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Sample records for providing standing subjects

  1. Subjective well-being, reference groups and relative standing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies on the determinants of subjective well-being concur on the importance of relative income, i.e., the fact that individuals' subjective well-being is dependent on how well they are doing in relation to their reference group. Using South African data from 1993, Kingdon and Knight (2006, 2007) found that in ...

  2. Young, Healthy Subjects Can Reduce the Activity of Calf Muscles When Provided with EMG Biofeedback in Upright Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Taian M.; Baudry, Stéphane; Botter, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests the minimization of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimizing the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG) recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimize the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the center of pressure (CoP). CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from 10 healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects' responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P < 0.05) and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm). In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at assisting subjects in

  3. Young, healthy subjects can reduce the activity of calf muscles when provided with EMG biofeedback in upright stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taian M. Vieira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests the minimisation of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimising the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimise the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the centre of pressure (CoP. CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from ten healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects’ responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P<0.05 and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P<0.05. Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm. In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at

  4. Race/Ethnicity and pregnancy decision making: the role of fatalism and subjective social standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Allison S; Nakagawa, Sanae; Gregorich, Steven E; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2010-06-01

    Rates of unintended pregnancy in the United States differ by race and ethnicity. We examined whether these differences might be explained by maternal fatalism and subjective social standing. We used data from 1070 pregnant women of sociodemographically diverse backgrounds enrolled in prenatal care in the San Francisco Bay area. Logistic regression was used to explore the relationship between attitude variables and a measure of pregnancy decision making ("not trying to get pregnant"). African American women were more likely than others to report not trying to get pregnant with the current pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.04, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.22-3.43, p = 0.007). Higher subjective social standing was associated with a lower likelihood of not trying among white and U.S.-born women only (AOR 0.67, p = 0.001 and AOR 0.75, p Fatalism was associated with not trying in bivariate but not multivariable analyses. In this population, the likelihood of reporting not trying to get pregnant was higher among racial/ethnic minorities regardless of subjective social standing. Programs aimed at reduction in unintended pregnancy rates need to be targeted to a broader population of women.

  5. Effectiveness of standing frame on constipation in children with cerebral palsy: a single-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivi, Elena; Filippi, Mariacristina; Fornasari, Elisa; Mascia, Maria Teresa; Ferrari, Adriano; Costi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) and quadriplegia or severe diplegia suffer from highly reduced mobility and consequent constipation. Clinicians recommend standing frames to exercise the support reaction in this population, sharing the opinion that the upright position may facilitate intestinal transit, although no evidence supports this assumption. We conducted this study to determine the effects of the standing frame on spontaneous evacuation in children with CP. Moreover, we studied its effects on the frequency of induction of evacuation, the characteristics of the stool and the pain suffered by the child due to constipation and/or evacuation. We implemented a single-subject research design in one chronically constipated child with CP and quadriplegia, Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. To monitor the effects of the standing frame, we measured the outcome of interest throughout the study using a daily diary and the Bristol Stool Scale. This study was approved by the local Ethics Committee. This study has several limitation; primarily, the use of a single-subject research design only makes possible the visual analysis of data obtained from a unique patient. So, by themselves, data obtained do not allow us any generalization for the target population. Future research should verify our results collecting more data and also investigating the effect of the standing-frame on respiratory functions. Although the standing frame did not affect the frequency of evacuations or the characteristics of the stool, its employment reduced the inductions of evacuation and the related pain suffered by the child. However, this study has several limitations, such as the lack of generalization due to the fact that we studied a unique patient and the overall brevity of the study due to external circumstances. Therefore, we suggest future research to verify our results, also investigating the effect of the standing frame on respiratory functions. Relevance to clinical

  6. EEG topographies provide subject-specific correlates of motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, Elvira; Coscia, Martina; Minguillon, Jesus; Millán, José Del R; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Micera, Silvestro

    2017-10-16

    Electroencephalography (EEG) of brain activity can be represented in terms of dynamically changing topographies (microstates). Notably, spontaneous brain activity recorded at rest can be characterized by four distinctive topographies. Despite their well-established role during resting state, their implication in the generation of motor behavior is debated. Evidence of such a functional role of spontaneous brain activity would provide support for the design of novel and sensitive biomarkers in neurological disorders. Here we examined whether and to what extent intrinsic brain activity contributes and plays a functional role during natural motor behaviors. For this we first extracted subject-specific EEG microstates and muscle synergies during reaching-and-grasping movements in healthy volunteers. We show that, in every subject, well-known resting-state microstates persist during movement execution with similar topographies and temporal characteristics, but are supplemented by novel task-related microstates. We then show that the subject-specific microstates' dynamical organization correlates with the activation of muscle synergies and can be used to decode individual grasping movements with high accuracy. These findings provide first evidence that spontaneous brain activity encodes detailed information about motor control, offering as such the prospect of a novel tool for the definition of subject-specific biomarkers of brain plasticity and recovery in neuro-motor disorders.

  7. Measurement properties and feasibility of clinical tests to assess sit-to-stand/stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with neurological disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula F. S. Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Subjects with neurological disease (ND usually show impaired performance during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks, with a consequent reduction in their mobility levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the measurement properties and feasibility previously investigated for clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit in subjects with ND. METHOD: A systematic literature review following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol was performed. Systematic literature searches of databases (MEDLINE/SCIELO/LILACS/PEDro were performed to identify relevant studies. In all studies, the following inclusion criteria were assessed: investigation of any measurement property or the feasibility of clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with ND published in any language through December 2012. The COSMIN checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included. The measurement properties/feasibility were most commonly investigated for the five-repetition sit-to-stand test, which showed good test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient:ICC=0.94-0.99 for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and dementia. The ICC values were higher for this test than for the number of repetitions in the 30-s test. The five-repetition sit-to-stand test also showed good inter/intra-rater reliabilities (ICC=0.97-0.99 for stroke and inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.99 for subjects with Parkinson disease and incomplete spinal cord injury. For this test, the criterion-related validity for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and incomplete spinal cord injury was, in general, moderate (correlation=0.40-0.77, and the feasibility and safety were good for subjects with Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS: The five-repetition sit-to-stand test was used more often in subjects with ND, and most of the measurement

  8. Effect of standing on neurohumoral responses and plasma volume in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, G.; Ertl, A. C.; Shannon, J. R.; Furlan, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    Upright posture leads to rapid pooling of blood in the lower extremities and shifts plasma fluid into surrounding tissues. This results in a decrease in plasma volume (PV) and in hemoconcentration. There has been no integrative evaluation of concomitant neurohumoral and PV shifts with upright posture in normal subjects. We studied 10 healthy subjects after 3 days of stable Na+ and K+ intake. PV was assessed by the Evans blue dye method and by changes in hematocrit. Norepinephrine (NE), NE spillover, epinephrine (Epi), vasopressin, plasma renin activity, aldosterone, osmolarity, and kidney response expressed by urine osmolality and by Na+ and K+ excretion of the subjects in the supine and standing postures were all measured. We found that PV fell by 13% (375 +/- 35 ml plasma) over approximately 14 min, after which time it remained relatively stable. There was a concomitant decrease in systolic blood pressure and an increase in heart rate that peaked at the time of maximal decrease in PV. Plasma Epi and NE increased rapidly to this point. Epi approached baseline by 20 min of standing. NE spillover increased 80% and clearance decreased 30% with 30 min of standing. The increase in plasma renin activity correlated with an increase in aldosterone. Vasopressin increased progressively, but there was no change in plasma osmolarity. The kidney response showed a significant decrease in Na+ and an increase in K+ excretion with upright posture. We conclude that a cascade of neurohumoral events occurs with upright posture, some of which particularly coincide with the decrease in PV. Plasma Epi levels may contribute to the increment in heart rate with maintained upright posture.

  9. Experiments with nano-scaled helium bubbles in water subjected to standing acoustic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancelos, Silvina, E-mail: silvina.cancelos@upr.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, Mayagüez, PR 00681 (United States); Villamizar, Gabriel; Saavedra-Ruiz, Andres; Garcia-Rodriguez, William; Filoni, Pablo T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, Mayagüez, PR 00681 (United States); Marin, Carlos [Department of Engineering Science and Materials, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Cavitation activity increases with the presence of helium nanobubbles in water. • The antinode region of the standing acoustic field gets depleted of nanobubbles. • Nanobubbles behave as solid particles when subjected to a standing acoustic field. - Abstract: Understanding the stability of gas filled bubbles dispersed in water, and the features that due to their presence must been taken into account in multiphase flow research, is amongst the most recent and relevant issue in a number of technological, physical and biological fields. Cavitation experiments were designed and conducted using one high-Q acoustic resonator that is able to oscillate at very well controlled conditions, allowing for the characterization of the effect that helium nanobubbles dispersed in water have on the cavitation activity. An increase in the inertial cavitation activity that correlates directly to the presence of the nanobubbles at the antinode was found. The results seem to indicate that the nanobubbles grow under tension to collapse under the compression phase. By other side, they behave as rigid entities under the influence of standing acoustic fields, moving away from the antinode region.

  10. Analysis of relative kinematic index with normalized standing time between subjects with and without recurrent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Paul S; Danial, Pamela

    2017-02-01

    Although subjects with recurrent low back pain (LBP) demonstrate altered postural control, their postural steadiness during one leg standing is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate postural steadiness based on relative kinematic index of the lower limbs and trunk with normalized standing time in subjects with recurrent LBP during dominant and non-dominant leg standing. Sixty individuals participated in the study, including 29 subjects in the control group (18 male, 11 female) and 31 subjects with recurrent LBP (21 male, 10 female). The outcome measures included relative kinematic index of the body regions and normalized standing time during the one leg standing test. The relative kinematic index was the ratio between standstill time and successful standing time. The normalized standing time was defined as a ratio between the successful standing time and the requested standing time. The control group demonstrated significantly longer normalized standing time on the dominant (t = -2.57, p = 0.013) and non-dominant (t = -2.78, p = 0.007) legs than the LBP group. The relative kinematic index of the core spine model significantly decreased for the dominant (t = -3.01, p = 0.004) and non-dominant (t = -3.06, p = 0.003) legs in the LBP group. In addition, the kinematic index indicated pelvis and non-dominant shank during dominant leg standing (R 2 = 0.97) in the LBP group. In the control group, the pelvis was significantly correlated with the core spine model during standing on the dominant (R 2 = 0.95) and non-dominant (R 2 = 0.97) legs. The relative kinematic index of the pelvis was found to be most significant for longer standing durations in both groups. In the LBP group, the shank and foot were significantly higher in addition to the pelvis due to possible compensatory motion. The control group took advantage of pelvic control with the core spine to minimize lower limb movements. Clinicians need to consider the core spine for

  11. Foot medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait in subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Boysen, Lisbeth; Haugaard, Stine

    2008-01-01

    . Medial longitudinal-arch deformation was measured during walking gait using 3-dimensional gait analysis. Subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome demonstrated a significantly larger navicular drop (mean +/- 1 SD, 7.7 +/- 3.1 mm) and medial longitudinal-arch deformation (5.9 +/- 3.2 degrees) during......The objective of this study was to investigate (1) if subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome demonstrate increased navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait compared with healthy subjects, and (2) the relationship between medial longitudinal......-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait. Thirty subjects aged 20 to 32 years were included (15 with medial tibial stress syndrome and 15 controls). Navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation were measured during quiet standing with neutral and loaded foot using a ruler and digital photography...

  12. Reliability of the Kinematic Steadiness Index during one-leg standing in subjects with recurrent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Paul S; Danial, Pamela; Lee, Dongchul C

    2017-10-04

    To assess the reliability of standing time and the Kinematic Steadiness Index (KSI) in one-leg standing compared with the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test while considering anthropometric factors in subjects with recurrent low back pain (LBP). Sixty-six individuals participated in the study. The data were collected on two different days, 1 week apart. The KSI of the core spine, using video motion-capture techniques, was based on the relative standing time and relative standstill time. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) was compared for the reliability between measures. The covariates, such as age, Body Mass Index, and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), were analyzed for any interactions based on these measures. The standing time (t = - 1.01, p = 0.32) and the KSI (t = - 1.70, p = 0.09) were not significantly different between measures. The TUG results were not different between measures (t = 1.01, p = 0.32). The Cronbach's alpha for the standing time was 0.84, for KSI was 0.89, and for TUG was 0.76. The standing time and KSI demonstrated an interaction with age, while the TUG demonstrated an interaction with the ODI score. The KSI during one-leg standing could help to develop a practical tool to justify quantity and quality of balance outcome measures, which identify balance deficits and core spine rehabilitation strategies in subjects with recurrent LBP.

  13. Destruction Mechanism of ZnAl4 as Cast Alloy Subjected to Cavitational Erosion Using Different Laboratory Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasionowski R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main reason of a cavitational destruction is the mechanical action of cavitation pulses onto the material’s surface. The course of cavitation destruction process is very complex and depends on the physicochemical and structural features of a material. A resistance to cavitation destruction of the material increases with the increase of its mechanical strength, fatigue resistance as well as hardness. Nevertheless, the effect of structural features on the material’s cavitational resistance has been not fully clarified. In the present paper, the cavitation destruction of ZnAl4 as cast alloy was investigated on three laboratory stands: vibration, jet-impact and flow stands. The destruction mechanism of ZnAl4 as cast alloy subjected to cavitational erosion using various laboratory stands is shown in the present paper.

  14. Use of the Case Western Reserve/Veterans Administration neuroprosthesis for exercise, standing and transfers by a paraplegic subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, George P; Smith, Thomas C; Triolo, Ronald J; Gagnon, Jason; DiRisio, Darryl; Miller, Michael E; Rhodi, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Functional electric stimulation (FES) is a technology that may allow patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) to transfer stand and walk. This paper reports upon the use of the Case Western Reserve Neuroprosthesis by a T6 ASIA B paraplegic subject. The subject was able to stand for two minutes and 50 seconds. He could walk 35 feet with a swing to gait. Measurement of energy consumption showed that metabolic demand was only 2.1 metabolic equivalent units. The factors that limited the use of the device that need to be improved to make the technology practical for household or community ambulation are speed (5.8 m/min) of ambulation and fatigue of the stimulated muscles.

  15. Reliability and Validity of Standing Back Extension Test for Detecting Motor Control Impairment in Subjects with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondhalekar, Gauri A; Kumar, Senthil P; Eapen, Charu; Mahale, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is a chronic health problem with high socioeconomic impact. Specific diagnosis or treatment approach has not yet effectively established to treat chronic low back pain. Standing Back Extension Test is one of the clinical measures to detect the passive extension subgroup of Motor Control Impairment (MCI); which could have an impact on spinal stability leading to recurrent chronic low back pain. Reliability and validity of this test is not fully established. To determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity of the Standing Back Extension Test for detecting MCI of the lumbar spine. A total of 50 subjects were included in the study, 25 patients with Non Specific Low Back Pain (NSLBP) (12 men, 13 women) and 25 healthy controls (12 men, 13 women) were recruited into the study. All subjects performed the test movement. Two raters blinded to the subjects rated the test performance as either 'Positive' or 'Negative' based on the predetermined rating protocol. The thickness of Transverse Abdominis (TrA) muscle was assessed using Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI). For reliability, the kappa coefficient with percent agreement was calculated and for assessing the validity Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves and Area under the Curve (AUC) were constructed. The standing back extension test showed very good intra-rater (k=0.87 with an agreement of 96%) and good inter-rater (k=0.78 with an agreement of 94%) reliability and high AUC for TrA muscle. The standing back extension test was found to be a reliable and a valid measure to detect passive extension subgroup for MCI in subjects with low back pain.

  16. Lower limb muscle activation during the sit-to-stand task in subjects who have had a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudente, Cecília; Rodrigues-de-Paula, Fátima; Faria, Christina D C M

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare electromyographic activities between and within the paretic and nonparetic lower limb muscles during the sit-to-stand (STS) task in subjects with hemiparesis as a result of stroke. This is a cross-sectional study. All monitored muscles of both lower limbs remained active during most of the sit-to-stand task; the muscles were activated before the seat-off and reached the maximum peak of electromyographic activity after the seat-off (P limb, the nonparetic limb exhibited earlier activation of the hamstrings (P muscles of the nonparetic lower limb (P ≥ 0.053), whereas the tibialis anterior of the paretic lower limb was activated before the hamstring and the soleus (P ≤ 0.015). These results illustrate that muscle activation of both limbs during the sit-to-stand task was impaired but in a higher level in the paretic side. Neuromuscular coordination abnormalities were observed in both lower limbs. The paretic limb was unable to recruit the muscles at the proper time and to achieve the amplitude for executing the sit-to-stand task, whereas significant compensations occurred on the nonparetic side.

  17. Statistical Physics Methods Provide the Exact Solution to a Long-Standing Problem of Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Areejit; Martin, Olivier C.

    2015-06-01

    Analytic and computational methods developed within statistical physics have found applications in numerous disciplines. In this Letter, we use such methods to solve a long-standing problem in statistical genetics. The problem, posed by Haldane and Waddington [Genetics 16, 357 (1931)], concerns so-called recombinant inbred lines (RILs) produced by repeated inbreeding. Haldane and Waddington derived the probabilities of RILs when considering two and three genes but the case of four or more genes has remained elusive. Our solution uses two probabilistic frameworks relatively unknown outside of physics: Glauber's formula and self-consistent equations of the Schwinger-Dyson type. Surprisingly, this combination of statistical formalisms unveils the exact probabilities of RILs for any number of genes. Extensions of the framework may have applications in population genetics and beyond.

  18. Vergence and Standing Balance in Subjects with Idiopathic Bilateral Loss of Vestibular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoula, Zoï; Gaertner, Chrystal; Yang, Qing; Denise, Pierre; Toupet, Michel

    2013-01-01

    There is a natural symbiosis between vergence and vestibular responses. Deficits in vergence can lead to vertigo, disequilibrium, and postural instability. This study examines both vergence eye movements in patients with idiopathic bilateral vestibular loss, and their standing balance in relation to vergence. Eleven patients participated in the study and 16 controls. Bilateral loss of vestibular function was objectified with many tests; only patients without significant response to caloric tests, to video head impulse tests and without vestibular evoked myogenic potentials were included in the study. A LED display with targets at 20, 40, and 100 cm along the median plane was used to elicit vergence eye movements, recorded with the IRIS device. Four conditions were run, each lasting 1 min: fixation of a LED at 40 cm (convergence of 9°), at 150 cm (convergence of 2.3°); this last condition was repeated with eyes closed. Comparison of the eyes closed-eyes open conditions at 150 cm allowed evaluation of the Romberg Quotient. In the forth condition, two LEDS, at 20 and at 100 cm, were light on, one after the other for 1 sec, causing the eyes to converge then diverge. Standing balance was recorded with an accelerometer placed at the back near the center of mass (McRoberts, Dynaport). Relative to controls, convergence eye movements in patients showed significantly lower accuracy, lower mean velocity, and saccade intrusions of significantly higher amplitude. The normalized 90% area of body sway was significantly higher for patients than for controls for all conditions. Yet, similarly to controls, postural stability was better while fixating at near (sustained convergence) than at far, or while making active vergence movements. We argue that vestibular loss deteriorates convergence, but even deficient, convergence can be helpful for postural control.

  19. Vergence and Standing Balance in Subjects with Idiopathic Bilateral Loss of Vestibular Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoï Kapoula

    Full Text Available There is a natural symbiosis between vergence and vestibular responses. Deficits in vergence can lead to vertigo, disequilibrium, and postural instability. This study examines both vergence eye movements in patients with idiopathic bilateral vestibular loss, and their standing balance in relation to vergence. Eleven patients participated in the study and 16 controls. Bilateral loss of vestibular function was objectified with many tests; only patients without significant response to caloric tests, to video head impulse tests and without vestibular evoked myogenic potentials were included in the study.A LED display with targets at 20, 40, and 100 cm along the median plane was used to elicit vergence eye movements, recorded with the IRIS device.Four conditions were run, each lasting 1 min: fixation of a LED at 40 cm (convergence of 9°, at 150 cm (convergence of 2.3°; this last condition was repeated with eyes closed. Comparison of the eyes closed-eyes open conditions at 150 cm allowed evaluation of the Romberg Quotient. In the forth condition, two LEDS, at 20 and at 100 cm, were light on, one after the other for 1 sec, causing the eyes to converge then diverge. Standing balance was recorded with an accelerometer placed at the back near the center of mass (McRoberts, Dynaport.Relative to controls, convergence eye movements in patients showed significantly lower accuracy, lower mean velocity, and saccade intrusions of significantly higher amplitude.The normalized 90% area of body sway was significantly higher for patients than for controls for all conditions. Yet, similarly to controls, postural stability was better while fixating at near (sustained convergence than at far, or while making active vergence movements. We argue that vestibular loss deteriorates convergence, but even deficient, convergence can be helpful for postural control.

  20. Effects of kinesthetic haptic feedback on standing stability of young healthy subjects and stroke patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Afzal, Muhammad Raheel; Byun, Ha-Young; Oh, Min-Kyun; Yoon, Jungwon

    2015-01-01

    .... Kinesthetic haptic feedback in terms of body sway can be delivered via a commercially available haptic device and can enhance the balance stability of both young healthy subjects and stroke patients...

  1. Modal Damping Ratio and Optimal Elastic Moduli of Human Body Segments for Anthropometric Vibratory Model of Standing Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manoj; Gupta, T C

    2017-10-01

    The present study aims to accurately estimate inertial, physical, and dynamic parameters of human body vibratory model consistent with physical structure of the human body that also replicates its dynamic response. A 13 degree-of-freedom (DOF) lumped parameter model for standing person subjected to support excitation is established. Model parameters are determined from anthropometric measurements, uniform mass density, elastic modulus of individual body segments, and modal damping ratios. Elastic moduli of ellipsoidal body segments are initially estimated by comparing stiffness of spring elements, calculated from a detailed scheme, and values available in literature for same. These values are further optimized by minimizing difference between theoretically calculated platform-to-head transmissibility ratio (TR) and experimental measurements. Modal damping ratios are estimated from experimental transmissibility response using two dominant peaks in the frequency range of 0-25 Hz. From comparison between dynamic response determined form modal analysis and experimental results, a set of elastic moduli for different segments of human body and a novel scheme to determine modal damping ratios from TR plots, are established. Acceptable match between transmissibility values calculated from the vibratory model and experimental measurements for 50th percentile U.S. male, except at very low frequencies, establishes the human body model developed. Also, reasonable agreement obtained between theoretical response curve and experimental response envelop for average Indian male, affirms the technique used for constructing vibratory model of a standing person. Present work attempts to develop effective technique for constructing subject specific damped vibratory model based on its physical measurements.

  2. Disturbed subjective sleep characteristics in adult patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, M.; Donga, E.; van Dijk, J. G.; Lammers, G. J.; van Kralingen, K. W.; Dekkers, O. M.; Corssmit, E. P. M.; Romijn, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Decreased sleep duration and/or impaired sleep quality negatively influence glucoregulation. The aim of this study was to assess subjective sleep characteristics in patients with type 1 diabetes, to relate sleep characteristics to long-term glycaemic control and to assess possible risk factors for

  3. 32 CFR 154.35 - Personal data provided by the subject of the investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal data provided by the subject of the... Investigations § 154.35 Personal data provided by the subject of the investigation. (a) To conduct the required investigation, it is necessary that the investigative agency be provided certain relevant data concerning the...

  4. Lumbar spine stability for subjects with and without low back pain during one-leg standing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Paul S; Yoon, BumChul; Lee, Dongchul C

    2010-07-15

    An experimental design comparing kinematic changes in the lumbar spine axis in subjects with and without low back pain (LBP) while standing on one leg with and without visual feedback. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lumbar stability index, which includes relative holding time (RHT) and relative standstill time (RST), in subjects with and without LBP. Even though a number of studies have evaluated postural adjustments based on kinematic changes in subjects with LBP, lumbar spine stability has not been examined for abnormal postural responses with visual feedback. All participants were asked to maintain the stork test position (standing on one leg with the contra lateral hip flexed 90 degrees) for 25 seconds. The outcome measures included RHT and RST for the axes of the core spine and lumbar spine. Independent t tests were used to compare the differences between groups. Two-way repeated measure analysis of variance was used to compare the differences for both axes. The age variable was used as a covariate to control confounding effects for the data analyses. The RHT was longer for the lumbar spine axis in subjects without LBP than those with LBP, especially without visual feedback. There was also significant interaction in RST between subjects with and without LBP (F = 7.18, P = 0.01). For the core axis of the trunk, significant differences existed based on the main effect of side (F = 9.07, P = 0.004), trunk rotation (F = 24.30, P = 0.001), and both of these interactions (F = 8.93, P = 0.004). However, there was a lack of significant interaction with age for the lumbar and core spine axes (F = 0.06, P = 0.81). Although the control group included slightly younger volunteers compared with the LBP group, the stability index of the core spine significantly decreased in RHT and RST, especially when visual feedback was blocked for subjects with LBP. The interaction between visual feedback and trunk rotation indicated that core spine stability is critical in

  5. Stand structure influences nekton community composition and provides protection from natural disturbance in Micronesian mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. MacKenzie; Nicole. Cormier

    2012-01-01

    Structurally complex mangrove roots are thought to provide foraging habitat, predation refugia, and typhoon protection for resident fish, shrimp, and crabs. The spatially compact nature of Micronesian mangroves results in model ecosystems to test these ideas. Tidal creek nekton assemblages were compared among mangrove forests impacted by Typhoon Sudal and differing in...

  6. The cerebro-cardiovascular response to periodic squat-stand maneuvers in healthy subjects: a time-domain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sam C; Ball, Naomi; Haunton, Victoria Joanna; Robinson, Thompson G; Panerai, Ronney B

    2017-09-08

    Squat-stand maneuvers (SSMs) have been used to improve the coherence of transfer function analysis (TFA) estimates during the assessment of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA). There is a need to understand the influence of peripheral changes resulting from SSMs on cerebral blood flow, which might confound estimates of dCA. 29 healthy subjects underwent recordings at rest (5 min standing) and 15 SSMs (0.05Hz). Heart rate (3-lead ECG), end-tidal CO2 (capnography), blood pressure (Finometer), cerebral blood velocity (CBV, transcranial Doppler, MCA) and the angle of the thigh (tilt sensor) were measured continuously. The response of CBV to SSMs was decomposed into the relative contributions of mean arterial pressure (MAP), resistance area product (RAP) and critical closing pressure (CrCP). Upon squatting, a rise in MAP (83.6 ± 21.1 % contribution) is followed by increased CBV. A dCA response can be detected, determined by adjustments in RAP and CrCP (left hemisphere) with peak contributions of 24.8 ± 12.7 % and 27.4 ± 22.8 %, respectively, at different times during SSMs. No interhemispheric differences were detected. During standing, the contributions of MAP, RAP and CrCP change considerably. The changes of CBV subcomponents during repeated SSMs indicate a complex response of CBVms. to SSMs that can only be partially explained by myogenic mechanis More work is needed to clarify the potential contribution of other co-factors, such as breath-to-breath changes in pCO2, HR, stroke volume and the neurogenic component of dynamic CA. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  7. Efficacy of a trunk orthosis with joints providing resistive force on low-back load in elderly persons during static standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuhira, Junji; Matsudaira, Ko; Yasui, Tadashi; Iijima, Shinno; Ito, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Postural alignment of elderly people becomes poor due to aging, possibly leading to low-back pain and spinal deformity. Although there are several interventions for treating these conditions, no previous study has reported the effectiveness of a spinal orthosis or lumbosacral orthosis (LSO) in healthy elderly people without specific spinal deformity. We therefore developed a trunk orthosis to decrease low-back muscle activity while training good postural alignment through resistive force provided by joints with springs (here, called the ORF, which stands for orthosis with joints providing resistive force) as a preventive method against abnormal posture and low-back pain in healthy elderly persons. Fifteen community-dwelling elderly men participated in this study. Participants stood freely for 10 seconds in a laboratory setting under three conditions: without an orthosis, with the ORF, and with an LSO. The Damen corset LSO was selected as it is frequently prescribed for patients with low-back pain. Postural alignment during static standing was recorded using a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras. Two force plates were used to record center of pressure. Electromyograms were obtained for bilateral erector spinae (ES), left internal abdominal oblique, and right gluteus medius muscles. Pelvis forward tilt angle tended to increase while wearing the ORF and decrease while wearing the LSO, but these results were not significant compared to no orthosis. Thorax extension angle and thorax angle on pelvis coordinate system significantly increased while wearing the ORF compared to the other two conditions. ES activity significantly decreased while wearing the ORF compared to the other two conditions. Internal oblique activity was significantly smaller while wearing the LSO than with no orthosis. Center of pressure did not significantly differ among the conditions. The ORF significantly improved trunk alignment and decreased ES activity in healthy

  8. Efficacy of a trunk orthosis with joints providing resistive force on low-back load in elderly persons during static standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuhira, Junji; Matsudaira, Ko; Yasui, Tadashi; Iijima, Shinno; Ito, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Postural alignment of elderly people becomes poor due to aging, possibly leading to low-back pain and spinal deformity. Although there are several interventions for treating these conditions, no previous study has reported the effectiveness of a spinal orthosis or lumbosacral orthosis (LSO) in healthy elderly people without specific spinal deformity. We therefore developed a trunk orthosis to decrease low-back muscle activity while training good postural alignment through resistive force provided by joints with springs (here, called the ORF, which stands for orthosis with joints providing resistive force) as a preventive method against abnormal posture and low-back pain in healthy elderly persons. Patients and methods Fifteen community-dwelling elderly men participated in this study. Participants stood freely for 10 seconds in a laboratory setting under three conditions: without an orthosis, with the ORF, and with an LSO. The Damen corset LSO was selected as it is frequently prescribed for patients with low-back pain. Postural alignment during static standing was recorded using a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras. Two force plates were used to record center of pressure. Electromyograms were obtained for bilateral erector spinae (ES), left internal abdominal oblique, and right gluteus medius muscles. Results Pelvis forward tilt angle tended to increase while wearing the ORF and decrease while wearing the LSO, but these results were not significant compared to no orthosis. Thorax extension angle and thorax angle on pelvis coordinate system significantly increased while wearing the ORF compared to the other two conditions. ES activity significantly decreased while wearing the ORF compared to the other two conditions. Internal oblique activity was significantly smaller while wearing the LSO than with no orthosis. Center of pressure did not significantly differ among the conditions. Conclusion The ORF significantly improved trunk

  9. Estimating canopy cover in forest stands used by Mexican spotted owls: Do stand-exam routines provide estimates comparable to field-based techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Regis H. Cassidy; William M. Block

    2008-01-01

    Canopy cover has been identified as an important correlate of Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) habitat, yet management guidelines in a 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recovery plan for the Mexican spotted owl did not address canopy cover. These guidelines emphasized parameters included in U.S. Forest Service stand exams, and...

  10. Efficacy of a trunk orthosis with joints providing resistive force on low-back load in elderly persons during static standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhira J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Junji Katsuhira,1 Ko Matsudaira,2 Tadashi Yasui,3 Shinno Iijima,4 Akihiro Ito4 1Department of Nursing and Rehabilitation Science at Odawara, International University of Health and Welfare, Odawara, Kanagawa, 2Department of Medical Research and Management for Musculoskeletal Pain, 22nd Century Medical and Research Center, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 3Kawamura-Gishi Company, Ltd., Daito-shi, Osaka, 4Graduate School of International University of Health and Welfare, Otawara, Tochigi, Japan Purpose: Postural alignment of elderly people becomes poor due to aging, possibly leading to low-back pain and spinal deformity. Although there are several interventions for treating these conditions, no previous study has reported the effectiveness of a spinal orthosis or lumbosacral orthosis (LSO in healthy elderly people without specific spinal deformity. We therefore developed a trunk orthosis to decrease low-back muscle activity while training good postural alignment through resistive force provided by joints with springs (here, called the ORF, which stands for orthosis with joints providing resistive force as a preventive method against abnormal posture and low-back pain in healthy elderly persons. Patients and methods: Fifteen community-dwelling elderly men participated in this study. Participants stood freely for 10 seconds in a laboratory setting under three conditions: without an orthosis, with the ORF, and with an LSO. The Damen corset LSO was selected as it is frequently prescribed for patients with low-back pain. Postural alignment during static standing was recorded using a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras. Two force plates were used to record center of pressure. Electromyograms were obtained for bilateral erector spinae (ES, left internal abdominal oblique, and right gluteus medius muscles. Results: Pelvis forward tilt angle tended to increase while wearing the ORF and decrease while wearing the LSO, but these

  11. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtis R. Moseley; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; W. Mark Ford

    2004-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo tmrestns) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands...

  12. Water regime and growth of young oak stands subjected to air-warming and drought on two different forest soils in a model ecosystem experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, T M; Arend, M; Bleuler, P; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Schulin, R

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to increase annual temperatures and decrease summer precipitation in Central Europe. Little is known of how forests respond to the interaction of these climate factors and if their responses depend on soil conditions. In a 3-year lysimeter experiment, we investigated the growth response of young mixed oak stands, on either acidic or calcareous soil, to soil water regime, air-warming and drought treatments corresponding to an intermediate climate change scenario. The air-warming and drought treatments were applied separately as well as in combination. The air-warming treatment had no effect on soil water availability, evapotranspiration or stand biomass. Decreased evapotranspiration from the drought-exposed stands led to significantly higher air and soil temperatures, which were attributed to impaired transpirational cooling. Water limitation significantly reduced the stand foliage, shoot and root biomass as droughts were severe, as shown in low leaf water potentials. Additional air warming did not enhance the drought effects on evapotranspiration and biomass, although more negative leaf water potentials were observed. After re-watering, evapotranspiration increased within a few days to pre-drought levels. Stands not subjected to the drought treatment produced significantly less biomass on the calcareous soil than on the acidic soil, probably due to P or Mn limitation. There was no difference in biomass and water regime between the two soils under drought conditions, indicating that nutrient availability was governed by water availability under these conditions. The results demonstrate that young oak stands can cope with severe drought and therefore can be considered for future forestry. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. A kinematic and kinetic analysis of spinal region in subjects with and without recurrent low back pain during one leg standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Paul S; Leininger, Peter M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between normalized kinematic and kinetic stability indices for spinal regions with eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during non-dominant leg standing between subjects with recurrent low back pain and control subjects. The kinematic stability index for the spinal regions (core spine model, lumbar spine, lower and upper thorax) and the kinetic stability index from force plate were measured. All participants were asked to maintain non-dominant leg standing with the dominant hip and knee flexed approximately 90 degrees for 25 seconds. Forty-two participants enrolled in the study, including 22 subjects with low back pain (12 male, 10 female) and 20 control subjects (12 male, 8 female). For the kinematic index for stability, the visual condition (F=30.06, p=0.0001) and spinal region (F=10.82, p=0.002) were statistically significant. The post hoc test results indicated a significant difference in the lumbar spine compared with the upper and lower thorax and the core spine model. The kinetic stability (average [standard deviation]) during the eyes-closed condition significantly decreased in the low back pain group (t=-3.24, p=0.002). The subjects with recurrent low back pain demonstrated higher lumbar spine stability in eyes-open condition. This higher stability of the lumbar spine might be due to a possible pain avoiding strategy from the standing limb. The low back pain group also significantly decreased kinetic stability during the eyes-closed condition. Clinicians need to consider both kinetic and kinematic indices while considering visual condition for lumbar spine stability in subjects with recurrent low back pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Short-arm human centrifugation with 0.4g at eye and 0.75g at heart level provides similar cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses to standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandu; Bruner, Michelle; Xu, Da; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Beck, Arnaud; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Blaber, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    Orthostatic intolerance continues to be a problem with astronauts upon return to Earth as a result of cerebral and cardiovascular adaptations to weightlessness. We tested the hypothesis that artificial gravity from a short-arm human centrifuge (SAHC) could provide cerebral and cardiovascular stimuli similar to upright posture and thereby serve as a suitable countermeasure. We compared cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses before, during, and after exposure to hyper-G with that of standing in healthy young participants. The head was positioned such that the middle cerebral artery (MCA) was 0.46 m from the center of rotation. Two levels of hyper-G that provided 1g and 2g at foot level were investigated. Continuous blood pressure, heart rate, calf blood volume, MCA mean blood flow velocity (MFV) and end-tidal CO2 were measured. Blood pressure at the level of the MCA (BP-MCA) and MFV was reduced during stand and at 2g. The relationship between MFV and BP-MCA at 2g was different from supine and similar to standing, while 1g centrifugation was not different from supine. The cardiovascular system was also not different from supine at 1g but was similarly challenged in 2g compared to stand. Our data suggest that short-arm centrifugation 2g at the feet, with the head offset 0.5 m from the center, provides similar cardiovascular and cerebral responses to standing. This supports the hypothesis that passive 2g SAHC exposure at the feet could be used as a countermeasure for in-flight cardiovascular and cerebrovascular deconditioning.

  15. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  16. Subjectivity construction in school failure paths. Transition pathways provided for labour insertion for adolescents at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Abiétar-López

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The modernization of the vocational education system in Spain dates back to the 90s. Since then, it has evolved significantly, taking the European directives as a frame of reference. With the extension of compulsory schooling until the age of 16, in 1994 a vocational training scheme was introduced within the education system at a very low level of qualification, particularly designed for adolescents classified as low academic performers in secondary education and for adolescents in situation of social vulnerability. Such training scheme was reshaped in 2006 and 2013. Our contribution is framed in a wider research developed within a European Project, aiming to provide a review of the literature produced around these programs, in order to compare the evolution of those 3 types of training provision in terms of the educational possibilities each one has provided for the adolescents that have participated in them. In light of these data and those produced by our research, in this paper we argue how adolescent subjectivities are produced. We rely upon the speech of teachers, head teachers and guidance teams that deal with young people in such training provision in the city of Valencia.

  17. Neural interface methods and apparatus to provide artificial sensory capabilities to a subject

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, Stephen P.; Olsson, III, Roy H.; Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Novick, David K.; Kholwadwala, Deepesh K.

    2017-01-24

    Embodiments of neural interfaces according to the present invention comprise sensor modules for sensing environmental attributes beyond the natural sensory capability of a subject, and communicating the attributes wirelessly to an external (ex-vivo) portable module attached to the subject. The ex-vivo module encodes and communicates the attributes via a transcutaneous inductively coupled link to an internal (in-vivo) module implanted within the subject. The in-vivo module converts the attribute information into electrical neural stimuli that are delivered to a peripheral nerve bundle within the subject, via an implanted electrode. Methods and apparatus according to the invention incorporate implantable batteries to power the in-vivo module allowing for transcutaneous bidirectional communication of low voltage (e.g. on the order of 5 volts) encoded signals as stimuli commands and neural responses, in a robust, low-error rate, communication channel with minimal effects to the subjects' skin.

  18. Neural interface methods and apparatus to provide artificial sensory capabilities to a subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerger, Stephen P.; Olsson, III, Roy H.; Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Novick, David K.; Kholwadwala, Deepesh K.

    2017-01-24

    Embodiments of neural interfaces according to the present invention comprise sensor modules for sensing environmental attributes beyond the natural sensory capability of a subject, and communicating the attributes wirelessly to an external (ex-vivo) portable module attached to the subject. The ex-vivo module encodes and communicates the attributes via a transcutaneous inductively coupled link to an internal (in-vivo) module implanted within the subject. The in-vivo module converts the attribute information into electrical neural stimuli that are delivered to a peripheral nerve bundle within the subject, via an implanted electrode. Methods and apparatus according to the invention incorporate implantable batteries to power the in-vivo module allowing for transcutaneous bidirectional communication of low voltage (e.g. on the order of 5 volts) encoded signals as stimuli commands and neural responses, in a robust, low-error rate, communication channel with minimal effects to the subjects' skin.

  19. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  20. Balance ability, not muscle strength and exercise endurance, determines the performance of hemiparetic subjects on the timed-sit-to-stand test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shamay

    2010-06-01

    To examine the contribution of balance ability, muscle strength, and exercise endurance to performance in the timed-sit-to-stand test among chronic hemiparetic subjects. A cross-sectional study with 68 community-dwelling stroke survivors. By using Pearson correlation coefficient, the five-times-sit-to-stand (FTSTS) test scores showed the highest negative correlation with Berg Balance Scale scores (r = -0.837, P test (r = -0.598, P Balance Scale scores only (r = -0.630, P balance confidence, showed that FTSTS scores were independently associated with Berg Balance Scale scores (beta = -0.630, P test were not significant predictors of FTSTS scores. The whole model could explain 71% of the variance in FTSTS scores. This is the first study documenting the importance of balance ability, not muscle strength and exercise endurance, as an important determinant of performance on the FTSTS test by community-dwelling stroke patients. These findings suggest that the FTSTS test may be a more appropriate proxy indicator of balance performance in chronic community-dwelling stroke subjects.

  1. Five times sit-to-stand test in subjects with total knee replacement: Reliability and relationship with functional mobility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Vivo-Fernández, Iván; López-Cañizares, Juan; García-Vidal, José A; Benítez-Martínez, Josep Carles; Del Baño-Aledo, María Elena

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to determine the inter-observer and test/retest reliability of the "Five-repetition sit-to-stand" (5STS) test in patients with total knee replacement (TKR). To explore correlation between 5STS and two mobility tests. A reliability study was conducted among 24 (mean age 72.13, S.D. 10.67; 50% were women) outpatients with TKR. They were recruited from a traumatology unit of a public hospital via convenience sampling. A physiotherapist and trauma physician assessed each patient at the same time. The same physiotherapist realized a 5STS second measurement 45-60min after the first one. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots. Pearson coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between 5STS, time up to go test (TUG) and four meters gait speed (4MGS). ICC for inter-observer and test-retest reliability of the 5STS were 0.998 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.995-0.999) and 0.982 (95% CI, 0.959-0.992). Bland-Altman plot inter-observer showed limits between -0.82 and 1.06 with a mean of 0.11 and no heteroscedasticity within the data. Bland-Altman plot for test-retest showed the limits between 1.76 and 4.16, a mean of 1.20 and heteroscedasticity within the data. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed significant correlation between 5STS and TUG (r=0.7, ptest-retest reliability when it is used in people with TKR, and also significant correlation with other functional mobility tests. These findings support the use of 5STS as outcome measure in TKR population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Science in Sync: Integrating Science with Literacy Provides Rewarding Learning Opportunities in Both Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Carolyn S.; Coffey, Debra

    2016-01-01

    The "Next Generation Science Standards'" ("NGSS") eight scientific and engineering practices invite teachers to develop key investigative skills while addressing important disciplinary science ideas (NGSS Lead States 2013). The "NGSS" can also provide direct links to "Common Core English Language Arts…

  3. Effort provides its own reward: endeavors reinforce subjective expectation and evaluation of task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zheng, Jiehui; Meng, Liang

    2017-04-01

    Although many studies have investigated the relationship between the amount of effort invested in a certain task and one's attitude towards the subsequent reward, whether exerted effort would impact one's expectation and evaluation of performance feedback itself still remains to be examined. In the present study, two types of calculation tasks that varied in the required effort were adopted, and we resorted to electroencephalography to probe the temporal dynamics of how exerted effort would affect one's anticipation and evaluation of performance feedback. In the high-effort condition, a more salient stimulus-preceding negativity was detected during the anticipation stage, which was accompanied with a more salient FRN/P300 complex (a more positive P300 and a less negative feedback-related negativity) in response to positive outcomes in the evaluation stage. These results suggested that when more effort was invested, an enhanced anticipatory attention would be paid toward one's task performance feedback and that positive outcomes would be subjectively valued to a greater extent.

  4. Opportunities of E-Service Providing Intermediaries in Transactions of Business Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalė Dzemydienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research: to analyze the transaction methods and tools through a virtual intermediary providing electronic services and functions based on virtual agent generated added value to small and medium-sized business enterprises (SMB based on transaction cost theory. Used methodology: through a complex and multi-faceted relationship analysis examining the virtual intermediary services to small and medium-sized enterprises, evaluating their performance, highlighting the added component of the value chain and benefits. The research methodology is based on the scientific literature, generalization and comparative analysis. The practical significance: the activities of business enterprises (corporations, organizations are profitable, if usage of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT is effective. ICT is becoming increasingly important in reducing business operating costs. E-services used in business transactions acquire special significance. European Union (EU in the inner space in more than 20 million of SMEs and their work areas include more than 170 activities. Both internal and external competition encourages SME operators to increase operational efficiency. The article analyzes the cost-cutting options related to services provided by virtual intermediaries and has practical significance in the national and international companies. Originality/value: looking at cost reduction opportunities through a virtual agent functionality and value-added SME operator justification.

  5. Stand structure, composition and illegal logging in selectively logged production forests of Myanmar: Comparison of two compartments subject to different cutting frequency

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    Tual Cin Khai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate cutting cycles and annual allowable cuts are crucial to ensure sustainability of tropical selective logging, but there have been limited field data to verify long-term effects of different cutting cycles. This study reveals some evidence of forest degradation in selectively logged production forests of Myanmar, which are subject to inappropriate cutting frequency. We compared stand structure, commercial species composition, and incidence of illegal logging between two compartments with low (LCF; 1 time and high (HCF; 5 times cutting frequency over a recent 18 years. Prior to the latest cutting, LCF had 176 trees ha−1 with an inverted-J shape distribution of diameter at breast height (DBH, including a substantial amount of teak (Tectona grandis and other commercially important species in each DBH class. HCF prior to the latest cut had only 41 trees ha−1 without many commercially important species. At HCF, nearly half the standing trees of various species and size were illegally cut following legal operations; this was for charcoal making in nearby kilns. At LCF, two species, teak and Xylia xylocarpa, were cut illegally and sawn for timber on the spot. More extensive and systematic surveys are needed to generalize the findings of forest degradation and illegal logging. However, our study calls for urgent reconsideration of logging practices with high cutting frequency, which can greatly degrade forests with accompanying illegal logging, and for rehabilitating strongly degraded, bamboo-dominated forests. To reduce illegal logging, it would be important to pay more attention on a MSS regulation stating that logging roads should be destroyed after logging operations.

  6. Finite Element Analysis Examining the Effects of Cam FAI on Hip Joint Mechanical Loading Using Subject-Specific Geometries During Standing and Maximum Squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K C Geoffrey; Rouhi, Gholamreza; Lamontagne, Mario; Beaulé, Paul E

    2012-10-01

    Cam femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can impose elevated mechanical loading in the hip, potentially leading to an eventual mechanical failure of the joint. Since in vivo data on the pathomechanisms of FAI are limited, it is still unclear how this deformity leads to osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cam FAI on hip joint mechanical loading using finite element analysis, by incorporating subject-specific geometries, kinematics, and kinetics. The research objectives were to address and determine: (1) if hips with cam FAI demonstrate higher maximum shear stresses, in comparison with control hips; (2) the magnitude of the peak maximum shear stresses; and (3) the locations of the peak maximum shear stresses. Using finite element analysis, two patient models were control-matched and simulated during quasi-static positions from standing to squatting. Intersegmental hip forces, from a previous study, were applied to the subject-specific hip geometries, segmented from CT data, to evaluate the maximum shear stresses on the acetabular cartilage and underlying bone. Peak maximum shear stresses were found at the anterosuperior region of the underlying bone during squatting. The peaks at the anterosuperior acetabulum were substantially higher for the patients (15.2 ± 1.8 MPa) in comparison with the controls (4.5 ± 0.1 MPa). Peaks were not situated on the cartilage, but instead located on the underlying bone. The results correspond with the locations of initial cartilage degradation observed during surgical treatment and from MRI. These findings support the pathomechanism of cam FAI. Changes may originate from the underlying subchondral bone properties rather than direct shear stresses to the articular cartilage.

  7. Evaluation of postural stability during quiet standing, step-up and step-up with lateral perturbation in subjects with and without low back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ram Prasad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The  evaluation  of  postural  stability  during  quiet stance,  step  up  and step  up  task  with  perturbation  using posturography  could  be  useful  in treatment  and  outcome monitoring  in  chronic  low  back  pain rehabilitation  (CLBP.  The aims  of  this  study  were  twofold  and investigating  1  differences of postural stability measures between CLBP patients and healthy participants  during  above  mentioned  tasks.  2 postural  stability characteristics between control and movement impairment groups of  CLBP  patients  on  above  tasks.  Fourteen  CLBP  and fifteen normal  individuals  participated  and  posturography outcome variables  were  obtained  during  above  tasks.  The  low  back pain  subjects  showed  significantly  different  anterior-posterior (p=0 .01 as well as medio- lateral (p=0.05 postural stability characteristics during the step up task with external perturbation, whereas quiet standing and simple step up task did not show any differences. In addition to these values, in CLBP population, the maximum COP excursion (p=0.01, standard stability (p=0.02 and the stability scores (p=0.02 were also found significant in step up with perturbation task compared to healthy participants. As the task difficulty increases CLBP patients exhibited significantly different postural stability characteristics compared to healthy participants. Conversely, sub-group analysis in CLBP patients revealed significant differences only in medio-lateral COP excursions during normal standing (p=0.005. No significant differences were observed in tasks of higher difficulties such as step up and step up task with lateral perturbation in-between patients with movement and control impairment groups of CLBP. These findings have implications for assessment and optimizing postural control interventions on functional back pain rehabilitation.

  8. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  9. Subjective sleep disturbances and glycemic control in adults with long-standing type 1 diabetes: The Pittsburgh's Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denic-Roberts, Hristina; Costacou, Tina; Orchard, Trevor J

    2016-09-01

    To date, studies on sleep disturbances in type 1 diabetes (T1D) have been limited to youth and/or small samples. We therefore assessed the prevalence of subjective sleep disturbances and their associations with glycemia and estimated insulin sensitivity in individuals with long-standing T1D. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 222 participants of the Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study of childhood-onset T1D attending the 25-year examination (mean age=52years, diabetes duration=43years). The Berlin Questionnaire (risk of obstructive sleep apnea, OSA), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (daytime sleepiness), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (sleep quality, bad dreams presence, and sleep duration) were completed. Associations between sleep disturbances and poor glycemic control (HbA1c⩾7.5%/58mmol/mol), log-transformed HbA1c, and estimated insulin sensitivity (estimated glucose disposal rate, eGDR, squared) were assessed in multivariable regression. The prevalences of high OSA risk, excessive daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and bad dreams were 23%, 13%, 41%, and 26%, respectively, with more women (51%) reporting poor sleep quality than men (30%, p=0.004). Participants under poor glycemic control were twice as likely to report bad dreams (p=0.03), but not independently (p=0.07) of depressive symptomatology. Sleep duration was directly associated with HbA1c among individuals with poor glycemic control, but inversely in their counterparts (interaction p=0.002), and inversely associated with eGDR (p=0.002). These findings suggest important interrelationships between sleep, gender, depressive symptomatology, and glycemic control, which may have important clinical implications. Further research is warranted to examine the mechanism of the interaction between sleep duration and glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fourier power, subjective distance and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Daniel Lescroart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA, Retrosplenial Complex (RSC, and the Occipital Place Area (OPA. It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1 2D features related to Fourier power; (2 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3 abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1,386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue.

  11. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  12. Detecting Responses of Loblolly Pine Stand Development to Site-Preparation Intensity: A Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingguang Xu; Timothy B. Harrington; M. Boyd Edwards

    1997-01-01

    Data from an existing site preparation experiment in the Georgia Piedmont were subjected to a modeling approach to analyze effects of site preparation intensity on stand development of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) 5 to 12 years since treatment. An average stand height model that incorporated indicator variables for treatment provided an accurate...

  13. Bilateral posterior cervical cages provide biomechanical stability: assessment of stand-alone and supplemental fixation for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov LI

    2016-07-01

    single- and multilevel constructs (P<0.05.Conclusion: The biomechanical effectiveness of bilateral posterior cages in limiting cervical segmental motion is comparable to single-level plated ACDF. Furthermore, supplementation of single- and multilevel ACDF with posterior cervical cages provided a significant increase in stability and therefore may be a potential, minimally disruptive option for supplemental fixation for improving ACDF fusion rates. Keywords: cervical spine, posterior fusion, biomechanics, cervical facets, DTRAX Posterior Cervical Cage

  14. Proteomic Analysis Provides New Insights in Phosphorus Homeostasis Subjected to Pi (Inorganic Phosphate Starvation in Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a major nutrient acquired by plants via high-affinity inorganic phosphate (Pi transporters. To determine the adaptation and homeostasis strategy to Pi starvation, we compared the proteome analysis of tomato leaves that were treated with and without Pi (as KH2PO4 for 10 days. Among 600 reproducible proteins on 2-DE gels 46 of them were differentially expressed. These proteins were involved in major metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis, transcriptional/translational regulations, carbohydrate/energy metabolism, protein synthesis, defense response, and other secondary metabolism. The results also showed that the reduction in photosynthetic pigments lowered P content under -Pi treatments. Furthermore, high-affinity Pi transporters (lePT1 and lePT2 expressed in higher amounts under -Pi treatments. Also, the accumulation of Pi transporters was observed highly in the epidermis and palisade parenchyma under +Pi treatments compared to -Pi treatments. Our data suggested that tomato plants developed reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging mechanisms to cope with low Pi content, including the up-regulation of proteins mostly involved in important metabolic pathways. Moreover, Pi-starved tomato plants increased their internal Pi utilization efficiency by increasing the Pi transporter genes and their rational localization. These results thus provide imperative information about how tomato plants respond to Pi starvation and its homeostasis.

  15. The perceptions of teachers and principals toward providing additional compensation to teachers in high-need subject areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longing, Jeffrey Lucian

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in the perceptions of teachers teaching in high-need areas (i.e., math, science, special education, etc.) and teachers not teaching in high-need areas, (i.e., business education, physical education, etc.) as defined by the states of Arkansas and Louisiana, regarding higher compensation for high-need teachers. In addition, possible perception differences among principals and teachers were determined. The independent variables consisted of gender, position held, years of certified experience, and certification areas. The dependent variable was the perceptions of the participants on providing higher compensation for high-need teachers in order to attract and retain them. The data for all variables were collected using the Teacher Compensation Survey. The sample for this study was limited to teachers, grades 9 through 12, and principals of public high schools in south Arkansas and north Louisiana. Forty-four school districts in south Arkansas (Arkansas Department of Education, 2008a) and north Louisiana (Louisiana Department of Education, 2008a) met the criteria for this study. Twenty-two superintendents gave permission for their districts to participate in the research. A sample of 849 teachers and 38 principals were identified in these districts. Surveys were returned from 350 teachers, creating a 41% response rate. When the 31 principals that returned surveys were added to the total population, the response rate increased to 43% with 381 of the 887 surveyed responding. However, 42 of the teachers and two of the principals skipped some of the questions on the survey and were not included in the study. The researcher used a One-Way ANOVA and independent t-tests to determine the presence of statistical differences at the .05 level. The data showed that most math and science teachers agreed that high-need teachers should be compensated at a higher rate than teachers not teaching in high-need areas. The data

  16. A prospective study on the characteristics and subjects of pediatric palliative care case management provided by a hospital based palliative care team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt-van Kampen, Charissa T.; Kars, Marijke C.; Colenbrander, Derk A.; Bosman, Diederik K.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Caron, Huib N.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N.

    2017-01-01

    Case management is a subject of interest within pediatric palliative care. Detailed descriptions of the content of this type of case management are lacking. We aim to describe the contents of care provided, utilization of different disciplines, and times of usage of a pediatric palliative care case

  17. A prospective study on the characteristics and subjects of pediatric palliative care case management provided by a hospital based palliative care team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt-van Kampen, Charissa T; Kars, Marijke C; Colenbrander, Derk A; Bosman, Diederik K; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Caron, Huib N; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Case management is a subject of interest within pediatric palliative care. Detailed descriptions of the content of this type of case management are lacking. We aim to describe the contents of care provided, utilization of different disciplines, and times of usage of a pediatric

  18. Attitudes, subjective norms, and intention to perform routine oral examination for oropharyngeal candidiasis as perceived by primary health-care providers in Nairobi Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koyio, L.N.; Kikwilu, E.N.; Mulder, J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions of primary health-care (PHC) providers in performing routine oral examination for oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) during outpatient consultations. Methods: A 47-item Theory of Planned Behaviour-based questionnaire was developed and

  19. Attitudes, subjective norms, and intention to perform routine oral examination for oropharyngeal candidiasis as perceived by primary health-care providers in Nairobi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyio, Lucina N; Kikwilu, Emil; Mulder, Jan; Frencken, Jo E

    2013-01-01

    To assess attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions of primary health-care (PHC) providers in performing routine oral examination for oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) during outpatient consultations. A 47-item Theory of Planned Behaviour-based questionnaire was developed and administered, in a cross-sectional survey, to 216 PHC providers (clinical officers and nurses) working in 54 clinics, dispensaries, and health centers in Nairobi Province in January 2010. The constructs - attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (dependent variables) - and their individual indirect (direct) items were analyzed for scores, internal validity, independent variables (district, gender, years of service, profession, and age), and contribution to intentions. Perceived behavioral control had low construct validity and was therefore removed from subsequent analyses. The questionnaire was completed by 195 participants (90 percent response rate). PHC provider's attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions to perform an oral examination during outpatient consultations were highly positive, with mean scores of 6.30 (0.82), 6.06 (1.07), and 5.6 (1.33), respectively, regardless of sociodemographic characteristics. Indirect attitude and subjective norms were strongly correlated to their individual items (r=0.63-0.79, Psubjective norms (P<0.0001) were both predictive of intentions. PHC providers were willing to integrate patients' oral health care into their routine medical consultations. Emphasizing the importance of detecting other oral problems and of the fact that routine oral examination for OPC is likely to give patients' fulfillment will enhance PHC providers' morale in performing routine oral examinations. Winning support from policy makers, their supervisors, specialists, and colleagues is important for motivating PHC providers to perform routine oral examinations for OPC at their workplaces. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. Minimal intensity physical activity (standing and walking of longer duration improves insulin action and plasma lipids more than shorter periods of moderate to vigorous exercise (cycling in sedentary subjects when energy expenditure is comparable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard M F M Duvivier

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that excessive sitting time is associated with increased health risk, independent of the performance of exercise. We hypothesized that a daily bout of exercise cannot compensate the negative effects of inactivity during the rest of the day on insulin sensitivity and plasma lipids.Eighteen healthy subjects, age 21±2 year, BMI 22.6±2.6 kgm(-2 followed randomly three physical activity regimes for four days. Participants were instructed to sit 14 hr/day (sitting regime; to sit 13 hr/day and to substitute 1 hr of sitting with vigorous exercise 1 hr (exercise regime; to substitute 6 hrs sitting with 4 hr walking and 2 hr standing (minimal intensity physical activity (PA regime. The sitting and exercise regime had comparable numbers of sitting hours; compared to the exercise regime, the minimal intensity PA regime had a higher estimated daily energy expenditure (238kcal/day [corrected]. PA was assessed continuously by an activity monitor (ActivPAL and a diary. Measurements of insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT and plasma lipids were performed in the fasting state, the morning after the 4 days of each regime. In the sitting regime, daily energy expenditure was about 500 kcal lower than in both other regimes. Area under the curve for insulin during OGTT was significantly lower after the minimal intensity PA regime compared to both sitting and exercise regimes 6727.3±4329.4 vs 7752.0±3014.4 and 8320.4±5383.7 mU•min/ml, respectively. Triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B plasma levels improved significantly in the minimal intensity PA regime compared to sitting and showed non-significant trends for improvement compared to exercise.One hour of daily physical exercise cannot compensate the negative effects of inactivity on insulin level and plasma lipids if the rest of the day is spent sitting. Reducing inactivity by increasing the time spent walking/standing is more effective than

  1. Comparing success rates of anesthesia providers versus trauma surgeons in their use of palpation to identify the cricothyroid membrane in female subjects: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Kenneth N; Karni, Ron J; Cai, Chunyun; Holcomb, John B; Hagberg, Carin A

    2016-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to compare the success rates of anesthesia providers vs trauma surgeons in their use of palpation to identify the cricothyroid membrane (CTM). The secondary aim was to explore whether prior training and experience performing surgical airways affected the success rates for identifying the CTM. Four female adults participated in this prospective observational study. The participants had varying measurements of neck anatomy that were known or theorized to affect the accuracy of identifying the CTM location. For test purposes, the subjects were positioned with optimal neck extension via placement of a shoulder roll. Anesthesia providers (n = 57) and surgeons (n = 14) of various training levels and clinical experience marked the presumed CTM location on each subject. These palpation markings were then referenced against the ultrasound-confirmed CTM location, and the success rates for identifying the CTM were compared between groups. The overall success rate using palpation to identify the CTM was ≤ 50%, and there were no differences in success rates between the anesthesia providers and trauma surgeons (16% vs 26%, respectively; absolute difference, -10%; 95% confidence interval, -23 to 3; P = 0.15). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the success rates for identifying the CTM based on either clinical experience or emergency surgical airway experience. The success rates for identifying the CTM using palpation were low and not significantly different for anesthesia providers and surgeons, collectively, as well as for the various levels of training. Anesthesiologists' ability to mark the CTM location correctly did not improve with years of experience.

  2. Relationship between subjective test feedback provided by high-school athletes during computer-based assessment of baseline cognitive functioning and self-reported symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Philip; Neidzwski, Katherine; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Karpf, Robin

    2010-06-01

    Subjective feedback about distractions or problems encountered during computerized assessment was provided by 538 out of a pool of 1659 high-school athletes who completed baseline testing using ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing). Three types of feedback were included: (a) environmental, (b) computer-based (mechanical), and (c) instruction-based (associated with difficulty understanding test instructions). One-way analyses of variance were conducted and revealed relationships between greater symptom reporting and any type of feedback, environmental feedback, and instruction-based feedback. Increased symptom reporting was noted for female students. Additional relationships were noted between providing computer-based feedback and faster reaction time; and between history of concussion and providing instruction-based feedback. Athletes endorsing more symptoms at baseline scored significantly worse on ImPACT, as reflected in decreased visual memory performance. Results suggest that feedback provided during computerized assessment may yield information about symptom reporting and test-taking style, which may also be of particular interpretive utility when athletes minimize their symptoms.

  3. Altered movement strategies in sit-to-stand task in persons with transtibial amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyürek, Seher; Demirbüken, İlkşan; Angın, Salih

    2014-08-01

    Sit-to-stand movement is an essential function for participation in many activities of daily living. Although this movement is one of the most important functional tasks, there is limited research investigating strategies of sit-to-stand movement in transtibial amputees. To examine movement strategies of the sit-to-stand task in persons with transtibial amputation and healthy non-amputated individuals. Cross-sectional study. A total of 12 male unilateral transtibial amputees and 19 healthy male subjects participated in this study. Sit-to-stand movement was evaluated in terms of weight transfer time, weight-bearing symmetry, sway velocity, and rising index by using Balance Master System. Participants in both groups exhibited similar weight-bearing transfer time (p > 0.05). Transtibial amputees demonstrated significantly greater weight-bearing asymmetry, higher sway velocity, and lower rising index than healthy subjects during the sit-to-stand transfer movement (p Transtibial amputees were unable to use the same movement strategies during a sit-to-stand task as healthy individuals; therefore, they had to develop new strategies to perform this task. Little is known about the altered movement strategies during sit-to-stand task in transtibial amputees. The results of the study might provide some new insight into the motor components of the sit-to-stand movement in persons with transtibial amputation for both clinicians and researchers. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  4. Suitability of commercial barometric pressure sensors to distinguish sitting and standing activities for wearable monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, F; Bourke, A K; Chardonnens, J; Paraschiv-Ionescu, A; Aminian, K

    2014-06-01

    Despite its medical relevance, accurate recognition of sedentary (sitting and lying) and dynamic activities (e.g. standing and walking) remains challenging using a single wearable device. Currently, trunk-worn wearable systems can differentiate sitting from standing with moderate success, as activity classifiers often rely on inertial signals at the transition period (e.g. from sitting to standing) which contains limited information. Discriminating sitting from standing thus requires additional sources of information such as elevation change. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the suitability of barometric pressure, providing an absolute estimate of elevation, for evaluating sitting and standing periods during daily activities. Three sensors were evaluated in both calm laboratory conditions and a pilot study involving seven healthy subjects performing 322 sitting and standing transitions, both indoor and outdoor, in real-world conditions. The MS5611-BA01 barometric pressure sensor (Measurement Specialties, USA) demonstrated superior performance to counterparts. It discriminates actual sitting and standing transitions from stationary postures with 99.5% accuracy and is also capable to completely dissociate Sit-to-Stand from Stand-to-Sit transitions. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Ordinary Meeting on 11 May 2009 The meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee held on 11 May 2009 was entirely dedicated to the preparation of the TREF meeting on 19 & 20 May 2009. The Committee took note, discussed and agreed on some clarifications on a number of documents and presentations that the Management planned to submit and/or present to TREF on the following subjects: • Personnel statistics 2008: J. Purvis presented the Personnel Statistics for 2008 prepared by HR Department. In line with the previous year, key messages were firstly, a general reduction in staff (2544 to 2400, - 6%), secondly, a reduction in administrative services personnel (from 422 to 387, - 8%) and thirdly, a marked increase in the number of Users and Unpaid Associates (from 8369 to 9140, + 9%) • Five-Yearly Review 2010: A series of draft documents were submitted for discussion, comprising an introductory document explaining the statutory basis for the following four document...

  6. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Main issues examined at the meeting of 2 October 2009 The October 2009 meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee was entirely devoted to preparation of TREF’s meeting on 21-22 October. The Committee took note of, discussed and agreed on clarifications needed to some of the documents and presentations that the Management intended to submit and/or present to TREF on the following subjects: Equal opportunities The Committee took note of a preliminary report on equal opportunities at CERN drawn up by D. Chromek-Burckhart, the Equal Opportunities Officer, and T. Smith, Chairman of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel, containing in particular a proposal for a new process for resolving harassment conflicts. Technical analysis of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme - Actuary’s Report The Committee took note of a presentation by P. Charpentier, Chairman of the CERN Health Insurance Supervisory Board (CHIS Board), on the 2009 actuarial report on the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). Th...

  7. Quantifying vertical and horizontal stand structure using terrestrial LiDAR in Pacific Northwest forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakova, Alexandra N.

    Stand level spatial distribution is a fundamental part of forest structure that influences many ecological processes and ecosystem functions. Vertical and horizontal spatial structure provides key information for forest management. Although horizontal stand complexity can be measured through stem mapping and spatial analysis, vertical complexity within the stand remains a mostly visual and highly subjective process. Tools and techniques in remote sensing, specifically LiDAR, provide three dimensional datasets that can help get at three dimensional forest stand structure. Although aerial LiDAR (ALS) is the most widespread form of remote sensing for measuring forest structure, it has a high omission rate in dense and structurally complex forests. In this study we used terrestrial LiDAR (TLS) to obtain high resolution three dimensional point clouds of plots from stands that vary by density and composition in the second-growth Pacific Northwest forest ecosystem. We used point cloud slicing techniques and object-based image analysis (OBIA) to produce canopy profiles at multiple points of vertical gradient. At each height point we produced segments that represented canopies or parts of canopies for each tree within the dataset. The resulting canopy segments were further analyzed using landscape metrics to quantify vertical canopy complexity within a single stand. Based on the developed method, we have successfully created a tool that utilizes three dimensional spatial information to accurately quantify the vertical structure of forest stands. Results show significant differences in the number and the total area of the canopy segments and gap fraction between each vertical slice within and between individual forest management plots. We found a significant relationship between the stand density and composition and the vertical canopy complexity. The methods described in this research make it possible to create horizontal stand profiles at any point along the vertical

  8. ISSP Position Stand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, Tatiana; Stambulova, Natalia; Si, Gangyan

    2013-01-01

    but as relational and ␣uid; and (c) focusing on meaning (instead of cause) in cross-cultural and cultural research projects, and cultural praxis work. In the paper, we ␣rst provide an overview of the concepts of cultural competence and ethics of difference. Second, we present a step-by-step approach for developing...... a culturally competent project rooted either within cross-cultural or cultural research. Third, we focus on cultural praxis as a project that blends theory, research, and lived culture of practice. Finally, we summarize main points in nine postulates and provide recommendations for enhancing cultural......The multicultural landscape of contemporary sport sets a challenge to rethink sport and exercise psychology research and practice through a culturally re␣exive lens. This ISSP Position Stand provides a rigorous synthesis and engagement with existing scholarship to outline a roadmap for future work...

  9. Out-standing!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2013-01-01

    Out-standing concerns the Danish tennisplayer Leif Rovsing and his outstanding piece of architecture Danish Tennis Club in Hellerup.......Out-standing concerns the Danish tennisplayer Leif Rovsing and his outstanding piece of architecture Danish Tennis Club in Hellerup....

  10. Evaluation of single-leg standing following anterior cruciate ligament surgery and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, E L; Duenkel, N; Dunlop, R; Russell, G

    1994-03-01

    Although surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is commonly performed to increase stability of the knee, persistent changes in neuromuscular function have frequently been cited as contributing to disability. This study investigated single-leg standing balance in a sample of patients 10 to 18 months following reconstructive ACL surgery. In addition, the effect of leg dominance on standing balance was analyzed in a sample of subjects without knee injury. The validity and interrater reliability of a clinical method of measuring balance using observation were also determined. Seventy-eight subjects without knee injury and 17 patients following ACL surgery participated in the study after they had been screened for balance disorders. Postural sway measurements were recorded during single-leg standing with the subjects' eyes open and closed. Simultaneously, two physical therapists graded each subject's performance using a simple ordinal scale. No differences were found between the dominant and nondominant legs of the subjects without knee injury or between the involved and noninvolved legs of the patients who had undergone ACL surgery. The interrater reliability was high, but limited concurrent validity was found. The findings suggest that single-leg standing balance can be reliably evaluated by physical therapists. The single-leg standing balance test, however, may not provide information that assists clinicians in determining clinical change or functional level for patients following rehabilitation for ACL surgery.

  11. Students dance longitudinal standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2017-05-01

    A demonstration is presented that involves students dancing longitudinal standing waves. The resulting kinaesthetic experience and visualization both contribute towards an understanding of the natural modes of vibrations in open and closed pipes. A video of this fun classroom activity is provided (http://mjtruiz.com/ped/dance/).

  12. An acoustics operations study for Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) standing saw timber with different thinning history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Essien; Qingzheng Cheng; Brian K. Via; Edward F. Loewenstein; Xiping Wang

    2016-01-01

    There is currently a request from landowners in southeastern USA to provide a non-destructive tool that can differentiate the quality between stands of 25 and 30 years of age subjected to different thinning treatments. A typical site with various thinning regimes was used to vary the wood quality and to determine whether acoustics had the ability to seperate for...

  13. So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

  14. Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus for Investigating Closed-Loop Control of Ankle Joint Muscle Contractions during Functional Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, John F; Masani, Kei; Vette, Albert H; Zariffa, José; Robinson, Mark; Lynch, Cheryl; Popovic, Milos R

    2014-01-01

    The restoration of arm-free standing in individuals with paraplegia can be facilitated via functional electrical stimulation (FES). In developing adequate control strategies for FES systems, it remains challenging to test the performance of a particular control scheme on human subjects. In this study, we propose a testing platform for developing effective control strategies for a closed-loop FES system for standing. The Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus (IPSA) is a mechanical inverted pendulum, whose angular position is determined by the subject's ankle joint angle as controlled by the FES system while having the subject's body fixed in a standing frame. This approach provides a setup that is safe, prevents falling, and enables a research and design team to rigorously test various closed-loop controlled FES systems applied to the ankle joints. To demonstrate the feasibility of using the IPSA, we conducted a case series that employed the device for studying FES closed-loop controllers for regulating ankle joint kinematics during standing. The utilized FES system stimulated, in able-bodied volunteers, the plantarflexors as they prevent toppling during standing. Four different conditions were compared, and we were able to show unique performance of each condition using the IPSA. We concluded that the IPSA is a useful tool for developing and testing closed-loop controlled FES systems for regulating ankle joint position during standing.

  15. Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra provides reduced effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Masami; Ino, Kenji; Yano, Keiichi [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Osamu [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Hayashi, Naoto [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Miyati, Tosiaki [Kanazawa University, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Takao, Hidemasa; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiology and Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Iwatsubo, Takeshi [University of Tokyo, Department of Neuropathology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Yamashita, Fumio [Iwate Medical University, Department of Radiology, Yahaba, Iwate (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Integrative Brain Imaging Center National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan); Collaboration: Japanese Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2013-07-15

    This study aimed to investigate whether the effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method is reduced using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) normalization compared with standard normalization. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (3D-T1WIs) of 21 healthy subjects were obtained and evaluated for effect of scanner in cortex volumetry. 3D-T1WIs of the 21 subjects were obtained with five MRI systems. Imaging of each subject was performed on each of five different MRI scanners. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry 8 tool implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 and WFU PickAtlas software (Talairach brain atlas theory). The following software default settings were used as bilateral region-of-interest labels: ''Frontal Lobe,'' ''Hippocampus,'' ''Occipital Lobe,'' ''Orbital Gyrus,'' ''Parietal Lobe,'' ''Putamen,'' and ''Temporal Lobe.'' Effect of scanner for cortex volumetry using the atlas-based method was reduced with DARTEL normalization compared with standard normalization in Frontal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Orbital Gyrus, Putamen, and Temporal Lobe; was the same in Hippocampus and Parietal Lobe; and showed no increase with DARTEL normalization for any region of interest (ROI). DARTEL normalization reduces the effect of scanner, which is a major problem in multicenter studies. (orig.)

  16. Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra provides reduced effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masami; Abe, Osamu; Aoki, Shigeki; Hayashi, Naoto; Miyati, Tosiaki; Takao, Hidemasa; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Yamashita, Fumio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ino, Kenji; Yano, Keiichi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method is reduced using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) normalization compared with standard normalization. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (3D-T1WIs) of 21 healthy subjects were obtained and evaluated for effect of scanner in cortex volumetry. 3D-T1WIs of the 21 subjects were obtained with five MRI systems. Imaging of each subject was performed on each of five different MRI scanners. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry 8 tool implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 and WFU PickAtlas software (Talairach brain atlas theory). The following software default settings were used as bilateral region-of-interest labels: "Frontal Lobe," "Hippocampus," "Occipital Lobe," "Orbital Gyrus," "Parietal Lobe," "Putamen," and "Temporal Lobe." Effect of scanner for cortex volumetry using the atlas-based method was reduced with DARTEL normalization compared with standard normalization in Frontal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Orbital Gyrus, Putamen, and Temporal Lobe; was the same in Hippocampus and Parietal Lobe; and showed no increase with DARTEL normalization for any region of interest (ROI). DARTEL normalization reduces the effect of scanner, which is a major problem in multicenter studies.

  17. Forest Stand Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Source data for forest stand age were obtained from the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) DataMart and were projected for future scenarios based on selected...

  18. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  19. Standing Concertation Commmittee

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 27 February 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2007 included: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): It was announced that a Management/Staff Association working group had been set up to discuss the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): Members: M. Büttner, E. Chiaveri (chair), Ph. Defert, D. Klem, M. Vitasse, J.-M. Saint-Viteux. It was noted that the Staff Association was launching a questionnaire on SLS and distributed to all members of the personnel. Merit Recognition Guidelines : in the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the CERN-wide 2007 Merit Recognition Guidelines, including the Frequently Asked Questions on HR Department's dedicated website. Information on CERN's medium and long-term plans (MTP-LTP)/Contract renewals/ External mobility The Committee took note of the information provided on CERN's MTP-LTP and of documentation distributed at the meeting by the Staff Associatio...

  20. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2007 included: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): It was announced that a Management/Staff Association working group had been set up to discuss the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): Members : M. Büttner, E. Chiaveri (chair), Ph. Defert, D. Klem, M. Vitasse, J.-M. Saint-Viteux. It was noted that the Staff Association was launching a questionnaire on SLS and distributed to all members of the personnel. Merit Recognition Guidelines: In the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the CERN-wide 2007 Merit Recognition Guidelines, including the Frequently Asked Questions on HR Department's dedicated website. Information on CERN's medium and long-term plans (MTP-LTP)/Contract renewals/ External mobility The Committee took note of the information provided on CERN's MTP-LTP and of documentation distributed at the meeting by the Staff ...

  1. Transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human subjects following a 36 h fast provides evidence of effects on genes regulating inflammation, apoptosis and energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, RM; Roos, B.; Duthie, SJ; Bouwman, FG; Rubio-Aliaga, I.; Crosley, LK; Mayer, C.; Polley, AC; Heim, C.; Coort, SL; Evelo, CT; Mulholland, F.; Daniel, H.; Mariman, EC; Johnson, IT

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in the potential health benefits of diets that involve regular periods of fasting. While animal studies have provided compelling evidence that feeding patterns such as alternate-day fasting can increase longevity and reduce incidence of many chronic diseases, the evidence from human studies is much more limited and equivocal. Additionally, although several candidate processes have been proposed to contribute to the health benefits observed in animals, the precise mol...

  2. Stand development and yields of Appalachian hardwood stands managed with single-tree selection for at least 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1991-01-01

    Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia were managed for 30 or more years using single-tree selection regeneration practices. Stand yield data suggest that current stand growth will provide economical harvest cuts for several future cutting cycles. This case study indicates that the single-tree selection practice has potential for landowners who want to maintain...

  3. Stand together against violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Most gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, or HIV-positive individuals have been subjected to hatred or violence. The New York City Gay & Lesbian Anti-Violence Project (AVP) urges all who are victimized to report the crime. AVP documented a 14 percent increase in hate crimes in New York last year. The severity and intensity of the assaults are increasing, and the most common weapon used in these crimes is a bat or a club. AVP is working with police departments to sensitize them to instances of homophobia. Phone numbers for confidential or anonymous support for people who have been victimized are provided.

  4. Armillaria species in coniferous stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Żółciak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the Armillaria species in selected coniferous stands (Scots pine stands, Norway spruce stands and fir stands was the aim of the work carried out on the basis of mating tests and consideration of macroscopic traits of fruit-bodies. One species of Armillaria [A. ostoyae (Romagnesi Herink] was found in Scots pine stands, three species [A. ostoyae, A. cepistipes Velenovský and A. borealis Marxmüller et Korhonen] were found in Norway spruce stands and two species [A. ostoyae and A. cepistipes] were found in fir stands.

  5. A Patient-Centered, Provider-Facilitated Approach to the Refinement of Nonlinear Frequency Compression Parameters Based on Subjective Preference Ratings of Amplified Sound Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Earl E; Light, Keri C

    2015-09-01

    equal preference between EC1 and EC2 perhaps, in part, because EC2 showed no objective improvement in audibility for six of the 14 participants (42%). Thirteen of the 14 participants showed no preference between NAL-NL2 and EC3, but all participants had an objective improvement in audibility. With more NFC than EC3, more and more participants preferred the other EC with less NFC in the paired comparison. By referencing the recommended sensation levels of amplitude compression (e.g., NAL-NL2) in the ear canal of hearing aid wearers, the targeting of NFC parameters can likely be optimized with respect to improvements in effective audibility that may contribute to speech recognition without adversely impacting sound quality. After targeting of NFC parameters, providers can facilitate decisions about the use of NFC parameters (strengths of processing) via sound quality preference judgments using paired comparisons. American Academy of Audiology.

  6. Principles of managing stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Marquis; Rodney Jacobs

    1989-01-01

    Forest stands are managed to achieve some combination of desired products or values. These products or values may include income and tangible benefits from timber production or fees for hunting rights and other recreational activities. The values may be intangible, such as the enjoyment of seeing wildlife or flowering plants, or the simple satisfaction of knowing that...

  7. STAND AT EASE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    for what was described as “national service”. While books like these are not exactly flooding the shelves of bookstores, they roll of the presses more regularly now. These works mostly deal with ex-conscript's that actively experienced the war in. Namibia and Angola. Stand at ease is different: there is no "cordite and conflict".

  8. Economics of stand management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Lewis

    1986-01-01

    This paper sets out to demonstrate the importance of considering the wealth represented by the growing stock in economic analyses of stand management alternatives, and to demonstrate the role of thinning in the manipulation of the efficiency of growing stock in the management of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.). These goals are achieved through a demonstration of...

  9. Golden rule (standing theology)

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Randolph

    2017-01-01

    This study offers an example of ‘standing theology’ as distinguished from sitting theology or kneeling theology. The occasion was the Fourth Sunday of Easter in Bangor Cathedral, 2015. The Epistle reading was 1 John 3: 16–24.\\ud \\ud

  10. Wildlife response to stand structure of deciduous woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Hodorff; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Raymond L. Linder

    1988-01-01

    Deciduous woodlands provide important habitat for wildlife but comprise Fraxinus pennsylvanica) woodlands in northwestern South Dakota. Closed-canopy stands were multilayered communities with dense...

  11. THE EXPERIMENTAL DIDACTIC STAND FOR DETERMINING THE PARAMETERS OF THE GEAR WITH MAGNETORHEOLOGICAL CLUTCH AND BRAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy BAJKOWSKI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the laboratory stand, designed to be used as a part of the Laboratory of Machine Design and Research which is part of the subject Fundamentals of Machine Design, is presented. Originally the laboratory stand was designed as an element of one of the research projects, and the adopted for didactic purposes. The students have the chance to get familiar with unique type of fluids controlled by the magnetic field and their application in the special purpose devices. The laboratory stand allows to conduct individual measurements of the torque, for different coil currents which generate the magnetic field. In the final report students provide the results with the individual analysis of the system parameters.

  12. Effects of sound on postural stability during quiet standing

    OpenAIRE

    Park Sung; Lee Kichol; Lockhart Thurmon; Kim Sukwon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Loss of postural stability can increase the likelihood of slips and falls in workplaces. The present study intended to extend understanding of the effects of frequency and pressure level of sound on postural stability during standing. Eleven male subjects participated. Standing on a force platform, the subjects' center of pressures were measured under different combinations of pressure level and frequency of the sound. Variables such as the position variability of COP and the length ...

  13. Multi-Purpose Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Multi-Purpose Test Stand is used for a wide variety of tests. The Stand is designed to be rotated through a range of fixed yaw positions to allow engines to be...

  14. Lymphoscintigraphic evaluation of leg lymphedema using intradermal injection of technetium 99m-labeled human serum albumin; Assessment of the effect of standing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchisako, Hiromichi; Suga, Kazuyoshi; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Kuramitsu, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Nakaki, Hiroji; Nakanishi, Takashi; Esato, Kensuke (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-11-01

    Twenty-four patients with lymphedema of the lower limbs and seven normal subjects were examined by lymphoscintigraphy following an intradermal injection of [sup 99m]Tc-HSA. The effect of changing to a standing position was determined. In normal subjects, a large spiking wave and a rapid stepwise increase in tracer activity frequently occurred on standing, although a decreased phase appeared less often on time-activity curves. These findings indicated that lymphatic flow was increased after the load produced by standing. The frequency of these changes was decreased in the patients with lymphedema, indicating that lymphatic disruption was responsible for their edema. Thus, lymphoscintigraphy using a load produced by standing can provide useful information in patients with lymphedema of the legs. (author).

  15. Standing equine dental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Robert A; Easley, Jack

    2014-04-01

    Dental surgeries refer to procedures that affect the dental tissues or their supporting structures. With the development of specific, efficacious, and conservative treatments, morbidity risks have been lowered and chances of benefiting the health of equids improved. Advances in quality of sedation, analgesia, and locoregional anesthesia allow a majority of dental surgeries to be performed in the standing patient. This update focuses on an orthograde endodontic technique, a minimally invasive buccotomy technique, with the potential to combine it with a transbuccal screw extraction technique, and revisits the AO pinless external fixator for fractures of the body of the mandible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Guide to the Stand-Damage Model interface management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Racin; J. J. Colbert

    1995-01-01

    This programmer's support document describes the Gypsy Moth Stand-Damage Model interface management system. Management of stand-damage data made it necessary to define structures to store data and provide the mechanisms to manipulate these data. The software provides a user-friendly means to manipulate files, graph and manage outputs, and edit input data. The...

  17. Stiffness control of balance in quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, D A; Patla, A E; Prince, F; Ishac, M; Gielo-Perczak, K

    1998-09-01

    Our goal was to provide some insights into how the CNS controls and maintains an upright standing posture, which is an integral part of activities of daily living. Although researchers have used simple performance measures of maintenance of this posture quite effectively in clinical decision making, the mechanisms and control principles involved have not been clear. We propose a relatively simple control scheme for regulation of upright posture that provides almost instantaneous corrective response and reduces the operating demands on the CNS. The analytic model is derived and experimentally validated. A stiffness model was developed for quiet standing. The model assumes that muscles act as springs to cause the center-of-pressure (COP) to move in phase with the center-of-mass (COM) as the body sways about some desired position. In the sagittal plane this stiffness control exists at the ankle plantarflexors, in the frontal plane by the hip abductors/adductors. On the basis of observations that the COP-COM error signal continuously oscillates, it is evident that the inverted pendulum model is severely underdamped, approaching the undamped condition. The spectrum of this error signal is seen to match that of a tuned mass, spring, damper system, and a curve fit of this "tuned circuit" yields omega n the undamped natural frequency of the system. The effective stiffness of the system, Ke, is then estimated from Ke = I omega n2, and the damping B is estimated from B = BW X I, where BW is the bandwidth of the tuned response (in rad/s), and I is the moment of inertia of the body about the ankle joint. Ten adult subjects were assessed while standing quietly at three stance widths: 50% hip-to-hip distance, 100 and 150%. Subjects stood for 2 min in each position with eyes open; the 100% stance width was repeated with eyes closed. In all trials and in both planes, the COP oscillated virtually in phase (within 6 ms) with COM, which was predicted by a simple 0th order spring

  18. Phase plane analysis of stability in quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, P O; Benda, B J; Gill-Body, K M; Krebs, D E

    1995-10-01

    We analyzed the standing balance control of 11 healthy subjects and 15 subjects with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) using phase plane (velocity versus displacement) plots. We hypothesized that maintaining postural stability requires control of both the position and momentum of the center of gravity (CG) and infer that it is advantageous to use both velocity and displacement data to characterize balance control. Phase plane plots provide insight into this dynamic aspect of balance control. We evaluated phase plane plots based on whole body CG and center of pressure (CoP). We varied stability by altering the base of support and visual information. Three different foot placements were used: feet wide apart, feet together, and semitandem stance. Feet together standing was performed with eyes open and with eyes closed. The phase plane plots show changes in stability as base of support is altered or visual input is removed and reveal stability differences between the control and BVH groups. The root mean square variance of velocity and displacement was used to quantify the phase plane information. This parameter showed significant differences between activities and between groups. We conclude that phase plane plots that combine displacement and velocity information are more useful in characterizing balance control than displacement or velocity alone.

  19. A Doppler Radar System for Sensing Physiological Parameters in Walking and Standing Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malikeh Pour Ebrahim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Doppler radar can be implemented for sensing physiological parameters wirelessly at a distance. Detecting respiration rate, an important human body parameter, is essential in a range of applications like emergency and military healthcare environments, and Doppler radar records actual chest motion. One challenge in using Doppler radar is being able to monitor several patients simultaneously and in different situations like standing, walking, or lying. This paper presents a complete transmitter-receiver Doppler radar system, which uses a 4 GHz continuous wave radar signal transmission and receiving system, to extract base-band data from a phase-shifted signal. This work reports experimental evaluations of the system for one and two subjects in various standing and walking positions. It provides a detailed signal analysis of various breathing rates of these two subjects simultaneously. These results will be useful in future medical monitoring applications.

  20. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Marion Jay [Brentwood, CA; Ayers, Shannon Lee [Brentwood, CA

    2010-08-24

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  1. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

    2012-10-09

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  2. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMMITTEE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2008 included: Short-term Saved Leave Scheme The committee noted that, by the end of February 2008, some 600 staff had subscribed to the short-term saved leave scheme: approx 58% had subscribed 1 slice, 14% two slices, 5% three slices and 23% four slices. Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme to the Director-General for approval. Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial Benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract to the Director-General for approval. Progressive Retirement Programme The Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) was extended for a further year to 3...

  3. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2008 included: Short-term Saved Leave Scheme The Committee noted that, by the end of February 2008, some 600 staff had enrolled in the short-term saved leave scheme: approx. 58% had signed up for 1 slice, 14% for two slices, 5% for three slices and 23% for four slices. Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme. Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial Benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract. Progressive Retirement Programme The Progressive Retirement Programme (PR...

  4. Standing Concertation Commmittee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 2 november 2007 Extraordinary meeting on 12 November 2007 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 2 November 2007 and 12 November included: Restaurants Supervisory Committee Report The committee took note of the report by the chairman of the Restaurants Supervisory Committee (RSC), T. Lagrange. In particular, it was recorded that, in Restaurant No. 1, the new kitchen and free flow arrangements had been inaugurated and all works had been commissioned on schedule in October 2007.The contractor, Novae, had taken over maintenance of the new kitchen. Some price increases were to be expected in the coming months due mainly to strong increases in the cost of basic ingredients. A problem with bad smells in the area of Restaurant No. 1 was being taken care of by tuning the ventilation system. The RSC wished to thank the management and staff of Restaurant No. 2 for their cooperation while Restaurant No 1 was ...

  5. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee in the first quarter of 2009 included: Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS) 2009 exercise The committee took note of 2009 MARS ceiling guidelines giving the advancement budget by career path and amounting to approx 1.80% of the basic salary bill. To this will be added 250 steps CERN-wide, financed by savings from implementation of the international indemnity for 2007, 2008 and the first half of 2009. The specific Senior Staff Guidelines, including the proposed number of promotions from Career Path E to F, were also noted. The guidelines with respect to step distribution were also noted: the minima and maxima remain the same as in previous years. Compliance with the guidelines will continue to be monitored closely (more details, including a frequently asked questions section). It was also noted that Financial Awards (awards for extraordinary service and responsibility allowances) may b...

  6. Gender-based differences in the cardiovascular response to standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotshall, Robert W.; Tsai, Pai-Feng; Frey, Mary A. B.

    1991-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses of men and women to the stand test were compared by measuring respective values for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance during a 5-min supine and a 5-min standing test in ten subjects of each gender. It was found that, while the male and female subjects had similar heart rate values, all other responses exhibited greater changes in men than in women. While differences in the height of the subjects did not account for differences in cardiovascular responses, no mechanism responsible for these differences could be identified.

  7. Rapid economic analysis of northern hardwood stand improvement options

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1980-01-01

    Data and methodology are provided for projecting basal area, diameter, volumes, and values by product for northern hardwood stands, and for determining the rate of return on stand improvement investments. The method is rapid, requires a minimum amount of information, and should prove useful for on-the-ground economic analyses.

  8. Comprehensive Evaluation of Stand-Off Biometrics Techniques for Enhanced Surveillance during Major Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    biometric surveillance systems are a type of stand-off biometric system, the two terms are not synonymous, as some stand-off systems call for cooperative ...subjects, since these will always produce improved performance metrics. Identification of cooperative subjects in stand-off applications is relevant...biométrique étaient des appareils commerciaux courants, qui avaient subi des essais rigoureux prescrits par le gouvernement avant d’être commercialisés

  9. Standing concertation commmittee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    MEETINGS ON 2 AND 9 DECEMBER 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 2 and 9 December 2008 included: Medical Service Report 2007 The Committee took note of the report by Dr. E. Reymond (see http://sc-me.web.cern.ch/sc-me/fr/indexFR.htm) and of a number of points raised during the discussion. It was noted that the number of professional accidents declined in 2007 (361 accidents) in comparison with 2006 (483), as well as their gravity and frequency. The CERN Medical Service carried out a study on cancer prevalence (number of cases) and incidence (new cases per year per 100000 people), between 1993 and 2007, which identified some prostate, breast and colorectal cancers, though less than in the two Host States. Specific preventive actions will be promoted by the CERN CHISboard and the Medical Service in this context as well as in other areas. The committee expressed its thanks to all members of the Medical Service for their work i...

  10. Stand-up physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A CMS physicist and amateur stand up comic was named the winner of NESTA FameLab 2009. Tom Whyntie battled it out with nine others young scientists from across the UK to win the contest to find the country’s next top science communicator. Tom Whyntie with his prize money after the NESTA Famelab final.Tom Whyntie, who is currently doing his PhD on the CMS experiment, managed to persuade his supervisor to give him a few days off on 5 June so he could fly back to the UK for the final of NESTA FameLab 2009. In the competition, which has been dubbed ‘the X Factor for scientists’, he had just three minutes to explain a complex scientific idea to a panel of judges made up of high-profile science professionals. During the final, he captivated the audience with his talk about how finding nothing at the LHC, far from being a waste of £5 billion, would actually catalyse the next scientific revolution. It Whyntie’s own words: "If the L...

  11. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 30 January 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 30 January 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 26: with the introduction of the merit recognition system in the framework of the 5-yearly review of CERN employment conditions, Administrative Circular No. 26 has been revised. The committee took note of the revised document which is being finalized for submission to the Director-General for approval in the near future. Technical analysis of CERN Health Insurance Scheme: the Committee was informed that a group has been set up by the Director-General to analyse the financial situation of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme in the short and long term, and to propose measures to ensure that the Scheme remains in financial balance, with adequate cover, over the medium term. The group's terms of reference and membership were communicated. Voluntary programmes It was announced that the programmes: 'part-time work as a pre-retirement measure...

  12. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 30 JANUARY 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 30 January 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 26: with the introduction of the merit recognition system in the framework of the 5-yearly review of CERN employment conditions, Administrative Circular No. 26 has been revised. The Committee took note of the revised document which is being finalized for submission to the Director-General for approval in the near future. Technical analysis of CERN Health Insurance Scheme: the Committee was informed that a group has been set up by the Director-General to analyse the financial situation of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme in the short and long term, and to propose measures to ensure that the Scheme remains in financial balance, with adequate cover, over the medium term. The group's terms of reference and membership were communicated. Voluntary programmes It was announced that the programmes: 'part-time work as a pre-retirement mea...

  13. Improvement in the physiological function and standing stability based on kinect multimedia for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chen

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The increase in the Taiwanese older population is associated with age-related inconveniences. Finding adequate and simple physical activities to help the older people maintaining their physiological function and preventing them from falls has become an urgent social issue. [Subjects and Methods] This study aimed to design a virtual exercise training game suitable for Taiwanese older people. This system will allow for the maintenance of the physiological function and standing stability through physical exercise, while using a virtual reality game. The participants can easily exercise in a carefree, interactive environment. This study will use Kinect for Windows for physical movement detection and Unity software for virtual world development. [Results] Group A and B subjects were involved in the exercise training method of Kinect interactive multimedia for 12 weeks. The results showed that the functional reach test and the unipedal stance test improved significantly. [Conclusion] The physiological function and standing stability of the group A subjects were examined at six weeks post training. The results showed that these parameters remained constant. This proved that the proposed system provide substantial support toward the preservation of the Taiwanese older people' physiological function and standing stability.

  14. Dynamics of Connecticut hemlock stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey S. Ward; David M. Smith

    2000-01-01

    The stand dynamics and production of two one-acre plots of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L) in Connecticut have been followed for more than six decades. Data were recorded for all individual trees. One plot (Saltonstall) was established in 1924 after the removal of a hardwood overstory. This stand had a nearly pure, almost fully closed understory...

  15. A-1 Test Stand work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center work to maneuver a structural steam beam into place on the A-1 Test Stand on Jan. 13. The beam was one of several needed to form the thrust takeout structure that will support a new thrust measurement system being installed on the stand for future rocket engine testing. Once lifted onto the stand, the beams had to be hoisted into place through the center of the test stand, with only two inches of clearance on each side. The new thrust measurement system represents a state-of-the-art upgrade from the equipment installed more than 40 years ago when the test stand was first constructed.

  16. Walking reduces sensorimotor network connectivity compared to standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Considerable effort has been devoted to mapping the functional and effective connectivity of the human brain, but these efforts have largely been limited to tasks involving stationary subjects. Recent advances with high-density electroencephalography (EEG) and Independent Components Analysis (ICA) have enabled study of electrocortical activity during human locomotion. The goal of this work was to measure the effective connectivity of cortical activity during human standing and walking. Methods We recorded 248-channels of EEG as eight young healthy subjects stood and walked on a treadmill both while performing a visual oddball discrimination task and not performing the task. ICA parsed underlying electrocortical, electromyographic, and artifact sources from the EEG signals. Inverse source modeling methods and clustering algorithms localized posterior, anterior, prefrontal, left sensorimotor, and right sensorimotor clusters of electrocortical sources across subjects. We applied a directional measure of connectivity, conditional Granger causality, to determine the effective connectivity between electrocortical sources. Results Connections involving sensorimotor clusters were weaker for walking than standing regardless of whether the subject was performing the simultaneous cognitive task or not. This finding supports the idea that cortical involvement during standing is greater than during walking, possibly because spinal neural networks play a greater role in locomotor control than standing control. Conversely, effective connectivity involving non-sensorimotor areas was stronger for walking than standing when subjects were engaged in the simultaneous cognitive task. Conclusions Our results suggest that standing results in greater functional connectivity between sensorimotor cortical areas than walking does. Greater cognitive attention to standing posture than to walking control could be one interpretation of that finding. These techniques could be applied

  17. Transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human subjects following a 36 h fast provides evidence of effects on genes regulating inflammation, apoptosis and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R M; de Roos, B; Duthie, S J; Bouwman, F G; Rubio-Aliaga, I; Crosley, L K; Mayer, C; Polley, A C; Heim, C; Coort, S L; Evelo, C T; Mulholland, F; Daniel, H; Mariman, E C; Johnson, I T

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in the potential health benefits of diets that involve regular periods of fasting. While animal studies have provided compelling evidence that feeding patterns such as alternate-day fasting can increase longevity and reduce incidence of many chronic diseases, the evidence from human studies is much more limited and equivocal. Additionally, although several candidate processes have been proposed to contribute to the health benefits observed in animals, the precise molecular mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. The study described here examined the effects of an extended fast on gene transcript profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ten apparently healthy subjects, comparing transcript profiles after an overnight fast, sampled on four occasions at weekly intervals, with those observed on a single occasion after a further 24 h of fasting. Analysis of the overnight fasted data revealed marked inter-individual differences, some of which were associated with parameters such as gender and subject body mass. For example, a striking positive association between body mass index and the expression of genes regulated by type 1 interferon was observed. Relatively subtle changes were observed following the extended fast. Nonetheless, the pattern of changes was consistent with stimulation of fatty acid oxidation, alterations in cell cycling and apoptosis and decreased expression of key pro-inflammatory genes. Stimulation of fatty acid oxidation is an expected response, most likely in all tissues, to fasting. The other processes highlighted provide indications of potential mechanisms that could contribute to the putative beneficial effects of intermittent fasting in humans.

  18. Extraction of forest stand parameters from CARABAS VHF SAR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Fredrik [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Centre for Image Analysis

    1999-10-01

    Methods for extracting stand-wise forest parameters from CARABAS VHF SAR images have been developed and evaluated. CARABAS is a unique airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), developed by the Swedish Defence Research Establishment. It differs a lot from ordinary microwave radars by using wavelengths between 3.3 and 15 m, making the image intensity highly correlated to stem volume. Furthermore, by providing its own illumination source, the sensor operates independently of daylight and weather conditions. Empirical regression models have been developed for relating backscattering amplitude to stem volume, stem diameter, and tree height. To make comparison between CARABAS image data and forest parameters effective, a fully automatic geo-coding algorithm was developed. Image texture features have also been investigated. By using the variogram as a discriminating feature, CARABAS images and aerial images were segmented into homogeneous regions. Furthermore, a method for discriminating recently clear felled areas from forested areas, combining information from Almaz-1 SAR images and SPOT panchromatic data has also been developed, serving as a comparison to the main work of this thesis. For forest stands at near-horizontal ground, the results for estimating stem volume, stem diameter, and tree height from CARABAS image data are very satisfactory. The root mean square errors for the estimates are comparable to subjective ground-based inventories for dense forest stands. The methods and algorithms described in this thesis have been developed towards an operational remote sensing tool. Altogether, significant potential for mapping of forest characteristics exists using the CARABAS VHF SAR sensor 57 refs, 14 figs, 7 tabs

  19. Trunk muscle fatigue during a back extension task in standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, G T; Henry, S M

    2001-11-01

    There is some evidence that the fatiguing characteristics during isometric back extension tasks may assist in identifying differences between individuals with and without low back pain (LBP). During these tasks, especially in standing, other abdominal trunk muscles are also active. The abdominal trunk muscles acting across multiple segments of the lumbar spine function in isolation or in synergy to create flexion torques. It is suggested that co-activation patterns of the trunk muscles are able to control the axis of rotation of the extension torque and also provide multi-segmental stability of the spine. The purpose of this study was to examine the fatigue responses in 4 asymptomatic individuals to a sustained isometric extension task of the trunk muscles evaluating the shifts in the median frequency of the electromyographic (EMG) signal. This study suggests that in asymptomatic subjects, the more superficial abdominal muscles (External Oblique and Rectus Abdominis) increased in activity as the test progressed. There was large inter-individual variation in both amplitude and median frequency changes. Rectus abdominis and the back extensors demonstrated characteristics of fatigue during the task. Studies to test for any characteristic trends in whether specific trunk muscles fatigue in standing is a feature in chronic LBP, invites a formal investigation. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  20. Biomechanic modeling of sit-to-stand to upright posture for mobility assessment of persons with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzà, Claudia; Stanhope, Steven J; Taviani, Antonio; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2006-05-01

    To test the suitability of using biomechanic measures associated with a minimum measured input model (MMIM) approach to assess mobility of people with chronic stroke during the execution of a sit-to-stand (STS) to upright posture motor task. Single group, observational. Institutional settings in the United States and Italy. Twenty-nine subjects with chronic unilateral lower-limb impairments and resultant mobility limitations secondary to stroke. Not applicable. Manual measurement of lower-limb strength; performance-based tests including repeated chair standing, walking speed, and standing balance; and ground reactions measured with a force platform during STS and upright posture. The ground reactions were fed to a telescopic inverted pendulum model of the musculoskeletal system. Parameters representing the model outputs were compared with performance-based and strength measures to assess, respectively, motor ability and impairment-related changes in subjects' motor strategies. The parameters derived from the model effectively differentiated between motor strategies associated with different performance-based scores, and allowed the identification of relevant difficulties encountered in STS execution. These difficulties could be associated with different strength scores. This was also true for subjects scoring the maximum in both performance-based and strength tests. The MMIM is a relatively inexpensive and noninvasive approach that enhances mobility assessment of hemiparetic subjects with different motor ability levels. It provides information that correlates well with performance-based and strength scores and, in addition, it allows for subject-specific motor strategy identification.

  1. Influence of prolonged wearing of unstable shoes on upright standing postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Andreia S P; Macedo, Rui; Santos, Rubim; Sousa, Filipa; Silva, Andreia; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2016-02-01

    To study the influence of prolonged wearing of unstable shoes on standing postural control in prolonged standing workers. The participants were divided into two groups: one wore unstable shoes while the other wore conventional shoes for 8weeks. Stabilometry parameters related to centre of pressure (CoP), rambling (RM) and trembling (TR) as well as the total agonist/antagonist muscle activity, antagonist co-activation and reciprocal activation were evaluated during upright standing, before and after the 8weeks period. In both moments, the subjects were evaluated wearing the unstable shoes and in barefoot. The unstable shoe condition presented increased CoP displacement related variables and decreased co-activation command compared to barefoot before and after the intervention. The prolonged wearing of unstable shoes led to: (1) reduction of medial-lateral CoP root mean square and area; (2) decreased anteroposterior RM displacement; (3) increased anteroposterior RM mean velocity and mediolateral RM displacement; (4) decreased anteroposterior TR RMS; and (5) increased thigh antagonist co-activation in the unstable shoe condition. The unstable shoe condition is associated to a higher destabilising effect that leads to a selection of more efficient and accurate postural commands compared to barefoot. Prolonged wearing of unstable shoes provides increased effectiveness and performance of the postural control system, while wearing of unstable shoes in upright standing, that are reflected by changes in CoP related variables and by a reorganisation of postural control commands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Droplets bouncing on a standing wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Giuseppe; Tambasco, Lucas; Harris, Daniel; Bush, John

    2017-11-01

    A liquid bath subject to a vertical vibration becomes unstable to standing surface waves at a critical vibrational acceleration known as the Faraday threshold. We examine the behavior of a millimetric droplet bouncing on the surface of a quasi-one-dimensional fluid channel above the Faraday threshold. We identify a sequence of bifurcations that occurs as the vibrational acceleration is increased progressively, ultimately leading to the erratic, diffusive motion of the droplet along the length of the channel. A simple theoretical model is presented. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grants CMMI-1333242 and DMS-1614043.

  3. Vestibulopathy and the age effects on protective stepping during unperturbed standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, D E; Velyvis, P H; Rogers, M W

    2000-07-01

    This study examined the prevalence of protective stepping and accompanying preparatory postural responses associated with lateral weight transfer (WT) while subjects attempted to sustain stationary standing. The subjects were 92 healthy young and older adults and persons with vestibular hypofunction. Force platform and whole-body-motion recordings were used to evaluate the prevalence of stepping and WT responses during stationary standing (eyes open or closed) using a semi-tandem foot position. WT components were also evaluated for volitionally requested step initiation, and as a function of support base configuration and direction of stepping among younger subjects. Only 10% of trials by subjects with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) during semi-tandem standing with eyes closed were completed without a step, while 31% of subjects with UVH, 69% of healthy elders, and all young healthy subjects were able to stand for the entire 7-sec trials. WT responses always preceded volitional steps from a standard feet-parallel orientation but occurred in only 13% of the spontaneous steps. The prevalence of WT was influenced by the direction of volitional stepping from semi-tandem standing, but not by the initial standing width. Spontaneous stepping to maintain standing balance is a naturally occurring and prevalent behavior among older adults and persons with vestibular hypofunction during tests of quasi-static standing. Differences between volitional and spontaneous step initiation involving the prevalence of preparatory lateral WT are a complex function of motor planning, mechanical constraints, and functional context.

  4. Energy cost of the case Western reserve standing neuroprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, George P; Smith, Thomas C; Triolo, Ronald J; Gagnon, Jason P; DiRisio, Darryl; Miller, Michael E; Murray, Lori; Davis, John A; Iqbal, Atif

    2007-08-01

    To determine the oxygen consumption of a person with C7 American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grade B tetraplegia using the Case Western Reserve/Veterans Administration (CWRU/VA) standing neuroprosthesis. Measure the oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of a person with C7 ASIA grade B tetraplegia at rest, standing in the parallel bars with the CWRU/VA system on, ambulating in the parallel bars, and transferring from a wheelchair to a mat with the system on. University medical center. A 26-year-old man with C7 ASIA grade B tetraplegia. The subject was a recipient of the CWRU/VA standing neuroprosthesis. Not applicable. Measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production using a metabolic cart. Oxygen consumption of the subject was 1.22mL.kg(-1).min(-1) at rest. It was 4.7mL.kg(-1).min(-1) while standing in the parallel bars, 7.2mL.kg(-1).min(-1) while ambulating in the parallel bars, and 7.9mL.kg(-1).min(-1) when transferring from a wheelchair to a mat. Oxygen consumption of the subject when using the system is about 2 metabolic equivalent units, which is compatible with sustained use of the system for standing.

  5. Automated stand-up and sit-down detection for robot-assisted body-weight support training with the FLOAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannwart, Mathias; Emst, Dominique; Easthope, Chris; Bolliger, Marc; Rauter, Georg

    2017-07-01

    Patients with impaired walking function are often dependent on assistive devices to retrain gait and regain independence in life. To provide adequate support, gait rehabilitation devices have to be manually set to the correct support mode or have to recognize the type and starting point of a certain motion automatically. For automated motion type detection, machine learning-based classification algorithms using sensor signals from different body parts can achieve robust performance. However, until today, there is only little work available to detect motion onset. In this paper, we investigate task onset detection of sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transitions. The focus of the current study is twofold: First, the optimal window size for the online classification algorithm shall be found. Second, the ideal sensor placement in a single sensor-setup, to detect movement onset with shortest detection delays possible is of interest. For our investigations a linear discriminant analysis classifier, basic kinematic features, and a leave-one-subject-out cross validation are used. As a result, an average detection time of 56 milliseconds (SD 111) for sit-to-stand and 48 milliseconds (SD 137) for stand-to-sit were achieved with a window size of 15 and 35 milliseconds respectively at a data rate of 200 hertz. For sit-to-stand transitions, a sensor close to the tenth vertebra and for stand-to-sit transitions close to the posterior pelvis provided the smallest detection times.

  6. Long-term user perceptions of an implanted neuroprosthesis for exercise, standing, and transfers after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sanjeev; Triolo, Ronald J; Kobetic, Rudi; Miller, Michael; Bieri, Carol; Kukke, Sahana; Rohde, Lori; Davis, John A

    2003-01-01

    This study was completed to understand the usage patterns, system performance, degree of satisfaction, complications, and health benefits as perceived by recipients of a surgically implanted neuroprosthesis for exercise, standing, and transfers in individuals with low-cervical or thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). A standardized telephone survey was administered to 11 recipients of the Case Western Reserve University/Veterans Affairs (CWRU/VA) implanted standing neuroprosthesis with more than 12 months of experience with the functional electrical stimulation (FES) system. Nine implant recipients were using the neuroprosthesis regularly for standing and/or exercising at the time of the survey. All 11 implant recipients noted improved health and a reduced incidence of pressure sores, leg spasms, and urinary tract infections (UTIs). No incidents of deep-vein thrombosis, infection, cellulitis, or electrical burns because of the neuroprosthesis were noted. System recipients uniformly felt that the neuroprosthesis resulted in better overall health and general well-being. Subjects were moderately to very satisfied with the performance of the neuroprosthesis and unanimously expressed a willingness to repeat the surgery and rehabilitation to obtain the same clinical outcome. All implant recipients reported the system to be safe, reliable, and easy to use. The implanted standing neuroprosthesis appears to be a clinically acceptable and effective means of providing the ability to exercise, stand, and transfer to selected individuals with paraplegia or low tetraplegia.

  7. Size-structure dynamics of mixed versus pure forest stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Pretzsch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixed species forests are presently on the advance and widely held to provide many ecosystem functions and services better than pure stands. Recent studies well explored species mixing effects at the individual tree or stand level. However, the link between individual and stand level which is represented by the size-structure dynamics of stands, is still hardly understood.Aim of this study: The objective was to analyse how species mixing modifies the size-structure dynamics of mixed compared with pure forest stands. Area of the study: the study was carried out in Southern Germany.Material and Methods: We selected 11long-term experiments comprising 129 plots of un-thinned or just lightly thinned pure and mixed stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica [ L.] and analysed their size structure dynamics.Main Results: Based on the Gini coefficient, skewness and kurtosis we show how mixing with Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. modifies the size-structure dynamics of European beech. The size distribution of beech in mixture mostly lags behind the pure stand, is more size-asymmetric, and the mortality shifts from the smaller diameter classes further to the taller trees than in pure stands.Research highlights: The revealed changes of the size-structure dynamics of beech in mixed versus pure stands result from a modification of both growth partitioning and self-thinning. We draw conclusions of the reduced size growth and size equality of beech in mixed versus pure stands for forest management planning and perspectives for forest research.Keywords: species selection effect; true mixing effect; morphological plasticity; size-distribution; growth partitioning between trees; mode of mortality; European beech (Fagus sylvatica [L.]; Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst; sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl..

  8. The standing of the curriculum for consumer studies as school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumer Studies has the potential to have a positive impact on learners and communities in South Africa. It has been taught in schools for a number of years but the standing of Consumer Studies curriculum as a subject in the National Senior Certificate (an NQF Level 4 qualification) has not yet been established.

  9. The standing of the curriculum for consumer studies as school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 41, 2013. The standing of the curriculum for consumer studies as school subject in the South African context. 86. (Act 27 of 1996). Umalusi‟s research investigated the curricula for both the South. African Department of Basic Education‟s (DBE).

  10. ROBOTICS APPLICATION IN PEOPLE WITH WEAK MUSCLES – STANDING AND WALKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Matjačić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper we provide brief information on three commercially available biomechatronic devices that were primarily developed for neurological rehabilitation after stroke and spinal cord injury. First, we present Balance Trainer, a biomechatronic device that enables safe standing and balancing environment where the level of balancing support can be varied according to a particular subject’s needs. Gait Trainer and Locomat are biomechatronic/robotic devices that enable repetitive practice of gait-like movement in non-ambulatory subjects. We briefly discuss potential application of the presented devices for therapeutical purposes in people with muscular distrophy.

  11. Investigation of cerebral hemodynamic changes during repeated sit-stand maneuver using functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haijing; Li, Lin; Bhave, Gauri S.; Lin, Zi-jing; Tian, Fenghua; Khosrow, Behbehani; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Hanli

    2011-03-01

    The goal for this study is to examine cerebral autoregulation in response to a repeated sit-stand maneuver using both diffuse functional Near Infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and Transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD). While fNIRS can provide transient changes in hemodynamic response to such a physical action, TCD is a noninvasive transcranial method to detect the flow velocities in the basal or middle cerebral arteries (MCA). The initial phase of this study was to measure fNIRS signals from the forehead of subjects during the repeated sit-stand protocol and to understand the corresponding meaning of the detected signals. Also, we acquired preliminary data from simultaneous measurements of fNIRS and TCD during the sit-stand protocol so as to explore the technical difficulty of such an approach. Specifically, ten healthy adult subjects were enrolled to perform the planned protocol, and the fNIRS array probes with 4 sources and 10 detectors were placed on the subject's forehead to detect hemodynamic signal changes from the prefrontal cortex. The fNIRS results show that the oscillations of hemoglobin concentration were spatially global and temporally dynamic across the entire region of subject's forehead. The oscillation patterns in both hemoglobin concentrations and blood flow velocity seemed to follow one another; changes in oxy-hemoglobin concentration were much larger than those in deoxyhemoglobin concentration. These preliminary findings provide us with evidence that fNIRS is an appropriate means readily for studying cerebral hemodynamics and autoregulation during sit-stand maneuvers.

  12. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...... wave height. Recommendations are made as to how to assess liquefaction potential in standing waves. Copyright © 2012 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)....

  13. User's Guide to the Stand Prognosis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Wykoff; Nicholas L. Crookston; Albert R. Stage

    1982-01-01

    The Stand Prognosis Model is a computer program that projects the development of forest stands in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Thinning options allow for simulation of a variety of management strategies. Input consists of a stand inventory, including sample tree records, and a set of option selection instructions. Output includes data normally found in stand, stock,...

  14. Stocking, growth, and yield of oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel F. Gingrich

    1971-01-01

    An appraisal of stocking in even-aged upland oak stands is a prerequisite for determining the cultural needs of a given stand. Most oak stands have sufficient stocking to utilize the site, but are deficient in high-quality trees. Thinning such stands offers a good opportunity to upgrade the relative quality of the growing stock and enhance the growth and yield...

  15. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  16. An Induction Linac Test Stand

    CERN Document Server

    De Hope, William; Kihara, Ron; Ong, Mike; Vogtlin, George; Zentler, Jan-Mark

    2005-01-01

    A single-cell test stand has been constructed to facilitate study and guide improvements of the induction electron linac at the FXR radiographic facility at LLNL.* This paper will discuss how modifications in pulse compression and shaping, pulse power transmission, initial ferrite state, and accelerator cell loading have been performed on the test stand and can be applied to the entire accelerator. Some of the specialized diagnostics being used will be described. Finally, the paper will discuss how computer modeling and judicious timing control can be used to optimize accelerator performance by making only selective changes that can be accomplished at minimal cost.

  17. Inflight exercise affects stand test responses after space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. M.; Moore, A. D. Jr; Fritsch-Yelle, J. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Schneider, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise performed by Space Shuttle crew members during short-duration space flights (9-16 d) affects the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses to standing within 2-4 h of landing. METHODS: Thirty crew members performed self-selected inflight exercise and maintained exercise logs to monitor their exercise intensity and duration. Two subjects participated in this investigation during two different flights. A 10-min stand test, preceded by at least 6 min of quiet supine rest, was completed 10-15 d before launch (PRE) and within 4 h of landing (POST). Based upon their inflight exercise records, subjects were grouped as either high (HIex: > or = 3 times/week, HR > or = 70% HRmax, > or = 20 min/session, N = 11), medium (MEDex: > or = 3 times/week, HR or = 20 min/session, N = 10), or low (LOex: PRE differences between the groups in supine or standing HR and BP. Although POST supine HR was similar to PRE, all groups had an increased standing HR compared with PRE. The increase in HR upon standing was significantly greater after flight in the LOex group (36 +/- 5 bpm) compared with HIex or MEDex groups (25 +/- 1 bpm; 22 +/- 2 bpm). Similarly, the decrease in pulse pressure (PP) from supine to standing was unchanged after space flight in the MEDex and HIex groups but was significantly greater in the LOex group (PRE: -9 +/- 3; POST: -19 +/- 4 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS: Thus, moderate to high levels of inflight exercise attenuated HR and PP responses to standing after space flight.

  18. Lift performance and lumbar loading in standing and seated lifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Kane J; Carstairs, Greg L; Ham, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of posture on lifting performance. Twenty-three male soldiers lifted a loaded box onto a platform in standing and seated postures to determine their maximum lift capacity and maximum acceptable lift. Lift performance, trunk kinematics, lumbar loads, anthropometric and strength data were recorded. There was a significant main effect for lift effort but not for posture or the interaction. Effect sizes showed that lumbar compression forces did not differ between postures at lift initiation (Standing 5566.2 ± 627.8 N; Seated 5584.0 ± 16.0) but were higher in the standing posture (4045.7 ± 408.3 N) when compared with the seated posture (3655.8 ± 225.7 N) at lift completion. Anterior shear forces were higher in the standing posture at both lift initiation (Standing 519.4 ± 104.4 N; Seated 224.2 ± 9.4 N) and completion (Standing 183.3 ± 62.5 N; Seated 71.0 ± 24.2 N) and may have been a result of increased trunk flexion and a larger horizontal distance of the mass from the L5-S1 joint. Practitioner Summary: Differences between lift performance and lumbar forces in standing and seated lifts are unclear. Using a with-in subjects repeated measures design, we found no difference in lifted mass or lumbar compression force at lift initiation between standing and seated lifts.

  19. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  20. A3 TEST STAND CONSTRUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    THIS IMAGE SHOWS THE DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE A3 TEST STAND IN SUPPORT OF THE ARES/CLV UPPER STAGE ENGINE AT STENNIS SPACE CENTER, MISSISSIPPI. THIS IMAGE IS EXTRACTED FROM A HIGH DEFINITION VIDEO FILE AND IS THE HIGHEST RESOLUTION AVAILABLE.

  1. Silvicultural treatments in immature stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Schlesinger

    1989-01-01

    Silvicultural treatments for immature central hardwood stands include precommercial and commercial thinnings, lateral branch pruning, fertilization, cull tree deadening, and vine removal. The specifics of these treatments are discussed elsewhere in these Notes. This Note discusses some basic concepts in the selection and application of silvicultural treatments for...

  2. Burnout : de stand van zaken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Schaufeli, W.

    2013-01-01

    Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de stand van zaken in het onderzoek naar burnout. Burnout is een syndroom van extreme vermoeidheid (uitputting), afstand nemen van het werk (distantie) en weinig vertrouwen in het eigen kunnen (verminderde competentie), waarbij de oorzaken voor deze aspecten

  3. Prognosis model for stand development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert R. Stage

    1973-01-01

    Describes a set of computer programs for developing prognoses of the development of existing stand under alternative regimes of management. Calibration techniques, modeling procedures, and a procedure for including stochastic variation are described. Implementation of the system for lodgepole pine, including assessment of losses attributed to an infestation of mountain...

  4. Crown management and stand density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Dean; V. Clark Baldwin

    1996-01-01

    Determination of optimal stand-density continues to be a difficult problem. A trial cannot be established on every combination of soils, topography, and climate possible across the range of a widely distributed species such as loblolly pine, and continual advancements in nutrition and vegetation management, breeding, and utilization make established trials obsolete....

  5. Step Prediction During Perturbed Standing Using Center Of Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos R. Popovic

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of a sensor that can measure balance during quiet standing and predict stepping response in the event of perturbation has many clinically relevant applica- tions, including closed-loop control of a neuroprothesis for standing. This study investigated the feasibility of an algorithm that can predict in real-time when an able-bodied individual who is quietly standing will have to make a step to compensate for an external perturbation. Anterior and posterior perturbations were performed on 16 able-bodied subjects using a pul- ley system with a dropped weight. A linear relationship was found between the peak center of pressure (COP velocity and the peak COP displacement caused by the perturbation. This result suggests that one can predict when a person will have to make a step based on COP velocity measurements alone. Another important feature of this finding is that the peak COP velocity occurs considerably before the peak COP displacement. As a result, one can predict if a subject will have to make a step in response to a perturbation sufficiently ahead of the time when the subject is actually forced to make the step. The proposed instability detection algorithm will be implemented in a sensor system using insole sheets in shoes with minitur- ized pressure sensors by which the COPv can be continuously measured. The sensor system will be integrated in a closed-loop feedback system with a neuroprosthesis for standing in the near future.

  6. Effects of Changes of Foot Position on Romberg's Quotient of Postural Sway and Leg Muscles Electromyographic Activities in Standing

    OpenAIRE

    Morioka, Shu; Okita, Manabu; Takata, Yu; Miyamoto, Shozo; Itaba, Hideyuki

    2000-01-01

    Changing of standing position and visual blocking methods have been used as a convenient evaluation of standing balance by physical therapists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of changes of foot positions on Romberg's quotient of postural sway and the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles activities in standing for normal men. Subjects were 45 college students. For the measurement of muscles activities, 15 subjects were selected at random from among the 45 stude...

  7. The experiences of MDE stand-by; Les experiences de MDE stand-by

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The control of the electric power demand (MDE) is a worrying subject for many countries. The consumption of the electrical equipment in stand-by, is evaluated at 20 TWh/year for the ternary and residential sectors in Germany and 5,3 in France. Taking into account the SAVE project (Pilot campaign of municipal utilities for an improved rational use of energy), this study aims to observe the policies and the experiences of local governments in terms of energy consumption reduction. (A.L.B.)

  8. Standing Stability in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Karimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Being prevalent in the more than 40 years old persons, the knee osteoarthritis is one of the main factors in the function system failure mainly affecting their life. There is a type of instability in the persons with knee osteoarthritis, which is an increase in the domain and frequency of body pressure center. The aim of the present study was to compare the standing stability parameters in persons with knee osteoarthritis and healthy persons. Instrument & Methods: In this case-control, 15 patients with knee osteoarthritis referred to the physiotherapy clinic of the rehabilitation center and Al-Zahra hospital were studied in the muscle-skeletal research center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2015. The subjects were selected via stratified sampling method. As control group, 15 healthy persons were also studied in Isfahan. Total path length and the domain and frequency of pressure center in different directions were measured to assess the stability. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 software using descriptive statistics and paired T test. Findings: There were increases in the mean movement domain and the frequency of pressure center in the anterior-posterior and the internal-external directions, as well as in the total path proceeded by the pressure center in the internal-external direction, in the persons with knee osteoarthritis than the healthy persons (p0.05. Conclusion: Standing stability and balance in persons with knee osteoarthritis decreases compared to healthy persons.

  9. Isopropyl alcohol tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    An isopropyl alcohol (IPA) tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen IPA, water and liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

  10. Predicting breeding bird occurrence by stand- and microhabitat-scale features in even-aged stands in the Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, M.E.; Wood, P.B.; Miller, G.W.; Simpson, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial scale is an important consideration when managing forest wildlife habitat, and models can be used to improve our understanding of these habitats at relevant scales. Our objectives were to determine whether stand- or microhabitat-scale variables better predicted bird metrics (diversity, species presence, and abundance) and to examine breeding bird response to clearcut size and age in a highly forested landscape. In 2004-2007, vegetation data were collected from 62 even-aged stands that were 3.6-34.6. ha in size and harvested in 1963-1990 on the Monongahela National Forest, WV, USA. In 2005-2007, we also surveyed birds at vegetation plots. We used classification and regression trees to model breeding bird habitat use with a suite of stand and microhabitat variables. Among stand variables, elevation, stand age, and stand size were most commonly retained as important variables in guild and species models. Among microhabitat variables, medium-sized tree density and tree species diversity most commonly predicted bird presence or abundance. Early successional and generalist bird presence, abundance, and diversity were better predicted by microhabitat variables than stand variables. Thus, more intensive field sampling may be required to predict habitat use for these species, and management may be needed at a finer scale. Conversely, stand-level variables had greater utility in predicting late-successional species occurrence and abundance; thus management decisions and modeling at this scale may be suitable in areas with a uniform landscape, such as our study area. Our study suggests that late-successional breeding bird diversity can be maximized long-term by including harvests >10. ha in size into our study area and by increasing tree diversity. Some harvesting will need to be incorporated regularly, because after 15 years, the study stands did not provide habitat for most early successional breeding specialists. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  11. A Standing-Wave Experiment with a Guitar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Fred W.

    2006-10-01

    When teaching standing waves, one often uses as examples musical instruments with strings, e.g., pianos, violins, and guitars. In today's popular music culture, young people may be more familiar with guitars than any other string instrument. I was helping my 15-year-old granddaughter make some repairs and adjustments to her electric guitar, and the subject of the spacing between the frets on the fingerboard was raised. I told her that the physics of standing waves and the equal tempered musical scale dictate the location of the frets. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that students might be introduced to the physics of standing waves using a guitar and to the formula for the fret locations. By measuring the positions of the frets, this formula can be tested.

  12. The relationship between the load on the knee joint during walking and the biomechanical characteristics of single-leg standing

    OpenAIRE

    Chiba, Takeshi; Yamanaka, Masanori; Samukawa, Mina; Saito, Hiroshi; Sabashi, Kento; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the external knee adduction moment (KAM) during walking and the biomechanical characteristics of single-leg standing in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Data were collected while the subjects performed walking and single-leg standing using a motion analysis system with six digital video cameras and two force plates. Pearson?s correlation c...

  13. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    aspirations; and an overarching teleological causality. Most importantly, the subjective and objective aspects of this holistic science would have to stand in mutually respectful and constructive complementarity to one another if the composite discipline were to fulfill itself and its role in society.

  14. Linking individual-tree and whole-stand models for forest growth and yield prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang V Cao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Different types of growth and yield models provide essential information for making informed decisions on how to manage forests. Whole-stand models often provide well-behaved outputs at the stand level, but lack information on stand structures. Detailed information from individual-tree models and size-class models typically suffers from accumulation of errors. The disaggregation method, in assuming that predictions from a whole-stand model are reliable, partitions these outputs to individual trees. On the other hand, the combination method seeks to improve stand-level predictions from both whole-stand and individual-tree models by combining them. Methods Data from 100 plots randomly selected from the Southwide Seed Source Study of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. were used to evaluate the unadjusted individual-tree model against the disaggregation and combination methods. Results Compared to the whole-stand model, the combination method did not show improvements in predicting stand attributes in this study. The combination method also did not perform as well as the disaggregation method in tree-level predictions. The disaggregation method provided the best predictions of tree- and stand-level survival and growth. Conclusions The disaggregation approach provides a link between individual-tree models and whole-stand models, and should be considered as a better alternative to the unadjusted tree model.

  15. Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken

    Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011.......Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011....

  16. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  17. Effects of sound on postural stability during quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Ha; Lee, Kichol; Lockhart, Thurmon; Kim, Sukwon

    2011-12-15

    Loss of postural stability can increase the likelihood of slips and falls in workplaces. The present study intended to extend understanding of the effects of frequency and pressure level of sound on postural stability during standing. Eleven male subjects participated. Standing on a force platform, the subjects' center of pressures were measured under different combinations of pressure level and frequency of the sound. Variables such as the position variability of COP and the length of postural sway path in anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) direction were evaluated. Subjective ratings of perceived disturbance at each experimental condition were also obtained using a 7-point rating scale. Results showed that the length of sway path and the position variability of COP increased as the frequency of sound increased in posterior-anterior axis. The effect of sound pressure level, however, was not significant on both the postural sway length and the position variability of COP. These results suggested substantial disturbance of standing balance system among subjects exposed to high frequency noise. The results implied that physical workers should be alerted that their abilities of postural balance could be degraded significantly as disturbance caused by a sound existed.

  18. Effects of Sound on Postural Stability during Quiet Standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sung

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Loss of postural stability can increase the likelihood of slips and falls in workplaces. The present study intended to extend understanding of the effects of frequency and pressure level of sound on postural stability during standing. Eleven male subjects participated. Standing on a force platform, the subjects' center of pressures were measured under different combinations of pressure level and frequency of the sound. Variables such as the position variability of COP and the length of postural sway path in anterior-posterior (AP and medio-lateral (ML direction were evaluated. Subjective ratings of perceived disturbance at each experimental condition were also obtained using a 7-point rating scale. Results showed that the length of sway path and the position variability of COP increased as the frequency of sound increased in posterior-anterior axis. The effect of sound pressure level, however, was not significant on both the postural sway length and the position variability of COP. These results suggested substantial disturbance of standing balance system among subjects exposed to high frequency noise. The results implied that physical workers should be alerted that their abilities of postural balance could be degraded significantly as disturbance caused by a sound existed.

  19. Relationship between morphologic somatotypes and standing posture equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, P; Nault, M L; Hinse, S; LeBlanc, R; Labelle, H

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have identified height and weight as important factors affecting quiet standing stability but studies have not addressed body morphology as a global factor. Using anthropometric measurements, the morphologic somatotypes were defined in terms of body composition and structure. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that morphologic somatotypes were related to standing posture equilibrium in able-bodied girls. A total of 43 able-bodied girls having a mean age of 13.8 +/- 2.2 years participated in this study. Somatotype measurements were taken to determine their endomorphic, mesomorphic or ectomorphic components. Then, subjects were asked to stand still on a force platform for 64 s with their eyes opened, feet about 23 cm apart and arms aligned with the trunk. Afterwards, subjects were grouped based on the highest value of their somatotype component. There was no statistical difference in age, height and weight among the groups. The surface area of an ellipse delineated by the displacement of the centre of pressure (COP) was statistically larger (236.9 +/- 134.3 mm2) for the ectomorphs than for the endomorphs 137.7 +/- 71.4 mm2). The minor axis was longer (8.1 +/- 2.9 mm) for the ectomorphs than for the endomorphs (5.7 +/- 2.2 mm). The decrease in standing posture stability of the ectomorphic group was attributed to a relatively low muscle component, a high height weight ratio and an elevated position of the body centre of mass in this population of girls. Somatotypes should be considered when assessing standing posture in both able-bodied subjects and patients.

  20. What triggers the continuous muscle activity during upright standing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masani, Kei; Sayenko, Dimitry G; Vette, Albert H

    2013-01-01

    The ankle extensors play a dominant role in controlling the equilibrium during bipedal quiet standing. Their primary role is to resist the gravity toppling torque that pulls the body forward. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the continuous muscle activity of the anti-gravity muscles during standing is triggered by the joint torque requirement for opposing the gravity toppling torque, rather than by the vertical load on the lower limbs. Healthy adults subjects stood on a force plate. The ankle torque, ankle angle, and electromyograms from the right lower leg muscles were measured. A ground-fixed support device was used to support the subject at his/her knees, without changing the posture from the free standing one. During the supported condition, which eliminates the ankle torque requirement while maintaining both the vertical load on the lower limbs and the natural upright standing posture, the plantarflexor activity was attenuated to the resting level. Also, this attenuated plantarflexor activity was found only in one side when the ipsilateral leg was supported. Our results suggest that the vertical load on the lower limb is not determinant for inducing the continuous muscle activity in the anti-gravity muscles, but that it depends on the required joint torque to oppose the gravity toppling torque. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  2. 21 CFR 203.35 - Standing requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standing requests. 203.35 Section 203.35 Food and... PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Samples § 203.35 Standing requests. Manufacturers or authorized distributors of record shall not distribute drug samples on the basis of open-ended or standing requests, but shall...

  3. The interactive impact of forest site and stand attributes and logging technology on stand management

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.B. LeDoux; J.E. Baumgras

    1991-01-01

    The impact of selected site and stand attributes on stand management is demonstrated using actual forest model plot data and a complete systems simulation model called MANAGE. The influence of terrain on the type of logging technology required to log a stand and the resulting impact on stand management is also illustrated. The results can be used by managers and...

  4. The one-leg standing radiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsornsak, P.; Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis wa...

  5. Consistent definition and application of Reineke's Stand Density Index in silviculture and stand projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw; James N. Long

    2010-01-01

    Reineke’s Stand Density Index (SDI) has been available to silviculturists for over 75 years, but application of this stand metric has been inconsistent. Originally described as a measurement of relative density in single-species, even-aged stands, it has since been generalized for use in uneven-aged stands and mixed-species stands. However, methods used to establish...

  6. Elaboration and assessment of clinical protocols to support the evaluation of stand-to-sit activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Junkes Cunha

    Full Text Available Introduction Evaluation of sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit activities is used by physical therapists in patients with neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Sit-to-stand activity presents different descriptions of phases and movements; however the phases of stand-to-sit activity have not been established yet.Objectives To describe the movements during stand-to-sit activity and create an evaluation protocol.Materials and methods Stand-to-sit activity was described on anterior and lateral views based on the observation of 27 healthy subjects. The body segments chosen to analyze were feet, ankles, knees, hips, pelvis, trunk, spine, upper limbs, head and cervical spine. The movements of body segments were described as adduction and abduction, eversion and inversion, valgus and varus, neutral position and asymmetry. The protocol was assessed with questionnaires answered by 12 physiotherapists experts in the area.Results Stand-to-sit activity was divided in 4 phases: 1- "Neutral position", 2- "Pre-squat", 3- "Squat" and 4- "Stabilization". Two models of protocols were developed considering 5 body segments to the anterior view and 7 segments for the lateral view.Conclusion Stand-to-sit activity was described in 4 phases with sequential movements of each body segment. These protocols allow physiotherapists to identify unusual movements of body segments during the stand-to-sit activity.

  7. An investigation into four different sit-stand workstation use schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Stephen; Lin, Jia-Hua

    2017-07-12

    Twelve office workers participated in a study investigating effects of four sit/stand schedules (90-min sit/30-min stand, 80/40, 105/15, and 60/60) via several objective and subjective measures (muscle fatigue, foot swelling, spinal shrinkage, and self-reported discomfort). Results showed that there were no significant differences in shoulder and low back static muscle activities between sitting and standing. Muscle fatigue was developed during workday under all schedules. The longest standing schedule seemed to have a tendency of reducing muscle fatigue. None of the schedules helped or worsened foot swelling and spinal shrinkage. More active break-time activities seemed reducing muscle fatigue and foot swelling. While the self-reported bodily discomfort levels were generally low, the preferred schedules among the participants were varied, although the least standing schedule was the least preferred. We may conclude that effects of using sit-stand workstation to improve musculoskeletal health may be limited but promoting more active break-time activities can help. Practitioner Summary: Sit-stand workstations are used to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders. This study shows that office workers prefer sit/stand durations in the range between 1:1 and 3:1. Longer standing may have the potential to reduce muscle fatigue. However, active break-time activities may be more effective in reducing muscle fatigue and foot swelling.

  8. VALIDITY OF THE STANDING SPIKE TEST AS A MONITORING PROTOCOL FOR FEMALE VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Manuel Palao; David Valades

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was: a) to provide reference values for the standing spike test for female volleyball players and b) to study whether the standing spike test is valid for assessing the theoretical differences between female volleyball players. The sample included 83 players from the first nine teams of the Spanish women's first volleyball division (52 Spanish players and 31 from other nationalities). The variables studied were the ball speed of the standing spike test, the age of th...

  9. Identifying Low-risk Patients for Early Discharge From Emergency Department Without Using Subjective Descriptions of Chest Pain: Insights From Providing Rapid Out of Hospital Acute Cardiovascular Treatment (PROACT) 3 and 4 Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrvand, Nariman; Zheng, Yinggan; Armstrong, Paul W; Welsh, Robert C; Ezekowitz, Justin A

    2017-06-01

    Several accelerated diagnostic protocols (ADPs) have been developed to allow emergency department (ED) physicians to identify appropriate patients for safe early discharge after presentation with symptom of chest pain. Most ADPs require chest pain to be described and modify the algorithm based on the subjective chest pain characteristics. We investigated the performance of three established major ADPs simplified by eliminating the need for chest pain as a descriptor. We pooled patients from PROACT-3 and -4 trials, in which patients presenting to emergency medical services with chest pain or dyspnea were enrolled. The simplified Vancouver Chest Pain Rule (sVCPR), the simplified Emergency Department Assessment of Chest Pain Score (sEDACS) ADP and the Accelerated Diagnostic protocol to Assess Patients with chest pain using contemporary troponins as the only biomarker (ADAPT-ADP) were compared using the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (NPV). The primary outcome of interest was 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE); the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) occurring within 30 days after ED presentation was also explored. A total of 1,081 patients were included (median age = 67 years, 53% male, median GRACE score = 113) of which 222 ACS diagnoses and 150 cardiac events occurred within 30 days after index ED presentation. The sVCPR, sEDACS ≥ 3, and ADAPT-ADP, respectively, identified 9.7, 13.3, and 4.1% of patients as low risk with a sensitivity and NPV of 100% for the primary outcome of 30-day MACE. The sEDACS-ADP identified 24.2% of patients as low risk with a cut-point score of 4 (sensitivity of 98.0% and NPV of 98.8%). The sVCPR, sEDACS ≥ 3, and ADAPT-ADP, respectively, had NPVs of 98.1, 95.8, and 93.3% in identifying patients at higher risk of ACS diagnosis within 30 days after index ED visit. The diagnostic protocols performed well without their chest pain characteristics component. Further studies are

  10. Stands Scotland where it did?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newby, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    Brief acount of contemporary Scotland for the British Council magazine. Different subject and content from the similarly-titled article in the journal "Scotlands", published the same year.......Brief acount of contemporary Scotland for the British Council magazine. Different subject and content from the similarly-titled article in the journal "Scotlands", published the same year....

  11. Post-breeding bird responses to canopy tree retention, stand size, and edge in regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, M.E.; Wood, P.B.

    2011-01-01

    Avian use of even-aged timber harvests is likely affected by stand attributes such as size, amount of edge, and retained basal area, all characteristics that can easily be manipulated in timber harvesting plans. However, few studies have examined their effects during the post-breeding period. We studied the impacts of clearcut, low-leave two-age, and high-leave two-age harvesting on post-breeding birds using transect sampling and mist-netting in north-central West Virginia. In our approach, we studied the effects of these harvest types as well as stand size and edge on species characteristic of both early-successional and mature forest habitats. In 2005-2006, 13 stands ranging from 4 to 10. years post-harvest and 4-21. ha in size were sampled from late June through mid-August. Capture rates and relative abundance were similar among treatments for generalist birds. Early-successional birds had the lowest capture rates and fewer species (~30% lower), and late-successional birds reached their highest abundance and species totals (double the other treatments) in high-leave two-age stands. Area sensitivity was evident for all breeding habitat groups. Both generalist and late-successional bird captures were negatively related to stand size, but these groups showed no clear edge effects. Mean relative abundance decreased to nearly zero for the latter group in the largest stands. In contrast, early-successional species tended to use stand interiors more often and responded positively to stand size. Capture rates for this group tripled as stand size increased from 4 to 21. ha. Few birds in the forest periphery responded to harvest edge types despite within-stand edge effects evident for several species. To create suitable habitat for early-successional birds, large, non-linear openings with a low retained basal area are ideal, while smaller harvests and increased residual tree retention would provide habitat for more late-successional birds post-breeding. Although our study

  12. Thinning in artificially regenerated young beech stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Jiří

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although beech stands are usually regenerated naturally, an area of up to 5,000 ha year−1 is artificially regenerated by beech in the Czech Republic annually. Unfortunately, these stands often showed insufficient stand density and, consequently, lower quality of stems. Therefore, thinning methods developed for naturally regenerated beech stands are applicable with difficulties. The paper evaluates the data from two thinning experiments established in young artificially regenerated beech stands located in different growing conditions. In both experiments, thinning resulted in the lower amount of salvage cut in following years. Positive effect of thinning on periodic stand basal area increment and on periodic diameter increment of dominant trees was found in the beech stand located at middle elevations. On the other hand, thinning effects in mountain conditions were negligible. Thinning focusing on future stand quality cannot be commonly applied in artificially regenerated beech stands because of their worse initial quality and lower density. However, these stands show good growth and response to thinning, hence their management can be focused on maximising beech wood production.

  13. The one-leg standing radiograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis was evaluated using the joint space width and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) radiographic classification. The t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results The mean medial joint space width found in the one-leg and in the both-legs standing view were measured at 1.8 mm and 2.4 mm, respectively (p leg standing views, respectively. No changes for KL IV osteoarthritis diagnoses have been found between both- and one-leg standing views. Conclusions One-leg standing radiographs better represent joint space width than both-legs standing radiographs. 32% of both-legs standing radiographs have changed the KL grading to a more severe grade than that in the one-leg standing radiographs. Cite this article: P. Pinsornsak, K. Naratrikun, S. Kanitnate, T. Sangkomkamhang. The one-leg standing radiograph: An improved technique to evaluate the severity of knee osteoarthritis. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:436–441. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.59.BJR-2016-0049.R1. PMID:27683299

  14. Preferred provider organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, J D

    1984-05-01

    The 1980s has marked the beginning of a new alternative health care delivery system: the preferred provider organization ( PPO ). This system has developed from the health maintenance organization model and is predominant in California and Colorado. A PPO is a group of providers, usually hospitals and doctors, who agree to provide health care to subscribers for a negotiated fee that is usually discounted. Preferred provider organizations are subject to peer review and strict use controls in exchange for a consistent volume of patients and speedy turnaround on claims payments. This article describes the factors leading to the development of PPOs and the implications for occupational therapy.

  15. More standing and just as productive: Effects of a sit-stand desk intervention on call center workers’ sitting, standing, and productivity at work in the Opt to Stand pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Josephine Y.; Sukala, William; Fedel, Karla; Do, Anna; Engelen, Lina; Kingham, Megan; Sainsbury, Amanda; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of sit-stand desks on workers' objectively and subjectively assessed sitting, physical activity, and productivity. This quasi-experimental study involved one intervention group (n = 16) and one comparison group (n = 15). Participants were call center employees from two job-matched teams at a large telecommunications company in Sydney, Australia (45% female, 33 ± 11 years old). Intervention participants received a sit-stand desk, brief training, and daily e-mail reminders to stand up more frequently for the first 2 weeks post-installation. Control participants carried out their usual work duties at seated desks. Primary outcomes were workday sitting and physical activity assessed using ActivPAL or ActiGraph devices and self-report questionnaires. Productivity outcomes were company-specific objective metrics (e.g., hold time, talking time, absenteeism) and subjective measures. Measurements were taken at baseline, 1, 4, and 19 weeks post-installation. Intervention participants increased standing time after 1 week (+ 73 min/workday (95% CI: 22, 123)) and 4 weeks (+ 96 min/workday (95% CI: 41, 150)) post-intervention, while control group showed no changes. Between-group differences in standing time at one and 4 weeks were + 78 (95% CI: 9, 147) and + 95 min/workday (95% CI: 15, 174), respectively. Sitting time in the intervention group changed by − 64 (95% CI: − 125, − 2), − 76 (95% CI: − 142, − 11), and − 100 min/workday (95% CI: − 172, − 29) at 1, 4, and 19 weeks post-installation, respectively, while the control group showed no changes. No changes were observed in productivity outcomes from baseline to follow-up in either group. Sit-stand desks can increase standing time at work in call center workers without reducing productivity. PMID:26844191

  16. Evidence of Health Risks Associated with Prolonged Standing at Work and Intervention Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Thomas R.; Dick, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prolonged standing at work has been shown to be associated with a number of potentially serious health outcomes, such as lower back and leg pain, cardiovascular problems, fatigue, discomfort, and pregnancy related health outcomes. Recent studies have been conducted examining the relationship between these health outcomes and the amount of time spent standing while on the job. The purpose of this article was to provide a review of the health risks and interventions for workers and employers that are involved in occupations requiring prolonged standing. A brief review of recommendations by governmental and professional organizations for hours of prolonged standing is also included. Findings Based on our review of the literature, there seems to be ample evidence showing that prolonged standing at work leads to adverse health outcomes. Review of the literature also supports the conclusion that certain interventions are effective in reducing the hazards associated with prolonged standing. Suggested interventions include the use of floor mats, sit-stand workstations/chairs, shoes, shoe inserts and hosiery or stockings. Studies could be improved by using more precise definitions of prolonged standing (e.g., duration, movement restrictions, and type of work), better measurement of the health outcomes and more rigorous study protocols. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance Use of interventions and following suggested guidelines on hours of standing from governmental and professional organizations should reduce the health risks from prolonged standing. PMID:25041875

  17. Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus for Investigating Closed-Loop Control of Ankle Joint Muscle Contractions during Functional Electrical Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, John F.; Masani, Kei; Vette, Albert H.; Zariffa, José; Robinson, Mark; Lynch, Cheryl; Popovic, Milos R.

    2014-01-01

    The restoration of arm-free standing in individuals with paraplegia can be facilitated via functional electrical stimulation (FES). In developing adequate control strategies for FES systems, it remains challenging to test the performance of a particular control scheme on human subjects. In this study, we propose a testing platform for developing effective control strategies for a closed-loop FES system for standing. The Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus (IPSA) is a mechanical inverted pend...

  18. The Relationship Between Foot and Pelvic Alignment While Standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis Sam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A normal motion and segmental interrelationship has been determined as a significant factor in normal function. Yet, the relationship between distal segments and pelvic alignment needs further investigation. The aim of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between distal and proximal lower extremity segments while standing and during induced feet hyperpronation. Changes in alignment of the pelvis and lower extremities were measured at a gait laboratory using the VICON 612 computerized motion analysis system. Thirty-five healthy volunteer subjects were recruited. Four randomized repeated-measure standing modes were used: standing directly on the floor and then on three wedges angled at 10°, 15° and 20° to induce bilateral hyperpronation for 20 seconds. A significant (p<0.05 bi-variate relationship was found between the anterior pelvic tilt and thigh internal rotation, in all four standing positions (.41≤r≤.46, in all p<0.014. A combined effect of rotational alignment between segments and the cumulative effect of foot hyperpronation on pelvic tilt revealed that only the shank significantly affected pelvic alignment, acting as a mediator between a foot and a thigh with the thigh having a crude significant effect on the pelvis. When internal rotation of the shank occurs, calcaneal eversion couples with thigh internal rotation and anterior pelvic tilt. It can be concluded that in response to induced hyperpronation, the shank is a pivotal segment in postural adjustment.

  19. Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kjeldgaard; Ghasemi, Habib; Rahbek, Ole

    2013-01-01

    in children with orthopedic disabilities undergoing surgical procedures. Recent technology provides extremely usable sway analysis of balance parameters but a normal material for the standing balance of healthy children is lacking. Purpose/Aim of Study First, to assess standing balance in healthy Danish...... children using pedobarographic sway analysis. Second, to establish a reference for comparison of balance in children with orthopedic disorders. Materials and Methods 66 children aged 7-14 years from the 1 th , 3 th, 5th and 7th grade were included at a Danish public school after informed consent...... was obtained. The Tekscan F-scan Research was used and the pedobarographic measurements were analyzed with original Sway Analysis Module software. We did triple measurements on both standing pedobarograms with eyes open and eyes closed and averaged the results for each of the 5 parameters of balance...

  20. Tree regeneration and future stand development after bark beetle infestation and harvesting in Colorado lodgepole pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron J. Collins; Charles C. Rhoades; Robert M. Hubbard; Michael A. Battaglia

    2011-01-01

    In the southern Rocky Mountains, current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks and associated harvesting have set millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex Wats.) forest onto new stand development trajectories. Information about immediate, post-disturbance tree regeneration will provide insight on...

  1. Standing Up for Learning: A Pilot Investigation on the Neurocognitive Benefits of Stand-Biased School Desks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana K. Mehta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Standing desks have proven to be effective and viable solutions to combat sedentary behavior among children during the school day in studies around the world. However, little is known regarding the potential of such interventions on cognitive outcomes in children over time. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the neurocognitive benefits, i.e., improvements in executive functioning and working memory, of stand-biased desks and explore any associated changes in frontal brain function. 34 freshman high school students were recruited for neurocognitive testing at two time points during the school year: (1 in the fall semester and (2 in the spring semester (after 27.57 (1.63 weeks of continued exposure. Executive function and working memory was evaluated using a computerized neurocognitive test battery, and brain activation patterns of the prefrontal cortex were obtained using functional near infrared spectroscopy. Continued utilization of the stand-biased desks was associated with significant improvements in executive function and working memory capabilities. Changes in corresponding brain activation patterns were also observed. These findings provide the first preliminary evidence on the neurocognitive benefits of standing desks, which to date have focused largely on energy expenditure. Findings obtained here can drive future research with larger samples and multiple schools, with comparison groups that may in turn implicate the importance of stand-biased desks, as simple environmental changes in classrooms, on enhancing children’s cognitive functioning that drive their cognitive development and impact educational outcomes.

  2. Lower trunk muscle activity-induced alignment and cop position during single-leg standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Tetsuya; Masuda, Kenichi; Kanai, Shigeyuki; Tsujita, Junzo; Hirakawa, Kazufumi; Okada, Shuichi

    2017-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify fundamental changes induced by lower trunk muscle contraction during single-leg standing. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy normal males participated in this study. All subjects could accurately perform lower trunk muscle contraction-type Abdominal Expansion (AE), Abdominal Bracing (AB), and Abdominal Cave-in (AC). The alignment and position of the center of foot pressure (COP) during single-leg standing with SLR and step position after rotating the body from single-leg standing with maximum SLR were measured in each lower trunk muscle contraction type. [Results] When AC was performed during single-leg standing with SLR, the SLR angle increased, COP shifted backward, and the posterior tilt angle of the trunk and cross step distance decreased. [Conclusion] It was assumed that AC during wind-up increases the angle of lower limb elevation and decreases the posterior tilt angle of the trunk and cross step distance.

  3. Visual evoked responses during standing and walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Gramann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cognition has been shaped both by our body structure and by its complex interactionswith its environment. Our cognition is thus inextricably linked to our own and others’ motorbehavior. To model brain activity associated with natural cognition, we propose recording theconcurrent brain dynamics and body movements of human subjects performing normal actions.Here we tested the feasibility of such a mobile brain/body (MoBI imaging approach byrecording high-density electroencephalographic (EEG activity and body movements of subjectsstanding or walking on a treadmill while performing a visual oddball response task. Independentcomponent analysis (ICA of the EEG data revealed visual event-related potentials (ERPs thatduring standing, slow walking, and fast walking did not differ across movement conditions,demonstrating the viability of recording brain activity accompanying cognitive processes duringwhole body movement. Non-invasive and relatively low-cost MoBI studies of normal, motivatedactions might improve understanding of interactions between brain and body dynamics leadingto more complete biological models of cognition.

  4. The relationship between the load on the knee joint during walking and the biomechanical characteristics of single-leg standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takeshi; Yamanaka, Masanori; Samukawa, Mina; Saito, Hiroshi; Sabashi, Kento; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the external knee adduction moment (KAM) during walking and the biomechanical characteristics of single-leg standing in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Data were collected while the subjects performed walking and single-leg standing using a motion analysis system with six digital video cameras and two force plates. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to quantify the relationship between peak KAM during walking and single-leg standing. To determine whether the kinematic behavior of the pelvis and trunk during single-leg standing are associated with peak KAM during walking, Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated and stepwise linear regression was performed. [Results] The peak KAM during single-leg standing was significantly correlated with that during walking. The peak KAM during walking was significantly correlated with the peak lateral lean of the trunk and the peak lateral tilt of the pelvis during single-leg standing. The results of stepwise linear regression analysis show the peak KAM during walking was partially explained by the peak lateral lean of the trunk during single-leg standing. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that single-leg standing might be a useful method for predicting the peak KAM during walking.

  5. Factors influencing loblolly pine stand health in Fort Benning, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung Ryoul Ryu; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Loblolly pine (LBP; Pinus taeda L.) stands provide two-thirds of the existing federally protected red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW; Picoides borealis) habitat in Fort Benning, Georgia, USA. However, LBP in this area is suspected to face a forest decline issue, which may risk the sustainability of the RCW population. Land managers are attempting to convert LBP stands to...

  6. A Leader's Guide to What Do You Stand for? For Kids CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Kids of any age can learn the basics of good character and figure out what they stand for. This leader's guide is a companion to the children's book, "What Do You Stand For? For Kids". The 11 lessons on the CD-ROM provide a complete course for kids on caring, citizenship, cooperation, fairness, forgiveness, honesty, relationships, respect,…

  7. User's Guide To CHEAP0 II-Economic Analysis of Stand Prognosis Model Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Horn; E. Lee Medema; Ervin G. Schuster

    1986-01-01

    CHEAP0 II provides supplemental economic analysis capability for users of version 5.1 of the Stand Prognosis Model, including recent regeneration and insect outbreak extensions. Although patterned after the old CHEAP0 model, CHEAP0 II has more features and analytic capabilities, especially for analysis of existing and uneven-aged stands....

  8. Object-oriented classification of forest structure from light detection and ranging data for stand mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia A. Sullivan; Robert J. McGaughey; Hans-Erik Andersen; Peter. Schiess

    2009-01-01

    Stand delineation is an important step in the process of establishing a forest inventory and provides the spatial framework for many forest management decisions. Many methods for extracting forest structure characteristics for stand delineation and other purposes have been researched in the past, primarily focusing on high-resolution imagery and satellite data. High-...

  9. Changes in the Equilibrium of Standing on One Leg at Various Life Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Shu Morioka; Takahiko Fukumoto; Makoto Hiyamizu; Atsushi Matsuo; Hideaki Takebayashi; Kenzo Miyamoto

    2012-01-01

    The ability to maintain a one-leg standing position and the relation between plantar two-point discrimination and standing time on one leg were assessed. Participants were 1,241 apparently healthy people aged 2–92 years. Participants were asked to stand on one leg with eyes open (EO group) or closed (EC group) for up to 120 seconds. Coefficients of determination (COD) between subjects' ages and results for both groups were calculated by quadratic and cubic functions. The slope of the tangent ...

  10. THE EXPERIMENTAL DIDACTIC STAND FOR DETERMINING THE PARAMETERS OF THE GEAR WITH MAGNETORHEOLOGICAL CLUTCH AND BRAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzy BAJKOWSKI

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the laboratory stand, designed to be used as a part of the Laboratory of Machine Design and Research which is part of the subject Fundamentals of Machine Design, is presented. Originally the laboratory stand was designed as an element of one of the research projects, and the adopted for didactic purposes. The students have the chance to get familiar with unique type of fluids controlled by the magnetic field and their application in the special purpose devices. The laboratory st...

  11. Impaired motor preparation and execution during standing reach in people with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombe Waller, Sandy; Yang, Chieh-Ling; Magder, Laurence; Yungher, Don; Creath, Rob; Gray, Vicki; Rogers, Mark W

    2016-09-06

    Movement preparation of both anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and goal directed movement during a standing reaching task in adults with chronic hemiparesis and healthy controls was investigated. Using a simple reaction time paradigm, while standing on two separate force platforms, subjects received a warning light cue to "get ready to reach" followed 2.5s later by an imperative light cue to "reach as quickly as possible" with the paretic arm (matched arm for controls) to touch a target in front of them for a total of 90 trials. In 30 of the reaching trials a loud acoustic stimulus (LAS) of 123 dB was randomly - -200, or 0ms relative to the "go" cue. APA (postural) responses were characterized by the onset and maximal posterior displacement of center of pressure (CoP) and onset/offset of electromyography (EMG) from tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (SOL), while reach was characterized by onset and maximal forward displacement of the reach hand and onset of the anterior (AD), biceps brachii (BB) and middle deltoid (MD). Subjects with stroke, demonstrated a marked reduction in the occurrence of the StartReact responses for both APA and forward reach at all LAS time points indicating movement preparation dysfunction. Movement execution during a cued reach showed significant delays in APA and reach onsets, significant reduction in the magnitude of APA (posterior CoP displacement) and reach excursion, and an increased latency between the APA and reach compared to controls. EMG activation patterns for the TA and SOL demonstrated co contraction compared to the temporally sequenced pattern of control subjects. When LAS was provided at the "go" there were earlier but not significant differences in APA onset latency compared to reaching without LAS and significant delays in reach onset latency when compared to control subjects with or without LAS. An early burst of EMG in biceps brachii muscles with a further delay of the reach onset compared to reaching without LAS may

  12. Stand pentru încercarea grinzilor precomprimate U 37m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Păstrav

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of conformity certification process of prefabricated beams used for bridges and viaducts on Transylvania Motorway, a prestressed concrete U-shaped beam of 37.10 m span with superior slab cast in situ was subjected to a resistance test. Due to beam overall dimensions of 3.30 x 2.50 x 37.10 m and to the important forces which have to be applied it has been necessary to build an adequate stand right near the precast site. Paper briefly presents the mechanical, technological, economical and work safety requirements, the design and the actual implementation of the one of the largest testing stands made în our country.

  13. Reineke’s stand density index: a quantitative and non-unitless measure of stand density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis L. VanderSchaaf

    2013-01-01

    When used as a measure of relative density, Reineke’s stand density index (SDI) can be made unitless by relating the current SDI to a standard density but when used as a quantitative measure of stand density SDI is not unitless. Reineke’s SDI relates the current stand density to an equivalent number of trees per unit area in a stand with a quadratic mean diameter (Dq)...

  14. Transformation of Vestibular Signals for the Control of Standing in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Patrick A; Luu, Billy L; Van der Loos, H F Machiel; Croft, Elizabeth A; Inglis, J Timothy; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-11-09

    During standing balance, vestibular signals encode head movement and are transformed into coordinates that are relevant to maintaining upright posture of the whole body. This transformation must account for head-on-body orientation as well as the muscle actions generating the postural response. Here, we investigate whether this transformation is dependent upon a muscle's ability to stabilize the body along the direction of a vestibular disturbance. Subjects were braced on top of a robotic balance system that simulated the mechanics of standing while being exposed to an electrical vestibular stimulus that evoked a craniocentric vestibular error of head roll. The balance system was limited to move in a single plane while the vestibular error direction was manipulated by having subjects rotate their head in yaw. Vestibular-evoked muscle responses were greatest when the vestibular error was aligned with the balance direction and decreased to zero as the two directions became orthogonal. This demonstrates that muscles respond only to the component of the error that is aligned with the balance direction and thus relevant to the balance task, not to the cumulative afferent activity, as expected for vestibulospinal reflex loops. When we reversed the relationship between balancing motor commands and associated vestibular sensory feedback, the direction of vestibular-evoked ankle compensatory responses was also reversed. This implies that the nervous system quickly reassociates new relationships between vestibular sensory signals and motor commands related to maintaining balance. These results indicate that vestibular-evoked muscle activity is a highly flexible balance response organized to compensate for vestibular disturbances. The postural corrections critical to standing balance and navigation rely on transformation of sensory information into reference frames that are relevant for the required motor actions. Here, we demonstrate that the nervous system transforms

  15. Development of a stand density index equation for slash pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Doruska

    2002-01-01

    Stand density index (SDI) is commonly used as the basis for density management guides for even-aged forest stands. Many tree species follow the same self-thinning trajectory, allowing for the use of stand density index in such guides. Slash pine (Pinus elliottii Englem.) has been shown to depart from the self-thinning trajectory exhibited by other...

  16. SPEED ROLLER STAND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM CHECKING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zybtsev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study has shown that the accuracy of brakes checking by inertial stands depends upon the applied methods of measurement of braking parameters (stand slowing down, braking distance, brakes triggering time, current speed as well as the methods of metrological checking of measuring system canals.

  17. Design Difficulties in Stand Density Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank A. Bennett

    1969-01-01

    Designing unbiased stand density studies is difficult. An acceptable sample requires stratification of the plots of age, site, and density. When basal area, percent stocking, or Reineke's stand density index is used as the density measure, this stratification forces a high negative correlation between site and number of trees per acre. Mortality in trees per acre...

  18. Development and evaluation of a two-dimensional electrocutaneous cognitive feedback system for use in paraplegic standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjacić, Z; Jensen, P L; Riso, R R; Voigt, M; Bajd, T; Sinkjaer, T

    2000-01-01

    Fatigue of electrically activated paralysed muscles is a major factor limiting the duration of functional electrical stimulation (FES) supported paraplegic standing. Fatigue can be significantly delayed by changing the posture. Since paralysed individuals are deprived of proprio- and exteroception from the lower limbs they are not aware of the posture and loading of their paralysed legs. If suitable cognitive feedback (CF) information about posture in the sagittal and frontal planes is provided, they might be able to successfully exercise posture switching. A two-dimensional electrocutaneous CF system was developed. Relative limb loading and the location of the weighted centre of pressure were selected as informational variables. Discrete encoding schemes in the form of spatial and frequency codes were employed and the informational signals were divided into three sub-regions. The ability to correctly interpret the CF was investigated using one- and two-dimension tracking tests in three paralysed subjects, each of whom were studied over five consecutive days. All three subjects were able to use the CF in one-dimension tests. Two subjects could do the same also in two-dimension tests. The encoding scheme which was developed to communicate the selected biomechanical variables proved to be easily understood and thus appropriate for use in paraplegic standing.

  19. Analysis of tree stand horizontal structure using random point field methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Sekretenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the model approach to analyze the horizontal structure of forest stands. The main types of models of random point fields and statistical procedures that can be used to analyze spatial patterns of trees of uneven and even-aged stands are described. We show how modern methods of spatial statistics can be used to address one of the objectives of forestry – to clarify the laws of natural thinning of forest stand and the corresponding changes in its spatial structure over time. Studying natural forest thinning, we describe the consecutive stages of modeling: selection of the appropriate parametric model, parameter estimation and generation of point patterns in accordance with the selected model, the selection of statistical functions to describe the horizontal structure of forest stands and testing of statistical hypotheses. We show the possibilities of a specialized software package, spatstat, which is designed to meet the challenges of spatial statistics and provides software support for modern methods of analysis of spatial data. We show that a model of stand thinning that does not consider inter-tree interaction can project the size distribution of the trees properly, but the spatial pattern of the modeled stand is not quite consistent with observed data. Using data of three even-aged pine forest stands of 25, 55, and 90-years old, we demonstrate that the spatial point process models are useful for combining measurements in the forest stands of different ages to study the forest stand natural thinning.

  20. Individual Tree Crown Delineation from Airborne Laser Scanning for Diseased Larch Forest Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Barnes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Airborne laser scanning (ALS can be utilised to derive canopy height models (CHMs for individual tree crown (ITC delineation. In the case of forest areas subject to defoliation and dieback as a result of disease, increased irregularities across the canopy can add complications to the segmentation of ITCs. Research has yet to address this issue in order to suggest appropriate techniques to apply under conditions of forest stands that are infected by phytopathogens. This study aimed to find the best method of ITC delineation for larch canopies affected by defoliation as a result of a Phytophthora ramorum infection. Sample plots from two study sites in Wales, United Kingdom, were selected for ITC segmentation assessment across a range of infection levels and stand characteristics. The performance of two segmentation algorithms (marker-controlled watershed and region growing were tested for a series of CHMs generated by a standard normalised digital surface model and a pit-free algorithm, across a range of spatial resolutions (0.15 m, 0.25 m and 0.5 m. The results show that the application of a pit-free CHM generation method produced improved segmentation accuracies in moderately and heavily infected larch forest, compared to the standard CHM. The success of ITC delineations was also influenced by CHM resolution. Across all plots the CHMs with a 0.25 m pixel size performed consistently well. However, lower and higher CHM resolutions also provided improved delineation accuracies in plots dominated by larger and smaller canopies respectively. The selected segmentation method also influenced the success of ITC delineations, with the marker-controlled watershed algorithm generating significantly more accurate results than the region growing algorithm (p < 0.10. The results demonstrate that ITCs in forest stands infected with Phytophthora ramorum can be successfully delineated from ALS when a pit-free algorithm is applied to CHM generation.

  1. Procedures for Determining the Performance of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNutt, P.; Kroposki, B.; Hansen, R.; DeBlasio, R. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Thomas, M. (Sandia National Laboratories); Durand, S. (Florida Solar Energy Center); Rosenthal, A. (Southwest Technology Development Institute); Hutchinson, P. (Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications)

    1999-09-21

    This document provides the procedures for determining the performance of stand-alone PV systems. The procedures in this document provide a common approach for evaluating whether a given PV system is suitable to perform the function for which it was designed and manufactured to accomplish, and whether it will provide adequate power to run the load. These procedures cover small stand-alone PV systems. They cover complete outdoor system testing. Test results are valid only for the system that is tested.

  2. Distinguishing between selective sweeps from standing variation and from a de novo mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Peter

    Full Text Available An outstanding question in human genetics has been the degree to which adaptation occurs from standing genetic variation or from de novo mutations. Here, we combine several common statistics used to detect selection in an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC framework, with the goal of discriminating between models of selection and providing estimates of the age of selected alleles and the selection coefficients acting on them. We use simulations to assess the power and accuracy of our method and apply it to seven of the strongest sweeps currently known in humans. We identify two genes, ASPM and PSCA, that are most likely affected by selection on standing variation; and we find three genes, ADH1B, LCT, and EDAR, in which the adaptive alleles seem to have swept from a new mutation. We also confirm evidence of selection for one further gene, TRPV6. In one gene, G6PD, neither neutral models nor models of selective sweeps fit the data, presumably because this locus has been subject to balancing selection.

  3. A national safety stand-down to reduce construction worker falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Jessica; Branche, Christine; Trahan, Chris; Goldenhar, Linda

    2017-02-01

    Falls are the leading cause of death and third leading cause of non-fatal injuries in construction. In an effort to combat these numbers, The National Campaign to Prevent Falls in Construction began in April 2012. As the campaign gained momentum, a week called the National Safety Stand-Down to Prevent Falls was launched to draw attention to the campaign and its goals. The purpose of this paper is to examine the reach of the Stand-Down and lessons learned from its implementation. The Occupational Safety & Health Administration offered a certificate of participation during the Stand-Down. To print the certificate, respondents provided information about their company and stand-down event. CPWR - The Center for Construction Research and Training conducted analyses on the data collected to assess reach and extent of participation. In 2014, 4,882 stand-downs were reported. The total number reported in 2015 was 3,759. The number of participants, however, increased from 770,193 in 2014 to 1,041,307 in 2015. The Stand-Down successfully reached the construction industry and beyond. Respondents were enthusiastic and participated nationally and internationally in variety of activities. They also provided significant feedback that will be influential in future campaign planning. Numbers of Stand-Downs and participants for both years are estimated to be substantially higher than the data recorded from the certificate database. While we cannot determine impact, the reach of the Stand-Down has surpassed expectations. The data gathered provide support for the continuation of the Stand-Down. Campaign planners incorporated findings into future Stand-Down planning, materials creation, and promotion. This analysis also provides insight on how organizations can partner to create targeted national campaigns that include activities stakeholders in the construction industry respond to, and can be used to replicate our efforts for other safety and health initiatives in construction and

  4. Atmospheric deposition in coniferous and deciduous tree stands in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Anna; Astel, Aleksander; Boczoń, Andrzej; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the transformation of precipitation in terms of quantity and chemical composition following contact with the crown layer in tree stands with varied species composition, to investigate the effect of four predominant forest-forming species (pine, spruce, beech, and oak) on the amount and composition of precipitation reaching forest soils, and to determine the sources of pollution in atmospheric precipitation in forest areas in Poland. The amount and chemical composition (pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, and chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron aluminum, manganese, zinc, copper, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon contents) of atmospheric (bulk, BP) and throughfall (TF) precipitation were studied from January to December 2010 on twelve forest monitoring plots representative of Polish conditions. The study results provided the basis for the determination of the fluxes of pollutants in the forest areas of Poland and allowed the comparison of such fluxes with values provided in the literature for European forest areas. The transformation of precipitation in the canopy was compared for different tree stands. The fluxes of substances in an open field and under canopy were influenced by the location of the plot, including the regional meteorological conditions (precipitation amounts), vicinity of the sea (effect of marine aerosols), and local level of anthropogenic pollution. Differences between the plots were higher in TF than in BP. The impact of the vegetation cover on the chemical composition of precipitation depended on the region of the country and dominant species in a given tree stand. Coniferous species tended to cause acidification of precipitation, whereas deciduous species increased the pH of TF. Pine and oak stands enriched precipitation with components that leached from the canopy (potassium, manganese, magnesium) to a higher degree than spruce and

  5. Effect of yoga training on one leg standing and functional reach tests in obese individuals with poor postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorrakate, Chaiyong; Kongsuk, Jutaluk; Pongduang, Chiraprapa; Sadsee, Boontiwa; Chanthorn, Phatchari

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of yoga training on static and dynamic standing balance in obese individuals with poor standing balance. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen obese volunteers were randomly assigned into yoga and control groups. The yoga training program was performed for 45 minutes per day, 3 times per week, for 4 weeks. Static and dynamic balance were assessed in volunteers with one leg standing and functional reach tests. Outcome measures were tested before training and after a single week of training. Two-way repeated measure analysis of variance with Tukey's honestly significant difference post hoc statistics was used to analyze the data. [Results] Obese individuals showed significantly increased static standing balance in the yoga training group, but there was no significant improvement of static or dynamic standing balance in the control group after 4 weeks. In the yoga group, significant increases in static standing balance was found after the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks. Compared with the control group, static standing balance in the yoga group was significantly different after the 2nd week, and dynamic standing balance was significantly different after the 4th week. [Conclusion] Yoga training would be beneficial for improving standing balance in obese individuals with poor standing balance.

  6. Comparative shoulder kinematics during free standing, standing depression lifts and daily functional activities in persons with paraplegia: considerations for shoulder health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riek, L M; Ludewig, P M; Nawoczenski, D A

    2008-05-01

    Case series; nonparametric repeated-measures analysis of variance. To compare and contrast three-dimensional shoulder kinematics during frequently utilized upper extremity weight-bearing activities (standing depression lifts used in brace walking, weight-relief raises, transfers) and postures (sitting rest, standing in a frame) in spinal cord injury (SCI). Movement Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physical Therapy, Ithaca College, Rochester, NY, USA. Three female and two male subjects (39.2+/-6.1 years old) at least 12 months post-SCI (14.6+/-6.7 years old), SCI distal to T2 and with an ASIA score of A. The Flock of Birds magnetic tracking device was used to measure three-dimensional positions of the scapula, humerus and thorax during various activities. Standing in a frame resulted in significantly less scapular anterior tilt (AT) and greater glenohumeral external rotation (GHER) than standing depression lifts and weight-relief raises. Standing frame posture offers the most favorable shoulder joint positions (less scapular AT and greater GHER) when compared to sitting rest posture, weight-relief raises, transfers and standing depression lifts. Knowledge of kinematic patterns associated with each activity is an essential first step to understanding the potential impact on shoulder health. Choosing specific activities or modifying techniques within functional activities that promote favorable shoulder positions may preserve long-term shoulder health.

  7. Robot-supported assessment of balance in standing and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Camila; van Asseldonk, Edwin; Matjačić, Zlatko; Vallery, Heike; Barralon, Pierre; Maggioni, Serena; Buurke, Jaap H; Veneman, Jan F

    2017-08-14

    Clinically useful and efficient assessment of balance during standing and walking is especially challenging in patients with neurological disorders. However, rehabilitation robots could facilitate assessment procedures and improve their clinical value. We present a short overview of balance assessment in clinical practice and in posturography. Based on this overview, we evaluate the potential use of robotic tools for such assessment. The novelty and assumed main benefits of using robots for assessment are their ability to assess 'severely affected' patients by providing assistance-as-needed, as well as to provide consistent perturbations during standing and walking while measuring the patient's reactions. We provide a classification of robotic devices on three aspects relevant to their potential application for balance assessment: 1) how the device interacts with the body, 2) in what sense the device is mobile, and 3) on what surface the person stands or walks when using the device. As examples, nine types of robotic devices are described, classified and evaluated for their suitability for balance assessment. Two example cases of robotic assessments based on perturbations during walking are presented. We conclude that robotic devices are promising and can become useful and relevant tools for assessment of balance in patients with neurological disorders, both in research and in clinical use. Robotic assessment holds the promise to provide increasingly detailed assessment that allows to individually tailor rehabilitation training, which may eventually improve training effectiveness.

  8. Analysis of Human Standing Balance by Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyse the relationship between nonlinear dynamic character and individuals’ standing balance by the largest Lyapunov exponent, which is regarded as a metric for assessing standing balance. According to previous study, the largest Lyapunov exponent from centre of pressure time series could not well quantify the human balance ability. In this research, two improvements were made. Firstly, an external stimulus was applied to feet in the form of continuous horizontal sinusoidal motion by a moving platform. Secondly, a multiaccelerometer subsystem was adopted. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this experiment. A new metric, coordinated largest Lyapunov exponent was proposed, which reflected the relationship of body segments by integrating multidimensional largest Lyapunov exponent values. By using this metric in actual standing performance under sinusoidal stimulus, an obvious relationship between the new metric and the actual balance ability was found in the majority of the subjects. These results show that the sinusoidal stimulus can make human balance characteristics more obvious, which is beneficial to assess balance, and balance is determined by the ability of coordinating all body segments.

  9. Static balance according to hip joint angle of unsupported leg during one-leg standing

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Jang-Joon; Ye, Jae-Gwan; Lee, Seul-Ji; Hong, Jeong-Mi; Choi, Hyun-Kyu; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Won-Seob

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine static balance according to hip joint angle of the unsupported leg during one-leg standing. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 45 healthy adult males and females in their 20s. During one-leg standing on the non-dominant leg, the position of the unsupported leg was classified according to hip joint angles of point angle was class. Static balance was then measured using a force plate with eyes open and closed. The total length, sway velocity, maximu...

  10. Standing activity intervention and motor function in a young child with cerebral palsy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audu, Olukemi; Daly, Carol

    2017-02-01

    There is limited evidence to fully justify the use of standing interventions for children with cerebral palsy (CP). This case report describes the impact of an 8-week standing program on motor function in a child with severe CP living in western Africa. The subject was diagnosed with ischemic - hypoxic encephalopathy shortly after birth and with CP at 12 months of age. Gross Motor Function Classification of CP was level IV. Early attempts at physical therapy were interrupted by limited access to medical services. At 18 months, a standing program using a locally constructed standing frame was initiated. The standing intervention was completed at home 5 times a week for 8 weeks. Motor skills were assessed at baseline and post-intervention using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66). Scores on the GMFM-66 increased from 28 at baseline to 37.4 in 8 weeks. Improvements in motor function included improved head control, improved upper extremity function, and increased sitting ability. Implementation of a home-based standing program may have contributed to improved motor skills for this child. Further research is needed to determine the effect of standing interventions on functional motor development for children with severe CP.

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Balance Prediction Models for Sit-to-Stand Movement in the Sagittal Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar David Pena Cabra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of balance control ability would become important in the rehabilitation training. In this paper, in order to make clear usefulness and limitation of a traditional simple inverted pendulum model in balance prediction in sit-to-stand movements, the traditional simple model was compared to an inertia (rotational radius variable inverted pendulum model including multiple-joint influence in the balance predictions. The predictions were tested upon experimentation with six healthy subjects. The evaluation showed that the multiple-joint influence model is more accurate in predicting balance under demanding sit-to-stand conditions. On the other hand, the evaluation also showed that the traditionally used simple inverted pendulum model is still reliable in predicting balance during sit-to-stand movement under non-demanding (normal condition. Especially, the simple model was shown to be effective for sit-to-stand movements with low center of mass velocity at the seat-off. Moreover, almost all trajectories under the normal condition seemed to follow the same control strategy, in which the subjects used extra energy than the minimum one necessary for standing up. This suggests that the safety considerations come first than the energy efficiency considerations during a sit to stand, since the most energy efficient trajectory is close to the backward fall boundary.

  12. Distribution of Young Forests and Estimated Stand Age across Russia, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the distribution of young forests (forests less than 27 years of age) and their estimated stand ages across the full extent of Russia at 500-m...

  13. Development of hybrid orthosis for standing, walking, and stair climbing after spinal cord injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kobetic, Rudi; To, Curtis S; Schnellenberger, John R; Audu, Musa L; Bulea, Thomas C; Gaudio, Richard; Pinault, Gilles; Tashman, Scott; Triolo, Ronald J

    2009-01-01

    ...) to facilitate standing, walking, and stair climbing after spinal cord injury (SCI). The orthotic components consist of electromechanical joints that lock and unlock automatically to provide upright stability and free movement powered by FES...

  14. Distribution of Estimated Stand Age Across Siberian Larch Forests, 1989-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides mapped estimates of the stand age of young (less than 25 years old) larch forests across Siberia from 1989-2012 at 30-m resolution. The age...

  15. The Advantage of Standing Up to Fight and the Evolution of Habitual Bipedalism in Hominins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many quadrupedal species stand bipedally on their hindlimbs to fight. This posture may provide a performance advantage by allowing the forelimbs to strike an opponent with the range of motion that is intrinsic to high-speed running, jumping, rapid braking and turning; the range of motion over which peak force and power can be produced. Methodology/Principal Findings To test the hypothesis that bipedal (i.e., orthograde) posture provides a performance advantage when striking with the forelimbs, I measured the force and energy produced when human subjects struck from “quadrupedal” (i.e., pronograde) and bipedal postures. Downward and upward directed striking energy was measured with a custom designed pendulum transducer. Side and forward strikes were measured with a punching bag instrumented with an accelerometer. When subjects struck downward from a bipedal posture the work was 43.70±12.59% (mean ± S.E.) greater than when they struck from a quadrupedal posture. Similarly, 47.49±17.95% more work was produced when subjects struck upward from a bipedal stance compared to a quadrupedal stance. Importantly, subjects did 229.69±44.19% more work in downward than upward directed strikes. During side and forward strikes the force impulses were 30.12±3.68 and 43.04±9.00% greater from a bipedal posture than a quadrupedal posture, respectively. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that bipedal posture does provide a performance advantage for striking with the forelimbs. The mating systems of great apes are characterized by intense male-male competition in which conflict is resolved through force or the threat of force. Great apes often fight from bipedal posture, striking with both the fore- and hindlimbs. These observations, plus the findings of this study, suggest that sexual selection contributed to the evolution of habitual bipedalism in hominins. PMID:21611167

  16. The advantage of standing up to fight and the evolution of habitual bipedalism in hominins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Carrier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many quadrupedal species stand bipedally on their hindlimbs to fight. This posture may provide a performance advantage by allowing the forelimbs to strike an opponent with the range of motion that is intrinsic to high-speed running, jumping, rapid braking and turning; the range of motion over which peak force and power can be produced. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis that bipedal (i.e., orthograde posture provides a performance advantage when striking with the forelimbs, I measured the force and energy produced when human subjects struck from "quadrupedal" (i.e., pronograde and bipedal postures. Downward and upward directed striking energy was measured with a custom designed pendulum transducer. Side and forward strikes were measured with a punching bag instrumented with an accelerometer. When subjects struck downward from a bipedal posture the work was 43.70±12.59% (mean ± S.E. greater than when they struck from a quadrupedal posture. Similarly, 47.49±17.95% more work was produced when subjects struck upward from a bipedal stance compared to a quadrupedal stance. Importantly, subjects did 229.69±44.19% more work in downward than upward directed strikes. During side and forward strikes the force impulses were 30.12±3.68 and 43.04±9.00% greater from a bipedal posture than a quadrupedal posture, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that bipedal posture does provide a performance advantage for striking with the forelimbs. The mating systems of great apes are characterized by intense male-male competition in which conflict is resolved through force or the threat of force. Great apes often fight from bipedal posture, striking with both the fore- and hindlimbs. These observations, plus the findings of this study, suggest that sexual selection contributed to the evolution of habitual bipedalism in hominins.

  17. Development of test stand for experimental investigation of chemical and physical phenomena in Liquid Rocket Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Andrade Santos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to present the specification of an experimental firing test stand for liquid rocket engines (LRE and develop a program for control and acquisition of data. It provides conditions to test rocket engines with thrust from 50 to 100 kgf. A methodology for laboratory work implementation using information technology, which will allow the automatic and remote functioning of the test stand, permits users to input the necessary data to conduct tests safely, achieve accurate measurements and obtain reliable results. The control of propellant mass flow rates by pressure regulators and other system valves, as well as the test stand data acquisition, are carried out automatically through LabVIEW commercial software. The test stand program is a readable, scalable and maintainable code. The test stand design and its development represent the state of art of experimental apparatus in LRE testing.

  18. Characterization and possible origins of isolated douglas fir stands on the Colorado Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, J.R. [National Park Service, Page, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The floristic composition of several isolated stands of Pseudotsuga menziesii on the Colorado Plateau is compared. All occurred between 1700-2000 meters, which was about 300-500 meters below typical lower limits for the species. Most stands showed evidence of reproduction and recruitment. A small widespread group of species existed that was common to all stands, but beta diversity was high. A preliminary analysis of possible origins of the stands suggested that they are relictual from the late Wisconsin or early Holocene. Bird-dispersed species were less prevalent than expected compared with existing high elevation conifer forests. These stands represent important resources for Quaternary research, but are extremely vulnerable to human-caused disturbances. It is recommended that they be provided protection from disturbance through appropriate management activities of the various land management agencies.

  19. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Outpatient Procedures PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Outpatient Procedures Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare outpatient claims. The CMS BSA...

  20. RLC Forest Stand Carbon Map of Russia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This dataset is a 1:15 million scale map of forest stand carbon for the land area of Russia (Stone et al., 2000). The objective was to create a first...

  1. RLC Forest Stand Carbon Map of Russia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is a 1:15 million scale map of forest stand carbon for the land area of Russia (Stone et al., 2000). The objective was to create a first approximation...

  2. Minnesota DNR Forest Stand Inventory Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer is a digital inventory of individual forest stands. The data is collected by DNR Foresters in each DNR Forestry Administrative Area, and is updated on a...

  3. 1990 sampling of treated aspen stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In mid-August, 1990, sampling of aspen stand exclosures were conducted at the National Elk Refuge. This sampling is part of a study to monitor aspen regeneration on...

  4. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  5. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  6. Species composition of developing Central Appalachian hardwood stands following clearcutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance A. Vickers; Thomas Fox

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the species composition of 47 paired stands on submesic sites on the Appalachian Plateau of West Virginia. Paired stands consisted of a mature stand adjacent to a young clearcut that was

  7. Stand and within-stand factors influencing Golden-winged Warbler use of regenerating stands in the central Appalachian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja H. Bakermans

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera is currently being considered for protected status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The creation of breeding habitat in the Appalachian Mountains is considered a conservation priority for this songbird, which is dependent on extensively forested landscapes with adequate availability of young forest. We modeled abundance of Golden-winged Warbler males in regenerating harvested forest stands that were 0-17 years postharvest at both mid-Appalachian and northeast Pennsylvania regional scales using stand and within-stand characteristics of 222 regenerating stands, 2010-2011. Variables that were most influential at the mid-Appalachian scale were different than those in the northeast region. Across the mid-Appalachian ecoregion, the proportion of young forest cover, i.e., shrub/scrub cover, within 1 km of regenerating stands best explained abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Golden-winged Warbler response was best explained by a concave quadratic relationship in which abundance was highest with 5-15% land in young forest cover. We also found evidence that the amount of herbaceous cover, i.e., the amount of grasses and forbs, within a regenerating stand positively influenced abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. In northeastern Pennsylvania, where young forest cover is found in high proportions, the distance to the nearest regenerating stand best explained variation in abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Abundance of Golden-winged Warblers was 1500 m away. When modeling within-stand features in the northeast region, many of the models were closely ranked, indicating that multiple variables likely explained Golden-winged Warbler response to within-stand conditions. Based on our findings, we have proposed several management guidelines for land managers interested in creating breeding habitat for Golden-winged Warblers using commercial timber operations. For example, we recommend when managing for

  8. Laboratory Stands for Wideband Analysis Radiocommunication Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Studanski, Ryszard; Was, Radosław; Studanska, Agnieszka; Garus, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory stand for wideband analysis radiocommunication signals is presented in the paper. The stand is designed for signals acquisition in wide spectrum and research a field of digital signal processing. Procedures used for simultaneous acquiring many frequency channels in selected wide band are described. The method of detection of direct sequence spread spectrum signals (DS SS) which power spectral density is lower than noise is also discussed. Executed research were performed with sig...

  9. Evaluating biomechanics of user-selected sitting and standing computer workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Michael Y; Barbir, Ana; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2017-11-01

    A standing computer workstation has now become a popular modern work place intervention to reduce sedentary behavior at work. However, user's interaction related to a standing computer workstation and its differences with a sitting workstation need to be understood to assist in developing recommendations for use and set up. The study compared the differences in upper extremity posture and muscle activity between user-selected sitting and standing workstation setups. Twenty participants (10 females, 10 males) volunteered for the study. 3-D posture, surface electromyography, and user-reported discomfort were measured while completing simulated tasks with each participant's self-selected workstation setups. Sitting computer workstation associated with more non-neutral shoulder postures and greater shoulder muscle activity, while standing computer workstation induced greater wrist adduction angle and greater extensor carpi radialis muscle activity. Sitting computer workstation also associated with greater shoulder abduction postural variation (90th-10th percentile) while standing computer workstation associated with greater variation for should rotation and wrist extension. Users reported similar overall discomfort levels within the first 10 min of work but had more than twice as much discomfort while standing than sitting after 45 min; with most discomfort reported in the low back for standing and shoulder for sitting. These different measures provide understanding in users' different interactions with sitting and standing and by alternating between the two configurations in short bouts may be a way of changing the loading pattern on the upper extremity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  11. Yield tables for Italian coppice stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernetti, G.

    1980-01-01

    A critical review of results from 32 yield tables for Italian coppice stands. Particular attention is paid to age of maximum m.a.i., distribution of total volume of fuelwood up to 3 cm in diameter and of brushwood, and relation between mean height and volume. A provisional general yield table is given for Quercus cerris and mixed deciduous coppice stands, based on data from 12 local tables. Maximum m.a.i. occurs relatively early, with rather low values. For Quercus ilex and mixed evergreen broadleaved coppice stands on the coast of Tuscany, tables perpared separately by Giordano and Patrone are broadly in agreement. In terms of total volume, the evergreen coppice stands of the Mediterranean maquis have a higher yield than deciduous coppice stands, and contain a higher % of brushwood. Data for Fagus sylvatica are somewhat incomplete, but m.a.i. for fuelwood appears to remain constant between the ages of 12 and 24, with maximum values of 5 and 2.1 cu.m/ha for the best and poorest quality classes respectively. Castanea sativa coppice stands can show very high rates of increment e.g. maximum m.a.i. of 20 cu.m/ha on highly fertile volcanic soils.

  12. Gravity where do we stand ?

    CERN Document Server

    Colpi, Monica; Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the current understanding of gravitation, with a focus on the current efforts to test its theories, especially general relativity. It shows how the quest for a deeper understanding, which would possibly incorporate gravity in the quantum realm, is more than ever an open field. The majority of the contributions deals with the manifold facets of “experimental gravitation”, but the book goes beyond this and covers a broad range of subjects from the foundations of gravitational theories to astrophysics and cosmology. The book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with foundations and Solar System tests. An introductory pedagogical chapter reviews first Newtonian gravitational theory, special relativity, the equivalence principle and the basics of general relativity. Then it focuses on approximation methods, mainly the post-Newtonian formalism and the relaxed Einstein equations, with a discussion on how they are used in treating experimental tests and in the proble...

  13. Effect of noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation on center of pressure sway of static standing posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inukai, Yasuto; Otsuru, Naofumi; Masaki, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Kei; Miyaguchi, Shota; Kojima, Sho; Onishi, Hideaki

    2017-10-17

    The vestibular system is involved in the control of standing balance. Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a noninvasive technique that can stimulate the vestibular system. In recent years, noisy GVS (nGVS) using noise current stimulation has been attempted, but it has not been clarified whether it affects postural sway in open-eye standing. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of nGVS on the center of pressure (COP) sway measurement in open-eye standing postural control and identify the responders of nGVS. nGVS (0.1-640 Hz) was delivered at 0.4 and 1.0 mA over the bipolar mastoid. COP sway root mean square area, sway path length, medio-lateral (ML) mean velocity, and antero-posterior (AP) mean velocity before and during nGVS in an open-eye standing posture was measured. nGVS at 0.4 and 1.0 mA significantly reduced sway path length, mean velocity. The stimulation effect of nGVS was also large in subjects with a long sway path. For subjects with high COP sway of Baseline, nGVS was effective even with stimulation for a short duration (5 s). These findings suggest that nGVS improves postural sway in an open-eye standing posture among young subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of self-action observation on standing balance learning: A change of brain activity detected using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyamizu, Makoto; Maeoka, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Atsushi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest that the observation of others' actions leads to enhanced motor skill learning. We examined whether others' or self-action observation is effective for standing balance learning. In addition, we examined cortical activation during action observation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Thirty-nine healthy young subjects were assigned randomly to the Control, Other-Observation (O-O), and Self-Observation (S-O) groups. The subjects learned to stand on a tilting platform while maintaining a horizontal position. The Control group alternated each trial with a rest period. The O-O and S-O groups were provided with information related to their performance during the rest period: the O-O group observed another person, while the S-O group observed their previous performance. Cortical activation was assessed by changes of hemoglobin oxygenation (oxyHb). A 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measures on balance performance revealed a significant difference in post-training (p observed in the supplementary motor area. Self-action observation improved standing balance and brain activity during training and at 24 h after training.

  15. Prior exercise and standing as strategies to circumvent sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Takuma; Restaino, Robert M; Walsh, Lauren K; Kanaley, Jill A; Padilla, Jaume

    2017-06-01

    We have previously shown that local heating or leg fidgeting can prevent prolonged sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction. However, whether physical activity prevents subsequent sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction would be prevented by prior exercise. We also examined if, in the absence of exercise, standing is an effective alternative strategy to sitting for conserving leg endothelial function. Fifteen young healthy subjects completed three randomized experimental trials: (1) sitting without prior exercise; (2) sitting with prior exercise; and (3) standing without prior exercise. Following baseline popliteal artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) measurements, subjects maintained a supine position for 45 min in the sitting and standing trials, without prior exercise, or performed 45 min of leg cycling before sitting (i.e. sitting with prior exercise trial). Thereafter, subjects were positioned into a seated or standing position, according to the trial, for 3 h. Popliteal artery FMD measures were then repeated. Three hours of sitting without prior exercise caused a significant impairment in popliteal artery FMD (baseline: 3.8±0.5%, post-sitting: 1.5±0.5%, Pexercise (baseline: 3.8±0.5%, post-sitting: 3.6±0.7%, P>0.05). Three hours of standing did not significantly alter popliteal artery FMD (baseline: 4.1±0.4%, post-standing: 4.3±0.4%, P>0.05). In conclusion, prolonged sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction can be prevented by prior aerobic exercise. In addition, in the absence of exercise, standing represents an effective substitute to sitting for preserving leg conduit artery endothelial function. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. Effects of stand composition and thinning in mixed-species forests : a modeling approach applied to Douglas-fir and beech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelink, H.H.

    2000-01-01

    Models estimating growth and yield of forest stands provide important tools for forest management. Pure stands have been modeled extensively and successfully for decades; however, relatively few models for mixed-species stands have been developed. A spatially explicit, mechanistic model (COMMIX) is

  17. The Effect of Various Standing Positions in Muscles Activity between Healthy Young Men and those with Genu Varum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persian Abstract Amir Hossein Barati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Genu varum is considered a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis. Being aware of the changes in muscles activity in various standing positions among genu varum patients, can provide insight for preventing osteoarthritis in this population. This study is undertaken to compare muscles activity in various standing positions between young healthy and genu varum male individuals. Methods: 80 healthy male university students, 40 normal and 40 subjects with genu varum deformity, participated in this study. Deformity of genu varum was assessed with caliper and Goniometer. Each subject stood in five different positions and muscles activity was recorded with EMG device. For data analysis, Matlab and SPSS software were employed and Mixed variance analysis test (Mixed ANOVA was run to compare the dependent variables at a significance level of P ≤ 0.05. Results: Significant differences were observed between the two groups for muscles activity of the tensor fasia latae (at single leg with closed eye position, tertius fibulae and gluteus medius muscles (at single leg with closed eye and upward head postions( p≤0.05 while no significant differences were observed in other muscles. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, it can be suggested that frontal knee angle may affect muscles activity. Perhaps one of the reasons for higher injury risk and knee osteoarthritis in genu varum population is the increase in muscles activity. Therefor, It is proposed that focusing on corrective exercises can reduce these risks.

  18. The influence of thoracolumbosacral orthoses on standing balance in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanali, Minoo; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Hutchins, Stephen William; Vahab Kashani, Reza; Sadeghi, Heidar; Vahid Tari, Hossein

    2014-04-09

    Abstract Background and aim: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of thoracolumbosacral orthoses (TLSOs) on antero-posterior (AP) sway, medio-lateral (ML) sway and displacement of the center of pressure (COP) during a longitudinal study in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Methods: Eight females aged between 12 and 14.5 years participated in this study. Evaluations were performed prior to the TLSO intervention as a baseline condition, after 1 month, and after 4 months of orthosis use by assessing balance when standing statically on different surfaces. Results: When standing on both lower limbs on a solid surface there were significant differences in ML sway with the eyes both open and closed, and also in A/P sway but only when standing on a solid surface with the eyes open and also when standing on a foam surface with the eyes closed with TLSO use. When standing on the dominant leg, ML sway significantly improved, but AP sway only improved with a foam base surface with the eyes open. Conclusion: This study demonstrated positive effects of wearing a TLSO in improving quiet standing balance and standing on the dominant lower extremity in subjects with AIS after 4 months of brace use. Implications for Rehabilitation Due to a change in body shape such as that caused by scoliosis, human posture changes and spinal deformities affect the position of the center of support, and thus balance ability may change. AIS subjects have poor standing stability compared to a healthy matched control group. Brace wearing had positive effect in improving quiet standing balance and standing on the dominant lower extremity in subjects with AIS undergoing brace treatment after 4 months of TLSO use.

  19. Running interfacial waves in a two-layer fluid system subject to longitudinal vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldobin, D S; Pimenova, A V; Kovalevskaya, K V; Lyubimov, D V; Lyubimova, T P

    2015-05-01

    We study the waves at the interface between two thin horizontal layers of immiscible fluids subject to high-frequency horizontal vibrations. Previously, the variational principle for energy functional, which can be adopted for treatment of quasistationary states of free interface in fluid dynamical systems subject to vibrations, revealed the existence of standing periodic waves and solitons in this system. However, this approach does not provide regular means for dealing with evolutionary problems: neither stability problems nor ones associated with propagating waves. In this work, we rigorously derive the evolution equations for long waves in the system, which turn out to be identical to the plus (or good) Boussinesq equation. With these equations one can find all the time-independent-profile solitary waves (standing solitons are a specific case of these propagating waves), which exist below the linear instability threshold; the standing and slow solitons are always unstable while fast solitons are stable. Depending on initial perturbations, unstable solitons either grow in an explosive manner, which means layer rupture in a finite time, or falls apart into stable solitons. The results are derived within the long-wave approximation as the linear stability analysis for the flat-interface state [D.V. Lyubimov and A.A. Cherepanov, Fluid Dynamics 21, 849 (1986)] reveals the instabilities of thin layers to be long wavelength.

  20. FES assisted standing in people with incomplete spinal cord injury: a single case design series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, J; Tanhoffer, A I P; Fornusek, C

    2014-03-01

    Single case cross-over design with multiple baselines. To compare two functional electrical stimulation (FES) training protocols to assist sit-to-stand in people with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). The study was conducted in Sydney, Australia. Four subjects with incomplete SCI undertook nine sessions of FES supported cycling at either 100 or 35 Hz stimulus frequency repeated. Ground reaction force and rate of generation of vertical ground reaction force during standing from sitting were measured before and after each training series. Subjects improved their ability to generate greater support through the feet after training with 35 Hz stimulus paradigm but increased the rate of force production after training with 100 Hz stimulation. Different FES training paradigms appear to produce different responses; however the ability to stand up seems more responsive to training with 35 Hz FES stimulation.

  1. Soccer players have a better standing balance in nondominant one-legged stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Rosario; Macaluso, Filippo; Traina, Marcello; Leonardi, Vincenza; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in standing balance during dominant and nondominant one-legged stance among athletes of different sports and sedentary subjects. The right-footed subjects of four groups (sedentary, n = 20; soccer, n = 20; basketball, n = 20; windsurfer n = 20) underwent 5-sec unipedal (left and right foot) stabilometric analysis with open eyes and closed eyes to measure center of pressure (COP) sway path and COP velocity (mean value, anteroposterior, and laterolateral in millimeters per second). The soccer group showed better standing balance on the left leg than the sedentary group (P < 0.05). No other significant differences were observed within and amongst groups. The soccer players have a better standing balance on the nondominant leg because of soccer activity. PMID:24198563

  2. Ageing with long-standing hearing impairment and deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gething, L

    2000-09-01

    Until recently, ageing with a long-standing disability had not been a major consideration for governments around the world. Policy and planning for this substantial subgroup had not kept abreast with developments in regard to the growing numbers of older people in general. Consultations held in Australia provided information and recommendations for use by governments and service agencies. The focus was on the viewpoints of consumers. This article reports results for people with long-standing deafness and hearing impairment. It is believed that disadvantages throughout life act to restrict freedom of choice and well-being in old age. Important factors perceived to underlie disadvantage include lifelong restricted access to the opportunities afforded by education and employment and their concomitant effects on the ability to develop the skills, attitudes and knowledge necessary for independence in old age; attitudes of others (including service providers); and the complexity and inflexibility of service systems. However, there are positive aspects. Comparison with published reports about people who acquired hearing loss as a result of the ageing process suggests that people with long-standing disability have learned to live with their situation. In contrast, people whose loss was associated with ageing often report emotional issues and isolation.

  3. Selection of optimal muscle set for 16-channel standing neuroprosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartman, Steven J.; Audu, Musa L.; Kirsch, Robert F.; Triolo, Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    The Case Western Reserve University/Department of Veterans Affairs 8-channel lower-limb neuroprosthesis can restore standing to selected individuals with paraplegia by application of functional electrical stimulation. The second generation of this system will include 16 channels of stimulation and a closed-loop control scheme to provide automatic postural corrections. This study used a musculoskeletal model of the legs and trunk to determine which muscles to target with the new system in order to maximize the range of postures that can be statically maintained, which should increase the system’s ability to provide adequate support to maintain standing when the user’s posture moves away from a neutral stance, either by an external disturbance or a volitional change in posture by the user. The results show that the prime muscle targets should be the medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, semimembranosus, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, adductor magnus, and erector spinae. This set of 16 muscles supports 42 percent of the standing postures that are attainable by the nondisabled model. Coactivation of the lateral gastrocnemius and peroneus longus with the medial gastrocnemius and of the peroneus tertius with the tibialis anterior increased the percentage of feasible postures to 71 percent. PMID:16847793

  4. A body-fixed-sensor-based analysis of power during sit-to-stand movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Wiebren; Bisseling, Robertus Wilhelmus; Schlumbohm, Stephan; Baldus, Heribert

    This study presents an analysis of power exertion for lifting the body's centre of mass (CoM) during rising from a chair. Five healthy young (21-44 years) and 12 healthy older (70-79 years) subjects performed sit-to-stand (STS) movements while data were measured with force-plates underneath chair

  5. Autonomic heart-rate control in response to standing in toxemic and normotensive primigravid pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WJ Jaspers; PA de Jong; PJ Kurver; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    1984-01-01

    Heart-rate changes after transition from a supine to a standing posture were measured in 12 hypertensive and 12 normotensive primigravid women, in their last trimester of gestation. The subjects beat-to-beat heart-rate (HR) changes were recorded on both an ordinary cardiotocograph and on magnetic

  6. Auditory Feedback: Effects on Vertical Force Production during Standing Up Following Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, V.; Carr, J.

    1996-01-01

    Twelve individuals recovering from stroke were given a three-week period of rehabilitative training with or without auditory feedback. The purpose was to investigate weight distribution on the pattern of vertical force through the affected leg during standing up. Results indicated the training improved subjects' strength and muscle control, though…

  7. Seasonal Biennial Burning and Woody Plant Control Influence Native Vegetation in Loblolly Pine Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Haywood; Alton Martin; Henry A. Pearson; Harold E. Grelen

    1998-01-01

    This paper documents the results of a study to determine the effects of selectedvegetation-management treatments in loblolly pine. Vegetation in precommercially thinned, 6-year-old stands was subjected to five biennial growing season burns in either early March, May, or July coupled with hand felling of residual woody stems. Using a randomized complete block design, we...

  8. Standing on a declining surface reduces transient prolonged standing induced low back pain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kaitlin M; Callaghan, Jack P

    2016-09-01

    While alternating standing position on a sloped surface has proven successful at reducing low back pain during standing, the purpose of this study was to evaluate standing solely on a declining surface to isolate the influence of the postural change. Seventeen participants performed two 75-min prolonged standing occupational simulations- level ground and declining surface. Fifty-three percent of participants (9/17) were categorized as pain developers during the level ground standing condition. For these same pain developers, their average maximum pain scores were 58% lower during sloped standing. All participants showed greater hip flexion, trunk-to-thigh angle flexion, and posterior translation of the trunk center of gravity when standing on the sloped surface. These postural changes could cause the muscles crossing the hip posteriorly to increase passive stiffness and assist with stabilizing the pelvis. This study stresses the importance of hip kinematics, not just lumbar spine posture, in reducing prolonged standing induced low back pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advance reproduction and other stand characteristics in Pennsylvania and French stands of northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner; Marc D. Abrams; Todd W. Bowersox

    1993-01-01

    The frequent scarcity of northern red oak (NRO) advance reproduction raises questions about its regeneration potential under prevailing stand conditions in eastern North America. In contrast, NRO plantations in France typically contain abundant advance reproduction. The purpose of this study was to document stand conditions in Pennsylvania (PA) and southwestern France...

  10. Model for multi-stand management based on structural attributes of individual stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.W. Miller; J. Sullivan

    1997-01-01

    A growing interest in managing forest ecosystems calls for decision models that take into account attribute goals for large forest areas while continuing to recognize the individual stand as a basic unit of forest management. A dynamic, nonlinear forest management model is described that schedules silvicultural treatments for individual stands that are linked by multi-...

  11. Please stand up, Manuela Ramos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Poor women in Peru need the low-cost, effective health care services delivered by nongovernmental organizations (NGO), especially in the context of reduced government expenditure on health. The feminist NGO Movimiento Manuela Ramos is helping to implement a preventive health care system for 500 women and their families in San Juan de Miraflores, 25 miles from Lima, Peru. The health program was established in 1987 to provide a comprehensive promotional program including training for fifteen health promoters, forty neighborhood health representatives, and eleven midwives, who attend 80% of births in the area of Pamplona Alta, as well as six health center staff. The center has a broad view of health care and has provided family planning services on request to hundreds of women and couples. Personnel understand the need to involve men in family planning. The center's close connections with the community are attracting increasing numbers of women to the facility. The movement will continue working with other women's networks to widen its impact beyond health.

  12. Harvesting overmature aspen stands in central Alberta. FERIC special report No. SR-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, B.; Evans, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    Describes a project undertaken to examine the performance of feller-bunchers, grapple skidders, roadside delimbers, and slashers operating in overmature aspen stands in central Alberta. The project aimed at providing the forest industry with information for projecting productivities and costs of harvesting overmature aspen stands. The investigators measured machine productivity in aspen stands of different characteristics, as well as fibre losses from excessive butt rot, upper stem defects, and conversion of tree-length stems into 2.6-metre logs. The field data provided input for determining operating cost and projected machine productivity as functions of tree size or skidding distance. The report also discusses the impact on cost of harvesting decaying stands.

  13. Static standing, dynamic standing and spasticity in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, M; Mclvor, J; Finlayson, H; Sawatzky, B

    2016-05-01

    This was a cross-over efficacy study design. To determine spasticity differences between static and dynamic standing training in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Vancouver, Canada. Ten individuals with SCI who could stand with or without bracing or supports participated in both dynamic and static standing training (one session each, 2 days apart) using a Segway. The primary outcome was spasticity as measured by Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and electromyography (EMG) of the quadriceps, hamstrings, adductors and gastrocnemius. There was no statistically detectable difference in spasticity between dynamic and static standing training in individuals with SCI as measured by VAS, MAS or EMG, although there was a trend towards decreased spasticity after the dynamic training. There is no significant difference in spasticity outcomes between static and dynamic standing training on a Segway for individuals with SCI. This research was funded by Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF STAND DENSITY AND GROWTH RATE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABIA

    Tectona grandis stands in the arboretum of the. Department of Forestry and Wildlife,. University of Uyo, have not been assessed for stand density and growth rates. Thus, there had been no data on the stand densities of these stands and the growth rates of the trees for rational decision making and sustainable management.

  15. Future directions in standing-wave photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Alexander X., E-mail: axgray@temple.edu

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Probing magnetic properties at the buried interface with SW-MCD. • Probing electronic structure at the buried interface with resonant SW-XPS and SW-HAXPES. • Probing momentum-resolved electronic structure at a buried interface with SWARPES. • Adding depth resolution to photoemission microscopy with standing-wave excitation. • Standing-wave localization, total reflection and waveguide effects. - Abstract: Over the past decade, standing-wave photoemission (SW-XPS) has evolved into a powerful and versatile non-destructive technique for probing element-specific electronic, magnetic, and structural properties of buried layers and interfaces with sub-nanometer depth resolution. In this article, I will discuss several promising future directions in this emergent field stemming from experimental and theoretical studies wherein SW-XPS is combined with other X-ray techniques, such as magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES), angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), and photoemission microscopy (PEEM), adding extra dimensions to the measurement and thus widening the scope of scientific and technological questions accessible via the use of standing waves. I will further discuss examples of recently developed methods for X-ray standing-wave data analysis, which yield layer-resolved matrix-element-weighted densities of states at interfaces as well as Ångstrom-level changes in periodicity of synthetic superlattices. Finally, I will explore the possibility of localizing the standing waves near the surface and within a buried layer by the use of aperiodic superlattices, total reflection, and X-ray waveguide effects.

  16. Backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Manckoundia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Manckoundia1,2, France Mourey1,2, Dominic Pérennou2,3, Pierre Pfitzenmeyer1,21Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, University Hospital, Dijon, France; 2INSERM/ERIT-M 0207 Motricity-Plasticity University of Burgundy, Dijon, France; 3Department of Neurological Rehabilitation, University Hospital, Dijon, FranceAbstract: Backward disequilibrium is observed frequently in daily clinical practice. However, there are no epidemiological data concerning this postural disorder. Defined by a posterior position of the centre of mass with respect to the base of support, backward disequilibrium is abnormal postural behavior, usually characterized by a posterior trunk tilt in standing and sitting positions, which predisposes subjects to backward falls. Many afflictions whether they are somatic (degenerative, ischemic and traumatic brain lesions, psychosomatic (psychomotor disadaptation syndrome, confinement to bed, nonuse situations or psychological (depression can cause backward disequilibrium. A vicious circle of falls, and loss of autonomy can arise and this is the main consequence of backward disequilibrium. Thus, in this paper, we review backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects with regard to the causes, consequences, assessment, and management.Keywords: backward disequilibrium, balance, elderly subject, falls, posture

  17. Static trunk posture in sitting and standing during pregnancy and early postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleard, Wendy L; Crosbie, Jack; Smith, Richard

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the postural alignment of the upper body in the sagittal plane during sitting and standing postures as pregnancy progressed and then in the postpartum period. Longitudinal, repeated-measures design. Biomechanics laboratory in an Australian university. A volunteer convenience sample of 9 primiparous and multiparous women and 12 nulliparous women serving as a control group. Not applicable. Subjects were filmed while sitting and during quiet standing at intervals throughout pregnancy and at 8 weeks postpartum. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess systematic changes in the alignment of the pelvic, thoracic, and head segments, and the thoracolumbar and cervicothoracic spines. Student t tests were used to compare the postpartum and nulliparous control groups. There was no significant effect of pregnancy on the upper-body posture, although there was a tendency in some subjects for a flatter thoracolumbar spinal curve in sitting as pregnancy progressed. Postpartum during standing, the pelvic segment had a reduced sagittal plane anterior orientation, and the thoracolumbar spine was less extended, indicating a flatter spinal curve compared with the control group. There was no significant effect of pregnancy on upper-body posture during sitting and standing, although individuals varied in their postural response. A flatter spinal curve was found during standing postpartum. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  18. Effect of selective fatiguing of the shank muscles on single-leg-standing sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suponitsky, Y; Verbitsky, O; Peled, E; Mizrahi, J

    2008-08-01

    Control of standing requires the continuous activity of the leg muscles. In single leg standing the system is less redundant and muscular activity is more intensive. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of force imbalance of the shank muscles, evoked by their selective fatiguing, on postural control in single-leg standing. Five healthy subjects performed two single-leg standing trials, lasting as long as the subject could maintain steady balance, and separated by a 240s quasi-isotonic sustained effort to induce fatigue of the Tibialis Anterior and Peroneus muscles. The following were on-line monitored: sway-related parameters, e.g., ground reaction force and center of pressure in the standing trials; and electromyogram of the Tibialis Anterior, Peroneus and Gastrocnemius muscles in all experiments. Simple and multiple linear regressions served to study the fatigue effects on the relationship between muscle activity and postural sway. The results indicate that the evoked muscle imbalance leads to (a) increased postural sway; (b) increased correlation between muscle activity, and sway-related parameters. Thus, with the reduction of the level of redundancy the system becomes more synchronized. These results have potential relevance for cases of muscle impairment, in which electrical stimulation is required to augment muscle activity.

  19. Switching curve controller for FES-assisted standing up and sitting down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, M J; Andrews, B J; Veltink, P H

    1998-06-01

    A low-level, closed-loop controller for FES-assisted standing up and sitting down is described. If, for able-bodied individuals, when standing up and sitting down, the knee angular velocity is plotted against knee angle, consistent phase-plane trajectories are produced. The bang-bang controller uses a model of this trajectory as a switching curve. The design rationale for the controller was the desire to avoid injuries that might occur if knee-locking on standing up and seat-contact on sitting down are not adequately controlled. This switching curve controller (SCC) was incorporated within a hierarchical, finite state control scheme, with electrical stimulation applied bilaterally to the knee extensors. The SCC was tested in a pilot study on a female volunteer with paraplegia (T5/6 ASIA A) and evaluated against an unramped, open-loop controller (OLC). The vertical hand forces and knee angles were measured. The subject was able to achieve standing up and sitting down safely using both controllers. For standing up, the SCC was not found to offer any quantifiable advantages over the OLC and was found to increase the hand force by 8.4%. In contrast, for sitting down the SCC was found to reduce the knee angular velocities as the subject approached the seat by 27%, demonstrating a safer, softer landing.

  20. Effect of a novel two-desk sit-to-stand workplace (ACTIVE OFFICE) on sitting time, performance and physiological parameters: protocol for a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Bernhard; Kapellusch, Jay M; Schrempf, Andreas; Probst, Kathrin; Haller, Michael; Baca, Arnold

    2016-07-15

    Prolonged sitting is ubiquitous in modern society and linked to several diseases. Height-adjustable desks are being used to decrease worksite based sitting time (ST). Single-desk sit-to-stand workplaces exhibit small ST reduction potential and short-term loss in performance. The aim of this paper is to report the study design and methodology of an ACTIVE OFFICE trial. The study was a 1-year three-arm, randomized controlled trial in 18 healthy Austrian office workers. Allocation was done via a regional health insurance, with data collection during Jan 2014 - March 2015. Participants were allocated to either an intervention or control group. Intervention group subjects were provided with traditional or two-desk sit-to-stand workstations in either the first or the second half of the study, while control subjects did not experience any changes during the whole study duration. Sitting time and physical activity (IPAQ-long), cognitive performance (text editing task, Stroop-test, d2R test of attention), workload perception (NASA-TLX) and physiological parameters (salivary cortisol, heartrate variability and body weight) were measured pre- and post-intervention (23 weeks after baseline) for intervention and control periods. Postural changes and sitting/standing time (software logger) were recorded at the workplace for the whole intervention period. This study evaluates the effects of a novel two-desk sit-to-stand workplace on sitting time, physical parameters and work performance of healthy office based workers. If the intervention proves effective, it has a great potential to be implemented in regular workplaces to reduce diseases related to prolonged sitting. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02825303 , July 2016 (retrospectively registered).

  1. Effect of a novel two-desk sit-to-stand workplace (ACTIVE OFFICE on sitting time, performance and physiological parameters: protocol for a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schwartz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged sitting is ubiquitous in modern society and linked to several diseases. Height-adjustable desks are being used to decrease worksite based sitting time (ST. Single-desk sit-to-stand workplaces exhibit small ST reduction potential and short-term loss in performance. The aim of this paper is to report the study design and methodology of an ACTIVE OFFICE trial. Design The study was a 1-year three-arm, randomized controlled trial in 18 healthy Austrian office workers. Allocation was done via a regional health insurance, with data collection during Jan 2014 – March 2015. Participants were allocated to either an intervention or control group. Intervention group subjects were provided with traditional or two-desk sit-to-stand workstations in either the first or the second half of the study, while control subjects did not experience any changes during the whole study duration. Sitting time and physical activity (IPAQ-long, cognitive performance (text editing task, Stroop-test, d2R test of attention, workload perception (NASA-TLX and physiological parameters (salivary cortisol, heartrate variability and body weight were measured pre- and post-intervention (23 weeks after baseline for intervention and control periods. Postural changes and sitting/standing time (software logger were recorded at the workplace for the whole intervention period. Discussion This study evaluates the effects of a novel two-desk sit-to-stand workplace on sitting time, physical parameters and work performance of healthy office based workers. If the intervention proves effective, it has a great potential to be implemented in regular workplaces to reduce diseases related to prolonged sitting. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02825303 , July 2016 (retrospectively registered.

  2. Effect of In-Flight Exercise and Extravehicular Activity on Postflight Stand Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice; Greenisen, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise performed by Space Shuttle crewmembers during short-duration spaceflights (9-16 days) affects the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses to standing within 2-4 hr of landing. Thirty crewmembers performed self-selected in-flight exercise and maintained exercise logs to monitor their exercise intensity and duration. A 10min stand test, preceded by at least 6 min of quiet supine rest, was completed 10- 15 d before launch (PRE) and within four hours of landing (POST). Based upon their in-flight exercise records, subjects were grouped as either high (HIex: = 3x/week, HR = 70% ,HRMax, = 20 min/session, n = 11), medium (MEDex: = 3x/week, HR = 70% HRmax, = 20 min/session, n = 10), or low (LOex: = 3x/week, HR and duration variable, n = 11) exercisers. HR and BP responses to standing were compared between groups (ANOVA, or analysis of variance, P PRE differences between the groups in supine or standing HR and BP. Although POST supine HR was similar to PRE, all groups had an increased standing HR compared to PRE. The increase in HR upon standing was significantly greater after flight in the LOex group (36+/-5 bpm) compared to HIex or MEDex groups (25+/-1bpm; 22+/-2 bpm). Similarly, the decrease in pulse pressure (PP) from supine to standing was unchanged after spaceflight in the MEDex and HIex groups, but was significantly less in the LOex group (PRE: -9+/- 3, POST: -19+/- 4 mmHg). Thus, moderate to high levels of in-flight exercise attenuated HR and PP responses to standing after spaceflight compared.

  3. A Comparison of Muscle Activities in the Lower Extremity between Flat and Normal Feet during One-leg Standing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ju-Eun; Park, Ga-Hyeon; Lee, Yun-Seop; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the differences in muscle activation between flat and normal feet in the one-leg standing position which delivers the greatest load to the lower extremity. [Subjects] This study was conducted with 23 adults, 12 with normal feet and 12 with flat feet, with ages ranging from 21 to 30?years old, who had no neurological history or gait problems. [Methods] The leg used for one leg standing was the dominant leg of the subjects. The experimenter instructed the subjects ...

  4. A stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests of the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, E.Q.; Swetnam, T.W.; Allen, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Dendroecological techniques were applied to reconstruct stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Fourteen stand-replacing fires were dated to 8 unique fire years (1842-1901) using four lines of evidence at each of 12 sites within the upper Rio Grande Basin. The four lines of evidence were (i) quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) inner-ring dates, (ii) fire-killed conifer bark-ring dates, (iii) tree-ring width changes or other morphological indicators of injury, and (iv) fire scars. The annual precision of dating allowed the identification of synchronous stand-replacing fire years among the sites, and co-occurrence with regional surface fire events previously reconstructed from a network of fire scar collections in lower elevation pine forests across the southwestern United States. Nearly all of the synchronous stand-replacing and surface fire years coincided with severe droughts, because climate variability created regional conditions where stand-replacing fires and surface fires burned across ecosystems. Reconstructed stand-replacing fires that predate substantial Anglo-American settlement in this region provide direct evidence that stand-replacing fires were a feature of high-elevation forests before extensive and intensive land-use practices (e.g., logging, railroad, and mining) began in the late 19th century. ?? 2007 NRC.

  5. Determination of timber assortments obtainable from coppice chestnut stands (Susa Valley, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosenzo A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut (Castanea sativa L. coppice stands currently cover about 195.000 ha of Piedmont (North-Western Italy surface, corresponding to 22.4 % of the overall forested area in the region. Most of these forest stands are usually older than the typical rotation period. As a consequence from these stands timber assortments with a higher value could be obtained. The purpose of this study is to assess the amount of timber assortments and to propose a sorting methodology based on measurements on standing trees within these chestnut stands.Five study areas were selected in the Susa Valley, where forest measurements were realized within sampling plots. Timber assortments obtainable from each coppice shoot were then determined by means of the Bitterlich’s relascope. More than 1.000 timber logs were measured. The data elaboration allowed to assess the timber assortment production of the investigated stands. The proposed methodology makes it possible to better exploit timber assortments. In fact, while usually the whole production from chestnut coppices is directly destined to secondary products, the subdivision into assortments could result in a 20 % of products with higher commercial value. It is important to notice that within these stands no tending operation is currently realized. The definition of qualitative features to classify timber assortments can provide useful suggestions on the main yield targets that could be reached through silvicultural management.

  6. Improving the standing balance of people with spinal cord injury through the use of a powered ankle-foot orthosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, Amber; Pisotta, Iolanda; Masciullo, Marcella; van Asseldonk, Edwin; van der Kooij, Herman; Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose; Ibanez, Jaime; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.; van der Kooij, Herman; Pons, Jose Luis

    2017-01-01

    In this study, our goal was to improve the standing balance of people with a Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) by using a powered Ankle-Foot orthosis acting in the sagittal plane. We tested four different controllers on two SCI subjects that have a lesion at a low level. In the experiments the subjects

  7. Automated Romberg testing in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelsberger, Rolf; Valko, Yulia; Straumann, Dominik; Tröster, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause of dizziness. The underlying pathomechanism responsible for the recurrent vertigo attacks has been elucidated in detail and highly effective treatment strategies (liberation maneuvers) have been developed. However, many BPPV patients complain about problems of balance especially following liberation maneuvers. To objectively demonstrate differences in balance performance in BPPV patients compared to healthy subjects both prior and after BPPV liberation maneuvers. Seven patients with BPPV of the posterior semicircular canal and nine healthy subjects participated. To assess balance while standing, we analyzed the location and temporal stability of the center of pressure recorded by pressure-sensitive electronic soles during Romberg testing (on stable ground and on foam) and tandem stand. To assess regularity of gait, we analyzed the step frequency during walking of 50 m. All tests were performed prior and after liberation maneuvers in both groups. Healthy subjects and patients differ significantly in their balance performance and use different stabilization strategies both prior and after liberation maneuvers. Both Romberg tests indicated poorer balance in BPPV patients (mean COP shifted towards toes), especially in posttreatment tests, while tandem stand appeared unaltered. We did not observe differences in escorted (by an experimenter) walking regularities between patients and healthy subjects and between pre- and post-maneuver testing. Our findings confirm the typical clinical observation of a further posttreatment deterioration of already impaired postural performance in BPPV patients. While the etiology and the time course of this peculiar problem warrants further studies, the treating physician should be familiar with this transient side effect of therapeutic maneuvers to provide adequate counseling of patients. Finally, we successully demonstrated the pressure-sensitive electronic soles as a

  8. Sliding and Lower Limb Mechanics during Sit-Stand-Sit Transitions with a Standing Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aimed to investigate the shear displacement between the body and backrest/seat, range of motion (ROM, and force acting on the lower limb joints during sit-stand-sit transitions by operating an electric-powered standing wheelchair. Methods and Materials. The amounts of sliding along the backrest and the seat plane, ROM of lower limb joints, and force acting on the knee/foot were measured in twenty-four people with paraplegia. Results. Without an antishear mechanism, the shear displacement was approximately 9 cm between the user’s body and the backrest/seat surfaces. During standing up, the user’s back slid down and the thigh was displaced rearward, but they moved in opposite directions when wheelchair sat back down. A minimum of 60 degrees of ROM at the hip and knee was needed during sit-stand-sit transitions. The maximal resultant forces acting on the knee restraints could reach 23.5% of body weight. Conclusion. Sliding between the body and backrest/seat occurred while transitioning from sitting to standing and vice versa. A certain amount of ROM at lower limb joints and force acting on the knee was necessitated during sit-stand-sit transitions. Careful consideration needs to be given to who the user of the electric powered standing wheelchair is.

  9. Learning to Stand: The Acceptability and Feasibility of Introducing Standing Desks into College Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M. Benzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged sedentary behavior is an independent risk factor for multiple negative health outcomes. Evidence supports introducing standing desks into K-12 classrooms and work settings to reduce sitting time, but no studies have been conducted in the college classroom environment. The present study explored the acceptability and feasibility of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. A total of 993 students and 149 instructors completed a single online needs assessment survey. This cross-sectional study was conducted during the fall semester of 2015 at a large Midwestern University. The large majority of students (95% reported they would prefer the option to stand in class. Most students (82.7% reported they currently sit during their entire class time. Most students (76.6% and instructors (86.6% reported being in favor of introducing standing desks into college classrooms. More than half of students and instructors predicted having access to standing desks in class would improve student’s “physical health”, “attention”, and “restlessness”. Collectively, these findings support the acceptability of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. Future research is needed to test the feasibility, cost-effectiveness and efficacy of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. Such studies would be useful for informing institutional policies regarding classroom designs.

  10. AA, wide quadrupole on measurement stand

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Please look up 8101024 and 8103203 first. Wide quadrupole (QFW, QDW) with end-shims and shimming washers on the measurement stand. With the measurement coil one measured the harmonics of the magnetic field, determined the magnetic centre, and catalogued the effect of washer constellations.

  11. LITTERFALL AND NUTRIENT RETURNS IN ISOLATED STANDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    and branch morphology, leaf size and arrangement. The main objective of this study was to examine litter production and nutrient returns through litterfall by isolated stands of Terminalia catappa, and determine the contributions of nutrient elements to the rainforest soil by the isolated exotic, through a direct comparison with.

  12. A3 TEST STAND DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    THIS IMAGE DOCUMENTS THE DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE A3 TEST STAND IN SUPPORT OF THE ARES/CLV UPPER STAGE ENGINE DEVELOPMENT AT STENNIS SPACE CENTER, MISSIPPI IN SUPPORT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONSTELLATION/ARES PROJECT. THIS IMAGE IS EXTRACTED FROM A HIGH DEFINITION VIDEO FILE AND IS THE HIGHEST RESOLUTION AVAILABLE

  13. Direct sampling for stand density index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ducey; Harry T. Valentine

    2008-01-01

    A direct method of estimating stand density index in the field, without complex calculations, would be useful in a variety of silvicultural situations. We present just such a method. The approach uses an ordinary prism or other angle gauge, but it involves deliberately "pushing the point" or, in some cases, "pulling the point." This adjusts the...

  14. Sherry Red Owl, Stands at Dawn Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crazy Bull, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Sherry Red Owl, also known as "Stands at Dawn Woman," because she greets each day as a new opportunity and has spent her life working at new things. She worked at Sinte Gleska University (SGU) during its founding years, taught at an elementary school when few Native teachers were employed in the school systems,…

  15. Standing waves in fiber-optic interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, V.; Santbergen, R.; Tijssen, M.; Zeman, M.

    2011-01-01

    A study is presented giving the response of three types of fiber-optic interferometers by which a standing wave through an object is investigated. The three types are a Sagnac, Mach–Zehnder and Michelson–Morley interferometer. The response of the Mach–Zehnder interferometer is similar to the Sagnac

  16. Estimating Stand Volume and Above-Ground Biomass of Urban Forests Using LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Giannico

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessing forest stand conditions in urban and peri-urban areas is essential to support ecosystem service planning and management, as most of the ecosystem services provided are a consequence of forest stand characteristics. However, collecting data for assessing forest stand conditions is time consuming and labor intensive. A plausible approach for addressing this issue is to establish a relationship between in situ measurements of stand characteristics and data from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR. In this study we assessed forest stand volume and above-ground biomass (AGB in a broadleaved urban forest, using a combination of LiDAR-derived metrics, which takes the form of a forest allometric model. We tested various methods for extracting proxies of basal area (BA and mean stand height (H from the LiDAR point-cloud distribution and evaluated the performance of different models in estimating forest stand volume and AGB. The best predictors for both models were the scale parameters of the Weibull distribution of all returns (except the first (proxy of BA and the 95th percentile of the distribution of all first returns (proxy of H. The R2 were 0.81 (p < 0.01 for the stand volume model and 0.77 (p < 0.01 for the AGB model with a RMSE of 23.66 m3·ha−1 (23.3% and 19.59 Mg·ha−1 (23.9%, respectively. We found that a combination of two LiDAR-derived variables (i.e., proxy of BA and proxy of H, which take the form of a forest allometric model, can be used to estimate stand volume and above-ground biomass in broadleaved urban forest areas. Our results can be compared to other studies conducted using LiDAR in broadleaved forests with similar methods.

  17. Effects of Stand and Step Training with Epidural Stimulation on Motor Function for Standing in Chronic Complete Paraplegics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejc, Enrico; Angeli, Claudia A; Bryant, Nicole; Harkema, Susan J

    2017-05-01

    Individuals affected by motor complete spinal cord injury are unable to stand, walk, or move their lower limbs voluntarily; this diagnosis normally implies severe limitations for functional recovery. We have recently shown that the appropriate selection of epidural stimulation parameters was critical to promoting full-body, weight-bearing standing with independent knee extension in four individuals with chronic clinically complete paralysis. In the current study, we examined the effects of stand training and subsequent step training with epidural stimulation on motor function for standing in the same four individuals. After stand training, the ability to stand improved to different extents in the four participants. Step training performed afterwards substantially impaired standing ability in three of the four individuals. Improved standing ability generally coincided with continuous electromyography (EMG) patterns with constant levels of ground reaction forces. Conversely, poorer standing ability was associated with more variable EMG patterns that alternated EMG bursts and longer periods of negligible activity in most of the muscles. Stand and step training also differentially affected the evoked potentials amplitude modulation induced by sitting-to-standing transition. Finally, stand and step training with epidural stimulation were not sufficient to improve motor function for standing without stimulation. These findings show that the spinal circuitry of motor complete paraplegics can generate motor patterns effective for standing in response to task-specific training with optimized stimulation parameters. Conversely, step training can lead to neural adaptations resulting in impaired motor function for standing.

  18. Racial Issues in American Stand-up Comedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina BOGDAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stand-up comedy emerged in the late 1970s when the first live shows of this type were introduced to the public. This type of humour, which relies on ingenuity, contains a variety of topics used by comedians, such as their everyday life, religion, politics or racism. These are just a few of the topics usually employed in order to create comedy. It is curious how a serious matter such as racism, for example, can be used to trigger laughter. Eddie Griffin, an African American stand-up comedian, uses this type of topics in almost all of his shows. More than one question come to mind: Why should comedians use racism in this type of discourse? Can it be funny? Are there any special techniques applied when dealing with such a sensitive subject? Can the humour be preserved if the written version of such a show is translated? The present paper aims at finding some answers to these questions and, to this end, looks for textual evidence in Eddie Griffin’s 2011 comedy show You Can Tell ‘Em I Said It.

  19. Validity of the standing spike test as a monitoring protocol for female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palao, J M; Valadés, D

    2012-12-01

    a) to provide reference values for the standing spike test for female volleyball players and b) to study whether the standing spike test is valid for assessing the theoretical differences between female volleyball players. The sample included 83 players from the first nine teams of the Spanish women's first volleyball division (52 Spanish players and 31 from other nationalities). The variables studied were the ball speed of the standing spike test, the age of the players, the player's role (outside hitter, opposite, middle-blocker, libero, or setter), height, and nationality of the players (Spanish or foreign). The results demonstrate the ranges for the standing spike among female performance volleyball players (70-82 km · h(-1)). The differences regarding nationality, player role, height, and age seem to indicate that the test is a valid instrument for monitoring the performance of female volleyball players.

  20. VALIDITY OF THE STANDING SPIKE TEST AS A MONITORING PROTOCOL FOR FEMALE VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Palao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was: a to provide reference values for the standing spike test for female volleyball players and b to study whether the standing spike test is valid for assessing the theoretical differences between female volleyball players. The sample included 83 players from the first nine teams of the Spanish women’s first volleyball division (52 Spanish players and 31 from other nationalities. The variables studied were the ball speed of the standing spike test, the age of the players, the player’s role (outside hitter, opposite, middle-blocker, libero, or setter, height, and nationality of the players (Spanish or foreign. The results demonstrate the ranges for the standing spike among female performance volleyball players (70-82 km · h-1. The differences regarding nationality, player role, height, and age seem to indicate that the test is a valid instrument for monitoring the performance of female volleyball players.

  1. The use of a tongue tie alters laryngohyoid position in the standing horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, H J; Farberman, A; Bermingham, A; Sears, W; Viel, L

    2013-11-01

    The use of tongue ties in racing is common, yet there are few data to support their efficacy. In order to make appropriate recommendations for clinical practice and policy on tongue ties, data documenting their effect on upper airway structure are necessary. To determine the effect of a tongue tie on the resting laryngohyoid position of the standing horse. Experimental study. Twelve normal Standardbred horses were subjected to ultrasonographic measures of laryngohyoid position during 3 phases of tack application: Phase I--halter and lead; Phase II--bit, bridle, harness and check applied; and Phase III--as in Phase II but with the tongue tie added. Compared to Phase I, during Phase III with the application of a tongue tie a significant difference between lingual process position was noted both rostrally and caudally (P<0.001 and P<0.001), such that the tongue tie resulted in an increase in lingual process depth. The tongue tie in Phase III resulted in a decrease in depth of the thyroid cartilage and basihyoid bone compared to the Phase I location (P = 0.007 and P = 0.0047). The use of a tongue tie has a significant effect on the basihyoid and thyroid cartilage positions in the standing horse. This is the first report documenting a difference in laryngohyoid morphology following the application of a tongue tie, providing evidence that the use of a tongue tie has a measurable effect on upper airway structure. The functional implications of this finding are yet to be elucidated. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Intra and intersession reliability of balance measures during one-leg standing in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Roth, Ralf; Mueller, Sylvana; Granacher, Urs

    2011-08-01

    A study was designed to investigate the intra and intersession reliability during 1-leg standing recorded from a computerized balance platform. Thirty-nine healthy young men (n = 17, age range: 20-30 years) and women (n = 22, age range: 21-28 years) performed 3 testing sessions, with the second session 30 minutes (intrasession comparison) and the third session 1 week (intersession comparison) after the initial testing session. Within each testing session, participants completed 3 trials of 1-leg standing with their dominant leg. Reliability statistics were calculated using the mean of all 3 trials during each session for 6 balance measures (i.e., total displacements of the center of pressure [CoP], the CoP displacements in mediolateral and anterior-posterior directions, and the CoP speed and CoP area and their SD). Test-retest reliability was examined calculating both, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and Bland-Altman plots. In both sexes and irrespective of balance measure, ICC values were ≥0.75 except for 1 parameter in men. This indicates an excellent intra and intersession reliability. Bland-Altman plots confirmed these findings by showing that only 1 or 2 (4.5-11.8%) of the data points were beyond the 95% CI. Practitioners and clinicians are provided with a posturographic test setup that proved to be reliable. Researchers can use these data to identify the range in which the true value of a subject's score lies and estimate a priori sample sizes.

  3. Relationship between electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis while standing and the extent of bilateral simulated knee-flexion contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, P J; Kirby, R L

    1991-12-01

    The effect of simulated bilateral knee-flexion contractures (KFC) on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus lateralis was studied by testing 10 normal subjects using surface EMG to test the hypothesis that the activity of the knee extensors would increase as a function of the severity of the contracture. The root mean square of the EMG activity was determined from four 4-s samples taken at 30-s intervals, during 2 min of standing in each of five positions of simulated KFC (0 degree, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees). A randomly balanced order of conditions was used. KFC were simulated in each subject by means of an adjustable line from the subject's waist to the sole of each foot. An analysis of variance was used to contrast EMG activity, and a significant difference was found between each of the positions (P less than 0.05). The mean (+/- 1 SD) EMG activity, expressed as a percentage of the maximum voluntary contraction, was 0.3% (+/- 0.2) at 0 degree, 7.6% (+/- 5.6) at 10 degrees, 10.9% (+/- 7.6) at 20 degrees, 16.6% (+/- 12.4) at 30 degrees and 24.0% (+/- 14.0) at 40 degrees. A linear relationship was found (r2 = 0.986), expressed by the equation y = 0.62 + 0.56 x, where y represents EMG activity and x represents the extent of simulated KFC (P = 0.0007). The results provide insight into the increased knee extensor activity necessary to stand with KFC and underline the importance of treating this common disorder.

  4. Enhanced current and voltage regulators for stand-alone applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michele; Antonio DeSouza Ribeiro, Luiz

    2016-01-01

    State feedback decoupling permits to achieve a better dynamic response for Voltage Source in stand-alone applications. The design of current and voltage regulators is performed in the discrete-time domain since it provides better accuracy and allows direct pole placement. As the attainable...... bandwidth of the current loop is mainly limited by computational and PWM delays, a lead compensator structure is proposed to overcome this limitation. The design of the voltage regulator is based on the Nyquist criterion, verifying to guarantee a high sensitivity peak. Discrete-time domain implementation...

  5. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  6. Effects of Dwarf Mistletoe on Stand Structure of Lodgepole Pine Forests 21-28 Years Post-Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, Michelle C.; Shaw, David C.; Woolley, Travis J.; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E.

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21–28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  7. Kinetic asymmetry in transfemoral amputees while performing sit to stand and stand to sit movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highsmith, M Jason; Kahle, Jason T; Carey, Stephanie L; Lura, Derek J; Dubey, Rajiv V; Csavina, Kristine R; Quillen, William S

    2011-05-01

    Transitional movements are a determinant of functional independence and have limited study in amputees. Microprocessor prosthetic knees' abilities to assist transfemoral amputees with sitting and standing have not been studied. Through cross-sectional study, 21 transfemoral amputees, divided into 3 groups of 7 by knee type (power knee, C-leg, Mauch SNS) and 7 non-amputee controls (n=28) performed sit to stand and stand to sit while kinematic and kinetic data were recorded. Transfemoral amputees can stand (1.6-2.0s) and sit (2.1-2.8s) at rates comparable to controls (1.6s). Controls' ground reaction force (GRF) and knee moment production was knee moments. For stand to sit, amputees' asymmetry for GRF ranged from 32 to 60% and 84 to 114% for knee moments. Hip moment asymmetry for sit to stand was less for control (21%) and power knee (34%) groups than that produced by the Mauch SNS (59%) group. For stand to sit, hip moment production for the Mauch SNS (47%) and C-leg groups (71%) were more asymmetric than controls (19%). In the majority of cases transfemoral amputees do not load their prosthesis extensively for standing up or sitting down. Therefore, this transitional movement is currently a one-legged task, which increases stress on the sound limb. Generally, the prosthetic knees studied did not produce a significant knee moment in either task. Although most differences between knee groups were not statistically significant, differences may be clinically meaningful on an individual basis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Rapid Assessment of Age-Related Differences in Standing Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kalisch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As life expectancy continues to rise, in the future there will be an increasing number of older people prone to falling. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for comprehensive testing of older individuals to collect data and to identify possible risk factors for falling. Here we use a low-cost force platform to rapidly assess deficits in balance under various conditions. We tested 21 healthy older adults and 24 young adults during static stance, unidirectional and rotational displacement of their centre of pressure (COP. We found an age-related increase in postural sway during quiet standing and a reduction of maximal COP displacement in unidirectional and rotational displacement tests. Our data show that even low-cost computerized assessment tools allow for the comprehensive testing of balance performance in older subjects.

  9. Postural Control Characteristics during Single Leg Standing of Individuals with a History of Ankle Sprain: Measurements Obtained Using a Gravicorder and Head and Foot Accelerometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abe, Yota; Sugaya, Tomoaki; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to validate the postural control characteristics of individuals with a history of ankle sprain during single leg standing by using a gravicorder and head and foot accelerometry. [Subjects...

  10. Image driven subject-specific finite element models of spinal biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjani-Pour, Sahand; Winlove, C Peter; Smith, Christopher W; Meakin, Judith R

    2016-04-11

    Finite element (FE) modelling is an established technique for investigating spinal biomechanics. Using image data to produce FE models with subject-specific geometry and displacement boundary conditions may help extend their use to the assessment spinal loading in individuals. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance images from nine participants in the supine, standing and sitting postures were obtained and 2D poroelastic FE models of the lumbar spine were created from the supine data. The rigid body translation and rotation of the vertebral bodies as the participant moved to standing or sitting were applied to the model. The resulting pore pressure in the centre of the L4/L5 disc was determined and the sensitivity to the material properties and vertebral body displacements was assessed. Although the limitations of using a 2D model mean the predicted pore pressures are unlikely to be accurate, the results showed that subject-specific variation in geometry and motion during postural change leads to variation in pore pressure. The model was sensitive to the Young׳s modulus of the annulus matrix, the permeability of the nucleus, and the vertical translation of the vertebrae. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using image data to drive subject-specific lumbar spine FE models and indicates where further development is required to provide a method for assessing spinal biomechanics in a wide range of individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing symmetry using the mirror stand device with manual and software-assisted methods in postoperative zygomatic fracture patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarif, A. N.; Bangun, K.

    2017-08-01

    Zygomatic fractures are among the most common fractures to the facial skeleton. However, because no standard and reliable method of evaluation is available to assess postoperative patients, we often rely on photographs and subjective assessments. A portable mirror stand device (MiRS), which is a new method for the standardization of photography, was developed in our institution. Used with image analysis software, this device provides a new method for evaluating outcomes after the open reduction and internal fixation of zygomatic fractures. The portable mirror stand device was set up in our outpatient clinic at the Cleft Craniofacial Center at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Photographs of 11 postoperative patients were taken using the device, and they were analyzed both manually and using image analysis software (ImageJ 1.46) for symmetry. The two methods were then compared to assess the correlation and agreement of the results. The measurements taken using the manual method and the software-assisted method did not differ significantly, which indicated the good agreement between the two methods. The results of the symmetry achieved atour center were similar to other centers in the Asian region (ΔZy = 3.4±1.5 mm, ΔBc = 2.6±1.6 mm, ΔCh = 2.3±2.4 mm) compared with (ΔZy = 3.2±1.7 mm, ΔBc = 2.6±1.6 mm, ΔCh = 2.3±2.5 mm). The treatment of zygomatic fracture a tour center achieved good results. The portable mirror stand device assisted the image analysis software (ImageJ 1.46), which could be beneficial in assessing symmetry in postoperative zygomatic fracture patients.

  12. Use of forward pressure level to minimize the influence of acoustic standing waves during probe-microphone hearing-aid verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Ryan W; Pittman, Andrea; Lewis, James; Neely, Stephen T; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G

    2009-07-01

    Probe-microphone measurements are a reliable method of verifying hearing-aid sound pressure level (SPL) in the ear canal for frequencies between 0.25 and 4 kHz. However, standing waves in the ear canal reduce the accuracy of these measurements above 4 kHz. Recent data suggest that speech information at frequencies up to 10 kHz may enhance speech perception, particularly for children. Incident and reflected components of a stimulus in the ear canal can be separated, allowing the use of forward (incident) pressure as a measure of stimulus level. Two experiments were conducted to determine if hearing-aid output in forward pressure provides valid estimates of in-situ sound level in the ear canal. In experiment 1, SPL measurements were obtained at the tympanic membrane and the medial end of an earmold in ten adults. While within-subject test-retest reliability was acceptable, measures near the tympanic membrane reduced the influence of standing waves for two of the ten participants. In experiment 2, forward pressure measurements were found to be unaffected by standing waves in the ear canal for frequencies up to 10 kHz. Implications for clinical assessment of amplification are discussed.

  13. Economic analysis of replacement regeneration and coppice regeneration in eucalyptus stands under risk conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Carolina de Lima Guedes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Projects are by their very nature subject to conditions of uncertainty that obstruct the decision-making process. Uncertainties involving forestry projects are even greater, as they are combined with time of return on capital invested, being medium to long term. For successful forest planning, it is necessary to quantify uncertainties by converting them into risks. The decision on whether to adopt replacement regeneration or coppice regeneration in a forest stand is influenced by several factors, which include land availability for new forest crops, changes in project end use, oscillations in demand and technological advancement. This study analyzed the economic feasibility of replacement regeneration and coppice regeneration of eucalyptus stands, under deterministic and under risk conditions. Information was gathered about costs and revenues for charcoal production in order to structure the cash flow used in the economic analysis, adopting the Net Present Value method (VPL. Risk assessment was based on simulations running the Monte Carlo method. Results led to the following conclusions: replacement regeneration is economically viable, even if the future stand has the same productivity as the original stand; coppice regeneration is an economically viable option even if productivity is a mere 70% of the original stand (high-tree planted stand, the best risk-return ratio option is restocking the stand (replacement regeneration by one that is 20% more productive; the probabilistic analysis running the Monte Carlo method revealed that invariably there is economic viability for the various replacement and coppice regeneration options being studied, minimizing uncertainties and consequently increasing confidence in decision-making.

  14. Aircraft Stand Allocation with Associated Resource Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    An aircraft turn-round refers to the set of processes taking place from when an aircraft parks at its arrival stand until the time it departs from its departure stand. When handling a turn-round, the different processes involved (arrival, disembarkation of passengers, cleaning, etc.) require...... to handle a given set of aircraft turn-rounds. We develop a set packing-based model formulation of the problem which is both flexible in the sense that it can encapsulate any type of resource required during the handling of a turn-round and strong in the sense that conflicts that occur when two or more turn......-rounds simultaneously claim the same resource are handled implicitly. To solve the model, a heuristic based on linear programming is developed. The heuristic iteratively solves a relaxed, restricted version of the problem, adding extra variables at each iteration if needed. The additional variables are identified...

  15. Standing seats for high-capacity trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor O’NEILL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the design and potential implementation of standing seats in a commuter rail vehicle for the purposes of maximising capacity and revenue. The vehicle interior design is suited to the “Commuter Class” – a subset of travellers who travel primarily within the commuter belt and frequently utilise rail networks on a daily basis but require little additional space for luggage or peripherals. The concept delivers capacity increases in excess of 50% whilst still offering passengers a greater degree of personal space when compared with standing in aisles or gangways. The impact on vehicle stability and supporting intelligent systems are also discussed, delivering a unique design tailored specifically to meet the needs of the commuter class passenger.

  16. Residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the seabed liquefaction beneath standing waves. Silt (with d50 =0.070mm) was used in the experiments. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore water pressure measurements and water surface elevation measurements. These measurements...... were synchronized with video recording of the liquefaction process from the side. The ranges of the various quantities in the experiments were wave height H= 5.9-12.0 cm, wave period T= 1.09s, and water depth h=30 cm. The experiments show that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although...... qualitatively similar, show features different from that caused by progressive waves. The pore water pressure builds up (or accumulated) in the areas around the node and subsequently spreads out toward the antinodes. The experimental results imply that this transport is caused by a diffusion mechanism...

  17. Regional Instability in the Abundance of Open Stands in the Boreal Forest of Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rija Rapanoela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fires are a key disturbance of boreal forests. In fact, they are the main source of renewal and evolution for forest stands. The variability of fire through space and time results in a diversified forest mosaic, altering their species composition, structure and productivity. A resilient forest is assumed to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with the fire regime, so that the composition, age structure and succession stages of forests should be consistent with the fire regime. Dense spruce-moss stands tend, however, to diminish in favour of more open stands similar to spruce-lichen stands when subjected to more frequent and recurring disturbances. This study therefore focused on the effects of spatial and temporal variations in burn rates on the proportion of open stands over a large geographic area (175,000 km2 covered by black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. Britton, Sterns, Poggenb.. The study area was divided into 10 different zones according to burn rates, as measured using fire-related data collected between 1940 and 2006. To test if the abundance of open stands was unstable over time and not in equilibrium with the current fire regime, forest succession was simulated using a landscape dynamics model that showed that the abundance of open stands should increase progressively over time in zones where the average burn rate is high. The proportion of open stands generated during a specific historical period is correlated with the burn rate observed during the same period. Rising annual burn rates over the past two decades have thereby resulted in an immediate increase in the proportion of open stands. There is therefore a difference between the current proportion of open stands and the one expected if vegetation was in equilibrium with the disturbance regime, reflecting an instability that may significantly impact the way forest resources are managed. It is apparent from this study that forestry planning should consider the risks associated

  18. Mixed stands in Nordic countries - a challenge for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, T. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Management and Products

    2003-05-01

    Mixed stands are the most frequent type of stand in Nordic countries. A mixture of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is the most common stand type in the region. But for most foresters and persons familiar with forestry, a mixed stand implies a conifer species and at least one broad-leaved species. Management and silviculture of mixed stands of conifers and broad-leaves has increased rapidly during the last 15 years. Efficient management of mixed stands increases profits for the owner as well as wood quality in the stand. Practical examples of how to manage mixed stands of birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and Norway spruce are now available. In Finland, Norway and Sweden this is a common alternative to management of pure stands of conifers. In Norway, as well as mixed stands of birch and spruce, there are examples of mixed stands of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) and Norway spruce. Existing yield information for mixed stands is based on studies of stands which were managed improperly prior to the start of the study. The yield for birch at 35 years of age was 1 00 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1}. The growth of Norway spruce was reduced by 10% compared with spruce growing in pure spruce stands. In a mixed stand of European aspen and Norway spruce growing on farm land, the 36-year-old aspen overstory produced 480 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1}. The spruce understory had a reduced yield compared with pure spruce stands. Depending on the biofuel price and the market for utilisation of biofuel the forest owner might use the broad-leaves as biofuel. Some studies indicate that the harvested biomass yield of birch in a mixed stand of birch and spruce could be 48 td.w.ha{sup -1}. (author)

  19. The vibration discomfort of standing people: evaluation of multi-axis vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuong, Olivier; Griffin, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated discomfort caused by multi-axis vibration and none has explored methods of predicting the discomfort of standing people from simultaneous fore-and-aft, lateral and vertical vibration of a floor. Using the method of magnitude estimation, 16 subjects estimated their discomfort caused by dual-axis and tri-axial motions (octave-bands centred on either 1 or 4 Hz with various magnitudes in the fore-and-aft, lateral and vertical directions) and the discomfort caused by single-axis motions. The method of predicting discomfort assumed in current standards (square-root of the sums of squares of the three components weighted according to their individual contributions to discomfort) provided reasonable predictions of the discomfort caused by multi-axis vibration. Improved predictions can be obtained for specific stimuli, but no single simple method will provide accurate predictions for all stimuli because the rate of growth of discomfort with increasing magnitude of vibration depends on the frequency and direction of vibration.

  20. Mechanical Characteristics of Reflex Durign Upright Posture in Paralyzed Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongchul; Youm, Youngil; Lee, Bumsuk; Kim, Youngho; Choi, Hyeonki

    The characteristics of flexor reflexes have been investigated in the previous studies with human subjects who were seated or supine position. However, researchers did not describe how the spinal circuits are used in different hip angles for paralyzed subjects, such as the standing position with walker or cane. In upright posture the compatibility between a flexor reflex of leg and body balance is a special problem for lower limb injured subjects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hip angle change on the flexor reflex evoked in standing paralyzed subjects supported by walker. In this study, six spinal cord injured and four stroke subjects were recruited through the inpatient physical therapy clinics of Korea national rehabilitation hospital. A single axis electronic goniometer was mounted on the lateral side of the hip joint of the impaired limb to record movements in the sagittal plane at this joint. The electronic goniometer was connected to a data acquisition system, through amplifiers to a computer. Since subject' posture influenced characteristics of the flexion reflex response, the subjects were supported in an upright posture by the help of parallelogram walder. Two series of tests were performed on each leg. The first series of the tests investigated the influence of hip angle during stationary standing posture on flexion reflex response. The hip angle was adjusted by the foot plate. The second examined the effect of the voluntary action of subject on swing motion during the gait. The electrically induced flexion reflex simultaneously produced the flexion of the hip, knee and dorsiflexion of the ankle enabling the swing phase of walking. Form the experimental results we observed that the reflex response of hip joint was largerwith the hip in the extended position than in the flexed position during standing posture. Under voluntary movement on flexion reflex during gaint, the peak hip angle induced by stimulation was

  1. Heart rate variability in normotensive subjects with family history of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishnan, Krishnan; Balasubramanian, Kabali; Rao, Badanidiyur Viswanatha

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension (HT) is a major silent disease affecting young people because of their hereditary and modern lifestyles. Target organ damages occur before overt hypertension is diagnosed. Many offspring of HT parents show early changes in their cardiovascular autonomic functions. Heart rate variability (HRV) provides a window to understand the cardiac autonomic balance. This study was designed to quantify and to compare the HRV among the normotensive young male offspring without history of parenteral hypertension & diabetic (control group, n = 25, age 20.8 +/- 2.4, BMI 24.4 +/- 3.1) with parenteral history of hypertension & non diabetic (study group n = 25, age 19.7 +/- 1.9, 24.05 +/- 3.5). Blood pressure, heart rate (HR), indices of short term HRV during supine rest and quiet standing, HR variation during timed controlled deep breathing was compared between the two groups. There were significant difference in low frequency (LF) power, HF power, total power. LF and HF expressed also in normalized units at rest and standing. In time domain standard deviation of normal to normal RR interval (SDNN) at supine rest and standing were significant. Respiratory sinus arrthymia (RSA), HF in normalized units, deep breathing difference (BDD) and the ratio of maximum RR to minimum RR were also significant in the control group than study group. In the present study there was an increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activity in the study group. These findings are an early marker of cardiovascular autonomic impairment in subjects with parenteral history of hypertension.

  2. MICROSCALE METROLOGY USING STANDING WAVE PROBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauza, M B; Woody, S C; Smith, S T; Seugling, R M; Darnell, I; Florando, J N

    2008-08-04

    Miniaturization has been one of the driving forces in the development of new technologies leading to new products in a variety of industries. As a result, the integration of components over several orders of magnitude on the length scale poses enormous challenges for quality assurance and control. Therefore, new solutions are necessary to meet the growing need for more challenging metrology tasks and metrology requirements in nano- and micro-technology. However, with miniaturization, new challenges arise such as the increased influence of adhesion, electrostatic, Van der Waals and meniscus forces that affect the measurement process. Technical solutions to overcome these micro- and nano-metrology challenges will include the need for traceability, new calibration procedures and calibration artifacts. Over the past decade many new metrology tools have been proposed, however; for contact based measurements, adhesion between the measurement probe and the specimen still proves to be one of the more difficult challenges to overcome. To address this issue, a new class of tactile sensing probe referred to as standing wave sensor has been developed and was previously presented. Previous work introduced the principle of operation of the standing wave senor. This work presents new measurements showing applications of the standing wave probe as the sensing element in a microscale high aspect ratio profiling system.

  3. Test Stand for Linear Induction Accelerator Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, M; DeHope, B; Griffin, K; Goerz, D; Kihara, R; Vogtlin, G; Zentler, J M; Scarpetti, R

    2003-06-03

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has designed and constructed a test stand to improve the voltage regulation in our Flash X-Ray (FXR) accelerator cell. The goal is to create a more mono-energetic electron beam that will create an x-ray source with a smaller spot size. Studying the interaction of the beam and pulse-power system with the accelerator cell will improve the design of high-current accelerators at Livermore and elsewhere. On the test stand, a standard FXR cell is driven by a flexible pulse-power system and the beam current is simulated with a switched center conductor. The test stand is fully instrumented with high-speed digitizers to document the effect of impedance mismatches when the cell is operated under various full-voltage conditions. A time-domain reflectometry technique was also developed to characterize the beam and cell interactions by measuring the impedance of the accelerator and pulse-power component. Computer models are being developed in parallel with the testing program to validate the measurements and evaluate different design changes. Both 3D transient electromagnetic and circuit models are being used.

  4. Red Alder-Conifer Stands in Alaska: An Example of Mixed Species Management to Enhance Structural and Biological Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Deal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is worldwide interest in managing forests to improve biodiversity, enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An increasingly important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity and improve wildlife and aquatic habitat. Well-planned silvicultural systems containing a mixture of broadleaf-conifer species have potential to enhance stand diversity and provide other ecosystem services earlier than typical even-aged conifer plantations. Here, we use the example of mixed Sitka spruce/western hemlock and red alder in young, managed stands in southeast Alaska to achieve these goals. We briefly describe the silvics of Sitka spruce, western hemlock and red alder plantations as pure conifer stands or pure broadleaf stands. Then, we synthesize studies of mixed red alder-Sitka spruce/western hemlock stands in southeast Alaska and present their potential for improving stand structural complexity, biodiversity and other ecosystem services over pure conifer forests. Finally, we discuss some of the opportunities and potential tradeoffs for managing mixed broadleaf-conifer stands for providing a number of natural resources and the influence of these broadleaf-conifer forests on ecosystem linkages and processes.

  5. Bark Beetles as Significant Forest Disturbances: Estimating Susceptibility Based On Stand Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, J. A.; Jenkins, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    In the western United States, bark beetle outbreaks affect millions of hectares of forests. These disturbances have multiple effects on ecosystems, including modifications to biogeochemical cycles, interactions with fire, and changes in land cover type and species composition. In recent years, extensive outbreaks have occurred in multiple forest ecosystems in the West, thought to be caused by climate variability and stand structure. In this study, we focus on epidemics of mountain pine beetle. We used USDA Forest Service inventories and a model to estimate lodgepole pine susceptibility to mountain pine beetle attack in the West. The model considers stand age, stem density, and percentage of large lodgepole pine to estimate stand susceptibility. Over 150,000 trees in 4454 plots across the western United States were used to compute susceptibility at the plot scale as well as map susceptibility at the county scale. We found that regional susceptibility was high (estimated potential of losses of 34% of stand basal area) for 2.8 Mha, or 46%, of lodgepole pine forests. The highest susceptibility occurred in the Rocky Mountains, with lower susceptibility in coastal states. This study reveals that a substantial fraction of lodgepole pine forest could be subjected to bark beetle outbreaks under current climate conditions. Because climate and weather affect beetle populations, projected future warming will influence outbreak regimes. Thus, forest ecosystems in the West may experience more frequent, extensive, and/or severe disturbances than in recent decades due to current stand structure, and these disturbances may be intensified under climate change.

  6. Longitudinal Performance of a Surgically Implanted Neuroprosthesis for Lower Extremity Exercise, Standing, and Transfers after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triolo, Ronald J.; Nogan Bailey, Stephanie; Miller, Michael E.; Rohde, Loretta M.; Anderson, James S.; Davis, John A.; Abbas, James J.; DiPonio, Lisa A.; Forrest, George P.; Gater, David R.; Yang, Lynda J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the longitudinal performance of a surgically implanted neuroprosthesis for lower extremity exercise, standing, and transfers after spinal cord injury. Design Case series. Setting Research or outpatient physical therapy departments of four academic hospitals. Participants 15 subjects with thoracic or low-cervical level spinal cord injuries who had received the 8-channel neuroprosthesis for exercise and standing. Interventions After completing rehabilitation with the device, the subjects were discharged to unrestricted home use of the system. A series of assessments were performed before discharge and at a follow-up appointment approximately one year later. Main Outcome Measure(s) Neuroprosthesis usage, maximum standing time, body weight support, knee strength, knee fatigue index, electrode stability, and component survivability. Results Levels of maximum standing time, body weight support, knee strength, and knee fatigue index were not statistically different from discharge to follow-up (p > 0.05). Additionally, neuroprosthesis usage was consistent with subjects choosing to use the system on approximately half of the days during each monitoring period. Although the number of hours using the neuroprosthesis remained constant, subjects shifted their usage to more functional standing versus more maintenance exercise, suggesting that the subjects incorporated the neuroprosthesis into their lives. Safety and reliability of the system were demonstrated by electrode stability and a high component survivability rate (>90%). Conclusions This group of 15 subjects is the largest cohort of implanted lower extremity neurorprosthetic exercise and standing system users. The safety and efficiency data from this group, and acceptance of the neuroprosthesis as demonstrated by continued usage, indicate that future efforts towards commercialization of a similar device may be warranted. PMID:22541312

  7. Longitudinal performance of a surgically implanted neuroprosthesis for lower-extremity exercise, standing, and transfers after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triolo, Ronald J; Bailey, Stephanie Nogan; Miller, Michael E; Rohde, Loretta M; Anderson, James S; Davis, John A; Abbas, James J; DiPonio, Lisa A; Forrest, George P; Gater, David R; Yang, Lynda J

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the longitudinal performance of a surgically implanted neuroprosthesis for lower-extremity exercise, standing, and transfers after spinal cord injury. Case series. Research or outpatient physical therapy departments of 4 academic hospitals. Subjects (N=15) with thoracic or low cervical level spinal cord injuries who had received the 8-channel neuroprosthesis for exercise and standing. After completing rehabilitation with the device, the subjects were discharged to unrestricted home use of the system. A series of assessments were performed before discharge and at a follow-up appointment approximately 1 year later. Neuroprosthesis usage, maximum standing time, body weight support, knee strength, knee fatigue index, electrode stability, and component survivability. Levels of maximum standing time, body weight support, knee strength, and knee fatigue index were not statistically different from discharge to follow-up (P>.05). Additionally, neuroprosthesis usage was consistent with subjects choosing to use the system on approximately half of the days during each monitoring period. Although the number of hours using the neuroprosthesis remained constant, subjects shifted their usage to more functional standing versus more maintenance exercise, suggesting that the subjects incorporated the neuroprosthesis into their lives. Safety and reliability of the system were demonstrated by electrode stability and a high component survivability rate (>90%). This group of 15 subjects is the largest cohort of implanted lower-extremity neuroprosthetic exercise and standing system users. The safety and efficiency data from this group, and acceptance of the neuroprosthesis as demonstrated by continued usage, indicate that future efforts toward commercialization of a similar device may be warranted. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sitting height/standing height ratio in a Spanish population from birth to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arriba Muñoz, Antonio; Domínguez Cajal, Mercedes; Rueda Caballero, Carmen; Labarta Aizpún, José Ignacio; Mayayo Dehesa, Esteban; Ferrández Longás, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    For the diagnosis of patients with growth disorders, visual inspection and the measurement of body segments may provide important information. The most commonly used method is the assessment of the sitting/standing height (SH/SH) ratio and its comparison to aged matched controls. To establish the normal values of the sitting/standing height ratio in a normal Aragonese population from birth to 18 years old. Longitudinal study from birth to 18 years old. Length (up to 3 years old), standing height (as of 2 years old) and sit-ting height were recorded. Percentiles for sitting/ standing height ratio were determined. The study included 165 male children and 167 female children. The values of the sitting/standing height ratio decrease from birth both in males and females (0.656 and 0.647, respectively) until the onset of puberty (0.514 and 0.519); and later start to slightly increase until reaching the definitive adult ratio (0.52 and 0.53, respectively). Sitting/standing height ratio values are presented in normal male and female children up to 18 years old. This ratio decreases from birth to puberty and then slightly increases until reaching the final adult ratio.

  9. Annual Production of Decomposer Fungi Associated With Standing-Dead Litter of Typha angustifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsowski, B. M.; Collins, M. D.; Tarry, D.; Francoeur, S. N.; Neely, R. K.; Kuehn, K. A.

    2005-05-01

    Microbial decomposition of standing-dead plant litter is an important process in wetlands dominated by emergent macrophytes. We determined the annual fungal biomass (ergosterol) and production (14C-acetate incorporation) associated with decaying standing litter (leaves and shoots) of the emergent macrophyte Typha angustifolia in small lake littoral wetland in southeastern Michigan. Mean annual detrital mass of standing-dead leaf and shoot litter was 656±238 g/m2 (range 284-873) and 1184±280 g/m2 (range 522-1525), respectively, during study period. Mean annual fungal biomass associated with decaying standing litter was 46 and 15 g/m2 for leaves and shoots, respectively. Annual fungal biomass production associated with leaves and shoots was 168 and 78 g/m2, respectively, with maximum production /m2 occurring during the summer season. These production estimates account for diel periodicity in water availability and the consequent periodicity in microbial activities that are characteristic of the standing litter environment. A partial organic matter budget constructed for this littoral wetland indicates that 9.4% of the annual aboveground production of T. angustifolia went into the production of fungal biomass. These results provide additional evidence indicating considerable carbon flow from emergent plant matter to fungal decomposers while in the standing-decay phase.

  10. Tropical forest biomass estimation from truncated stand tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. J. R. Gillespie; S. Brown; A. E. Lugo

    1992-01-01

    Total aboveground forest biomass may be estimated through a variety of techniques based on commercial inventory stand and stock tables. Stand and stock tables from tropical countries commonly omit trees bellow a certain commercial limit.

  11. Forest evaporation models: Relationships between stand growth and evaporation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between forest stand structure, growth and evaporation were analysed to determine whether forest evaporation can be estimated from stand growth data. This approach permits rapid assessment of the potential impacts of afforestation...

  12. Stand structure and regeneration of harvested Araucaria araucana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stand structure and regeneration of harvested Araucaria araucana–Nothofagus stands in central Chile. Rafael M Navarro-Cerrillo, Fernando Olave, Francisco Moreno, Sergio de Miguel, Margarita Clemente ...

  13. Restoring standing capabilities with feedback control of functional neuromuscular stimulation following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L; Triolo, Ronald J

    2017-04-01

    This paper reviews the field of feedback control for neuroprosthesis systems that restore advanced standing function to individuals with spinal cord injury. Investigations into closed-loop control of standing by functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have spanned three decades. The ultimate goal for FNS standing control systems is to facilitate hands free standing and enabling the user to perform manual functions at self-selected leaning positions. However, most clinical systems for home usage currently only provide basic upright standing using preprogrammed stimulation patterns. To date, online modulation of stimulation to produce advanced standing functions such as balance against postural disturbances or the ability to assume leaning postures have been limited to simulation and laboratory investigations. While great technological advances have been made in biomechanical sensing and interfaces for neuromuscular stimulation, further progress is still required for finer motor control by FNS. Another major challenge is the development of sophisticated control schemes that produce the necessary postural adjustments, adapt against accelerating muscle fatigue, and consider volitional actions of the intact upper-body of the user. Model-based development for novel control schemes are proven and sensible approaches to prototype and test the basic operating efficacy of potentially complex and multi-faceted control systems. The major considerations for further innovation of such systems are summarized in this paper prior to describing the evolution of closed-loop FNS control of standing from previous works. Finally, necessary emerging technologies to for implementing FNS feedback control systems for standing are identified. These technological advancements include novel electrodes that more completely and selectively activate paralyzed musculature and implantable sensors and stimulation modules for flexible neuroprosthesis system deployment. Copyright © 2017 IPEM

  14. Facilitating the recovery of natural evergreen forests in South Africa via invader plant stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coert J. Geldenhuys

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to general belief, planted and naturalized stands of introduced species facilitate the recovery of natural evergreen forests and their diversity. Forest rehabilitation actions are often performed at great cost: mature forest species are planted, while species with adaptations to recover effectively and quickly after severe disturbance are ignored; or stands are cleared of invasive alien species before native tree species are planted. By contrast, cost-effective commercial plantation forestry systems generally use fast-growing pioneer tree species introduced from other natural forest regions. Such planted tree stands often facilitate the recovery of shade-tolerant native forest species. This paper provides a brief overview of disturbance-recovery processes at landscape level, and how pioneer stands of both native and introduced tree species develop from monocultures to diverse mature forest communities. It uses one example of a study of how natural forest species from small forest patches of 3 ha in total invaded a 90-ha stand of the invasive Black wattle, Acacia mearnsii, over a distance of 3.1 ha at Swellendam near Cape Town, South Africa. The study recorded 329 forest species clusters across the wattle stand: more large clusters closer to and more smaller clusters further away from natural forest patches. The 28 recorded forest species (of potentially 40 species in the surrounding forest patches included 79% tree and 21% shrub species. Colonizing forest species had mostly larger fleshy fruit and softer small seeds, and were dispersed by mostly birds and primate species. Maturing forest trees within developing clusters in the wattle stand became a source for forest regeneration away from the clusters, showing different expansion patterns. Four sets of fenced-unfenced plots in the wattle stand showed the impact of browsing by livestock, antelope, rodents and insects on the successful establishment of regenerating forest species, and the

  15. Free-standing supramolecular hydrogel objects by reaction-diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrak, Matija; Hendriksen, Wouter E. J.; Maity, Chandan; Mytnyk, Serhii; van Steijn, Volkert; Eelkema, Rienk; van Esch, Jan H.

    2017-07-01

    Self-assembly provides access to a variety of molecular materials, yet spatial control over structure formation remains difficult to achieve. Here we show how reaction-diffusion (RD) can be coupled to a molecular self-assembly process to generate macroscopic free-standing objects with control over shape, size, and functionality. In RD, two or more reactants diffuse from different positions to give rise to spatially defined structures on reaction. We demonstrate that RD can be used to locally control formation and self-assembly of hydrazone molecular gelators from their non-assembling precursors, leading to soft, free-standing hydrogel objects with sizes ranging from several hundred micrometres up to centimeters. Different chemical functionalities and gradients can easily be integrated in the hydrogel objects by using different reactants. Our methodology, together with the vast range of organic reactions and self-assembling building blocks, provides a general approach towards the programmed fabrication of soft microscale objects with controlled functionality and shape.

  16. International energy: Subject thesaurus supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This is a supplement to International Energy: Subject Thesaurus (ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.1)), which replaced DOE/TIC-7000--the EDB Subject Thesaurus. This supplement is provided periodically to keep International Energy: Subject Thesaurus recipients up-to-date on valid vocabulary terms (descriptors) used in building and maintaining several international energy information databases. Each issue contains all new terms added since the publication of the Thesaurus. Each supplement is a cumulative listing of the new terms, so that each issue replaces the previous one.

  17. Influence of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to the Cerebellum on Standing Posture Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuto Inukai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the vestibular cerebellum results in dysfunctional standing posture control. Patients with cerebellum dysfunction have a larger sway in the center of gravity while standing compared with healthy subjects. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a noninvasive technique for selectively exciting or inhibiting specific neural structures with potential applications in functional assessment and treatment of neural disorders. However, the specific stimulation parameters for influencing postural control have not been assessed. In this study, we investigated the influence of tDCS when applied over the cerebellum on standing posture control. Sixteen healthy subjects received tDCS (20 min, 2 mA over the scalp 2 cm below the inion. In experiment 1, all 16 subjects received tDCS under three stimulus conditions, Sham, Cathodal, and Anodal, in a random order with the second electrode placed on the forehead. In experiment 2, five subjects received cathodal stimulation only with the second electrode placed over the right buccinator muscle. Center of gravity sway was measured twice for 60 s before and after tDCS in a standing posture with eyes open and legs closed, and average total locus length, locus length per second, rectangular area, and enveloped area were calculated. In experiment 1, total locus length and locus length per second decreased significantly after cathodal stimulation but not after anodal or sham stimulation, while no tDCS condition influenced rectangular or enveloped areas. In experiment 2, cathodal tDCS again significantly reduced total locus length and locus length per second but not rectangular and enveloped areas. The effects of tDCS on postural control are polarity-dependent, likely reflecting the selective excitation or inhibition of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Cathodal tDCS to the cerebellum of healthy subjects can alter body sway (velocity.

  18. Knowledge discovery in databases of biomechanical variables: application to the sit to stand motor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Della Croce, Ugo; Starita, Antonina; Benvenuti, Francesco; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2004-10-29

    ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND : The interpretation of data obtained in a movement analysis laboratory is a crucial issue in clinical contexts. Collection of such data in large databases might encourage the use of modern techniques of data mining to discover additional knowledge with automated methods. In order to maximise the size of the database, simple and low-cost experimental set-ups are preferable. The aim of this study was to extract knowledge inherent in the sit-to-stand task as performed by healthy adults, by searching relationships among measured and estimated biomechanical quantities. An automated method was applied to a large amount of data stored in a database. The sit-to-stand motor task was already shown to be adequate for determining the level of individual motor ability. METHODS : The technique of search for association rules was chosen to discover patterns as part of a Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) process applied to a sit-to-stand motor task observed with a simple experimental set-up and analysed by means of a minimum measured input model. Selected parameters and variables of a database containing data from 110 healthy adults, of both genders and of a large range of age, performing the task were considered in the analysis. RESULTS : A set of rules and definitions were found characterising the patterns shared by the investigated subjects. Time events of the task turned out to be highly interdependent at least in their average values, showing a high level of repeatability of the timing of the performance of the task. CONCLUSIONS : The distinctive patterns of the sit-to-stand task found in this study, associated to those that could be found in similar studies focusing on subjects with pathologies, could be used as a reference for the functional evaluation of specific subjects performing the sit-to-stand motor task.

  19. Knowledge discovery in databases of biomechanical variables: application to the sit to stand motor task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benvenuti Francesco

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interpretation of data obtained in a movement analysis laboratory is a crucial issue in clinical contexts. Collection of such data in large databases might encourage the use of modern techniques of data mining to discover additional knowledge with automated methods. In order to maximise the size of the database, simple and low-cost experimental set-ups are preferable. The aim of this study was to extract knowledge inherent in the sit-to-stand task as performed by healthy adults, by searching relationships among measured and estimated biomechanical quantities. An automated method was applied to a large amount of data stored in a database. The sit-to-stand motor task was already shown to be adequate for determining the level of individual motor ability. Methods The technique of search for association rules was chosen to discover patterns as part of a Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD process applied to a sit-to-stand motor task observed with a simple experimental set-up and analysed by means of a minimum measured input model. Selected parameters and variables of a database containing data from 110 healthy adults, of both genders and of a large range of age, performing the task were considered in the analysis. Results A set of rules and definitions were found characterising the patterns shared by the investigated subjects. Time events of the task turned out to be highly interdependent at least in their average values, showing a high level of repeatability of the timing of the performance of the task. Conclusions The distinctive patterns of the sit-to-stand task found in this study, associated to those that could be found in similar studies focusing on subjects with pathologies, could be used as a reference for the functional evaluation of specific subjects performing the sit-to-stand motor task.

  20. Influence of foot, leg and shoe characteristics on subjective comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J E; Nigg, B M; Liu, W; Stefanyshyn, D J; Nurse, M A

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between foot and leg characteristics, shoe characteristics, and the short-term subjective comfort of three different pairs of athletic shoes. Static measurements of foot dimension and leg angles were taken from eighteen subjects. Subjects rated the comfort of three different athletic shoes for standing, walking and running. The shoes were quantified by internal dimensions, hardness, flexibility and torsional stiffness. Average comfort ratings decreased from standing to walking to running. One shoe seemed suited for only a small group of subjects. In contrast, another shoe was generally comfortable for a large group. Skeletal alignment, specifically eversion angle, was related to comfort for one shoe. Therefore, fit of the shoe is not sufficient for comfort. Skeletal alignment, shoe torsional stiffness and cushioning seem to be mechanical variables which may be important for comfort.

  1. Lambing behaviour of Merino ewes from lines subjected to divergent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lambing behaviour of Merino ewes from lines subjected to divergent selection for multiple rearing ability from the same base population. ... likely than those in the H line to graze. The latter group of ewes was more likely to stand with their offspring at this stage. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol.32(1) 2002: 57-65 ...

  2. Muscle activation of paraspinal muscles in different types of high heels during standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongwook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study researched the effects of different types of high heels on the muscles surrounding the cervical spine, the thoracic spine, and the lumbar spine by analyzing muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles during standing while wearing high heels. The high heels were all of the same height: 8 cm. [Subjects and Methods] The 28 subjects in this experiment were females in their 20s with a foot size of 225-230 mm and a normal gait pattern. To measure the muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles, EMG electrodes were attached on the paraspinal muscles around C6, T7, and L5. The muscle activation during standing while wearing 8-cm-high wedge heels, setback heels, and French heels was then measured. The measurements were performed 3 times each, and the mean value was used for analysis. [Results] The levels of muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles induced by standing on wedge heels, setback heels, and French heels in the cervical and lumbar areas were significantly higher than those induced by standing on bare feet. But there was no significant difference according to the heel types. [Conclusion] The height of the heels presented a greater variable than the width of the heels on the muscle activation of paraspinal muscles. Therefore, wearing high heels is not recommended for those who have pain or functional problems in the cervical and/or lumbar spine.

  3. The zero inflation of standing dead tree carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; David W. MacFarlane

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees in numerous forest ecosystem attributes/processes such as carbon (C) stocks, the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees in 1999. Modeled estimates of standing dead tree C stocks are currently used as the official C stock estimates for the...

  4. Stocking equations for regeneration in mixed oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration stocking equations for mixed-oak stands were developed based on data collected from nearly 14,000 plots in the central Appalachians. Maximum stand density was identified by plotting aggregate height against number of seedlings per plot, and was used as the reference level of the average maximum stand density (100 percent stocking or A-level stocking)....

  5. Standing Sound Waves in Air with DataStudio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments related to standing sound waves in air are adapted for using the ScienceWorkshop data-acquisition system with the DataStudio software from PASCO scientific. First, the standing waves are created by reflection from a plane reflector. The distribution of the sound pressure along the standing wave is measured. Second, the resonance…

  6. 28 CFR 7.1 - Standing offer of reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standing offer of reward. 7.1 Section 7.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REWARDS FOR CAPTURE OF ESCAPED FEDERAL PRISONERS § 7.1 Standing offer of reward. A standing offer of reward is made for the capture, or for assisting in, or...

  7. A Fresh Look at Longitudinal Standing Waves on a Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Transverse standing waves produced on a string, as shown in Fig. 1, are a common demonstration of standing wave patterns that have nodes at both ends. Longitudinal standing waves can be produced on a helical spring that is mounted vertically and attached to a speaker, as shown in Fig. 2, and used to produce both node-node (NN) and node-antinode…

  8. Standing dead tree resources in forests of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Karen L. Waddell; Christopher M. Oswalt; James E. Smith

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees to numerous forest ecosystem attributes/ processes such as fuel loadings and wildlife habitat, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, initiated a consistent nationwide inventory of standing dead trees in 1999. As the first cycle of annual standing dead tree...

  9. A comparison of northern and southern table mountain pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose; Thomas A. Waldrop; Helen H. Mohr

    2010-01-01

    Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens) stands occur throughout the Appalachian Mountains, but ecological research has concentrated on the southern part of this region. In 2006, research was initiated in northern Table Mountain pine stands growing in PA to compare some basic attributes of those stands with previously described ones in TN. Overall, the...

  10. Production economics of harvesting young hardwood stands in central Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoxiang Li; Jingxin Wang; Gary W. Miller; Joe McNeel

    2004-01-01

    Three harvesting systems of chainsaw/cable skidder, fell-buncher/grapple skidder, and harvester/forwarder were simulated in harvesting three hardwood stands of 30 to 50 years old in central Appalachia. Stands were generated by using a stand generator and harvesting prescriptions included clearcut, shelterwood cut, selective cut, diameter limit cut, and crop tree...

  11. A 3D stand generator for central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Yaoxiang Li; Gary W. Miller

    2002-01-01

    A 3-dimensional (3D) stand generator was developed for central Appalachian hardwood forests. It was designed for a harvesting simulator to examine the interactions of stand, harvest, and machine. The Component Object Model (COM) was used to design and implement the program. Input to the generator includes species composition, stand density, and spatial pattern. Output...

  12. Diameter Distributions in Natural Yellow-Poplar Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. McGee; Lino Della-Bianca

    1967-01-01

    Diameter distributions obtained from 141 pure, natural unthinned yellow-poplar stands in the Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia are presented in tables. The distributions are described in relation to stand age, site index, and total number of trees per acre, and are useful for stand management planning.

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF HEMISPHERICAL RESONATOR GYROSCOPE STANDING WAVE PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Khalyutina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the problem of autonomous navigation is solved by dead reckoning navigation flight parameters (NFP of the aircraft (AC. With increasing requirements to accuracy of definition NFP improved the sensors of the prima- ry navigation information: gyroscopes and accelerometers. the gyroscopes of a new type, the so-called solid-state wave gyroscopes (SSVG are currently developed and put into practice. The work deals with the problem of increasing the accu- racy of measurements of angular velocity of the hemispherical resonator gyroscope (HRG. The reduction in the accuracy characteristics of HRG is caused by the presence of defects in the distribution of mass in the volume of its design. The syn- thesis of control system for optimal damping of the distortion parameters of the standing wave due to the influence of the mass defect resonator is adapted. The research challenge was: to examine and analytically offset the impact of the standing wave (amplitude and frequency parameters defect. Research was performed by mathematical modeling in the environment of SolidWorks Simulation for the case when the characteristics of the sensitive element of the HRG met the technological drawings of a particular type of resonator. The method of the inverse dynamics was chosen for synthesis. The research re- sults are presented in graphs the amplitude-frequency characteristics (AFC of the resonator output signal. Simulation was performed for the cases: the perfect distribution of weight; the presence of the mass defect; the presence of the mass defects are shown using the synthesized control action. Evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm is deter- mined by the results of the resonator output signal simulation provided the perfect constructive and its performance in the presence of a mass defect in it. It is assumed that the excitation signals are standing waves in the two cases are identical in both amplitude and frequency. In this

  14. Observation of a H- Beam at the CERN Linac 4 Test Stand using a Pepper-pot

    CERN Document Server

    Delerue, N; Midttun, O; Scrivens, R; Tsesmelis, E

    2010-01-01

    Pepper-pot based transverse emittance measurement has the advantage of providing a fast (single shot) measurement with a relatively simple hardware. We report on the installation of a pepper-pot at the CERN Linac 4 test stand.

  15. Interactive Effects of Anxiety Sensitivity and Subjective Social Status on Psychological Symptomatology in Black Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Childress, Sarah D; Obasi, Ezemenari M; Garey, Lorra; Vidrine, Damon J; McNeill, Lorna H; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity is the fear of anxiety-related sensations and subjective social status is a self-perception of social standing relative to others: both constructs have been linked to psychological symptomatology. This study investigated the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptomatology expression among 124 black adults. Participants provided sociodemographics and completed self-report questionnaires. The interactive associations between anxiety sensitivity and social status on anxiety symptomatology and depressive symptomatology were examined with hierarchical linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographics and negative affectivity. Significant interactions between anxiety sensitivity and social status were evident only for anxiety symptoms: specifically, the association between anxiety sensitivity and anxiety symptoms was much stronger for individuals with lower (versus higher) subjective social status. Black adults with this higher anxiety sensitivity/lower social status phenotype may be at heightened risk for the expression of anxiety symptomatology, and may benefit from interventions to reduce anxiety sensitivity.

  16. Stand quality management in a late-rotation, red oak-sweetgum stand in east Mississippi: preliminary results following thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Meadows; Daniel A. Skojac

    2012-01-01

    Stand quality management is a new management strategy in which thinning prescriptions are based solely on tree quality rather than a quantitative level of residual stand density. As long as residual density falls within fairly broad limits, prescriptions are based on tree quality alone. We applied four thinning prescriptions based on stand quality management, along...

  17. Effect of revised high-heeled shoes on foot pressure and static balance during standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Ko, Mansoo; Park, Young-Soul; Lee, Suk-Min

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of revised high-heeled shoes on the foot pressure ratio and static balance during standing. [Subjects and Methods] A single-subject design was used, 15 healthy women wearing revised high-heeled shoes and general high-heeled shoes in a random order. The foot pressure ratio and static balance scores during standing were measured using a SpaceBalance 3D system. [Results] Forefoot and rearfoot pressures were significantly different between the 2 types of high-heeled shoes. Under the 3 conditions tested, the static balance score was higher for the revised high-heeled shoes than for the general high-heeled shoes, but this difference was not statistically significant. [Conclusion] Revised high-heeled shoes are preferable to general high-heeled shoes, as they result in normalization of normalized foot pressure and a positive effect on static balance.

  18. Coxofemoral joint radiography in standing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzinger, Beatrice; Hagen, Regine; Schmid, Tanja; Nuss, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a technique for radiographic examination of the coxofemoral joint and adjacent bony structures in standing cattle. Left (or right) 30° dorsal-right (or left) ventral radiographic views of the coxofemoral joint region of standing cattle (n = 10) with hind limb lameness were evaluated retrospectively. In addition, an experimental study of oblique laterolateral views of the coxofemoral joint region of a bovine skeleton at angles of 15-45° was carried out to determine the optimal position for visualization of the hip region. In the 10 clinical patients, the bodies of the ilium and ischium, the acetabulum and proximal third of the femur could be assessed. Six of these cattle had fractures of the body of the ilium and body of the ischium, five with and one without involvement of the acetabulum, two had craniodorsal and one caudoventral luxation of the femur and one had a femoral neck fracture. The described laterodorsal-lateroventral radiographs of the hip region in standing cattle were suitable for assessing the coxofemoral joint, the proximal aspect of the femur and parts of the ischium, ilium and pubis. After testing the optimal angle on the skeleton, it was seen that distortion and superimposition were minimized by positioning the X-ray beam at an angle of 25° to the horizontal plane. It can be concluded that the described technique improves the evaluation of injuries of the coxofemoral region in cattle. With the appropriate angle, the technique can also be applied in recumbent cattle. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  19. Stand for testing sections of mechanized timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebennikov, Yu.N.; Aksenov, Yu.G.; Khazanov, Kh.I.; Khazin, V.A.; Radulov, V.Ye.; Vavilov, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to bring the testing conditions closer to the operating with multiple loading. This goal is achieved because in the stand for testing sections of mechanized timbering which includes a power frame, loading device with support and hydraulic equipment, the loading device is made in the form of enclosure sprockets and infinite mobile gears surrounding them on which with variable spacing with the help of transverse planks there are supports attached. In this case the length of the enclosure of each gear is the aliquant to the spacing of its advance.

  20. Construction of an automated table standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, R. E.; Barbero, M. D.; Di Giulio, E. A.; Folco, J. F.; Jiménez, G. F.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the construction of an upright stretcher designed for patients in rehabilitation. The standing back to patients' expectations of therapeutic improvement, allowing correct all the troubles of a passive long. It has been shown that this table favors not only physically but also has a psychological reach beyond the scope of physical therapy and strongly affects the recovery. At the same time, the use of an upright stretcher greatly decreases the biomechanical disorders of hospital staff in the process of recovery. Thus the problem of rehabilitation of trafficking in a comprehensive way which not only focuses on the patient's undivided attention but also includes medical and auxiliary personnel.

  1. Development of a decision support system for analysis and solutions of prolonged standing in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Isa; Arep, Hambali; Kamat, Seri Rahayu; Abdullah, Rohana; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Ismail, Ahmad Rasdan

    2014-06-01

    Prolonged standing has been hypothesized as a vital contributor to discomfort and muscle fatigue in the workplace. The objective of this study was to develop a decision support system that could provide systematic analysis and solutions to minimize the discomfort and muscle fatigue associated with prolonged standing. The integration of object-oriented programming and a Model Oriented Simultaneous Engineering System were used to design the architecture of the decision support system. Validation of the decision support system was carried out in two manufacturing companies. The validation process showed that the decision support system produced reliable results. The decision support system is a reliable advisory tool for providing analysis and solutions to problems related to the discomfort and muscle fatigue associated with prolonged standing. Further testing of the decision support system is suggested before it is used commercially.

  2. Biomonitoring of physiological status and cognitive performance of underway submariners undergoing a novel watch-standing schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, C. A.; Cullum, M. E.; Crepeau, L. J.

    2005-05-01

    Submarine watch-standers adhere to a 6 hour-on, 12 hour-off (6/12) watch-standing schedule, yoking them to an 18-hr day, engendering circadian desynchronization and chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, the chronic social crowding, shift work, and confinement of submarine life provide additional stressors known to correlate with elevated secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and cortisol levels, reduced performance, immunologic dysfunction, malignancies, infections, gastrointestinal illness, coronary disease, anxiety, and depression. We evaluated an alternative, compressed, fixed work schedule designed to enhance circadian rhythm entrainment, sleep hygiene, performance, and health on 10 underway submariners, who followed the alternative and 6/12 schedules for approximately 2 weeks each. We measured subjects" sleep, cognitive performance, and salivary biomarker levels. Pilot analysis of the salivary data on one subject utilizing ELISA suggests elevated biomarker levels of stress. Average PM cortisol levels were 0.2 μg/L (normal range: nondetectable - 0.15 μg/L), and mean sIgA levels were 562 μg/ml (normal range: 100-500 μg/ml). Future research exploiting real-time salivary bioassays, via fluorescent polarimetry technology, identified by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) as a future Naval requirement, allows researchers to address correlations between stress-induced elaboration of salivary biomarkers with physiological and performance decrements, thereby fostering insight into the underway submariner"s psychoimmunological status. This may help identify strategies that enhance resilience to stressors. Specifically, empirically-based modeling can identify optimal watch-standing schedules and stress-mitigating procedures -- within the operational constraints of the submarine milieu and the mission --that foster improved circadian entrainment and reduced stress reactivity, enhancing physiological health, operational performance, safety, and job satisfaction.

  3. Impact of Acoustic Standing Waves on Structural Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaini, Ali R.

    2014-01-01

    For several decades large reverberant chambers and most recently direct field acoustic testing have been used in the aerospace industry to test larger structures with low surface densities such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify them and to detect faults in the design and fabrication. It has been reported that in reverberant chamber and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes may strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware (Reference 1). In this paper results from a recent reverberant chamber acoustic test of a composite reflector are discussed. These results provide further convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave and structural modes coupling phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to alert test organizations to this phenomenon so that they can account for the potential increase in structural responses and ensure that flight hardware undergoes safe testing. An understanding of the coupling phenomenon may also help minimize the over and/or under testing that could pose un-anticipated structural and flight qualification issues.

  4. Radar Data for Identifying the Characteristics of Tropical Forest Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wuryanta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Radar is one of remote sensing technology which utilizes active electromagnetic energy and are able to provide information about the characteristics of forest stand. This study utilized JERS-1 and ERS-1 radar images to analyze the relationship between the radar backscatter and forest stand characteristics such as Diameter Breast Height (DBH, basal area, and canopy cover. This research was conducted in Jambi Province, Bungo Tebo District, Sumatra, Indonesia. The research site covered the forest concession, Suku Anak Dalam, the area adjacent to Pelepat and Batang Tebo River, and Kuamang Kuning village. Gamma Map Filter with 7 x 7 window size was applied to reduce speckle noise of the SAR images (ERS-1 and JERS-1. This study found out the positive significant correlation between basal area and DBH with JERS-1 radar backscatter (i.e., r = 0.75 and r = 0.70, while ERS-1 radar backscatter has correlation (r = 0.64 with the canopy cover.

  5. Impact of seated and standing bicycle riding position on subsequent running performance

    OpenAIRE

    JENSEN, RANDALL L.; Ewers, Brendon J.; Cunniffe, Brian; Phelan, Brian; Harrison, Andrew J; SHAFAT, AMIR

    2008-01-01

    peer-reviewed This study examined the effects of cycling posture on subsequent running performance similar to the transition phase of a triathlon. Experienced, non-elite triathletes completed two trials of a cycle-run transition. During the last three minutes of a 30 minute cycling bout, at power output equal to lactate threshold, subjects either remained seated (SEAT), or alternated seated and standing cycling (30 s at a time; ALT). Heart rate, RPE, minimum and maximum knee angle, stride ...

  6. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  7. The degrees of freedom problem in human standing posture: collective and component dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wang

    Full Text Available The experiment was setup to investigate the coordination and control of the degrees of freedom (DFs of human standing posture with particular reference to the identification of the collective and component variables. Subjects stood in 3 postural tasks: feet side by side, single left foot quiet stance and single left foot stance with body rocking at the ankle joint in the sagittal plane. All three postural tasks showed very high coherence (∼ 1 of center of pressure (COP--center of mass (COM in the low frequency range. The ankle and hip coherence was mid range (∼.5 with the tasks having different ankle/hip compensatory cophase patterns. The findings support the view that the in-phase relation of the low frequency components of the COP-COM dynamic is the collective variable in the postural tasks investigated. The motions of the individual joints (ankle, knee, hip, neck and couplings of pair wise joint synergies (e.g., ankle-hip provide a supporting cooperative role to the preservation of the collective variable in maintaining the COM within the stability region of the base of support (BOS and minimizing the amount of body motion consistent with the task constraint.

  8. "Thinking on your feet": A qualitative evaluation of sit-stand desks in an Australian workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunseit, Anne Carolyn; Chau, Josephine Yuk-Yin; van der Ploeg, Hidde Pieter; Bauman, Adrian

    2013-04-18

    promoted by emphasizing the health benefits, providing guidance on appropriate set-up and normalizing standing for work-related tasks.

  9. Science stand-up at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephanie McClellan

    2013-01-01

    Supported by host Helen Keen from BBC4’s "It is Rocket Science", six amateur performers from CERN (Sam Gregson, Alex Brown, Benjamin Frisch, Claire Lee, Hugo Day and Clara Nellist) were joined on stage by geek-pop sensation Jonny Berliner and comedians Pierre Novellie and Lieven Scheire for a night of science stand-up comedy.   Host Helen Keen starts off the comedy event. (Image: Piotr Traczyk). Like the genesis of most great things, the LHComedy event began as an idea. Sam Gregson, a PhD student at CERN, had been a regular at the Cambridge Bright Club. This public engagement event promotes scientists’ research through stand-up comedy. Sam thought, “If people came to watch Bright Club at Cambridge and enjoyed the research, why can’t we do it at the biggest scientific experiment in the world?” Sam’s idea gained momentum after being introduced to FameLab participants at CERN. Similar to Bright Club, FameLab is a com...

  10. Influence of eye closing on the cardiovascular response to stand test on stable and unstable platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeille, Ph; Kerbeci, P; Besnard, S; Montoya, A; Dupui, P

    2004-07-01

    Check if the stimulation of the leg muscles and neuro-sensorial system during stand test influence the cardiovascular response to stand test pre and post a 7 d HDT (4 subjects). After 20 min supine, the subject stood for 10 min, and closed the eyes for 1 min. Then he stayed 2 min stand up on ant-posterior or lateral unstable platform and closed the eyes for 30 sec. The cerebral and lower limb flow were assessed by Doppler (skin fixed sensors) and also the cerebral to femoral flow ratio (CFR). All 4 subjects were tolerant, CFR increased similarly pre and post HDT. Post HDT eye closing increased leg muscle activity, and femoral flow increased more than pre HDT, on ant-post unstable platform. The trace of the body foot pressure point was much longer post HDT on the ant-post platform. Post HDT neuro-sensorial disadaptation may contribute to reduce the orthostatic tolerance at least in absence of visual references.

  11. PID Controller Design for FES Applied to Ankle Muscles in Neuroprosthesis for Standing Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Hossein; Same, Michael; Masani, Kei; Li, Ya Qi; Popovic, Milos R

    2017-01-01

    Closed-loop controlled functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to the lower limb muscles can be used as a neuroprosthesis for standing balance in neurologically impaired individuals. The objective of this study was to propose a methodology for designing a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for FES applied to the ankle muscles toward maintaining standing balance for several minutes and in the presence of perturbations. First, a model of the physiological control strategy for standing balance was developed. Second, the parameters of a PID controller that mimicked the physiological balance control strategy were determined to stabilize the human body when modeled as an inverted pendulum. Third, this PID controller was implemented using a custom-made Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus that eliminated the effect of visual and vestibular sensory information on voluntary balance control. Using this setup, the individual-specific FES controllers were tested in able-bodied individuals and compared with disrupted voluntary control conditions in four experimental paradigms: (i) quiet-standing; (ii) sudden change of targeted pendulum angle (step response); (iii) balance perturbations that simulate arm movements; and (iv) sudden change of targeted angle of a pendulum with individual-specific body-weight (step response). In paradigms (i) to (iii), a standard 39.5-kg pendulum was used, and 12 subjects were involved. In paradigm (iv) 9 subjects were involved. Across the different experimental paradigms and subjects, the FES-controlled and disrupted voluntarily-controlled pendulum angle showed root mean square errors of controlled balance were significantly smaller or tended to be smaller than those observed with voluntarily-controlled balance, implying improved steady-state and transient responses of FES-controlled balance. At the same time, the FES-controlled balance required similar torque levels (no significant difference) as voluntarily

  12. PID Controller Design for FES Applied to Ankle Muscles in Neuroprosthesis for Standing Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rouhani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop controlled functional electrical stimulation (FES applied to the lower limb muscles can be used as a neuroprosthesis for standing balance in neurologically impaired individuals. The objective of this study was to propose a methodology for designing a proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller for FES applied to the ankle muscles toward maintaining standing balance for several minutes and in the presence of perturbations. First, a model of the physiological control strategy for standing balance was developed. Second, the parameters of a PID controller that mimicked the physiological balance control strategy were determined to stabilize the human body when modeled as an inverted pendulum. Third, this PID controller was implemented using a custom-made Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus that eliminated the effect of visual and vestibular sensory information on voluntary balance control. Using this setup, the individual-specific FES controllers were tested in able-bodied individuals and compared with disrupted voluntary control conditions in four experimental paradigms: (i quiet-standing; (ii sudden change of targeted pendulum angle (step response; (iii balance perturbations that simulate arm movements; and (iv sudden change of targeted angle of a pendulum with individual-specific body-weight (step response. In paradigms (i to (iii, a standard 39.5-kg pendulum was used, and 12 subjects were involved. In paradigm (iv 9 subjects were involved. Across the different experimental paradigms and subjects, the FES-controlled and disrupted voluntarily-controlled pendulum angle showed root mean square errors of <1.2 and 2.3 deg, respectively. The root mean square error (all paradigms, rise time, settle time, and overshoot [paradigms (ii and (iv] in FES-controlled balance were significantly smaller or tended to be smaller than those observed with voluntarily-controlled balance, implying improved steady-state and transient responses of FES

  13. Correlation between movement complexity during static standing and balance function in institutionalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Momoko; Ikezoe, Tome; Kamiya, Midori; Masaki, Mitsuhiro; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2017-01-01

    Sample entropy (SampEn) is an analysis to evaluate movement complexity of the center of pressure (COP). A lower value of SampEn indicates lower complexity of COP variability, that is, rigidity, and lower degrees of freedom. Previous studies reported the association of increased SampEn with improved standing balance ability in young subjects. However, no studies have examined these relationships among older adults. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between SampEn and standing balance ability in older adults. The subjects were 33 institutionalized older adults (aged 82.2±6.5 years). COP during static standing was measured. The standard deviation (SD) values of COP and SampEn in the sagittal and frontal planes were calculated using time series data. One-leg standing test (OLST), functional reach (FR) test, and lateral reach (LR) test were also measured to evaluate standing balance ability. OLST, FR, and LR were 6.5±8.3 s, 19.8±5.9 cm, and 18.2±6.4 cm, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that SampEn in the sagittal plane significantly correlated with OLST (r=-0.35) and FR (r=-0.36). However, SampEn in the frontal plane and SD of COP in both sagittal and frontal planes had no relationship with any of the clinical balance tests. Lower SampEn implies rigidity for postural control. In the present study, it was found that lower SampEn in the sagittal plane was related to a higher balance function, which suggests that older adults utilized body rigidity to maintain postural stability as a compensative strategy.

  14. Stand development patterns for young planted oak stands on bottomland hardwood restoration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Stoll; Brent R. Frey

    2016-01-01

    Over the last several decades, bottomland restoration efforts have established hundreds of thousands of acres of planted hardwood stands throughout the Southeastern U.S. Much of the initial research focused on planting approaches and early growth and survival, contributing to more effective establishment methods. However, less research attention has been focused on...

  15. Transmission components of solar radiation in pine stands in relation to climatic and stand variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Muller

    1971-01-01

    In a new approach, transmission was studied by relating to stand biomass the ratio of incoming solar radiation beneath tree crowns to that within the atmosphere. Several assumptions were used to estimate analytically the various ways in which solar radiation penetrates through crowns of three pine species in northern California. Sunflecks accounted for much of the...

  16. Non-Contact Thrust Stand Calibration Method for Repetitively-Pulsed Electric Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andrea R.; Toftul, Alexandra; Polzin, Kurt A.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2011-01-01

    A thrust stand calibration technique for use in testing repetitively-pulsed electric thrusters for in-space propulsion has been developed and tested using a modified hanging pendulum thrust stand. In the implementation of this technique, current pulses are applied to a solenoidal coil to produce a pulsed magnetic field that acts against the magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet mounted to the thrust stand pendulum arm. The force on the magnet is applied in this non-contact manner, with the entire pulsed force transferred to the pendulum arm through a piezoelectric force transducer to provide a time-accurate force measurement. Modeling of the pendulum arm dynamics reveals that after an initial transient in thrust stand motion the quasisteady average deflection of the thrust stand arm away from the unforced or zero position can be related to the average applied force through a simple linear Hooke s law relationship. Modeling demonstrates that this technique is universally applicable except when the pulsing period is increased to the point where it approaches the period of natural thrust stand motion. Calibration data were obtained using a modified hanging pendulum thrust stand previously used for steady-state thrust measurements. Data were obtained for varying impulse bit at constant pulse frequency and for varying pulse frequency. The two data sets exhibit excellent quantitative agreement with each other as the constant relating average deflection and average thrust match within the errors on the linear regression curve fit of the data. Quantitatively, the error on the calibration coefficient is roughly 1% of the coefficient value.

  17. A reduction of the saddle vertical force triggers the sit-stand transition in cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Antony; Turpin, Nicolas A; Villeger, David; Moretto, Pierre; Watier, Bruno

    2015-09-18

    The purpose of the study was to establish the link between the saddle vertical force and its determinants in order to establish the strategies that could trigger the sit-stand transition. We hypothesized that the minimum saddle vertical force would be a critical parameter influencing the sit-stand transition during cycling. Twenty-five non-cyclists were asked to pedal at six different power outputs from 20% (1.6 ± 0.3 W kg(-1)) to 120% (9.6 ± 1.6 W kg(-1)) of their spontaneous sit-stand transition power obtained at 90 rpm. Five 6-component sensors (saddle tube, pedals and handlebars) and a full-body kinematic reconstruction were used to provide the saddle vertical force and other force components (trunk inertial force, hips and shoulders reaction forces, and trunk weight) linked to the saddle vertical force. Minimum saddle vertical force linearly decreased with power output by 87% from a static position on the bicycle (5.30 ± 0.50 N kg(-1)) to power output=120% of the sit-stand transition power (0.68 ± 0.49 N kg(-1)). This decrease was mainly explained by the increase in instantaneous pedal forces from 2.84 ± 0.58 N kg(-1) to 6.57 ± 1.02 N kg(-1) from 20% to 120% of the power output corresponding to the sit-stand transition, causing an increase in hip vertical forces from -0.17 N kg(-1) to 3.29 N kg(-1). The emergence of strategies aiming at counteracting the elevation of the trunk (handlebars and pedals pulling) coincided with the spontaneous sit-stand transition power. The present data suggest that the large decrease in minimum saddle vertical force observed at high pedal reaction forces might trigger the sit-stand transition in cycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relating demographic characteristics of a small mammal to remotely sensed forest-stand condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hania Lada

    Full Text Available Many ecological systems around the world are changing rapidly in response to direct (land-use change and indirect (climate change human actions. We need tools to assess dynamically, and over appropriate management scales, condition of ecosystems and their responses to potential mitigation of pressures. Using a validated model, we determined whether stand condition of floodplain forests is related to densities of a small mammal (a carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes in 60,000 ha of extant river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis forests in south-eastern Australia in 2004, 2005 and 2011. Stand condition was assessed remotely using models built from ground assessments of stand condition and satellite-derived reflectance. Other covariates, such as volumes of fallen timber, distances to floods, rainfall and life stages were included in the model. Trapping of animals was conducted at 272 plots (0.25 ha across the region. Densities of second-year females (i.e. females that had survived to a second breeding year and of second-year females with suckled teats (i.e. inferred to have been successful mothers were higher in stands with the highest condition. There was no evidence of a relationship with stand condition for males or all females. These outcomes show that remotely-sensed estimates of stand condition (here floodplain forests are relatable to some demographic characteristics of a small mammal species, and may provide useful information about the capacity of ecosystems to support animal populations. Over-regulation of large, lowland rivers has led to declines in many facets of floodplain function. If management of water resources continues as it has in recent decades, then our results suggest that there will be further deterioration in stand condition and a decreased capacity for female yellow-footed antechinuses to breed multiple times.

  19. An explorative qualitative study to determine the footwear needs of workers in standing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer; Williams, Anita E; Nester, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Many work places require standing for prolonged periods of time and are potentially damaging to health, with links to musculoskeletal disorders and acute trauma from workplace accidents. Footwear provides the only interaction between the body and the ground and therefore a potential means to impact musculoskeletal disorders. However, there is very limited research into the necessary design and development of footwear based on both the physical environmental constraints and the personal preference of the workers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore workers needs for footwear in the 'standing' workplace in relation to MSD, symptoms, comfort and design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants from demanding work environments that require standing for high proportions of the working day. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the results and gain an exploratory understanding into the footwear needs of these workers. Interviews revealed the environmental demands and a very high percentage of musculoskeletal disorders, including day to day discomfort and chronic problems. It was identified that when designing work footwear for standing environments, the functionality of the shoe for the environment must be addressed, the sensations and symptoms of the workers taken into account to encourage adherence and the decision influencers should be met to encourage initial footwear choice. Meeting all these criteria could encourage the use of footwear with the correct safety features and comfort. Development of the correct footwear and increased education regarding foot health and footwear choice could help to reduce or improve the effect of the high number of musculoskeletal disorders repeatedly recorded in jobs that require prolonged periods of standing. This study provides a unique insight into the footwear needs of some workers in environments that require prolonged standing. This user based enquiry has provided information which is important

  20. A Comparison of Muscle Activities in the Lower Extremity between Flat and Normal Feet during One-leg Standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Eun; Park, Ga-Hyeon; Lee, Yun-Seop; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2013-09-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the differences in muscle activation between flat and normal feet in the one-leg standing position which delivers the greatest load to the lower extremity. [Subjects] This study was conducted with 23 adults, 12 with normal feet and 12 with flat feet, with ages ranging from 21 to 30 years old, who had no neurological history or gait problems. [Methods] The leg used for one leg standing was the dominant leg of the subjects. The experimenter instructed the subjects to raise the non-dominant leg with their eyes open, and the subjects maintained a posture with the non-dominant leg's knee flexed at 90° and the hip joint flexed at 45° for six seconds. In the position of one-leg standing, a horizontal rod was set at the height of the waist line of the subjects who lightly placed two fingers of each hand on the rod to prevent inclination of the trunk to one side. Measurements were taken three times and the maximum value was used. A surface electromyogram (TeleMyo 2400T, Noraxon Co., USA) was used to measure muscle activities. [Results] We compared muscle activities between flat and normal foot, and the results show a significant difference between normal and flat feet in the muscle activity of the abductor hallucis muscle. [Conclusion] The subjects with flat feet had relatively lower activation of the abductor hallucis muscle than those with normal feet during one leg standing. We infer from this that the abductor hallucis muscle of flat foot doesn't work as well as a dynamic stabilizer, compared to a normal foot, during one leg standing.

  1. Modifying soil water status and improving stand establishment in a water repellent soil using surfactant coated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Stanley; Lampe, Mark; van Mondfrans, Jan; Madsen, Matthew; McMillan, Mica

    2015-04-01

    Surfactant seed coating (SSC) is a technology being developed cooperatively by scientists at the USDA, Agricultural Research Service and Aquatrols to improve stand establishment in water repellent soils, particularly under arid conditions. Early SSC studies have demonstrated that surfactant coatings can dramatically increase soil water content, turfgrass density, cover, and biomass for Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue and perennial ryegrass sown in water repellent soils under greenhouse conditions. However, in these studies, surfactant loads were excessive (≥ 40 wt% of seed mass). The objective of the current study was to ascertain if a lower surfactant treatment level (10 wt%) would improve emergence and stand establishment in a severely water repellent sandy soil under field conditions. Research was conducted on a golf course near Utrecht, NL. At the time of planting water drop penetration time (WDPT) of the soil was approximately 300 s, indicating severe water repellency. Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra subsp. commutata) seed was treated with ASET-4001 surfactant at a loading rate of 10 wt% using two different proprietary coating procedures (US Patent Application 20100267554). The two different ASET-4001 coatings were compared against untreated seed in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. In order to maximize abiotic stresses, the only applied water came from rainfall. Assessments of stand establishment were made every 7-14 days for three months using a subjective visual assessment of percent grass cover and sward quality based on a 1-10 scale (where 10 is best). At six months post-sowing, 20 mm x 300 mm soil cores were randomly removed from each plot and soil wetting front depth measured. Improved emergence of the surfactant coated seeds over the untreated seeds began to appear 7 days after sowing. However, there were no differences between the two SSC treatments. Establishment was influenced by weather conditions. From mid-June to early

  2. Blood pressure associates with standing balance in elderly outpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantsje H Pasma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Assessment of the association of blood pressure measurements in supine and standing position after a postural change, as a proxy for blood pressure regulation, with standing balance in a clinically relevant cohort of elderly, is of special interest as blood pressure may be important to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance in routine geriatric assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional cohort study, 197 community-dwelling elderly referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic of a middle-sized teaching hospital were included. Blood pressure was measured intermittently (n = 197 and continuously (subsample, n = 58 before and after a controlled postural change from supine to standing position. The ability to maintain standing balance was assessed during ten seconds of side-by-side, semi-tandem and tandem stance, with both eyes open and eyes closed. Self-reported impaired standing balance and history of falls were recorded by questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between blood pressure and 1 the ability to maintain standing balance; 2 self-reported impaired standing balance; and 3 history of falls, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Blood pressure decrease after postural change, measured continuously, was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance and falls. Presence of orthostatic hypotension was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed for both intermittent and continuous measurements and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance for continuous measurements. CONCLUSION: Continuous blood pressure measurements are of additional value to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance and may therefore be useful in routine geriatric care.

  3. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  4. Ribcage compressibility in living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M; Hill, S; Scullin, J

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of normal living subjects to the application of anteroposterior forces to the ribcage. Seventeen subjects aged between 25 and 37 years were tested during slow oscillatory loading while breath-holding at the end of a normal expiration. The mean stiffness coefficient was found to be 9.4 N mm(-1) (SD 2.9) and the mean gradient of the force-strain relation was 1888 N (SD 646). Comparison with previously published cadaver data indicates that the embalmed cadaver ribcage stiffness is in the order of three times stiffer than living subjects, while fresh cadavers showed comparable stiffness to living subjects. A number of studies have used models to predict and understand the behaviour of the thoracic spine. Validation of the behaviour of models which include the thoracic spine and ribcage depends on comparison of model response predictions with observed responses of human subjects. The present study provides data on the anteroposterior compressibility of the ribcage of living subjects which may be suitable for use in model validation studies. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Optimization of the Motion Trajectory for Standing from a Seated Position by Considering Muscular Load Based on Electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Daisuke; Asakura, Yuki; Kitamura, Akira

    Standing from a chair is an important task of daily living for physically handicapped people. In a rehabilitation center, a health care professional is planning motion based on the experience and knowledge so that a patient may stand up with few loads. Therefore, there is a problem that the plan is different occasionally as each health care professional. In this paper, a generation method of motion trajectory to stand from a seated position with few loads by using Genetic Algorithm (GA) was proposed. The human body was expressed as three-rigid-link model. In the model, the ankle, the knee, and the waist were set to the joint. Moreover, Electromyography (EMG) generated from the muscle to drive each joint was measured, and the model between each joint torque and EMG was constructed with the ARX model. The motion trajectory to stand from the seated position was generated by using GA with the evaluation function based on the constructed ARX model. The generated motion trajectory was evaluated by the experimental work with eight healthy subjects. As a result, the effect of the proposed method was objectively verified by subject's EMG. In addition, subjective effect of the proposed method was verified by analysis of variance about subject's impression.

  6. Where Do I Stand? Examining the Effects of Leader-Member Exchange Social Comparison on Employee Work Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyarthi, Prajya R.; Liden, Robert C.; Anand, Smriti; Erdogan, Berrin; Ghosh, Samiran

    2010-01-01

    Taking an approach integrating principles of leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation with social comparison theory, we contend that subjective ratings by individuals of their LMX compared to the LMXs of coworkers (labeled LMX social comparison, or LMXSC) explain unique and meaningful variance in outcomes beyond LMX and the actual standing of…

  7. Snow breakage in a pole-sized ponderosa pine plantation ... more damage at high stand-densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers; William W. Oliver

    1970-01-01

    Damage by snow breakage to pole-sized ponderosa pine (Pinus pondvosa Laws.) increased as stand density increased. In a plantation on the west slope of California's Sierra Nevada, the tallest trees were most often broken. Thinning in the sapling stage is recommended as a preventative measure in dense plantations subject to heavy snowfall.

  8. 75 FR 55759 - Floor-Standing, Metal-Top Ironing Tables and Certain Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Commercial Intelligence & Statistics, Indian Ministry of Commerce, to determine the surrogate values for most... the United States of the subject merchandise at prices below normal value. We invite interested... Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Floor-Standing, Metal-Top Ironing Tables and Certain Parts...

  9. Seasonal and cumulative loblolly pine development under two stand density and fertility levels through four growing seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Haywood

    1994-01-01

    A loblolly pine stand was subjected to two cultural treatments to determine treatment effects in the 9th through 12th growing seasons. Thining resulted in less spring height growth in the 9th and 10th growing seasons than no thinning, but thinning resulted in more diameter growth each year. Fertilization increased height and diameter growth beginning in the 10th...

  10. Effective and Efficient Stand Magnifier Use in Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Cox, Ralf F A; van Rens, Ger H M B; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Boonstra, Frouke N

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old children with visual impairment and 47 age-matched children with normal vision. After seeing a first symbol (an Lea Hyvärinen [LH] symbol), children were instructed to (1) move the stand magnifier as quickly as possible toward a small target symbol (another LH symbol that could only be seen by using the magnifier), (2) compare the two symbols, and (3) move the magnifier to one of two response areas to indicate whether the two symbols were identical. Performance was measured in terms of accuracy, response time, identification time, and movement time. Viewing distance, as well as hand and eye dominance while using the magnifier was assessed. There were no significant differences between the two groups in accuracy, reaction time, and movement time. Contrary to the prediction, children with visual impairment required less time to identify small symbols than children with normal vision. Both within-subject and between-subject variability in viewing distance were smaller in the visually impaired group than in the normally sighted group. In the visually impaired group, a larger viewing distance was associated with shorter identification time, which in turn was associated with higher accuracy. In the normally sighted group, a faster movement with the magnifier and a faster identification were associated with increasing age. The findings indicate that children with visual impairment can use the stand magnifier adequately and efficiently. The normally sighted children show an age-related development in movement time and identification time and show more variability in viewing distance, which is not found in visually impaired children. Visually impaired children seem to choose a standard but less

  11. Effective and Efficient Stand Magnifier Use in Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Cox, Ralf F. A.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Boonstra, Frouke N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Methods: Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old children with visual impairment and 47 age-matched children with normal vision. After seeing a first symbol (an Lea Hyvärinen [LH] symbol), children were instructed to (1) move the stand magnifier as quickly as possible toward a small target symbol (another LH symbol that could only be seen by using the magnifier), (2) compare the two symbols, and (3) move the magnifier to one of two response areas to indicate whether the two symbols were identical. Performance was measured in terms of accuracy, response time, identification time, and movement time. Viewing distance, as well as hand and eye dominance while using the magnifier was assessed. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in accuracy, reaction time, and movement time. Contrary to the prediction, children with visual impairment required less time to identify small symbols than children with normal vision. Both within-subject and between-subject variability in viewing distance were smaller in the visually impaired group than in the normally sighted group. In the visually impaired group, a larger viewing distance was associated with shorter identification time, which in turn was associated with higher accuracy. In the normally sighted group, a faster movement with the magnifier and a faster identification were associated with increasing age. Conclusion: The findings indicate that children with visual impairment can use the stand magnifier adequately and efficiently. The normally sighted children show an age-related development in movement time and identification time and show more variability in viewing distance, which is not found in visually impaired children. Visually impaired

  12. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  13. Prohexadione-calcium improves stand density and yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interseeded alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) could serve as a dual-purpose crop to provide groundcover for silage corn (Zea mays L.) and forage during subsequent years of production, but interspecific competition often leads to poor stands of alfalfa and unsatisfactory yields of corn. Four experiments e...

  14. Factors Influencing Formation of the Siberian Stone Pine Stands Near Settlements in Northern Taiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Sedykh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of formation of seed productive Siberian stone pine stands near settlements, due to the total destruction of the living ground cover and forest litter, providing heat influx in the root-inhabited zone of the Siberian stone pine trees is discussed in the paper.

  15. US manufacturers of commercially available stand-alone photovoltaic lighting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, P.

    1994-05-01

    This report introduces photovoltaic (PV) lighting systems, gives some specifications for ordering these systems, and provides a list of some of the manufacturers of these systems in the United States. These PV lighting systems are all commercially available. They are stand-alone systems because they are not tied to the electric utility power grid.

  16. Characterizing Stand Structure and Growth of Natural Beech Forests for the Development of Sustainable Forest Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalandarayeshi, Shaaban

    forests in northern Iran lack such scientific foundation. The objective of the present study is to assist in this process by characterizing growth and stand structure of oriental beech for a range of growing conditions in northern Iran and to provide useful insight for application in sustainable...

  17. Stand-scale correspondence in empirical and simulated labile carbohydrates in loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Sampson; Kurt H. Johnsen; Kim H. Ludovici; Timothy J. Albaugh; Chris A. Maier

    2001-01-01

    As investment into intensive forestry increases, the potential trade-offs between productivity and sustainability should be scrutinized. Because of their important role in internal carbon (C) budgets, labile C pools may provide a measure of the potential ability of trees and stands to respond to stress. We modified the process model BIOMASS to...

  18. 76 FR 13236 - Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 through FY 2013 Stand Down Grant Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... DVET. Applicants must provide details for every planned expenditure in the budget narrative. Any... Center or VA Outpatient Clinic. VETS reserves the right to disapprove any proposed cost not consistent... with the USDOL; 2. A Program Narrative that states the need for the Stand Down, geographical area to be...

  19. 78 FR 5810 - AHRQ Standing Workgroup for Quality Indicator Measure Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality AHRQ Standing Workgroup for Quality Indicator.... The work groups shall be comprised of individuals with knowledge of the AHRQ Quality Indicators (QIs... Indicators (PQI). The role of time-limited group members is to: (1) Provide technical guidance on the PQI...

  20. A Three-Port Topology Comparison for a Low Power Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Three-port converter (TPC) topologies for renewable energy systems aim to provide higher efficiency and power density than conventional cascaded structures. This work proposes an analytical comparison of different TPC topologies for a photovoltaic LED lamp stand-alone system. A comparison using...

  1. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  2. The effect of feet position on standing balance in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdikhani, Mahboobeh; Khalaj, Nafiseh; Chung, Tze Y; Mazlan, Mazlina

    2014-08-01

    Feet displacement is recognized to be an important element in standing and is also linked to postural instability in elderly people with diabetes. This study investigates standing balance in diabetic patients in four asymmetric feet displacements. Quiet standing balance was investigated using the Biodex Balance System in 18 diabetic patients and compared with 18 control elderly subjects. The four standing conditions, namely, comfortable feet position, preferred feet position with a stance width of 17 cm and 15° angle between the medial borders, feet side by side, and heel side by side with a 30° angle between medial edges of feet were evaluated (i.e. eyes opened, eyes closed). The overall stability was calculated by measuring anterior-posterior and medial-lateral indices in standing conditions. Differences among feet positions were compared using an analysis of variance and the independent t-test. The diabetic patients were unstable in the medial-lateral direction when standing with feet side by side versus heel side by side with a 30° angle between medial edges of feet (p = 0.012 and 0.011, respectively), while in controls the anterior-posterior stability scores between standing in preferred foot position with stance width of 17 cm and 15° angle between the medial borders versus feet side by side, and heel side by side with a 30° angle between medial edges of feet versus preferred foot position with stance width of 17 cm and 15° angle between the medial borders had significant difference (p feet side by side versus comfortable foot position (p = 0.047) and heel side by side with a 30° angle between medial edges of feet versus comfortable foot position (p = 0.016) when they closed their eyes during the test had significant difference. Results confirmed that diabetic patients have greater instability in the medial-lateral direction when the base of support reduces and visual clue has an important role in standing balance. © IMechE 2014.

  3. Hydrogen Gas Production in a Stand-Alone Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naziry Kordkandy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is analyzing the operation of a stand-alone wind farm with variable speed turbines, permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG and a system for converting wind energy during wind speed variations. On this paper, the design and modeling of a wind system which uses PMSG’s to provide the required power of a hydrogen gas electrolyzer system, is discussed. This wind farm consists of three wind turbines, boost DC-DC converters, diode full bridge rectifiers, permanent magnet synchronous generators, MPPT control and a hydrogen gas electrolyzer system. The MPPT controller based on fuzzy logic is designed to adjust the duty ratio of the boost DC-DC converters to absorb maximum power. The proposed fuzzy logic controller assimilates, with (PSF MPPT algorithm which generally used to absorb maximum power from paralleled wind turbines and stores it in form of hydrogen gas. The system is modeled and its behavior is studied using the MATLAB software.

  4. Magnetic field measurements near stand-alone transformer stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Shaiela; Hareuveny, Ronen; Yitzhak, Nir-Mordechay; Ruppin, Raphael

    2013-12-01

    Extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field (MF) measurements around and above three stand-alone 22/0.4-kV transformer stations have been performed. The low-voltage (LV) cables between the transformer and the LV switchgear were found to be the major source of strong ELF MFs of limited spatial extent. The strong fields measured above the transformer stations support the assessment method, to be used in future epidemiological studies, of classifying apartments located right above the transformer stations as highly exposed to MFs. The results of the MF measurements above the ground around the transformer stations provide a basis for the assessment of the option of implementing precautionary procedures.

  5. Standing Concertation Commmittee - Ordinary meeting on 27 March 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 March 2007 included: Merit Recognition Guidelines : in the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the documents entitled MARS Guidelines 2007 and the Guidelines for Senior Staff Advancement 2007. Follow-up of Finance Committee and Council meetings The Committee took note of the information provided by S. Lettow, the Director for Finance and Human Resources, including the possibility for a phased increase in Member State contributions from 2008. Registered partnerships It was agreed that staff members with registered partners should be reminded of the social cover available to their partners. Cover is limited to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme and partners may be covered by the Scheme only while the staff member is working. On the staff members retirement or other change in status, or death, partners are no longer eligible for CHIS cover. Retirement seminars It...

  6. Standing Concertation Commmittee - Ordinary meeting on 27 March 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 March 2007 included: Merit Recognition Guidelines In the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the documents entitled 'MARS Guidelines 2007' and the 'Guidelines for Senior Staff Advancement 2007'. Follow-up of Finance Committee and Council meetings The Committee took note of the information provided by S. Lettow, the Director for Finance and Human Resources, including the possibility for a phased increase in Member State contributions from 2008. Registered partnerships It was agreed that staff members with registered partners should be reminded of the social cover available to their partners. Cover is limited to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme and partners may be covered by the Scheme only while the staff member is working. On the staff member's retirement or other change in status, or death, partners are no longer eligible for CHIS cover. Retirement semi...

  7. Usefulness of a device for body support during operations performed while standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kiyoshi; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Seguchi, Tatsuya; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-10-01

    During microsurgical procedures, manipulations are often performed using a foot switch while the surgeon stands on one foot. This position can easily result in body axis instability and greater musculoskeletal loading. To support the surgeon's posture, we have developed a tool called the "Surgeon's Body Support Device." The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of this device by analyzing surgeons' kinematics and musculoskeletal loading during simulated operations undertaken while standing. Fourteen surgeons volunteered to perform simulations of surgery while standing. To analyze motion kinetics and musculoskeletal loading with and without this device, a three-axis accelerometer and surface electromyography (SEMG) sensors were attached to the subjects. Compared with not using the supportive device, the axis of the surgeon's body was significantly more stable when the support device was used (P = .001). The evenness of motion also tended to be superior when the device was utilized (P = .009). Simulations performed using the device significantly reduced the musculoskeletal loading on the ventral side of the left foot by 70 % compared with simulations performed not using the device (P = .001). Data from SEMG sensor placed on the right hand, which performs the surgical manipulations, indicated that simulations performed using the device generated approximately 10 % of the musculoskeletal load generated when the device was not used (P = .001). The Surgeon's Body Support Device appears to improve maneuverability and reduce musculoskeletal loading during simulated surgical procedures undertaken while standing.

  8. The frequency of forest fires in Scots pine stands of Tuva, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, G A; Kukavskaya, E A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, V N Sukachev Institute of Forest, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, V A [Siberian State Technological University, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 (Russian Federation); Soja, A J, E-mail: GAIvanova@ksc.krasn.r [National Institute of Aerospace, Resident at NASA Langley Research Center, MS 420, Hampton, VA 23681-2199 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Forest fires resulting from long periods of drought cause extensive forest ecosystem destruction and can impact on the carbon balance and air quality and feed back to the climate system, regionally and globally. Past fire frequency is reconstructed for Tuvan Scots pine stands using dendrochronology and statistics. Central Tuvan Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands are subject to annual fire regimes; however high intensity fires are rare but they are responsible for most of the damage. Low, medium, and high severity fires have shaped the multi-story Scots pine communities, locally and regionally. Fire type and frequency are directly related to weather and climate and are also dependent on anthropogenic influences. The primary dry period, which promotes fire ignition and spread, in Tuva occurs in April and May. In some years, the precipitation deficit combined with high air temperatures induces long periods of drought. Unlike the typical surface fire regime, forest fires that burn during these extreme droughts often become crown fires that result in substantial forest damage and carbon release. The mean fire interval (MFI) is found to be 10.4 years in Balgazyn stands, and the landscape-scale MFI is 22.4 years. High severity, stand-replacing crown fires have a longer MFI. The warmer and dryer weather that is predicted by global climate models is evident in Tuva, and we believe that these changes in weather and climate have resulted in increased fire intensity and severity, rather than fire frequency in the Tuvan region.

  9. The frequency of forest fires in Scots pine stands of Tuva, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, G. A.; Ivanov, V. A.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Soja, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Forest fires resulting from long periods of drought cause extensive forest ecosystem destruction and can impact on the carbon balance and air quality and feed back to the climate system, regionally and globally. Past fire frequency is reconstructed for Tuvan Scots pine stands using dendrochronology and statistics. Central Tuvan Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands are subject to annual fire regimes; however high intensity fires are rare but they are responsible for most of the damage. Low, medium, and high severity fires have shaped the multi-story Scots pine communities, locally and regionally. Fire type and frequency are directly related to weather and climate and are also dependent on anthropogenic influences. The primary dry period, which promotes fire ignition and spread, in Tuva occurs in April and May. In some years, the precipitation deficit combined with high air temperatures induces long periods of drought. Unlike the typical surface fire regime, forest fires that burn during these extreme droughts often become crown fires that result in substantial forest damage and carbon release. The mean fire interval (MFI) is found to be 10.4 years in Balgazyn stands, and the landscape-scale MFI is 22.4 years. High severity, stand-replacing crown fires have a longer MFI. The warmer and dryer weather that is predicted by global climate models is evident in Tuva, and we believe that these changes in weather and climate have resulted in increased fire intensity and severity, rather than fire frequency in the Tuvan region.

  10. Sizing stand-alone photovoltaic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of sizing stand-alone photovoltaic systems regarding the reliability to satisfy the load demand, economy of components, and discharge depth exploited by the batteries is presented in this work. Solar radiation data simulated by an appropriate stochastic time series model, and not actual measurements, are used in the sizing procedure. This offers two distinct advantages: (a sizing can be performed even for locations where no actual data exist, (b the influence of the variation of the statistical parameters of solar radiation in sizing can be examined. The method has been applied and tested for several representative locations all over Greece for which monthly daily average values of solar radiation are given by ELOT (Hellenic Organization of Standardization.

  11. 2014 Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met on December 17 - 18, 2014 in Houston, TX to review the current status of the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft, Associated Systems and Immediate Vehicle Egress due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alteration Associated with Space Flight (Sensorimotor Risk) in the Integrated Research Plan (IRP). During the meeting, the SRP received an in-depth briefing of the current status of the Sensorimotor Risk from Dr. Jacob Bloomberg, the Human Research Program (HRP) Sensorimotor Discipline Lead Scientist and Dr. Millard Reschke, the Chief Scientist of the Neuroscience Laboratories at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The SRP was impressed with the information that Dr. Bloomberg and Dr. Reschke presented and think that the in-person meeting (instead of WebEx/teleconference) allowed for more interactive and thoughtful conversations.

  12. Standing variation in spatially growing populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Diana; Gralka, Matti; Kayser, Jona; Hallatschek, Oskar

    Patterns of genetic diversity not only reflect the evolutionary history of a species but they can also determine the evolutionary response to environmental change. For instance, the standing genetic diversity of a microbial population can be key to rescue in the face of an antibiotic attack. While genetic diversity is in general shaped by both demography and evolution, very little is understood when both factors matter, as e.g. for biofilms with pronounced spatial organization. Here, we quantitatively explore patterns of genetic diversity by using microbial colonies and well-mixed test tube populations as antipodal model systems with extreme and very little spatial structure, respectively. We find that Eden model simulations and KPZ theory can remarkably reproduce the genetic diversity in microbial colonies obtained via population sequencing. The excellent agreement allows to draw conclusions on the resilience of spatially-organized populations and to uncover new strategies to contain antibiotic resistance.

  13. FERMILAB CRYOMODULE TEST STAND RF INTERLOCK SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Troy [Fermilab; Diamond, J. S. [Fermilab; McDowell, D. [Fermilab; Nicklaus, D. [Fermilab; Prieto, P. S. [Fermilab; Semenov, A. [Fermilab

    2016-10-12

    An interlock system has been designed for the Fermilab Cryo-module Test Stand (CMTS), a test bed for the cryo- modules to be used in the upcoming Linac Coherent Light Source 2 (LCLS-II) project at SLAC. The interlock system features 8 independent subsystems, one per superconducting RF cavity and solid state amplifier (SSA) pair. Each system monitors several devices to detect fault conditions such as arcing in the waveguides or quenching of the SRF system. Additionally each system can detect fault conditions by monitoring the RF power seen at the cavity coupler through a directional coupler. In the event of a fault condition, each system is capable of removing RF signal to the amplifier (via a fast RF switch) as well as turning off the SSA. Additionally, each input signal is available for re- mote viewing and recording via a Fermilab designed digitizer board and MVME 5500 processor.

  14. Confining standing waves in optical corrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayan, Yelizaveta; McMahon, Jeffrey M; Li, Shuzhou; Gray, Stephen K; Schatz, George C; Odom, Teri W

    2009-03-24

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy images of solid wall, circular, and elliptical microscale corrals show standing wave patterns confined inside the structures with a wavelength close to that of the incident light. The patterns inside the corrals can be tuned by changing the size and material of the walls, the wavelength of incident light, and polarization direction for elliptical corrals. Finite-difference time-domain calculations of the corral structures agree with the experimental observations and reveal that the electric and magnetic field intensities are out of phase inside the corral. A theoretical modal analysis indicates that the fields inside the corrals can be attributed to p- and s-polarized waveguide modes, and that the superposition of the propagating and evanescent modes can explain the phase differences between the fields. These experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that electromagnetic fields on a dielectric surface can be controlled in a predictable manner.

  15. Integrated versus stand-alone second generation ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse and trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marina O S; Junqueira, Tassia L; Cavalett, Otávio; Cunha, Marcelo P; Jesus, Charles D F; Rossell, Carlos E V; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Bonomi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is often conceived considering independent, stand-alone production plants; in the Brazilian scenario, where part of the potential feedstock (sugarcane bagasse) for second generation ethanol production is already available at conventional first generation production plants, an integrated first and second generation production process seems to be the most obvious option. In this study stand-alone second generation ethanol production from surplus sugarcane bagasse and trash is compared with conventional first generation ethanol production from sugarcane and with integrated first and second generation; simulations were developed to represent the different technological scenarios, which provided data for economic and environmental analysis. Results show that the integrated first and second generation ethanol production process from sugarcane leads to better economic results when compared with the stand-alone plant, especially when advanced hydrolysis technologies and pentoses fermentation are included. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stand structure and dead wood characterization in cork forest of Calabria region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreca L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The cork forests are one the most interesting forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean area. Their distribution and ecological characteristics have undergone a significant transformation after the significant changes following the development and establishment of agricultural crops. Currently, only a few stands, which survive in hard to reach places, prove the wide spread distribution of this species was also in the recent past. This study describes the stand structure of some cork forests in Calabria region (southern Italy. In order, to characterize the vertical structure Latham index has been applied, while for the description of the horizontal distribution NBSI group indices has been used. Detailed surveys on dead wood were also conducted determining the occurring volume and its decay stage according to the decay classes system proposed by Hunter. The aim of this study is to provide guidelines for sustainable management of cork forests, improving and promoting the structural complexity and functional efficiency of these forest stands.

  17. Effect of Functional Imbalance of Anti-gravity Muscles by Sectional Muscle Fatigue on Stability of Upright Standing

    OpenAIRE

    砂田, 浩克; 田中,誠一; 鎌田, 貴; 山本, 高司; Hirokatsu, SUNADA; Seiichi, TANAKA; Takashi, KAMATA; Takashi, Yamamoto; 中京大学大学院; 東海大学; 中京大学

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of functional imbalance of anti-gravity muscles by sectional muscle fatigue on the stability of upright standing. Five healthy untrained male subjects participated in this study. Back muscles, quadriceps femoris and triceps surae were fatigued by machine exercise. The subjects stared at a fixed point, and the sway of the center of gravity at each condition of muscle fatigue was measured in Romberg's posture by 'GRAVICORDER' with the eyes...

  18. Correlation between movement complexity during static standing and balance function in institutionalized older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamagata M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Momoko Yamagata,1 Tome Ikezoe,1 Midori Kamiya,1 Mitsuhiro Masaki,2,3 Noriaki Ichihashi1 1Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 2Department of Physical Therapy, 3Institute for Human Movement and Medical Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan Purpose: Sample entropy (SampEn is an analysis to evaluate movement complexity of the center of pressure (COP. A lower value of SampEn indicates lower complexity of COP variability, that is, rigidity, and lower degrees of freedom. Previous studies reported the association of increased SampEn with improved standing balance ability in young subjects. However, no studies have examined these relationships among older adults. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between SampEn and standing balance ability in older adults.Subjects and methods: The subjects were 33 institutionalized older adults (aged 82.2±6.5 years. COP during static standing was measured. The standard deviation (SD values of COP and SampEn in the sagittal and frontal planes were calculated using time series data. One-leg standing test (OLST, functional reach (FR test, and lateral reach (LR test were also measured to evaluate standing balance ability.Results: OLST, FR, and LR were 6.5±8.3 s, 19.8±5.9 cm, and 18.2±6.4 cm, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that SampEn in the sagittal plane significantly correlated with OLST (r=-0.35 and FR (r=-0.36. However, SampEn in the frontal plane and SD of COP in both sagittal and frontal planes had no relationship with any of the clinical balance tests.Conclusion: Lower SampEn implies rigidity for postural control. In the present study, it was found that lower SampEn in the sagittal plane was related to a higher balance function, which suggests that older adults utilized body rigidity to maintain postural stability as a compensative strategy. Keywords: older adults, posture, balance, standing, complexity

  19. Stand dynamics in 60-year-old Allegheny hardwoods after thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller

    1997-01-01

    Stand dynamics and tree growth in even-aged hardwood stands can be influenced by manipulating relative stand density, species composition, and stand structure. Land managers need quantitative information on the effect of vegetation manipulation to prescribe stand treatments that are appropriate for specific management objectives. Sixty-year-old stands composed of black...

  20. Facilitators and barriers to the use of standing orders for vaccination in obstetrics and gynecology settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Juliana G; Dempsey, Amanda F; Brewer, Sarah E; Pyrzanowski, Jennifer; Mazzoni, Sara E; O'Leary, Sean T

    2017-01-01

    Many young and middle-aged women receive their primary health care from their obstetrician-gynecologists. A recent change to vaccination recommendations during pregnancy has forced the integration of new clinical processes at obstetrician-gynecology practices. Evidence-based best practices for vaccination delivery include the establishment of vaccination standing orders. As part of an intervention to increase adoption of evidence-based vaccination strategies for women in safety-net and private obstetrician-gynecology settings, we conducted a qualitative study to identify the facilitators and barriers experienced by obstetrician-gynecology sites when establishing vaccination standing orders. At 6 safety-net and private obstetrician-gynecology practices, 51 semistructured interviews were completed by trained qualitative researchers over 2 years with clinical staff and vaccination program personnel. Standardized qualitative research methods were used during data collection and team-based data analysis to identify major themes and subthemes within the interview data. All study practices achieved partial to full implementation of vaccine standing orders for human papillomavirus, tetanus diphtheria pertussis, and influenza vaccines. Facilitating factors for vaccine standing order adoption included process standardization, acceptance of a continual modification process, and staff training. Barriers to vaccine standing order adoption included practice- and staff-level competing demands, pregnant women's preference for medical providers to discuss vaccine information with them, and staff hesitation in determining HPV vaccine eligibility. With guidance and commitment to integration of new processes, obstetrician-gynecology practices are able to establish vaccine standing orders for pregnant and nonpregnant women. Attention to certain process barriers can aid the adoption of processes to support the delivery of vaccinations in obstetrician-gynecology practice setting, and

  1. Comparison of the Relationship between Lying and Standing Ultrasonography Measures of Muscle Morphology with Isometric and Dynamic Force Production Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Wagle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was (1 to examine the differences between standing and lying measures of vastus lateralis (VL, muscle thickness (MT, pennation angle (PA, and cross-sectional area (CSA using ultrasonography; and (2 to explore the relationships between lying and standing measures with isometric and dynamic assessments of force production—specifically peak force, rate of force development (RFD, impulse, and one-repetition maximum back squat. Fourteen resistance-trained subjects (age = 26.8 ± 4.0 years, height = 181.4 ± 6.0 cm, body mass = 89.8 ± 10.7 kg, back squat to body mass ratio = 1.84 ± 0.34 agreed to participate. Lying and standing ultrasonography images of the right VL were collected following 48 hours of rest. Isometric squat assessments followed ultrasonography, and were performed on force platforms with data used to determine isometric peak force (IPF, as well as RFD and impulse at various time points. Forty-eight hours later, one-repetition maximum back squats were performed by each subject. Paired-samples t-tests revealed statistically significant differences between standing and lying measurements of MT (p < 0.001, PA (p < 0.001, and CSA (p ≤ 0.05, with standing values larger in all cases. Further, standing measures were correlated more strongly and abundantly to isometric and dynamic performance. These results suggest that if practitioners intend to gain insight into strength-power potential based on ultrasonography measurements, performing the measurement collection with the athlete in a standing posture may be preferred.

  2. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  3. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  4. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  5. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  6. Factors Related to Standing Balance in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye Jeong; Ko, Saebyuk; Hong, Hyeon Mi; Ok, Eunjae; Lee, Jong In

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess factors related to standing balance in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods In total, 37 female patients with painful knee OA were included. Pain, knee alignment, and Kellgren and Lawrence grade were evaluated accordingly. Static standing balance was measured with a force-platform system under two different conditions: static standing with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) for 30 seconds. The mean speed (mm/s) of movement of the center of pressure in the anter...

  7. Disturbance and Stand Development of a Colorado Subalpine Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Veblen, Thomas T.; Hadley, Keith S; Reid, Marion S

    1991-01-01

    Stand development patterns were examined in an Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forest in Rocky Mountain National Park in northern Colorado. Two old-growth stands (with fine-scale windthrows dominating dynamics) and a 260-yr-old post-fire stand were sampled for tree ages, sizes, growth, and replacement patterns in windthrow gaps. Visual assessment of frequency of growth releases in increment cores, and de...

  8. Carbon stock in topsoil, standing floor litter and above ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Above ground biomass (ABG) and carbon stock were significantly (p=0.003 and p=0.0001) higher in the plantation, the order is ABG > soil > standing floor leaf litter > standing floor wood litter. Soil C stock varies from 10.47 t ha-1 in the plantation to 10.58 t ha-1 C in the forest. Above ground biomass, standing leaf and wood ...

  9. Optimized design for sling of stand up lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongfang; Wang, Yue; Cui, Tengfei; Bao, Xuelian; Duan, Xingguang

    2017-04-01

    Stand up lift is a kind of equipment that assists those with dyskinesia of legs to stand up or move. As an important part of stand up lift, sling concerns the realization of the equipment's function and the safety of users. On the basis of ergonomics theory, this thesis will design and optimize the sling to make it safer and more comfortable and meet demands of different people.

  10. Biomass expansion factors for Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, P.; Tome, M.

    2012-11-01

    One of several procedures for estimating carbon stocks in forests is the estimation of tree or stand biomass based on forest inventory data. The two approaches normally used to convert field measurements of trees to stand biomass values are allometric biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs). BEFs are used in published National Forest Inventory results in which biomass is not estimated or as a complement of growth models that do not include biomass predictions. In this paper, the effectiveness of BEFs for estimating total stand biomass in Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus plantations was analyzed. Here, BEF is defined as the ratio of total stand biomass (aboveground biomass plus root biomass) to stand volume with bark. To calculate total biomass, an equation was developed to estimate root biomass as a function of aboveground biomass. Changes of BEF with stand variables were analyzed. Strong relationships were observed between BEF and stand age, stand basal area, stand volume and dominant height. Consequently, an equation to predict BEF as a function of stand variables was fitted, and dominant height was selected as the predictor stand variable. Estimates of total stand biomass based on individual tree allometric equations were compared with estimates obtained with a constant BEF (0.77), used in the Portuguese National Inventory Report on Greenhouse Gases, and with estimates obtained using the dominant height-dependent BEF equation developed in this work. The BEF prediction model proposed in this work may be used to improve E. globulus Portuguese biomass estimates when tree allometric equations cannot be used. (Author) 40 refs.

  11. Tree Age Effects on Fine Root Biomass and Morphology over Chronosequences of Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur and Alnus glutinosa Stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Ziółkowski, Jędrzej; Warnkowska, Aleksandra; Prais, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    There are few data on fine root biomass and morphology change in relation to stand age. Based on chronosequences for beech (9-140 years old), oak (11-140 years) and alder (4-76 years old) we aimed to examine how stand age affects fine root biomass and morphology. Soil cores from depths of 0-15 cm and 16-30 cm were used for the study. In contrast to previously published studies that suggested that maximum fine root biomass is reached at the canopy closure stage of stand development, we found almost linear increases of fine root biomass over stand age within the chronosequences. We did not observe any fine root biomass peak in the canopy closure stage. However, we found statistically significant increases of mean fine root biomass for the average individual tree in each chronosequence. Mean fine root biomass (0-30 cm) differed significantly among tree species chronosequences studied and was 4.32 Mg ha(-1), 3.71 Mg ha(-1) and 1.53 Mg ha(-1), for beech, oak and alder stands, respectively. The highest fine root length, surface area, volume and number of fine root tips (0-30 cm soil depth), expressed on a stand area basis, occurred in beech stands, with medium values for oak stands and the lowest for alder stands. In the alder chronosequence all these values increased with stand age, in the beech chronosequence they decreased and in the oak chronosequence they increased until ca. 50 year old stands and then reached steady-state. Our study has proved statistically significant negative relationships between stand age and specific root length (SRL) in 0-30 cm soil depth for beech and oak chronosequences. Mean SRLs for each chronosequence were not significantly different among species for either soil depth studied. The results of this study indicate high fine root plasticity. Although only limited datasets are currently available, these data have provided valuable insight into fine root biomass and morphology of beech, oak and alder stands.

  12. The role of forest stand structure as biodiversity indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Tian; Hedblom, Marcus; Emilsson, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    species composition and canopy stratification. Using data from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden and General Linear Mixed Model, plant species diversity (Shannon diversity index, SHDI) and composition (Sørensen-Dice index, SDI) were tested between 26 different stand structure types and nine...... be achieved if indicators are derived from existing data. In this study, a model for classifying forest stand structures was developed and tested as an indicator of overall plant species diversity at stand level. The model combines four stand structure parameters: canopy coverage, age of canopy trees, tree...

  13. Flexible integration of free-standing nanowires into silicon photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bigeng; Wu, Hao; Xin, Chenguang; Dai, Daoxin; Tong, Limin

    2017-06-14

    Silicon photonics has been developed successfully with a top-down fabrication technique to enable large-scale photonic integrated circuits with high reproducibility, but is limited intrinsically by the material capability for active or nonlinear applications. On the other hand, free-standing nanowires synthesized via a bottom-up growth present great material diversity and structural uniformity, but precisely assembling free-standing nanowires for on-demand photonic functionality remains a great challenge. Here we report hybrid integration of free-standing nanowires into silicon photonics with high flexibility by coupling free-standing nanowires onto target silicon waveguides that are simultaneously used for precise positioning. Coupling efficiency between a free-standing nanowire and a silicon waveguide is up to ~97% in the telecommunication band. A hybrid nonlinear-free-standing nanowires-silicon waveguides Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a racetrack resonator for significantly enhanced optical modulation are experimentally demonstrated, as well as hybrid active-free-standing nanowires-silicon waveguides circuits for light generation. These results suggest an alternative approach to flexible multifunctional on-chip nanophotonic devices.Precisely assembling free-standing nanowires for on-demand photonic functionality remains a challenge. Here, Chen et al. integrate free-standing nanowires into silicon waveguides and show all-optical modulation and light generation on silicon photonic chips.

  14. The experiences of mastery of stand-by energy demand; Les experiences de MDE stand by

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilken, P.

    2001-07-01

    In the residential sector of the OECD countries, the electricity losses of domestic appliances in stand-by position represent 1.5% of the total electricity consumption. This study belongs to the SAVE project (pilot campaign of municipal utilities for an improved rational use of energy). Its aim is to observe the policies and experiments implemented by municipalities and municipal energy companies for the abatement of the electricity consumptions of stand-by origin. A working group consisting of the German Stadtwerke and some international partners have debated the possible actions and documents for an efficient information of the public. This document presents the brochures and local actions of this program. (J.S.)

  15. Static balance according to hip joint angle of unsupported leg during one-leg standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Jang-Joon; Ye, Jae-Gwan; Lee, Seul-Ji; Hong, Jeong-Mi; Choi, Hyun-Kyu; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Won-Seob

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine static balance according to hip joint angle of the unsupported leg during one-leg standing. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 45 healthy adult males and females in their 20s. During one-leg standing on the non-dominant leg, the position of the unsupported leg was classified according to hip joint angles of point angle was class. Static balance was then measured using a force plate with eyes open and closed. The total length, sway velocity, maximum deviation, and velocity on the mediolateral and anteroposterior axes of center of pressure were measured. [Results] In balance assessment with eyes open, there were significant differences between groups according to hip joint angle, except for maximum deviation on the anteroposterior axis. In balance assessment with eyes closed, there were significant differences between total length measurements at 0° and 30°, 60° and between 30° and 90°. There were significant differences between sway velocity measurements at 0° and 30° and between 30° and 90°. [Conclusion] Thus, there were differences in static balance according to hip joint angle. It is necessary to clearly identify the hip joint angle during one-leg standing testing.

  16. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  17. Functional hyposplenism in long-standing renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, N C; de Lucena, S B S G; Rioja, S D S

    2013-05-01

    A nephrologist with expertise in ultrasonography noticed that patients with longstanding renal grafts had smaller spleens than subjects undergoing initial post-transplantation imaging. This putative finding prompted us to pursue a further investigation into splenic function based on Doppler ultrasound and hematologic parameters. We enrolled 47 patients with functioning long-standing kidney grafts, measuring longitudinal diameter of the spleen, hilar and intrasplenic peak systolic velocities (PSV), and hilar and intrasplenic resistivity indices of the splenic artery as well as mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears were examined for the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJBs) using light microscopy. The patients were then divided into HJB present (HJ(+)) or absent (HJ(-)) groups for further comparison. The overall mean age of 21 females and 26 males was 47.8 ± 12.0 years, and the mean time after transplantation was 2750 ± 1818 days (range, 208-6446). HJBs were detected in 23/47 patients (48.9%). The intrasplenic artery PSV was significantly lower and MAP higher in the HJ(+) group (P < .05). There was no difference in spleen size between the groups. HJBs in peripheral blood red cells, an indicator of hyposplenism, was associated with reduced intrasplenic artery PSV, suggesting dysfunction, which may play a role in the known vulnerability of renal transplant recipients to infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rainfall interception and spatial variability of throughfall in spruce stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnal Michal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The interception was recognized as an important part of the catchment water balance in temperate climate. The mountainous forest ecosystem at experimental headwater catchment Liz has been subject of long-term monitoring. Unique dataset in terms of time resolution serves to determine canopy storage capacity and free throughfall. Spatial variability of throughfall was studied using one weighing and five tipping bucket rain gauges. The basic characteristics of forest affecting interception process were determined for the Norway spruce stand at the experimental area - the leaf area index was 5.66 - 6.00 m2 m-2, the basal area was 55.7 m2 ha-1, and the crown closure above individual rain gauges was between 19 and 95%. The total interception loss in both growing seasons analyzed was 34.5%. The mean value of the interception capacity determined was about 2 mm. Throughfall exhibited high variability from place to place and it was strongly affected by character of rainfall. On the other hand, spatial pattern of throughfall in average showed low variability.

  19. Using a stand-level model to predict light absorption in stands with vertically and horizontally heterogeneous canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Forrester

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest ecosystem functioning is strongly influenced by the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (APAR, and therefore, accurate predictions of APAR are critical for many process-based forest growth models. The Lambert-Beer law can be applied to estimate APAR for simple homogeneous canopies composed of one layer, one species, and no canopy gaps. However, the vertical and horizontal structure of forest canopies is rarely homogeneous. Detailed tree-level models can account for this heterogeneity but these often have high input and computational demands and work on finer temporal and spatial resolutions than required by stand-level growth models. The aim of this study was to test a stand-level light absorption model that can estimate APAR by individual species in mixed-species and multi-layered stands with any degree of canopy openness including open-grown trees to closed canopies. Methods The stand-level model was compared with a detailed tree-level model that has already been tested in mixed-species stands using empirical data. Both models were parameterised for five different forests, including a wide range of species compositions, species proportions, stand densities, crown architectures and canopy structures. Results The stand-level model performed well in all stands except in the stand where extinction coefficients were unusually variable and it appears unlikely that APAR could be predicted in such stands using (tree- or stand-level models that do not allow individuals of a given species to have different extinction coefficients, leaf-area density or analogous parameters. Conclusion This model is parameterised with species-specific information about extinction coefficients and mean crown length, diameter, height and leaf area. It could be used to examine light dynamics in complex canopies and in stand-level growth models.

  20. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  1. [Difference of body movements accompanying mandibular movements in standing and sitting positions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Satoshi; Kohno, Shoji; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Naoki; Hosogai, Akiko; Kinjoh, Atsushi; Kai, Asako

    2008-10-01

    To assess whether body movement accompanying jaw movement exists even in sitting position, and, if so, to investigate differences of body movements in the sitting and standing positions. The subjects were six men (age, 25-29 years, mean, 27.0 years) without stomatognathic problems. During the measurements, their Camper's planes were kept horizontal. One measurement sequence consisted of 20 s of tapping preceded and followed by 10 s of intercuspation. Mandibular movements (lower incisor point) were measured by referring to a coordinate system located on the maxilla, and head movements (upper incisor, condyle, etc) with TRIMETII (Tokyo Sizaisya) and body movements (sternum point) in sagittal plane were measured by referring to a coordinate system located on the floor with Proreflex (Qualisys). Body movements accompanying jaw movements were detected even in sitting position. The ratio of body movements to jaw movements was significantly larger in standing position than in sitting position using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. Peak power of body movement at corresponding frequency to the open-close movement was significantly larger in standing position than in sitting position using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. On the other hand, there was no difference between sitting and standing position in probability of body movement detection by the original wave analysis using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signedrank test. Body movements accompanying jaw movements were detected even in sitting position, and were smaller than in standing position. However, the probability of movements detected in original wave had no difference between the positions. Thus we concluded that we can analyze body movements during mastication in natural sitting position.

  2. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  3. Calculation of Economic Rotation Period for Even-Aged Stand in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Beljan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Even-aged forests prevail in Croatia’s forestry. Rotation period is based mostly on natural parameters. In practice, rotation period is given by Croatian Rulebook of forest management. Cutting age is determined based on inventory data and many other stand characteristics. Rotation period is a planned time and it always has to be unique for particular tree species, and cutting age is the age of a stand at the moment of the final cut. The aim of the paper is to compare rotation period based on economic parameters and rotation period determined by using forest inventory data. Material and Methods: Owing to absence of long term stand calculation data, research object was taken from Forest Management Handbook (1995. Mean annual increment (MAI and current annual increment (CAI provided fundamental data for calculations. The research was conducted at one hectare Common Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. stand. Assortment structure and value of timber was estimated by the present cutting value method calculated by using Croatian forests Ltd. Price list for the year 2008. Labor costs in forest exploitation were also taken into account. Results and Conclusion: In order to achieve cost-effective management of common beech stands, it is necessary to adjust current optimal rotation period. Optimal rotation period should be based on management goals as the main factors. So far the most common criterion adopted in Croatian forestry has been the rotation of maximum sustained yield or maximum Mean annual increment. The presented results indicate that common forest management practice should be changed in order to achieve cost-effective management of beech stands in the future.

  4. Effect of different tree mortality patterns on stand development in the forest model SIBYLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trombik Jiří

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest mortality critically affects stand structure and the quality of ecosystem services provided by forests. Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus generates rather complex infestation and mortality patterns, and implementation of such patterns in forest models is challenging. We present here the procedure, which allows to simulate the bark beetle-related tree mortality in the forest dynamics model Sibyla. We explored how sensitive various production and stand structure indicators are to tree mortality patterns, which can be generated by bark beetles. We compared the simulation outputs for three unmanaged forest stands with 40, 70 and 100% proportion of spruce as affected by the disturbance-related mortality that occurred in a random pattern and in a patchy pattern. The used tree species and age class-specific mortality rates were derived from the disturbance-related mortality records from Slovakia. The proposed algorithm was developed in the SQLite using the Python language, and the algorithm allowed us to define the degree of spatial clustering of dead trees ranging from a random distribution to a completely clustered distribution; a number of trees that died in either mode is set to remain equal. We found significant differences between the long-term developments of the three investigated forest stands, but we found very little effect of the tested mortality modes on stand increment, tree species composition and diversity, and tree size diversity. Hence, our hypothesis that the different pattern of dead trees emergence should affect the competitive interactions between trees and regeneration, and thus affect selected productivity and stand structure indicators was not confirmed.

  5. RAMSES stands guard over the accelerator chain

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    RAMSES, the system that is used to monitor radiation at the LHC, CNGS, CTF3 and n-TOF facilities, will soon be installed at strategic points in the accelerator chain, replacing the older monitoring system ARCON. The replacement programme has already begun.   RAMSES (which stands for “Radiation Monitoring System for the Environment and Safety”) is designed to protect workers, the general public and the environment, both on the Organization’s site and in the surrounding areas. It is currently operational on all the LHC sites and at CTF3, CNGS and n-TOF, while the remaining sites are still equipped with the ARCON (Area CONtroller) system. Daniel Perrin, head of the Instrumentation and Logistics Section of the HSE Unit's Radiation Protection Group, explains: “ARCON was designed for the old LEP accelerator and dates back to the early 1980s, while RAMSES is a much more recent design intended specifically for the LHC. With 389 detectors distributed across 124 mea...

  6. Introduction to "Standing together in Troubled Times"

    CERN Document Server

    Shifman, M

    2016-01-01

    This Introduction opens the book {\\sl Standing Together in Troubled Times} which presents a story of friendship between Wolfgang Pauli, one of the greatest theoretical physicists of the 20th century, and Charlotte Houtermans. They met at the very onset of the quantum era, in the late 1920s in Germany where Charlotte was a physics student at G\\"ottingen University. At that time G\\"ottingen was right at the heart of groundbreaking developments in physics. Both Pauli and Houtermans personally knew major participants in the quantum revolution. Caught between two evils -- German National Socialism and Soviet Communism -- Charlotte Houtermans would have likely perished if it were not for the brotherhood of physicists: Niels Bohr, Wolfgang Pauli, Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Robert Oppenheimer and many other noted scientists who tried to save friends and colleagues (either leftist sympathizers or Jews) who were in mortal danger of becoming entrapped in a simmering pre-WWII Europe. This book is based on n...

  7. Immunoassay on Free-standing Electrospun Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckl, Andrew; Wu, Dapeng; Han, Daewoo

    2010-03-01

    For the purpose of immunoassay, electrospun membranes can be thought as the thread-like self-assembling of nano/microbeads. Non-woven membranes of electrospun poly(caprolactone) (PCL) fibers display excellent tenacity, flexibility and suitable surface energy. These PCL membranes exhibit easy handling in air, fast spreading and wetting in aqueous solution, and rapid adsorption of protein molecules by hydrophobic interaction. After a fold-and-press process, the membrane porosity was reduced from ˜ 75% to less than 10%, while the thickness increased from ˜5 to 300 μm. The resulting fluorescence signal from adsorbed protein increased more than 120 times. With anti-HSA and HSA-FITC as an immunoassay model, a linear detection range from 500 ng/mL down to 1 ng/mL is obtained, with a detection of limit (LOD) of ˜ 0.08 ng/mL. By comparison, conventional nitrocellulose and thicker PCL fiber electrospun membrane displayed a much higher LOD of ˜100 ng/mL. Immunoassay on free-standing electrospun membrane successfully combines the low-cost and simplicity of conventional membrane immunoassay, with the fast reaction speed and high sensitivity characteristic of magnetic nano/microbeads bioassays.

  8. Immunoassay on free-standing electrospun membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dapeng; Han, Daewoo; Steckl, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of immunoassay, electrospun membranes can be thought as the threadlike self-assembling of nano/microbeads. Nonwoven membranes of electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers display excellent tenacity, flexibility and suitable surface energy. These PCL membranes exhibit easy handling in air, fast spreading, and wetting in aqueous solution, and rapid adsorption of protein molecules by hydrophobic interaction. After a fold-and-press process, the membrane porosity was reduced from approximately 75% to less than 10%, whereas the thickness increased from 5.3 to 280 microm. The resulting fluorescence signal from adsorbed protein increased>120x. With anti-HSA and HSA-FITC as an immunoassay model, a linear detection range from 500 ng/mL down to 1 ng/mL is obtained, with a detection of limit (LOD) of approximately 0.08 ng/mL. By comparison, conventional nitrocellulose and a 24.3 microm PCL fiber electrospun membrane displayed a much higher LOD of approximately 100 ng/mL. Immunoassay on free-standing electrospun membrane successfully combines the low-cost and simplicity of conventional membrane immunoassay, with the fast reaction speed and high sensitivity characteristic of magnetic nano/microbeads bioassays.

  9. Harvesting systems for western stand health improvement cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Hartsough; Bryce J. Stokes; Joseph F. McNeel; William F. Watson

    1995-01-01

    A significant percentage of the forested area in the western United States is comprised of stands that have been altered over time by human activities, especially fire suppression, and are now being damaged by droughts, insect attacks, and wildfires. These stands should be returned to a condition where "biotic and abiotic influences do not threaten resource...

  10. A whole stand basal area projection model for Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.

  11. Heavy thinning of ponderosa pine stands: An Arizona case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Jr. Baker; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2000-01-01

    Growth and structural changes in a mosaic of even-aged ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands were studied for 25 years to determine the long-term impacts of a heavy thinning treatment to a basal-area level of 25 ft2/acre. Basal area and volume growth of these stands has increased since thinning and likely will continue to...

  12. Flooding effects on stand development in cypress-tupelo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Keim; Thomas J. Dean; Jim L. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    The effects of inundation on growth of cypress (Taxodium spp.) and tupelo (Nyssa spp.) trees have been extensively researched, but conclusions are often complicated by attendant effects on stand development. Flooding affects development of cypress-tupelo stands by limiting seedling germination and survival, truncating species...

  13. Evaluation of three classifiers in mapping forest stand types using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three classifiers were examined for their suitability in mapping the different forest stand types in the area (maximum likelihood, spectral angle mapper and decision tree). The results showed that using maximum likelihood classifier and ASTER imagery, different forest stand types can be accurately mapped with an overall ...

  14. Ampere hour method of sizing a stand alone photovoltaic system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stand-alone photovoltaic power systems are natural options for application in electrification of remote areas which are not served by the grid electricity supply system. An ampere-hour method of sizing a stand-alone PV system for application in any remote location has been presented. The design which is for both ac and dc ...

  15. Financial analysis of early stand treatments in southwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helge Eng; K. Norman Johnson; Roger D. Fight

    1990-01-01

    Management guidelines for economically efficient early stand treatments were developed by identifying treatments that would maximize financial returns over the rotation for coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) in southwest Oregon. Short rotations and low stand densities (trees per acre) gave...

  16. 'Covering doctors' standing in for unavailable colleagues: What is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Covering doctors' standing in for unavailable colleagues: What is the legal position? D.J. McQuoid-Mason. Abstract. Covering doctors are those who stand in for colleagues when the latter are unable to deal with their patients. Covering doctors who begin to issue telephonic instructions to nurses or other healthcare ...

  17. "Growing trees backwards": Description of a stand reconstruction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Bakker; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Peter Z. Fule; David W. Huffman; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    We describe an individual-tree model that uses contemporary measurements to "grow trees backward" and reconstruct past tree diameters and stand structure in ponderosa pine dominated stands of the Southwest. Model inputs are contemporary structural measurements of all snags, logs, stumps, and living trees, and radial growth measurements, if available. Key...

  18. Data Service Provider Cost Estimation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Kathy; Hunolt, Greg; Booth, Arthur L.; Banks, Mel

    2011-01-01

    The Data Service Provider Cost Estimation Tool (CET) and Comparables Database (CDB) package provides to NASA s Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) the ability to estimate the full range of year-by-year lifecycle cost estimates for the implementation and operation of data service providers required by ESE to support its science and applications programs. The CET can make estimates dealing with staffing costs, supplies, facility costs, network services, hardware and maintenance, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software licenses, software development and sustaining engineering, and the changes in costs that result from changes in workload. Data Service Providers may be stand-alone or embedded in flight projects, field campaigns, research or applications projects, or other activities. The CET and CDB package employs a cost-estimation-by-analogy approach. It is based on a new, general data service provider reference model that provides a framework for construction of a database by describing existing data service providers that are analogs (or comparables) to planned, new ESE data service providers. The CET implements the staff effort and cost estimation algorithms that access the CDB and generates the lifecycle cost estimate for a new data services provider. This data creates a common basis for an ESE proposal evaluator for considering projected data service provider costs.

  19. Wood volume distribution as an indicatorof stand homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Milivoj

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of stand homogeneity definition are analyzed based on the percentage ratio of the distribution of tree number and the distribution of volume per diameter degrees. Homogeneity is defined based on homogeneity index (H and Lorenz’s curve. Homogeneous stand is the hypothetical stand whose trees have equal volumes. Real stands, depending on their silvicultural form and treatment, as well as the development stage, are more or less distant from the absolutely homogenous state. The effect of the diameter degree width on the accuracy of homogeneity index calculation was determined and the possibility of applying the homogeneity index as an additional parameter for the assessment of site quality of selection stands was analyzed.

  20. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...

  1. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  2. Impacts of more frequent droughts on a relict low-altitude Pinus uncinata stand in the French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eCorona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold microclimatic conditions provide exceptional microhabitats to Pinus uncinata stands occurring at abnormally low altitudes in seven paleorefugia of the northern French Alps. Here, P. uncinata is located at the lower bounds of its ecological limits and therefore expected to provide a sensitive indicator of climate change processes. We used dendrochronological analysis to study the growth patterns of closely spaced chronologies across an elevational transect and compare a relict low-altitude to a P. uncinata stand located at the alpine treeline. Two detrending procedures are used to reveal high and low-frequency wavelengths embedded in annually resolved ring-width series. Growth response of P. uncinata to instrumental temperature and precipitation data is investigated by means of moving response function analyses. Results show an increase in the sensitivity of tree-ring widths to drought during previous summer in both stands. At the treeline stand, an increasing correlation with fall temperature is observed whereby low-frequency variability of fall temperature and radial tree growth increased in two synchronous steps around ~1930 and from ~1980–present. At the low-altitude stand, P. uncinata appears more drought sensitive and exhibits a sharp growth decline since the mid-1980s, coinciding with increasing summer temperatures. Growth divergence between the two stands can be observed since the mid-1980s. We argue that the positive growth trend at the high-altitude stand is due to increasing fall temperatures which would favor the formation of metabolic reserves in conjunction with atmospheric CO2 enrichment that in turn would facilitate improved water use efficiency. At the relict low-altitude stand, in contrast, it seems that improved water use efficiency cannot compensate for the increase in summer temperatures.

  3. Decoding Lower Limb Muscle Activity and Kinematics from Cortical Neural Spike Trains during Monkey Performing Stand and Squat Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuan; Ma, Chaolin; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Jiang; He, Jiping

    2017-01-01

    algorithms. Our findings provide new insights for extending current BMI design concepts and techniques on upper limbs to lower limb circumstances. Brain controlled exoskeleton, prostheses or neuromuscular electrical stimulators for lower limbs are expected to be developed, which enables the subject to manipulate complex biomechatronic devices with mind in more harmonized manner. PMID:28223914

  4. Monitoring the athlete training response: subjective self-reported measures trump commonly used objective measures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring athlete well-being is essential to guide training and to detect any progression towards negative health outcomes and associated poor performance. Objective (performance, physiological, biochemical) and subjective measures are all options for athlete monitoring. We systematically reviewed objective and subjective measures of athlete well-being. Objective measures, including those taken at rest (eg, blood markers, heart rate) and during exercise (eg, oxygen consumption, heart rate response), were compared against subjective measures (eg, mood, perceived stress). All measures were also evaluated for their response to acute and chronic training load. The databases Academic search complete, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and PubMed were searched in May 2014. Fifty-six original studies reported concurrent subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being. The quality and strength of findings of each study were evaluated to determine overall levels of evidence. Subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being generally did not correlate. Subjective measures reflected acute and chronic training loads with superior sensitivity and consistency than objective measures. Subjective well-being was typically impaired with an acute increase in training load, and also with chronic training, while an acute decrease in training load improved subjective well-being. This review provides further support for practitioners to use subjective measures to monitor changes in athlete well-being in response to training. Subjective measures may stand alone, or be incorporated into a mixed methods approach to athlete monitoring, as is current practice in many sport settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Stand Structure and Composition 32 Years after Precommercial Thinning Treatments in a Mixed Northern Conifer Stand in Central Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Laura S. Kenefic; Rongxia Li; John Brissette

    2011-01-01

    The effects of four precommercial thinning (PCT) treatments on an even-aged northern conifer stand in Maine were investigated by examining stand structure and composition 32 years after treatment. Replicated treatments applied in 1976 included: (1) control (no PCT), (2) row thinning (rowthin; 5-ft-wide row removal with 3-ft-wide residual strips), (3) row thinning with...

  6. Comparing violinists' body movements while standing, sitting, and in sitting orientations to the right or left of a music stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Claudia; Wasmer, Céline; Eickhoff, Franziska; Nusseck, Manfred

    2014-06-01

    For violinists, it is common practice to play while standing or sitting. When playing in an orchestra, generally two persons share one music stand, with one sitting to the right and the other to the left of the stand. The present study investigated specific movement patterns while playing in these different positions. Using a posturographic device and 3D motion capture, the body weight distributions and specific body movements of 19 violinists were analyzed. Results showed unbalanced weight distributions while sitting in front of or oriented to the right of the music stand compared to the almost even distributions while standing or oriented to the left of the stand. Analyses of movement patterns showed significant differences between standing and sitting, mainly in the upper body parts with less movability while sitting. While sitting in front of or oriented to the right of the music stand, the right bowing arm showed more restricted movements compared to other positions. The playing positions are discussed with regard to possible physiological stress and health risks. The study emphasizes the importance of different playing positions and offers starting points for discussion of postural influences and sensible handling of the instrument in performance and practice for violinists.

  7. Regulating Stand Density by Precommercial Thinning in Naturally Regenerated Loblolly Pine Stands: Evaluation of Management and Economic Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Moorhead; Coleman W. Dangerfield; M. Boyd Edwards

    1997-01-01

    The economic performance of converting 13-year-old, overstocked (>3,000 trees per acre), naturally regenerated pine stands using precommercial thinning at a cost of $140 per acre was modeled for 25-, 35-, and 50-year rotations. The stand density was reduced to 283 trees per acre. Subsequent management scenarios recovered establishment and management costs through...

  8. Effects of stand and inter-specific stocking on maximizing standing tree carbon stocks in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D' Amato; John B. Bradford; Andrew O. Finley

    2011-01-01

    There is expanding interest in management strategies that maximize forest carbon (C) storage to mitigate increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. The tremendous tree species diversity and range of stand stocking found across the eastern United States presents a challenge for determining optimal combinations for the maximization of standing tree C storage. Using a...

  9. Cerebral autoregulation in response to posture change in elderly subjects-assessment by wavelet phase coherence analysis of cerebral tissue oxyhemoglobin concentrations and arterial blood pressure signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanjin; Zhang, Ming; Han, Qingyu; Li, Wenhao; Xin, Qing; Wang, Yan; Li, Zengyong

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to assess the dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) in response to posture change using wavelet phase coherence (WPCO) of cerebral tissue oxyhemoglobin concentrations (Delta [HbO2]) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals in healthy elderly subjects. Continuous recordings of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and ABP signals were obtained from simultaneous measurements in 16 healthy elderly subjects (age: 68.9±7.1 years) and 19 young subjects (age: 24.9±3.2 years). The phase coherence between Delta [HbO2] and ABP oscillations in six frequency intervals (I, 0.6-2 Hz; II, 0.15-0.6 Hz; III, 0.05-0.15 Hz; IV, 0.02-0.05 Hz, V, 0.0095-0.02 Hz and VI, 0.005-0.0095 Hz) was analyzed using WPCO. The sit-to-stand posture change induces significantly lower WPCO in interval III (F=5.50 p=0.025) in the elderly subjects than in the young subjects. However, the stand-to-sit posture change induces higher WPCO in intervals II (F=5.25 p=0.028) and V (F=6.22 p=0.018) in the elderly subjects than in the young subjects. The difference of WPCO in response to posture change between the elderly and the young subjects indicates an altered CA due to aging. This study provides new insight into the dynamics of CA and may be useful in identifying the risk for dCA processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  11. Plant growth regulators to manipulate oat stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. RAJALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators (PGRs are exogenously applied chemicals that alter plant metabolism, cell division, cell enlargement, growth and development by regulating plant hormones or other biological signals. For example, some PGRs regulate stem elongation by inhibiting biosynthesis of gibberellins or through releasing ethylene. PGR effects are widely studied and reported on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L., whereas there are only a few reports addressing oat (Avena sativa L.. This is likely to be a result of smaller acreage and lower intensity of oat management and production and hence a reduced need for stem shortening by PGRs. However, this is not the case for all cereal producing regions and there exists a need to understand the potential application of PGRs to oat production. This paper represents a review of the potential of PGRs to regulate stem elongation and other biological traits governing plant stand structure and yield components, with special emphasis on oat and its responses to PGRs. Yield improvement requires more heads per unit land area, more grains per head or heavier grains. Of these yield-determining parameters, the number of head bearing tillers and grain numbers per head, compared with grain weight, are more likely to be improved by PGR application. In the absence of lodging, PGR may reduce grain yield due to potential reduction in mean grain weight and/or grain number. Cultivation systems aiming at extensive yields with intensive use of inputs likely benefit from PGR applications more often compared with low or moderate input cultivation, for which cost effectiveness of PGRs is not frequently reached.;

  12. Financial Village Standing in Indonesian Financial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Purnomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial resources of the village that are sourced from a country or a Regional Finance Financial based Law Number 6 Year 2014 of The Village is the mandate of the law that must be allocated to the village. The interconnectedness of the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or Region concerned the Financial administrative and territorial relations, and there is no setting directly regarding the finances of the village as part of the financial system of the country or the financial area. In respect of the elements of the crime of corruption deeds against financial irregularities of the village there are still disagreements on the interpretation of the law in trapping the perpetrators of corruption on the village chief that implies not satisfy the principle of legality and legal certainty in the ruling of the matter of financial irregularities. In fact, many of the village chief or Councilor caught the criminal offence of corruption over the use of financial irregularities. This research analyzes How the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or region, as well as whether the financial resources of the village is derived from the state budget or region budget managed in village budget belongs to the category of village finances and whether tort against the financial management of the village can be categorized as a criminal act corruption. How To Cite: Purnomo, H. (2015. Financial Village Standing in Indonesian Financial System. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 121-140. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.81

  13. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  14. Diagnostic reliability of the cervical vertebral maturation method and standing height in the identification of the mandibular growth spurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Contardo, Luca; Castaldo, Attilio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the capability of both cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages 3 and 4 (CS3-4 interval) and the peak in standing height to identify the mandibular growth spurt throughout diagnostic reliability analysis. A previous longitudinal data set derived from 24 untreated growing subjects (15 females and nine males,) detailed elsewhere were reanalyzed. Mandibular growth was defined as annual increments in Condylion (Co)-Gnathion (Gn) (total mandibular length) and Co-Gonion Intersection (Goi) (ramus height) and their arithmetic mean (mean mandibular growth [mMG]). Subsequently, individual annual increments in standing height, Co-Gn, Co-Goi, and mMG were arranged according to annual age intervals, with the first and last intervals defined as 7-8 years and 15-16 years, respectively. An analysis was performed to establish the diagnostic reliability of the CS3-4 interval or the peak in standing height in the identification of the maximum individual increments of each Co-Gn, Co-Goi, and mMG measurement at each annual age interval. CS3-4 and standing height peak show similar but variable accuracy across annual age intervals, registering values between 0.61 (standing height peak, Co-Gn) and 0.95 (standing height peak and CS3-4, mMG). Generally, satisfactory diagnostic reliability was seen when the mandibular growth spurt was identified on the basis of the Co-Goi and mMG increments. Both CVM interval CS3-4 and peak in standing height may be used in routine clinical practice to enhance efficiency of treatments requiring identification of the mandibular growth spurt.

  15. Energy Cost of Standing in a Multi-Ethnic Cohort: Are Energy-Savers a Minority or the Majority?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathríona R Monnard

    Full Text Available The disease risks associated with sedentary behavior are now firmly established, and consequently there is much interest in methods of increasing low-intensity physical activity. In this context, it is a widely held belief that altering posture allocation can modify energy expenditure (EE to impact upon body weight regulation and health. However, we recently showed the existence of two distinct phenotypes pertaining to the energy cost of standing-with the majority of a Caucasian cohort showing no sustained increase in EE during standing relative to sitting. Here we investigated whether this phenomenon is also observed across a multi-ethnic male cohort.To determine the magnitude and time-course of changes in EE and respiratory quotient (RQ during steady-state standing versus sitting, and to explore inter-individual variability in these responses across 4 ethnic groups (European, Indian, Chinese, African.Min-by-min monitoring using posture-adapted ventilated-hood indirect calorimetry was conducted in 35 healthy, men (20-43 years during 10 min of steady-state standing versus sitting comfortably.69% of subjects showed little or no increase (<5% in EE during standing compared to sitting (energy savers. Furthermore, the proportion of energy savers did not significantly differ between ethnic groups, despite ethnic differences in anthropometry; with body weight as the primary predictor of the energy cost of standing maintenance (r2 = 0.30, p = 0.001.Our results indicate that the majority of individuals in a multi-ethnic cohort display a postural energy-saver phenotype. The mechanisms by which the large majority of individuals appear to maintain sitting and standing postures at the same energetic cost remains to be elucidated but is of considerable importance to our understanding of the spontaneous physical activity compartment of EE and its potential as a target for weight regulation.

  16. FOREST STAND SEGMENTATION USING AIRBORNE LIDAR DATA AND VERY HIGH RESOLUTION MULTISPECTRAL IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dechesne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest stands are the basic units for forest inventory and mapping. Stands are large forested areas (e.g., ≥ 2 ha of homogeneous tree species composition. The accurate delineation of forest stands is usually performed by visual analysis of human operators on very high resolution (VHR optical images. This work is highly time consuming and should be automated for scalability purposes. In this paper, a method based on the fusion of airborne laser scanning data (or lidar and very high resolution multispectral imagery for automatic forest stand delineation and forest land-cover database update is proposed. The multispectral images give access to the tree species whereas 3D lidar point clouds provide geometric information on the trees. Therefore, multi-modal features are computed, both at pixel and object levels. The objects are individual trees extracted from lidar data. A supervised classification is performed at the object level on the computed features in order to coarsely discriminate the existing tree species in the area of interest. The analysis at tree level is particularly relevant since it significantly improves the tree species classification. A probability map is generated through the tree species classification and inserted with the pixel-based features map in an energetical framework. The proposed energy is then minimized using a standard graph-cut method (namely QPBO with α-expansion in order to produce a segmentation map with a controlled level of details. Comparison with an existing forest land cover database shows that our method provides satisfactory results both in terms of stand labelling and delineation (matching ranges between 94% and 99%.

  17. Effects of trunk-hip strengthening on standing in children with spastic diplegia: a comparative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joong-Hwi; Seo, Hye-Jung

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of trunk-hip strengthening exercise on trunk-hip activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing in children with spastic diplegia and compared the improvement of pelvic tilt between the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise and conventional exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Ten ambulant children with spastic diplegia were randomized to the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise (n = 5) or conventional exercise (n = 5) group. The intervention consisted of a 6-week modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise 3 times per week. The children were tested for trunk-hip muscles activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing by surface electromyography and an inclinometer before and after the intervention. [Results] The anterior pelvic tilt angle and activation of the extensor spinae, rectus femoris, and semitendinosus during standing decreased significantly in the modified exercise group. The activation of extensor spinae differed significantly between groups. [Conclusion] Compared to the conventional exercise, the modified exercise was more effective for trunk-hip activation improvement and anterior pelvic tilt motion decrease during standing in children with spastic diplegia. We suggest clinicians use an individually tailored modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise for strengthening the weakest muscle groups in children with standing ability problems.

  18. SUBJECTIVE SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND HEALTH: RELATIONSHIPS RECONSIDERED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda; Adler, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Subjective status, an individual’s perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8,430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general health. These relationships persist in the presence of controls for unobserved traits, such as difficult-to-measure aspects of family background and persistent aspects of personality. However, we find evidence that these links likely represent bi-directional effects. Declines in health that accompany aging are robust predictors of declines in perceived socioeconomic status, net of observed changes to the economic profile of respondents. The results thus underscore the social value afforded good health status. PMID:23453318

  19. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  20. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  1. Subjective Duration and Psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hannes

    1975-01-01

    Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)

  2. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  3. High seed dispersal ability of Pinus canariensis in stands of contrasting density inferred from genotypic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai López de Heredia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Models that combine parentage analysis from molecular data with spatial information of seeds and seedlings provide a framework to describe and identify the factors involved in seed dispersal and recruitment of forest species. In the present study we used a spatially explicit method (the gene shadow model in order to assess primary and effective dispersal in Pinus canariensis. Area of study: Pinus canariensis is endemic to the Canary Islands (Spain. Sampling sites were a high density forest in southern slopes of Tenerife and a low density stand in South Gran Canaria. Materials and methods: We fitted models based on parentage analysis from seeds and seedlings collected in two sites with contrasting stand density, and then compared the resulting dispersal distributions. Main results: The results showed that: 1 P. canariensis has a remarkable dispersal ability compared to other pine species; 2 there is no discordance between primary and effective dispersals, suggesting limited secondary dispersal by animals and lack of Janzen-Connell effect; and 3 low stand densities enhance the extent of seed dispersal, which was higher in the low density stand. Research highlights: The efficient dispersal mechanism of P. canariensis by wind inferred by the gene shadow model is congruent with indirect measures of gene flow, and has utility in reconstructing past demographic events and in predicting future distribution ranges for the species.

  4. Design principles for single standing nanowire solar cells: going beyond the planar efficiency limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yang; Ye, Qinghao; Shen, Wenzhong

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have long been used in photovoltaic applications but restricted to approaching the fundamental efficiency limits of the planar devices with less material. However, recent researches on standing NWs have started to reveal their potential of surpassing these limits when their unique optical property is utilized in novel manners. Here, we present a theoretical guideline for maximizing the conversion efficiency of a single standing NW cell based on a detailed study of its optical absorption mechanism. Under normal incidence, a standing NW behaves as a dielectric resonator antenna, and its optical cross-section shows its maximum when the lowest hybrid mode (HE11δ) is excited along with the presence of a back-reflector. The promotion of the cell efficiency beyond the planar limits is attributed to two effects: the built-in concentration caused by the enlarged optical cross-section, and the shifting of the absorption front resulted from the excited mode profile. By choosing an optimal NW radius to support the HE11δ mode within the main absorption spectrum, we demonstrate a relative conversion-efficiency enhancement of 33% above the planar cell limit on the exemplary a-Si solar cells. This work has provided a new basis for designing and analyzing standing NW based solar cells. PMID:24810591

  5. StandsSIM-MD: a Management Driven forest SIMulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro, S.; Rua, J.; Tomé, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. The existing stand level forest simulators available in Portugal were not developed with the aim of including up-to-date model versions and were limited in terms of accounting for forest management. The simulators’ platform, sIMfLOR was recently created to implement different growth models with a common philosophy. The objective was developing one easily-updatable, user-friendly, forest management and climate change sensitive simulator capable of projecting growth for the main tree species in Portugal. Area of the study: Portugal. Material and methods: The new simulator was programmed in a modular form consisting of several modules. The growth module integrates different forest growth and yield models (empirical and process-based) for the main wood production tree species in Portugal (eucalypt, umbrella and maritime pines); whereas the management module drives the growth projections along the planning horizon according to a range of forest management approaches and climate (at present only available for eucalypt). Main results: The main result is the StandsSIM-MD Management Driven simulator that overcomes the limitations of the existing stand level simulators. It is a step forward when compared to the models currently available in the sIMfLOR platform covering more tree species, stand structures and stand compositions. It is focused on end-users and it is based on similar concepts regarding the generation of required inputs and generated outputs. Research highlights: Forest Management Driven simulations approach. Multiple Prescriptions-Per-Stand functionality. StandsSIM-MD can be used to support landowners decisions on stand forest management. StandsSIM-MD simulations at regional level can be combined with optimization routines. (Author)

  6. Stand for testing the electrical race car engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, M.; Franiasz, J.; Mierzwa, P.; Wylenzek, D.

    2015-11-01

    An engine test stand created especially for research of electrical race car is described in the paper. The car is an aim of Silesian Greenpower project whose participants build and test electrical vehicles to take part in international races in Great Britain. The engine test stand is used to test and measure the characteristics of vehicles and their engines. It has been designed particularly to test the electric cars engineered by students of Silesian Greenpower project. The article contains a description how the test stand works and shows its versatility in many areas. The paper presents both construction of the test stand, control system and sample results of conducted research. The engine test stand was designed and modified using PLM Siemens NX 8.5. The construction of the test stand is highly modular, which means it can be used both for testing the vehicle itself or for tests without the vehicle. The test stand has its own wheel, motor, powertrain and braking system with second engine. Such solution enables verifying various concepts without changing the construction of the vehicle. The control system and measurement system are realized by enabling National Instruments product myRIO (RIO - Reconfigurable Input/Output). This controller in combination with powerful LabVIEW environment performs as an advanced tool to control torque and speed simultaneously. It is crucial as far as the test stand is equipped in two motors - the one being tested and the braking one. The feedback loop is realized by an optical encoder cooperating with the rotor mounted on the wheel. The results of tests are shown live on the screen both as a chart and as single values. After performing several tests there is a report generated. The engine test stand is widely used during process of the Silesian Greenpower vehicle design. Its versatility enables powertrain testing, wheels and tires tests, thermal analysis and more.

  7. A Preliminary Assessment of Legged Mobility Provided by a Lower Limb Exoskeleton for Persons With Paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Ryan J.; Quintero, Hugo A.; Murray, Spencer A.; Ha, Kevin H.; Hartigan, Clare; Goldfarb, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of a lower limb exoskeleton for providing legged mobility to people with paraplegia. In particular, the paper presents a single-subject case study comparing legged locomotion using the exoskeleton to locomotion using knee–ankle–foot orthoses (KAFOs) on a subject with a T10 motor and sensory complete injury. The assessment utilizes three assessment instruments to characterize legged mobility, which are the timed up-and-go test, the Ten-Meter Walk Test (10 MWT), and the Six-Minute Walk Test (6 MWT), which collectively assess the subject’s ability to stand, walk, turn, and sit. The exertion associated with each assessment instrument was assessed using the Physiological Cost Index. Results indicate that the subject was able to perform the respective assessment instruments 25%, 70%, and 80% faster with the exoskeleton relative to the KAFOs for the timed up-and-go test, the 10 MWT, and the 6 MWT, respectively. Measurements of exertion indicate that the exoskeleton requires 1.6, 5.2, and 3.2 times less exertion than the KAFOs for each respective assessment instrument. The results indicate that the enhancement in speed and reduction in exertion are more significant during walking than during gait transitions. PMID:23797285

  8. The influence of vision and support base on balance during quiet standing in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis before and after posterior spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago, Hildemberg A R; Reis, Júlia G; Gomes, Matheus M; da Silva Herrero, Carlos F P; Defino, Helton L A; de Abreu, Daniela C C

    2013-11-01

    Scoliosis is the most common postural alteration in adolescence and is characterized by deviations of the spine in three planes. Surgical treatment based on arthrodesis has been developed, but the effects of such restructuring on the systems involved in postural control need to be better understood. To assess the influence of vision and the support base on balance in the quiet standing position in adolescents awaiting surgical treatment for idiopathic scoliosis. Longitudinal study/Ribeirão Preto Clinics Hospital (HC-FMRP-USP) and Laboratory of Assessment and Rehabilitation of Equilibrium at the FMRP-USP. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients and controls. Center of pressure (CoP) sway area of the 95% confidence ellipse. Thirty female adolescents were divided into two groups according to their spinal alignment: control (n=15) and scoliosis groups (SGs) (n=15). The subjects with scoliosis were evaluated before and 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after surgery; the controls were evaluated once. The area of CoP oscillation was measured with the eyes open and closed and with two different support bases (feet apart or together). The force platform was purchased with funding support (US $8,375.00) provided by the Research Foundation of São Paulo (FAPESP). The study sponsors had no involvement in the study. Data were collected from the force platform and then statistically assessed through a linear model analysis of mixed effects. Data reveal that subjects in the SG oscillated more than controls, and postsurgery subjects had more oscillation than presurgery subjects. The results also indicated that both groups (control and scoliosis) showed more oscillation among those subjects with feet apart and eyes closed, but subjects with scoliosis were more affected by vision deprivation than by a reduced support base. Our results indicate that adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis are more dependent on visual information and that surgical correction does not change this relationship

  9. Timeliness of Creative Subjects in Architecture Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargot, T.

    2017-11-01

    The following article is about the problem of insufficient number of drawing and painting lessons delivered in the process of architectural education. There is a comparison between the education of successful architects of the past and modern times. The author stands for the importance of creative subjects being the essential part of development and education of future architects. Skills achieved during the study of creative subjects will be used not only as a mean of self-expression but as an instrument in the toolkit of a professional. Sergei Tchoban was taken as an example of a successful architect for whom the knowledge of a man-made drawing is very important. He arranges the contests of architectural drawings for students promoting creative development in this way. Nowadays, students tend to use computer programs to make architectural projects losing their individual approach. The creative process becomes a matter of scissors and paste being just a copy of something that already exists. The solution of the problem is the reconsideration of the department’s curriculum and adding extra hours for creative subjects.

  10. Influence of coarse woody debris on herpetofaunal communities in upland pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin C. Davis; Steven B. Castleberry; John C. Kilgo

    2010-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is thought to benefit herpetofauna in a variety of ways including serving as feeding sites, providing a moist environment, and providing protection from temperature extremes. We investigated the importance of CWD to amphibian and reptile communities in managed upland pine stands in the southeastern United States Coastal Plain during years 6...

  11. Electromagnetic calibration system for sub-micronewton torsional thrust stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, J. K.; Koay, S. C.; Cheah, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    It is critical for a micropropulsion system to be evaluated. Thrust stands are widely recognised as the instrument to complete such tasks. This paper presents the development of an alternative electromagnetic calibration technique for thrust stands. Utilising the commercially made voice coils and permanent magnets, the proposed system is able to generate repeatable and also consistent steady-state calibration forces at over four orders of magnitude (30 – 23000 μN). The system is then used to calibrate a custom-designed torsional thrust stand, where its inherent ability in ease of setup is well demonstrated.

  12. Thrust stand for high-power electric propulsion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new high-power thrust stand developed for use with high-power (up to 250 kW) magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, which is installed in a high-vacuum MPD facility at Lewis Research Center. The design of the stand is based on inverted pendulum configuration, with the result of large displacements and high resolution. Calibration results showed that thrust measurements were linear and repeatable to within a fraction of 1 percent. The thrust stand was used for testing water-cooled MPD thrusters at power levels up to 125 kW. The thruster, however, is quite well suited for testing other types of electric propulsion devices.

  13. The Mediating Roles of Perceived Stress and Health Behaviors in the Relation between Objective, Subjective, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Perceived Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Objective, subjective, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with perceived health, morbidity, and mortality. Purpose We investigated whether perceived stress and health behaviors mediated the relation between the three types of SES and perceived health. Methods Participants (N = 508) attending a public clinic completed a computerized survey assessing objective SES (income, education, employment); health behaviors; perceived stress; and perceived health. They also indicated their social standing relative to others (subjective SES) and provided their current address to determine neighborhood SES. Results In a structural equation model including all three SES types, lower objective and subjective SES were related to poorer perceived health. When mediators were included in the model, there were significant indirect effects of: (a) SES on health through stress; and (b) SES on health through stress and health compromising behaviors. Conclusions Interventions to reduce the impact of stressors could improve the health of socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals. PMID:24648016

  14. Provider of Services File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  15. The Provident Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, John R.

    This monograph offers leadership approaches for school principals. Discussion applies the business leadership theory of Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus to the role of the principal. Each of the booklet's three parts concludes with discussion questions. Part 1, "Visions and Values for the Provident Principal," demonstrates the importance of…

  16. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  17. care Providers in Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and eighty six respondents (77.7%) were aware of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT). Awareness ... Key Words: malaria in pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment, malaria control, health care providers. Department of Obstetrics .... Auxiliary nurses do not have formal training prior to employment.

  18. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  19. Internet Medline providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, D L; Coady, T R

    1998-01-01

    Each database in this review has features that will appeal to some users. Each provides a credible interface to information available within the Medline database. The major differences are pricing and interface design. In this context, features that cost more and might seem trivial to the occasional searcher may actually save time and money when used by the professional. Internet Grateful Med is free, but Ms. Coady and I agree the availability of only three ANDable search fields is a major functional limitation. PubMed is also free but much more powerful. The command line interface that permits very sophisticated searches requires a commitment that casual users will find intimidating. Ms. Coady did not believe the feedback currently provided during a search was sufficient for sustained professional use. Paper Chase and Knowledge Finder are mature, modestly priced Medline search services. Paper Chase provides a menu-driven interface that is very easy to use, yet permits the user to search virtually all of Medline's data fields. Knowledge Finder emphasizes the use of natural language queries but fully supports more traditional search strategies. The impact of the tradeoff between fuzzy and Boolean strategies offered by Knowledge Finder is unclear and beyond the scope of this review. Additional software must be downloaded to use all of Knowledge Finders' features. Other providers required no software beyond the basic Internet browser, and this requirement prevented Ms. Coady from evaluating Knowledge Finder. Ovid and Silver Platter offer well-designed interfaces that simplify the construction of complex queries. These are clearly services designed for professional users. While pricing eliminates these for casual use, it should be emphasized that Medline citation access is only a portion of the service provided by these high-end vendors. Finally, we should comment that each of the vendors and government-sponsored services provided prompt and useful feedback to e

  20. X-ray standing wave investigations of Group III and V metal adsorption on Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Y.; Bedzyk, M.J. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.; Lyman, P.F. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Investigations of atomic bonding, surface reconstruction, surface dynamics, and growth kinetics of group III and V metals on Si(001) are important for understanding the initial growth stage of III-V semiconductors on Si(001). Such studies can also provide valuable information for other important issues such as surfactant-mediated epitaxy, surface passivation and delta-doping layers. X-ray standing waves generated by dynamical Bragg diffraction were used as an element-specific structural probe for investigating Ga and Sb adsorption on Si(001). These high-resolution measurements reveal important quantitative structural information regarding the dimerized surface structures, and provide a stringent test for structural models proposed by various theoretical calculations. An overview of the X-ray standing wave technique and its application to surface structure and dynamics is presented.

  1. Neuronal representation of stand and squat in the primary motor cortex of monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaolin; Ma, Xuan; Zhang, Hang; Xu, Jiang; He, Jiping

    2015-04-09

    Determining neuronal topographical information in the cerebral cortex is of fundamental importance for developing neuroprosthetics. Significant progress has been achieved in decoding hand voluntary movement with cortical neuronal activity in nonhuman primates. However, there are few successful reports in scientific literature for decoding lower limb voluntary movement with the cortical neuronal firing. We once reported an experimental system, which consists of a specially designed chair, a visually guided stand and squat task training paradigm and an acute neuron recording setup. With this system, we can record high quality cortical neuron activity to investigate the correlation between these neuronal signals and stand/squat movement. In this research, we train two monkeys to perform the visually guided stand and squat task, and record neuronal activity in the vast areas targeted to M1 hind-limb region, at a distance of 1 mm. We find that 76.9% of recorded neurons (1230 out of 1598 neurons) showing task-firing modulation, including 294 (18.4%) during the pre-response window; 310 (19.4%) for standing up; 104 (6.5%) for the holding stand phase; and 205 (12.8%) during the sitting down. The distributions of different type neurons have a high degree of overlap. They are mainly ranged from +7.0 to 13 mm in the Posterior-Anterior dimension, and from +0.5 to 4.0 mm in Dosal-lateral dimension, very close to the midline, and just anterior of the central sulcus. The present study examines the neuronal activity related to lower limb voluntary movements in M1 and find topographical information of various neurons tuned to different stages of the stand and squat task. This work may contribute to understanding the fundamental principles of neural control of lower limb movements. Especially, the topographical information suggests us where to implant the chronic microelectrode arrays to harvest the most quantity and highest quality neurons related to lower limb movements, which

  2. Average Stand Age from Forest Inventory Plots Does Not Describe Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jens T; Safford, Hugh D; North, Malcolm P; Fried, Jeremy S; Gray, Andrew N; Brown, Peter M; Dolanc, Christopher R; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Falk, Donald A; Farris, Calvin A; Franklin, Jerry F; Fulé, Peter Z; Hagmann, R Keala; Knapp, Eric E; Miller, Jay D; Smith, Douglas F; Swetnam, Thomas W; Taylor, Alan H

    Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity fire events in forests of western North America have assumed that the "stand age" variable from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program reflects the timing of historical high-severity (i.e. stand-replacing) fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. To test this assumption, we re-analyze the dataset used in a previous analysis, and compare information from fire history records with information from co-located FIA plots. We demonstrate that 1) the FIA stand age variable does not reflect the large range of individual tree ages in the FIA plots: older trees comprised more than 10% of pre-stand age basal area in 58% of plots analyzed and more than 30% of pre-stand age basal area in 32% of plots, and 2) recruitment events are not necessarily related to high-severity fire occurrence. Because the FIA stand age variable is estimated from a sample of tree ages within the tree size class containing a plurality of canopy trees in the plot, it does not necessarily include the oldest trees, especially in uneven-aged stands. Thus, the FIA stand age variable does not indicate whether the trees in the predominant size class established in response to severe fire, or established during the absence of fire. FIA stand age was not designed to measure the time since a stand-replacing disturbance. Quantification of historical "mixed-severity" fire regimes must be explicit about the spatial scale of high-severity fire effects, which is not possible using FIA stand age data.

  3. Average Stand Age from Forest Inventory Plots Does Not Describe Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jens T.; Safford, Hugh D.; North, Malcolm P.; Fried, Jeremy S.; Gray, Andrew N.; Brown, Peter M.; Dolanc, Christopher R.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Falk, Donald A.; Farris, Calvin A.; Franklin, Jerry F.; Fulé, Peter Z.; Hagmann, R. Keala; Knapp, Eric E.; Miller, Jay D.; Smith, Douglas F.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Taylor, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity fire events in forests of western North America have assumed that the “stand age” variable from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program reflects the timing of historical high-severity (i.e. stand-replacing) fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. To test this assumption, we re-analyze the dataset used in a previous analysis, and compare information from fire history records with information from co-located FIA plots. We demonstrate that 1) the FIA stand age variable does not reflect the large range of individual tree ages in the FIA plots: older trees comprised more than 10% of pre-stand age basal area in 58% of plots analyzed and more than 30% of pre-stand age basal area in 32% of plots, and 2) recruitment events are not necessarily related to high-severity fire occurrence. Because the FIA stand age variable is estimated from a sample of tree ages within the tree size class containing a plurality of canopy trees in the plot, it does not necessarily include the oldest trees, especially in uneven-aged stands. Thus, the FIA stand age variable does not indicate whether the trees in the predominant size class established in response to severe fire, or established during the absence of fire. FIA stand age was not designed to measure the time since a stand-replacing disturbance. Quantification of historical “mixed-severity” fire regimes must be explicit about the spatial scale of high-severity fire effects, which is not possible using FIA stand age data. PMID:27196621

  4. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  5. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  6. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen

    2017-04-11

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  7. Modelling canopy fuel and forest stand variables and characterizing the influence of thinning in the stand structure using airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hevia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a major threat in NW Spain. The importance and frequency of these events in the area suggests the need for fuel management programs to reduce the spread and severity of forest fires. Thinning treatments can contribute for fire risk reduction, because they cut off the horizontal continuity of forest fuels. Besides, it is necessary to conduct a fire risk management based on the knowledge of fuel allocation, since fire behaviour and fire spread study is dependent on the spatial factor. Therefore, mapping fuel for different silvicultural scenarios is essential. Modelling forest variables and forest structure parameters from LiDAR technology is the starting point for developing spatially explicit maps. This is essential in the generation of fuel maps since field measurements of canopy fuel variables is not feasible. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of LiDAR technology to estimate canopy fuel variables and other stand variables, as well as to identify structural differences between silvicultural managed and unmanaged P. pinaster Ait. stands. Independent variables (LiDAR metrics of greater explanatory significance were identified and regression analyses indicated strong relationships between those and field-derived variables (R2 varied between 0.86 and 0.97. Significant differences were found in some LiDAR metrics when compared thinned and unthinned stands. Results showed that LiDAR technology allows to model canopy fuel and stand variables with high precision in this species, and provides useful information for identifying areas with and without silvicultural management.

  8. Mental Health Stigma: Where do We Stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Xavier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mental illness stigma has been the focus of increasing attention in the past few years, with an exponential increase in scientific publications on the subject. This phenomenon is a source of suffering for the patient undermining the achievement of personal goals and full social integration. In this article, the authors present a selective review of the literature on mental illness stigma, going through its definition, origins, repercussions, patients’ subjective experiences and strategies to challenge stigma. The literature presents stigma as being a complex phenomenon, whose definitions derive from different epis- temological roots (sociology, psychology and psychiatry. Its impact on the lives of people with a mental illness is well acknowledged and seems to translate into decreased opportunities, loss of self-esteem and self-concept, decreased quality of life, social support and empowerment, thus limiting the adoption or performance of regular social roles. Stigma has also been shown to compromise access to health care, not only psychiatric treatment but also general medical care, thus increasing the morbidity and mortality in this vulnerable population. A considerable amount of effort has been put into the comprehension of this phenomenon and to designing strategies for fighting stigma, which also include promoting health-care professionals’ awareness of the topic in order to improve clinical practice and global quality of care.

  9. Variability in early height growth rate of forest trees: implications for retrospective studies of stand dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain J. Palik; Kurt S. Pregitzer

    1995-01-01

    Retrospective studies of forest stand dynamics may rely on estimates of tree ages. In some of these studies, trees are aged near the stem base, while in other studies trees may be aged at breast height. An age correction may be added to breast-height ages in an attempt to account for average time to reach breast height and thus provide better estimates of total ages....

  10. Filamentous cyanoprokaryotes (Cyanoprokaryota/Cyanobacteria in standing waters of Bulgaria: diversity and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLAMEN STOYANOV

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanoprokaryotes are widespread organisms, which dominate in different water basins. In the present study, we have investigated the diversity of this group and related physicochemical parameters in 35 standing water basins in Bulgaria. We found 29 cyanoprokaryotic species, which belong to 13 genera from the orders Synechococcales, Spirulinales and Oscillatoriales. The frequency quotient of each species was calculated. Information about the distribution of the identified species and typology of the water basins is also provided.

  11. ROBOTICS APPLICATION IN PEOPLE WITH WEAK MUSCLES – STANDING AND WALKING

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatko Matjačić

    2004-01-01

    In this review paper we provide brief information on three commercially available biomechatronic devices that were primarily developed for neurological rehabilitation after stroke and spinal cord injury. First, we present Balance Trainer, a biomechatronic device that enables safe standing and balancing environment where the level of balancing support can be varied according to a particular subject’s needs. Gait Trainer and Locomat are biomechatronic/robotic devices that enable repetitive prac...

  12. Inventory of Atlantic White Cedar Remnant Stands in North Carolina.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This inventory was commissioned by the U.S. Air Force to identify the location and condition of extant remnant Atlantic white cedar groves and stands in North...

  13. Basic Stand Alone Skilled Nursing Facility Beneficiary PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) Beneficiary Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare SNF claims. The...

  14. Standing - Challenges to Government Surveillance - Clapper v. Amnesty International USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2013-01-01

      Last Term, in Clapper v. Amnesty International USA, the Supreme Court held that the plaintiffs -- various attorneys and human rights organizations -- lacked standing to challenge section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence...

  15. Environmental Assessment : Marais des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge tree stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Environmental Assessment is to evaluate whether current regulations regarding tree stands on the Marais des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge are sufficient or...

  16. Robot-supported assessment of balance in standing and walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirota, Camila; Van Asseldonk, Edwin; Matjačić, Zlatko; Vallery, Heike; Barralon, Pierre; Maggioni, Serena; Buurke, Jaap H.; Veneman, Jan F.

    2017-01-01

    Clinically useful and efficient assessment of balance during standing and walking is especially challenging in patients with neurological disorders. However, rehabilitation robots could facilitate assessment procedures and improve their clinical value. We present a short overview of balance

  17. Engine Test Stand Design Constraints Expert System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Propulsion test stands are designed for thermal and pressure loads for certain classes of engines. These plume induced loads are: radiative heating, acoustics and...

  18. Optimal planning of stand-alone microgrids incorporating reliability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    WANG, Chengshan; JIAO, Bingqi; GUO, Li; YUAN, Kai; SUN, Bing

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for the planning of stand-alone microgrids. By means of clustering techniques, possible operating scenarios are obtained considering the daily patterns of wind and load profiles...

  19. Infrared differential absorption lidar for stand-off detection of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-14

    ) carbon dioxide laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system capable of stand-off detection of chemical clouds in aerosol and vapour form upto about 200 m range in the atmosphere has been developed and ...

  20. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Bill; Wilborn, Colin; La Bounty, Paul; Taylor, Lem; Nelson, Mike T; Greenwood, Mike; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Lopez, Hector L; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Schmitz, Stephen; Collins, Rick; Kalman, Doug S; Antonio, Jose; Kreider, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED) or energy shots (ES...