…

  4. Peace and conflict in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    book is touted as an introduction text to key themes with regard to peace and conflict in Africa. .... external lenders such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, and the nature and ... Commission (TRC). He identifies four ...

  5. Family therapy, conflicts and change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter


    interviews with 15 families undergoing family therapy delivered by a communal agency in Denmark.   Using notions of crisis interlinked with institutions and everyday lives (Hedegaard) framed by historical, contentious struggles (Holland and Lave), a model of conflict, violence, learning and motivation...... as an educational tool (Vygotsky; Ananjew)....

  6. The Logic of Animal Conflict

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 11. The Logic of Animal Conflict. Raghavendra Gadagkar. Article-in-a-Box Volume 10 Issue 11 November 2005 pp 5-5. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  7. Internal Conflicts in Muslim Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq Ali Shah


    Full Text Available An analysis of psychological theories and the social dynamics of the society help identify salient attributes and processes relevant to conflict among Muslims. The psychodynamic concept of personality and frustration-aggression hypothesis account for the socialization practices in the Muslim societies, emotional instability, unfavorable evaluation of those holding a different viewpoint and venting out one's aggression on the weaker. The tendency of the Muslims to praise their sect/tribe/religious group leads to a groupthink situation that polarizes intergroup relationships. The acts of categorization in group and out group, as postulated by the social identity theory, contribute towards the distorted perception of each other. The Islamic notions of brotherhood, unity and ethnic identity as means of personal identification and social interaction seems to have been forgotten by the Muslims. Though the Western social-psychological constructs are helpful in understanding the causes of conflict among Muslims, they are not germane to Muslim societies. The group belongingness and group favouritism is not necessarily a tool of discrimination and conflict but is an essential component of one's survival in a collectivist society. The Western theories also do not address the economic and political circumstances responsible for the multitude of conflicts among Muslims.

  8. Conflict of interest reporting in dentistry meta-analyses: A systematic review (United States)

    Beyari, Mohammed M.; Strain, Dan; Lamfon, Hanadi A.


    Objectives: The issue of reporting conflicts of interest (COI) in medical research has come under scrutiny over the past decade. Absolute transparency is important when dealing with conflicts of interest to provide readers with all essential information required to make an informative decision of the results. The key objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of reporting conflicts of interest in therapeutic dental meta-analyses of Randomized Control Trials (RCTs), and to investigate possible associations with other categorical variables. Study Design: We conducted an extensive literature search across multiple databases to search for relevant review articles for this study. We utilized pre-determined key words, and relied on three reviewers to test and review the use of a data extraction form that was used for the meta-analyses. Data regarding study characteristics, direction of results, and the significance of the results from each meta-analysis were extracted. Results: There were 129 meta-analyses used in this review, and the reporting on conflict of interest was low with only 50 (38.8%) of the articles possessing a conflict of interest statement (either confirming of denying COI). Of these 50 articles, there were only 4 (8%) studies that reported an actual conflict of interest. A statement of conflicts of interest was found in 29 (35.3%) of the papers that reported significant findings, whereas 35% of the papers that reported positive results reported on conflict of interest. Prior to 2009, only 17 (25%) papers reported conflicts of interest, but since 2009, 54.1% of papers collected had a conflict of interest statement. Conclusions: Meta-analyses published in the field of dentistry do not routinely report author conflicts of interest. Although few conflicts appear to exist, the field of dentistry should continue to ensure that best evidence reports provide clear and transparent reporting of potential conflicts of interest in academic journals. Key


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Popov


    North Caucasian region after armed conflicts shows unacceptability and inability of orientation on isolationism of one or another ethno-social system within the Russian political space. Integration tasks of ensuring regional safety and overcoming ethnic contradictions in their most destructive form, which is the conflict of identities, are of systemic all-Russian nature. Sociocultural integration must serve as a conflict-preventive tool in this context, i.e. a pro-active action on the conflict environment by way of providing structural solutions for regional problems, transforming and rationalizing ethnic contradictions. 

  10. Aiding and abetting : how international humanitarian assistance can inadvertently prolong conflict and how combatants respond


    Narang, Neil


    The provision of humanitarian assistance has rapidly become a core component of modern peacebuilding and post- conflict reconstruction. Yet, despite the normative appeal of providing humanitarian assistance to the victims of violent conflict, aid workers and analysts frequently claim that humanitarian assistance can inadvertently prolong war. If such claims are true, the very treatment that the international community has been employing to address the consequences of violent conflict may actu...

  11. Does the Law of Armed Conflict Need to Evolve With Respect to Non-State Actors? (United States)


    commander should conduct operations or treat captured fighters while still complying with the law of armed conflict is more complicated than ever. To make...conflict. While we may find short-term answers by creatively interpreting the existing guidance, we need to change the law to provide a long-term...criminals instead of combatants, but attempts to determine how the law of armed conflict applies to their actions during combat and treatment when

  12. A Use Case Methodology to Handle Conflicting Controller Requirements for Future Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Uslar, Mathias; Tornelli, Carlo


    This paper proposes a standards based requirements elicitation and analysis strategy tailored for smart grid control structure development. Control structures in electric power systems often span across several systems and stakeholders. Requirements elicitation for such control systems therefore...... is to describe a process starting from a tailored IEC 62559 template amended for recording controller conflicts and adapting the underlying use case management repository for collaborative work. Conflict identification is supported by Multilevel Flow Modeling providing abstracted conflict patterns....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Mazitova


    Full Text Available The authors review the pathogenesis of the come done and its treatment methods. They provide the data on the high effectiveness of the combined therapy by the topical medications: adapalene and benzoyl peroxide in the event of come done among the teenagers.Key words: acne, local treatment, children.

  14. Expanding Student International Awareness Through Short-Term Study Abroad Courses With Substantial Engineering Technical Content (United States)

    Jacobitz, Frank; Schubert, Thomas


    The efficacy of Compact International Experience (CIE) courses is assessed in this study. These courses were developed with the aim to raise student international awareness while retaining substantial engineering technical content. The courses were motivated by a strong student desire for engineering international studies as well as a drive by the home institution for internationalization of the curriculum. The experiences gained from delivering two distinct three-semester-unit engineering elective courses in three-week time frames in France and Australia are discussed. While the two courses, Topics in Fluid Mechanics and Advanced Electronic Circuit Design, focused on their technical content, the desire for student understanding of the cultural environment and the impact of engineering solutions from a global and societal viewpoint were strong driving factors for each. Assessment validates the hypothesis that CIE courses can successfully deliver substantial engineering technical content while providing an enriching international experience to students.

  15. Governing the Conflicted Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sareen, Siddharth

    that presents a comprehensive overview and synthesis. Article 1 shows what nurtures democratisation using three dimensions of democratic practice: functional democratic institutions, people’s involvement with these institutions, and inclusive participation without co-option of decision-making and resources...... governance in Jharkhand, and (iii) what does local governance look like in practice in this state-building context? In the form of three research articles that prioritise the local impact of government action, it addresses specific versions of these research questions, namely: (i) What nurtures...... of government services is studied in three villages in West Singhbhum. One example is the regulation of trade in a non-wood forest product called the kendu leaf which is valuable for its use in rolling country cigarettes, while the other is a public scheme to provide minimum-wage labour work to every village...

  16. Unveiling the Hidden Curriculum in Conflict Resolution and Peace Education: Future Directions toward a Critical Conflict Education and "Conflict" Pedagogy (United States)

    Fisher, R. Michael


    This report offers a brief summary of a master thesis that had the purpose to study the way conflict management educators write and think about "conflict." Using a critical discourse analysis (a la Foucault) of 22 conflict resolution manuals for adults and children (U.S., Canadian, Australian), and using a selected sample of those most available…

  17. Does conflict shatter trust or does trust obliterate conflict? Revisiting the relationships between team diversity, conflict, and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.; Schruijer, S.G.L.


    This article explores the interplay between trust and conflict as antecedents of team effectiveness. In the first cross-sectional study, two alternative path models are tested in a sample of 174 teams (897 participants) with the emergent states of task conflict, relationship conflict, and trust

  18. Conflict in organizations : Beyond effectiveness and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Beersma, Bianca

    Conflict theory and research has traditionally focused on conflict management strategies, in relation to individual and work-team effectiveness and productivity. Far less attention has been devoted to "soft" outcomes including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intentions, and

  19. Conflict adjustment devoid of perceptual selection. (United States)

    Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Kiesel, Andrea; Jacobsen, Thomas


    Task performance suffers when an aspect of a stimulus is associated with an incorrect response, thereby evoking cognitive conflict. Such impairment is reduced after recent or frequent conflict occurrence, suggesting attentional adjustment. We examined adjustment to conflict evoked by a temporarily irrelevant S-R rule when participants frequently switched between two semantic classification tasks by manipulating the proportion of conflict trials in one of them. Controlling stimulus-specific presentation frequencies, we found reduced conflict effects under conditions of a higher proportion of conflict trials in the task to which the manipulation was applied, whereas there was no such effect in the other task. Additional analyses demonstrated task-specificity regarding trial-to-trial conflict adjustment. Because conflict was evoked in the absence of perceptually distinct target and distractor stimulus features, these adjustment effects cannot be attributed to perceptual selection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Resolving conflicts of duty in fiduciary relationships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laby, Arthur B


    While duties of loyalty generally do not conflict with other duties of loyalty, and while conflicting duties of care typically only raise issues of competing resources, the fiduciary's duty of loyalty...

  1. Low-intensity conflict in multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Andersen, Poul Houman; Storgaard, Marianne


    in four Danish MNCs. Findings: They describe consequences of low-intensity conflict and identify three types of actions by headquarters’ representatives that could lead to the development of low-intensity conflicts, namely, ignoring, bypassing and educating. Originality/value: Very few studies have dealt......Purpose: This paper aims to identify antecedents for, and consequences of, low-intensity inter-unit conflict in multinational corporations (MNCs). Inter-unit conflict in MNCs is an important and well-researched theme. However, while most studies have focused on open conflict acknowledged by both...... parties, much less research has dealt with low-intensity conflicts. Still, low-intensity conflicts can be highly damaging – not least because they are rarely resolved. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used a qualitative approach to understanding low-intensity conflict relying on 170 interviews...

  2. Gender Issues--Inclusion Perspectives in Teaching and Learning in Post-Conflict Kosovo (United States)

    Tahiraj, Iliriana


    Understanding the role of women in the development of society generally and in education in particular is a critically important dimension of inclusive thinking. Understanding the challenges confronting women in Kosovo as they strive to be full partners in a post-conflict society which is also an emerging democracy is another substantial dimension…

  3. Are Composers Different? Historical Evidence on Conflict-induced Migration (1816-1997)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol


    also find that conflict-induced migration intensity is considerably higher for composers than for the overall population and demonstrate that the share of composers in the overall population drops due to the incidence of war. We further find that the observed outmigration substantially diminishes...

  4. Conflict management style, supportive work environments and the experience of work stress in emergency nurses. (United States)

    Johansen, Mary L; Cadmus, Edna


    To examine the conflict management style that emergency department (ED) nurses use to resolve conflict and to determine whether their style of managing conflict and a supportive work environment affects their experience of work stress. Conflict is a common stressor that is encountered as nurses strive to achieve patient satisfaction goals while delivering quality care. How a nurse perceives support may impact work stress levels and how they deal with conflict. A correlational design examined the relationship between supportive work environment, and conflict management style and work stress in a sample of 222 ED nurses using the expanded nurse work stress scale; the survey of perceived organisational support; and the Rahim organisational conflict inventory-II. Twenty seven percent of nurses reported elevated levels of work stress. A supportive work environment and avoidant conflict management style were significant predictors of work stress. Findings suggest that ED nurses' perception of a supportive work environment and their approach to resolving conflict may be related to their experience of work stress. Providing opportunities for ED nurses in skills training in constructive conflict resolution may help to reduce work stress and to improve the quality of patient care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Metatheory Building in the Conflict Field


    Karim Fathi


    Extended Abstract in English Given the increasingly complex nature of conflicts, a corresponding increase of new methods can be observed in Peace and Conflict Studies. At this juncture, metatheories aimed at integrating this labyrinth of diverse methods is becoming necessary. This paper will draft a conceptual proposal, discussing two well-known holistic approaches of mediative conflict management in an integrative context: – The Conflict Management Approach by Prof. Dr. Friedrich Gla...

  6. Properties of Plausibility Conflict of Belief Functions


    Daniel, M. (Milan)


    This theoretical contribution studies mathematical properties of plausibility conflict of belief functions. The analysis is performed for belief functions defined on 2-element frames, then the results are generalized to general finite frames. After that, an analogous analysis of Liu’s degree of conflict is presented, to enable its comparison to the plausibility conflict. To be more efficient, a simplification of formula and computation of Liu’s degree of conflict is suggested. A series of exa...

  7. Mental health of displaced and returnee populations: Insight from the Sri Lankan post-conflict experience. (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal


    The month of May 2015 marked the sixth year since the end of conflict in Sri Lanka. The cause of death, destruction and displacement, three decades of conflict has had a major impact on health, especially on mental health of those affected by forced displacement. Post-conflict regions of Sri Lanka has seen improvements in many areas, including resettlement of displaced populations and rebuilding of health-related infrastructure. However, substantial gaps exist around the management of health needs among returnee populations, especially in the area of psychosocial health. Long-term mental health and resilience trajectories of those affected by prolonged displacement and experiencing return migration during post-conflict periods remain important, yet critically understudied areas.

  8. Regional International Organizations as Conflict Managers: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been, especially since the end of the cold war, greater emphasis on the roles of regional international organizations in conflict management. With the increased spate of armed conflicts over the past two decades, demand for conflict management has consequentially increased. Though interstate wars evidently ...

  9. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environmental conflicts, climate change and environmental conflicts, and management implications. The section ... water, land and natural resource management conflicts. This is followed by a discussion of .... are at risk because they are exposed more frequently to such shocks and they do not usually have the necessary ...

  10. Regional International Organizations as Conflict Managers: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. There has been, especially since the end of the cold war, greater emphasis on the roles of regional international organizations in conflict management. With the increased spate of armed conflicts over the past two decades, demand for conflict management has consequentially increased. Though interstate wars.

  11. Conflict Management Styles of Turkish Managers (United States)

    Ozkalp, Enver; Sungur, Zerrin; Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse


    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 managers conflict management styles were assessed by applying the Rahim's 1983 Organizational Conflict Inventory-II. Findings: First,…

  12. University Students' Perceptions of Conflict Resolution (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.


    The purpose of this study was to compare the perceptions of American and international students on conflict resolution, and to determine if the students were willing to participate in conflict resolution. A survey was given to 226 students at an eastern university that asked them to identify a major international conflict and whether they felt…

  13. African Journal on Conflict Resolution: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Articles of an academic nature on the theory and practice of dealing with conflict, especially in the context of Africa, are published. Envisaged readers are academic researchers, teachers and students and practitioners in the field of dealing with conflict. The African Journal on Conflict Resolution (AJCR) publishes the ...

  14. Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, Bryan


    The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via technological progress. The fundamentality of the conflict ultimately boils down to laws of thermodynamics. Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping the public and policy makers grasp the conflict between growth and environmental protection.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Therefore, this paper examined conflict management in school organisation in. Nigeria. It identified the causes/sources and types of conflicts in an organization, be it schools, industries or government offices. There are many management techniques for ameliorating the phenomena called conflict in school organisation.

  16. Sibling Conflict Resolution Skills: Assessment and Training (United States)

    Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.


    Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…

  17. Conflict Resolution between Friends during Middle Childhood (United States)

    Joshi, Anupama


    The author interviewed 74 children (ages 8.5-11.5 years) in an exploratory study of interpersonal conflict resolution between children. Results suggest that children (a) most frequently used assertion and discussion as conflict resolution strategies, (b) used more than one strategy in a single conflict, and (c) used a strategy that corresponded to…

  18. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gendron, R.; Hille, C.


    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are

  19. Theorizing the Land - Violent Conflict Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M. van; Haar, G. van der


    While disputes over land are prominent in many situations of protracted violent conflict, questions remain about the precise relationships between land and violent conflict. Political ecology and legal anthropology have rightly questioned dominant approaches in theorizing land-related conflict that

  20. Theorizing the Land-Violent Conflict Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, Van Mathijs; Haar, Van Der G.


    While disputes over land are prominent in many situations of protracted violent conflict, questions remain about the precise relationships between land and violent conflict. Political ecology and legal anthropology have rightly questioned dominant approaches in theorizing land-related conflict

  1. Conflict in medical teams: opportunity or danger?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greer, L.L.; Saygi, O.; Aaldering, H.; de Dreu, C.K.W.


    Objectives  Intragroup conflicts often occur when people are called upon to collaborate in the accomplishment of a task. For example, when surgeons and nurses work together during an operation, conflicts may emerge because of differences in functional understanding. Whether these conflicts are

  2. 31 CFR 10.29 - Conflicting interests. (United States)


    ... conflict of interest. A conflict of interest exists if— (1) The representation of one client will be... more clients will be materially limited by the practitioner's responsibilities to another client, a... existence of a conflict of interest under paragraph (a) of this section, the practitioner may represent a...

  3. 76 FR 61046 - TARP Conflicts of Interest (United States)


    ... conflicts of interest. (a) Retained entity's responsibility. A retained entity working under an arrangement... responsibility. A retained entity shall ensure that all key individuals have no personal conflicts of interest... 31 CFR Part 31 RIN 1505-AC05 TARP Conflicts of Interest AGENCY: Departmental Offices, Treasury...

  4. Substantial injuries influence ranking position in young elite athletes of athletics, cross-country skiing, orienteering. (United States)

    von Rosen, Philip; Heijne, Annette


    The relationship between injury and performance in young athletes is scarcely studied. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the association between injury prevalence and ranking position among adolescent elite athletes. 162 male and female adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), competing in athletics (n=59), cross-country skiing (n=66) and orienteering (n=37), were monitored weekly over 22-47 weeks using a web-based injury questionnaire. Ranking lists were collected. A significant (p=.003) difference was found in the seasonal substantial injury prevalence across the ranked athletes over the season, where the top-ranked (median 3.6%, 25-75th percentiles 0-14.3%) and middle-ranked athletes (median 2.3%, 25-75th percentiles 0-10.0%) had a lower substantial injury prevalence compared to the low-ranked athletes (median 11.3%, 25-75th percentiles 2.5-27.1%), during both pre-season (p=.002) and competitive season (p=.031). Athletes that improved their ranking position (51%, n=51) reported a lower substantial injury prevalence (median 0%, 25-75th percentiles 0-10.0%) compared to those that decreased (49%, n=49) their ranking position (md 6.7%, 25-75th percentiles 0-22.5%). In the top-ranked group, no athlete reported substantial injury more than40% of all data collection time points compared to 9.6% (n=5) in the middle-ranked and 17.3% (n=9) in the low-ranked group. Our results provide supporting evidence that substantial injuries, such as acute and overuse injuries leading to moderate or severe reductions in training or sports performance, influence ranking position in adolescent elite athletes. The findings are crucial to stakeholders involved in adolescent elite sports and support the value of designing effective preventive interventions for substantial injuries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Moral dimensions of human-wildlife conflict. (United States)

    Lute, Michelle L; Navarrete, Carlos David; Nelson, Michael Paul; Gore, Meredith L


    Despite increasing support for conservation globally, controversy over specific conservation policies persists among diverse stakeholders. Investigating the links between morals in relation to conservation can help increase understanding about why humans support or oppose policy, especially related to human-wildlife conflict or human conflict over wildlife. Yet the moral dimension of human-wildlife conflict has mostly gone unconsidered and unmeasured; thus, policy and programmatic efforts to reduce controversy may be missing a key part of the equation. We conducted a web-based survey (n = 1239 respondents) in Michigan (U.S.A.) to investigate cognitive and emotional influences on the value-behavior relationship. Respondents were identified by their interest and involvement in Michigan wolf management. The survey consisted of questions about values, emotions, cognitions, and behaviors relative to wolves in Michigan. We used path analysis to explore whether emotions and cognitions mediated the relationship between value and behavior. Most respondents attributed intrinsic value to wolves (n = 734) and all life (n = 773) and engaged in behaviors that benefited wolf populations and ecosystems regardless of stakeholder group (e.g., environmentalist, farmer). Attributing intrinsic value to wolves was positively related to favorable emotions toward wolves and cognitive assessments that hunting and trapping of wolves is unacceptable. Despite similarities in attribution of intrinsic value, groups differed in emotions and cognitions about wolf hunting. These differences provide a useful way to predict stakeholder behavior. Our findings may inform interventions aimed at increasing support for wolf management policies and positive interactions among stakeholders and wildlife. Leveraging agreement over intrinsic value may foster cooperation among stakeholders and garner support for controversial conservation policy. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Grizzly bear-human conflicts in the Yellowstone Ecosystem, 1992-2000 (United States)

    Gunther, K.A.; Haroldson, M.A.; Cain, S.L.; Copeland, J.; Frey, K.; Schwartz, C.C.


    . This analysis will help provide wildlife managers the information necessary to develop strategies designed to prevent conflicts from occurring rather than reacting to conflicts after they occur.

  7. Organizational Conflict In Local Management Budget Planning In Raja Ampat Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Local government leadership in Raja Ampat based on the writers observation yet effectively perform conflict resolution organizations in the area of financial management. This is evident from the acquisition of predicate disclaimer that occur repeatedly. Disclaimer predicate occurs repeatedly in the area of financial management in Raja Ampat because the local government leadership has not been effective in reducing conflicts that have a negative effect on the performance of individuals and the performance of positions in all SKPDs not implementing more effective management strategies in order to moderate the conflict related to disagreements about the task policy and other organizational issues and less effective in stimulating the learning process SKPDs level with regard to financial management area. Based on the above description organizational conflict studies in the area of financial management in Raja Ampat is important and urgent to do. The importance of this study because of financial management in Raja Ampat still face the task of conflict situations and conflict relations in the budget planning. The purpose of this study is to 1 Describe the forms of organizational conflicts in planning budget in Raja Ampat.2 Describe the sources of conflict in the organization of planning budget in Raja Ampat. 3 Analyze the conflict resolution organizations in planning budget in Raja Ampat. Based on several conclusions can be drawn as follows 1In the budget planning are forms of task conflict and relationship conflict. 2 Sources of conflict in the budget planning is the difference in the organizations goals criteria that do not work worth it and the inequality of treatment between sub-units. 3 Conflict resolution is a budget planning by providing an understanding of the meaning-Term Development Plan and the area and ask for advice and input from the Regent to accommodate the pricing to be more flexible to adjust to market conditions and the

  8. Interpersonal Conflicts and Styles of Managing Conflicts among Students at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia (United States)

    Bazezew, Arega; Neka, Mulugeta


    Interpersonal conflict happens everywhere and at any time and is inherent in all societies. However, the methods of managing such conflict are quite different from one organisation to the other. The general objective of the study was to assess interpersonal conflicts and styles of managing conflicts among students at Bahir Dar University.…

  9. Friendship Conflict, Conflict Responses, and Instability: Unique Links to Anxious and Angry Forms of Rejection Sensitivity (United States)

    Croft, Carissa D.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.


    Rejection sensitivity (RS) instigates conflict and prompts maladaptive conflict responses within romantic relationships. We tested whether RS had similar effects within friendships (N = 262, X[subscript age] = 11.7) by investigating whether (a) RS was associated with more frequent conflict, (b) two RS forms prompted different conflict responses,…

  10. Methods of Conflict Prediction and Conflict Probability Estimation for en Route Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.М. Васильєв


    Full Text Available  The probabilistic methods of conflict prediction and estimation of conflict situation are offered for en route flight. The mathematical statement of problem, the criterion of conflict detection, and randomized estimation procedure are presented. The analytical expressions for evaluation conflict probability are derived for estimation of air traffic safety in collision avoidance systems.

  11. The Effects of Marital Conflict on Korean Children's Appraisal of Conflict and Psychological Adjustment (United States)

    Oh, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soojin; Park, Soo Hyun


    This study examined the effects of marital conflict on Korean children's psychological adjustment and appraisal of hypothetical marital conflict situations. Children between the ages of 10 and 12 were divided into "high-conflict" (n = 58) and "low-conflict" (n = 58) groups based on their self-reported degree of perceived…

  12. 18 CFR 706.409 - Opportunity for explanation of conflict or appearance of conflict. (United States)


    ... explanation of conflict or appearance of conflict. 706.409 Section 706.409 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 706.409 Opportunity for explanation of conflict or appearance of conflict. When a...

  13. Transforming Negative Emotions: A Case Study of Intergroup Conflict among Conflict Resolution Practitioners of Color. (United States)

    Carvalho, Millicent


    Examined how conflict affected internalized oppression and conflict-handling methods utilized during a facilitated meeting that attempted to resolve or manage intergroup conflict. Data on diverse conflict-resolution practitioners and mentors at a training session on how to overcome the effects of oppression in the writing process illuminated how…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Summary. Problem statement. The development of inhabitant locality of Ukraine is characterized by significant differences in levels of socio and economic development. An excessive concentration of population and industry in large cities, inefficient, slow development of most medium and small cities, towns and villages, considerable territorial disproportions of economic development of the country, considerable shortcomings in the territorial organization of society are observed. At the same time the tendency of the total area of increasing of inhabitant locality. The lands are used inefficiently. Among the most common problems of inhabitant locality is the housing problem. When making a decision on the design of affordable housing construction is one of the most important stages in the development of the technique and economic substantiation of the project is determination of the advisability and effectiveness of construction. The substantiation of advisability and effectiveness of affordable housing based on the definition of technical and economic indicators of projects, one of the most important among them is the cost, in its calculation is necessary to take into account the influence of organizational and technological factors, reflecting the features of construction in condition of compacted construction. Purpose. Development of methodical recommendations on substantiation of cost construction of affordable housing in the conditions of compacted construction. Conclusion. To provide a processing and the analysis of data is necessary development of the applied software on the basis of the developed block scheme of justification of cost construction of affordable housing.

  15. Confidence Intervals: From tests of statistical significance to confidence intervals, range hypotheses and substantial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost


    Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman ISMAIL


    Full Text Available The role of stressors is recognized as a crucial human resource development and management issue where it can have an overpowering consequence on organizational and employee performance. This study was conducted to discover the relationship between role stressor and family conflict using self-report questionnaires gathered from academic staff of a public comprehensive university in Sarawak, Malaysia. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model revealed three findings: first, role ambiguity significantly correlated with family conflict. Second, role conflict significantly correlated with family conflict. Third, role overload significantly correlated with family conflict. This finding demonstrates that role stressor is recognized in employees’ family conflict. The paper provides discussions, implications and conclusion.

  17. Interpersonal conflict and health perceptions in long-distance caregiving relationships. (United States)

    Bevan, Jennifer L; Vreeburg, Sean K; Verdugo, Sherri; Sparks, Lisa


    With job markets expanding globally and life expectancy continually increasing, more demands are being placed on distant relatives to provide care for their aging family members, creating a health care situation known as long-distance caregiving. An online survey explored the relations between negative health perceptions by long-distance caregivers and conflict frequency and conflict strategy usage. The authors observed positive significant relations between distant caregiver negative health perceptions and conflict frequency and usage of the distributive and avoidance conflict strategies. However, they observed no significant associations between distant caregiver negative health perceptions and usage of the two integrative strategies. Implications for long-distance caregiving communication are discussed.

  18. Hot adaptation: what conflict can contribute to collaborative natural resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Laws


    Full Text Available We analyze the impact of conflict on the adaptive comanagement of social-ecological systems. We survey the risks and the resources that conflict creates and review experiences with public policy mediation as a set of practical hypotheses about how to work collaboratively under conditions of conflict. We analyze the significance of these features in the context of an approach to adaptive comanagement that we call "hot adaptation." Hot adaptation is organized to draw on the energy and engagement that conflict provides to enhance the capacity for deliberation and learning around the wicked problems that constitute the working terrain of adaptive comanagement.

  19. Capture of Public Servant. Requirements and Substantial habeas corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau


    Full Text Available The capture of the public servant in a criminal investigation is subject to special rules and different to those for the capture of individuals, since the imprisonment of an official can affect continuity, speed and efficiency of the civil service, an equally important constitutional value. Therefore, as a rule capturing the public servant must be preceded by a request for suspensión by the prosecution, and to proceed without suspension, the prosecutor in his providence should motivate the reasons and arguments why not affects the normal functioning of public administration. The lack of motivation for this essential aspect, affords a fact that becomes appropriate procedural habeas corpus as an effective mechanism guarantees of personal freedom. Similarly appropriate habeas corpus when catching public server ordered by a prosecutor without functional competence to advance research, by setting a path made by organic defect.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Soare


    Full Text Available Tourism recreational outdoors bring revenue for the major economies of many states, for example communities should contribute with more than 800 billion dollars annually on U.S. economy, where three out of four Americans participate actively in the open air at recreation each year, as well as as well as hiking, biking, camping, wildlife generates an enormous economic power and a multiplier effect in major sectors of the economy. Empirical Research reveals a ambiguity of the feelings and attitudes concerning the relationship and potential for real conflicts between hunting recreational-sports and leisure and other activities of tourism recreational outdoors. Quantitative methods of analysis have revealed many common items, the reasons for and the environment, which are shared by both classes. An investigation carried out by means of interviews and questionnaires revealed three key elements which offers the potential of conflict: group characteristics, behavior and use of weapons for killing of animals.

  1. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren


    Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...... professionals from government, non-government, faith-based and private organizations. Findings: Four factors were elicited from the data, labelled—A: ‘Improved Leadership’; B: ‘Resource-centred conflict’; C: ‘Improved Governance’; and D: ‘Improved Management’. Practical Implications: Narratives of neo...

  2. Family conflict tendency and ADHD. (United States)

    Niederhofer, H; Hackenberg, B; Lanzendörfer, K


    A lack of perseverance, poor attention, and poorly modulated behaviour are important criteria of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). Instructions often have to be repeated, sometimes even by different family members before a child with ADHD attends and complies. We hypothesised that a child with ADHD might cause less disagreement in families with almost no conflicts. Responses to the Mannheim Parents Interview and teacher's form of the Conners scale completed by families of 15 boys (ages 6 to 12 years), diagnosed with ADHD were compared with those of a matched, healthy control group of 15 boys. Parents completed a form assessing the family's cooperation and child-rearing practices. Having few family conflicts, i.e., almost no Verbal Disagreement may reduce Physical Punishment and Anger and Disregard and augment the Openness to another's needs and, for that reason, have protective effects on children's behaviour modulation.

  3. From compassionate ageism to intergenerational conflict? (United States)

    Binstock, Robert H


    During the 50 years in which The Gerontologist has been publishing, the politics of aging in the United States has undergone distinct changes. The political behavior of older individuals has remained largely the same even though different birth cohorts have succeeded each other in populating the ranks of older people. But the politics of policies on aging-the organized interest and advocacy groups active in this arena, the tenor of public discourse about older people as beneficiaries of policies on aging, the national political agendas regarding public old-age benefits, and the broader U.S. political economy-have changed substantially over these five decades. Now, in the contexts of the aging of the baby boom and concerns about reducing large federal fiscal deficits (annual and cumulative), the politics of U.S. policies on aging may change considerably from those of yesterday and today. Is there a possibility of future intergenerational political conflict over taxes and expenditures for the major old-age benefit programs? If so, what might prevent or mitigate it?

  4. Individual differences, cultural differences, and dialectic conflict description and resolution. (United States)

    Kim, Kyungil; Markman, Arthur B


    Previous research suggests that members of East Asian cultures show a greater preference for dialectical thinking than do Westerners. This paper attempts to account for these differences in cognition using individual difference variables that may explain variation in performance both within and across cultures. Especially, we propose that the abovementioned cultural differences are rooted in a greater fear of isolation (FOI) in East Asians than in Westerners. To support this hypothesis, in Experiment 1, we manipulated FOI in American participants before having them resolve two conflicts: an interpersonal conflict and a conflict between an individual and an institution. We found that the Americans among whom a high level of FOI had been induced were more likely to look for a dialectical resolution than those among whom a low level had been prompted. The relationship between conflict resolution and FOI was further investigated in Experiment 2, in which FOI was not manipulated. The results indicated that Koreans had higher chronic FOI on average than did the Americans. Compared to the Americans, the Koreans were more likely to resolve the interpersonal conflict dialectically, but did not show the same bias in resolving the person-institution conflict. The differences in the preference for dialectical resolution between FOI conditions in Experiment 1 and cultural groups in Experiment 2 were mediated by FOI. These findings bolster previous research on FOI in showing that chronic levels of FOI are positively related to both preference for dialectical sentences and sensitivity to context. They provide clearer insight into how differences in FOI affect attention and thereby higher-level reasoning such as dialectic description and conflict resolution.

  5. Cognitive empathy in conflict situations


    Gauer, Florian; Kuzmics, Christoph


    Two individuals are involved in a conflict situation in which preferences are ex ante uncertain. While they eventually learn their own preferences, they have to pay a small cost if they want to learn their opponent's preferences. We show that, for sufficiently small positive costs of information acquisition, in any Bayesian Nash equilibrium of the resulting game of incomplete information the probability of getting informed about the opponent's preferences is bounded away from zero and one.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Vasyliev


    Full Text Available Purpose: The risk of critical proximities of several aircraft and appearance of multi-aircraft conflicts increases under current conditions of high dynamics and density of air traffic. The actual problem is a development of methods for optimal multi-aircraft conflicts resolution that should provide the synthesis of conflict-free trajectories in three-dimensional space. Methods: The method for optimal resolution of multi-aircraft conflicts using heading, speed and altitude change maneuvers has been developed. Optimality criteria are flight regularity, flight economy and the complexity of maneuvering. Method provides the sequential synthesis of the Pareto-optimal set of combinations of conflict-free flight trajectories using multi-objective dynamic programming and selection of optimal combination using the convolution of optimality criteria. Within described method the following are defined: the procedure for determination of combinations of aircraft conflict-free states that define the combinations of Pareto-optimal trajectories; the limitations on discretization of conflict resolution process for ensuring the absence of unobservable separation violations. Results: The analysis of the proposed method is performed using computer simulation which results show that synthesized combination of conflict-free trajectories ensures the multi-aircraft conflict avoidance and complies with defined optimality criteria. Discussion: Proposed method can be used for development of new automated air traffic control systems, airborne collision avoidance systems, intelligent air traffic control simulators and for research activities.

  7. Conflicts of interest in randomised controlled surgical trials: systematic review and qualitative and quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probst Pascal


    Full Text Available Conflicts of interest may lead to biased trial designs and unbalanced interpretation of study results. We aimed to evaluate the reporting of potential conflicts of interest in full publications of surgical randomised controlled trials (RCTs. A systematic literature search was performed in CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE (1985–2014 to find all surgical RCTs of medical devices and perioperative pharmacological or nutritional interventions. The information on conflicts of interest was evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively, and the development of stated conflicts over time was studied. Of 7934 articles, 444 met the inclusion criteria. In 93 of 444 trials (20.9%, conflicts of interest were disclosed. In half of the cases, the information provided was insufficient to permit conclusions regarding possible influence on the trials. Information about conflicts of interest has increased continuously during the last decades (1985–1994: 0%, 1995–2004: 2.8% and 2005–2014: 33.0%; p<0.001. Among the 115 industry-funded trials, industry participation was considered as a potential conflict of interest in 24 cases (20.9%. Over the past three decades, only every 10th trial has provided appropriate information on conflicts of interest. However, transparency is crucial for the reliability of evidence-based medicine. There is an urgent need for the full disclosure of all conflicts of interest in surgical publishing and for transparency regarding cooperation between academia and industry.

  8. Red potato chips: segmentation cues can substantially decrease food intake. (United States)

    Geier, Andrew; Wansink, Brian; Rozin, Paul


    To discover a scalable method of food-packaging presentation, which can help reduce per occasion food consumption by making portions sizes more salient and segmented. Two studies of American undergraduates who ate from tubes of potato chips while watching a movie. In each study, participants ate chips that were either identical (the control group) or which had colored chips inserted at regular intervals (the treatment groups). One treatment group had a distinctively different (reddish) chip present at every 7th (Study 1) or 5th (Study 2) chip, and the 2nd treatment group had one present every 14th (Study 1) or 10th (Study 2) chip. Measures were the number of chips consumed and (in Study 1) the participants estimates of how many they believed they consumed. In both studies, chip consumption was reduced by more than 50%, averaging across the 2 segmentation intervals, with no significant difference between the 2 intervals. Estimates of amount consumed were much more accurate when there was segmentation. Segmenting a package effectively reduced consumption in the settings we have explored. Segmentation cues may operate by any or all of 3 mechanisms: (a) they call attention to and encourage better monitoring of eating, (b) they suggest smaller consumption (portion size) norms, or (c) they break automated eating sequences by introducing a pause. There is some evidence from the 1st study that provides evidence for the 1st, monitoring account.

  9. Mediation in Intergroup Conflict: The Role of Empathy Between Conflict Parties


    Gutenbrunner, Lisa; Wagner, Ulrich (Prof. Dr.)


    Conflict mediation is a structured intervention by an impartial mediator, which aims at the conflict resolution by facilitating communication between two or more conflict parties (e.g., Kressel, 2006; Moore, 2003). Impartiality of the mediator means that she or he is not involved and does not take sides in the conflict. The general aim of mediation usually encompasses a mutually satisfactory solution of the conflict, an improvemen...

  10. The conciliation of collective labour conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia BĂDOI


    Full Text Available The present article envisages presenting the conciliation as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts. The conciliation was stipulated as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts even from the first acts that regulated this domain, being foreseen as a mandatory phase within the process of solving this type of conflicts. The subject of conciliation was approached before within the doctrine, from this juridical institution development point of view, the used research methods being the observation and the comparative analysis. The legislator adapted the procedure for the resolution of conflicts of interests/ collective labour conflicts in accordance with the social and economic development of the labour relations and identified other means of resolution, such as the mediation, the arbitrage or the strike, when the conciliation didn’t lead to the end of the conflict. The present paper aims is to realize an assessment over the historical development of the labour conflicts conciliation and to draw up a study on the statistical data concerning these conflicts. The study may be used within the research activity, its contribution being set up by the updated presentation of the statistical data and on the legislation within the field of labour conflicts conciliation.

  11. Institutional and Program Level Guidelines for Conflict Management in Higher Education (United States)

    Warters, Bill; Wendy, Smith J.


    These guidelines were developed by a national working group seminar hosted by the FIPSE-funded Conflict Management in Higher Education Resource Center. They provide a set of best-practices related to the establishment of conflict-handling services for colleges and universities. Seminar participants were carefully chose to represent faculty,…

  12. The agrarian roots of contemporary violent conflict in Mindanao, Southern Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.; Borras Jr, S.M.; Lare Jr, F.


    The decades-old conflict in Mindanao, southern Philippines, is often framed as a Muslim–Christian conflict and reinterpreted as such within the US-led global war on terror, with the Muslim secessionist movement standing accused of providing a hub for international jihad. In the meantime, global

  13. Conflict Resolution: Preparing Preservice Special Educators to Work in Collaborative Settings (United States)

    Bradley, Janetta Fleming; Monda-Amaya, Lisa E.


    Collaborative practice to provide effective programs for students with special needs and their families has increased with many positive results. But as this collaborative practice increases, so does the potential for conflict. Constructive conflict resolution occurs when disputants have knowledge and skills to produce positive outcomes, maintain…

  14. The Right of Child Victims of Armed Conflict to Reintegration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Article 39 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child provides for the right to recovery and reintegration of child victims of armed conflict. In this publication an explanation is tendered of when children are considered to be victims of armed conflict. Specific reference is made to the question of whether or not a former child ...

  15. 77 FR 24766 - Call for Proposals for a Micro Support Program on International Conflict Resolution and... (United States)


    ... funding, and provide financial and report management oversight. Deadline: Friday, May 11, 2012 at 3 p.m... PEACE Call for Proposals for a Micro Support Program on International Conflict Resolution and... Support Program on International Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding. The United States Institute of...

  16. Negotiating Conflict within the Constraints of Social Hierarchies in Korean American Discourse. (United States)

    Kang, Agnes M.


    Provides an interactional account of conflict negotiation strategies in Korean American discourse. With specific attention to the sociolinguistic phenomenon of codeswitching among Korean Americans, argues that speaking Korean at particular moments evokes ideologies of social hierarchy that serve to mitigate potential conflicts. (Author/VWL)

  17. When Do Siblings Compromise? Associations with Children's Descriptions of Conflict Issues, Culpability, and Emotions (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E.; Howe, Nina


    This study examined associations between children's descriptions of sibling conflicts and their resolutions during a structured negotiation task. A sample of 58 sibling dyads (older sibling M age = 8.39 years, younger sibling M = 6.06 years) were privately interviewed about an actual conflict. Each child provided a narrative that was coded for…

  18. Comparison of five bicycle facility designs in signalized intersections using traffic conflict studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk


    Highlights •Traffic conflict study comparing cyclists’ relative risk for five bicycle layouts. •Watchdog video analysis software applied to reduce video data. •Video analysis software necessary to conduct larger conflict studies. •Recessed bicycle track seems to provide the highest safety level...

  19. Circle Justice: A Creative Arts Approach to Conflict Resolution in the Classroom (United States)

    Gibbons, Karen


    This brief report describes a cooperative classroom art therapy intervention in a public elementary school that provided conflict resolution education, social learning, and group cohesion among sixth-grade students. The organizing framework of a "circle justice" group explored the roles of fictional characters in conflict, including…

  20. Effects of Personality on Conflict Resolution in Student Teams: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach (United States)

    Forrester, William R; Tashchian, Armen


    This paper reports results of a study of the effects of five personality dimensions on conflict resolution preferences in student teams. Two hundred and sixteen students provided self-reports of personality dimensions and conflict styles using the Neo-FFI and ROCI-II scales. Simultaneous effects of five personality dimensions on five conflict…

  1. Intergroup Contact as a Tool for Reducing, Resolving, and Preventing Intergroup Conflict: Evidence, Limitations, and Potential (United States)

    Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles


    We propose that intergroup contact provides an effective means by which to reduce, resolve, and prevent conflict of all kinds, including violent conflict. We review the vast literature on the effectiveness of intergroup contact and discuss when and how it reduces prejudice. We also discuss key features of successful interventions, highlighting …

  2. Conflict, Militarization, and Their After-Effects: Key Challenges for TESOL (United States)

    Nelson, Cynthia D.; Appleby, Roslyn


    Skyrocketing military spending, ongoing military conflicts, and human displacement worldwide have significant consequences for the teaching and learning of English. TESOL increasingly requires a robust research base that can provide informed, critical guidance in preparing English language teachers for work in and near conflict zones, for teaching…

  3. Beyond territory and scarcity - exploring conflicts over natural resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa......Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa...

  4. Conflict resolution: practical principles for surgeons. (United States)

    Lee, Liz; Berger, David H; Awad, Samir S; Brandt, Mary L; Martinez, George; Brunicardi, F Charles


    Historically, surgeons have had little formal training in conflict resolution; however, there has been an increasing body of evidence that poor conflict resolution skills may have an adverse impact on patient outcomes and career advancement. Furthermore, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has recognized the importance of conflict resolution skills in resident training by mandating the training of communication skills and professionalism. These skills have often been taught in other professions, and surgeons may need to acquaint themselves with the literature from those fields. Conflict resolution techniques such as the 7-step model or principle-based conflict resolution can be applied to conflict in the operating room, wards, and among colleagues. We propose a model for conflict resolution by using the basic tools of the history and physical exam, a process well known to all physicians.

  5. Resource conflict, collective action, and resilience: an analytical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake D. Ratner


    Full Text Available Where access to renewable natural resources essential to rural livelihoods is highly contested, improving cooperation in resource management is an important element in strategies for peacebuilding and conflict prevention. While researchers have made advances in assessing the role of environmental resources as a causal factor in civil conflict, analysis of the positive potential of collective natural resource management efforts to reduce broader conflict is less developed. Addressing this need, we present a framework on collective action, conflict prevention, and social-ecological resilience, linking local stakeholder dynamics to the broader institutional and governance context. Accounting for both formal and informal relationships of power and influence, as well as values and stakeholder perceptions alongside material interests, the framework aims to provide insight into the problem of (rebuilding legitimacy of common-pool resource management institutions in conflict-sensitive environments. We outline its application in stakeholder-based problem assessment and planning, participatory monitoring and evaluation, and multi-case comparative analysis.

  6. Resolution of gene regulatory conflicts caused by combinations of antibiotics. (United States)

    Bollenbach, Tobias; Kishony, Roy


    Regulatory conflicts occur when two signals that individually trigger opposite cellular responses are present simultaneously. Here, we investigate regulatory conflicts in the bacterial response to antibiotic combinations. We use an Escherichia coli promoter-GFP library to study the transcriptional response of many promoters to either additive or antagonistic drug pairs at fine two-dimensional (2D) resolution of drug concentration. Surprisingly, we find that this data set can be characterized as a linear sum of only two principal components. Component one, accounting for over 70% of the response, represents the response to growth inhibition by the drugs. Component two describes how regulatory conflicts are resolved. For the additive drug pair, conflicts are resolved by linearly interpolating the single drug responses, while for the antagonistic drug pair, the growth-limiting drug dominates the response. Importantly, for a given drug pair, the same conflict resolution strategy applies to almost all genes. These results provide a recipe for predicting gene expression responses to antibiotic combinations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Chorus Conflict and Loss of Separation Resolution Algorithms (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George E.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.


    The Chorus software is designed to investigate near-term, tactical conflict and loss of separation detection and resolution concepts for air traffic management. This software is currently being used in two different problem domains: en-route self- separation and sense and avoid for unmanned aircraft systems. This paper describes the core resolution algorithms that are part of Chorus. The combination of several features of the Chorus program distinguish this software from other approaches to conflict and loss of separation resolution. First, the program stores a history of state information over time which enables it to handle communication dropouts and take advantage of previous input data. Second, the underlying conflict algorithms find resolutions that solve the most urgent conflict, but also seek to prevent secondary conflicts with the other aircraft. Third, if the program is run on multiple aircraft, and the two aircraft maneuver at the same time, the result will be implicitly co-ordinated. This implicit coordination property is established by ensuring that a resolution produced by Chorus will comply with a mathematically-defined criteria whose correctness has been formally verified. Fourth, the program produces both instantaneous solutions and kinematic solutions, which are based on simple accel- eration models. Finally, the program provides resolutions for recovery from loss of separation. Different versions of this software are implemented as Java and C++ software programs, respectively.

  8. The Burnout Phenomenon of Teachers under Various Conflicts (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Wen, Jian-xin


    Teachers' burnout is common and harmful, especially high school teachers who work at county. From the perspective of education management, the paper provides descriptions and explanations of teachers and school administrators' behaviors and concepts of value. It found out that conflicts between them probably lead to teachers' burnout. It include…

  9. Integrating the traditional and the modern conflict management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has been a fallout of the Nigerian government's failure to amicably resolve extant violent conflicts in the country. The emerging grassroots resistance is driven by traditional institutions. Traditional institutions are the instruments of social organisation and they provide the foundation for social change (Hussain 2007; Ochoche ...

  10. Financial Conflicts Facing Late-Life Remarried Alzheimer's Disease Caregivers (United States)

    Sherman, Carey Wexler; Bauer, Jean W.


    This qualitative study explores financial conflicts faced by late-life remarried wives providing care for their husbands with Alzheimer's disease. Interviews with 9 women identified intergenerational secrets and tensions regarding financial and inheritance decisions. Participants' remarried spouse status, underlying family boundary ambiguities,…

  11. Cross-cultural Manifestations of Gender Conflict: The African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both national and international fora, gender issues have generated the most heated and controversial debates, yet, the issue of gender conflict still remains largely unresolved. Existing alternatives reflect unending debates that provide answers to the vexed issue of gender misunderstanding. At the heart of the matter is ...

  12. Reducing Teachers' Work-Family Conflict: From Theory to Practice (United States)

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael


    Work-family conflict is a vocational psychology variable whose antecedents and outcomes have been extensively investigated. In contrast, less effort has been invested in creating practical programs to prevent and reduce it. This article provides the rationale and describes the framework for a comprehensive organizational program designed to ease…

  13. When Values and Ethics Conflict: The Counselor's Role and Responsibility (United States)

    Elliott, Glenda R.


    Based on the core conditions of client-centered counseling and supported by aspects of psychodynamic, cognitive developmental, and behavioral theories, a perspective is introduced that provides a resolution to the dilemma experienced by counselors and counseling students whose personal values and beliefs conflict with the ethical guidelines of the…

  14. The Israeli-Syrian conflict : Israeli-Syrian conflict


    Aanestad, Onar


    Main question: "What are the main obstacles to a settlement of the Israeli-Syrian conflict and how can the US contribute as a mediator to its settlement?" Abstract: Middle East politics has drawn much attention from the rest of the world. Several wars have been fought between the Arab states and Israel since the formation of the Jewish State in 1948. The end of the Cold War opened a "window of opportunities" in favor of peace achievements in the Middle East. When Israel and the PLO s...

  15. Child and Parent Perceptions of Interparental Relationship Conflict Predict Preschool Children’s Adjustment (United States)

    Clements, Mari L.; Martin, Sarah E.; Randall, David W.; Kane, Karen L.


    Interparental relationship conflict has consistently been linked to child adjustment problems, with children’s perceptions of such conflict particularly predictive of their outcomes. Despite mounting evidence that preschool children can provide reliable and valid accounts of family functioning, little research has examined preschool children’s perceptions of interparental conflict. The present study employed a multi-informant design for both reports of interparental conflict (preschool children and their mothers and fathers) and reports of child adjustment (preschool children, their mothers and fathers, and their preschool teachers). Children completed pictorial measures of interparental conflict and of self-esteem that paralleled questionnaires completed by adult respondents. For both child behavior problems and child self-esteem, preschool children’s perceptions of interparental conflict predicted their adjustment. Preschool children’s reports of interparental conflict were significantly associated with their self-esteem and with both parents’ and teachers’ reports of child behavior problems, and this association remained significant when controlling for parents’ reports of interparental conflict. Further, the interaction between parents’ reports and children’s reports of interparental conflict added unique variance to the prediction of preschool teachers’ reports of children’s behavior problems. PMID:25574451

  16. Correlates of Adolescent-reported and Parent-reported Family Conflict Among Canadian Adolescents With Bipolar Disorder. (United States)

    Timmins, Vanessa; Swampillai, Brenda; Hatch, Jessica; Scavone, Antonette; Collinger, Katelyn; Boulos, Carolyn; Goldstein, Benjamin I


    Family conflict exacerbates the course of bipolar disorder (BP) among adults. However, few studies have examined family conflict among adolescents with BP, and fewer have looked at adolescent-reported and parent-reported family conflict separately. Subjects were 89 adolescents, aged 13 to 19 years, with a diagnosis of BP on the basis of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL). Subjects were divided into high-conflict and low-conflict groups using a median split on the Conflict Behavior Questionnaire (child report and parent report). The χ(2) analyses and independent samples t tests were performed for univariate analyses. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed on variables with Padolescent-reported Conflict Behavior Questionnaire scores were significantly correlated (r=0.50, Padolescent-reported family conflict was positively associated with recent manic symptoms and emotional dysregulation, and negatively associated with socioeconomic status and lifetime psychiatric hospitalization. Bipolar subtype was significantly associated with high versus low family conflict. The limitations of this study included being a cross-sectional study, use of a medium-sized sample, and lack of a control group. Despite substantial agreement between adolescents and parents regarding the amount of family conflict, there were meaningful differences in the factors associated with adolescent-reported and parent-reported conflict. These findings demonstrate the importance of ascertaining family conflict from adolescents as well as from parents. Moreover, these findings can potentially inform family therapy, which is known to be effective for adolescents with BP.

  17. Individual differences in response conflict adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris eKeye


    Full Text Available Conflict-monitoring theory argues for a general cognitive mechanism that monitors for con-flicts in information-processing. If that mechanism detects conflict, it engages cognitive con-trol to resolve it. A slow-down in response to incongruent trials (conflict effect, and a modu-lation of the conflict effect by the congruence of the preceding trial (Gratton or context effect have been taken as indicators of such a monitoring system. The present study (N = 157 investigated individual differences in the conflict and the context effect in a horizontal and a vertical Simon task, and their correlation with working memory capacity. Strength of conflict was varied by proportion of congruent trials. Coherent factors could be formed representing individual differences in speeded performance, conflict adaptation, and context adaptation. Conflict and context factors were not associated with each other. Contrary to theories assuming a close relation between working memory and cognitive control, working memory capacity showed no relation with any factors representing adaptation to conflict.

  18. A Mathematical Analysis of Conflict Prevention Information (United States)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dowek, Gilles


    In air traffic management, conflict prevention information refers to the guidance maneuvers, which if taken, ensure that an aircraft's path is conflict-free. These guidance maneuvers take the form of changes to track angle or ground speed. Conflict prevention information may be assembled into prevention bands that advise the crew on maneuvers that should not be taken. Unlike conflict resolution systems, which presume that the aircraft already has a conflict, conflict prevention systems show conflicts for any maneuver, giving the pilot confidence that if a maneuver is made, then no near-term conflicts will result. Because near-term conflicts can lead to safety concerns, strong verification of information correctness is required. This paper presents a mathematical framework to analyze the correctness of algorithms that produce conflict prevention information incorporating an arbitrary number of traffic aircraft and with both a near-term and intermediate-term lookahead times. The framework is illustrated with a formally verified algorithm for 2-dimensional track angle prevention bands.

  19. Jumpstarting post-conflict strategic water resources protection from a changing global perspective: gaps and prospects in Afghanistan. (United States)

    Habib, H; Anceno, A J; Fiddes, J; Beekma, J; Ilyuschenko, M; Nitivattananon, V; Shipin, O V


    Notwithstanding ambiguities, long-term economic resurgence in Afghanistan amidst water insecurity exacerbated by climate change decisively requires a water protection strategy that will complement a multitude of agroindustrial and socioeconomic activities in an environmentally sustainable and climate resilient manner. In this paper, we begin with a perspective on institutions, legislation, and key issues in the water sector of Afghanistan. We then embark on linking the integrated water resources management (IWRM) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) approaches as a novel framework for strategic water management and subsequently propose a strategy for post-conflict water protection based on the coalesced IWRM and SEA. Context relevant good practices worldwide are presented to provide empirical evidence for this approach whereas perceived opportunities and vulnerabilities in the Afghan context are discussed. Examination of post-conflict water sector initiatives in Afghanistan reveals the critical role of foreign assistance in both water infrastructure rehabilitation and modernization of the institutional aspect of water management. The introduction of IWRM as the basis for a progressive water sector strategy has been seen as a major milestone which is detrimentally matched by substantial deficiency in national capacity for implementation. Concurrently, the role of extra-national actors in relevant policy interventions has been considered catalytic despite criticisms of proposed regulations as being anachronistic to field realities. Therefore the view is maintained to practicable policies by accelerating policy learning in the country's water and environment sectors to encourage homegrown water strategy innovations. Demonstratively, mainstreaming IWRM-SEA coalescence will bridge institutional gaps for better feedback between local and national water stakeholders, providing a venue for improved delivery of water services to sustain post-conflict socioeconomic

  20. Hypothetical conflict situations with friends and peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela S.


    Full Text Available This paper deals with age and sex differences in preferred strategies of conflict resolution in friendship and peer relationships. The study was conducted on the sample of 286 adolescents. Conflict resolution strategies have been investigated by the method of hypothetical conflict situations. For the purposes of this research, we have created an instrument consisting of 20 hypothetical situations, with the following subjects of conflict: breaking the agreement, non-compliance with opinion differences, provocations, dishonesty and stubbornness. Conflict resolution strategies we examined were giving in, withdrawal, competition and problem solving. The results have shown that problem solving is the dominant strategy of adolescents in conflict with friends, while in peer conflicts they more often opt for competition. Age differences are reflected in the fact that older adolescents are more likely to choose problem solving than younger, whereas younger adolescents are more likely to choose a retreat (withdrawal strategy than older. Girls are more prone to choosing problem solving than boys, who, on the other hand, tend to withdraw more than girls. Also, gender of the other person in the conflict is proved to be important - in conflict with male peers, adolescents choose competition to a greater extent and withdraw to a minor extent, compared to when they are in conflict with female peers. The results have practical implications as well. In programs for teaching constructive conflict resolution that are designed for younger adolescents there should be more emphasis on empowerment and training for assertive behaviour. In addition, when teaching about constructive conflict resolution strategies, it is important to consider the gender of adolescents as well as the gender of the person with whom they are in conflict.

  1. Conflict Termination : A Selected Bibliography (United States)


    Science 55, no. 1 (January 2011): 149-169. JSTOR Findley, Michael G. "Bargaining and the Interdependent Stages of Civil War Resolution." Journal of...Library print holdings begin with 1957. Also available online 1957-2010 in JSTOR ; 1999-present from Sage Journal of Peace Research. Library begin with 2000. Also available online 1964- 2010 in JSTOR ; 1999-present from Sage Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. Library print holdings begin with 1992. Also available online 1997-present from Taylor & Francis

  2. Mechanisms of Identity Conflict: Uncertainty, Anxiety, and the Behavioral Inhibition System. (United States)

    Hirsh, Jacob B; Kang, Sonia K


    Social identities are associated with normative standards for thought and action, profoundly influencing the behavioral choices of individual group members. These social norms provide frameworks for identifying the most appropriate actions in any situation. Given the increasing complexity of the social world, however, individuals are more and more likely to identify strongly with multiple social groups simultaneously. When these groups provide divergent behavioral norms, individuals can experience social identity conflict. The current manuscript examines the nature and consequences of this socially conflicted state, drawing upon advances in our understanding of the neuropsychology of conflict and uncertainty. Identity conflicts are proposed to involve activity in the Behavioral Inhibition System, which in turn produces high levels of anxiety and stress. Building upon this framework, four strategies for resolving identity conflict are reviewed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Multi-scale 46-year remote sensing change detection of diamond mining and land cover in a conflict and post-conflict setting (United States)

    Dewitt, Jessica D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Bergstresser, Sarah E.; Warner, Timothy A.


    The town of Tortiya was created in the rural northern region of Côte d′Ivoire in the late 1940s to house workers for a new diamond mine. Nearly three decades later, the closure of the industrial-scale diamond mine in 1975 did not diminish the importance of diamond profits to the region's economy, and resulted in the growth of artisanal and small-scale diamond mining (ASM) within the abandoned industrial-scale mining concession. In the early 2000s, the violent conflict that arose in Côte d′Ivoire highlighted the importance of ASM land use to the local economy, but also brought about international concerns that diamond profits were being used to fund the rebellion. In recent years, cashew plantations have expanded exponentially in the region, diversifying economic activity, but also creating the potential for conflict between diamond mining and agricultural land uses. As the government looks to address the future of Tortiya and this potential conflict, a detailed spatio-temporal understanding of the changes in these two land uses over time may assist in informing policymaking. Remotely sensed imagery presents an objective and detailed spatial record of land use/land cover (LULC), and change detection methods can provide quantitative insight regarding regional land cover trends. However, the vastly different scales of ASM and cashew orchards present a unique challenge to comprehensive understanding of land use change in the region. In this study, moderate-scale categories of LULC, including cashew orchards, uncultivated forest, urban space, mining/ bare, and mixed vegetation, were produced through supervised classification of Landsat multispectral imagery from 1984, 1991, 2000, 2007, and 2014. The fine-scale ASM land use was identified through manual interpretation of annually acquired high resolution satellite imagery. Corona imagery was also integrated into the study to extend the temporal duration of the remote sensing record back to the period of industrial

  4. Giving Satirical Voice to Religious Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Stig; Rosenfeldt, Mattias Pape


    This study concerns the Danish public service broadcaster DR’s television satire and comedy show Det slører stadig [Still Veiled] (2013) and its influence on public discussions and controversies concerning religion. Whereas news media’s coverage of Islam is often criticized for having a negative...... bias and thereby serving to escalate conflict, the cultural programming of public service broadcasters may provide different representations and enable more diverse discussions. In this study we consider how and to what extent Still Veiled gave rise to discussion and controversy concerning religion...... in both the general public sphere and in smaller cultural publics constituted through various social network media. The analysis shows that several, very different framings of religion appear in these debates. These debates furthermore involve a significant proportion of minority voices. The analysis...

  5. Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley I: exposure to violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fromm Silke


    Full Text Available Abstract Background India and Pakistan have disputed ownership of the Kashmir Valley region for many years, resulting in several conflicts since the end of partition in 1947. Very little is known about the prevalence of violence and insecurity in this population. Methods We undertook a two-stage cluster household survey in two districts (30 villages of the Indian part of Kashmir to assess experiences with violence and mental health status among the conflict-affected Kashmiri population. The article presents our findings for confrontations with violence. Data were collected for recent events (last 3 months and those occurring since the start of the conflict. Informed consent was obtained for all interviews. Results 510 interviews were completed. Respondents reported frequent direct confrontations with violence since the start of conflict, including exposure to crossfire (85.7%, round up raids (82.7%, the witnessing of torture (66.9%, rape (13.3%, and self-experience of forced labour (33.7%, arrests/kidnapping (16.9%, torture (12.9%, and sexual violence (11.6%. Males reported more confrontations with violence than females, and had an increased likelihood of having directly experienced physical/mental maltreatment (OR 3.9, CI: 2.7–5.7, violation of their modesty (OR 3.6, CI: 1.9–6.8 and injury (OR 3.5, CI: 1.4–8.7. Males also had high odds of self-being arrested/kidnapped (OR 8.0, CI: 4.1–15.5. Conclusion The civilian population in Kashmir is exposed to high levels of violence, as demonstrated by the high frequency of deliberate events as detention, hostage, and torture. The reported violence may result in substantial health, including mental health problems. Males reported significantly more confrontations with almost all violent events; this can be explained by higher participation in outdoor activities.

  6. Life in conflict: Characteristics of Depression in Kashmir. (United States)

    Amin, Syed; Khan, A W


    Mental, physical and social health, are vital strands of life that are closely interwoven and deeply interdependent. Mental disorders affect people of all countries and societies, individuals at all ages, women and men, the rich and the poor, from urban and rural environments. Depression is more likely following particular classes of experience - those involving conflict, disruption, losses and experiences of humiliation or entrapment. Many people living amidst the rages of conflict suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder. To determine the characteristics of depression in the population in Kashmir where a low-intensity-conflict has been going on for the last seventeen years. The non-combatant civilian population was surveyed. The Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale was used to measure symptoms of depression in community populations. Due to continuing conflict in Kashmir during the last 18 years there has been a phenomenal increase in psychiatric morbidity. The results reveal that the prevalence of depression is 55.72%. The prevalence is highest (66.67%) in the 15 to 25 years age group, followed by 65.33% in the 26 to 35 years age group. The difference in the prevalence of depression among males and females is significant. Depression is much higher in rural areas (84.73%) as compared to urban areas (15.26%). In rural areas the prevalence of depression among females is higher (93.10 %) as compared to males (6.8%). Mental health is an integral part of overall health and quality of life. Effective evidence-based programs and policies are available to promote mental health, enhance resilience, reduce risk factors, increase protective factors, and prevent mental and behavioural disorders. Innovative community-based health programmes which are culturally and gender appropriate and reaches out to all segments of the population need to be developed. Substantial and sustainable improvements can be achieved only when a comprehensive strategy for

  7. Political power, control and organizational conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Eslampanah


    Full Text Available There used to be an assumption that any conflict has negative and destructive influences and we must remove it from the system. However, recent studies indicate that conflict is the result of interaction with different people having various personalities, social and cultural behaviors and this is an unavoidable issue. The existence of conflict is not necessarily a bad thing; in fact, there are many evidences, which show that organizations with no conflict may fail. In other words, people who work for business units with no conflict are most likely so disparate that they cannot fit themselves to environmental conditions. In this paper, we discuss how to handle a conflict in any organization and lead the business units to organizations that are more productive.

  8. Cyber Conflicts as a New Global Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kosenkov


    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to analyze the potential threats and consequences of cyber conflicts and, in particular, the risks of a global cyber conflict. The material is based on a comprehensive analysis of the nature of cyber conflict and its elements from both technical and societal points of view. The approach used in the paper considers the societal component as an essential part of cyber conflicts, allowing basics of cyber conflicts often disregarded by researchers and the public to be highlighted. Finally, the conclusion offers an opportunity to consider cyber conflict as the most advanced form of modern warfare, which imposes the most serious threat and whose effect could be comparable to weapons of mass destruction.

  9. Conflict translates environmental and social risk into business costs. (United States)

    Franks, Daniel M; Davis, Rachel; Bebbington, Anthony J; Ali, Saleem H; Kemp, Deanna; Scurrah, Martin


    Sustainability science has grown as a field of inquiry, but has said little about the role of large-scale private sector actors in socio-ecological systems change. However, the shaping of global trends and transitions depends greatly on the private sector and its development impact. Market-based and command-and-control policy instruments have, along with corporate citizenship, been the predominant means for bringing sustainable development priorities into private sector decision-making. This research identifies conflict as a further means through which environmental and social risks are translated into business costs and decision making. Through in-depth interviews with finance, legal, and sustainability professionals in the extractive industries, and empirical case analysis of 50 projects worldwide, this research reports on the financial value at stake when conflict erupts with local communities. Over the past decade, high commodity prices have fueled the expansion of mining and hydrocarbon extraction. These developments profoundly transform environments, communities, and economies, and frequently generate social conflict. Our analysis shows that mining and hydrocarbon companies fail to factor in the full scale of the costs of conflict. For example, as a result of conflict, a major, world-class mining project with capital expenditure of between US$3 and US$5 billion was reported to suffer roughly US$20 million per week of delayed production in net present value terms. Clear analysis of the costs of conflict provides sustainability professionals with a strengthened basis to influence corporate decision making, particularly when linked to corporate values. Perverse outcomes of overemphasizing a cost analysis are also discussed.

  10. Conflict as driver of pluricentric coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva


    Governance theory and planning theory share a tendency to either overlook the role of conflicts in coordination processes or view them as a disruptive force that must be modified or neutralized. In effect, there is little research into the productive role of conflicts in constructing and reconstr......Governance theory and planning theory share a tendency to either overlook the role of conflicts in coordination processes or view them as a disruptive force that must be modified or neutralized. In effect, there is little research into the productive role of conflicts in constructing...

  11. Conflicts in libraries: a basic element?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Inoue, Mary


    Full Text Available The article specifically detaches the main kinds and causes of conflicts in organizations and in libraries. It presents a conceptual vision of conflict, the types of conflicts, the sources and the techniques of conflict resolution.

    El artículo separa específicamente los clases y las causas principales de conflictos en organizaciones y en bibliotecas. Presenta una visión conceptual del conflicto, de los tipos de conflictos, de las fuentes y de las técnicas de la resolución del conflicto.

  12. Language conflict in the bilingual brain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heuven, W.J.B. van; Schriefers, H.J; Dijkstra, A.F.J; Hagoort, P


    .... Here we present behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging data showing that bilingual processing leads to language conflict in the bilingual brain even when the bilinguals' task only...

  13. [High-conflict-divorce and personality disorder]. (United States)

    Spindler, Manfred


    We tried to identify clues related to personality disorders - especially related to borderline personality--in parents of high-conflict divorce. We compared n = 34 high-conflict clients of psychological counselling to n = 45 clients not related to high-conflict divorce. Parents of high-conflict divorce did not show significantly more hints related to personality disorder. Parents who live separated scored higher than parents living together. Extreme-group-analyses over all clients revealed in 20% definitely evidence of personality disorders or very low resiliency. Psychological counselling in the realm of Child care units also addresses clients who rate themselves as seriously impaired or non-resilient.

  14. Emotional intelligence and conflict resolution in nursing. (United States)

    Jordan, Peter J; Troth, Ashlea C


    How nurses maintain relationships and resolve conflict in the workplace is considered an important skill in the nursing profession (Hillhouse & Adler, 1997). In this paper we explore the utility of emotional intelligence in predicting an individual's preferred style of conflict resolution. Theorists such as Goleman (1998) have proposed a strong link between emotional intelligence and successful conflict resolution. A preliminary analysis of our empirical study indicates that individuals with high emotional intelligence prefer to seek collaborative solutions when confronted with conflict. Implications for the nursing profession are discussed.

  15. Globalization and Conflict Management in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ilker Gumuseli


    Full Text Available Globalization has brought many changes on the education systems and schools. These changes will be exemplified from thebasis of school finance, employee rights, curriculum, administration, and school-environment relations in this study. The studyalso reviews common types of conflicts experienced at schools as a result of globalization and the ways in which conflict couldbe managed. Following topics were discussed in the article: ‘Conflicts emerged from perspectives towards globalization,conflicts emerged from cross cultural differences, conflicts sourced from changes in the teaching and learning processes,conflicts sourced from the standardization efforts, conflicts sourced from the change in school-parents relations, conflictssourced from the process of finance related activities and conflicts sourced from information, communication andeducational technologies’. This article argues that schools cannot be isolated from the effects of globalization. Therefore sinceconflict is a normal occurrence in schools, school administrators should discover constructive approaches through carefuldiagnosis and an approach that transforms the conflicting situations into constructive experiences for the school and theeducation.

  16. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martínez-Tur

    Full Text Available The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  17. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial unemployment...

  18. 42 CFR 422.356 - Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining substantial financial risk and majority...-Sponsored Organizations § 422.356 Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest. (a) Determining substantial financial risk. The PSO must demonstrate to CMS's satisfaction that it apportions a...

  19. Conflict between Belief Functions: A New Measure Based on Their Non-conflicting Parts


    Daniel, M. (Milan)


    When combining belief functions by conjunctive rules of combination, conflicts often appear, which are assigned to empty set by the non-normalised conjunctive rule or normalised by Dempster’s rule of combination in Dempster-Shafer theory. Combination of conflicting belief functions and interpretation of their conflicts is often questionable in real applications; hence a series of alternative combination rules were suggested and a series of papers on conflicting belief functions have been publ...

  20. 'Making or Breaking the Conflict Cycle: The Relationship Between Underdevelopment, Conflict and Forced Migration’


    Hammerstad, Anne


    This paper looks at the relationships between development, conflict and forced migration with the purpose of investigating how humanitarian, refugee and development\\ud assistance policies can help developing countries resolve or prevent violent conflicts.The first part of the paper looks at the causes and consequences of violent conflict and forced migration. It discusses the role of economic factors in causing conflict and forced migration. Conversely, it also investigates the negative impac...

  1. Early Life Family Conflict, Social Interactions, and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood. (United States)

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B


    Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean intima-media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean [standard deviation] age = 42.8 [7.3] years). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β = 0.08, t(447) = 2.13, p = .034, R = 0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and ecological momentary assessment reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0001-0.0014] and β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0002-0.0015], respectively). These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions.

  2. Options in Education, Transcript for February 23, 1976: Conflict in Theory, Conflict in Research, and Conflict in Practice. (United States)

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    "Options in Education" is a radio news program which focuses on issues and developments in education. This transcript contains discussions of conflict in theory--education in America, difficulties in dramatizing today's racism, and children's relationships in a predominately black school; conflict in research--marijuana and sexual…

  3. A window of opportunity for reform in post-conflict settings? The case of Human Resources for Health policies in Sierra Leone, 2002-2012. (United States)

    Bertone, Maria Paola; Samai, Mohamed; Edem-Hotah, Joseph; Witter, Sophie


    It is recognized that decisions taken in the early recovery period may affect the development of health systems. Additionally, some suggest that the immediate post-conflict period may allow for the opening of a political 'window of opportunity' for reform. For these reasons, it is useful to reflect on the policy space that exists in this period, by what it is shaped, how decisions are made, and what are their long-term implications. Examining the policy trajectory and its determinants can be helpful to explore the specific features of the post-conflict policy-making environment. With this aim, the study looks at the development of policies on human resources for health (HRH) in Sierra Leone over the decade after the conflict (2002-2012). Multiple sources were used to collect qualitative data on the period between 2002 and 2012: a stakeholder mapping workshop, a document review and a series of key informant interviews. The analysis draws from political economy and policy analysis tools, focusing on the drivers of reform, the processes, the contextual features, and the actors and agendas. Our findings identify three stages of policy-making. At first characterized by political uncertainty, incremental policies and stop-gap measures, the context substantially changed in 2009. The launch of the Free Health Care Initiative provided to be an instrumental event and catalyst for health system, and HRH, reform. However, after the launch of the initiative, the pace of HRH decision-making again slowed down. OUR STUDY IDENTIFIES THE KEY DRIVERS OF HRH POLICY TRAJECTORY IN SIERRA LEONE: (i) the political situation, at first uncertain and later on more defined; (ii) the availability of funding and the stances of agencies providing such funds; (iii) the sense of need for radical change - which is perhaps the only element related to the post-conflict setting. It also emerges that a 'windows of opportunity' for reform did not open in the immediate post-conflict, but rather 8

  4. Conflict cultures in organizations: How leaders shape conflict cultures and their organizational-level consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelfand, M.J.; Leslie, L.M.; Keller, K.; de Dreu, C.K.W.


    Anecdotal evidence abounds that organizations have distinct conflict cultures, or socially shared norms for how conflict should be managed. However, research to date has largely focused on conflict management styles at the individual and small group level, and has yet to examine whether

  5. Chimpanzees, conflicts and cognition : The functions and mechanisms of chimpanzee conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koski, S.E.


    In this thesis I studied conflict resolution in captive chimpanzees of the Arnhem Zoo, NL. Specifically, I investigated the occurrence and functions of various post-conflict strategies. Furthermore, I addressed the likely proximate cognitive and emotional mechanisms used in post-conflict

  6. Conflicts and Conflict Resolution in the Horn of Africa: Toward the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a gap of literature on the conflicts in the Horn of Africa. The argument it is trying to present is taht many of the works on the subject taht the author has consulted and reviewed concentrate on conflict markers such as ethnicity, region, religion, etc. This way of understanding of the source of conflicts has the effect of obscuring ...

  7. Understanding Conflict Dynamics: A Comparative Analysis of Ethno-Separatist Conflicts in India and the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, A.G.


    This thesis is a comparative analysis of three contemporary separatist conflicts in Asia: The Naga Insurgency, the Punjab Crisis and the Moro Rebellion. The objective of this thesis is the understanding of conflict dynamics: how and why conflicts escalate or de-escalate over time. Previous research

  8. Intragroup conflict and the interpersonal leadership circumplex: matching leadership behaviors to conflict types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, A.C.; Redeker, M.; de Vries, R.E.; Ayoko, O.B.; Ashkanasy, N.M.; Jehn, K.A.


    Conflicts have been found to often negatively affect the functioning of teams (De Wit et al., 2012), which makes the effective management of conflicts crucial. Because of their influential positions, leaders might hold the key to successful conflict management in teams (Yukl, 2010). We will zoom in

  9. The relationship of interpersonal conflict handling styles and marital conflicts among Iranian divorcing couples. (United States)

    Navidian, Ali; Bahari, Farshad; Kermansaravi, Fatihe


    Various research studies have suggested that among other variables that couples remain married if they successfully manage their interactions (marital communication based on acceptance of individual differences, problem solving skills, forgiveness, collaborative decision making, empathy and active listening) and constructively manage conflict. The study was aimed at examining the relation of conflict handling styles and marital conflicts among divorcing couples. As a descriptive -comparative study 60 couples out of 440 couples referred to the Crisis Intervention Center of the Isfahan Well-being Organization have selected. The tools implemented were Marital Conflicts (Barati & Sanaei, 1996) and Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles Questionnaires (Thomas-Kilman, 1975). Their total reliabilities were, respectively, 0.74 and 0.87. Findings showed that there are no significant differences among their conflict handling styles and marital conflicts. Also, there was positive correlation between avoidance and competition styles and negative one between compromise, accommodation, and cooperation styles with marital conflicts. That is, these styles reduced couples' conflicts. Finally, wives had tendency to apply accommodation style and husbands tended to use accommodation and cooperation styles to handle their conflicts. It is suggested to be studied couples' views toward their own styles to handle marital conflicts and holding training courses to orient couples with advantages and disadvantages of marital conflict handling styles.

  10. Gossiping as a response to conflict with the boss: Alternative conflict management behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.T.M.; Beersma, B.; van Leeuwen, J.


    Purpose – The current paper aims to argue that it is important for conflict management research to start focusing on leader–follower conflict as a “special case” of conflict because the relationship between leaders and followers is, by definition, characterized by divergence of interest and, second,

  11. The Conflict Pyramid: A Holistic Approach to Structuring Conflict Resolution in Schools (United States)

    Hakvoort, Ilse


    This paper examines how the conflict pyramid, originally defined and used by Richard Cohen, can be used as a model to describe the relations between different conflict resolution education programs and activities included in the programs. The central questions posed in the paper are: How can Richard Cohen's conflict pyramid be used as a model for…

  12. Learning from Conflicting Texts: The Role of Intertextual Conflict Resolution in Between-Text Integration (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi


    The present study examined the effect of intertextual conflict resolution on learning from conflicting texts. In two experiments, participants read sets of two texts under the condition of being encouraged either to resolve a conflict between the texts' arguments (the resolution condition) or to comprehend the arguments (the comprehension…

  13. Language Policy, Ethnic Conflict, and Conflict Resolution: Albanian in the Former Yugoslavia (United States)

    Duncan, Daniel


    The 1990s disintegration of Yugoslavia was marked by vicious ethnic conflict in several parts of the region. In this paper, I consider the role of policy towards the Albanian language in promoting and perpetuating conflict. I take three case studies from the former Yugoslavia in which conflict between ethnic Albanians and the dominant group…

  14. The Conflict Management Strategies of School Administrators While Conflicting with Their Supervisors (United States)

    Özyildirim, Gülnar; Kayikçi, Kemal


    Conflict is everywhere as there are conflicts at educational organizations. One of the most affected groups from conflicts is administrators who are bridges between teachers and parents, supervisors. The aims of this study are to determine which strategies the school administrators use and how often they use these strategies and whether their…

  15. Teaching and Learning the Techniques of Conflict Resolution for Challenging Ethics Consultations. (United States)

    Bergman, Edward J; Fiester, Autumn


    Professional mediators have long possessed a skill set that is uniquely suited to facilitation of difficult conversations between and among individuals in emotionally charged situations. This skill set has increasingly been recognized as invaluable to the work of clinical ethics consultants as they navigate conflicts involving families, surrogates, and providers. Given widespread acknowledgment that communication difficulties lie at the root of many clinical ethics conflicts, mediation offers techniques to enhance communication between conflicting parties. This special section of The Journal of Clinical Ethics focuses on core aspects of the mediation process designed for effective management of clinical conflict emanating from communication breakdowns, highly charged value conflicts, and instances of perceived disrespect. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  16. Parent-offspring conflict and the genetic trade-offs shaping parental investment. (United States)

    Kölliker, Mathias; Boos, Stefan; Wong, Janine W Y; Röllin, Lilian; Stucki, Dimitri; Raveh, Shirley; Wu, Min; Meunier, Joël


    The genetic conflict between parents and their offspring is a cornerstone of kin selection theory and the gene-centred view of evolution, but whether it actually occurs in natural systems remains an open question. Conflict operates only if parenting is driven by genetic trade-offs between offspring performance and the parent's ability to raise additional offspring, and its expression critically depends on the shape of these trade-offs. Here we investigate the occurrence and nature of genetic conflict in an insect with maternal care, the earwig Forficula auricularia. Specifically, we test for a direct response to experimental selection on female future reproduction and correlated responses in current offspring survival, developmental rate and growth. The results demonstrate genetic trade-offs that differ in shape before and after hatching. Our study not only provides direct evidence for parent-offspring conflict but also highlights that conflict is not inevitable and critically depends on the genetic trade-offs shaping parental investment.

  17. Adding Conflict Resolution Features to a Query Language for Database Federations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Uwe Sattler


    Full Text Available A main problem of data integration is the treatment of conflicts caused by different modeling of realworld entities, different data models or simply by different representations of one and the same object. During the integration phase these conflicts have to be identified and resolved as part of the mapping between local and global schemata. Therefore, conflict resolution affects the definition of the integrated view as well as query transformation and evaluation, in this paper we present a SQL extension for defining and querying database federations. This language addresses in particular the resolution of integration conflicts by providing mechanisms for mapping attributes, restructuring relations as well as extended integration operations. Finally, the application of these resolution strategies is briefly explained by presenting a simple conflict resolution method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Surono


    Full Text Available Conflict management of forest resources among communities around forest areas often occur in various regions, particularly in some national parks and forest management as Perhutani in Java and Inhutani outside Java. These conflicts indicate the forest resources management has not effectively made a positive impact in improving communities welfare around forest areas. Although the provisions of Article 3 in conjunction with Article 68 of Law No. 41 of 1999 on Forestry, provide the basis for communities around the forest rights of forest areas, but in reality there are still people around forest areas that do not enjoy such rights and it is this which often leads to conflicts in the management of forest resources. In the event of conflict, the solution can be done collaboratively (partnership which is one form of restorative justice is an alternative dispute resolution (ADR. Keywords: collaborative, conflict, restorative justice, forest resources.

  19. How community organizations moderate the effect of armed conflict on migration in Nepal. (United States)

    Williams, Nathalie E


    This study analyses micro-level variability in migration during armed conflict in Nepal. The analysis is based on a multi-dimensional model of individual out-migration that examines the economic, social, and political consequences of conflict and how community organizations condition the experience of these consequences and systematically alter migration patterns. Detailed data on violent events and individual behaviour during the Maoist insurrection in Nepal and multi-level event-history analysis were used to test the model. The results indicate that community organizations reduced the effect of conflict on out-migration by providing resources that helped people cope with danger, as well as with the economic, social, and political consequences of the conflict. The evidence suggests that the conflict caused the population to be systematically redistributed in a way that will probably affect its future socio-demographic composition--the extent of the redistribution depending on the resources available in each community.

  20. Early trajectories of interparental conflict and externalizing problems as predictors of social competence in preadolescence. (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D; Cummings, E Mark; Davies, Patrick T


    Consistent with developmental cascade notions, the present study investigated (a) associations between trajectories of interparental conflict and early externalizing problems during childhood and (b) early trajectories of externalizing problems as a pathway by which interparental conflict impacts children's social competence in preadolescence. Participants were 235 children and their parents and teachers. Children were assessed annually for 3 years, beginning when they were in kindergarten. Parents provided reports of interparental conflict and child externalizing problems. Children's social competence (prosocial behavior, social problems) was assessed approximately 5 years later via parent and teacher reports. Results from parallel process models indicated that changes in interparental conflict were positively associated with changes in externalizing problems during childhood. Further, demonstrating pathways consistent with notions of developmental cascades, early trajectories of externalizing problems accounted for the longitudinal link between early trajectories of interparental conflict and children's social problems in preadolescence.

  1. Living in Sin? How Gay Catholics Manage Their Conflicting Sexual and Religious Identities. (United States)

    Pietkiewicz, Igor J; Kołodziejczyk-Skrzypek, Monika


    Religious principles and values provide meaning and affect personal identity. They may also conflict with intimate needs and desires. This article examines how gay Catholics manage conflicting areas between their sexual and religious selves. Eight Polish gays with a Catholic background, who identified themselves as strong believers, shared their experiences during semi-structured interviews that were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results showed that internalization of the principles taught by the Roman Catholic Church triggered a conflict when participants became aware of their homosexuality. They used a number of strategies to reconcile conflicting identities, including limiting their religious involvement, questioning interpretation of the doctrine, undermining priests' authority, trying to reject homosexual attraction, putting trust in God's plan, using professional help, and seeking acceptance from clergy. This study alerts mental health professionals to specific risk factors associated with experiencing a religious conflict, and offers guidelines for counseling and further research.

  2. Designing a truth commission for post-conflict Darfur: Lessons learned from El Salvador and Sierra Leone.


    Sanghera, Amanjyot


    At some point, hopefully in the near future, the conflict in Darfur will come to an end. At the conclusion of the conflict it is imperative that transitional justice mechanisms be put in place that provide the people of Darfur with an accurate record and account of the abuses perpetrated during the course of the conflict. This study seeks to provide a model for the establishment of a truth commission in post-conflict Darfur. The model is devised from an analysis of the successes and failures ...

  3. War and Political Participation the Impact of the Vietnam Conflict and Gulf War in America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marine, Daniel


    .... By exploring the impact of the Vietnam Conflict and the Gulf War on political participation in the United States, this research provides evidence that American citizens participate at higher rates...

  4. Conflicting Rationales in Public Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    Everyday life in public organizations is influenced by conflicting rationales that do not always fit with the norms and ethics of the professions working in these organizations. Scholars use concepts such as ‘organizational professionalism’, ‘hybrid professionalism’, ‘situated professionalism’ etc....... to emphasize the effects of outside factors on professional work. This current paper contributes to this discussion by focusing on three sets of factors of particular importance in welfare work and which originate from the bureaucracy, the market and psychology. Thus, bureaucratic principles and discretion...... often pull in different directions resulting in ambiguous and conflictual conditions for the way professions can conduct their work today. However, and of equal importance, these multiple factors also produce common work conditions for very different professions working in public organizations...

  5. Dynamics of conflicts in Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Yasseri

    Full Text Available In this work we study the dynamical features of editorial wars in Wikipedia (WP. Based on our previously established algorithm, we build up samples of controversial and peaceful articles and analyze the temporal characteristics of the activity in these samples. On short time scales, we show that there is a clear correspondence between conflict and burstiness of activity patterns, and that memory effects play an important role in controversies. On long time scales, we identify three distinct developmental patterns for the overall behavior of the articles. We are able to distinguish cases eventually leading to consensus from those cases where a compromise is far from achievable. Finally, we analyze discussion networks and conclude that edit wars are mainly fought by few editors only.

  6. Floodplain conflicts: regulation and negotiation (United States)

    Pardoe, J.; Penning-Rowsell, E.; Tunstall, S.


    In the continuing shift from engineered solutions towards more holistic methods of managing flood risk, spatial planning has become the primary focus of a conflict between land and water, water and people. In attempting to strike a balance between making space for water and making space for people, compromises are required. Through five case studies in the UK, this paper analyses the effectiveness of Planning Policy Statement 25 (PPS 25) and the processes of negotiation that it promotes. This assessment allows us to draw conclusions on the nature of the compromises this kind of negotiation can achieve and the implications of this for flood risk management. What emerges is that the beneficial impacts of decisions to develop floodplain areas are given a proper hearing and sensible conditions imposed, rather than arguments to prevent such development remaining unchallenged.

  7. Floodplain conflicts: regulation and negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pardoe


    Full Text Available In the continuing shift from engineered solutions towards more holistic methods of managing flood risk, spatial planning has become the primary focus of a conflict between land and water, water and people. In attempting to strike a balance between making space for water and making space for people, compromises are required. Through five case studies in the UK, this paper analyses the effectiveness of Planning Policy Statement 25 (PPS 25 and the processes of negotiation that it promotes. This assessment allows us to draw conclusions on the nature of the compromises this kind of negotiation can achieve and the implications of this for flood risk management. What emerges is that the beneficial impacts of decisions to develop floodplain areas are given a proper hearing and sensible conditions imposed, rather than arguments to prevent such development remaining unchallenged.

  8. Conflicts in the therapeutic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Aprea


    Full Text Available How the analytical knowledge that compare human consciousness with that, even more disturbing, moving behind his fifth can be said to be “for peace”? It can be - and this will be the contribution of the proposal - the same tortuous and enigmatic of therapeutic practice, with its hesitations and his impulses, to outline a path crossing and overcoming the conflict? May, finally, peace, in the sense of feasibility of intra-and interpersonal dialectic instead of tearing and hostileconfrontation with oneself and with the other, to be a reference in some crucial pivot of ethical therapeutic work? To these questions the intervention seeks to answer retracing some of the highlights of almost three years of therapeutic work with a young woman and her family.

  9. Freedom and european military conflicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ks. Archimandryta Andrzej (Borkowski


    Full Text Available In the period of globalization, numerous armed conflicts and wars we often appeal to freedom and human rights. When we talk of freedom in the time we live in we usually mean it to be a possibility of free choice among various things. In contemporary common understanding freedom means choice. Such a definition is far insufficient to an Orthodox Christian. Freedom is something more than a simple difference between obviousness and indecision. Our spiritual attention needs to be directed towards something much more deeper. It should be directed to a struggle in order to overcome results of our fallen nature. According to contemporary understanding freedom is identified also with a possibility to do what is pleasing to ourselves. But such understanding is equally faulty. From theological point of view the term of true freedom denotes God’s grace and therefore human freedom is connected with and dependent on the absolute freedom of God. We do believe that God is the only giver of freedom and justice and He even exceeds them. God does not determine Himself. God simply exists. In such a way God has introduced Himself to Mores in the burning bush: „Εγώ ειμί ο Ών” (I am that I am. Ultimately all the contemporary crisises have their source in an absolute external freedom, freedom of flesh – having lost the notion of sin it transforms into a merciless, tyrannical lawlessness. Distinct manifestation of it are incessant armed conflicts in Europe.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Chupryna


    this issue, systematization and analysis of the results and ways to overcome ecological conflicts in industrialized countries - it should be one of the main priorities of the state, and implemented, both at micro and macro levels in the economy. When considering the greening process, the development and management of the ecological security of the state is necessary to describe manifestations ecological conflicts enough, their functions and characteristics. The intervention of the state in addressing ecological conflicts should not only lead to its solution, but also provide the possibility of co-existence and further development of all participants in ecological conflicts in the economy. Value/originality. Thus, we can determine that the development and overcoming ecological conflicts in modern conditions depends on the economic and political situation in the country. Map construction of ecological conflicts makes it possible to take advantage of the positive potential of ecological conflicts for the development potential of the region. Assessing the scope of the conflict, it will reduce the economic cost of its solutions.

  11. Substantially Enhancing Quantum Coherence of Electrons in Graphene via Electron-Plasmon Coupling (United States)

    Cheng, Guanghui; Qin, Wei; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Wei, Laiming; Fan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Huayang; Gwo, Shangjr; Zeng, Changgan; Hou, J. G.; Zhang, Zhenyu


    The interplays between different quasiparticles in solids lay the foundation for a wide spectrum of intriguing quantum effects, yet how the collective plasmon excitations affect the quantum transport of electrons remains largely unexplored. Here we provide the first demonstration that when the electron-plasmon coupling is introduced, the quantum coherence of electrons in graphene is substantially enhanced with the quantum coherence length almost tripled. We further develop a microscopic model to interpret the striking observations, emphasizing the vital role of the graphene plasmons in suppressing electron-electron dephasing. The novel and transformative concept of plasmon-enhanced quantum coherence sheds new insight into interquasiparticle interactions, and further extends a new dimension to exploit nontrivial quantum phenomena and devices in solid systems.

  12. Substantially Enhancing Quantum Coherence of Electrons in Graphene via Electron-Plasmon Coupling. (United States)

    Cheng, Guanghui; Qin, Wei; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Wei, Laiming; Fan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Huayang; Gwo, Shangjr; Zeng, Changgan; Hou, J G; Zhang, Zhenyu


    The interplays between different quasiparticles in solids lay the foundation for a wide spectrum of intriguing quantum effects, yet how the collective plasmon excitations affect the quantum transport of electrons remains largely unexplored. Here we provide the first demonstration that when the electron-plasmon coupling is introduced, the quantum coherence of electrons in graphene is substantially enhanced with the quantum coherence length almost tripled. We further develop a microscopic model to interpret the striking observations, emphasizing the vital role of the graphene plasmons in suppressing electron-electron dephasing. The novel and transformative concept of plasmon-enhanced quantum coherence sheds new insight into interquasiparticle interactions, and further extends a new dimension to exploit nontrivial quantum phenomena and devices in solid systems.

  13. Substantial equivalence of antinutrients and inherent plant toxins in genetically modified novel foods. (United States)

    Novak, W K; Haslberger, A G


    For a safety evaluation of foodstuff derived from genetically modified crops, the concept of the substantial equivalence of modified organisms with their parental lines is used following an environmental safety evaluation. To assess the potential pleiotropic effect of genetic modifications on constituents of modified crops data from US and EC documents were investigated with regard to inherent plant toxins and antinutrients. Analysed were documents of rape (glucosinolates, phytate), maize (phytate), tomato (tomatine, solanine, chaconine, lectins, oxalate), potato (solanine, chaconine, protease-inhibitors, phenols) and soybean (protease-inhibitors, lectins, isoflavones, phytate). In several documents used for notifications no declarations even on essential inherent plant toxins and antinutrients could be found, for instance data on phytate in modified maize were provided only in one of four documents. Significant variations in the contents of these compounds in parental and modified plants especially due to environmental influences were observed: drought stress, for example, was made responsible for significantly increased glucosinolate levels of up to 72.6micromol/g meal in modified and parental rape plants in field trials compared to recommended standard concentrations of less than 30micromol/g. Taking into account these wide natural variations generally the concentrations of inherent plant toxins and antinutrients in modified products were in the range of the concentrations in parental organisms. The results presented indicate that the concept of the substantial equivalence is useful for the risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) used for novel foods but possible environmental influences on constituents of modified crops need more attention. Consistent guidelines, specifying data of relevant compounds which have to be provided for notification documents of specific organisms have to be established. Because of the importance of inherent plant

  14. Separate and joint effects of alcohol and caffeine on conflict monitoring and adaptation. (United States)

    Bailey, Kira; Amlung, Michael T; Morris, David H; Price, Mason H; Von Gunten, Curtis; McCarthy, Denis M; Bartholow, Bruce D


    Caffeine is commonly believed to offset the acute effects of alcohol, but some evidence suggests that cognitive processes remain impaired when caffeine and alcohol are coadministered. No previous study has investigated the separate and joint effects of alcohol and caffeine on conflict monitoring and adaptation, processes thought to be critical for self-regulation. This was the purpose of the current study. Healthy, young adult social drinkers recruited from the community completed a flanker task after consuming one of four beverages in a 2 × 2 experimental design: Alcohol + caffeine, alcohol + placebo caffeine, placebo alcohol + caffeine, or placebo alcohol + placebo caffeine. Accuracy, response time, and the amplitude of the N2 component of the event-related potential (ERP), a neural index of conflict monitoring, were examined as a function of whether or not conflict was present (i.e., whether or not flankers were compatible with the target) on both the previous trial and the current trial. Alcohol did not abolish conflict monitoring or adaptation. Caffeine eliminated conflict adaptation in sequential trials but also enhanced neural conflict monitoring. The combined effect of alcohol and caffeine was apparent only in how previous conflict affected the neural conflict monitoring response. Together, the findings suggest that caffeine leads to exaggeration of attentional resource utilization, which could provide short-term benefits but lead to problems conserving resources for when they are most needed.

  15. Justice in Post-Conflict Settings: Islamic Law and Muslim Communities as Stakeholders in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corri Zoli


    Full Text Available This essay is one of the first collaborative efforts to identify the underlying norms embedded in diverse traditions of Islamic law as these apply to contemporary Muslim communities experiencing conflict or transitioning from conflict. This long overdue endeavor draws upon comparative legal analyses, postconflict justice traditions, global governance, and empirical conflict studies to explore why Islamic legal norms are not often used as a resource for restraint and guidance in contemporary conflict settings. In exploring this puzzle, the authors make the case for strengthening commensurate Islamic and international conflict norms for complex conflicts and postconflict tradition. We also situate Islamic postconflict justice norms—which are too often confined to religious and natural law discussions—into contemporary problems of security policy, conflict prevention, and problems of governance. We indicate the many benefits of such a comparative approach for citizens of diverse Muslim and Arabs states and communities, trying to build pathways out of conflict, and for humanitarian and human rights practitioners working in such arenas toward similar goals. An additional, important benefit in excavating such shari’a norms is in providing the intellectual basis to counter politicized, extremist, and instrumentalist uses of Islamic law to justify extreme uses of political violence across the Middle East, Central and South Asian, and African regions.

  16. Ethical considerations during times of conflict: challenges and pitfalls for the psychiatrist. (United States)

    Strous, Rael D


    Despite the advances of civilization, conflict remains in many areas around the world. Often psychiatry finds itself playing an essential role in dealing with the consequences of conflict or influencing the process. Along with this involvement comes great responsibility as well as many associated ethical dilemmas. Although bound by professional medical oaths, many physicians disregard fundamental medical ethical principles during times of conflict and situations of "dual loyalty." The phenomenon should be addressed so that ethical awareness and sensitivity to these issues are nurtured. Important factors for psychiatrists during times of conflict to consider include their "social contract" with the community, dangers of boundary violations, the ethics of media contact, involvement in governmental and political activities and confidentiality. In addition, their role in conflict resolution and unique ethical considerations in the military should be considered. While as regular citizens, psychiatrists in their individual capacity may involve themselves in political activism, at an organizational level it should be discouraged. A physician's skills should only be exploited to save lives and provide comfort as entrusted by society, and any other pursuit, even in the name of the state, should be proscribed. Rather than engage in political activism, psychiatrists can promote the rights of patients, especially if these rights are limited during conflict. Responsibility and ethically-driven commitment needs to be primary for the psychiatrist who involves himself either directly or indirectly with patients during times of conflict. Trauma and its effects during conflict should be addressed without any unbalanced attention to pathological responses.

  17. 31 CFR 31.211 - Organizational conflicts of interest. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organizational conflicts of interest... ASSET RELIEF PROGRAM Conflicts of Interest § 31.211 Organizational conflicts of interest. (a) Retained... organizational conflict of interest unless the conflict has been disclosed to Treasury under this Section and...

  18. 42 CFR 421.312 - Conflict of interest resolution. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 421.312 Section... Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board. CMS may establish and convene a Conflicts of Interest...) Resolution—(1) Pre-award conflicts. Resolution of an organizational conflict of interest is a determination...

  19. Bibliography on peace, security, and international conflict management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This bibliography presents an annotated list of approximately one hundred titles for public libraries seeking to serve the college-educated nonspecialist in the fields of peace, security, and international conflict management. representative titles have been selected in eight subject areas: (1) arms control, disarmament, and proliferation; (2) causes and nature of international conflict; (3) conflict management, diplomacy, and negotiation; (4) human rights and ethnic and religious conflicts; (5) international law and international order; (6) international organizations and transnationalism; (7) other approaches to, and overviews of, security and peace; and (8) religion and ethics. Three criteria determined selection of titles: the book is in print and is expected to remain in print for the foreseeable future; the book is of interest to the college-educated lay reader with a serious interest in the subject; and the list, as a whole, illustrates the full spectrum of debate, both in selection of topics and selection of titles. As an aid to the identification and acquisition of any of these materials, the editors have provided a bibliographic citation with an annotation that includes the following: author, title, statement of responsibility, publisher, publication information, pagination, and ISBN or ISSN.

  20. Formal Verification of a Conflict Resolution and Recovery Algorithm (United States)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey; Butler, Ricky; Geser, Alfons; Munoz, Cesar


    New air traffic management concepts distribute the duty of traffic separation among system participants. As a consequence, these concepts have a greater dependency and rely heavily on on-board software and hardware systems. One example of a new on-board capability in a distributed air traffic management system is air traffic conflict detection and resolution (CD&R). Traditional methods for safety assessment such as human-in-the-loop simulations, testing, and flight experiments may not be sufficient for this highly distributed system as the set of possible scenarios is too large to have a reasonable coverage. This paper proposes a new method for the safety assessment of avionics systems that makes use of formal methods to drive the development of critical systems. As a case study of this approach, the mechanical veri.cation of an algorithm for air traffic conflict resolution and recovery called RR3D is presented. The RR3D algorithm uses a geometric optimization technique to provide a choice of resolution and recovery maneuvers. If the aircraft adheres to these maneuvers, they will bring the aircraft out of conflict and the aircraft will follow a conflict-free path to its original destination. Veri.cation of RR3D is carried out using the Prototype Verification System (PVS).

  1. Use of multicriteria decision analysis to address conservation conflicts. (United States)

    Davies, A L; Bryce, R; Redpath, S M


    Conservation conflicts are increasing on a global scale and instruments for reconciling competing interests are urgently needed. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a structured, decision-support process that can facilitate dialogue between groups with differing interests and incorporate human and environmental dimensions of conflict. MCDA is a structured and transparent method of breaking down complex problems and incorporating multiple objectives. The value of this process for addressing major challenges in conservation conflict management is that MCDA helps in setting realistic goals; entails a transparent decision-making process; and addresses mistrust, differing world views, cross-scale issues, patchy or contested information, and inflexible legislative tools. Overall we believe MCDA provides a valuable decision-support tool, particularly for increasing awareness of the effects of particular values and choices for working toward negotiated compromise, although an awareness of the effect of methodological choices and the limitations of the method is vital before applying it in conflict situations. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Neocortical development as an evolutionary platform for intragenomic conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eLewitus


    Full Text Available Embryonic development in mammals has evolved a platform for genomic conflict between mothers and embryos and, by extension, between maternal and paternal genomes. The evolutionary interests of the mother and embryo may be maximized through the promotion of sex-chromosome genes and imprinted alleles, resulting in the rapid evolution of postzygotic phenotypes preferential to either the maternal or paternal genome. In eutherian mammals, extraordinary in utero maternal investment in the brain, and neocortex especially, suggests that convergent evolution of an expanded mammalian neocortex along divergent lineages may be explained, in part, by parent-of-origin-linked gene expression arising from parent-offspring conflict. The influence of this conflict on neocortical development and evolution, however, has not been investigated at the genomic level. In this hypothesis and theory article, we provide preliminary evidence for positive selection in humans in the regions of two platforms of intragenomic conflict – chromosomes 15q11-q13 and X – and explore the potential relevance of cis-regulated imprinted domains to neocortical expansion in mammalian evolution. We present the hypothesis that maternal- and paternal-specific pressures on the developing neocortex compete intragenomically to influence neocortical expansion in mammalian evolution.

  3. [Ethical conflicts in psychiatry as a subject of supervision processes]. (United States)

    Mitzscherlich, Beate


    The objective of the paper is to discuss, how far supervision processes in psychiatry are used for ethical consultation. Analyzing three cases from the supervision practice of the author ethical conflicts in psychiatric care are described and discussed. Ethical conflicts in psychiatric care mostly concern the conflict between patient autonomy and the need of psychiatric treatment, questions about professional role, but also the question of equitable utilization of limited treatment resources. In each of the discussed cases it can be asked, how far the patient is able to understand the benefits and necessity of treatment and provide consent and the possible consequences of non-treatment. Supervision can be a useful means of addressing and reflecting on ethical conflicts in psychiatry. As a common process of the team it can argue and prepare treatment decisions and strengthen the ethical orientation among the staff. Because of the more open process and the long-term professionalization attitude it can support but not replace more formal and highly structured ethical consultation in critical cases and the establishment of ethic commission, ethic codices and rules in psychiatric institutions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. conflict transformation in African peace-building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Republic; post-conflict transformation and development; security sector reform; and South Africa's .... transformation, referring to long peace-making and peace-building processes, is difficult, as renewed .... conflict prevention, mediation and resolution techniques, including civil society in regional dialogues and ...

  5. Intergroup Conflicts and Customary Mediation: Experiences from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leading to the exacerbation of intergroup conflicts and the inadequacy of customary mediation to solve them. The article ... customary mediation, as a Sudanese practice, may have relevance for scholars in Sudan, Africa, the ..... It has been indicated that in general conflict transformation rests with changing the modes of ...

  6. Conflict management and participation in community forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret


    In this paper consideration is first given to how community forestry practitioners have commonly understood the term participation, and why the concept of conflict does not seem to have overlapped with notions of participation. Failure to perceive conflict as inherent in participation is shown to


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. Africa to date has remained a victim of all economic and political reform agenda of the European dominated world, but now consummated in what has come to be known as globalization. These have thrown up a lot of conflicts in African. The struggle for economic resources has led to conflicts, electoral violence ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geneva Conventions2 that were adopted in the aftermath of World War II started a codification process that is still ongoing today.3 The 1949 Geneva Conventions and the two Additional Protocols that followed in 1977, divide armed conflict into two legal categories: international armed conflicts (IACs) and non-international ...

  9. Common Sense Strategies for Managing Conflicts. (United States)

    Fairman, Marvin; Clark, Elizabeth A.


    Describes the application by principals of situational leadership concepts to reduce conflict among groups participating in decision making. Factors covered include maturity levels of participants, flexibility of leadership style, and possible variations in conflict management strategies appropriate to different maturity levels of participants.…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarse, van der R.; ICOMOS-UK / ICOM-UK Christmas Lecture 2014, London (2014-12-03)


    ICOMOS-UK Christmas Lecture 2014: 3rd December 2014: HERITAGE, CONFLICT AND THE DYNAMICS OF MEMORY, Professor Rob van der LaarseThe world is increasingly full of conflicts: how do these colour our perceptions of places associated with historical events not just immediately but over decades if not

  11. Cognitive Considerations in Coping with Marital Conflict. (United States)

    Huber, Charles H.


    Discusses the critical importance and impact that specific types of cognitions may have on couples' ability to resolve their conflicts functionally, based on rational-emotive therapy. Reviews perspectives on marital conflict in terms of discovery, modification, and behavioral action and observation. (JAC)

  12. Methods for Addressing Conflict in Cotaught Classrooms (United States)

    Conderman, Greg


    As a service delivery option for students with disabilities, coteaching continues to gain popularity. Successful coteaching largely rests upon the compatibility of coteachers. Sometimes conflict may occur when two teachers with different backgrounds and views work closely together. This article focuses on why conflict is inevitable in cotaught…

  13. Interpersonal Conflicts In Ghanaian University Libraries | Kofi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate that personality differences, superior/subordinate relationships, power struggle and competition are responsible for interpersonal conflicts in Ghanaian university libraries. It then makes recommendations on how to manage the various types of interpersonal conflicts within university libraries. Keywords: ...

  14. Conflict Trends in the 21st Century (United States)


    engaged in a protracted attempt to create a democratic nation-state in the midst of a civil war—were on no one’s radar. child soldiers , like these in...related to the participation in contemporary conflict of child soldiers . Many of the conflicts dis- cussed here are conducted by participants not out of

  15. Conflict and Bias in Heuristic Judgment (United States)

    Bhatia, Sudeep


    Conflict has been hypothesized to play a key role in recruiting deliberative processing in reasoning and judgment tasks. This claim suggests that changing the task so as to add incorrect heuristic responses that conflict with existing heuristic responses can make individuals less likely to respond heuristically and can increase response accuracy.…

  16. Conflicts between Two Religious Cultures: Achieving Reconciliation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    At times, he said, religious conflicts are often caused by the use of religion to further non- religious interest ... This paper is aimed at unraveling the issues involved in the religio-cultural conflicts as considered by some ..... catechists, teachers, religious, parents, men and women, lay apostolate workers and ordinary faithful.

  17. 37 CFR 2.83 - Conflicting marks. (United States)


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflicting marks. 2.83 Section 2.83 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Publication and Post Publication § 2.83 Conflicting marks. (a...

  18. Indigenous Approaches to Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These range from duels between two groups by appointment, wherein the participants seek to inflict ... The child represents innocence, while the elderly were considered to be closer to the spirit of the ancestors (Njoya 1988:7). Generally, before the outbreak of conflict or hostilities, the parties to the conflict tried to settle the.

  19. Moral conflicts between groups of agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Barteld; Tamminga, A.

    Two groups of agents, G1 and G2, face a *moral conflict* if G1 has a moral obligation and G2 has a moral obligation, such that these obligations cannot both be fulfilled. We study moral conflicts using a multi-agent deontic logic devised to represent reasoning about sentences like 'In the interest

  20. Conflict Resolution between Mexican Origin Adolescent Siblings (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.


    We investigated correlates of adolescents' sibling conflict resolution strategies in 246, two-parent Mexican origin families. Specifically, we examined links between siblings' conflict resolution strategies and sibling dyad characteristics, siblings' cultural orientations and values, and sibling relationship qualities. Data were gathered during…