Frade, A; Vilar, D
Catholic Church. As in 1973, committees were formed but no action was taken. Sex education activity increased nonetheless - the first FPA document on school education prepared. In 1986 Personal and Social Education was approved by parliament providing an alternative (due to the Catholic Church) to Religious Education, but even with FPA support documents, the implementation did not begin until the end of 1990. In brief the FPA's emphasis was on the body, sexuality, sex and interpersonal relationships, and sexual reproduction. The role of FPA continues at the grass roots level in stimulating discussion; cooperating with schools, students and parents; and acting as a resource center.
After briefly discussing the philosophy of sex education and appraising generally the nature of the instructional methods and materials currently in use in the schools, the author provides brief but incisive reviews of a number of films, filmstrips, and other instructional materials dealing with sex. The reviews are continued in the succeeding…
The objective of educating people on family planning and sexuality issues has been carried forth by the Family Planning Association of Cyprus (FPAC) since 1971. The promotion of sex education in schools has generated respect for their expertise. Sex education has reached the agenda of the General Assembly of Parliament only to be postponed due to the April 1991 end of term dismissal. A newly elected Parliament are not expected to act immediately. The Ministry of Education Committee on Health Education has been actively counseled since 1974, and most recently in their examination of the possibilities of school sex education and training of high school teachers. The Ministry of Education has authority over primary and secondary education, which is compulsory up to 3 years of secondary education. The approach of FPAC has been to work with parents first in education lectures at various well publicized locations. The agenda was to inform about FPAC, explain the purpose and meaning of sex education, and show the Merry-Go-Round educational film followed by a question and answer session. Eventually, presentations involved children with parent observation. In 1977, authorization from the Ministry of Education gave official approval to FPAC, but not on school premises. FPAC went directly to headmasters and gained support in primary schools to organize sessions on school premises, which successfully involved many primary schools even in the much needed rural areas. Home Economics and Child Care, offered in the 5th and 6th grades was the only vehicle for gaining permission to enter secondary schools. In Larnaca, secondary school headmasters at the 3rd and 6th grade levels permitted invitations which requested parental permission. Lecture topics on human reproduction, sex roles, and disease and contraception were also provided in a follow-up letter. Higher education levels were involved through youth clubs and evening lectures. In 1988, FPAC urged the Director General of the
R N Srivastava
Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procreational. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function. Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development. Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life. Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is
R N Srivastava
Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procreational. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function.Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development.Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life.Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is also
Koblinsky, Sally; And Others
Discusses guidelines (developed by the Oregon State University Early Childhood Sex Education Project) for developing teacher-parent cooperation in providing sex education to young children. The guidelines concern how to talk about body differences and body functions; how to deal with masturbation, sex play and obscene language; and how to involve…
Glanzer, Perry L.
Allowing nonschool organizations to provide sex education in a released-time format would disestablish state-funded sex education and give families a choice in the sex education that would be provided for their children. Released-time programs, as originally conceived and currently practiced, allow students to be released for a period of time…
The mother of a 14-year-old mentally retarded boy comments on the viewpoints of Dr. Sol Gordon (a sex education columnist) regarding masturbation, questions on sex, marriage, and the parents' role. (SBH)
How should common schools in a liberal pluralist society approach sex education in the face of deep disagreement about sexual morality? Should they eschew sex education altogether? Should they narrow its focus to facts about biology, reproduction, and disease prevention? Should they, in addition to providing a broad palette of information about…
de Ruyter, D.J.; Spiecker, B.
This article argues that sex education should include sexual ideals. Sexual ideals are divided into sexual ideals in the strict sense and sexual ideals in the broad sense. It is argued that ideals that refer to the context that is deemed to be most ideal for the gratification of sexual ideals in the
MacKenzie, Alison; Hedge, Nicki; Enslin, Penny
Noting public concern about sexual exploitation, abuse and sexualisation, we argue that sex education in the UK needs revision. Choice is a feature of current sex education policy and, acknowledging that choice can be problematic, we defend its place in an approach to sex education premised on informed deliberation, relational autonomy, a…
Hughes, Teresa A.
Traditionally, single-sex education has been provided in the form of private schooling. Title IX regulations have loosened as a result of the No Child Left Behind Legislation; therefore, public school districts now have the legal right to create single-sex classes or single-sex schools if they deem it to be in the best interest of their students.…
Kay, Noy S.; Jones, Megan R.; Jantaraweragul, Sudgasame
The purposes of this study were to examine the current situation pertaining to the teaching of sex education and identify barriers to teaching sex education among Thai health education teachers. A survey questionnaire was administered to 193 health education teachers who participated in this study. The questionnaire was comprised of three parts:…
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Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2016
Since the inception of the Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA) in January 2012, 106 organisations have submitted or indicated their intention to submit applications for initial registration to TEQSA. Of those who have submitted applications, 2 have been rejected, 10 have subsequently been withdrawn by the…
Christopherson, Cynthia R
There is a large amount of evidence suggesting a need to educate children concerning sexual issues. The extent of adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and the spread of AIDS are all indicators of the lack of appropriate education. In view of these social concerns, along with the controversy concerning sex education taught in school, it would seem to be helpful if parents provided more adequate sex education. Parents are a primary source of sex education for their children, ...
This paper draws on focus group and interview data from 45 young men from the north of England to explore the barriers to effective sex and relationships education (SRE). Recent policy debates in relation to establishing statutory SRE in schools provide an opportunity to revisit how it is currently delivered to, and received by, young men. The…
Replies to Paul V. Crosbie's criticisms. Argues that: reports of teenage sexuality and pregnancy are exaggerated; sex education programs encourage acceptance of every form of sexual expression; parents cannot always control their children's participation in sex education; and teachers are not equipped to teach sex education in a neutral fashion.…
Attwood, Feona; Barker, Meg John; Boynton, Petra; Hancock, Justin
The media are widely acknowledged as important in sex and relationship education, but they are usually associated with "bad" effects on young people in contrast to the "good" knowledge represented by more informational and educational formats. In this paper we look at sex advice giving in newspapers, magazines and television in…
Healthy Lifestyle Sexual health Sex education often begins with a child's curiosity about his or her body. Here's how to set the stage for ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/sexual-health/in-depth/sex-education/art-20044104 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...
Smigielski, Patricia A.; Steinmann, Mary J.
A sex education program for an adolescent who is mentally retarded or blind must emphasize concrete teaching, visual compensators, resource persons, repetition of content, and opportunities for social learning. Nurses and special educators can serve as consultants to health educators in planning a sex education program. (JN)
Roberts, Ron; Jones, Amy; Sanders, Teela
Available evidence suggests that changes in the funding of UK higher education in recent years have been accompanied by an increased student presence in the sex industry, ostensibly for financial reasons and to make ends meet. The current study comprises a sample of students ("N" = 200) drawn from several universities in the UK. Data…
Mturi, Akim J; Hennink, Monique M
This study aimed to identify the views of young people, parents and teachers concerning sex education in Lesotho. It was conducted at a time when the national government was considering the introduction of Population and Family Life Education, which includes sex education, into the national school curriculum. Forty-six focus group discussions were held with young people (10), parents (30) and teachers (6) to identify current sources of sex education and views of the proposed introduction of school-based sex education in Lesotho. Findings show the limited and problematic sources of sex education for adolescents in Lesotho. They also highlight broad support for the introduction of sex education in the national school curriculum among young people, parents and teachers. Of key importance for the development of a sex education curriculum is the balance between providing young people with information and developing their skills in sexual empowerment and negotiating sexual pressure. The use of pupil-centred interactive pedagogies was seen as essential. Teachers, however, highlighted the need for training in the delivery of sex education, which includes instruction on course materials, teaching methodologies and developing sensitivity to teaching sexual issues to young people.
Svendsen, Stine H. Bang
While there is little political opposition towards sex education as such in Norway, recent attempts at reforming the subject reveal underlying heteronormative presumptions that seem resistant to reform. While a focus on homosexuality is included in the national curriculum at all levels of compulsory education, the sexual practices involved in…
Reiss, Michael J.
Explores the strengths and weaknesses of the five main philosophical positions currently found in school sex education. Argues that valid sex education promotes rational sexual autonomy, requires pupils to consider the needs and wishes of others, and occurs within a moral framework. Suggests teachers adopt a supportive but neutral position. (MJP)
Whitten, Amanda; Sethna, Christabelle
Contemporary sexual health curricula in Canada include information about sexual diversity and queer identities, but what remains missing is any explicit discussion of anti-racist sex education. Although there exists federal and provincial support for multiculturalism and anti-racism in schools, contemporary Canadian sex education omits crucial…
Erkut, Sumru; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice A.; Ceder, Ineke; Charmaraman, Linda; Tracy, Allison J.
In this study, we examine whether a nine-lesson sex education intervention, "Get Real: Comprehensive Sex Education That Works," implemented in sixth grade, can reduce the number of adolescents who might otherwise become "early starters" of sexual activity (defined as heterosexual intercourse) by seventh grade. Participants were…
Practical information is provided on sexual harassment within the vocational education context. A definition of sexual harassment is followed by examples of practices or behaviors that may be used to determine sexual harassment, including both physical conduct and communication. Possible impacts of sexual harassment in a vocational training…
Woo, G W; Soon, R; Thomas, J M; Kaneshiro, B
To describe the current status of school based sex education and to determine predictors of providing a comprehensive sex education curriculum. Cross-sectional mailed survey Hawaii Seventh and eighth grade health teachers Participants were surveyed regarding the content, quality, and influences on sex education for the 2007 to 2008 academic year. Measures of association (chi-square, ANOVA) and multiple logistic regression were used to determine predictors for teaching comprehensive sex education topics including sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy prevention. Approximately 80% of teachers incorporated some form of sex education into their curriculum and 54.4% of teachers incorporated a comprehensive education. Teachers indicated that personal values and the availability of curriculum had the greatest influence on the content of the curriculum. Specific factors which were associated with an increased likelihood of providing a comprehensive curriculum included teaching in a public school (public 66.7% versus private 34.6%, P = 0.01), receiving formal training in sex education (received training 77.8% versus did not receive training 50.0%, P = 0.03) and having contact with a student who became pregnant (contact 72.7% versus no contact 46.7%, P = 0.04). Although most teachers incorporate some form of sex education, only half incorporate a comprehensive curriculum. Personal values as well as teacher resources play an important role in the content of the curriculum. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In order to help reduce fears and anxieties regarding the influence of sex education in a public school setting, school and community sexuality educators need to better articulate the difference between formal and structured sex education and non-formal, informal and incidental sex learning. Sex education is only 1 aspect of the sexual learning process. 2 main points have to be clarified for parents and the general public to set the stage for a new way to view the school and community involvement in the sexual learning process: the schools' sexuality education courses constitute only a small portion of the sexual learning process; and sexual learning is not an event for youth only, but a process spanning life. Sex education (the process) connotates an academic setting with a specific curricula taught by a trained instructor, but sexual learning relates to environmental, non-formal incidental learning from a multitude of sources. Studies indicate that teenagers receive about 90% of their contraceptive and sexuality informaation from peers and mass media and that these sources of information are becoming their preferred sources of sex education. What is needed is a way to address and improve the conditions of sexual learning in the community. As home is the ideal environment for primary and positive sexual learning, parents need support in their role as sex educators. Classroom sexuality education curricula in all school settings have a solid place in the process of sexual learning.
Whether you are someone new to the field of sex education, trying to start a library or resource center on adolescent sexual health, or an old pro, this guide should give you a basic orientation to what's available to support your work. These resources are important to advancing positive attitudes toward adolescent sexual health and the author…
... might miss the best opportunities. Instead, think of sex education as an ongoing conversation. Here are some ideas to help you get started — and keep the discussion going. Seize the moment. When a TV program or music video raises issues about responsible sexual behavior, use it ...
García-Cabeza, Belén; Sánchez-Bello, Ana
Sex education is principally dealt with as part of the combined subject of Biology and Geology in the Spanish school curriculum. Teachers of this subject are not specifically trained to teach sex education, and thus the contents of their assigned textbooks are the main source of information available to them in this field. The main goal of this study was to determine what information Biology and Geology textbooks provide with regard to sex education and the vision of sexuality they give, but above all to reveal which perspectives of sex education they legitimise and which they silence. We analysed the textbooks in question by interpreting both visual and text representations, as a means of enabling us to investigate the nature of the discourse on sex education. With this aim, we have used a qualitative methodology, based on the content analysis. The main analytical tool was an in-house grid constructed to allow us to analyse the visual and textual representations. Our analysis of the combined Biology and Geology textbooks for Secondary Year 3 revealed that there is a tendency to reproduce models of sex education that take place within a framework of the more traditional discourses. Besides, the results suggested that the most of the sample chosen for this study makes a superficial, incomplete, incorrect or biased approach to sex education.
Hacker, Sylvia S.
An effective sex education curriculum deals with both feelings and behaviors. It must address decision making and problem solving in regard to relationship formation, readiness for intercourse, use of contraception, child rearing, and social responsibility and should be incorporated into education throughout the educational process. (JN)
Naezer, Marijke; Rommes, Els; Jansen, Willy
Youth empowerment is the main goal of sex education according to Dutch Government and NGO policies. Academics from different disciplines have argued, however, that the ideal of empowerment through education is problematic, because of the unequal power relations implicated in educational practices. Building on one-and-a-half years of online and…
Quantz, Richard A.
Holds that male/female differences in such behavior characteristics as aggression, cooperation/competition, compliance, and anxiety are not innate, but rather are social strategies available to both sexes and utilized whenever reasonable. Suggests that the sex equity problems in education can be solved by eliminating differential treatment of boys…
Liew, Warren Mark
This paper examines the Singapore Ministry of Education's sexuality education curriculum in relation to two leading approaches to sex education, namely, abstinence-only-until-marriage education (AOUME) and comprehensive sexuality education (CSE). Based on competing cultural, political, and religious beliefs, the arguments between the advocates of…
This paper aims to provide insights into recent events concerning school sex education in Japan. A campaign of criticism against school sex education emerged in 2002 at both national and regional levels, and included a court case in Tokyo. Despite leaving a depressing atmosphere regarding sex education teaching practices, this campaign also…
Thomas, David M.
Analyzes the Vatican publication, "Educational Guidance in Human Love," which underscores the responsibilities of family and church in sex education. Affirms the positive aspects of the report and points to its weaknesses and omissions. Suggests possible responses to the document by parishes and schools. (DMM)
Vaughn, Michael S.
Examined adult and juvenile sex offender academic and vocational education programs. Data were collected from 103 sex offender treatment providers. Findings revealed that both adult and juvenile sex offender education programs provided wide variety of service choices in academic and vocational programs. Adult programs averaged slightly more…
Stubbs, Margaret L.
This paper presents an explanation of practitioners' reactions to sex equitable sex education. Several constraints can prohibit practitioners from engaging in sex equitable sex education: (1) lack of community support; (2) lack of expertise in human sexuality education; (3) vagueness of school committee views; and (4) lack of answers to logistical…
This article summarizes findings from a survey conducted among adolescents in Beijing and Tianjin, China. Findings indicate that 89.3% of sex offenders were adolescents. Many high school students were engaged in premarital sexual relations, but lacked knowledge about sex and contraception. Premarital sex and sexually transmitted diseases are considered a social evil. The central government has direct jurisdiction in Tianjin and its population of 9 million. By 1989 there were 540,000, or 12% of total population, aged 12-16 years. A survey of 3231 junior middle school students aged 11-14 years revealed that 35% of girls did not know why menstruation occurred at a certain age. About 55% of boys did not know about erections. 35% considered an erect penis a part of normal physical development, but over 50% were confused. 30-50% of students who had reached menarche and sexual maturity found it difficult to find knowledgeable people. 50% received information from the mass media. 44% of girls learned from their mothers. 25% of boys and girls aged 11-12 years already had girlfriends and boyfriends. About 30% desired friends of the opposite sex and desired intimacy, love, and dependability among friends. It is argued that the backward notions of sex originated in a once feudal society that considered sex a taboo. Parents, teachers, and school authorities are resistant to introducing sex education; teachers are embarrassed by the subject matter. In Beijing about 4000 students aged 11-14 years were interviewed. These students had limited information on sex-related issues and misconceptions. Attitudes must be changed and teachers must be trained before adolescent health and sex education can be introduced into schools. The government can play a role in promoting programs for adolescents and coordinating the efforts of nongovernmental groups.
Franklin, Ruth M.; Dotger, Sharon
Abstinence sexuality education (sex ed) is the only federally funded sex ed in the United States. The strict curriculum of this education does not educate American adolescents about safer sex practices and leaves a knowledge gap in these adolescents that follows them into college. The Problem: This project aimed to identify sex knowledge…
Moore, Erin; Harris, Terrance
This study provides a description of an innovative workshop that educated college students about the risks of unprotected sexual behavior, particularly oral sex, and methods of risk reduction using a metaphor of "sharing and eating jelly beans." Intervention development was guided by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model.…
Hamilton, Rashea; Sanders, Megan; Anderman, Eric M.
Sex education in middle and high school health classes is critically important because it frequently comprises the primary mechanism for conveying information about sexual health to adolescents. Deliver evidence-based information on HIV and pregnancy prevention practices and they will be less likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors, the theory…
This study examines undergraduates' perspective on sex education and teenage pregnancy in Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study population was 250 undergraduates of Covenant University. Frequency tables, linear regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to analyze the data collected ...
Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.
Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…
In October 2006, the U.S. Department of Education introduced the so-called "single-sex regulations," which brought the issue of single-sex education to the forefront of discussion among educators, policymakers, and parents. Anecdotal evidence suggests that single-sex education can have a positive impact on student achievement. However,…
The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor provides legislative information on family planning, sex education, and teenage pregnancy. The listing contains information on pending bills; the state, the identifying legislation number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available, the bill's status. From January through February, 1993, the bills cover a wide range of regulation and social policy including: appropriations for family planning services; Norplant implants for women receiving AFDC benefits; the requirement that health insurance policies provide coverage for contraception services; the repeal of the sterilization procedure review committee; since a need for such a committee has vanished; requiring hotels, motels, and innkeepers to offer condoms for sale to registered guests; allowing male and female public assistance recipients between ages 18-35 who submit to sterilization operations to be eligible to receive a $2,000 grant; a provision that no more children may be included in the size of the family, for the purpose of determining the amount of AFDC benefits that a family may receive, than at the time that eligibility was determined, and that before a family with 2 or more children can receive AFDC benefits, the woman must consent to and have surgically implanted Norplant or a similar reversible birth control device with a 5-year or longer effectiveness.
Huntley, Cristy F.; Benner, Susan M.
Opinions of professionals from 16 agencies were obtained to identify techniques that agencies serving adults or adolescents with mental retardation could utilize to provide systematic sex education and counseling. Recommendations are offered in five areas: self-advocacy and self-determination, individual design, staff training and support,…
School-based sex education is an underdeveloped and challenging issue to address in Iran. This paper provides insights into the main challenges in developing and implementing school-based sex education in Iran. Through an investigation of one Iranian boys' school that, in contrast to the majority of Iranian educational institutions, has an…
The reluctance of parents to provide sex education has been a problem for educators since the first attempts at the modernisation of sex education in the early twentieth century, yet the sexual needs, desires and fears of parents are rarely even mentioned in pedagogical debates. This article examines the intense anxiety and embarrassment felt by…
Steutel, J.W.; de Ruyter, D.J.
With reference to the unsuccessful attempt of the Labour Government to make sex education a statutory part of the National Curriculum, this paper argues in favour of making liberal sex education compulsory at all state schools. First, the main characteristics of a liberal sex education are briefly
Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura
Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…
Steutel, Jan; de Ruyter, Doret J.
With reference to the unsuccessful attempt of the Labour Government to make sex education a statutory part of the National Curriculum, this paper argues in favour of making liberal sex education compulsory at all state schools. First, the main characteristics of a liberal sex education are briefly explained. Promoting the virtue of respect for…
Alldred, P; David, ME
GET REAL ABOUT SEX: The Politics and Practice of Sex Education explores how cultural ideas about gender, sexuality and parenthood play out in the sex and relationship education classroom. It presents new material from a detailed study and analyses the struggle to raise the status of sex and relationship education against academic and market-driven priorities. It locates the dynamics of the classroom within those of the school and asks: What do the different parties in teaching and learning -...
Aniebue, P N
To assess the knowledge and attitude to sex education among secondary school teachers in Enugu. A cross sectional study of 300 teachers drawn from nine randomly selected secondary schools in Enugu metropolis was carried out. Pre-tested self administered structured questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Three hundred teachers, 215 females and 85 males were interviewed. The mean age of the teachers was 38.1+/-7.5 years. Sixty-nine (23.0%) had adequate knowledge of sex education and 282 (94.0%) approved the inclusion of sex education into the school curriculum. The commonest reason for disapproval of sex education was fear that it would lead to promiscuity amongst the students. Educational status and marital status of the teachers were significant determinants of positive attitude to sex education psex education according to the teachers is 11-15 years. Two hundred and thirty eight (79.3%) respondents were of the opinion that teachers needed to be trained to provide sex education to students and 244 (81.3%) admitted that sex education was not in the school curriculum. Secondary school teachers are in support of provision of sex education to students. However they need training and skills on how to present sex information in a positive manner to achieve the desired goal. There is need to include sex education in the school curriculum.
Zanatta, Luiz Fabiano
Based on the ideas of Paulo Freire, the methodological framework of Popular Education for Health (PEH) provides a more adaptable method for sex education, including societal participation as well as the social, historical and cultural dimensions of the population. The purpose of this work is to relate one such PEH experience in sex education, which took the form of a community project with a group of students from 10 to 28 years of age attending Itinerant Schools and with groups from the Landless Rural Workers Movement (MST) in the state of Parana, Brazil. This work provides knowledge of certain elements that may help in developing similar projects, not only for sex education but also education for other public health issues. PEH demonstrates a method of ensuring socially effective participation in the different dimensions of health-promotion strategies. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Cusick, Linda; Roberts, Ron; Paton, Susan
This paper concerns higher and further education institutions' policies as they relate to the interactions of their staff and students with the sex industry. In Scotland and England, consenting adults may legally buy and sell sex and commercial sexual entertainment, such as erotic dance and phone sex, provided that they do not do so in a public…
Kraft, Joan Marie; Kulkarni, Aniket; Hsia, Jason; Jamieson, Denise J; Warner, Lee
Studies point to variation in the effects of formal sex education on sexual behavior and contraceptive use by individual and community characteristics. Using the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, we explored associations between receipt of sex education and intercourse by age 15, intercourse by the time of the interview and use of effective contraception at first sex among 15-19-year-olds, stratified by quartiles of three community characteristics and adjusted for demographics. Across all quartiles of community characteristics, sex education reduced the odds of having sex by age 15. Sex education resulted in reduced odds of having sex by the date of the interview and increased odds of using contraception in the middle quartiles of community characteristics. Variation in the effects of sex education should be explored. Research might focus on programmatic differences by community type and programmatic needs in various types of communities. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hosam Farouk El-Sofany
The use of Computers, Networks, and Internet has successfully enabled educational institutions to provide their students and instructors with various online educational services. With the recent developments in M-learning and mobile technology, further possibilities are emerging to provide such services through mobile devices such as mobile phones and PDAs. By providing the educational services using wireless and mobile technologies, the educational institutions can potentially bring great co...
The purpose of the project was to determine whether there was a correlation between the racial makeup of a school district and the decision to provide sex education in its schools. Interviews were conducted with six different school districts across Santa Clara County, California. After the interviews, it was determined that the racial diversity did not play a role in deciding if sex education would be taught. This researcher did learn that a lack of educational funding had an effect on the school districts and their decisions. Due to this lack of funding for schools, educational programs, such as sex education, were not being provided to the students.
Turnbull, Triece; van Schaik, Paul; van Wersch, Anna
Objective: The aim of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of the quality of a Sex and Relationship Education (SRE) intervention, their preferences for sources of SRE and how these vary as a function of gender, school's faith and school type. Design: A non-experimental design was used. Setting: The participants (N = 759…
This study investigates the perspectives of service providers working with Chinese lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) young people in Hong Kong secondary schools and maps the relationships between same-sex sexualities, religion, education and self-harm. Sixteen service providers, including secondary school teachers, social workers based on and off…
Sprecher, Susan; Harris, Gardenia; Meyers, Adena
As part of a larger survey study on young adult sexuality conducted over a 17-year period at a Midwest U.S. university, more than 6,000 college students completed questions on the sources of their sex education and the degree to which they have communicated about sex with various types of individuals. Participants reported receiving more sex education from peers and media than from parents (and mothers more than fathers). Respondents also reported communicating more about sex with peers than with parents or any other categories of individuals. Differences were found in the degree of sex education from various sources and in communication with various targets based on gender, ethnic background, and social class. Furthermore, changes were found over the 17-year period. More recent cohorts of students perceived that they received more sex education from media, peers, and professionals, and communicated more about sex with professionals, relative to earlier cohorts.
Huber, Valerie J.; Firmin, Michael W.
We provide a historical perspective toward the current public school practices of American sex education. The primary time frames include the progressive era (1880-1920), intermediate era (1920-1960), the sexual revolution era (1960s and 1970s), and the modern sex education era (1980s to the present). In each period, we highlight key developments…
Crawford-Ferre, Heather Glynn; Wiest, Lynda R.
Although researchers have studied the effectiveness of single-sex education (SSE), the findings have been mixed. This exploratory study reports the perceived goals and effectiveness of single-sex education based on interviews with a small group of educators involved with SSE in various ways. Research participants included a school principal and…
Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee
In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…
This paper argues that sex education must move beyond a focus on compliance so that we may risk the uncertain work of thinking. How might we understand the work of thinking in sex education if we begin from the assumptions that learning is conflicted, that sexuality resists being educated even as it inspires curiosity, and that the subject of sex…
Lamb, Sharon; Lustig, Kara; Graling, Kelly
Since Michelle Fine's writing on the missing discourse of desire in sex education, there has been considerable prompting among sexuality educators and feminist scholars to incorporate talk of pleasure into sex education curricula. While the calls for inclusion continue, few have actually examined the curricula for a pleasure discourse or…
Full Text Available Background: The morbidity associated with sexual ignorance, poor decision making and inadequate sexuality education is rising in India day by day. The possibility of sex related public health problems like sexual abuse, teenage pregnancies, abortions, unmarried motherhood, STD/HIV infections etc. are always remains high in university students. In this background to assess the student’s knowledge & perceived need for sex education this study was conducted. Objective Of Study: To assess the need of sex education in students To explore the views of students on content, source & preferred grade levels of education for sex education. Methods: It was a crosssectional study conducted among students of Panjab University, Chandigarh. Sample size was 86 (Boys=45, Girls=41. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents. The results were calculated in percentage. Results: 95% of students were in favors of mainstreaming of sex education. 76.74% students choose the teacher as the best source to provide sex education. Students preferred grade levels to start sex education was matriculation with curriculum containing the information on sexual body changes during growth, contraceptives and sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusions: Majority of students has received sex information from informal sources and they are not satisfied with their knowledge on sex education. Majority of them supports the implementation of sex education in educational institutes. The government needs to make sex education mandatory as well as plan the educational material in a way that incites not libidinous behavior but instills mature decision making skills in the students
Full Text Available Background: The morbidity associated with sexual ignorance, poor decision making and inadequate sexuality education is rising in India day by day. The possibility of sex related public health problems like sexual abuse, teenage pregnancies, abortions, unmarried motherhood, STD/HIV infections etc. are always remains high in university students. In this background to assess the student’s knowledge & perceived need for sex education this study was conducted. Objective Of Study: To assess the need of sex education in students To explore the views of students on content, source & preferred grade levels of education for sex education. Methods: It was a cross- sectional study conducted among students of Panjab University, Chandigarh. Sample size was 86 (Boys=45, Girls=41. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents. The results were calculated in percentage. Results: 95% of students were in favors of mainstreaming of sex education. 76.74% students choose the teacher as the best source to provide sex education. Students preferred grade levels to start sex education was matriculation with curriculum containing the information on sexual body changes during growth, contraceptives and sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusions: Majority of students has received sex information from informal sources and they are not satisfied with their knowledge on sex education. Majority of them supports the implementation of sex education in educational institutes. The government needs to make sex education mandatory as well as plan the educational material in a way that incites not libidinous behavior but instills mature decision making skills in the students
Kouyoumdjian, Claudia; Guzman, Bianca L.
Many sex education programs do not conceptualize adolescent sexuality as a normative process of development, thus sexuality is not part of a holistic picture of health education.The current project examines the multiple determinants of adolescent boys' sexual behaviors in the context of developing sex education. Limited research has examined the…
Townsend, J W; Diaz de May, E; Sepúlveda, Y; Santos de Garza, Y; Rosenhouse, S
In Mexico, youth face difficulties in obtaining reliable information on sex education and family planning through existing community programs. Two alternative strategies to provide these services are being tested in poor urban areas of Monterrey. In one experimental area, Integrated Youth Centers were established, which provide sex education and family planning services as well as counseling, academic tutoring, and recreational activities. In another area, trained young adults and community counselors work through informal networks to provide sex education and family planning information. Both utilization and the cost of these services are examined in the context of plans for expanding coverage in Mexico-U.S. border areas.
María Luisa Preinfalk-Fernández
Full Text Available This article identifies the existing gaps in sex education in the student population of the Center for Research in Teaching and Education of the National University of Costa Rica, and its purpose is to contribute to the decision-making process to improve training for these students. A questionnaire was applied, using a structured sample stratified by unequal clusters, to 242 regular undergraduate students. The margin of error was 1.5 % and the confidence level was 95%. Data was tabulated using the CSPRO software and analyzed with the R software. A focus group was also held with teachers in sexuality courses in order to reflect on the results of the questionnaire application. Data was analyzed through the Integral Sexuality Approach and suggests that students lack the information necessary to exercise healthy, safe, and violence-free sexuality. This condition leads them to high risk situations because of the rare or lack of contraceptive use and the practice of coitus interruptus and makes them experience fears and guilt when being sexually active. Students have low sexual autonomy, which makes them vulnerable to violent situations and gives them stereotypes and prejudices that lead them to discriminate others for their sexual orientation or to become victims. In general, they are unaware of their reproductive and sexual rights and, therefore, are not capable of demanding them. These indicators should warn teacher training institutions to improve and strengthen their sexual education processes.
This paper interrogates education's relationship to labor through a consideration of sex education's relationship to sexual labor. Beginning with a basic question--why does sex education exist as a federally funded project?--the author examines sex education's relationship to normativity and sexual labor throughout its history as a federally…
Multilevel modeling was carried out on national value-added data to study the effects of single-sex education on the progress of pupils from 2002 Key Stage 3 to 2004 GCSE. The analysis suggests that pupils in a selective environment achieve higher progress in single-sex schools; however, the advantage of single-sex schooling seems to decrease with…
Despite recent advances in sex and relationships education (SRE), the Spanish education system still lacks coherent policies in this field. This paper provides an overview of the current situation, focusing specifically on Andalusia, and discusses the importance of providing SRE for young people. It first describes current Spanish education policy…
小林, 壽子; 大西, 真由実; Hisako, KOBAYASHI; Mayumi, ONISHI; 鈴鹿短期大学; 鈴鹿短期大学; SUZUKA JUNIOR COLLEGE; SUZUKA JUNIOR COLLEGE
It is 50 years since public sex education was adopted in Japan. Since then, remarkable and sometimes worrying changes have occurred in the attitudes of young people, particularly young women. This study reports our investigation of opinions among students from the third year of junior high school to the second year of junior college. These results will be a basis for future guidance. 1) To what extent do you think sexual intercourse may be permitted in dating? As a part of preserving friendsh...
Robinson, Pamela; Smithers, Alan
English researchers compared the academic and social benefits of single sex and coeducational schools, examining test scores and interviewing 100 college students (balanced for sex and type of school) about their experiences and their ease of adjustment to higher education. Results indicated that segregating the sexes did not increase…
Gardner, Emily A.
This qualitative study explores the abstinence-only sex education experiences of a small group of young adults in the southeastern USA. Most participants felt that their abstinence-only sex education had mixed value and low overall impact in their lives. Perceptions about abstinence, virginity, and marriage varied significantly from those stressed…
Clarke, Paul T.
In the West, sex education has always been a taboo subject that continues to challenge the public schools. Drawing on recent developments in some Canadian provinces, I argue that we cannot begin to address the issue of responsible sex education until we first acknowledge that students themselves have a moral and constitutional right to this kind…
To help parents talk with children about sexual health, the Kaiser Family Foundation and National PTA developed a series of free resources for parents (e.g., the booklet "Talking with Kids: A Parent's Guide to Sex Education") to increase parent involvement and communication around sex education. This paper notes the importance of parents…
The study was conducted specifically to find out about adolescents attitude towards sex education and their opinions on various sexual issues that are incumbent on development to adulthood sexuality. It was also to establish the need for sex education in schools. A descriptive design was used with a sample size for the ...
Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (NJ3), 2008
Education service providers (ESPs), or education management organizations, are for-profit or non-profit organizations that contract with new or existing public, charter, or private schools to help them implement comprehensive reforms. Which of these ESPs have evidence that they help children in elementary and secondary school of positive effects…
Hilliard, N.L.; Pickett, M.; Thaxton, P.; Norenberg, J.P.; Wittstrom, K.; Rhodes, B.
Aim: (1) Increase the nuclear pharmacy education opportunities across the United States and the around the world. (2) Establish collaborative educational agreements between colleges of pharmacy and local nuclear pharmacy preceptors. (3) Decrease the shortage of radio pharmacists. 4) Provide nuclear education courses to supplement existing educational programs. Materials and Methods: Nuclear Education Online (www.nuclearonline.org) is an educational consortium between the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and the University of New Mexico. The faculty members from each institution have collaborated to design an online didactic curriculum and experiential training materials. The didactic portion is delivered via WebCT (www.webct.com) and involves interactive studies with faculty from UNM and UAMS. The student-centered curriculum is based on the APhA Syllabus for Nuclear Pharmacy Training and includes interactive web-based course materials, discussion groups, preceptor-led activities and problem-based learning (PBL) case studies based upon actual clinical studies and real-life pharmacy situations. Individual units of study include Nuclear Physics, Radiation Biology, Radiation Safety, Instrumentation, and Radiochemistry/Radiopharmacology. Students can begin the program at anytime. Once a cohort of students is established, the students proceed through the PBL cases, working interactively as a group. Results: Since June 2001, over 26 students have completed the 10-week certificate program. These students have been located across the U.S. and in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen students have completed individual courses in nuclear physics and instrumentation through colleges of pharmacy course offerings using the NEO faculty as instructors. Student evaluations revealed that 78% of the students thought that the NEO program was a 'great way to learn' (highest rating). When comparing PBL to a traditional classroom setting, two thirds of students preferred problem
This article explores the nature of young adult texts as complementary sources of informal queer sex and sexuality education, along with a close reading of a sample of this young adult (YA) literature. LGBT teens are often left out of discussions in sex education classrooms in the United States because of discriminatory curricula, ignorance on the…
Fentahun, Netsanet; Assefa, Tsion; Alemseged, Fessahaye; Ambaw, Fentie
Sex education is described as education about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, reproductive health, emotional relations, reproductive rights and responsibilities, abstinence, contraception, family planning, body image, sexual orientation, sexual pleasure, values, decision making, communication, dating, relationships, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and how to avoid them, and birth control methods. This study was conducted to explore perception of parents about school sex education and assess the attitude of teachers and students towards school sex education. A cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative study was conducted on randomly selected 386 students, total census of 94 teachers and 10 parents in Merawi Town from March 13-27, 2011. Data were collected using self-administered structured questionnaire and in-depth interview guideline. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed using total score to determine the effect of the independent variables on the outcome variable and thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. All study participants have favourable attitude towards the importance of school sex education. They also agreed that the content of school sex education should include abstinence-only and abstinence-plus based on mental maturity of the students. That means at early age (Primary school) the content of school sex education should be abstinence-only and at later age (secondary school) the content of school sex education should be added abstinence-plus. The students and the teachers said that the minimum and maximum introduction time for school sex education is 5 year and 25 year with mean of 10.97(SD±4.3) and 12.36(SD±3.7) respectively. Teacher teaching experiences and field of studies have supportive idea about the starting of school sex education. Watching romantic movies, reading romantic materials and listening romantic radio programs appear to have a contribution on the predictor of
Hosam Farouk El-Sofany
Full Text Available The use of Computers, Networks, and Internet has successfully enabled educational institutions to provide their students and instructors with various online educational services. With the recent developments in M-learning and mobile technology, further possibilities are emerging to provide such services through mobile devices such as mobile phones and PDAs. By providing the educational services using wireless and mobile technologies, the educational institutions can potentially bring great convenience to those off-campus students who do not always have time to find Internet enabled computers to get the important educational information from their academic institutions. With the mobile or M-educational services, both the students and the instructors can access the services anytime and anywhere they want. This paper discusses those M-educational services that can be moved to the mobile platform and then presents the system prototype and architecture that integrate these services into the mobile technology platform. The paper will conclude with a description of the formative evaluation of the system prototype.
Editors' note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives over more than a century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives highlights articles selected to fit today's topics and times.This month we reprint a brief "Professional Practice" note from the June 1969 issue about what was described as the first family planning conference for nurse educators. Speakers emphasized the need to make this subject a routine part of nursing school curricula (despite debates over the nurse's role in family planning), "so that nurses can counsel out of wisdom and not from piety or ignorance." Speakers included James Lieberman, MD, who years later coauthored with his daughter a teen sex guide, and Alan Guttmacher, MD, then president of Planned Parenthood, whose Center for Family Planning Program Development within that organization was later renamed the Guttmacher Institute in his honor.Nurses today are deeply involved in sexual and reproductive health care. In this issue, public health specialist Diane Santa Maria and colleagues offer ways to advance sexual and reproductive health care for adolescents by devising more friendly, youth-oriented clinical settings.
Martinez, Gladys; Abma, Joyce; Copen, Casey
Sex education in schools and other places, as well as received from parents, provides adolescents with information to make informed choices about sex at a crucial period of their development. Using data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this report examines the percentage of male and female teenagers 15-19 years who…
Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Shah, Iqbal H.
Purpose: Sex education in China has been promoted for many years, but limited data are available regarding the sources from which adolescents receive sex-related knowledge. The present study was designed to examine the sources from which Chinese adolescents obtain their information on puberty, sexuality and STI/HIV/AIDS, and whether there are any…
Sandra Quiroz A.
Full Text Available In education the figure of Social Services, is in a process of maturation-recognized, especially in terms of functions and professional work. Currently in the school social worker is carrying out his work in interdisciplinary teams of teachers, psychologists and other related educational field professionals, the development of actions, often passively and quietly. In search of the definitions given by the FITS (International Federation of Social Workers said that through educational institutions can identify problems at individual, household and community level, considering this educational unit as a source of wealth for intervention and create opportunities for promotion and prevention social problems. The school environment is an area that can work in collaboration with the directors and management team to articulate the lines of action that are necessary to deal with any problems. That may arise in this area should guide the social worker, prevent and rehabilitate as specificity of their profession and recognize these bio-psycho-social changes that develop students and students who make up this educational unit, as during this educational process to develop their personality, learning social skills related to work in our society and interact with their environment. (Levels micro-meso-macro. It is for this and needs that arise in our youth and students is that we understand and incorporate processes involving atingentes for learning development issues and includes areas related to sex education, sexuality and identity to support families in this discovery.In education the figure of Social Services, is in a process of maturation-recognized, especially in terms of functions and professional work. Currently in the school social worker is carrying out his work in interdisciplinary teams of teachers, psychologists and other related educational field professionals, the development of actions, often passively andquietly. In search of the
De Avila, Elizabeth
Issues of sexual assault have become pervasive across all social strata in American society. Citizens need to start having conversations regarding these issues. To combat the issue of sexual assault, children need to be educated regarding the multifaceted aspects of sex through sex education in order to understand consent and resources they have available to them. Utilizing grounded theory methodology, this thesis analyzes sex education literature provided to Palm Beach County Middle School students. Using Burke's theory of terministic screens and Foucauldian theories of power and control; an understanding of the ideological underpinnings of this literature and discourse were acquired. After analysis, suggestions for disclosure and sex education programs are provided.
Chaffee, Tonya; English, Abigail
Sex trafficking of adolescents and young adults is both a human rights violation and a public health problem, globally and in the United States. Healthcare providers, including obstetricians and gynecologists, interact with victims, often while they remain under their traffickers' control, but because of providers' lack of training in identification and response many victims go unrecognized and unaided. This review provides an overview of the definitions of sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, contributing factors, health consequences, recruitment of victims, and identification and response by healthcare providers. The literature on definitions and risk factors associated with sex trafficking is growing; however, literature on healthcare providers' role in addressing sex trafficking remains more limited. It is increasingly recognized that healthcare providers have an important role in victim identification and response and as advocates, collaborating with national, regional, and local agencies to increase awareness of sex trafficking as a public health problem and to address the needs of adolescent and young adult victims and survivors globally and in the United States. As professionals who interact with adolescent and young adult victims of sex trafficking, healthcare providers have an important role: in collaboration with other professionals and agencies they can help to identify, respond to, extricate, protect, and advocate for victims and survivors.
Klein, Susan S.; Goodman, Melanie A.
This publication discusses federal funds which are available for research and development in sex equity in education. A major objective is to identify specific Federal funding opportunities for projects focusing on sex equity. Another objective is to help individuals understand the overall Federal pattern of support for activities to promote sex…
National PTA, Chicago, IL.
This guide is designed to help parents determine what is being taught to their children about sex education in school, offering tips on how to talk to children about these issues. The first section presents pointers from the "Talking with Kids" campaign: start early; initiate conversations; talk about sex and relationships; create an open…
Anthony Sumnaya Kumasey
Full Text Available We examined individual differences in leadership behaviour in the Ghanaian business sector. Specifically, sex differences as well as level of education on leadership behaviour were examined. Cross-sectional survey design was used to study 95 participants conveniently sampled from selected organizations within the Greater Accra Metropolis. Questionnaire was used to collect data from a cross-section of people in the organization. Test of normality and reliability testing were conducted as part of the preliminary analysis. Multivariate test was used to test the hypotheses in the study. The result showed that females showed significantly people-oriented leadership behaviour than their male counterparts. However, level of education did not significantly influence the leadership behaviour of participants. Implications and limitations of the study are provided.
Timmerman, Greetje; Timmerman, M.C.
This article examines relationships between various dimensions of teachers' professionalism, that is, pedagogical content knowledge and personal characteristics. Using Shulman's notion of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) we explored the practical knowledge of twenty sex education teachers using
Clark, Edith Marie; Farley, Jack W.
The article briefly reviews the research and controversy concerning sex education for handicapped children and offers five guidelines including build self-esteem, answer questions clearly and accurately, avoid threats and jokes, and respect children's privacy. (DB)
Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Maddow-Zimet, Isaac; Boonstra, Heather
Purpose Updated estimates of adolescents? receipt of sex education are needed to monitor changing access to information. Methods Using nationally representative data from the 2006?2010 and 2011?2013 National Survey of Family Growth, we estimated changes over time in adolescents? receipt of sex education from formal sources and from parents and differentials in these trends by adolescents? gender, race/ethnicity, age, and place of residence. Results Between 2006?2010 and 2011?2013, there were ...
Full Text Available Research question: Will the sex education given to the students help in STD prevention, population control and in their future sex life. Hypothesis : In order to have a successful school based sex education programme, it is necessary to involve the students at every stage of decision making. Objectives: (! To assess the perceived need of the students of both sexes about sex education. (2 To decide about age to start with, agencies to be involved, contents to be covered during such programme. (3 To compare the responses between two sexes and to identify the areas of intervention. Study design: Cross- sectional interview based on structured questionnaire. Settings: Two private higher secondary schools (one each for boys and girls of Surat city participants: 189 students(108 boys and 81 girls of 11th and 12 the standards Statistical analysis: Chi square test and standard error of the difference between means(z test. Results: Need of sex education is universal as out of 189 students, 97 percent of them agreed to it. The preferred age to start the sex education was lower by 2 years in girls (14.6 years than boys. Doctors or health workers were the preferred choice for giving the education, however, in their absence; regular school teachers were next choice. Knowledge about the STDs and their prevention was very poor in both the sexes. Condom was largely appreciated as a means of contraception and its role in preventing the STDs was not known to many student. The awareness was largely confined to AIDS. The knowledge about the time of conception was very poor even in these adolescent girls. The poor knowledge about the various methods of contraception and the prevalent myths about various sexual behaviours such as masturbation were the areas identified for intervention
Klein, N A; Goodson, P; Serrins, D S; Edmundson, E; Evans, A
Most sexuality education curricula developed the past 20 years were not thoroughly evaluated. This study provides results from a content analysis of 10 sexuality education curricula for junior and senior high school students. Nine nationally available sexuality education curricula and one curriculum guide comprised the sample. The basis for analysis was the Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality Education, developed by the Sex Information and Education Council of the U.S. (SIECUS) and an instrument developed to measure bias in the curricula. Trained coders found that Sex Respect and Teen Aid addressed less than half the topics suggested by the SIECUS guidelines. Several of the curricula contained gender and sexual orientation bias. Certain key concepts such as "Sexual Behavior" and "Society and Culture" were not adequately addressed by most of the curricula. Findings indicate that of 10 curricula, only six are considered acceptable for educating junior and senior high school students.
Raifman, Julia R.G.; Flynn, Colin; German, Danielle
Introduction Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) safely and effectively prevents HIV in populations at high risk, including men who have sex with men (MSM). PrEP scale-up depends upon primary care providers and community-based organizations (CBOs) sharing PrEP information. This study aimed to determine whether healthcare provider or CBO contact was associated with PrEP awareness among Baltimore MSM. Methods This study used 2014 Baltimore MSM National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data, which included data on health care, HIV and sexually transmitted infection testing, and receipt of condoms from CBOs. In 2015, associations were estimated between healthcare contacts and PrEP awareness through logistic regression models controlling for age, race, and education and clustering by venue. Comparative analyses were conducted with HIV testing as outcome. Results There were 401 HIV-negative participants, of whom 168 (42%) were aware of PrEP. Visiting a healthcare provider in the past 12 months, receiving an HIV test from a provider, and having a sexually transmitted infection test in the past 12 months were not significantly associated with PrEP awareness. PrEP awareness was associated with being out to a healthcare provider (OR = 2.97, 95% CI=1.78, 4.96, p<0.001); being tested for HIV (OR=1.50, 95% CI = 1.06, 2.13, p = 0.023); and receiving condoms from an HIV/AIDS CBO (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.43, 4.64, p = 0.001). By contrast, HIV testing was significantly associated with most forms of healthcare contact. Conclusions PrEP awareness is not associated with most forms of healthcare contact, highlighting the need for guidelines and trainings to support provider discussion of PrEP with MSM. PMID:27662698
An examination of the philosophy and implementation of two special programs offered by the Open University of Israel to socially and educationally disadvantaged populations focuses on whether both values of quality and equity can be achieved in higher education. (Author/MSE)
Williams, Elizabeth A; Jensen, Robin E
Despite enormous resources spent on sex education, the United States faces an epidemic of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections among young people. Little research has examined the role sex educators play in alleviating or exacerbating this problem. In this study, we interviewed 50 sex educators employed by public schools throughout a Midwestern, U.S. state about their experiences in the sex education classroom. Twenty-two interviewees communicated feelings of conflicted identification and provided examples of the ways in which they experienced this subjectivity in the context of their employment. We find these interviews shed light on the as-yet-understudied communicative experience of conflicted identification by delineating key sources of such conflict and discursive strategies used in its negotiation. Our results suggest that those who experience conflicted identification and who have a sense of multiple or nested identifications within their overarching professional identity may be safeguarded to some extent from eventual organizational disidentification. © The Author(s) 2015.
Carifa, Linda; Janiszewski Goodin, Heather
Perioperative nurses must use critical thinking and sound clinical judgment to meet their patients' needs safely and effectively. This requires the integration and continual updating of large amounts of detailed clinical information. Innovative education strategies are designed to make teaching and learning more interesting and interactive, especially for the presentation of complex subject material. One interactive educational strategy is the use of games. Educational games can foster collaboration and critical thinking among peers and associates. An example of this was the Perioperative QuizBowl: Evidence-Based Practice presented at the annual AORN Congress from 2003 to 2010, which was used to teach and reinforce evidence-based practice in a fun, competitive way. Although AORN no longer presents this offering, the QuizBowl format demonstrates how educational games can support clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction to Volume 4, No of Global Education Review Although there is a lack of universal consensus on a definition of giftedness there is some agreement that giftedness involves multiple qualities, not just intellectual ones. Gifted education programs vary both among and within countries and who is served in these programs depends largely on the definitions used. The topics explored in this issue include perceptions and policies of gifted education in cultures and countries across the globe; the presumed dichotomy of equity and excellence in countries as different in ideologies as the United States and China; underrepresentation of culturally diverse students, a problem that has plagued the field for decades; gifted education in rural communities; and using a virtual environment for students to pose and share mathematical problems.
Advocates for Youth, 2009
Since 1997 the federal government has invested more than $1.5 billion dollars in abstinence-only programs--proven ineffective programs which censor or exclude important information that could help young people protect their health. In fact, until recently, programs which met a strict abstinence-only definition were the only type of sex education…
Through an analysis of gay protest music (1975) and an educational kit for students (1978), both sponsored by the Campaign for Homosexual Equality in the UK, this paper brings into focus a history of gay rights activists' efforts to marshal popular culture in the development of informal sex education for young people in the second half of the…
Neustifter, Ruth; Blumer, Markie L. C.; O'Reilly, Jessica; Ramirez, Francisco
The literature on the impact of entertainment media on sex education is typically pathology-focused, unclear regarding the effects of such usage, and void of dialogue between those who actually work in the areas of sexuality education and entertainment. To address this gap, this paper is the product of joint authorship between media figures from…
The "bullied" gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex and otherwise Queer (GLBTIQ) student is a fairly recent figure in the sexuality education research literature. GLBTIQ students have previously been problematised by sex education research in a range of different ways and have been the subjects of varying methodological…
American Journal of Sexuality Education, 2011
The "Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education" reinforces scriptural and theological commitments to truth-telling in calling for "full and honest education about sexual and reproductive health." This "Open Letter" was published in 2002, at about the midpoint of a decade-long federal government commitment to…
Matziou, V; Perdikaris, P; Petsios, K; Gymnopoulou, E; Galanis, P; Brokalaki, H
Human sexuality is a complex part of life and is considered a multidimensional phenomenon. Therefore there is an increased need for adequate and comprehensive sex education, especially for teenagers and young adults. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the level of students' sexual knowledge, as well as to identify their sources of information regarding sexual life and reproduction. A cross-sectional study using a designed self-report questionnaire was performed. The study population consisted of 936 students who were attending 10 high schools and four medical schools in Attica. Data were collected after obtaining permission from the Pedagogic Institute of the Greek Ministry of Education. The main sources of students' sexual information about reproduction were friends (29.1%) and parents (24.0%), whereas school was reported by 14.3% of them. The preferred sources of information, according to students' perceptions, were sex education specialists (65.6%), followed by school (39.1%), parents (32.2%) and friends (27.7%). The importance of school, peer and parent support upon adolescents' sexual life was revealed by the results of the study. Students' knowledge level on sex topics is not satisfactory and therefore there is a need for sex education specialists and special courses regarding sex education in Greek schools.
Camila Borges Rufino
Full Text Available This descriptive study was performed with 29 teachers from three public state schools in Goiânia, Goiás state. The teachers answered a semi-structured questionnaire that aimed at verifying the pedagogical practice in sex education, difficulties related to the theme, and the need for training. Most teachers were male (69% and aged between 25 and 35 years (74%. Half held a graduate degree (54% in human sciences (49%. Nearly all teachers find difficulties in working the topic (89% and need training (93%. Contents on sexuality were not addressed in the Political Pedagogical Projects (76% and the biology program aimed at teaching the theme (55%, a reality that disagrees with the National Curricular Standards, which is based on transversality. Partnerships between health and education must be established, particularly between the Family Health Strategy the higher education institutions, providing public school teachers with the necessary didactic-pedagogical support to address sexuality in the classroom. Descriptors: Sexuality; Schools; Nursing; Public Health.
Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy rates are falling in North Carolina. They are falling faster in counties where comprehensive sex education is allowed by law compared to those counties and cities where abstinence-only education is permitted.
Regina Lichteria Panjaitan
Full Text Available The role of technology, especially information technology in Indonesia in the building society XXI century. Indonesia has begun to enter the stage of the telematics community will certainly have a major impact on all levels of life of the Indonesian nation, especially in children. The emergence of a great revolution throughout the world of children's playground, Internet presence replaces the open airy space for children's play, besides presenting impression's Internet pornography and violence can harm the development of children's personality. Sexual deviance behavior at the level of schooling is quite surprising, of course. This is a challenge for education and should be used as a rationale for the need for innovation in learning. Things into consideration are for this. Sex education in early childhood is considered taboo in society. Guru is one of the determining factors of high and low quality of education has a strategic position in transforming sex education to learners. Therefore, this study tries to analyze how perceptions of teachers on sex education at the primary school level, the research method used is a descriptive method. Keywords: Perception of teachers, sex education, learners in primary schools.
Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Maddow-Zimet, Isaac; Boonstra, Heather
Updated estimates of adolescents' receipt of sex education are needed to monitor changing access to information. Using nationally representative data from the 2006-2010 and 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth, we estimated changes over time in adolescents' receipt of sex education from formal sources and from parents and differentials in these trends by adolescents' gender, race/ethnicity, age, and place of residence. Between 2006-2010 and 2011-2013, there were significant declines in adolescent females' receipt of formal instruction about birth control (70% to 60%), saying no to sex (89% to 82%), sexually transmitted disease (94% to 90%), and HIV/AIDS (89% to 86%). There was a significant decline in males' receipt of instruction about birth control (61% to 55%). Declines were concentrated among adolescents living in nonmetropolitan areas. The proportion of adolescents talking with their parents about sex education topics did not change significantly. Twenty-one percent of females and 35% of males did not receive instruction about methods of birth control from either formal sources or a parent. Declines in receipt of formal sex education and low rates of parental communication may leave adolescents without instruction, particularly in nonmetropolitan areas. More effort is needed to understand this decline and to explore adolescents' potential other sources of reproductive health information. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Kyung-Hwa; MacEntee, Katie
Situated at the intersection between child-led visual methods and sex education, this paper focuses on the potential of youth-led video making to enable young people to develop guiding principles to inform their own sexual behaviour. It draws on findings from a video-making project carried out with a group of South African young people, which…
Vanderberg, Rachel H; Farkas, Amy H; Miller, Elizabeth; Sucato, Gina S; Akers, Aletha Y; Borrero, Sonya B
We sought to investigate the associations between race and/or ethnicity and young women's formal sex education and sex education by parents. Cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of 1768 women aged 15-24 years who participated in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth. We assessed 6 main outcomes: participants' report of: (1) any formal sex education; (2) formal contraceptive education; (3) formal sexually transmitted infection (STI) education; (4) any sex education by parents; (5) contraceptive education by parents; and (6) STI education by parents. The primary independent variable was self-reported race and/or ethnicity. Nearly all of participants (95%) reported any formal sex education, 68% reported formal contraceptive education, and 92% reported formal STI education. Seventy-five percent of participants reported not having any sex education by parents and only 61% and 56% reported contraceptive and STI education by parents, respectively. US-born Hispanic women were more likely than white women to report STI education by parents (adjusted odds ratio = 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.99). No other significant racial and/or ethnic differences in sex education were found. There are few racial and/or ethnic differences in formal sex education and sex education by parents among young women. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. All rights reserved.
Graves, Jennifer A Marshall
The deep divergence of mammalian groups 166 and 190 million years ago (MYA) provide genetic variation to explore the evolution of DNA sequence, gene arrangement and regulation of gene expression in mammals. With encouragement from the founder of the field, Mary Lyon, techniques in cytogenetics and molecular biology were progressively adapted to characterize the sex chromosomes of kangaroos and other marsupials, platypus and echidna-and weird rodent species. Comparative gene mapping reveals the process of sex chromosome evolution from their inception 190 MYA (they are autosomal in platypus) to their inevitable end (the Y has disappeared in two rodent lineages). Our X and Y are relatively young, getting their start with the evolution of the sex-determining SRY gene, which triggered progressive degradation of the Y chromosome. Even more recently, sex chromosomes of placental mammals fused with an autosomal region which now makes up most of the Y. Exploration of gene activity patterns over four decades showed that dosage compensation via X-chromosome inactivation is unique to therian mammals, and that this whole chromosome control process is different in marsupials and absent in monotremes and reptiles, and birds. These differences can be exploited to deduce how mammalian sex chromosomes and epigenetic silencing evolved.
There is a remarkable ignorance about sexuality among Chilean teenagers, as underscored by the paper by Fernández et al, published in this issue. The authors analyze the biological, psychological and social consequences of the lack of parental and school sexual education. Among them, there is an increasing incidence of unwanted pregnancies, abortions and sexually transmitted diseases in teenagers. Child abuse, neglect, battering, mortality and maternal deprivation are more frequent among the offspring of teenage parents. School desertion caused by unwanted pregnancies will seriously jeopardize the education and training of these teenagers, perpetuating the cycle of poverty.
How do teenagers located in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa, the epicentre of the HIV pandemic, give meaning to sexuality? This paper examines teenage black Africans investments in sex and sexuality and the gendered dynamics through which sexuality is articulated. Whilst unequal gender relations of power continue to feature prominently within relationship dynamics fuelling the gendering of HIV, attention to the micro-processes through which relationships are forged remain significant in illustrating the complex connections between love, sex and gender. Drawing on empirical findings with teenagers between the ages of 16 and 17 years old, the paper shows how relationships are conceptualised based on discourses of love. Love is inextricably bound up with sex and when teenagers talk about love and sex they also talk about condom use, multiple sexual partners and gender inequalities. What teenagers were interested in for their sexual relationships was not raised in sex education programmes at school. Implications for addressing teenage constructions of sexuality are discussed in the conclusion.
Chu, Samuel Kai Wah; Kwan, Alvin C M; Reynolds, Rebecca; Mellecker, Robin R; Tam, Frankie; Lee, Grace; Hong, Athena; Leung, Ching Yin
A game application, "Making Smart Choices", was developed to fill the gap of limited easy-to-access resources available on sex education in Hong Kong and to disseminate correct knowledge and positive attitudes toward sex to teenagers using popular platforms such as tablets, Facebook, and the Web. Three versions of the game (iPAD, Facebook, and Web-based) were developed using HTML5. A theoretical framework that involved game-based learning and participatory design approach was used to design, develop, modify, and optimize the game for use with secondary school students (n=1176) 12-16 years of age. Pre- and post-test scores of students' safer sex knowledge were compared to test the effectiveness of the game. Students' survey and interviews were analyzed to assess participant feelings and attitudes toward the game. The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test indicated that students' sex knowledge (n=788) improved with a medium effect size (0.477) after playing the game. Increases in positive attitudes toward sex and relationship and in awareness of making smart sexual choices were reported from student surveys and interviews. Students described the game as "interesting," "interactive," "informative," and "real-to-life." We advocate that the participatory design approach, which supports collaborative efforts of different stakeholders, is an effective framework for developing game-based learning tools for sex education. Our work provides preliminary findings that suggest game-based learning, preferably delivered through popular interactive platforms, can be effective in promoting sex education to teenagers.
Diana Elisabeth Manzano-Pauta
Full Text Available The recognition given to the role teachers play in sex education, and, at the same time, the apparent lack of knowledge in the area of sexuality, reflected in current literature, has led to the development of this research study. The objective of this study was to know the teachers’ perceptions about sex education in Cuenca. Specifically, we aimed to understand the assessment they have about their own knowledge, teacher satisfaction, modality, conceptions and teachers’ prejudices in classrooms. The mixed method used a sequential, explanatory strategy according to which, during the first stage, we explored the teachers’ perceptions about sex education, using a quantitative study with a survey applied to 180 teachers. Based on the results of the quantitative phase, in the second stage, the teachers’ opinions were collected through a qualitative inquiry by implementing focus group discussions. The results are shown in four categories: 1 assessment of knowledge; 2 teaching satisfaction; 3 modality; and 4 conceptions and prejudices about sex education. The categories of the study showed that sex education presents shortcomings especially related to the lack of training and knowledge in teachers, resulting in providing an education with the same prejudices that those teachers have about sexuality.
Ana Cristina Cevallos-Neira
Full Text Available This investigation was conducted as a result of the lack of studies, specifically on children’s sex education and the role that parents play in it, despite the major advances in the knowledge on sexuality and its education. The main goal of this qualitative study was to understand parents’ perceptions regarding sexual education of their children ages 3 to 5. Three focus group sessions were conducted with parents from Cuenca pre-schools. Data was processed using thematic analysis. The study indicated that parents have a limited conception of sexuality, completely based on the biological aspect. In addition, it was clear that parents have traditional ideas, conceptions and beliefs, which are reflected when educating their children. This research shows parents’ lack of knowledge about sexuality and sex education and gives important data about the need for parents and the school to work jointly to provide children with adequate and appropriate sex education, as well as the need for parent training in order to establish a common language between home and school and to avoid a double discourse in children’s education and to ensure a proper implementation of sex education programs at this level.
Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy T.
The primary purposes of this study were to examine what adolescents' identify as their preferred sources of sexual education (e.g., peers, family, school, media, professionals, etc.) about various topics, and whether patterns varied for each gender, race, grade, and economic group. Participants were 672 adolescents of both genders, three…
Fernández, L; Bustos, L; González, L; Palma, D; Villagrán, J; Muñoz, S
Previous reports show that Chilean teenagers have an inadequate knowledge about sexuality and reproduction. To compare the knowledge about sexuality among adolescents coming from private and public schools, with and without sexual education programs. A structured anonymous inquiry, containing multiple choice and open questions, was applied to a sample of 229 adolescents attending seventh and eighth grade of junior school, in private and public schools of Temuco, Chile. Eleven percent of adolescents had already their first sexual intercourse at a mean age of 12.2 +/- 2.4 years old. Of these, 96% came from public schools. An overall analysis of tests, disclosed a 53% of correct answers to the inquiry. Adolescents coming from private schools had a better performance than those coming from public schools. Sexual attitudes were not influenced by sexual education programs. Adolescents coming from private schools have a better sexual knowledge level and more conservative attitudes towards sexuality. Overall knowledge is inadequate albeit overvalued. These teenagers are high risk group for unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases and require efficient sexual education programs.
Sule, H. A.; Akor, J. A.; Toluhi, O. J.; Suleiman, R. O.; Akpihi, L.; Ali, O. U.
The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of family sex education in secondary schools on students in Kogi State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 1,960 secondary school students were drawn by stratified random sampling from 40 schools within Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions were…
Discusses the need for sex education and the inclusion of accurate information in materials produced for young people. Materials that address sexual reproduction, puberty, teenage pregnancy, AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases are reviewed, and recommended titles for print and nonprint materials are listed together with resources for…
Aug 10, 2015 ... reduce shame, stigma, and self-blame for youth who have experienced sexual abuse6. ... tional level of parents, sex education and child sexual abuse among ..... Jean R. Changes in self-esteem during the middle school ...
Gill, Puneet Singh
The desires of young people and especially young bodies are constructed at the intersections of policies that set the parameters of sex education policies, the embodied experiences of students in classrooms, and the way bodies are discussed in the complex language of science. Moreover, more research points to the lack of scientifically and…
This study examined the need for the inclusion of sex education in the secondary school biology curriculum in Anambra State since the noninclusion was viewed as an inadequacy in the biology curriculum. The study was a survey design. Three research questions and one null hypothesis were formulated to guide the study.
Steward, Kathy L.
Presented is a sex education curriculum guide for teachers of trainable retarded students ages 12 to 21 years. The guide is divided into six units: body parts, gender identification, and restroom signs; living things; reproduction; growth; adolescence, menstruation, and street language; and maturity (including sexual feelings and birth control).…
Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona
This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…
Although professional pressure groups attempted to address the need for formal sex education in the 1970's, the Family Planning Association of Turkey (FPAT) has successfully introduced sex education subjects into school programs. It has also been endorsed as a major resource by the Ministry of Health; however, the Ministry of Education has been backsliding recently on sex education and in general has not generated zealous supporters of sex education. Different attitudes and practices prevail. Sex education is not usually discussed in the home, but there is support for sex education in schools. Its importance is recognized. Turkish society tends to be conservative particularly among middle socioeconomic stratum. Upper classes tend to be more liberal, and lower classes perceive sexuality as the normal way of life. The term sex is associated with eroticism, sex education as sex techniques; so sexuality must fall within the confines of health education. Within the Muslim faith, views on sex support discussion of sexual issues with couples, for example, or among students of Islamic jurisprudence. According to Quaranic teachings, women have a right to a sex life, including divorce options if sexuality is not fulfilled. Misinterpretations of Quaranic teachings have hindered the effort to plan an appropriate sex education program. Islamic values are liberal in their support for family planning. The FPAT's objective is to change the image of sex education and eliminate the fear that established values will be challenged by sex education.
Landry, David J; Darroch, Jacqueline E; Singh, Susheela; Higgins, Jenny
While sex education is almost universal in U.S. schools, its content varies considerably. Topics such as abstinence, and basic information on HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), are commonly taught; birth control and how to access STD and contraceptive services are taught less often. Factors potentially associated with these variations need to be examined. Data on 1,657 respondents to a 1999 national survey of teachers providing sex education in grades 7-12 were assessed for variation in topics covered. Logistic regression was used to ascertain factors associated with instruction on selected topics. The content of sex education varied by region and by instructors' approach to teaching about abstinence and contraception. For example, teaching abstinence as the only means of pregnancy and STD prevention was more common in the South than in the Northeast (30% vs. 17%). Emphasizing the ineffectiveness of contraceptives was less common in the Northeast (17%) than in other regions (27-32%). Instructors teaching that methods are ineffective and presenting abstinence as teenagers' only option had significantly reduced odds of teaching various skills and topics (odds ratios, 0.1-0.5). Instructors' approach to teaching about methods is a very powerful indicator of the content of sex education. Given the well-documented relationship between what teenagers learn about safer sexual behavior and their use of methods when they initiate sexual activity, sex education in all U.S. high schools should include accurate information about condoms and other contraceptives.
The condom plays a vital part in safe sex, the ideal outcome of mainstream Swedish sex education. As researchers have pointed out, however, the condom is not a neutral object; rather, it plays a part in shaping, in different ways, both sexual practices and the idea of what sex is. This paper focuses on sex education television programmes produced…
Adams, Jeffery; Neville, Stephen
Objective: Ensuring men who have sex with men (MSM) adopt and maintain condom use for anal sex is a challenging health education goal. In order to inform the development of social marketing practices to encourage safe-sex practices, the views of MSM about a key HIV health education message ("using a condom every time for anal sex") were…
Hobaica, Steven; Kwon, Paul
The efficacy of sex education has been questioned, as students participate in high rates of unsafe sex after completion. Without exploring various sexual minority (SM) identities (e.g., gay, lesbian, and bisexual) and forms of sex, sex education may be especially unhelpful for SMs by perpetuating the heteronormative (i.e., assuming heterosexuality…
Newby, Katie; Wallace, Louise M.; Dunn, Orla; Brown, Katherine E.
Rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancy amongst the under-16s are causing increasing concern. There is limited evidence about the sexual behaviour and sex education preferences of this age group, especially of those from Black and minority ethnic groups. This study aimed to provide data on early heterosexual risk behaviour,…
Simey, Piers; Wellings, Kaye
Issues relating to the sexual behaviour and sexual health of young people consistently capture newspaper headlines in the UK. The present paper provides a qualitative analysis of national newspaper articles reporting on sex and relationship education (SRE) within the context of teenage pregnancy. Overall, conservative newspapers were generally…
Schmidt, E.; Olomo, F.; Corcoran, N.
This study addresses the issue of the sexual needs of ethnic minority groups in the UK. Using focus group discussions with health service users and third-sector providers, it explores the perception of sex education by Black African communities living in a culturally diverse area in East London, focusing specifically on participants' understanding…
This study seeks to explore what young women want from their school-based sex education. Qualitative methods were used to explore the perspectives of two groups of young women from Uganda and Scotland. Of particular importance to all the young women were: a diverse sex education curriculum appropriate to the ages of the students, being taught by an outside female facilitator, single-sex classes and access to a female teacher. Furthermore, they proposed that discussion between small groups of friends is very useful. The Scottish group said that having a young teacher, teaching about emotions and relationships and being guided through their own decision making is also important. The Ugandan group emphasized the importance of being taught by female family members and having written materials provided on sex education. The study showed that young women from different backgrounds have strong opinions about sex education, and are an important resource for policy makers.
Libby, Roger W.; And Others
The research purpose of this study was not merely parental preferences concerning sources of sex education for adolescents, but more importantly, parental preferences of combinations of social institutions as sources of sex education. (Author)
Alhih, Mohammed; Ossiannilsson, Ebba; Berigel, Muhammet
Interaction plays a significant role to foster usability and quality in online education. It is one of the quality standard to reveal the evidence of practice in online distance education models. This research study aims to evaluate levels of interaction in the practices of distance education centres. It is aimed to provide online distance…
The attitudes and opinions of special education teachers may potentially reveal insight as to how and why teachers choose to include sex education in their curriculum for self-contained special education classrooms designed to serve students with developmental disabilities. The main objective in developing this study was to gather information…
Benni, Emanuela; Sacco, Sara; Bianchi, Leonardo; Carrara, Roberto; Zanini, Chiara; Comelli, Mario; Tenconi, Maria Teresa
We aimed to provide process and effectiveness evaluations of a sex education intervention realized with interactive techniques in high schools of Pavia (Italy). Six public high schools, divided into 'treated' and 'control' units, voluntarily joined this mixed-methods study. Only second-year classes were enrolled: treated adolescents followed a sex education course, performed by trained 'near-peer educators' (undergraduate medical students) with interactive techniques. All adolescents compiled an anonymous effectiveness evaluation questionnaire at baseline (pre-test) and 3 months later (post-test). Sexual knowledge and reported behavioural changes were compared between the two groups through linear mixed-effects models. The process was assessed through a satisfaction questionnaire for treated students, monitoring cards for working group members and cards/diaries for educators. The final sample consisted of 547 treated and 355 control adolescents (mean age = 15.28 ± 0.61 years). Highly significant changes (p educators generally provided positive evaluations, although difficult communication was perceived. The intervention was effective in improving adolescents' sexual knowledge. The present work highlighted that in Italy sex education in adolescence is still neglected: this could encourage misinformation and health-risk behaviour. Young people perceive the need for a serious health-promoting action in which they could play an active role, spreading educational messages with organized interactive methods. © The Author(s) 2015.
Jin, Zheng; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Jiang, Lizhu
Love, sex, and money are the most direct cues involved in the fundamental forms of mate preferences. These fundamental forms are not mutually exclusive but are interrelated. As a result, humans base their mate choices on multiple cues. In this study, 62 undergraduate women (M age = 20.4 yr., SD = 1.4) from China and Japan served as the participants. They performed a variation of the semantic priming task, in which they were instructed to decide by means of a key-press whether the target was human or non-human. The primes were images that portrayed potent evolutionary factors for mate preference (i.e., love, sex, and money), and the manipulation was based on whether the prime and target matched regarding gender, independent of the target decision task (human vs non-human). Participants gave faster responses to male targets than to female targets under priming. The results generally supported the evolutionary premises that assume mate preference is determined by fundamental forms of providing emotional (love), material (money), and fertility support (sex). The money priming effect was stronger in the Chinese women than in the Japanese women, suggesting that social context may influence mate preferences.
de Almeida Reis, Maria Helena; Vilar, Duarte Goncalo Rei
Despite the current legislation requiring sex education as part of the school curriculum in Portugal, great obstacles to its implementation remain. Furthermore, sex education is far from being systematically administered. Thus, the main interest in our project was to validate a scale that measures teachers' attitudes towards sex education. There…
Buston, Katie; Wight, Daniel
This paper focuses on young men's views on the school sex education they have received, the influence of this sex education on their intended or actual behaviour, and the extent to which other sources of information complement or supplement school sex education. Thirty-five in-depth interviews and eight group discussions were conducted with male…
Since the late 1980s sex education has been widely promoted in the PRC, but this is not the first time in China's modern history that attempts to develop sex education have been made. The present essay traces the development of sex education debates over the last century, identifying the historical, political and social contexts in which they…
Kapinga, Orestes Silverius; Hyera, Daniel Frans
This study explored pupils' perceptions of sex and reproductive health education in primary schools in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at (i) exploring pupils' views on sex and reproductive health education in primary schools; (ii) determining opinions on the appropriateness of sex and reproductive health education for pupils in primary…
It's best to wait until you are older to have sex. But if you decide to have intercourse, use a condom. We'll show you how. That's the message most New Jersey teens get in their sex education classes. It's the law. But a new source of federal funding could help advocates of "abstinence-only" education find a way around that requirement. The state Department of Health and Senior Services is considering whether to apply for federal money limited to programs teaching teens that abstinence is the only certain way to prevent pregnancy and avoid contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. The federally funded programs also would have to teach that sex before marriage is morally wrong. About $50 million for these abstinence-only programs was quietly tucked into the welfare bill that President Clinton signed into law in 1996. New Jersey is eligible to receive $843,000. The health department is hearing from people on both sides of the issue, said Celeste Wood, who plans to submit a report to Health Commissioner Len Fishman by the end of the month. Fishman will then decide whether New Jersey should apply for the money, she said. Historically, debate between "comprehensive" and "abstinence-only" sex education has centered around the classroom and education department. Comprehensive programs teach both abstinence and contraception. Abstinence-only programs prohibit discussion of contraception. Comprehensive education advocates have won that battle in New Jersey public schools. The state's core curriculum standards currently call for schools to teach teens about both abstinence and contraception. But the new federal money is being funneled through state health departments. "This skates around the schools by bringing the money in through the public health arena," said Daniel Daley, director of public policy for the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the US. "They are trying to influence community-based programs and make an end-run around the schools
Herold, J M; Thompson, N J; Valenzuela, M S; Morris, L
This study analysed factors associated with unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult women in Santiago, Chile. Three variations of a behavioural model were developed. Logistic regression showed that the effect of sex education on unintended pregnancy works through the use of contraception. Other significant effects were found for variables reflecting socioeconomic status and a woman's acceptance of her sexuality. The results also suggested that labelling affects measurement of 'unintended' pregnancy.
Charmaraman, Linda; Lee, Alice J; Erkut, Sumru
To assess sixth graders' knowledge and curiosity about sex-related topics that can guide the development of sexual health education and healthcare delivery. Sixth graders (n = 795) in eight ethnically diverse schools participating in an evaluation of a sex education curriculum submitted 859 anonymous questions that were content analyzed. The χ(2) analysis examined whether the themes varied by coed/single-sex environments or by school-level sexual risk. Sexual activity, female anatomy, reproduction, and puberty were the most frequently mentioned topics, whereas, questions on STIs, sexual violence, and drug/alcohol use were fewer. Questions that avoided sexual topics came from lower sexual-risk schools; students at higher-risk schools asked about sexual initiation, contraception, vaginal and anal sex, general health, and pain during sex. Single-sex classrooms elicited more direct and explicit questions about sex. The results are relevant to educators and healthcare providers who ask and answer questions from early adolescents regarding sexual health. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Santelli, John S; Singh, Susheela
Although comprehensive sex education is broadly supported by health professionals, funding for abstinence-only education has increased. Using data from the 1995 National Survey of Adolescent Males, the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the 2002 NSFG, changes in male and female adolescents' reports of the sex education they have received from formal sources were examined. Life-table methods were used to measure the timing of instruction, and t tests were used for changes over time. From 1995 to 2002, reports of formal instruction about birth control methods declined among both genders (males, from 81% to 66%; females, from 87% to 70%). This, combined with increases in reports of abstinence education among males (from 74% to 83%), resulted in a lower proportion of teenagers' overall receiving formal instruction about both abstinence and birth control methods (males, 65% to 59%; females, 84% to 65%), and a higher proportion of teenagers' receiving instruction only about abstinence (males, 9% to 24%; females, 8% to 21%). Teenagers in 2002 had received abstinence education about two years earlier (median age, 11.4 for males, 11.8 for females) than they had received birth control instruction (median age, 13.5 for both males and females). Among sexually experienced adolescents, 62% of females and 54% of males had received instruction about birth control methods prior to first sex. A substantial retreat from formal instruction about birth control methods has left increasing proportions of adolescents receiving only abstinence education. Efforts are needed to expand teenagers' access to medically accurate and comprehensive reproductive health information.
Hardy, Maryann; Snaith, Beverly
Background: The role of radiographers with respect to image interpretation within clinical practice is well recognised. It is the expectation of the professional, regulatory and academic bodies that upon qualification, radiographers will possess image interpretation skills. Additionally, The College of Radiographers has asserted that its aspiration is for all radiographers to be able to provide an immediate written interpretation on skeletal trauma radiographs by 2010. This paper explores the readiness of radiography education programmes in the UK to deliver this expectation. Method: A postal questionnaire was distributed to 25 Higher Education Institutions in the UK (including Northern Ireland) that provided pre-registration radiography education as identified from the Society and College of Radiographers register. Information was sought relating to the type of image interpretation education delivered at pre- and post-registration levels; the anatomical range of image interpretation education; and education delivery styles. Results: A total of 19 responses (n = 19/25; 76.0%) were received. Image interpretation education was included as part of all radiographer pre-registration programmes and offered at post-registration level at 12 academic centres (n = 12/19; 63.2%). The anatomical areas and educational delivery methods varied across institutions. Conclusion: Radiography education providers have embraced the need for image interpretation education within both pre- and post-registration radiography programmes. As a result, UK education programmes are able to meet the 2010 College of Radiographers aspiration.
Bucher, Joshua; Donovan, Colleen; McCoy, Jonathan
Free open access to medical education (FOAM, #FOAM) is the free availability of educational materials on various medicine topics. We hope to evaluate the use of social media and FOAM by emergency medical services (EMS) providers. We designed an online survey distributed to EMS providers with questions about demographics and social media/FOAM use by providers. The survey was sent to the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) EMS Listserv of medical directors and was asked to be distributed to their respective agencies. The survey was designed to inquire about the providers' knowledge of FOAM and social media and their use of the above for EMS education. There were 169 respondents out of a total of 523 providers yielding a response rate of 32.3%. Fifty-three percent of respondents are paramedics, 37% are EMT-Basic trained, and the remainder (16%) were "other." The minority (20%) of respondents had heard of FOAM. However, 54% of respondents had heard of "free medical education online" regarding pertinent topics. Of the total respondents who used social media for education, 31% used Facebook and 23% used blogs and podcasts as resources for online education. Only 4% of respondents stated they produced FOAM content. Seventy-six percent of respondents said they were "interested" or "very interested" in using FOAM for medical education. If FOAM provided continuing medical education (CME), 83% of respondents would be interested in using it. Social media is not used frequently by EMS providers for the purposes of FOAM. There is interest within EMS providers to use FOAM for education, even if CME was not provided. FOAM can provide a novel area of education for EMS.
Crosby, Richard A; Hanson, Amy; Rager, Kristin
This exploratory study compared the impact of sex education provided by parents to female adolescents against the same education provided in formal settings to female adolescents. Females, 16-24 years old, attending an adolescent medicine clinic in an urban area of the South were recruited prior to examination. Each patient completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Data from 110 respondents were analyzed to compare those indicating they had learned about each of four topics from parents to those not indicating learning about all four topics from a parent. The same process was repeated relative to learning about the four topics in formal educational settings. In controlled, multivariate, analyses, adolescents not communicating with parents on all four topics were nearly five times more likely to report having multiple sex partners in the past three months. Further, these adolescents were 3.5 times more likely to have low self-efficacy for condom negotiation, 2.7 times more likely to report ever using alcohol or drugs before sex, and about 70% less likely to have ever talked about HIV prevention with a partner before engaging in sex. Differences relative to learning about the four topics in formal settings were not found. Findings suggest that teen females (attending teen clinics) may experience a protective benefit based on communication with parents. This protective effect was not observed for education delivered in formal settings.
Phillips, Rachel; Benoit, Cecilia
Stigma by association, also referred to as "courtesy stigma," involves public disapproval evoked as a consequence of associating with stigmatized persons. While a small number of sociological studies have shown how stigma by association limits the social support and social opportunities available to family members, there is a paucity of research examining this phenomenon among the large network of persons who provide health and social services to stigmatized groups. This paper presents results from a primarily qualitative study of the work-place experiences of a purposive sample of staff from an organization providing services to sex workers. The findings suggest that stigma by association has an impact on staff health because it shapes both the workplace environment as well as staff perceptions of others' support. At the same time, it is evident that some staff, owing to their more advantaged social location, are better able to manage courtesy stigma than others. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.
Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2015
This statistics report provides a comprehensive snapshot of national statistics on all parts of the sector for the year 2013, by bringing together data collected directly by TEQSA with data sourced from the main higher education statistics collections managed by the Australian Government Department of Education and Training. The report provides…
Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2016
This Statistics Report is the third release of selected higher education sector data held by the Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA) for its quality assurance activities. It provides a snapshot of national statistics on all parts of the sector by bringing together data collected directly by TEQSA with data…
Kwok, Jonas; Olayiwola, J Nwando; Knox, Margae; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Tuot, Delphine S
Background Electronic consultation systems allow primary care providers to receive timely speciality expertise via iterative electronic communication. The use of such systems is expanding across the USA with well-documented high levels of user satisfaction. We characterise the educational impact for primary care providers of a long-standing integrated electronic consultation and referral system. Methods Primary care providers' perceptions of the educational value inherent to electronic consultation system communication and the impact on their ability to manage common speciality clinical conditions and questions were examined by electronic survey using five-point Likert scales. Differences in primary care providers' perceptions were examined overall and by primary care providers' speciality, provider type and years of experience. Results Among 221 primary care provider participants (35% response rate), 83.9% agreed or strongly agreed that the integrated electronic consultation and referral system provided educational value. There were no significant differences in educational value reported by provider type (attending physician, mid-level provider, or trainee physician), primary care providers' speciality, or years of experience. Perceived benefit of the electronic consultation and referral system in clinical management appeared stronger for laboratory-based conditions (i.e. subclinical hypothyroidism) than more diffuse conditions (i.e. abdominal pain). Nurse practitioners/physician assistants and trainee physicians were more likely to report improved abilities to manage specific clinical conditions when using the electronic consultation and/or referral system than were attending physicians, as were primary care providers with ≤10 years experience, versus those with >20 years of experience. Conclusions Primary care providers report overwhelmingly positive perceptions of the educational value of an integrated electronic consultation and referral system. Nurse
Bourke, Ashling; Boduszek, Daniel; Kelleher, Caroline; McBride, Orla; Morgan, Karen
This study investigated the relationship between school sex education and sexual health behaviours at first sex and later in adulthood, using nationally representative data. Respondents were adults from the 2010 Irish Contraception and Crisis Pregnancy Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating…
Iyer, Padmini; Aggleton, Peter
This paper examines key debates and perspectives on sex education in "Health Education Journal" ("HEJ"), from the date of the journal's first publication in March 1943 to the present day. Matters relating to sexuality and sexual health are revealed to be integral to "HEJ'"s history. First published as Health…
Lamb, Sharon; Randazzo, Renee
This research explores the question of how a sex education curriculum can be a form of civics education, moving students from a discourse of personal responsibility to a discourse that represents a "we" voice and takes into consideration not only the other person but society. In two 8-week classes delivered in a charter school to a…
Ngo, Thuy L; Belli, Karen; Shah, Manish I
Although pediatric-specific objectives for the initial education of prehospital providers have been established, uniform implementation of these objectives and guidelines for hours of required pediatric continuing education (CE) for prehospital providers have not been established. To examine the content and number of hours of pediatric-specific education that prehospital providers receive during initial certification and recertification. Second, to identify barriers to implementing specific requirements for pediatric education of prehospital providers. Electronic surveys were sent to 55 EMS for Children (EMSC) State Partnership grantee program managers inquiring about the certification and recertification processes of prehospital providers and barriers to receiving pediatric training in each jurisdiction. We had a 91% response rate for our survey. Specified pediatric education hours exist in more states and territories for recertification (63-67%) than initial certification (41%). Limitations in funding, time, instructors, and accessibility are barriers to enhancing pediatric education. Modifying statewide policies on prehospital education and increasing hands-on training may overcome identified barriers.
Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Dunkle, Kristin; Penn-Kekana, Loveday
South African policy makers are reviewing legislation of prostitution, concerned that criminalisation hampers HIV prevention. They seek to understand the relationship between transactional sex, prostitution, and the nature of the involved men. 1645 randomly-selected adult South African men participated in a household study, disclosing whether they had sex with a woman in prostitution or had had a provider relationship (or sex), participation in crime and violence and completing psychological measures. These became outcomes in multivariable regression models, where the former were exposure variables. 51% of men had had a provider relationship and expected sex in return, 3% had had sex with a woman in prostitution, 15% men had done both of these and 31% neither. Provider role men, and those who had just had sex with a woman in prostitution, were socially conservative and quite violent. Yet the men who had done both (75% of those having sex with a woman in prostitution) were significantly more misogynist, highly scoring on dimensions of psychopathy, more sexually and physically violent to women, and extensively engaged in crime. They had often bullied at school, suggesting that this instrumental, self-seeking masculinity was manifest in childhood. The men who had not engaged in sex for economic exchange expressed a much less violent, more law abiding and gender equitable masculinity; challenging assumptions about the inevitability of intersections of age, poverty, crime and misogyny. Provider role relationships (or sex) are normative for low income men, but not having sex with a woman in prostitution. Men who do the latter operate extensively outside the law and their violence poses a substantial threat to women. Those drafting legislation and policy on the sex industry in South Africa need to distinguish between these two groups to avoid criminalising the normal, and consider measures to protect women.
Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Dunkle, Kristin; Penn-Kekana, Loveday
Background South African policy makers are reviewing legislation of prostitution, concerned that criminalisation hampers HIV prevention. They seek to understand the relationship between transactional sex, prostitution, and the nature of the involved men. Methods 1645 randomly-selected adult South African men participated in a household study, disclosing whether they had sex with a woman in prostitution or had had a provider relationship (or sex), participation in crime and violence and completing psychological measures. These became outcomes in multivariable regression models, where the former were exposure variables. Results 51% of men had had a provider relationship and expected sex in return, 3% had had sex with a woman in prostitution, 15% men had done both of these and 31% neither. Provider role men, and those who had just had sex with a woman in prostitution, were socially conservative and quite violent. Yet the men who had done both (75% of those having sex with a woman in prostitution) were significantly more misogynist, highly scoring on dimensions of psychopathy, more sexually and physically violent to women, and extensively engaged in crime. They had often bullied at school, suggesting that this instrumental, self-seeking masculinity was manifest in childhood. The men who had not engaged in sex for economic exchange expressed a much less violent, more law abiding and gender equitable masculinity; challenging assumptions about the inevitability of intersections of age, poverty, crime and misogyny. Conclusions Provider role relationships (or sex) are normative for low income men, but not having sex with a woman in prostitution. Men who do the latter operate extensively outside the law and their violence poses a substantial threat to women. Those drafting legislation and policy on the sex industry in South Africa need to distinguish between these two groups to avoid criminalising the normal, and consider measures to protect women. PMID:22911711
Terry, Clarence L., Sr.; Flennaugh, Terry K.; Blackmon, Samarah M.; Howard, Tyrone C.
This article explores whether contemporary educators should consider single-sex educational settings as viable interventions in educating African American males. Using qualitative data from a 2-year study of single-sex educational spaces in two Los Angeles County high schools, the authors argue that when all-male spaces effectively function as…
Paschalis, Antreas; Ibironke, Fakinkunmi; Essa, Lubna; Alsatrawi, Ali Jawad
Game-based learning is a growing field that provides education with a new perspective of teaching through games. Game based learning is still considered an emerging field due to problems that have been identified in its real applications in official education in classes. The research conducted shows a very attractive market ahead for game based learning around the world. However the businesses success in this domain lie in providing value proposition that addresses the real barriers faced tod...
Sinclair, James; Kahn, Laurie G.; Rowe, Dawn A.; Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Hirano, Kara A.; Knowles, Christen
Sex education is not only a necessary component of public school curriculum, but it is also an important opportunity for students with and without disabilities to learn about their own development as emerging adults. Although comprehensive sex education is not federally mandated, many states and districts choose to offer some form of sex education…
Grossman, Jennifer M.; Tracy, Allison J.; Charmaraman, Linda; Ceder, Ineke; Erkut, Sumru
Background: School-based comprehensive sex education programs can reduce early adolescents' risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year comprehensive sex education program in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students and whether the family component of the intervention contributes to its…
Pearson, William S; King, Dana E; Richards, Chesley
Patient education is a critical component of the patient-centered medical home and is a powerful and effective tool in chronic disease management. However, little is known about the effect of practice payment on rates of patient education during office encounters. For this study we took data from the 2009 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. This was a cross-sectional analysis of patient visits to primary care providers to determine whether practice payment in the form of capitated payments is associated within patient education being included more frequently during office visits compared with other payment methods. In a sample size of 9863 visits in which capitation status was available and the provider was the patient's primary care provider, the weighted percentages of visits including patient education were measured as a percentages of education (95% confidence intervals): 75% capitation, 74.0% (52.2-88.1). In an adjusted logistic model controlling for new patients (yes/no), number of chronic conditions, number of medications managed, number of previous visits within the year, and age and sex of the patients, the odds of receiving education were reported as odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 75% capitation, 3.38 (1.23-9.30). Patients are more likely to receive education if their primary care providers receive primarily capitated payment. This association is generally important for health policymakers constructing payment strategies for patient populations who would most benefit from interventions that incorporate or depend on patient education, such as populations requiring management of chronic diseases.
Chalmers, Helen; Tyrer, Paul; Aggleton, Peter
Objective: In support of the UK Government's teenage pregnancy and sexual health strategies, a certificated programme of professional development for school nurses and other community nurses was developed to provide support for personal, social and health education (PSHE) work, including sex and relationships education (SRE), for young people.…
Full Text Available In 2010, Ontario’s Ministry of Education introduced a revised Health and Physical Education (H&PE curriculum that promised to be a vital health promotion initiative. Yet, after a minority conservative backlash, the Ontario government withdrew the sexual health sections from the elementary school curriculum, reverting it back to its 1998 content. This study is a content analysis, informed by queer theory and institutional ethnography, of the current and proposed H&PE documents, with a focus on the sex education component. This research aims to examine i the specific differences between the new and old H&PE documents with respect to referencing and delivering sex education, and more specifically sex education on queer/trans* issues; and ii the potential social exclusion that the absence of queer/trans* curriculum content imposes on youth. The findings demonstrate that evidence-informed policy development cannot always overcome political power imbalances, such as those created by the socially constructed ideology of heteronormativity. As the Ontario government prepares to implement the reformed curriculum, this study provides insight into its controversial history and the complexities of policy development—insights that may extend beyond this moment.
Phillips, Rachel; Benoit, Cecilia; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga; Vallance, Kate
Courtesy stigma, also referred to as 'stigma by association', involves public disapproval evoked as a consequence of associating with a stigmatised individual or group. While a small number of sociological studies have shown how courtesy stigma limits the social support and social opportunities available to family members of stigmatised individuals, there is a paucity of research examining courtesy stigma among the large network of people who provide health and social services to stigmatised groups. This article presents results from a mixed methods study of the workplace experiences of a purposive sample of workers in a non-profit organisation providing services to sex workers in Canada. The findings demonstrate that courtesy stigma plays a role in workplace health as it shapes both the workplace environment, including the range of resources made available to staff to carry out their work activities, as well as staff perceptions of others' support. At the same time, it was evident that some workers were more vulnerable to courtesy stigma than others depending on their social location. We discuss these results in light of the existing literature on courtesy stigma and conclude that it is an under-studied determinant of workplace health among care providers serving socially denigrated groups. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Pablo E Campos
Full Text Available As part of a community-randomized trial of a multicomponent intervention to prevent sexually transmitted infections, we created Mobile Teams (MTs in ten intervention cities across Peru to improve outreach to female sex workers (FSW for strengthened STI prevention services.Throughout 20 two-month cycles, MTs provided counseling; condoms; screening and specific treatment for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, and vaginal Trichomonas vaginalis (TV infections; and periodic presumptive metronidazole treatment for vaginal infections.MTs had 48,207 separate encounters with 24,814 FSW; numbers of sex work venues and of FSW reached increased steadily over several cycles. Approximately 50% of FSW reached per cycle were new. Reported condom use with last client increased from 73% to 93%. Presumptive metronidazole treatment was accepted 83% of times offered. Over 38 months, CT prevalence declined from 15.4% to 8.2%, and TV prevalence from 7.3% to 2.6%. Among participants in ≥ 9 cycles, CT prevalence decreased from 12.9% to 6.0% (p <0.001; TV from 4.6% to 1.5% (p <0.001; and NG from 0.8% to 0.4% (p = 0.07.Mobile outreach to FSW reached many FSW not utilizing government clinics. Self-reported condom use substantially increased; CT and TV prevalences declined significantly. The community-randomized trial, reported separately, demonstrated significantly greater reductions in composite prevalence of CT, NG, TV, or high-titer syphilis serology in FSW in these ten intervention cities than in ten matched control cities.
Hyde, Abbey; Howlett, Etaoine; Drennan, Jonathan; Brady, Dympna
In recent decades, dominant discourses in health promotion have emphasized empowerment, client participation and the notion of people identifying and being facilitated to meet their own health needs. However, there has been little analysis of the concept of 'need' and the possibility, at least, that the fulfillment of some such self-defined needs are not in the interest of social justice and equality. In this article, we present an account of the sex education needs of secondary school pupils from their own perspectives, and problematize the concept of self-identified needs in health education. Twenty-nine focus group interviews were conducted with 226 secondary school pupils in Ireland, and data were subjected to a qualitative analysis. Findings suggested that young men tended to prioritize practical guidance that would provide them with the skills and confidence to take the lead in sexual encounters, and display competence in the act of penetrative sex. We argue that these self-defined sex education needs emanate from a culture of traditional masculinity where, for a male, one's place in the pecking order is derived from one's capacity to conquer, lead and display mastery with regard to sex. In the discussion, we attempt to unpack the notion of clients identifying their own needs and the concept of empowerment as it relates to our data, in the context of gender-based structural inequalities.
Ochiogu, Ifeoma N; Miettola, Juhani; Ilika, Amobi L; Vaskilampi, Tuula
The objective of this study was to explore whether the time at which sex education was provided had any impact on reported cases of unintended pregnancies. A cross-sectional survey of secondary school students and their teachers was conducted using self-administered questionnaires. The participants were 1,234 students aged 14-17 years and 46 teachers in 5 secondary schools in South Eastern Nigeria. The outcome measures were reported pregnancies within the last 3 years by type of school and class level; class level at the time of receiving sex education at school; and age at the time of receiving sex education at home. In all schools, sex education was provided at all the junior and senior secondary school levels (JSS and SSS, respectively). Overall, reported cases of unintended pregnancies were highest among the junior students. In the private schools, four in ten teachers reported pregnancies among JSS 3 students. Almost four in ten teachers in public schools reported pregnancies among JSS 2 students. Of all the students, about three in ten reported pregnancies among JSS 2 and 3 students respectively. At home, sex education was provided at the mean age of 16 years (SD ± 2.2). All participants cited financial need and marital promise as major predisposing factors. About four in ten students did not use contraceptives during their first sexual experience. This study highlights the need to introduce sex education much earlier, possibly before the JSS levels. At home, sex education may have greater impact if provided before the age of 14 years. Efforts should be made to address the factors predisposing to teenage pregnancy.
Johnston, Lindsay; Williams, Susan B; Ades, Anne
A well-organized educational curriculum for the training of both novice and experienced ECMO providers is critical for the continued function of an institutional ECMO program. ELSO provides guidance for the education for ECMO specialists, physicians and staff, which incorporates "traditional" instructor-centered educational methods, such as didactic lectures and technical skill training. Novel research suggests utilization of strategies that align with principles of adult learning to promote active learner involvement and reflection on how the material can be applied to understand existing and new constructs may be more effective. Some examples include the "flipped classroom," e-learning, simulation, and interprofessional education. These methodologies have been shown to improve active participation, which can be related to improvements in understanding and long-term retention. A novel framework for ECMO training is considered. Challenges in assessment and credentialing are also discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wu, Li-Fen; Tseng, Hui-Chen; Liao, Yu-Chen
Spiritual care is a critical part of holistic care, and nurses require adequate preparation to address the spiritual needs of patients. However, nurses' willingness to provide such care has rarely been reported. Hence, nurses' education, and knowledge of spiritual care, as well as their willingness to provide it require further study. A convenience sample of 200 nurses participated in the study. Quantitative data were collected using a 21-item Spiritual Care Needs Inventory (content validity index=.87; Cronbach's alpha=.96). The majority of participants were female (96.5%, n=193) between 21 and 59years old (mean=35.1years). Moreover, the majority of participants had a Bachelor's degree (74.0%, n=148) and 1-36years of clinical experience (mean=12.13years). Regarding religious beliefs, 63 (31.5%) had no religious belief, and 93 (46.5%) did not engage in any religious activity. Overall, the nurses were willing to provide spiritual care, although only 25 (12.5%) felt that they had received adequate education. The findings of this study indicate the need for further educational preparation in spiritual care for nurses. Specifically, additional teaching materials are required that are more directly related to spiritual care. Greater emphasis should be placed on different subject areas in school-based education, continuing education, and self-learning education according to the needs of nurses. Since spiritual care education needs policy support, in-depth discussions should take place regarding the approach and cultural environment for providing spiritual care in future nursing courses. Moreover, further studies should investigate barriers in providing spiritual nursing care to patients and whether they are the results of a lack of relevant knowledge or other factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schaafsma, D; Kok, G; Stoffelen, J M T; Curfs, L M G
Existing sex education programmes have failed in involving people with intellectual disabilities in the development of these programmes. Not involving the target population decreases the likelihood that the sex education programme will be effective. This study was conducted to assess the perspectives of people with intellectual disabilities on several sexuality-related topics. Semi-structured interviews were held with 20 people with intellectual disabilities covering topics such as: sex education, relationships, sex, social media, parenthood and support. The reported frequency of sex education the participants receive is low. Their knowledge regarding sex education is mainly limited to topics such as safe sex, contraception and STI's and tends to be superficial. Additionally, knowledge on safe sex does not always translate to safe sex behaviour. Finally, relationships are important for most participants; mainly because they don't want to be alone. Findings from both this study and literature shows that there seems to be a need for high quality sex education. Topics to consider to include are: online relationships, social media and parenthood. It would also be beneficial to focus on sexuality-related skills. Finally, to increase the effectiveness of a sex education programme, it is advisable that a theory-and evidence-based framework, such as Intervention Mapping, is used for its development.
Hoefer, Sharon E.; Hoefer, Richard
"Abstinence-only" sex education, which is still widely used across the United States, does not prepare students to engage in healthy adult relationships. Prior research evidence indicates that abstinence-only education is less effective at preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than comprehensive sex education.…
Sex education is not included in Turkey's national curriculum and is rarely referenced in school and university curricula. This is even true for those undertaking training in psychological counselling where the need may be great. Only a very few university schools of education offer an elective sex education course. A group of 64 guidance and…
Hill, Robert J.
HIV and AIDS are complex events that offer numerous opportunities for adult education. However, mainstream education on this issue has often not been relevant to a number of subpopulations, including sex workers. This chapter explores sources and content of HIV/AIDS education in the sex work industry (including art and the Internet) and suggests…
Hayter, Mark; Piercy, Hilary; Massey, Marie-Therese; Gregory, Trudy
This paper is a report of a study to explore how school nurses perceive the influence of schools on their role in delivering sex and relationship education in primary schools. School nurses play a key role in sex education in English schools. However, sex education is a contentious issue meaning the sex education of children is often an area of tension within the curriculum. However, the impact of these tensions upon school nursing practice is poorly described. Three focus groups with a convenience sample of 16 nurses experienced in conducting sex and relationship education were conducted during 2006. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and subjected to a thematic analysis. Four themes were identified in the data: 'covert surveillance' refers to school staff conducting clandestine surveillance of the classroom actions of the nurse; 'overt surveillance' reflects how nurses felt they were being openly monitored by teachers in the classroom; 'Teacher attitude' refers to the interventions of the supervising teacher in the classroom during the sex education session and 'resistance practices' detailed how nurses attempted to manage the disciplinary practices of the school. School nurses need to be pragmatic about the fact that there will be some attempts by the school to regulate sex education. Developing an early dialogue with the school can mediate this. Closer working practices and the involvement of school nurses in the development of sex education policy and practice is vital to ensure that they continue to make a valuable contribution to sex education in schools.
van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Vitikainen, Emma; D'Ettorre, Patrizia
Split sex ratio theory predicts that when kin structure varies among colonies of social insects, in order to maximize the inclusive fitness, colonies with relatively high sister-sister relatedness should specialize in producing reproductive females, whereas in those with relatively low sister......-sister relatedness workers should bias their sex ratio towards males. However, in order to achieve this, workers need to be able to reliably assess the type of colony in which they live. The information on colony kin structure may be encoded in cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), assuming that genetic variability....... However, within-colony relatedness remains the key determinant of colony sex ratios. Based on our results, CHC variability cannot serve as accurate information on within-colony relatedness, kin structure, or full-sib affiliation, nor do workers seem to use colony CHC variability as a proxy for sex...
Blanchard, Walter J.
This is a collection of raw data and brief descriptions of the neighborhoods which compose the inner city of Providence. It was compiled so that staff, teachers, and the community leaders could think together about the implications of these data for the schools, education, and for the social studies project. Demographic data on the seven…
Guthrie, Mandy L; Bates, Larry W
75 college students responded to Moore and Barling's AIDS questionnaire. Coopersmith's Self-esteem Inventory, and a background survey regarding sex education and sexual and religious activity. The most commonly reported sources of sex education were peers, parents, and high school courses, respectively. Ratings of the most important of 10 potential sources of sex education included peers, high school courses, and religious institutions, respectively. None of these were significantly correlated with future condom use. Virgins reported more open communication with parents about sex. Sexual experience was positively related to more confusion about sexual precautions but negatively related to foreclosed attitudes toward such precautions. Some types of religious involvement (church attendance and campus religious organization membership) were related to foreclosed attitudes. Data in attitudinal and sex education were compared with data collected in 1991. Although students more frequently reported having received sex education in 2000, their attitudes toward utilizing sexual precautions have become somewhat more diffused.
Diorio, Joseph A.
Sex education which deals with the problem of teenage pregnancy and is based upon the essentialist view of sex as heterosexual copulation constitutes misrepresentation of sexuality to young people. The alternative of encouraging adolescents to pursue sexual satisfaction through activities other than copulation is ignored in sex education…
Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wiers, Reinout W; Kok, Gerjo
Comprehensive sex education programs specifically designed for adolescents and young adults that take into account gender norms and cultural background have shown promise as a means of countering the high sexually transmitted infection rate in young people. Recently, digital gaming interventions delivered on computers or mobile devices have emerged as another way to promote safer sex behavior in a young population. Tailoring these computer-based interventions to their target population has been recognized to increase positive behavior outcomes. In this qualitative study, we investigated whether young female and male adults from two different cultural backgrounds (all living in Germany) would have different preferences and needs in relation to an educational game promoting safer sex. We conducted four semistructured focus group interviews comprising open-ended questions with male and female participants who had either a German or a Turkish background. In total, 20 individuals, aged between 18 and 22 years, from two socially diverse and ethnically mixed vocational schools in Germany participated. Independent of cultural background and gender, participants preferred a real-world design with a first-person visual perspective over a fantasy-like third-person perspective. Furthermore, they preferred highly customizable avatars. All participants mentioned the importance of including an alcohol-intoxicated avatar and most participants wanted there to be additional information available about various safer sex approaches and about the use of different barrier protection methods. Males and females reported similar preferences for the design of an educational game promoting safer sex, with the only difference being exactly how the topic of having sexual intercourse should be addressed in the game. Males preferred a direct approach, whereas females had a preference for treating this subject more sympathetically. Educational games offer anonymity and can provide young people
Christofora Megawati Tirtawinata
Full Text Available Lack of sex education in children could cause the violence or sexual abuse done by adults. Parents should give the lesson about early sex education to the children so that they had the right knowledge about it and knew how to treat and look after it. The method in this research was a discourse analysis of the literature in which the readings were taken in context with the research topic. Besides that, it included the observations and everyday practical experience in social life. This article described the notion of sex education, the impact of sexual harassment, the importance of sex education for children, and who would be responsible for sex education for the children. The research finds that through the moral education and faith to God, the children are expected to get protection from sexual abuse, so the nation's children as successor generation get mentally active.
A group of individuals who share common beliefs form a culture in which they communicate their values and attributes about certain aspects of society. Sex education remains one of the early teachings that humans experience irrespective of the race or level of development of a given society. However, different cultures perceive sex education differently due to differences in attitudes and beliefs, leading to significant diversity in the management of sex education among different societies across the globe. Many studies have found that in a traditional society with a homogeneous culture, the foremost reason for the different approaches to sex education is related to traditional values, in addition to other factors such as religion and political belief. In order to improve sex education, and consequently, sexual health in a modern multicultural society such as Australia, it becomes imperative to identify the inconsistency in beliefs about sex education among individuals with different cultural backgrounds in the Australian population. In this report, the author highlights similarities and differences in the methods employed by certain cultures of the Australian population. The report considers the different cultural environments of specific societies, the prevalence of sex education in these societies and how culture influences the prevalence. The concluding thoughts reflect on the success of the education programs in Australia, based on the idea that resolving the problems of sex education needs support from a number of bodies within Australian society.
Lersilp, Suchitporn; Putthinoi, Supawadee; Chakpitak, Nopasit
Most students diagnosed with disabilities in Thai special education schools received assistive technologies, but this did not guarantee the greatest benefits. The purpose of this study was to survey the provision, use and needs of assistive technologies, as well as the perspectives of key informants regarding a model of providing them in special education schools. The participants were selected by the purposive sampling method, and they comprised 120 students with visual, physical, hearing or intellectual disabilities from four special education schools in Chiang Mai, Thailand; and 24 key informants such as parents or caregivers, teachers, school principals and school therapists. The instruments consisted of an assistive technology checklist and a semi-structured interview. Results showed that a category of assistive technologies was provided for students with disabilities, with the highest being "services", followed by "media" and then "facilities". Furthermore, mostly students with physical disabilities were provided with assistive technologies, but those with visual disabilities needed it more. Finally, the model of providing assistive technologies was composed of 5 components: Collaboration; Holistic perspective; Independent management of schools; Learning systems and a production manual for users; and Development of an assistive technology center, driven by 3 major sources such as Government and Private organizations, and Schools.
Jaramillo, Nicole; Buhi, Eric R; Elder, John P; Corliss, Heather L
This study examined associations between reports of receiving education on topics commonly included in sex education (e.g., abstinence only, comprehensive) prior to age 18 years and contraceptive use at the last sex among heterosexually active, 15- to 20-year-old males in the United States. Cross-sectional data from 539 males participating in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusting for confounding estimated associations between receipt of seven sex education topics (e.g., information on HIV/AIDS, how to say no to sex) and contraceptive use at the last sex (i.e., dual barrier and female-controlled effective methods, female-controlled effective method only, barrier method only, and no method). Nearly, all participants (99%) reported receiving sex education on at least one topic. Education on sexually transmitted diseases (94.7%) and HIV/AIDS (92.0%) were the most commonly reported topics received; education on where to get birth control was the least common (41.6%). Instruction about birth control methods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-6.87) and how to say no to sex (AOR = 3.39; CI = 1.33-8.64) were positively associated with dual contraception compared to no use. For each additional sex education topic respondents were exposed to, their odds of using dual methods compared to no method was 47% greater (AOR = 1.47; CI = 1.16-1.86). Exposure to a larger number of sex education topics is associated with young men's report of dual contraception use at the last sex. Comprehensive sex education, focusing on a range of topics, may be most effective at promoting safer sex among adolescent males. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tamboli Kshitij S, Avachat Subhada S, Tamboli Suchit S
Full Text Available Context: Adolescents comprise one-fifth of India’s total population. There is widespread ignorance associated with unprotected sex, contraceptives, among young people. As majority adolescents in slum areas have illiterate and ignorant family backgrounds; they are misguided by the myths. Hence providing sex education for them is the need of the hour. Aims: 1 To assess the knowledge and awareness of adolescents in an urban slum area regarding some aspects of reproductive health. 2 To assess the need of sex education among them. 3 To study the impact of sex education on their knowledge Material and Methods: An interventional study was done on 132 adolescents of urban slum area, selected by simple random sampling. Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire prepared by literature search. Response of adolescents was recorded through questionnaires. A sensitization workshop was organized as intervention. The same questionnaire was given to them and the effect of intervention was assessed. Statistical analysis of data was done using percentage, proportion and appropriate tests of significance. Result and Conclusions: Only 31.06% adolescents had discussed the topic of reproductive health with some or other person and out of them friends were the major sources (39.2% of information. Only 38.63% knew the hazards of teenage pregnancy which significantly rose to 89.4% after intervention workshop. The study concludes that the slum adolescents profoundly lack adequate knowledge of sexuality related matters. Even before intervention workshop, unmet need of reproductive health education was 59.1% and 93.93% was the felt need in the post test.
Bires, Angela Macci; Leonard, Amanda L; Thurber, Brandon
As the awareness of concussions increases, it is imperative to be able to evaluate, diagnose, and treat concussed individuals properly to prevent further complications or death. The primary purpose of this study was to compare a provider's current awareness and comfort level as it relates to the return-to-play guidelines for concussions. A secondary aim was to evaluate current protocols that are in use and determine whether they coincide with the suggested guidelines. An educational intervention was implemented to assess the knowledge and confidence of health care providers. The study design was a quantitative, convenient sample, pretest/posttest questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to participants who were nurse practitioners prior to an educational PowerPoint presentation. At 8 weeks, the posttest was administered. Approximately 19% of individuals were not aware of a graded return-to-play protocols. The findings suggest that the educational intervention increased their confidence levels in making a diagnosis of a concussion, in assessing danger signs, and in understanding when to refer to a specialist. Additional supporting evidence from this study indicates that the educational intervention allowed the participants to achieve a greater comfort level in finding appropriate resources for them and their patients.
The prediction of level of post-high-school educational choice was investigated using the theme scores of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, sex and achievement level as predictors. Results indicated significant relationships between interests and educational choice, moderated in some cases by sex and achievement level. (Author)
Corbett, Katherine; And Others
This article tackles the broad issue of the intersection of sexuality, disability, and sex education. Myths and stereotypes about the nonsexual disabled woman are examined, as are issues of identity, dating and other loving relationships, sexual abuse, sex education, sexuality related services, and inclusion of disabled students in curriculum and…
Turnbull, Triece; van Wersch, Anna; van Schaik, Paul
A review of recent literature (2000--2006) has been undertaken to investigate the role of sex education within the family context, in order to engage with the problems of sexual health in British society. The findings which emerged were categorized under the following five themes: (1) Parental roles regarding sex education; (2) The importance of…
Haggis, Jane; Mulholland, Monique
This paper aimed to problematise what is meant by 'difference' and consider what such a reinterpretation might mean for methodological interventions in sex education research. Our concern is the tendency for sex education research to treat difference as a set of categories to be "added-on", such as religious difference, cultural…
This paper examines the recent controversies surrounding the decision to introduce sex education in secondary schools in India to combat the rapid spread of HIV and AIDS in the country. While 11 Indian states have banned it, the Left-ruled state of West Bengal has designed a teachers' manual to impart sex education. However, a close analysis of…
A.E. Mols (Anouk)
textabstractIn 2013, television sex education show Dokter Corrie instigated a heated public debate in the Netherlands. This study places the Dokter Corrie uproar in a broader perspective and identifies the moral dimensions in the reactions to three Dutch television sex education shows: Open en Bloot
Alton, Forrest L.; Valois, Robert F.; Oldendick, Robert; Drane, J. Wanzer
The purpose of this article was to determine opinions on the use of abstinence only versus comprehensive sex education by registered voters in South Carolina. A cross-sectional, random-digit dial sample was utilized. Approximately 81% of respondents indicated support for sex education that emphasizes abstinence but also teaches about the benefits…
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) pose a significant threat to the health and well-being of populations worldwide, and to young people in particular. Despite empirical evidence that comprehensive sex education is an important tool for prevention, the legitimacy and content of sex education in schools continue to be challenged by conservative…
Scott, Brigitte C.
In this ethnographic research, I offer an analysis of a state-sponsored professional development workshop for sex educators. Positioning theory is used to understand how the lived space of the workshop -- including texts, talk and silence -- positions sex education teachers as professionals and practitioners with certain (limited) speaking rights…
Kwan, Alvin C. M.; Chu, Samuel K. W.; Hong, Athena W. L.; Tam, Frankie; Lee, Grace M. Y.; Mellecker, Robin
Current educational resources for sex education in Hong Kong are mainly designed to be used in classroom. They are mostly text-based and are unattractive to the most vulnerable adolescent group. As discussion on sex is still taboo in Chinese society, self-learning resources can supplement classroom teaching. This paper describes an interactive…
Jerves, Elena; López, Silvia; Castro, Cecilia; Ortiz, William; Palacios, María; Rober, Peter; Enzlin, Paul
Parents' contribution to sex education is increasingly receiving research attention. This growing interest stems from recognition of the influence that parental attitudes may have both on young people's sexual attitudes and behaviour, and on school-based sex education. Studies regarding parental attitudes towards sexuality are, however, still…
Stephenson, J M; Strange, V; Forrest, S; Oakley, A; Copas, A; Allen, E; Babiker, A; Black, S; Ali, M; Monteiro, H; Johnson, A M
Improvement of sex education in schools is a key part of the UK government's strategy to reduce teenage pregnancy in England. We examined the effectiveness of one form of peer-led sex education in a school-based randomised trial of over 8000 pupils. 29 schools were randomised to either peer-led sex education (intervention) or to continue their usual teacher-led sex education (control). In intervention schools, peer educators aged 16-17 years delivered three sessions of sex education to 13-14 year-old pupils from the same schools. Primary outcome was unprotected (without condom) first heterosexual intercourse by age 16 years. Analysis was by intention to treat. By age 16 years, significantly fewer girls reported intercourse in the peer-led arm than in the control arm, but proportions were similar for boys. The proportions of pupils reporting unprotected first sex did not differ for girls (8.4% intervention vs 8.3% control) or for boys (6.2% vs 4.7%). Stratified estimates of the difference between arms were -0.4% (95% CI -3.7% to 2.8%, p=0.79) for girls and -1.4% (-4.4% to 1.6%, p=0.36) for boys. At follow-up (mean age 16.0 years [SD 0.32]), girls in the intervention arm reported fewer unintended pregnancies, although the difference was borderline (2.3% vs 3.3%, p=0.07). Girls and boys were more satisfied with peer-led than teacher-led sex education, but 57% of girls and 32% of boys wanted sex education in single-sex groups. Peer-led sex education was effective in some ways, but broader strategies are needed to improve young people's sexual health. The role of single-sex sessions should be investigated further.
Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Hyunlye
This study was done to develop a children's sex education program for the parents of lower elementary grade students and to evaluate its effects on sexual knowledge, gender role attitude, parent efficacy for child's sex education, and marital consistency. A quasi-experimental with a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. The participants were 29 couples (58 parents, experimental group=28, control group=30) from G city. The 5-week (5-session) program was developed based on 'A theory of protection: parents as sex educators' and used the case-based small group learning method. Data were collected during July and August 2015. The characteristics of the program developed in the present study were a theoretical-based, client-centered, multi-method. After the intervention, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in sexual knowledge, gender role attitudes, parent efficacy for child's sex education, and marital consistency, compared to the control group. The effect sizes of the program were .64 (knowledge), .65 (gender role attitudes), and .68 (parent efficacy). The results of this study provided implications for the parents as effective sex educator and the role expansion of school health nurses. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Lee, Christine; Tran, Denise Yen; Thoi, Deanna; Chang, Melissa; Wu, Lisa; Trieu, Sang Leng
Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health.
The world recognizes the need for close collaboration in planning between the healthcare system and the post-secondary education system; this has also been advocated in the lead article. Forums and mechanisms to facilitate this collaboration are being implemented from local to global environments. Beyond the focus on competency gaps, there are important functional co-dependencies between healthcare and post-secondary education, including the need for a more formalized continuous quality improvement approach at the inter-organizational system level. The case for this close and continuous collaborative relationship is based on the following: (1) a close functional relationship, (2) joint responsibility for healthcare provider education, (3) the urgent need to address the workforce and education strategies for almost all healthcare services areas and (4) the factors that characterize successful and sustained quality improvement in complex adaptive systems. A go-forward vision consisting of an integrated web of academic health networks is proposed, each with its particular shared vision and aligned with an overall vision for healthcare in each provincial jurisdiction, as well as with national and global healthcare objectives.
Forrest, Simon; Strange, Vicki; Oakley, Ann; The Ripple Study Team
This paper presents data on the need for sexual health information and advice of 4353 students aged 13/14 years in 13 English secondary schools. Data were collected by peer educators as part of a sex education programme, and through a questionnaire survey administered by researchers. Data illustrate young people's need for concrete information and advice on issues related to physical development and puberty; transmission of sexually transmitted diseases; accessing and using condoms and other contraception; using sexual health services; managing relationships and dealing with jealousy, love and sexual attraction; how people have sex; sexual pleasure; masturbation; and homosexuality. Differences between the concerns and interests raised by young people and current UK guidance on sex and relationships education are examined, and the implications of these findings for designing future policy and effective school based sex education programmes are discussed. The paper highlights some of the wider social norms around sex and sexuality that influence young people's understanding and sexual behaviour, and the importance of addressing these within sex education is noted. Factors influencing the processes of expressing and assessing needs are explored.
Pattman, Rob; Chege, Fatuma
In this paper we highlight and address some of the problems involved in teaching HIV/AIDS education in southern and eastern Africa, and especially in generating open discussion among pupils about sex and sexuality. The paper draws on the findings of a UNICEF-funded study, in which we were involved, as research consultants (2001). The study focused on 'young people, gender, sexuality and HIV/AIDS education' and was conducted in Botswana, Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In Botswana, Rwanda and Kenya, teachers and young people were interviewed about their attitudes towards and experiences of teaching/learning HIV/AIDS education. Young people were also interviewed more generally, in all the countries, about what it was like being a boy or girl of their age. We argue that HIV/AIDS education, as it is commonly taught, as a series of moral injunctions (against pre marital sex) effectively silences young people, and means that sex 'becomes' naughty when they do talk about it. We propose HIV/AIDS pedagogies, which emulate the practices our researchers adopted when researching the identities and views of boys and girls, especially concerning gender and sexuality. By addressing young people as experts about themselves and in a holistic and non-judgemental way, our interviewees were able to speak about anxieties and pleasures, many of which related to sexuality. This, they had not been able to do with other adults, and even with other children. We focus on the regulation and production of gender identities through the ways boys and girls talked about sex in our interviews and also in their participation in HIV/AIDS classes. In particular we look at how boys and girls 'performed' gender when discussing sexuality with boys often very loud and girls quiet, with boys presenting themselves as sexual and girls presenting themselves as asexual. We argue for approaches to HIV/AIDS education which challenge gender power relations without alienating boys by
Lundqvist, Johanna; Westling, Mara Allodi; Siljehag, Eva
In Sweden, preschool inclusion is embraced and preschools are open for children both with and without special educational needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of a number of preschool units in Sweden that provide education and care to children with special educational needs with regard to organisation, resources and…
Moreno, Megan; Breuner, Cora C; Lozano, Paula
Recent data show US adolescents are engaging in sexual activity at earlier ages; however, little is known about young teens' sexual attitudes and behaviors. Examining teens' questions in sex education classes may provide insight into these attitudes and behaviors. Quasi cohort study Parochial middle school sex education classes 5(th) through 8(th) graders Students' anonymous written questions submitted at the outset of sex education classes between 2003 and 2005. Questions were classified into topic categories. Three additional variables were then coded for each question. Ethics/guidance questions included requests for advice or value judgments. Prohibited questions included the topics homosexuality, abortion, masturbation, and contraception. "Red flag" questions were those that suggested consideration of or engagement in sexual behavior. Among 473 questions submitted by 410 students, the most popular topics for 5(th)/6(th) graders were pregnancy and puberty, and for 7(th)/8(th) graders puberty and menstruation. 41 questions (8.6%) were prohibited. 29 questions (6.2%) asked about ethics/guidance. 18 questions (3.81%) were coded as red flag questions. A chi-square analysis showed that 5(th)/6(th) graders asked more questions in the ethics/guidance (8.3% versus 3.64%) and red flag question categories (5.53% versus 1.82%) (P < 0.05) than 7(th)/8(th) graders. Although provocative questions represent a minority of these middle students' queries, these requests suggest the urgency of providing appropriate guidance to young teens, given the risks of early sexual activity. The role of school education programs, physicians and parents in addressing questions of this sort should be considered.
Iyer, Padmini; Aggleton, Peter
Sex education is a politically contentious issue in many countries, and there are numerous, competing ideologies relating to the most appropriate methods to teach young people about sexual and reproductive health. This paper examines policy and practice in Uganda in light of two contrasting ideologies, namely morally conservative and comprehensive…
Ballonoff Suleiman, Ahna; Johnson, Megan; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Galván, Adriana
Background: Many school-based abstinence-only sex education curricula state that sexual activity outside of marriage is likely to have harmful psychological effects. Recent advances in neuroscience have expanded our understanding of the neural underpinnings of romantic love, marriage, sexual desire, and sexual behavior and improved our…
This study evaluated the process of a peer education program for hotel-based sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with social support proposed as an organizing framework. Programme outcomes were examined through baseline and follow-up assessments. Sex workers naïve to peer education were assessed on socio-cognitive and behavioural variables; a subsample was reassessed at follow-up 23 weeks later on average. Process was assessed in terms of the content of peer education sessions. These sessions were recorded and coded into percentages of social support types provided by the peer educator to her audience: informational, instrumental, appraisal, emotional, companionship, non-support. Peer educators were classified into three "social support profiles" based on average proportions of emotional and informational support they provided. Seeing more peer educators with a high informational support profile was related to higher sex worker self-efficacy, self-reported STI symptoms, and self-reported condom use at follow-up; the same was true for the high emotional support profile and treatment seeking. Social support constituted a useful framework, but needs further exploration. This study provided a direct, in-depth examination of the process of peer education based on a comprehensive theoretical framework. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bankoff, Sarah M; McCullough, Mary B; Pantalone, David W
We used secondary data analysis to examine associations among aspects of patient-provider relationships and mental and physical health indicators. Positive patient perceptions of patient-provider relationships were associated with fewer mental health symptoms in this outpatient sample of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (N = 171). Regression analyses revealed the role of anxiety and depression in explaining associations between two aspects of patient-provider relationships (i.e. quality of information offered and provider interactional style) and health-related quality of life. The findings demonstrated the importance of patient-provider relationships to improving physical health and functioning and maintaining engagement in care, among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
In the late ninetheenth century Australia, an "ideal" woman was married and a mother. Limited to her domestic sphere, she depended completely for her well-being on men. Feministes wanted to improve woman's lot and make her more independent, both by extending her traditional spere and by giving her greater autonomy within it. I argue that the physical aspect of emancipation was the most important to women. Feminists justified sex education, physical exercise and dress ...
Role of accreditation authorities: If accreditation authorities are to provide leadership in medical education they must undertake regular review of their standards. This should be informed by all stakeholders and include experts in medical education. The format of the standards must provide clear direction to medical schools. Accreditation should take place regularly and should result in the production of a publicly accessible report.
Hu, Amanda; Sardesai, Maya G.; Meyer, Tanya K.
Objective Otolaryngic disorders are very common in primary care, comprising 20–50% of presenting complaints to a primary care provider. There is limited otolaryngology training in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education for primary care. Continuing medical education may be the next opportunity to train our primary care providers (PCPs). The objective of this study was to assess the otolaryngology knowledge of a group of PCPs attending an otolaryngology update course. Methods PCPs enrolled in an otolaryngology update course completed a web-based anonymous survey on demographics and a pre-course knowledge test. This test was composed of 12 multiple choice questions with five options each. At the end of the course, they were asked to evaluate the usefulness of the course for their clinical practice. Results Thirty seven (74%) PCPs completed the survey. Mean knowledge test score out of a maximum score of 12 was 4.0±1.7 (33.3±14.0%). Sorted by area of specialty, the mean scores out of a maximum score of 12 were: family medicine 4.6±2.1 (38.3±17.3%), pediatric medicine 4.2±0.8 (35.0±7.0%), other (e.g., dentistry, emergency medicine) 4.2±2.0 (34.6±17.0%), and adult medicine 3.9±2.1 (32.3±17.5%). Ninety one percent of respondents would attend the course again. Conclusion There is a low level of otolaryngology knowledge among PCPs attending an otolaryngology update course. There is a need for otolaryngology education among PCPs. PMID:22754276
Gordon, Robert; Gere, David
The Sex Squad is a collective of US-based college students, who create and perform monologues, scenes and musical parodies for ninth graders (ranging in age from 13 to 15). The Sex Squad is the central element in the "AMP!" programme for adolescent sexual health, developed at the University of California-Los Angeles in collaboration with…
Wan Chang Da
Delivery of higher education used to be exclusive to the public sector in Malaysia. However, legislative changes made in 1996 led to the coexistence of public and private higher education institutions. In 2007, there were 20 public universities compared to more than 500 private institutions, of which 30 are currently categorised as universities or university colleges. Looking at their respective roles as higher education providers, public and private institutions display characteristics of be...
Cable, Kelly E.; Spradlin, Terry E.
Single-sex education describes a diverse range of situations, including individual classes, programs after school, required programs, voluntary programs, and programs to remedy gender inequities and encourage cultural and racial pride. This brief addresses the genesis and legality of single-sex classrooms, the merits and critiques of single-sex…
DePalma, R.; Francis, D. A.
In South Africa, high pregnancy and infection rates show that many teenagers are having sex, and that they are not adequately protecting themselves against undesired pregnancies and disease. Sex education is usually taught as part of the subject area Life Orientation. In a qualitative study of 25 Life Orientation teachers in the South African Free…
Sex education refers to people's comprehension about sex, which involves not only sexual structure (anatomy, physiology, birth control, pregnancy, etc.), but also sexual relationships concerning human and moral problems. It includes at least sexual physiology, sexual psychology, sexual ethic, sexual law, etc., which aims to help people form the…
An annotated bibliography on sex discrimination in higher education and the professions is presented. Sex discrimination remains a major workplace problem and is found in virtually all levels of employment. The bibliography consists of 124 citations which appeared from 1984-1988. It excludes court cases and the "popular press," and although not…
Effect of sex education programme on at-risk sexual behaviour of ... that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). ... The treatment group evaluated the intervention programme positively and their knowledge of sexual health ...
This research explores the perspectives on sex education in relation to sexual health of teenagers in Zambia. The research aimed at exploring the perspectives of various stakeholders (teenagers, parents, teachers, pastors and traditional counsellors) on the role of sex education to promote the sexual health of young people in Zambia. The study is guided by the theoretical perspectives of the sociology of childhood, which consider childhood as a social construct and children as ...
Background: The morbidity associated with sexual ignorance, poor decision making and inadequate sexuality education is rising in India day by day. The possibility of sex related public health problems like sexual abuse, teenage pregnancies, abortions, unmarried motherhood, STD/HIV infections etc. are always remains high in university students. In this background to assess the student’s knowledge & perceived need for sex education this study was conducted. Objective Of Study: To assess the nee...
Kantor, Leslie; Levitz, Nicole
More than 93 percent of parents place high importance on sex education in both middle and high school. Sex education in middle and high school is widely supported by parents regardless of their political affiliation. Using data from a large diverse sample of 1,633 parents of children aged 9 to 21 years, we examined whether views on sex education differed by parents' political affiliation. More than 89 percent of parents that identified as Republicans or Democrats support including a wide range of topics in sex education including puberty, healthy relationships, abstinence, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and birth control in high school. In middle school, 78 percent or more of both parents that identified as Republicans and Democrats support the inclusion of those topics. Controlling for key demographic factors, parents that identified as Democrats are more likely than those that identified as Republicans to support the inclusion of the topics of healthy relationships, birth control, STDs, and sexual orientation in both middle and high school. However, a strong majority of Republican parents want all these topics included in sex education. Sex education which includes a broad set of topics represents an area of strong agreement between parents of both political parties.
Full Text Available More than 93 percent of parents place high importance on sex education in both middle and high school. Sex education in middle and high school is widely supported by parents regardless of their political affiliation. Using data from a large diverse sample of 1,633 parents of children aged 9 to 21 years, we examined whether views on sex education differed by parents' political affiliation. More than 89 percent of parents that identified as Republicans or Democrats support including a wide range of topics in sex education including puberty, healthy relationships, abstinence, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and birth control in high school. In middle school, 78 percent or more of both parents that identified as Republicans and Democrats support the inclusion of those topics. Controlling for key demographic factors, parents that identified as Democrats are more likely than those that identified as Republicans to support the inclusion of the topics of healthy relationships, birth control, STDs, and sexual orientation in both middle and high school. However, a strong majority of Republican parents want all these topics included in sex education. Sex education which includes a broad set of topics represents an area of strong agreement between parents of both political parties.
Jonas, Mark E.
Over the last decade, philosophers of education have begun taking a renewed interest in Rousseau's educational thought. This is a welcome development as his ideas are rich with educational insights. His philosophy is not without its flaws, however. One significant flaw is his educational project for females, which is sexist in the highest degree.…
Zeng, Huan; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Hui; Guo, Hang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Zhen; Mao, Limin
Street-based female sex workers (SSWs) are subjected to a relatively high risk of HIV transmission, even higher than establishment-based female sex workers in China. However, very few HIV intervention programmes have targeted this particular group to date. Based in Southwest China, this study aims to identify perceived barriers, demands and suggestions on HIV prevention from the perspectives of SSWs, clients and healthcare providers in Chongqing. Face-to-face, in-depth interviews were conducted in July 2008 with 23 participants. They were recruited by purposive, convenience sampling and included 12 SSWs, 5 male clients, 4 government healthcare providers and 2 outreach workers from a community-based non-governmental organisation. Thematic analysis was used. SSWs were largely rural-to-urban migrants with a low socioeconomic status. Most of their clients shared a similar background. Both SSWs and their clients demonstrated a low awareness of HIV infection and a lack of understanding of effective preventive strategies. Financial hardships, lack of family support, fear of police arrest and stigma in relation to sex work were identified as SSWs' major barriers for accessing healthcare services. Both SSWs and their clients indicated an urgent demand for accessing adequate HIV prevention and care programmes. On the other hand, government organisations trying to provide services to this group have also encountered obstacles, specifically their limited ability to establish mutual trust. Programmes provided by community-based non-governmental organisation, however, were perceived to be more attractive. In conclusion, there remains a substantial gap between the need of adequate HIV prevention services for SSWs and their clients and what is currently available. Strengthening inter-sectoral collaboration, providing specifically tailored health services, actively involving SSW peers and their clients, and reducing stigma in the society are keys to meet this urgent demand by SSWs
Martin, Jeno; Riazi, Hedyeh; Firoozi, Armin; Nasiri, Maliheh
Mothers have an important role to play in teaching their children about sexual issues and shaping children's sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. In many cases, however, mothers themselves need help and support. This study was conducted to examine the effects of a sex education programme on the knowledge and attitudes of the mothers of…
Cangoz, Banu; Karakoc, Ebru; Selekler, Kaynak
Trail Making Test (TMT) is a neuropsychological test, which has parts A and B that can precisely measure executive functions, like complex visual-motor conceptual screening, planning, organization, abstract thinking and response inhibition. The main purpose of this study is to standardize TMT for Turkish adults and/or elderly population. This study primarily consists of two main parts; norm determination study and reliability/validity studies, respectively. The standardization study was carried on 484 participants (238 female and 246 male). Participants at the age of 50 years and older were selected from a pool of people employed in or retired from governmental and/or private institutions. The research design of this study involves the following variables mainly; age (7 subgroups), sex (2 subgroups) and education (3 subgroups). Age, sex and education variables have significant influence on eight different kinds of TMT scores. Statistical analysis by ANOVA revealed a major effect of age (pKruskal-Wallis Test was performed and chi-square (chi(2)) values revealed that, correction scores for Part A and B were found to be influenced by age groups (pTest-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability coefficients for time scores of Parts A and B were estimated as 0.78, 0.99 and 0.73, 0.93, respectively. This study provides normative data for a psychometric tool that reliably measures the executive functions in Turkish elderly population at the age of 50 and over.
Sax, Linda J.; Riggers, Tiffani A.; Eagan, M. Kevin
Background/Context: As opportunities for public and private single-sex education have expanded, the debate surrounding this issue has become more heated. Recent reviews of research on single-sex education have concluded that the evidence is mixed, due in large part to the difficulty of attributing differences between single-sex and coeducational…
Motivating students to get actively involved in the curriculum and understand the application of academic content has been a challenge for many educators. Technology education instructors have traditionally had little difficulty showing their students the connection between their classroom and lab learning and a practical application of the skills…
Fieger, Peter; Villano, Renato; Cooksey, Ray
Budgetary constraints on the public purse have led Australian Federal and State governments to focus increasingly on the efficiency of public institutions, including Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutes. In this study, we define efficiency as the relationship between financial and administrative inputs and educational outputs. We…
Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey
Research finds lower levels of academic performance among sexual minority high school students, but some studies suggest sexual minorities have higher levels of educational attainment in adulthood. To further our understanding of how and why sexual orientation is associated with educational success, this study turns attention to the pathways to college completion, examining points along educational trajectories in which sexual minorities fall behind or surpass their heterosexual peers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we find that sexual minority women are less likely than women with no same-sex sexuality to complete college, in part due to their high school performance and transition into college. Men who experience same-sex sexuality only in adolescence struggle in high school, but men who experience same-sex sexuality for the first time in adulthood are more likely to earn a college degree than men who do not experience same-sex sexuality.
Phillips, Rachel; Benoit, Cecilia
Stigma by association, also referred to as “courtesy stigma,” involves public disapproval evoked as a consequence of associating with stigmatized persons. While a small number of sociological studies have shown how stigma by association limits the social support and social opportunities available to family members, there is a paucity of research examining this phenomenon among the large network of persons who provide health and social services to stigmatized groups. This paper presents result...
町田, 健一; マチダ, ケンイチ; Kenichi, Machida
The Purpose of Research Much attention has recently been paid to the importance of sex education. Conversely, it is often said that in sex education we should teach only biological facts about human bodies, but no further aspects such as the sense of value towards sex. To support this opinion, it is said that in the modern world sex does not necessarily mean love and that sex issues are too complex to be able to clarify in the domain of educational purpose. Is this really the way sex educatio...
The negative consequences of teenage sexual behaviour are issues of concern in Britain and many other western countries. Over one-quarter of British young people are reported to become sexually active prior to the age of 16 and the rate of teenage pregnancy remains one of the highest in Western Europe. Current UK Government policy on sex education…
Isangedighi (1986) stresses that the social tension, stress and inner turmoil ... goes further to say that this is due to indiscriminate practice of premarital sexuality among ... innate drive to act out; exposure of children to modernity; parental attitudes .... premarital sex (e.g unwanted pregnancies, child abuse, child trafficking,.
least that much time to the study of body changes during puberty . More controversial topics such as masturbation , homosexuality, and sexual pleasure...menstruation, conception, pregnancy, and contraception. The second hour covered commonly asked questions about sex, ranging from orgasms to masturbation ...Abortion was defined briefly and sexually transmitted diseases were discussed. Emotional and physical changes in puberty were considered, and the last
van Es, Cindy; Weaver, Michelle M.
The Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics or SATS was administered for three consecutive years to students in an Introductory Statistics course at Cornell University. Questions requesting demographic information and expected final course grade were added. Responses were analyzed to investigate possible differences between sexes and racial/ethnic…
Wills, Robin; Kilpatrick, Sue; Hutton, Biddy
This research investigated social and academic outcomes from single-sex classrooms in a Tasmanian coeducational government primary school. Interviews, observations and surveys formed the basis of the evidence. Teachers, parents and children reported positive benefits from the class organisation, but these differed according to gender. Staff…
Full Text Available This study has investigated the productivity growth and efficiency of private and public providers of international education in New Zealand. It has used secondary data to calculate the DEA-based Malmquist productivity index for measuring Total Factor Productivity (TFP-growth and efficiency of both public and private providers of international education during 1999-2010. The study has found that private providers experienced a larger TFP-growth than that of public providers during 1999-2004. However, they experienced a sharp decline in TFP-growth since 2005 through to 2010 and experienced a much smaller TFP-growth than that of public providers during this period. Conversely, public providers experienced a positive TFP-growth during 1999-2004 but they experienced a negative TFP-growth since 2005 through to 2010. Considering efficiency, both private and public providers experienced almost a constant Technical Efficiency Change (TEC having a same level of efficiency of one. Both private and public providers exhibited a constant return to scale during 1999-2010. This study argues that on an average, private providers are more productive than public providers of international education. However, they are not more efficient than public providers as both types of providers exhibited a constant return to scale during 1999-2010. This study also argues that TFP-growth of New Zealand’s international education was determined by Technological Change (TC, not by TEC during this period.
Full Text Available Introduction: Sexuality is a factor that is influenced by and cultural norms and rules, and these rules and norms determine acceptable behaviors in any culture. Variations of cultures existing in the world produce considerable variety in sexual norms and extensive spectrum of values and beliefs in this regards. Methods: This descriptive study was done to determine the attitude of Kermaninan parents toward sex education for adolescents and their opinion about its contents of sex education for adolescents. The sample of study was 275 couples selected by cluster sampling method form 5 city regions. In this study, a research- made questionnaire was used for data collection after determining suitable validity and reliability. Data were analyzed by using central and tendency indexes, ANOVA, t. test and Post Hoc tests (Fisher, Tukey. Results: Findings showed that on comparing attitude of both parents, there was a significant difference only in two items (14, 16. Mean 42.57± 5/9 in husbands and 43/71± 9/56 in wives attitude score. In regard to the contents of sex education, the least important item, according to both men and women, with a slight significant diference atitued approximately 50% of the total score. This finding shows that parents have no positive attitude towards sex education for adolescents. Comparing men and women in regard to their opinions about the contents of sex education, showed no significant difference between them. In regard to the items emphasized by both parents as necessary items to the items emphasized by both parents as necessary items in sex education, the results were similar. Conclusion: Considering the results and importance of sexual health as claimed by WHO, we should promote knowledge and attitude of the community towards sex education.
Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Center for Law and Education.
The contents of this volume published by the Center for Law and Education, which was established to protect and advance the legal interests of the poor through research and action on the legal implications of educational policies, include the following articles: "Introduction" and "Sexism in Public Education: Litigation…
Grossman, Jennifer M; Tracy, Allison J; Charmaraman, Linda; Ceder, Ineke; Erkut, Sumru
School-based comprehensive sex education programs can reduce early adolescents' risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year comprehensive sex education program in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students and whether the family component of the intervention contributes to its effectiveness. This longitudinal evaluation followed a cohort of 6th graders (N = 2453) through the end of 8th grade. The design used random assignment of 24 schools into treatment and comparison conditions. The analysis included multiple-group logistic regression to assess differences in delay of sex between intervention and comparison groups. In schools where the program was taught, 16% fewer boys and 15% fewer girls had had sex by the end of 8th grade compared to boys and girls at comparison schools. Completing family activities during the first year of the program predicted delayed sexual debut for boys. Theory-based, developmentally appropriate, comprehensive sex education programs that include parent involvement can be effective in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students. Parent involvement is particularly important for boys, as family activities may encourage parents to talk with their sons earlier and more frequently. © 2014, American School Health Association.
Spanier, G B
Controversies exist regarding the effects of sex education in the schools and informal sex education obtained from parents, peers, the mass media, and other sources. Similarly, there is widespread interest in premarital sexual behavior, especially its determinants. This study presents several issues reflecting these concerns which have been the subject of much speculation but which have received little attention by researchers. The purpose of this study was to investigate--through the use of respondent reports--how formal and informal sex education influences premarital sexual behavior during college. A national probability sample of 1177 college students was studied using face-to-face interviews with approximately equal numbers of males and females. These interviews, which were conducted for the Institute for Sex Research, included questions about past and present sexual involvement and other attitudinal, behavioral and background variables. Accordingly, the data about sexual behavior and attitudes are based on the interviewees' self-reports. Indices were created which operationalized independent variables such as familial sexual conservatism, exposure to eroticism, perceived sex knowledge, and sexual exposure and assault during childhood and adolescence. Individual items reflecting childhood sex play, masturbation, current religiosity, religiosity while growing up, social class, sources of sex information, sex education in classrooms, and high school and college dating were used. The dependent variable, premarital sociosexual involvement, is a composite measure of incidence and prevalence of premarital heterosexual involvement which meets Guttman scaling criteria. An Automatic Interaction Detector analysis was used to determine the relative influences of reported sexualization variables on premarital sexual behavior. Major findings can be summarized as follows: Heterosexual behavior progresses in stepwise fashion from elementary to advanced levels of involvement
Atsumi, Kazufumi; Kamiya, Takashi; Nozawa, Aoi; Aoki, Yuma; Tasumi, Satoshi; Koyama, Takashi; Nakamura, Osamu; Suzuki, Yuzuru
There is increasing evidence for frequent turnover in sex chromosomes in vertebrates. Yet experimental systems suitable for tracing the detailed process of turnover are rare. In theory, homologous turnover is possible if the new sex-determining locus is established on the existing sex-chromosome. However, there is no empirical evidence for such an event. The genus Takifugu includes fugu (Takifugu rubripes) and its two closely-related species whose sex is most likely determined by a SNP at the Amhr2 locus. In these species, males are heterozygous, with G and C alleles at the SNP site, while females are homozygous for the C allele. To determine if a shift in the sex-determining locus occurred in another member of this genus, we used genetic mapping to characterize the sex-chromosome systems of Takifugu niphobles. We found that the G allele of Amhr2 is absent in T. niphobles. Nevertheless, our initial mapping suggests a linkage between the phenotypic sex and the chromosome 19, which harbors the Amhr2 locus. Subsequent high-resolution analysis using a sex-reversed fish demonstrated that the sex-determining locus maps to the proximal end of chromosome 19, far from the Amhr2 locus. Thus, it is likely that homologous turnover involving these species has occurred. The data also showed that there is a male-specific reduction of recombination around the sex-determining locus. Nevertheless, no evidence for sex-chromosome differentiation was detected: the reduced recombination depended on phenotypic sex rather than genotypic sex; no X- or Y-specific maker was obtained; the YY individual was viable. Furthermore, fine-scale mapping narrowed down the new sex-determining locus to the interval corresponding to approximately 300-kb of sequence in the fugu genome. Thus, T. niphobles is determined to have a young and small sex-determining region that is suitable for studying an early phase of sex-chromosome evolution and the mechanisms underlying turnover of sex chromosome. PMID
Blake, Catherine Danielle
The U.S. Department of Education is giving more liberties to school districts to offer single-sex schools in order to adequately serve the needs of students. The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was to test the theory of students' performances based on their educational environment by comparing students who received…
Ewing, E. Thomas
This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…
Storen, Liv Anne; Arnesen, Clara Ase
This article examines sex segregation in higher education in Norway. The extent to which parent's education and occupation and students' grades have an impact on the choice of male and female dominated subjects is analysed. The analysis uses a framework which integrates socialisation and rational choice perspectives. The data used are from a…
Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy T.
The purpose of this study was to explore the comparative contribution that (a) multiple sources of education about sexual topics (peers, media, school and other adults), and (b) the timing of this sex education, make on American adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. Participants were 672 ethnically and economically diverse male and female,…
Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Chesnut, Steven; Wei, Tianlan; Richman, David
Data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (SRI International, 2002) were analyzed to identify variables that predicted whether individuals with intellectual disability (ID) received sex education in public schools across the United States. Results suggested that individuals receiving special education services without ID were only…
Finland is probably the only country where sex education has been studied in two consecutive national surveys, in 1996 and 2006 directed at biology and health education teachers, and in 2000 and 2006 by measuring adolescents' sexual knowledge. In 2006, responses from teachers and students could be combined for 339 schools. The most important…
McCarty-Caplan, David Milo
School-based adolescent sexual health education in the United States has long served as a means of combating emotional and physical threats to the well-being of youth. However, this sex education has since its inception marginalized the experiences and health concerns of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students and contributed to school…
Teaching sex education to school pupils in Scotland continues to be a controversial issue. In reality there is lack of leadership, strategy and an uncoordinated approach to delivering this important topic. The school nurse is frequently identified as a suitable professional to lead the way because it is assumed that school nurses are well educated in the field of sexual and reproductive health. Nationally, little is known about the educational status of Scottish school nurses and there is no research evidence available from which generalisations can be made. This study aims to explore the educational preparation of school nurses that underpins teaching sex education to school pupils in Scotland. A cross-sectional descriptive study was completed in September 1998. The results confirmed that school nurses in Scotland are predominantly female and 70% of the respondents (n=117) were over the age of 40 years of age. No common basic nursing qualification was identified. The majority of school nurses in Scotland perceive sex education to be part of their role and 39% (n=65) testified that specific sexual health training had been undertaken. Many lack confidence in this area of practice and are aware of extensive educational needs in relation to teaching sexual health and reproductive health. Despite these findings 75% (n=126) were actively involved in teaching sex education to school pupils.
Lisovski, Simeon; Fröhlich, Anne; von Tersch, Matthew; Klaassen, Marcel; Peter, Hans-Ulrich; Ritz, Markus S
In migratory animals, protandry (earlier arrival of males on the breeding grounds) prevails over protogyny (females preceding males). In theory, sex differences in timing of arrival should be driven by the operational sex ratio, shifting toward protogyny in female-biased populations. However, empirical support for this hypothesis is, to date, lacking. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed arrival data from three populations of the long-distance migratory south polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki). These populations differed in their operational sex ratio caused by the unidirectional hybridization of male south polar skuas with female brown skuas (Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi). We found that arrival times were protandrous in allopatry, shifting toward protogyny in female-biased populations when breeding in sympatry. This unique observation is consistent with theoretical predictions that sex-specific arrival times should be influenced by sex ratio and that protogyny should be observed in populations with female-biased operational sex ratio.
Gissler, Mika; Rahkonen, Ossi; Mortensen, Laust Hvas
¿470). Data on the highest level of education in 2000 were obtained from national education registers, and data on mortality and causes of death were received from the national cause-of-death registers until the end of follow-up (20 years or 2003). Results Boys had a higher child and adolescent......Background Socioeconomic position inequalities in infant mortality are well known, but there is less information on how child mortality is socially patterned by sex and age. Objective To assess maternal and paternal socioeconomic inequalities in mortality by sex, whether these differences vary...... mortality than girls. The children of mothers and fathers who had had the shortest education time had the highest mortality for both sexes and for all ages and countries. The differences between the groups with longer than basic education were smaller, particularly among older children and girls...
Dessens, Arianne; Guaragna-Filho, Guilherme; Kyriakou, Andreas
Objective: Disorders in sex development (DSD) can be treated well medically, but families will encounter many psychosocial challenges. Promoting counselling to facilitate acceptance and coping is important yet equality of access is unknown. This study investigated the modalities of psychosocial...... care provided in centres of DSD care. Methods: An international survey conducted among 93 providers of psychosocial care, identified through clinical networks, registries and professional forums. Results: Forty-six respondents from 22 different countries filled out the survey (49%). Most respondents...... related confusion about gender (54%), acceptance of cross gender behaviour (50%), anxiety (43%) and sadness and depression (38%). Conclusions: Most psychosocial care is provided to parents. It is assumed that parental support is important as acceptance is conditional to become affectionate caretakers...
The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' views on co-education. The study, which adopted a descriptive screening model, involved 240 teachers (142 females and 84 males) working in four primary schools and four secondary schools located in the central towns of Adana. Data were collected using Views on Co-education Scale (VCS). Analysis…
Shaver, John; Sullivan, Patrick; Siegler, Aaron; de Voux, Alex; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Baral, Stefan D; Wirtz, Andrea L; Beyrer, Chris; Brown, Ben; Stephenson, Rob
Combination prevention efforts are now recommended toward reducing HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM). Understanding the perceptions of both MSM and service providers is critical to informing the development of prevention packages and ultimately improving intervention effectiveness. This study assessed the preferences of MSM and health service providers in the administration of HIV-prevention efforts. Qualitative data were gathered from a series of separate MSM and health care provider focus groups in 2 South African cities. Participants discussed HIV-prevention services and MSM client experiences within South Africa and identified the 3 most important clinic characteristics and 3 most important HIV-prevention services for MSM clients. Priorities indicated by both MSM and health care providers were confidentiality of visit, friendly staff, and condoms, while discrepancies existed between MSM and providers regarding provider consistency and the provision of pre-exposure prophylaxis/post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP/PEP) and lubricant as prevention methods. Effective interventions must address these discrepancies through the design of intervention and provider training to optimally accommodate MSM.
Earnshaw, Valerie A; Jin, Harry; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; John, Jacob; Lim, Sin How; Altice, Frederick L
Men who have sex with men (MSM) living in countries with strong stigma toward MSM are vulnerable to HIV and experience significant barriers to HIV care. Research is needed to inform interventions to reduce stigma toward MSM in these countries, particularly among healthcare providers. A cross-sectional survey of 1158 medical and dental students was conducted at seven Malaysian universities in 2012. Multivariate analyses of variance suggest that students who had interpersonal contact with MSM were less prejudiced toward and had lower intentions to discriminate against MSM. Path analyses with bootstrapping suggest stereotypes and fear mediate associations between contact with prejudice and discrimination. Intervention strategies to reduce MSM stigma among healthcare providers in Malaysia and other countries with strong stigma toward MSM may include facilitating opportunities for direct, in-person or indirect, media-based prosocial contact between medical and dental students with MSM.
Jin, Harry; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; John, Jacob; Lim, Sin How; Altice, Frederick L.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) living in countries with strong stigma toward MSM are vulnerable to HIV and experience significant barriers to HIV care. Research is needed to inform interventions to reduce stigma toward MSM in these countries, particularly among healthcare providers. A cross-sectional survey of 1158 medical and dental students was conducted at seven Malaysian universities in 2012. Multivariate analyses of variance suggest that students who had interpersonal contact with MSM were less prejudiced toward and had lower intentions to discriminate against MSM. Path analyses with bootstrapping suggest stereotypes and fear mediate associations between contact with prejudice and discrimination. Intervention strategies to reduce MSM stigma among healthcare providers in Malaysia and other countries with strong stigma toward MSM may include facilitating opportunities for direct, in-person or indirect, media-based prosocial contact between medical and dental students with MSM. PMID:26324078
Ramstad, Kristina M; Miller, Hilary C; Kolle, Gabriel
Kiwi represent the most basal extant avian lineage (paleognaths) and exhibit biological attributes that are unusual or extreme among living birds, such as large egg size, strong olfaction, nocturnality, flightlessness and long lifespan. Despite intense interest in their evolution and their threatened status, genomic resources for kiwi were virtually non-existent until the recent publication of a single genome. Here we present the most comprehensive kiwi transcriptomes to date, obtained via Illumina sequencing of whole blood and de novo assembly of mRNA sequences of eight individuals from each of the two rarest kiwi species, little spotted kiwi (LSK; Apteryx owenii) and rowi (A. rowi). Sequences obtained were orthologous with a wide diversity of functional genes despite the sequencing of a single tissue type. Individual and composite assemblies contain more than 7900 unique protein coding transcripts in each of LSK and rowi that show strong homology with chicken (Gallus gallus), including those associated with growth, development, disease resistance, reproduction and behavior. The assemblies also contain 66,909 SNPs that distinguish between LSK and rowi, 12,384 SNPs among LSK (associated with 3088 genes), and 29,313 SNPs among rowi (associated with 4953 genes). We found 3084 transcripts differentially expressed between LSK and rowi and 150 transcripts differentially expressed between the sexes. Of the latter, 83 could be mapped to chicken chromosomes with 95% syntenic with chromosome Z. Our study has simultaneously sequenced multiple species, sexes, and individual kiwi at thousands of genes, and thus represents a significant leap forward in genomic resources available for kiwi. The expression pattern we observed among chromosome Z related genes in kiwi is similar to that observed in ostriches and emu, suggesting a common and ancestral pattern of sex chromosome homomorphy, recombination, and gene dosage among living paleognaths. The transcriptome assemblies described
Miller, Susan W., Comp.
This annotated bibliography provides a list of resources dealing with sex equity in vocational education. The bibliography first provides operational definitions of "sexism,""sex fair,""sex affirmative,""sex bias," and "affirmative action." It then lists resources under the following topics and/or bibliographic forms: (1) sex role definition, (2)…
Lindsay, W R; Bellshaw, E; Culross, G; Staines, C; Michie, A
Although sex education programmes are thought to be useful in teaching people with intellectual disabilities, there is very little evidence that the material taught is retained by clients. This paper reports data which has been collected routinely on a sex education programme. Forty-six subjects were assessed on their level of sexual knowledge in seven areas: parts of the body, masturbation, male puberty, female puberty, intercourse, pregnancy and childbirth, and birth control and venereal disease. They were retested after a 9-month sex education programme and tested again at a 3-month follow-up. A control group of 14 subjects were tested on two occasions, 4 months apart. There were significant and substantial increases in sexual knowledge on all areas for the experimental group. The control group showed no corresponding increases in knowledge.
Grossman, Jennifer M; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru
Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent adolescents from completing these family homework activities. This mixed methods study included 6th- and 7th-grade survey responses from 706 students at 11 middle school schools receiving a sex education intervention, as well as interviews from a subset of 33, 7th-grade students from the larger sample. Adolescents who completed more family homework assignments were less likely to have vaginal intercourse in 7th grade than those who completed fewer assignments, after controlling for self-reports of having had vaginal intercourse in 6th grade and demographic variables. Participants' explanations for not completing assignments included personal, curriculum, and family-based reasons. Family homework activities designed to increase family communication about sexual issues can delay sex among early adolescents and contribute to school-based sex education programs. Successful sex education programs must identify and address barriers to family homework completion. © 2013, American School Health Association.
Wan Chang Da
Full Text Available Delivery of higher education used to be exclusive to the public sector in Malaysia. However, legislative changes made in 1996 led to the coexistence of public and private higher education institutions. In 2007, there were 20 public universities compared to more than 500 private institutions, of which 30 are currently categorised as universities or university colleges. Looking at their respective roles as higher education providers, public and private institutions display characteristics of being substitutes while at the same time serving complementary roles to one another. This dichotomy between public and private higher education institutions can, in fact, be seen as inclining towards a hybrid model that allows both to operate within a single system of higher education provision in the country. Such a hybrid model is evident in how the clientele is being divided between public and private higher institutions. It is also evident in the different roles played by the respective faculty members as well as in the programmes being made available in either type of institutions.
Bess, John D.; Briggs, J. Blair; Nigg, David W.
One of the challenges that today's new workforce of nuclear criticality safety engineers face is the opportunity to provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines without having received significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and/or the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) provides students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Female Sex workers (FSW are important in driving HIV transmission in West Africa. The Yerelon clinic in Burkina Faso has provided combined preventative and therapeutic services, including anti-retroviral therapy (ART, for FSWs since 1998, with evidence suggesting it has decreased HIV prevalence and incidence in this group. No data exists on the costs of such a combined prevention and treatment intervention for FSW. This study aims to determine the mean cost of service provision per patient year for FSWs attending the Yerelon clinic, and identifies differences in costs between patient groups. METHODS: Field-based retrospective cost analyses were undertaken using top-down and bottom-up costing approaches for 2010. Expenditure and service utilisation data was collated from primary sources. Patients were divided into groups according to full-time or occasional sex-work, HIV status and ART duration. Patient specific service use data was extracted. Costs were converted to 2012 US$. Sensitivity analyses considered removal of all research costs, different discount rates and use of different ART treatment regimens and follow-up schedules. RESULTS: Using the top-down costing approach, the mean annual cost of service provision for FSWs on or off ART was US$1098 and US$882, respectively. The cost for FSWs on ART reduced by 29%, to US$781, if all research-related costs were removed and national ART monitoring guidelines were followed. The bottom-up patient-level costing showed the cost of the service varied greatly across patient groups (US$505-US$1117, primarily due to large differences in the costs of different ART regimens. HIV-negative women had the lowest annual cost at US$505. CONCLUSION: Whilst FSWs may require specialised services to optimise their care and hence, the public health benefits, our study shows that the cost of ART provision within a combined prevention and treatment intervention setting is comparable to providing ART to
Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Tyler, Karen Beyard
The second learning module in a continuing education program for inservice school media specialists focuses on sex stereotyping and ways in which inaccurate ideas about sex differences are transmitted through instructional materials in exploring the following questions: (1) Why do school materials communicate sexist ideas and sex-role stereotypes?…
Li, Ying; Cottrell, Randall R; Wagner, Donald I; Ban, Maosheng
College students are more likely than other student populations to be sexually active. To improve sex education in China among this group, educators must know college students' needs and their preferences for receiving information on sexuality. In 2002, students at a large Chinese university completed surveys about their history of school-based sex education and their other sources of information on sexuality. The survey also explored students' preferences for topics to be included in a college-level sex education course, comfort level with receiving information on these topics and views of effective teaching strategies. Before college, 47% of respondents had received no school-based education on sexual behavior; however, all respondents had taken a class covering reproduction, typically beginning in middle school (78%). Reading material, radio, classroom lecture and parents were more popular sources of information among females than among males; friends, the Internet and personal sexual experience were more frequent sources for males than for females. Higher proportions of males than females favored including sex therapy and masturbation in a hypothetical course. In addition, males felt more comfortable than females discussing 11 of 20 subjects; the two genders indicated similar levels of comfort in talking about the other topics. Males and females differed on how best to convey information on sexuality, with females generally favoring private methods, such as reading. More comprehensive school-based sex education is needed for Chinese youth. When developing and implementing such programs, health educators should consider differences between males' and females' preferred ways for receiving information on sexuality.
Orstavik, Ragnhild E; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Røysamb, Espen; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Tambs, Kristian; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
In many Western countries, women now reach educational levels comparable to men, although their income remains considerably lower. For the past decades, it has become increasingly clear that these measures of socio-economic status are influenced by genetic as well as environmental factors. Less is known about the relationship between education and income, and sex differences. The aim of this study was to explore genetic and environmental factors influencing education and income in a large cohort of young Norwegian twins, with special emphasis on gender differences. National register data on educational level and income were obtained for 7,710 twins (aged 29-41 years). Bivariate Cholesky models were applied to estimate qualitative and quantitative gender differences in genetic and environmental influences, the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the correlation between education and income, and genetic correlations within and between sexes and phenotypes. The phenotypic correlation between educational level and income was 0.34 (0.32-0.39) for men and 0.45 (0.43-0.48) for women. An ACE model with both qualitative and quantitative sex differences fitted the data best. The genetic correlation between men and women (rg) was 0.66 (0.22-1.00) for educational attainment and 0.38 (0.01-0.75) for income, and between the two phenotypes 0.31 (0.08-0.52) for men and 0.72 (0.64-0.85) for women. Our results imply that, in relatively egalitarian societies with state-supported access to higher education and political awareness of gender equality, genetic factors may play an important role in explaining sex differences in the relationship between education and income.
Herbert, Sandra; Lynch, Julianne
Keeping classroom animals is a common practice in many classrooms. Their value for learning is often seen narrowly as the potential to involve children in learning biological science. They also provide opportunities for increased empathy, as well as socio-emotional development. Realization of their potential for enhancing primary children's…
Viebrock, Margaret A.; Berry, Holly
This booklet discusses the important role that day care providers can play in ensuring that children eat healthy snacks and meals and learn good eating habits. Section one of the booklet examines snack foods, discusses the difference between nutritious and less-nutritious snacks, and recommends snack foods appropriate for different age groups.…
Katharina E. Pink
Full Text Available From an evolutionary point of view, sex differences in intergenerational transmission of income may be influenced by the Trivers-Willard (T-W effect: Low status parents should invest more in daughters, whereas high status parents are expected to invest more in sons. This bias in parental investment may result in status-dependent sex biased parental support for higher education and educational attainment and should therefore affect the level of intergenerational income transmission for the sons and daughters. We used the data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS to model the effect of parental financial investment on the child's income and educational attainment controlling for the number of siblings. The observed sex differences in intergenerational income transmission demonstrate that sons profited more from parental income and education in terms of their own income than daughters. Furthermore, we showed that fathers with a high socioeconomic index (SEI invest more in their sons' education in terms of completed years of education and financial support during college. In contrast daughters of low SEI fathers completed more years of education and received more financial support than sons of low SEI fathers. However, the pattern in intergenerational income transmission might be better explained as a product of sociological factors and reproductive trade-offs in later life rather than as a consequence of the T-W effect.
Gawlinski, Judy R.
As a Family and Consumer Science educator at Union City High School in Union City, Pennsylvania, I have heard and seen a great deal. I have been teaching for 24 years at this rural Pennsylvania Middle/High School where teen pregnancy has always been a problem. Teaching students abstinence as the only method of birth control has been a major…
Song, Xi; Mare, Robert D
We use a multigenerational perspective to investigate how families reproduce and pass their educational advantages to succeeding generations. Unlike traditional mobility studies that have typically focused on one-sex influences from fathers to sons, we rely on a two-sex approach that accounts for interactions between males and females-the process in which males and females mate and have children with those of similar educational statuses and jointly determine the educational status attainment of their offspring. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we approach this issue from both a short-term and a long-term perspective. For the short term, grandparents' educational attainments have a direct association with grandchildren's education as well as an indirect association that is mediated by parents' education and demographic behaviors. For the long term, initial educational advantages of families may benefit as many as three subsequent generations, but such advantages are later offset by the lower fertility of highly educated persons. Yet, all families eventually achieve the same educational distribution of descendants because of intermarriages between families of high- and low-education origin.
Ceraulo, Reviewed By Sandra C.
As Cornelius Riordan states in his round-table paper, "The challenge of effective and equitable schooling in the next century is to overcome the resistance and recalcitrance of youth cultures in and out of school" (p 58). While this is admittedly not a new problem, it is more complex in its modern form and innovative ways to solve it are needed. In an old tradition, one such attempt has been single-sex schools, which have had particular success with the disadvantaged and white females in American society, with the notable involvement of Catholic religious communities. The report does not make clear whether their successes can be reproduced in some modification of the public school format. However, the AAUW report on single-sex schools sheds light on some of the characteristics that make true learning communities out of ordinary schools and on what it takes to reach disadvantaged girls. For these reasons, the AAUW report is good reading for educators at all levels.
Kathrin F Stanger-Hall
Full Text Available The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued. Using the most recent national data (2005 from all U.S. states with information on sex education laws or policies (N = 48, we show that increasing emphasis on abstinence education is positively correlated with teenage pregnancy and birth rates. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic status, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.S. In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future.
Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.; Hall, David W.
The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued. Using the most recent national data (2005) from all U.S. states with information on sex education laws or policies (N = 48), we show that increasing emphasis on abstinence education is positively correlated with teenage pregnancy and birth rates. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic status, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.S. In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future. PMID:22022362
Objective: To assess what kinds of knowledge policymakers in a sample of English primary schools utilised to make decisions about their school's sex and relationships education policy. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with policymakers at three primary schools in the southwest of England, and documentary analysis of the schools'…
Hannah, Laura A.; Stagg, Steven D.
The research investigated feelings towards sex education and sexual awareness in young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Data were generated from the sexual knowledge, experiences, feelings and needs questionnaire (McCabe et al. 1999), the sexual awareness questionnaire (Snell et al. 1991) and semi-structured interviews. Twenty typically…
Miller, Brent C.; And Others
Families (n=548) with seventh- or eighth-grade adolescents were randomly assigned to receive videotape sex education curriculum including videos with mailed newsletters, videos without newsletters, or neither (control group). Found no significant effect of the program on key outcome variables of teenagers' sexual intentions or behaviors.…
This paper explores the role of sex and relationship education (SRE) in reducing teenage pregnancy rates. It critically examines some of the assumptions underlying the emphasis placed on SRE within the teenage pregnancy strategy ( SEU, 1999)--in particular, the view that ignorance of sexual matters plays a key part in teenage conception. An…
Billings, Jenny R.; Hashem, Ferhana; Macvarish, Jan
This document reports on the findings from a project exploring teenage looked-after children's views of sex and relationships education and sexual health services. Commissioned and funded by the Kent Teenage Pregnancy Partnership, this project formed part of a larger programme of study on teenage pregnancy that took place across Kent between 2004 and 2007.
This paper concerns the response to the sex education film "Growing Up", made in 1971 by Dr Martin Cole, which used a combination of animation and live action to offer a frank and uncompromising account of sexual reproduction. As part of this, both male and female masturbation and an unsimulated act of male-female coitus featured in the…
Wiefferink, C.H.; Poelman, J.; Linthorst, M.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Wijngaarden, J.C.M. van; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.
This study examines the effects of a systematically designed innovation strategy on teachers' implementation of a sex education curriculum and its related determinants. A quasi-experimental group design was used to assess the effectiveness of the innovation strategy. Teachers filled in
Liefländer, Anne Kristin; Bogner, Franz Xaver
Environmental education programs aiming to enhance children's environmental attitudes in a pro-environmental direction require background information, such as age and sex differences, to ensure appropriate design. We used the 2-MEV model with its domains "preservation" and "utilization" of nature to assess a four-day program at…
Davis, James H.; Ruhe, John; Lee, Monle; Rajadhyaksha, Ujvala
This study questions the widely held assumption, particularly in the United States, that coeducation is best. Previous research supports the development of single-sex education for both female and male students. This study examines how the learning climate of the coeducation environment seems to affect the character development of female business…
Rating of the femininity/masculinity of 27 occupations was undertaken by four age groups in the Israeli education system: 14-year-olds (n=194); 17-year-olds (n=183); university students (n=89); and teachers (n=148). Results indicated that sex-related stereotypes of occupations continue to be maintained among youth and adults. (JOW)
This paper offers an examination of gay-straight alliance (GSA) members' engagement with sex education, sexual health, and prejudice and discrimination in Canadian public high schools. It explores how five students' (four straight and one gay-identifying) participation in GSAs served as a springboard for learning about and challenging stereotypes;…
Schaffer, Michael J.
The Prince George's County schools' sex education program for grades K-12 was developed and implemented in the late 1960s and has three focus areas: family life and interpersonal relationships; the physiological and personality changes during puberty; and advanced physiology and psychology of human sexual behavior. The program augments what the…
This paper offers a critical examination of the problematics of childhood and adolescent sexuality and sex education in an Islamic context. By exploring conceptions of (pre-marital) sexuality, childhood, and maturity/adulthood, it is suggested that: (i) "childhood" and "sexuality" do not coexist harmoniously in Islamic…
Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Widaman, Keith F.; Rindermann, Heiner; Primi, Ricardo; Mansur-Alves, Marcela; Pena, Carla Couto
Sex differences on the Attention Test (AC), the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), and the Brazilian Cognitive Battery (BPR5), were investigated using four large samples (total N=6780), residing in the states of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. The majority of samples used, which were obtained from educational settings, could be considered a…
Lesta, Stalo; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Essen, Birgitta
Introduction: In the absence of standardised sex education and because schools usually limit their teaching to the "health" aspects of sexuality, young people in Cyprus rely on their peers and the media for information on sexuality. This study examines the sources and adequacy of the information received by young people from various…
Selwyn, Neil; Powell, Eryl
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate how young people are using school-based sources of sex and relationships education (SRE) to obtain information and advice. Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows how anonymous self-completion questionnaires were administered to young people aged between 12 and 19 years in three secondary…
Fileborn, Bianca; Lyons, Anthony; Hinchliff, Sharron; Brown, Graham; Heywood, Wendy; Minichiello, Victor
This paper examines the preferred sexuality education sources of older Australian adults in later life. Drawing on findings from qualitative interviews with 30 men and 23 women aged 60 years and older, we consider the sources that participants currently use, or would like to use, in seeking information about sex. Where relevant, we examine…
Koepsel, Erica R.
Pleasure is an important aspect of healthy sexual development. Moreover, public health researchers and feminist scholars suggest that pleasure-inclusive sex education is effective for reducing pregnancy and rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and may create a more inclusive classroom environment for underserved individuals.…
Kantor, Leslie M.; Rolleri, Lori; Kolios, Katherine
Doug Kirby transformed the field of sex education by conducting rigorous research that led to new, critical insights about ways to strengthen programmes, evaluation and policies related to sexual health throughout the world. Throughout his career, Kirby was meticulous in compiling evidence and translating findings into actionable recommendations…
Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru
Background: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent…
Villar, Maria Elena; Concha, Maritza
The paper aims to further explore the role that culture plays in the provision and assimilation of sex education among Latina immigrants in the USA. To accomplish this, researchers conducted focus groups and interviews with 30 women from Central and South America who have lived in the USA for at least five years. Participants were asked to reflect…
Yu, Chong Ho; Lee, Hyun Seo
Secular scholars have criticized Christian education and counseling on sex as restrictive, ineffective, and outdated. The authors of the current study explored both common non-Christian and Christian approaches to human sexuality with reference to overarching domains of religion, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Secular…
Gevorgyan, Ruzanna; Schmidt, Elena; Wall, Martin; Garnett, Geoffrey; Atun, Rifat; Maksimova, Svetlana; Davidenko, Ludmila; Renton, Adrian
Objective: To investigate the attitudes of the main stakeholders towards the introduction of sex education in schools in Russia. Design: Qualitative semi-structured interview study. Setting: Altai Krai, Volgograd Oblast, Moscow, Russian Federation. Participants: One hundred and fifty-three interviews with Intersectoral HIV/AIDS Committee members,…
Gibb, Sheree J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John
This study examined the effects of single-sex and coeducational schooling on the gender gap in educational achievement to age 25. Data were drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 individuals born in 1977 in Christchurch, New Zealand. After adjustment for a series of covariates…
Douthirt Cohen, Beth
In 2005, a feminist educational organisation in the USA for young women, ages 14-21, adopted a policy in order to clarify their target constituency of girls and young women. The policy defined "girls and young women" not as a designation associated with fixed biological sex, but instead as a self-determined identity label creating an explicit…
Spencer, Grace; Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter
Policy and practice on sex and relationships education (SRE) in England often has the stated objectives of delaying sexual activity, reducing sexually transmitted infections and lowering rates of teenage conception. Underlying these objectives is the desire to support young people in making "informed choices" and developing the skills…
Full Text Available The article is about the phenomenon of corruption in a comprehensive school. It analyses the expression forms of corruption and their peculiarities and disputes the main reasons stimulating educators to take part in corrupt interchanges thus tolerate it. On the ground of empirical research in Vilnius secondary schools it discloses attitudes of teachers, schoolchildren and parents towards corruption. The research was carried out in Vilnius Salomėja Nėris gymnasium, Vilnius Mikalojus Daukša secondary school, Mindaugas secondary school, Užupys gymnasium, Antakalnis gymnasium, Naujamiestis secondary school and Stanevičius secondary school. Overall 500 respondents were questioned: 300 pupils of ninth – twelfth forms, 100 teachers and 100 parents of schoolchildren. Difficult financial circumstances were pointed out as the main reason stimulating teachers to take part in corrupt interchanges. This answer was chosen by 42 per cent of respondents. Most of them think that raising wages would reduce corruption crimes. The research data show it is an important problem in schools though 70 per cent of respondents state it is not the biggest problem in their school. Only 15 per cent of questioned schoolchildren, 4 per cent of parents and 14 percent of teachers safely state that corruption is the main problem in their school. About 20 per cent of respondents (21.4 per cent of schoolchildren, 19 per cent of parents and 21 per cent of teachers acknowledge of making a payoff or receiving an offer to take it. Respondents state that 30 per cent of their friends and relatives made a payoff to school staff. 26.7 percent of schoolchildren and 27 per cent of parents’ acquaintances made a payoff to school staff. Only the answers of teachers did not change – 21 per cent of their colleagues were offered a payoff. These results do not let affirm that corruption is very widely spread in schools and therefore could be named as the biggest problem here. Though
Simm, Lynnette Marie Gresham
According to the National Association of Single-Sex Public Education (NASSPE, 2010), an increase of 540 public schools offering single-sex classrooms in the United States has occurred since 2001. Educators who understand the gender differences between boys and girls can inspire students to learn to the best of their ability; however, the problem…
Garwood, Monique; McCabe, Marita P.
After participating in 6 to 10 sex education sessions, six adolescent and adult men with mild mental retardation showed minimal increases in their knowledge of friendship, contraception, pregnancy, sexual interaction, and social skills. Following sex education, negative feelings developed about marriage, having children, and being present during…
Lewis, Jane; Knijn, Trudie
Sex education in The Netherlands and in the UK  has attracted attention because of the huge differences between the teenage pregnancy rates. There are substantial similarities in the way in which sex education is structured in the two countries, and yet the approach to the subject is very
Montero V, Adela
Sexuality is more than reproduction, it is an intrinsic part of each of us, is how we develop and relate with others and with the environment of the society to which we belong. Adolescence is a period with special vulnerability for the development of risky behaviors. In Chile, a progressive decrease in the age of sexual activity onset is observed, particularly in lower socioeconomic strata. The main consequences in sexual health are teenage pregnancies and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections such as HIV. The main strategy for the prevention of this risks is a thorough sexual education, that has to be timely, objective, based on scientific evidence, friendly and confidential.
Full Text Available Background: Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25–94 years. Methods: Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Results: Among men aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%–70.6%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%–21.9%. High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%–56.8% in men aged 25–34 years. Among men aged 75–94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%–52.3%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%–7.4%. Compared with older age groups, such as 65–94 years, younger age groups, such as 25–54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Conclusions: Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults.
Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kondo, Naoki
Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years. Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women) in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Among men aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%-70.6%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%-21.9%). High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%-56.8% in men aged 25-34 years). Among men aged 75-94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-52.3%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%-7.4%). Compared with older age groups, such as 65-94 years, younger age groups, such as 25-54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ruff, Cathy C
involved in community education because of the experience. These presentations serve to enrich student professional development, enhance community awareness of the PA profession, and provide educational information to adolescent populations, many of whom are considered at-risk. In addition, this model serves to enhance the service-learning curriculum.
Ae, Ryusuke; Kojo, Takao; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Okayama, Masanobu; Kuwabara, Masanari; Makino, Nobuko; Aoyama, Yasuko; Sano, Takashi; Nakamura, Yosikazu
We previously proposed the concept of caregiver daily impression (CDI) as a practical tool for emergency triage. We herein assessed how CDI varies by sex, education and career length by determining CDI scores as quantitative outcome measures. We carried out a cross-sectional study using a self-reported questionnaire among caregivers in 20 long-term care facilities in Hyogo, Japan. A total of 10 CDI variables measured participants' previous experience of emergency transfers using a scale from 0-10. The resulting total was defined as the CDI score. We hypothetically considered that higher scores indicated greater caregiver focus. The CDI scores were compared by sex, education and career length using analysis of covariance. A total of 601 personal caregivers were evaluated (mean age 36.7 years; 36% men). The mean career length was 6.9 years, with the following groupings: 1-4 years (38%), 5-9 years (37%) and >10 years (24%). After adjustment for sex and education, the CDI scores for the variable, "poor eye contact," significantly differed between caregivers with ≥10 and Sex-related differences in CDI might also exist. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 17: 410-415. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the results of an exploratory qualitative study on Muslim adolescents' views on sexuality in the Netherlands. Methods Data were gathered from an Internet forum on which 44 Muslim and 33 non-Muslim adolescents discussed sexuality as it relates to Islam. These discussions were subsequently analyzed for content using Nvivo 2.0. Results Our analysis revealed several issues that are relevant for the design of future sex education programs targeting Muslim youth. Apart from some expected outcomes regarding, for example, taboos on sexuality, sex outside marriage, abortion, homosexuality and conservative gender roles, our analyses showed that in cases of disputes 1 discussions were polarized, 2 opponents used the same Qur'anic passages to support their views, and 3 the authority of an Imam was questioned when his interpretation of Qur'anic passages was not in line with the views of participants. Conclusions Our findings show that current approaches to sex education among Muslim youth are likely to be unsuccessful given the rigidity of sexual norms in Muslim society. In addition, we also identified new barriers to sex education among Muslim youth (e.g. lack of respect for an Imam who opposes a youth's views on sexuality.
Gissler, Mika; Rahkonen, Ossi; Mortensen, Laust; Arntzen, Annett; Cnattingius, Sven; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Hemminki, Elina
Socioeconomic position inequalities in infant mortality are well known, but there is less information on how child mortality is socially patterned by sex and age. To assess maternal and paternal socioeconomic inequalities in mortality by sex, whether these differences vary by age and country, and how much of the sex differences can be explained by external causes of death. Data on all live-born children were received from national birth registries for 1981-2000 (Denmark: n=1,184,926; Norway: n=1,090,127; and Sweden n=1,961,911) and for 1987-2000 (Finland: n=841,470). Data on the highest level of education in 2000 were obtained from national education registers, and data on mortality and causes of death were received from the national cause-of-death registers until the end of follow-up (20 years or 2003). Boys had a higher child and adolescent mortality than girls. The children of mothers and fathers who had had the shortest education time had the highest mortality for both sexes and for all ages and countries. The differences between the groups with longer than basic education were smaller, particularly among older children and girls. The gradient in mortality was mostly similar for boys and girls. Among 1-19-year-olds, 32% of boys' deaths and 27% of girls' deaths were due to external causes. Boys' excess mortality was only partly explained by educational inequalities or by deaths from external causes. A more detailed analysis is needed to study whether the share of avoidable deaths is higher among children whose parents have had a shorter education time.
Case, Laura K; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S
, which we are currently exploring. Second, we base our hypotheses on ancient and modern associations between the left and right hemispheres and the male and female genders. By providing a case of sharp brain-sex shifts within individuals, we believe that the study of AGI could prove illuminating to scientific understanding of gender, body representation, and the nature of self. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jain, Joses; Moroz, Leslie
A reduction in racial disparities in maternal morbidity and mortality requires effective education of both patients and providers. Although providers seem to recognize that disparities exist, there is a widespread need for improving our understanding differences in health care and outcomes and the factors that contribute to them. There are increasingly more educational materials available for the purpose of augmenting disparities education among patients and providers. However, it is important to incorporate contemporary learning methodologies and technologies to address our current knowledge deficit. Collaborative educational models with a multi-disciplinary approach to patient education will be essential. Ultimately, the comprehensive education of providers and patients will require efforts on the part of numerous stakeholders within patient care delivery models. Further investigation will be necessary to determine how best to disseminate this information to maximize the impact of patient and provider educations with the goal of eliminating disparities in maternal morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brewster, Marnie; Wylie, Kevan R.
The present review describes the development and use of sexually explicit material in sex education within UK psychosexual therapy clinics, medical schools and also in state-maintained secondary schools with reference to interests that have shaped the provision of sex education since the early twentieth century. A short summary of published books…
Agbemenu, Kafuli; Schlenk, Elizabeth A
The purposes of this article are to identify and review comprehensive sex education programs (CSEPs) available to adolescent females in Kenya, East Africa, to discuss barriers to implementing CSEPs in Kenya, and to highlight the role of nurses in improving and institutionalizing available CSEPs in Kenya. Integrative review. A systematic search of six databases and other Internet sources was conducted to identify CSEPs currently available to adolescent girls in Kenya. Five CSEPs were identified. The CSEPs were evaluated using established criteria. All of the CSEPs were well designed and almost all were implemented with fidelity. Four of the five CSEPs met all of the criteria for well-designed CSEPs with only one showing lack of sustainability. Tuko Pamoja (We Are One) shows promise for wider implementation. CSEPs are a valid intervention leading to the reduction of teenage pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted infections. The reach of the identified CSEPs varies, and sustainability is challenging due to lack of government and community support, lack of funding, and unsustainable teaching modalities. Nurses can serve as liaisons between adolescents, the community, and the Kenyan government in promoting CSEPs. Nurses should be more readily utilized in educating community members and policy makers about the need for CSEPs in all Kenyan high schools. Nursing students can also be utilized in their community health role to teach curricula of CSEPs. Nurses should advocate for all adolescents to access reproductive health services and for all healthcare providers to provide comprehensive reproductive health care to them. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Rosaldo de Albuquerque Souza
Full Text Available A large portion of the population consists of adolescents aged by 12 to 19 years. During this period of human life occur several behavioral factors involving sexuality that intrigues many researchers, teachers and parents and according to the Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCNs, sex education must be taught in schools as a crosscutting theme. The aim of this study was to investigate perceptions and attitudes towards sexual education among elementary school Indigenous teachers in a rural school in Dourados-MS. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire completed by individual teachers. The results show that teachers consider important to work with sex education in elementary schools involving different areas of knowledge and with the help of health professionals. Most teachers work or have worked this theme in his classes, and consider the students receptive and interested, however, some teachers have difficulty in approaching the subject. One of the difficulties encountered are related to the low acceptance of their parents, highlighting the need for guidance on the same theme. The Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais ensures that the sex education should begin in early school years.
Abedian, Kobra; Shahhosseini, Zohreh
Although adolescence is marked by profound and dynamic changes, it is virtually neglected by health care providers, by society, and even by most parents, teachers, and health professionals. The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to health education in adolescents from health care providers' views compared to teens. The study population consisted of 72 health care providers and 402 high school female students in Northern Iran in 2012. They completed a self-administered questionnaire about their views on barriers to adolescents' health education. It is revealed that the major barrier to adolescents' health education from a health care providers' perspective is "Lack of private room for adolescents' health education", while "Lack of adolescents' interest to content of educational programs" is a significantly greater barrier to health education among adolescents. The results suggest that for adolescent health education, specific strategies should be used in adolescent health promotion programs.
Reas, Emilie T; Laughlin, Gail A; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; McEvoy, Linda K
This study investigated how cognitive function changes with age and whether rates of decline vary by sex or education in a large, homogenous longitudinal cohort characterized by high participation rates, long duration of follow-up, and minimal loss to follow-up. Between 1988 and 2016, 2,225 community-dwelling participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study, aged 31 to 99 years at their initial cognitive assessment, completed neuropsychological testing approximately every 4 years, over a maximum 27-year follow-up. Linear mixed effects regression models defined sex-specific cognitive trajectories, adjusting for education and retest effects. Significant decline across all cognitive domains began around age 65 years and accelerated after age 80 years. Patterns of decline were generally similar between sexes, although men declined more rapidly than women on the global function test. Higher education was associated with slower decline on the tests of executive and global functions. After excluding 517 participants with evidence of cognitive impairment, accelerating decline with age remained for all tests, and women declined more rapidly than men on the executive function test. Accelerating decline with advancing age occurs across multiple cognitive domains in community-dwelling older adults, with few differences in rates of decline between men and women. Higher education may provide some protection against executive and global function decline with age. These findings better characterize normal cognitive aging, a critical prerequisite for identifying individuals at risk for cognitive impairment, and lay the groundwork for future studies of health and behavioral factors that affect age-related decline in this cohort. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Piccinin, Andrea M; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Clouston, Sean; Reynolds, Chandra A; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Deary, Ian J; Deeg, Dorly J H; Johansson, Boo; Mackinnon, Andrew; Spiro, Avron; Starr, John M; Skoog, Ingmar; Hofer, Scott M
We describe and compare the expected performance trajectories of older adults on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) across six independent studies from four countries in the context of a collaborative network of longitudinal studies of aging. A coordinated analysis approach is used to compare patterns of change conditional on sample composition differences related to age, sex, and education. Such coordination accelerates evaluation of particular hypotheses. In particular, we focus on the effect of educational attainment on cognitive decline. Regular and Tobit mixed models were fit to MMSE scores from each study separately. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined based on more than one centering point. Findings were relatively consistent across studies. On average, MMSE scores were lower for older individuals and declined over time. Education predicted MMSE score, but, with two exceptions, was not associated with decline in MMSE over time. A straightforward association between educational attainment and rate of cognitive decline was not supported. Thoughtful consideration is needed when synthesizing evidence across studies, as methodologies adopted and sample characteristics, such as educational attainment, invariably differ.
Ergen, William F; Pasricha, Trisha; Hubbard, Francie J; Higginbotham, Tina; Givens, Tonya; Slaughter, James C; Obstein, Keith L
Inadequate bowel preparation is a problem frequently encountered by gastroenterologists who perform colonoscopies on hospitalized patients. A method is needed to increase the quality of bowel preparation in inpatients. An educational booklet has been shown to increase the overall quality of bowel preparation for outpatients. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the effects of an educational booklet on the quality of bowel preparation in a group of hospitalized patients. We performed a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial of all inpatients at a tertiary care medical center scheduled for inpatient colonoscopy from October 2013 through March 2014. They were randomly assigned to groups that were (n = 45) or were not (controls, n = 40) given the booklet before bowel preparation the evening before their colonoscopy. All patients received a standard bowel preparation (clear liquid diet the day before the procedure, followed by split-dose GoLYTELY). At the colonoscopy, the Boston Bowel preparation scale (BBPS) was used to assess bowel preparation. The primary outcome measure was adequate bowel preparation (a total BBPS score ≥6 with all segment scores ≥2). Secondary outcomes assessed included total BBPS score, BBPS segment score, and a total BBPS score of 0. There were no differences between the groups in age, race, sex, body mass index, history of colonoscopy, history of polyps, or time of colonoscopy. Twenty-eight patients who received the booklet (62%) and 14 who did not (35%) had an adequate bowel preparation (P = .012). The number needed to treat to attain adequate bowel preparation was 4. After adjusting for age and history of prior colonoscopies, the odds of achieving an adequate bowel preparation and a higher total BBPS score after receipt of the booklet were 3.14 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-7.83) and 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-4.88), respectively. Three patients in the booklet group and 9 in the no-booklet group had a BBPS score
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... In South Africa many learners are denied the right to basic education because of the levying of school fees and other educational charges, in spite of the international obligation imposed on government to provide free primary education.
Council of Adult Education, Melbourne (Australia).
This document provides guidelines for the process of moderation and verification of assessments for educators involved in adult education. As used in the education establishment in Australia, "moderation" is the process of ensuring the standardization of assessment. Through the moderation process, assessment procedures conducted in a…
Ooi, Teik Chooi; Ho, Henry Wai Leong; Amri, Siti
This paper looks at criteria on how education service providers' websites could benefit their potential students from overseas. Effective design of education website is important as web users are typically fastidious and want information fast--this serves as the background of this study. The study focuses on three selected education institutions'…
Kasmaee, Roya Babaee; Nadi, Mohammad Ali; Shahtalebi, Badri
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study and identify the effective components of higher education marketing and providing a marketing model for Iranian higher education private sector institutions. Design/methodology/approach: This study is a qualitative research. For identifying the effective components of higher education marketing and…
Hindman, Douglas Blanks; Yan, Changmin
The knowledge gap hypothesis predicts widening disparities in knowledge of heavily publicized public affairs issues among socioeconomic status groups. The belief gap hypothesis extends the knowledge gap hypothesis to account for knowledge and beliefs about politically contested issues based on empirically verifiable information. This analysis of 3 national surveys shows belief gaps developed between liberals and conservatives regarding abstinence-only sex education; socioeconomic status-based knowledge gaps did not widen. The findings partially support both belief gap and knowledge gap hypotheses. In addition, the unique contributions of exposure to Fox News, CNN, and MSNBC in this process were investigated. Only exposure to Fox News was linked to beliefs about abstinence-only sex education directly and indirectly through the cultivation of conservative ideology.
Charalambous, Andreas; Papastavrou, E; Valkeapää, K; Zabalegui, A; Ingadóttir, B; Lemonidou, C; Fatkulina, N; Jouko, K; Leino-Kilpi, H
Patients' and their significant others' education during the perioperative phase is an important and challenging aspect of care. This study explored the content of education provided by nurses to arthroplasty patients and their significant others. Data were collected with the Education of Patients-NURSE content (EPNURSE-Content), Received Knowledge of Hospital Patient (RKhp), and Received Knowledge of Significant Other (RKso) scales. The results showed that the content of education emphasized biophysiological and functional needs, differed between countries, and was related to how physically demanding nurses found their job to be and the amount of education provided. There is congruence between the received knowledge of patients and their significant others in relation to the content of education provided by nurses. The findings can support nurses in developing aid material for patients and significant others explaining the nature of education and advising them what to expect and how to optimize their participation in the process.
Nielsen, Jacob Lauesgaard; Boelskifte, Jane; Falk, Jørgen; Lauszus, Finn Friis; Rasmussen, Kjeld Leisgård
A study on knowledge of venereal diseases, opinions on sexual matters, and satisfaction with sex education at school. A questionnaire was handed out on the same day in all ninth grade classes in the municipality of Viborg without prior notification of teachers and pupils. A total of 394 of 398 questionnaires were answered and returned. Only 36% were fully satisfied with the sex education imparted at school, while 70% of the teenagers were satisfied with the quantity. Satisfaction was similar between genders, but more marked among those without sexual debut as 66% were satisfied, while just 47% of those with sexual debut thought sex education was satisfactory (p Knowledge of venereal disease like hiv/aids, chlamydia and herpes simplex was high (> 80% of pupils). A total of 58% of boys and 76% of girls identified chlamydia as the most common venereal disease (p sexual debut increased knowledge of chlamydia's status as the most common venereal disease to 85% among girls (p Knowledge of the symptoms and risks of chlamydia is rather limited. The girls were more aware of the fact that it may cause sterility (p sexual debut was not associated with gender but with own sexual debut. Those with no sexual debut guessed better than the pupils with sexual debut, as 77% of boys and 81% of girls with no sexual debut guessed correctly. The sex education curriculum should be differentiated with regard to sexual debut or not in order to increase satisfaction with teaching and increase the school's contribution to improve sexual knowledge and behaviour.
Wazlawik, Martin; Christmann, Bernd; Dekker, Arne
Prevention of sexual violence against children and adolescents obtains high priority in educational contexts. This is due to the massive (possible) psychosocial impacts of sexual victimization as well as to the considerable prevalence rates that are reported in current studies. Preventive approaches are predominantly native to violence prevention and sex education where they are characterized by independent lines of tradition and positions. This contribution outlines their empirically largely unexplained relation with a focus on the history and development of the discourses of sex education. Diverging disciplinary attempts of positioning towards the prevention of sexual violence reveal an area of conflict between sex-positive and preventive educational objectives. A primacy of preventive contents is seen to be threatening a comprehensive sex education that emphasizes the positive aspects of sexuality. On the other hand, its standards are opposed to excluding and to tabooing sexual violence as a topic. Yet unfinished is therefore the search for a "third way" that might transfer the opposites of both approaches into integrative educational concepts. Unsettled questions about possible contributions of sex education to the prevention of sexual violence, and especially to which extent they are sensitive to difference are discussed based on international research and the theory of sex education.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...
Albano, Maria Grazia; Jourdain, Patrick; De Andrade, Vincent; Domenke, Aukse; Desnos, Michel; d'Ivernois, Jean-François
Therapeutic patient education programmes on heart failure have been widely proposed for many years for heart failure patients, but their efficiency remains questionable, partly because most articles lack a precise programme description, which makes comparative analysis of the studies difficult. To analyse the degree of precision in describing therapeutic patient education programmes in recent randomized controlled trials. Three major recent recommendations on therapeutic patient education in heart failure inspired us to compile a list of 23 relevant items that an 'ideal' description of a therapeutic patient education programme should contain. To discover the extent to which recent studies into therapeutic patient education in heart failure included these items, we analysed 19 randomized controlled trials among 448 articles published in this field from 2005 to 2012. The major elements required to describe a therapeutic patient education programme were present, but some other very important pieces of information were missing in most of the studies we analysed: the patient's educational needs, health literacy, projects, expectations regarding therapeutic patient education and psychosocial status; the educational methodology used; outcomes evaluation; and follow-up strategies. Research into how therapeutic patient education can help heart failure patients will be improved if more precise descriptions of patients, educational methodology and evaluation protocols are given by authors, ideally in a standardized format. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Esere, Mary Ogechi
Adolescents display sexual behaviours and developmental characteristics that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). Because young people experiment sexually and because of the consequences of indiscriminate sexual activities on the youth, there is the need to mount sex education programmes that are geared towards enlightenment and appropriate education about sex and sexuality. To determine whether Sex Education Intervention Programme would reduce at-risk sexual behaviours of school-going adolescents. Pre-test, post-test control group quasi-experimental design. A randomly selected co-educational school in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria. 24 school-going adolescents aged 13-19 years. Sex Education Programme (treatment group) versus Control programme (placebo). Self-reported exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, multiple sex partners, anal sex, oral sex, non use of condom. When the treatment (intervention) group was compared with the control group in an intention to treat analysis, there were significant differences in at-risk sexual behaviours of the two groups. Those in the intervention group reported less at-risk sexual behaviours than their counterparts in the control group. The treatment group evaluated the intervention programme positively and their knowledge of sexual health improved. Lack of behavioural effect on the control group could be linked to differential quality of delivery of intervention. Compared with the control group, this specially designed intervention sex education programme reduced at-risk sexual behaviour in adolescents. Based on this finding, it was recommended that sex education be introduced into the curriculum of secondary school education in Nigeria.
Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine how patient, physician, and situational factors are associated with the extent to which providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications, and which patient and provider characteristics are associated with whether providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications. Methods. Patients with glaucoma who were newly prescribed or on glaucoma medications were recruited and a cross-sectional study was conducted at six ophthalmology clinics. Patients’ visits were videotape recorded and patients were interviewed after visits. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Results. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients participated. Providers were significantly more likely to educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications if they were newly prescribed glaucoma medications. Providers were significantly less likely to educate African American patients about glaucoma. Providers were significantly less likely to educate patients of lower health literacy about glaucoma medications. Conclusion. Eye care providers did not always educate patients about glaucoma or glaucoma medications. Practice Implications. Providers should consider educating more patients about what glaucoma is and how it is treated so that glaucoma patients can better understand their disease. Even if a patient has already been educated once, it is important to reinforce what has been taught before.
Guthrie, Hugh; Clayton, Berwyn
This paper focuses on issues which affect the capability of technical and further education (TAFE) providers to meet their clients' and stakeholders' needs and draws extensively on the reports of the consortium research program which examined ways to help build vocational education and training (VET) provider and workforce capability. The paper…
Prendergast, Mark; O'Donoghue, John
This research investigates the influence that gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling can have on students' mathematics education in second-level Irish classrooms. Although gender differences in mathematics education have been the subject of research for many years, recent results from PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment)…
LePore, Paul C.; Warren, John Robert
Results from a comparison of single-sex and coeducational Catholic secondary schools using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 suggest that single-sex Catholic high schools are not especially favorable academic settings, and that any advantages of the schools only benefited boys. Pre-enrollment differences may explain…
There are few historical studies about the sex education of Australian youth. Drawing on a range of sources, including the oral histories of 40 women and men who attended two single-sex, selective high schools in a provincial Australian city (Newcastle, New South Wales) in the 1930s-1950s, this paper explores the adolescent experience of sex…
Krishnamurthy, Parthasarathy; Hui, Sam K; Shivkumar, Narayanan; Gowda, Chandrasekhar; Pushpalatha, R
Peer-led outreach is a critical element of HIV and STI-reduction interventions aimed at sex workers. We study the association between peer-led outreach to sex workers and the time to utilize health facilities for timely STI syndromic-detection and treatment. Using data on the timing of peer-outreach interventions and clinic visits, we utilize an Extended Cox model to assess whether peer educator outreach intensity is associated with accelerated clinic utilization among sex workers. Our data comes from 2705 female sex workers registered into Pragati, a women-in-sex-work outreach program, and followed from 2008 through 2012. We analyze this data using an Extended Cox model with the density of peer educator visits in a 30-day rolling window as the key predictor, while controlling for the sex workers' age, client volume, location of sex work, and education level. The principal outcome of interest is the timing of the first voluntary clinic utilization. More frequent peer visit is associated with earlier first clinic visit (HR: 1.83, 95% CI, 1.75-1.91, p educator outreach. Peer outreach density is associated with increased likelihood of-and shortened duration to-clinic utilization among female sex workers, suggesting potential staff resourcing implications. Given the observational nature of our study, however, these findings should be interpreted as an association rather than as a causal relationship.
Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Leerlooijer, Joanne N.; de Haas, Billie; Schaalma, Herman P.
Background: This paper evaluates the effect of the World Starts With Me (WSWM), a comprehensive sex education programme in secondary schools in Uganda. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of WSWM on socio-cognitive determinants of safe sex behaviour (delay; condom use and
Rijsdijk, L.E.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Haas, B.; Schaalma, H.P.
Background This paper evaluates the effect of the World Starts With Me (WSWM), a comprehensive sex education programme in secondary schools in Uganda. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of WSWM on socio-cognitive determinants of safe sex behaviour (delay; condom use and
Schaafsma, Dilana; Stoffelen, Joke M. T.; Kok, Gerjo; Curfs, Leopold M. G.
Background: People with intellectual disabilities face barriers that affect their sexual health. Sex education programmes have been developed by professionals working in the field of intellectual disabilities with the aim to overcome these barriers. The aim of this study was to explore the development of these programmes. Methods: Sex education…
Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K. W.; Betrue, R.
How do we reach the public with the exciting story of Solar System Exploration? How do we encourage girls to think about careers in science, math, engineering and technology? Why should NASA scientists make an effort to reach the public and informal education settings to tell the Solar System Exploration story? These are questions that the Solar System Exploration Forum, a part of the NASA Office of Space Science Education (SSE) and Public Outreach network, has tackled over the past few years. The SSE Forum is a group of education teams and scientists who work to share the excitement of solar system exploration with colleagues, formal educators, and informal educators like museums and youth groups. One major area of the SSE Forum outreach supports the training of Girl Scouts of the USA (GS) leaders and trainers in a suite of activities that reflect NASA missions and science research. Youth groups like Girl Scouts structure their activities as informal education.
Brüll, P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Wiers, R.W.; Kok, G.
OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive sex education programs specifically designed for adolescents and young adults that take into account gender norms and cultural background have shown promise as a means of countering the high sexually transmitted infection rate in young people. Recently, digital gaming
Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A
An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Barnett, Jessica Penwell; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor
The increasing prevalence of autism since the 1990s has led to growing demand for sex education that meets the needs of persons on the autism spectrum. Yet there is a dearth of research documenting the firsthand experiences and perspectives of autistic individuals. A thematic analysis was conducted of in-depth, Internet-facilitated interviews with 24 adults on the autism spectrum who were recruited from Internet community spaces between November 2012 and May 2013. Inclusion criteria were self-identification as a person on the autism spectrum, being a U.S. resident, being aged 18 or older, and having the ability to communicate orally or through writing. Participants were aged 18-61 and were living in the community at the time of interview, most with limited extrafamilial support. They were less likely than the general population to be heterosexual or gender-conforming and were more likely to have experienced romantic or sexual debut after age 18. Participants' most common concerns were courtship difficulties and sensory dysregulation in the context of partnered sexuality. These concerns were exacerbated by inadequate and inappropriate sex education experiences. Participants addressed challenges by using sensory barriers (e.g., latex gloves); planning when and how to have sex; negotiating alternatives to sexual scripts predicated on nondisabled experience; and practicing explicit and intentional communication. Individuals on the autism spectrum would benefit from sex education that normalizes differences (e.g., in identities and experiences of sexuality), is offered throughout young adulthood, addresses disability-relevant sensory and communication needs, and includes practicing neurotypical sociosexual norms. Copyright © 2015 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Borghuis, P.; de Graaf, C.; Hermes, J.
This article discusses a participant design research project. The project aimed to provide information about sex and sexuality to groups considered to be vulnerable due to lack of knowledge and cultural barriers. The researchers worked with their students (from highly diverse cultural background) to
Full Text Available Background & aim: One of the most important events in human life is marriage. Sexual satisfaction is one of the effective factors in a successful marriage. Accordingly, sexual health education is necessary. Sex education should be in line with the cultural, religious, and social infrastructures of the society. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of sex education with and without religious teachings on sexual performance of married women. Methods: This clinical trial with a pretest-posttest design was performed in four health centers that were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling, in 2013. A total of 64 women were chosen with regard to the inclusion criteria, such as formal marriage and first marriage, age of marriage ≥ 1, married life with husband, monogamous marriage, and participating in training sessions (sexual health education and sexual health based on religious teachings that were held for six weeks. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI and a demographic characteristics form were used to collect the data. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient in SPSS, version 16. Results: In the intervention group, the mean score of Female Sexual Function Index was significantly different before and after the training program (P=0.03. The subgroups of sexual desire, orgasm, and sexual satisfaction in the intervention group and subgroups of arousal and sexual satisfaction in the control group were significantly different after the intervention (P
Minicuci, N; Noale, M
To assess the effect of education on Disability Free Life Expectancy among older Italians, using a hierarchical model as indicator of disability, with estimates based on the multistate life table method and IMaCh software. Data were obtained from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging which considered a random sample of 5632 individuals. Total life expectancy ranged from 16.5 years for men aged 65 years to 6 years for men aged 80. The age range for women was 19.6 and 8.4 years, respectively. For both sexes, increasing age was associated with a lower probability of recovery from a mild state of disability, with a greater probability of worsening for all individuals presenting an independent state at baseline, and with a greater probability of dying except for women from a mild state of disability. A medium/high educational level was associated with a greater probability of recovery only in men with a mild state of disability at baseline, and with a lower probability of worsening in both sexes, except for men with a mild state of disability at baseline. The positive effects of high education are well established in most research work and, being a modifiable factor, strategies focused on increasing level of education and, hence strengthening access to information and use of health services would produce significant benefits.
Kolle, Oswalt; Kropman, René F; Waldinger, Marcel D; Schultheiss, Dirk
Alfred Kinsey (1894-1956) was the first pioneer of scientific sexology after World War II with his surveys on human sexuality in the male (1948) and the female (1953), which underwent worldwide translations and also had a major impact in Europe. To clarify the role of the journalist Oswalt Kolle (1928-2010) as the promoter of sex education in Germany and Western Europe in the late 1960s. The information is almost exclusively based on a live interview taken with the time witness Oswalt Kolle in February 2010. This scientific technique of oral history is well established in the field of history research today. Kolle has a strong family background in the medical field as his father was a well-known psychiatrist and his grandfather a prominent bacteriologist. Before starting an interest in sex education, Kolle was a successful journalist by interviewing celebrities but turned into one of the most important critics against the restricted views on sex in Germany and Western Europe in the 1960s. His books and films on sexuality were translated into at least 12 languages and were major blockbusters for at least a decade. Oswalt Kolle had more influence on the public awareness and practice of sexuality in Western Europe and especially Germany than any other single person in his time. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Daley, Andrea; MacDonnell, Judith A
This paper reports qualitative findings from a pilot study that explored the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) education needs of home-care service providers working in one large, urban Canadian city. The pilot study builds upon research that has documented barriers to health services for diversely situated LGBTQ people, which function to limit access to good-quality healthcare. LGBTQ activists, organisations and allies have underscored the need for health provider education related to the unique health and service experiences of sexual and gender minority communities. However, the home-care sector is generally overlooked in this important body of research literature. We used purposeful convenience sampling to conduct four focus groups and two individual interviews with a total of 15 professionally diverse home-care service providers. Data collection was carried out from January 2011 to July 2012 and data were analysed using grounded theory methods towards the identification of the overarching theme, 'provider education' and it had two sub-themes: (i) experiences of LGBTQ education; and (ii) recommendations for LGBTQ education. The study findings raise important questions about limited and uneven access to adequate LGBTQ education for home-care service providers, suggest important policy implications for the education and health sectors, and point to the need for anti-oppression principles in the development of education initiatives. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is a promising strategy for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM and men who engage in sex work. But access will require routine HIV testing and contacts with healthcare providers. This study investigated men's healthcare and HIV testing experiences to inform PrEP implementation.We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 38 in 2012 and 56 in-depth qualitative interviews in 2013-14 with male sex workers (MSWs (n = 31 and other MSM (n = 25 in Providence, RI. MSWs primarily met clients in street-based sex work venues. Facilitators asked participants about access to healthcare and HIV/STI testing, healthcare needs, and preferred PrEP providers.MSWs primarily accessed care in emergency rooms (ERs, substance use clinics, correctional institutions, and walk-in clinics. Rates of HIV testing were high, but MSWs reported low access to other STI testing, low insurance coverage, and unmet healthcare needs including primary care, substance use treatment, and mental health services. MSM not engaging in sex work were more likely to report access to primary and specialist care. Rates of HIV testing among these MSM were slightly lower, but they reported more STI testing, more insurance coverage, and fewer unmet needs. Preferred PrEP providers for both groups included primary care physicians, infectious disease specialists, and psychiatrists. MSWs were also willing to access PrEP in substance use treatment and ER settings.PrEP outreach efforts for MSWs and other MSM should engage diverse providers in many settings, including mental health and substance use treatment, ERs, needle exchanges, correctional institutions, and HIV testing centers. Access to PrEP will require financial assistance, but can build on existing healthcare contacts for both populations.
Underhill, Kristen; Morrow, Kathleen M; Colleran, Christopher M; Holcomb, Richard; Operario, Don; Calabrese, Sarah K; Galárraga, Omar; Mayer, Kenneth H
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who engage in sex work. But access will require routine HIV testing and contacts with healthcare providers. This study investigated men's healthcare and HIV testing experiences to inform PrEP implementation. We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 38) in 2012 and 56 in-depth qualitative interviews in 2013-14 with male sex workers (MSWs) (n = 31) and other MSM (n = 25) in Providence, RI. MSWs primarily met clients in street-based sex work venues. Facilitators asked participants about access to healthcare and HIV/STI testing, healthcare needs, and preferred PrEP providers. MSWs primarily accessed care in emergency rooms (ERs), substance use clinics, correctional institutions, and walk-in clinics. Rates of HIV testing were high, but MSWs reported low access to other STI testing, low insurance coverage, and unmet healthcare needs including primary care, substance use treatment, and mental health services. MSM not engaging in sex work were more likely to report access to primary and specialist care. Rates of HIV testing among these MSM were slightly lower, but they reported more STI testing, more insurance coverage, and fewer unmet needs. Preferred PrEP providers for both groups included primary care physicians, infectious disease specialists, and psychiatrists. MSWs were also willing to access PrEP in substance use treatment and ER settings. PrEP outreach efforts for MSWs and other MSM should engage diverse providers in many settings, including mental health and substance use treatment, ERs, needle exchanges, correctional institutions, and HIV testing centers. Access to PrEP will require financial assistance, but can build on existing healthcare contacts for both populations.
Bauer, Irmgard L
Health concerns arising from sexual relationships between tourists and locals usually focus on the travelling public. The local sex partners' health, and their impact on their communities' health, seem far less acknowledged. This paper describes a local health education session which implemented recommendations based on a study in Cuzco/Peru on tourists' and locals' views, knowledge, attitudes and experiences relating to sexual relationships between them. On location, fifteen discotheque employees received a health education session at the establishment's owner's request. Concluding from the positive experience, it is argued that researchers should, where possible, respond to requests to deliver ad hoc health education sessions while on location to address an identified local health need.
Echávarri, Rebeca A; Ezcurra, Roberto
This article investigates the possible existence of a nonlinear link between female disadvantage in natality and education. To this end, we devise a theoretical model based on the key role of social interaction in explaining people's acquisition of preferences, which justifies the existence of a nonmonotonic relationship between female disadvantage in natality and education. The empirical validity of the proposed model is examined for the case of India, using district-level data. In this context, our econometric analysis pays particular attention to the role of spatial dependence to avoid any potential problems of misspecification. The results confirm that the relationship between the sex ratio at birth and education in India follows an inverted U-shape. This finding is robust to the inclusion of additional explanatory variables in the analysis, and to the choice of the spatial weight matrix used to quantify the spatial interdependence between the sample districts.
National Public Radio, Washington, DC.
This booklet is a transcription of a program from the radio series, "Options in Education." It is part 2 of a two-part series dealing with sexism in education. It deals with sex discrimination in various aspects of public education, including textbooks, teacher promotion, sports programs and children's literature. There is also a…
This article draws on different bodies of knowledge in order to review the potential role of outdoor education in providing nature-based experiences that might contribute to sustainable living. A pragmatic perspective is adopted to critique what outdoor education is, and then what it might be. Phenomenology is used to challenge the belief that…
Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai
Some proponents of Africanism argue that African traditional education and the principles of "ubuntu" should provide the framework for citizenship education. While conceding that understandable concerns lie behind defences of "ubuntu" as underpinning African democracy, we argue that the Africanist perspective faces various problems and makes…
Cirignano, Sherri M.
An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…
Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul. Refugee Education Resource Center.
This is a directory of (print) health education materials for Indochinese refugees, refugee sponsors, and refugee health providers. Materials listed for refugees cover dental health, diseases, family planning, infant and child health, maternal care and pregnancy, legal systems, nutrition, patient instruction, and education. The directory also…
At the foundation of most inequalities in expression of sexuality lie social constructions of gender. In this paper, sex education is considered as a possibility to challenge sexism and promote healthy and self-affirmative sex lives. In the past decade, the discourse of sex education in India has become a "battle of morality" where…
Medicine, social conditions, culture and politics are inextricably bound as determinants of health and wellbeing. In Cuba, perhaps this is nowhere more evident than in the arduous struggle to consider non-discriminatory analysis of gender-sensitive components as fundamental to population health, medical practice and research; national policy; and above all, public consciousness. Among the standard-bearers of this cause is Mariela Castro, psychologist and educator with a master's degree in sexuality, who directs the National Sex Education Center (CENESEX), its journal Sexologia y Sociedad, and the National Commission for Comprehensive Attention to Transsexual People. The Center's work is at the vortex of national polemics on sexuality, approaches to sex education and health, and respect for the human rights of people of differing sexual orientations and gender identities. The daughter of President Raúl Castro and the late Vilma Espín--who, as founder and leader of the Federation of Cuban Women, pioneered the defense of both women and homosexuals--Mariela Castro nevertheless speaks with her own voice in national as well as international debates. MEDICC Review talked with her about the range of issues that link gender to WHO's broad definition of health as the highest level of physical and mental wellbeing.
In this article, guest writer Ivana Truccolo presents an overview of her work at the Scientific and Patient Library of a Cancer Comprehensive Centre in Italy coordinating the patient education process. She discusses the historical evolution of the concept of patient education and how this has run alongside the role of the health librarian in the provision of consumer health information. Details are provided about various patient education programmes in place at the Centre. In particular, various activities are discussed including patient education classes, the development of patient education handouts and a narrative medicine programme which includes a literary competition. The article concludes with a specific outline of the role the health librarian can play in the provision of consumer health information and patient education. H.S. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.
Stephenson, Pamela L
Patients experiencing cancer also can experience anxiety. Moderate to severe levels of anxiety can interfere with patients' ability to concentrate and comprehend new information. The condition is particularly troublesome when trying to present educational material related to recommended treatment interventions. Patients' understanding of the material is critical to ensure informed consent. Informed consent can be compromised if patients are unable to understand the information being provided. Nurses must be cognizant of the impact that anxiety has on patient education and assess patients prior to initiating patient teaching. By managing anxiety before beginning education, nurses can provide an environment more conducive to learning.
Gerassi, Lara; Edmond, Tonya E; Fabbre, Vanessa; Howard, Abby; Nichols, Andrea J
Sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) can lead to devastating health and mental health consequences for women, such as elevated rates of substance use, trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and HIV. Consequently, engagement with services that address addiction, mental health, and housing, and provide general advocacy is critically important to women's increased safety, stabilization, and quality of life. The purpose of this study is to identify perceived barriers and facilitators to service access and engagement with social services among women involved in CSE. Drawing from a larger grounded theory study that partnered with an anti-trafficking coalition and a substance use treatment center for women, in-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 30 adult women who traded sex as adults and 20 service providers who come into contact with this population. Women engaging in services were sampled through maximum variation sampling ( n = 24) and women not engaged with services ( n = 6) were recruited through snowball sampling. Providers were recruited through purposive sampling through the coalition ( n = 10) and nominations sampling ( n = 10). Open and focused coding were conducted. Multiple enhancements to methodological and analytic rigor were taken, including collaboration with multiple key stakeholders, use of nonstigmatizing language, self-reflexivity processes, analytic memo-writing, and member checking. Findings suggest that women experienced judgment when disclosing sex trading in social service intakes, and individual and group sessions from providers and other women in the groups. Although some women saw disclosure as helpful in addressing the complex feelings stemming from sex trading, as well as the desire to help or relate to other women in similar situations, they also identified risk of harm and multiple barriers to disclosing during intake meetings and individual sessions
Shin, YunHee; Chun, YoungKyung; Cho, SungMi; Cho, YeRyung
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a sex education program, which was based on the Health Belief Model, on knowledge related to sexually transmitted diseases and sexual autonomy among university students. A non-equivalent control group, pretest-posttest design was used. The four session program was delivered to 18 students during 4 weeks; the control group consisted of 23 students. The theme of the first session was "sex, gender, and sexuality: all our concern", "dangerous sex" for the second session, "safe sex" for the third session, and "right sex for you and me" for the fourth session. At follow-up, the knowledge related to sexually transmitted diseases and sexual autonomy were significantly greater in the intervention group than in the control group. A sex education program with several sessions within the theoretical frame of HBM was effective to improve knowledge related to sexually transmitted diseases and sexual autonomy. The results suggest the potential of a systematic sexual education program to teach healthy sex and to extend the program for other various populations.
Full Text Available Peer-led outreach is a critical element of HIV and STI-reduction interventions aimed at sex workers. We study the association between peer-led outreach to sex workers and the time to utilize health facilities for timely STI syndromic-detection and treatment. Using data on the timing of peer-outreach interventions and clinic visits, we utilize an Extended Cox model to assess whether peer educator outreach intensity is associated with accelerated clinic utilization among sex workers.Our data comes from 2705 female sex workers registered into Pragati, a women-in-sex-work outreach program, and followed from 2008 through 2012. We analyze this data using an Extended Cox model with the density of peer educator visits in a 30-day rolling window as the key predictor, while controlling for the sex workers' age, client volume, location of sex work, and education level. The principal outcome of interest is the timing of the first voluntary clinic utilization.More frequent peer visit is associated with earlier first clinic visit (HR: 1.83, 95% CI, 1.75-1.91, p < .001. In addition, 18% of all syndrome-based STI detected come from clinic visits in which the sex worker reports no symptoms, underscoring the importance of inducing clinic visits in the detection of STI. Additional models to test the robustness of these findings indicate consistent beneficial effect of peer educator outreach.Peer outreach density is associated with increased likelihood of-and shortened duration to-clinic utilization among female sex workers, suggesting potential staff resourcing implications. Given the observational nature of our study, however, these findings should be interpreted as an association rather than as a causal relationship.
Kling, Juliana M; Rose, Steven H; Kransdorf, Lisa N; Viggiano, Thomas R; Miller, Virginia M
Addressing healthcare disparities is a national priority for initiatives in precision and individualized medicine. An essential component of precision medicine is the understanding that sex and gender influence health and disease. Whether these issues are addressed in post-graduate medical education curricula is unknown. A questionnaire was designed and administered to residents across the Mayo Clinic enterprise to assess current knowledge of sex and gender medicine in a large program of post-graduate medical education and to identify barriers and preferred teaching methods for addressing sex and gender issues in health and disease. Descriptive and qualitative thematic analyses of the survey responses were compiled and analyzed. Responses were collected from 271 residents (response rate 17.2 %; 54 % female; 46 % male). A broad cross-section of training programs on all Mayo Clinic campuses (Arizona, Minnesota, and Florida) was represented. Sixteen percent of the respondents reported they had never had an instructor or preceptor discuss how a patient's sex or gender impacted their care of a patient; 55 % said this happened only occasionally. Of medical knowledge questions about established sex- and gender-related differences, 48 % were answered incorrectly or "unsure." Qualitative thematic analysis showed that many trainees do not understand the potential impact of sex and gender on their clinical practice and/or believe it does not pertain to their specialty. A higher percentage of female participants agreed it was important to consider a patient's sex and gender when providing patient care (60.4 vs. 38.7 %, p = 0.02), and more male than female participants had participated in research that included sex and/or gender as a variable (59.6 vs. 39.0 %, p based medicine, and residents often do not fully understand how these concepts impact their patients' care. Reviewing the definition of sex- and gender-based medicine and integrating these concepts into
van Langen, A.; Rekers-Mombarg, L; Dekkers, H
The more science and mathematics subjects that pupils in pre-university education include in their final examination package, the more future academic routes are available to them. Equality of educational opportunity is thus threatened when groups of pupils, distinguished by sex and family
Schoj, Veronica; Allemandi, Lorena; Ianovsky, Oscar; Lago, Manuel; Alderete, Mariela
There is scarce evidence of secondhand smoke (SHS) and disparity in developing countries. We evaluated the relationship between socio-demographic variables and secondhand smoke-related factors in Argentina. We conducted a randomized telephone survey (2008/2009) in 25 Argentinean cities. We included a sample of 160 respondents per city stratified by sex and age. We used different generalized multivariate regression models with a confidence interval of 95 % for the five outcome variables. We sampled 4,000 respondents, 52.2 % women, 36 % adolescents and young adults (15-29 years), 58 % ≥12 years of education, and 72.6 % nonsmokers. Support to 100 % smoke-free environment legislation was higher in older than in younger respondents, OR = 1.5 (IC: 1.2-2.0), and in people with higher education levels, OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.4). Exposure to SHS was significantly lower in men than in women at home and in public places, IRR = 0.7 (IC: 0.5-0.9) and IRR = 0.8 (IC: 0.6-0.9), respectively. Older respondents reported lower exposure at home and in public places than adolescents and young adults, IRR = 0.6 (IC: 0.4-0.8) and IRR = 0.4 (IC: 0.3-0.5), respectively. People with higher education levels had a higher level of exposure in indoor public places than less educated people, IRR = 1.1 (IC: 1.1-1.2). Knowledge of respiratory disease in children caused by SHS exposure was lower in men than in women, RRR = 0.3 (IC: 0.1-0.6). Perceived compliance was higher in men than in women, OR = 1.4 (IC: 1.1-1.8) and in people with higher education levels, OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.4). Older and more educated respondents were more empowered than. younger and less educated people, OR = 1.5 (IC: 1.2-1.9) and OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.3), respectively. Reference groups for each variable were age: 15-29; education: ≤7 years; and sex: men. This is the first study to explore socio-demographic variables regarding secondhand smoke in our country. Women and younger people are more
Weal, Brenda; Coll, Richard
This paper explores the notion of educational partnerships and reports on research on client provider partnerships between full primary schools and external technology education providers for Year 7 and 8 New Zealand students (age range approx. 12 to 13 years). Educational reforms in New Zealand and the introduction of a more holistic technology education curriculum in 1995 changed the nature of the relationship between the technology education partners. The research sought to identify, from the perspective of the primary schools (clients), factors that contribute to successful partnerships between them and their technology education provider. A mixed methods approach consisting of a survey of client schools, in-depth interviews and a series of four in-depth case studies (drawing on issues derived from the survey) was employed. Issues relating to teacher subculture, leadership roles and inflexibility of official processes all surfaced. The research points to an absence of commitment, shared understanding, shared power, leadership, communication and accountability in many educational partnerships that were the focus of this work.
Araya G, Alejandra; Carrasco A, Paola; Loayza G, Carla; Fernández S, Ana María; Pérez C, Carlos; Lasso B, Martín
The success of educational interventions depends on the integration of educational programs into clinical practice. To determine the educational needs and perceived barriers of people living with HIV (PHIV) and their health care providers (HCP). Qualitative study conducted in 60 PHIV and 10 HCP. For data collection, a semi-structured in-depth interview was applied, addressing the educational needs (content, methodology, person, time, physical location) and identified barriers to implement an educational program for PHIV Content analysis technique was used for data analysis. PHIV and their HCP identified the same educational needs as the following: general-related content, psychological, sexual and secondary prevention aspects of the disease. Individual sessions with written material and web pages were identified as important resources to support education. Both PHIV and professionals expressed their willingness to participate in educational programs, but the most commonly identified barrier was lack of time. This study identifies the key elements to include in an educational program for Chilean PHIV from the user and professional perspective.
Full Text Available Background The aim of the study was to determine the level of self-esteem of physical education and sport students, its diversification according to sex, as well as relationships between self-esteem and the following variables: fluid intelligence, emotional intelligence, social intelligence, and academic performance. Participants and procedure A total of 385 first-year undergraduates aged 18-26 years studying physical education and sport at the University of Physical Education in Warsaw participated in the study. The following research tools were used: the Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory, Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices Plus, the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, and the Social Competence Questionnaire. The average of marks obtained for all courses taken during the first year was adopted as an indicator of academic performance. Results The obtained results attest to the high self-esteem of the first-year students. Male students gave higher ratings for their body appearance and body functioning, personal power and likeability, self-control, and competence. They also indicated a higher level of global self-esteem and identity integration. The highest number of significant positive correlations connected self-esteem and emotional intelligence; slightly fewer correlations existed between self-esteem and social competence. The lowest number of significant relationships was established for fluid intelligence. Only one positive predictor of average evaluations was established in male students (self-control and female students (competence. Conclusions The profile of self-esteem of physical education students demonstrates their high self-esteem, especially in areas related to their field of study. Some variations in the components of self-esteem of male and female students reflect the differences between sexes typical for the Polish adult population.
María Luisa Preinfalk-Fernández
Full Text Available This research paper aims to show the panorama and scope of the current existing sex education practices carried out by the Costa Rican public universities. It analyzes different initiatives, its theoretical approaches that guide the actions, their purposes and other relevant aspects. The analysis includes secondary information as well as the point of view of students and university staff, as inputs for decision-making aimed at improving the overall education of young people. The findings take part of an exploratory research based on qualitative and quantitative methodologies based on gender and constructionism perspective. The information was gathered via the application of a questionnaire to a specific uneven stratified cluster groups, composed by 766 enrolled undergraduate students since first semester 2011 at Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica. The statistical margin of error was 1.5% and the confidence level of 95%. In addition, two focus groups with students and depth interviews with 16 persons were made. Data were tabulated with CSPRO software and analyzed using R software. The findings suggest that Costa Rican universities recognize the importance of sex education as an essential part of overall development of students. Most of the initiatives are institutionalized; however, the lack of guidelines or policies on the subject, in most institutions, affects quality, consolidation and expansion of services. The need to strengthen and expand training activities on sexuality was identified as well. The students have a high opinion about the services offered, but few of them use these services, because they are perceived as less accessible and friendly. This paper concludes that it is a priority to maintain and strengthen existing initiatives on sexual education, so that they can effectively satisfy the needs of youth, with timely interventions and quality to enjoy a healthy and safe sexuality free from violence.
Whipp, Peter R.; Hutton, Heidi; Grove, J. Robert; Jackson, Ben
In place of generalist delivery, externally provided physical activity programmes (EPPAPs) are potentially an effective method for offering primary school students specialist physical education (PE) instruction, as well as providing training for generalist classroom teachers. In the present study, a group of generalist teachers were interviewed…
Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Nisar, Hiren
School districts required under No Child Left Behind (NCLB) to provide supplemental educational services (SES) to students in schools that are not making adequate yearly progress rely heavily on the private sector to offer choice in services. If the market does not drive out ineffective providers, students may not gain through SES participation.…
Watson, Donnie W.; Rawson, Richard R.; Rataemane, Solomon; Shafer, Michael S.; Obert, Jeanne; Bisesi, Lorrie; Tanamly, Susie
This paper presents a rationale for the use of a distance education approach in the clinical training of community substance abuse treatment providers. Developing and testing new approaches to the clinical training and supervision of providers is important in the substance abuse treatment field where new information is always available. A…
DePalma, R; Francis, D A
In South Africa, high pregnancy and infection rates show that many teenagers are having sex, and that they are not adequately protecting themselves against undesired pregnancies and disease. Sex education is usually taught as part of the subject area Life Orientation. In a qualitative study of 25 Life Orientation teachers in the South African Free State Province, we used semi-structured interviews to explore the ways in which these teachers understand gender to be a factor in learners' experiences of sexuality. Our analysis draws upon the conceptual framework of heteronormativity, a key aspect of which is that girls and boys are socialized into different gender roles in ways that propagate the patriarchy, and these are largely viewed as part of the natural order of things. Our data revealed a tendency for teachers to cast boys as largely predatory and girls as victims of sexual predation, either by their peers or by older boys or men. Although these assumptions reflect some of the everyday experiences in South Africa and many other countries, these expectations may be transmitted and reinforced unconsciously in well-meaning educational interventions meant to protect girls. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Andrade, Heloísa Helena Siqueira Monteiro; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Sousa, Maria Helena; Makuch, Maria Yolanda; Bertoni, Neilane; Faúndes, Anibal
This paper describes an evaluation of possible changes in sexual behavior in adolescents who participated in a school-based sex education program in selected public schools in four municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The program is inserted within the context of reproductive rights, deals with risks involved in unsafe sexual practices and focuses on the positive aspects of sexuality. A quasi-experimental design with pre and post-tests and a non-equivalent control group was used to evaluate the intervention. A total of 4,795 questionnaires were included in this analysis. The program succeeded in more than doubling consistent condom use with casual partners and in increasing the use of modern contraceptives during last intercourse by 68%. The intervention had no effect on age at first intercourse or on adolescents' engagement in sexual activities. The sex education program was effective in generating positive changes in the sexual behavior of adolescents, while not stimulating participation in sexual activities.
Pogačnik Janežič, Olga
In the thesis, we discuss the work of special education teachers, who provide extra professional support to children in need. Limitations and weaknesses of their work are also reviewed. Many factors, including changes in the general system of education, parents’ high expectations, unpleasant classroom circumstances, high amount of work tasks and employment uncertainty are just a few of the factors that lead to higher amounts of work-related stress and burnout syndrome. The purpose of the thes...
Devonshire, Elizabeth; Henderson, Sarah E
1. Health professionals need access to flexible, high-quality, advanced education in pain management. 2. There are multiple pedagogical distances to be negotiated in the delivery of effective postgraduate education. 3. A critical consideration in the design and delivery of effective online learning for postgraduate education in pain management is how to: actively engage students in the learning process; and encourage students to become lifelong learners. 4. Conceptual frameworks for encouraging student interaction online provide a useful tool in the design of postgraduate online learning activities.
Full Text Available In South Africa many learners are denied the right to basic education because of the levying of school fees and other educational charges, in spite of the international obligation imposed on government to provide free primary education. This article examines the exact nature and extent of this obligation by exploring the concept of "free" basic education. The applicable international instruments and their interpretation as well as the significance of the right to education as a central, facilitative right are examined in order to establish the content of the right to basic education and the legal obligations that ensue. Against this background, the implications of the South African Constitutional Court's approach to the realisation of socio-economic rights and the possibility of the establishment of a core minimum obligation are analysed. It is argued that learners in South Africa may come from different socio-economic backgrounds but as learners in the same public school domain and as equal bearers of their constitutional right to basic education all of them are entitled to the same type and quality of free basic education.
Vera Márcia Marques Santos
Full Text Available This article is an excerpt from the systematization of doctoral research which established dialogues on continuing education, and pedagogical practices of teachers and teachers in Brazil and Portugal, where it presents speech applicant that "intuition and sensitivity" refer pedagogical practices of teachers / as regards the manifestations of sexuality in school premises. The speech that gave rise to the theory that motivated the research comes from the speech of teachers and teachers from different districts of a state in southern Brazil, from the spaces of initial training in pedagogy courses in the distance mode, where it had a student body made up of teachers that the time attending higher education. We opted for qualitative research, where one can see that the sensitivity and intuition does not replace the knowledge and training, but can be important elements for making pedagogical careful regarding the issues surrounding sexuality in the educational process.
Barroso, C; Simonetti, C; Vieira, E
This study describes group discussions of female sexuality held in a Sao Paulo Mothers' Club for the purpose of educating participants and producing educational pamphlets for publication. The participant research methodology is an attempt to integrate feminism with academic practice; the research is to be used to improve the condition of the research subjects and the research process itself is seen as educational. Participants were 8-15 low-income housewives 25-33 years old, with low level reading skills. In a series of discussion meetings, topics of interest identified included the physiology of the human body, sex education of children, and methods of contraception. Drafts of pamphlets and illustrations were presented for the immediate feedback of the group. Additional topics included the role of women in the family and society, women's rights, traditional class beliefs and myths about sexuality, medical care and examinations, and self-examination. 5 pamphlets and an accompanying manual for their use were produced for distribution to women's groups throughout Brazil. These include: Understanding Our Body; Do I want to be a Mother?; When Children Ask Certain Things; A gynecological Exam; and Much Pleasure.
Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena
This summary brings together the relevant key findings for tertiary education providers and school educators from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between…
Wiener, Lori; Weaver, Meaghann Shaw; Bell, Cynthia J; Sansom-Daly, Ursula M
Medical providers are trained to investigate, diagnose, and treat cancer. Their primary goal is to maximize the chances of curing the patient, with less training provided on palliative care concepts and the unique developmental needs inherent in this population. Early, systematic integration of palliative care into standard oncology practice represents a valuable, imperative approach to improving the overall cancer experience for adolescents and young adults (AYAs). The importance of competent, confident, and compassionate providers for AYAs warrants the development of effective educational strategies for teaching AYA palliative care. Just as palliative care should be integrated early in the disease trajectory of AYA patients, palliative care training should be integrated early in professional development of trainees. As the AYA age spectrum represents sequential transitions through developmental stages, trainees experience changes in their learning needs during their progression through sequential phases of training. This article reviews unique epidemiologic, developmental, and psychosocial factors that make the provision of palliative care especially challenging in AYAs. A conceptual framework is provided for AYA palliative care education. Critical instructional strategies including experiential learning, group didactic opportunity, shared learning among care disciplines, bereaved family members as educators, and online learning are reviewed. Educational issues for provider training are addressed from the perspective of the trainer, trainee, and AYA. Goals and objectives for an AYA palliative care cancer rotation are presented. Guidance is also provided on ways to support an AYA's quality of life as end of life nears.
Shah, Manish N; Swanson, Peter A; Nobay, Flavia; Peterson, Lars-Kristofer N; Caprio, Thomas V; Karuza, Jurgis
Despite caring for large numbers of older adults, prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) providers receive minimal geriatrics-specific training while obtaining their certification. Studies have shown that they desire further training to improve their comfort level and knowledge in caring for older adults, but continuing education programs to address these needs must account for each EMS provider's specific needs, consider each provider's learning styles, and provide an engaging, interactive experience. A novel, Internet-based, video podcast-based geriatric continuing education program was developed and implemented for EMS providers, and their perceived value of the program was evaluated. They found this resource to be highly valuable and were strongly supportive of the modality and the specific training provided. Some reported technical challenges and the inability to engage in a discussion to clarify topics as barriers. It was felt that both of these barriers could be addressed through programmatic and technological revisions. This study demonstrates the proof of concept of video podcast training to address deficiencies in EMS education regarding the care of older adults, although further work is needed to demonstrate the educational effect of video podcasts on the knowledge and skills of trainees. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.
Nottingham, Sara; Henning, Jolene
Context Providing students with feedback is an important component of athletic training clinical education; however, little information is known about the feedback that Approved Clinical Instructors (ACIs; now known as preceptors) currently provide to athletic training students (ATSs). Objective To characterize the feedback provided by ACIs to ATSs during clinical education experiences. Design Qualitative study. Setting One National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletic training facility and 1 outpatient rehabilitation clinic that were clinical sites for 1 entry-level master's degree program accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Patients or Other Participants A total of 4 ACIs with various experience levels and 4 second-year ATSs. Data Collection and Analysis Extensive field observations were audio recorded, transcribed, and integrated with field notes for analysis. The constant comparative approach of open, axial, and selective coding was used to inductively analyze data and develop codes and categories. Member checking, triangulation, and peer debriefing were used to promote trustworthiness of the study. Results The ACIs gave 88 feedback statements in 45 hours and 10 minutes of observation. Characteristics of feedback categories included purpose, timing, specificity, content, form, and privacy. Conclusions Feedback that ACIs provided included several components that made each feedback exchange unique. The ACIs in our study provided feedback that is supported by the literature, suggesting that ACIs are using current recommendations for providing feedback. Feedback needs to be investigated across multiple athletic training education programs to gain more understanding of certain areas of feedback, including frequency, privacy, and form. PMID:24143902
Lozano-Verduzco, Ignacio; Rosales Mendoza, Adriana Leona
This paper addresses how educational and cultural contexts incorporate lessons around sexuality, particularly sexual and gender identity, and how these contexts impact on identity construction of gay men in Mexico City. We analyse the experiences of 15 gay men reported through semi-structured in-depth interviews and how they incorporate sexuality…
Hansen, Matthew; Meckler, Garth; Dickinson, Caitlyn; Dickenson, Kathryn; Jui, Jonathan; Lambert, William; Guise, Jeanne-Marie
Emergency medical services (EMS) providers may have critical knowledge gaps in pediatric care due to lack of exposure and training. There is currently little evidence to guide educators to the knowledge gaps that most need to be addressed to improve patient safety. The objective of this study was to identify educational needs of EMS providers related to pediatric care in various domains in order to inform development of curricula. The Children's Safety Initiative-EMS performed a three-phase Delphi survey on patient safety in pediatric emergencies among providers and content experts in pediatric emergency care, including physicians, nurses, and prehospital providers of all levels. Each round included questions related to educational needs of providers or the effect of training on patient safety events. We identified knowledge gaps in the following domains: case exposure, competency and knowledge, assessment and decision making, and critical thinking and proficiency. Individual knowledge gaps were ranked by portion of respondents who ranked them "highly likely" (Likert-type score 7-10 out of 10) to contribute to safety events. There were 737 respondents who were included in analysis of the first phase of the survey. Paramedics were 50.8% of respondents, EMT-basics/first responders were 22%, and physicians 11.4%. The top educational priorities identified in the final round of the survey include pediatric airway management, responder anxiety when working with children, and general pediatric skills among providers. The top three needs in decision-making include knowing when to alter plans mid-course, knowing when to perform an advanced airway, and assessing pain in children. The top 3 technical or procedural skills needs were pediatric advanced airway, neonatal resuscitation, and intravenous/intraosseous access. For neonates, specific educational needs identified included knowing appropriate vital signs and preventing hypothermia. This is the first large-scale Delphi
Zarzoso-Lacoste, Diane; Jan, Pierre-Loup; Lehnen, Lisa; Girard, Thomas; Besnard, Anne-Laure; Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Petit, Eric J
Monitoring wild populations is crucial for their effective management. Noninvasive genetic methods provide robust data from individual free-ranging animals, which can be used in capture-mark-recapture (CMR) models to estimate demographic parameters without capturing or disturbing them. However, sex- and status-specific behaviour, which may lead to differences in detection probabilities, is rarely considered in monitoring. Here, we investigated population size, sex ratio, sex- and status-related behaviour in 19 Rhinolophus hipposideros maternity colonies (Northern France) with a noninvasive genetic CMR approach (using faeces) combined with parentage assignments. The use of the DDX3X/Y-Mam sexual marker designed in this study, which shows inter- and intrachromosomal length polymorphism across placental mammals, together with eight polymorphic microsatellite markers, produced high-quality genetic data with limited genotyping errors and allowed us to reliably distinguish different categories of individuals (males, reproductive and nonreproductive females) and to estimate population sizes. We showed that visual counts represent well-adult female numbers and that population composition in maternity colonies changes dynamically during the summer. Before parturition, colonies mainly harbour pregnant and nonpregnant females with a few visiting males, whereas after parturition, colonies are mainly composed of mothers and their offspring with a few visiting nonmothers and males. Our approach gives deeper insight into sex- and status-specific behaviour, a prerequisite for understanding population dynamics and developing effective monitoring and management strategies. Provided sufficient samples can be obtained, this approach can be readily applied to a wide range of species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
To explore diabetes nurse educators' experiences of providing care for women, with gestational diabetes mellitus, from disadvantaged backgrounds and to gather information which would assist with the development of an educational programme that would support both women and diabetes educators. Rates of gestational diabetes mellitus have increased dramatically in recent years. This is concerning as gestational diabetes mellitus is linked to poorer pregnancy outcomes including hypertension, stillbirth, and nursery admission. Poorest outcomes occur among disadvantaged women. gestational diabetes mellitus is also associated with maternal type 2 diabetes and with child obesity and type 2 diabetes among offspring. Effective self-management of gestational diabetes mellitus reduces these risks. Diabetes nurse educators provide most education and support for gestational diabetes mellitus self-management. An interpretative phenomenological analysis approach, as espoused by Smith and Osborn (Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Research Methods, 2008, Sage, London, 51), provided the framework for this study. The views of six diabetes educators were explored through in-depth interviewing. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed according to steps outlined by Smith and Osborn (Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Research Methods, 2008, Sage, London, 51). Three themes emerged from the data: (1) working in a suboptimal environment, (2) working to address the difficulties and (3) looking to the future. Throughout, the diabetes nurse educators sought opportunities to connect with women in their care and to make the educational content understandable and meaningful. Low literacy among disadvantaged women has a significant impact on their understanding of gestational diabetes mellitus information. In turn, catering for women with low literacy contributes to increased workloads for diabetes nurse educators, making them vulnerable to burnout. There is a need
Bolden, Shenell L. T.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine key stakeholders' perceptions of the current Baltimore City Public Schools' (BCPS) sex education curriculum and to gain insight into how they believe the curriculum could be modified to be more effective. A mixed methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data collection consisting of a survey, focus group interview, and individual interviews was conducted to gather information on stakeholders' perceptions. The stakeholders included: (1) former students who received their sex education courses in the Baltimore City Public School system (BCPS); (2) teachers in BCPS who were affiliated with the sex education curriculum; (3) health care professionals who screened and/or treated East Baltimore City residents for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and; (4) one policy maker who was responsible for creating sex education curriculum at the national level. Analysis of the quantitative data from former Baltimore City Public School students revealed a general satisfaction with the current sex education curriculum. However, qualitative data from the same group of stakeholders revealed several changes they thought should be implemented into the program in an effort to improve the current curriculum. Findings from the other groups after qualitative analysis of the interviews suggest three major themes in support of curriculum change: (1) a blended curriculum that integrates both the cognitive and affective learning domains; (2) knowledge of prevention of STD's and pregnancy; and (3) authentic teaching and learning. Results from this study strongly suggest that the Baltimore City Public School system is apathetic to the sexual health needs of students and, therefore, is inadvertently contributing to the high rate of sexually transmitted diseases among young people. Keywords: Abstinence, Affective domain, Indoctrination, Behavior Modification, Cognitive domain, Sex education curriculum, Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
Morgan-thomas, R; Overs, C
Most sex work research examines the impact of HIV on prostitutes and on society and involves testing prostitutes for HIV antibodies, but it does not examine the role of others in the sex industry. Sex industry workers include female prostitutes, transvestites, transsexuals, and male prostitutes, bar and brothel owners, taxi drivers, sex workers' partners, and sex business managers. Since sex workers provide sexual services to clients, they are in a perfect position to teach them about sexual health. Society must recognize that we cannot wish the sex industry away and that we need an effective health promotion strategy now. Some successful relevant AIDS education campaigns provide us some guidelines on how to develop campaigns. Any campaign targeting the sex industry should also target the public. Sex workers should participate in developing health messages and educational activities. They should also participate in the project. Any campaign must deal with major obstacles to safer sexual practices of which sex workers are aware and be consulted. Common obstacles are client demand for unprotected sex and irregular and inadequate supply of inexpensive condoms. A health promotion strategy cannot be effective, however, if sex workers do not have access to social support and health care services. Health promotion workers should also encourage local authorities to end discrimination of sex workers so they can freely obtain needed services. In some countries, sex workers operate fantasy workshops providing peers with ideas to sell sex services which reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Other campaigns distribute safer sex messages on small cards, cigarette lighters, key rings, condom packages, and T shirts. Training of sex workers other than prostitutes to reinforce safer sex messages to clients is also effective, e.g., taxi drivers can say they will take a client to a woman who uses condoms rather than to a clean girl. Street theater and puppets have also successfully
Alicea-Planas, Jessica; Pose, Alix; Smith, Linda
The rapid increase of diverse patients living in the US has created a different set of needs in healthcare, with the persistence of health disparities continuing to challenge the current system. Chronic disease management has been discussed as a way to improve health outcomes, with quality patient education being a key component. Using a community based participatory research framework, this study utilized a web-based survey and explored clinical staff perceptions of barriers to providing patient education during primary care visits. With a response rate of nearly 42 %, appointment time allotment seemed to be one of the most critical factors related to the delivery of health education and should be considered key. The importance of team-based care and staff training were also significant. Various suggestions were made in order to improve the delivery of quality patient education at community health centers located in underserved areas.
Lewis, Jane; Knijn, Trudie
Sex education in The Netherlands and in the UK  has attracted attention because of the huge differences between the teenage pregnancy rates. There are substantial similarities in the way in which sex education is structured in the two countries, and yet the approach to the subject is very different. We used documentary sources and interviews to explore the political debates; compared both science and PSE texts aimed at 14–15-year-olds; and carried out exploratory field work in three second...
Legere, Laura E; Wallace, Katherine; Bowen, Angela; McQueen, Karen; Montgomery, Phyllis; Evans, Marilyn
Perinatal depression is the most common mental illness experienced by pregnant and postpartum women, yet it is often under-detected and under-treated. Some researchers suggest this may be partly influenced by a lack of education and professional development on perinatal depression among health-care providers, which can negatively affect care and contribute to stigmatization of women experiencing altered mood. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to provide a synthesis of educational and professional development needs and strategies for health-care providers in perinatal depression. A systematic search of the literature was conducted in seven academic health databases using selected keywords. The search was limited to primary studies and reviews published in English between January 2006 and May/June 2015, with a focus on perinatal depression education and professional development for health-care providers. Studies were screened for inclusion by two reviewers and tie-broken by a third. Studies that met inclusion criteria were quality appraised and data extracted. Results from the studies are reported through narrative synthesis. Two thousand one hundred five studies were returned from the search, with 1790 remaining after duplicate removal. Ultimately, 12 studies of moderate and weak quality met inclusion criteria. The studies encompassed quantitative (n = 11) and qualitative (n = 1) designs, none of which were reviews, and addressed educational needs identified by health-care providers (n = 5) and strategies for professional development in perinatal mental health (n = 7). Consistently, providers identified a lack of formal education in perinatal mental health and the need for further professional development. Although the professional development interventions were diverse, the majority focused on promoting identification of perinatal depression and demonstrated modest effectiveness in improving various outcomes. This systematic review reveals a
Ramchandani, Neesha; Johnson, Kim; Cullen, Karen; Hamm, Terri; Bisordi, Jean; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan
Purpose The purpose of this article is to describe the 4 Parent Education Through Simulation-Diabetes (PETS-D) nurse certified diabetes educators' (CDEs) perspectives of teaching parents of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) early diabetes management skills using formal vignettes and a human patient simulator/human patient simulation (HPS) to augment/enhance the teaching-learning process. Methods A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Four CDEs were interviewed by phone about their teaching experiences. Meticulous notes were taken. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The vignettes (and use of HPS) provided structure, especially for parents who were struggling to learn. Certified diabetes educators described a short learning curve to master the use of the HPS manikin. Human patient simulation-enhanced education was described as helpful for teaching multiple caregivers about diabetes. Certified diabetes educators also described factors that affect parent learning, mechanical issues with the HPS, and additional space requirements for HPS-enhanced education. Conclusion Vignettes and HPS-enhanced education can successfully be used to educate parents of children with new-onset T1DM and were preferred by the CDEs when compared with previous teaching strategies. The results of this study support the use of both vignette-based and HPS-enhanced education when a child is newly diagnosed with T1DM. Further studies need to be done to see if these effects persist with different populations, during different stages of the disease, and for individuals with other chronic illnesses.
Tai, Bik-Wai Bilvick; Hata, Micah; Wu, Stephanie; Frausto, Sonya; Law, Anandi V
Lack of familiarity with proper medication disposal options among patients can lead to personal and environmental safety concerns, besides signalling non-adherence. Given that community pharmacists are in a position to educate patients, this study assessed community pharmacists' knowledge on medication disposal and examined the utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in predicting their intention to provide medication disposal education to their patients. A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was distributed to community pharmacists in California. Descriptive statistics were reported for all survey items. Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation were used to determine the reliability for the four TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and intention). Multiple linear regressions were performed to predict intent using the other three TPB constructs. Pharmacists (n = 142) demonstrated a positive intention to provide education (mean = 5.91 ± 1.22; range: 2 to 8), but most (67.9%) provided this information once a month or less. Attitude (β = 0.266, P = 0.001), subjective norm (β = 0.333, P behavioural control (β = 0.211, P = 0.009) were significant predictors of intention, accounting for 40.8% of the variance in intention to provide disposal education. Scale reliability ranged from 0.596 to 0.619 for the four constructs. Few pharmacists accurately selected all of the appropriate recommendations of disposal for non-controlled and controlled substances (15.9% and 10.1%, respectively). Pharmacists showed favourable attitude, subjective norm, perceived behaviour control and intention in providing such education. However, their knowledge in this area may be lacking and they are not consistently providing this information to their patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.
In 2004, The Commission on Dental Accreditation adopted new standards for dental and dental hygiene education programs to ensure the preparation of practitioners to provide oral health services for persons with special health care needs. The course of action leading to the adoption of the new standards, together with the continuing obstacles of…
Constructivism and constructionism are two distinct epistemologies. Yet, within religious education many have tended to use these terms interchangeably or as being complementary to one another. This article provides conceptual clarity in relation to both epistemologies by comparing each in terms of their origins and epistemological premises, their…
Dyson, Ben; Gordon, Barrie; Cowan, Jackie; McKenzie, Allison
Within Aotearoa/New Zealand primary schools, External Providers (EPs) have steadily increased their influence on physical education. The purpose of this study was to explore and interpret classroom teachers' perspectives of EPs in their primary school. The research team obtained questionnaire responses from 487 classroom teachers from 133…
Clark, Alena; Anderson, Jennifer; Adams, Elizabeth; Baker, Susan; Barrett, Karen
Objective: Determine child care providers' infant feeding knowledge, attitude and behavior changes after viewing the infant feeding Web site and determine the effectiveness of the Web site and bilingual educational materials. Design: Intervention and control groups completed an on-line pretest survey, viewed a Web site for 3 months, and completed…
Noller, Jennifer M
Childcare services provide ideal settings to promote good oral health and help reduce tooth decay in young children. This paper reports the results of an evaluation of the dental information session component of the NSW Little Smiles Program provided by public oral health service professionals to childcare educators in NSW in 2010-2011. The evaluation sought to determine if a face-to-face information session provided to childcare educators by oral health professionals: (i) can improve the confidence of childcare educators to reach national quality standards that relate to oral health; and (ii) is an appropriate model to use. In 2010-2011, 163 dental information sessions were provided to 1716 participants from over 526 childcare centres across NSW. Results showed that a dental information session can improve the confidence of childcare educators to assist their service to reach the required national quality standards for oral hygiene and diet-related oral health issues. Further evaluation is required to determine if oral health can be embedded in the daily practice of childcare services and other options need to be explored to deliver the sessions in a more cost-effective way.
Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga
This qualitative study has as its focus an exploration of health service providers' perceptions and experiences of the processes and implications of delivering workplace cultural diversity education for staff. Data were obtained from conducting in-depth individual and focus group interviews with a purposeful sample of 137 healthcare professionals,…
Ingalls, Lawrence; Hammond, Helen; Trussell, Robert P.
This study investigated the past special education programs and services provided to children and youth who later became incarcerated. Participants in this study were inmates from a medium security state correctional facility in the southwest region of the United States. All inmates involved in this study were identified as having a disability and…
Compton, David A.; Whitehead, Michael B.
Much is written about the availability of healthcare services among elements of the U.S. population, with a large proportion of the literature focusing on access. Although physical access is an overarching issue for many, educators must remember that a key factor in providing complete and competent healthcare is to understand the patient and any…
Zappalà, G; Measso, G; Cavarzeran, F; Grigoletto, F; Lebowitz, B; Pirozzolo, F; Amaducci, L; Massari, D; Crook, T
The associate learning subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; Benton's Visual Retention test and a Controlled Word Association Task (FAS) were administered to a random sample of normal, healthy individuals whose age ranged from 20 to 79 years, recruited within the Italian peninsula. The neuropsychological examination took place on a mobile unit and the tests were given by the same team of neuropsychologists to reduce variability among examiners. The Research Project was known as Progetto Memoria. Corrections to the scores of these tests were calculated for age, sex, and education. These corrected values will allow clinicians to screen for memory impairment with greater precision among normally aging individuals, thus improving differential diagnosis between physiologic and pathologic deterioration of cognitive functions.
In July 1977, the Ontario Humans Rights Commission recommended adding sexual orientation to the Code. This move was generally supported but Toronto newspapers and evangelists sought assurances that school boards could still dismiss homosexual teachers. They demanded children be shielded from gay teachers, who they accused of sexual predation. I historically link this to a reenergized fear of homosexuals which emerged during Toronto sex education debates in the 1970s. Later, influenced by Anita Bryant's Save the Children crusade, Toronto newspapers and evangelists argued gay teachers were the dangerous effect of gay rights. After the 1977 murder of Emanuel Jaques and the publication of Gerald Hannon's "Men Loving Boys, Loving Men" article, anti-gay sentiment in Toronto exploded, temporarily halting the progress of gay rights.
Otten, Jennifer J; Hirsch, Tad; Lim, Catherine
With the majority of US children enrolled in some form of early care and education, the settings for early care and education represent a valuable opportunity to positively impact young children's diets and their interactions with food. Little evidence exists on how early care and education providers make food purchasing and service decisions for this population of young children. Our aim was to explore the factors that influence early care and education providers' food purchasing and service decisions. A qualitative design consisting of individual, in-person, and semi-structured interviews with providers and on-site observations was used. Sixteen early care and education providers-selected across a variety of characteristics that might affect food selection (eg, size of site, participation in reimbursement programs, presence of staff assigned to foodservice) using maximum variation purposive sampling-based in the Puget Sound region, Washington, were interviewed from June to September 2014. Provider perspectives on food purchasing and service decisions. Inductive analysis of transcribed interviews using TAMS Analyzer software (GPL version 2, 2012) to identify themes. Ten main influencers emerged from the data. These were grouped into four categories based on an ecological framework: macro-level environments (ie, regulations; suppliers and vendors, including stores); physical environment and settings (ie, organizational mission, budget, and structure; the facility itself); social environments (ie, professional networks; peers; the site-specific parent and child community); and individual factors at both a provider and child-level (ie, providers' skills, behaviors, motivations, attitudes, knowledge, and values; child food preferences; and, child allergies). A model was then developed to identify potential pathways of intervention and underscore the need for a comprehensive approach to improve early care and education nutrition. This study suggests that a more
Casas, Laura; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Irigoien, Xabier
Clownfishes are an excellent model system for investigating the genetic mechanism governing hermaphroditism and socially-controlled sex change in their natural environment because they are broadly distributed and strongly site-attached. Genomic tools, such as genetic linkage maps, allow fine-mapping of loci involved in molecular pathways underlying these reproductive processes. In this study, a high-density genetic map of Amphiprion bicinctus was constructed with 3146 RAD markers in a full-sib family organized in 24 robust linkage groups which correspond to the haploid chromosome number of the species. The length of the map was 4294.71 cM, with an average marker interval of 1.38 cM. The clownfish linkage map showed various levels of conserved synteny and collinearity with the genomes of Asian and European seabass, Nile tilapia and stickleback. The map provided a platform to investigate the genomic position of genes with differential expression during sex change in A. bicinctus. This study aims to bridge the gap of genome-scale information for this iconic group of species to facilitate the study of the main gene regulatory networks governing social sex change and gonadal restructuring in protandrous hermaphrodites.
Clownfishes are an excellent model system for investigating the genetic mechanism governing hermaphroditism and socially-controlled sex change in their natural environment because they are broadly distributed and strongly site-attached. Genomic tools, such as genetic linkage maps, allow fine-mapping of loci involved in molecular pathways underlying these reproductive processes. In this study, a high-density genetic map of Amphiprion bicinctus was constructed with 3146 RAD markers in a full-sib family organized in 24 robust linkage groups which correspond to the haploid chromosome number of the species. The length of the map was 4294.71 cM, with an average marker interval of 1.38 cM. The clownfish linkage map showed various levels of conserved synteny and collinearity with the genomes of Asian and European seabass, Nile tilapia and stickleback. The map provided a platform to investigate the genomic position of genes with differential expression during sex change in A. bicinctus. This study aims to bridge the gap of genome-scale information for this iconic group of species to facilitate the study of the main gene regulatory networks governing social sex change and gonadal restructuring in protandrous hermaphrodites.
Eleftheriou, Anastasia; Bullock, Seth; Graham, Cynthia A; Ingham, Roger
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are ongoing concerns. The best method for preventing the transmission of these infections is the correct and consistent use of condoms. Few studies have explored the use of games in interventions for increasing condom use by challenging the false sense of security associated with judging the presence of an STI based on attractiveness. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the potential use of computer simulation as a serious game for sex education. Specific aims were to (1) study the influence of a newly designed serious game on self-rated confidence for assessing STI risk and (2) examine whether this varied by gender, age, and scores on sexuality-related personality trait measures. This paper undertook a Web-based questionnaire study employing between and within subject analyses. A Web-based platform hosted in the United Kingdom was used to deliver male and female stimuli (facial photographs) and collect data. A convenience sample group of 66 participants (64%, 42/66) male, mean age 22.5 years) completed the Term on the Tides, a computer simulation developed for this study. Participants also completed questionnaires on demographics, sexual preferences, sexual risk evaluations, the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), and the Sexual Inhibition Subscale 2 (SIS2) of the Sexual Inhibition/Sexual Excitation Scales-Short Form (SIS/SES - SF). The overall confidence of participants to evaluate sexual risks reduced after playing the game (Psimulations as a serious game for sex education. Engaging in the Term on the Tides game had an impact on participants' confidence in evaluating sexual risks. ©Anastasia Eleftheriou, Seth Bullock, Cynthia A Graham, Roger Ingham. Originally published in JMIR Serious Games (http://games.jmir.org), 03.05.2017.
Angela M. Trepanier
Full Text Available The Michigan Department of Health and Human Services implemented and evaluated two initiatives designed to enhance provider knowledge of patients appropriate for breast and/or ovarian cancer genetic risk assessment and hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC syndrome testing. The first initiative targeted select providers who had diagnosed patients meeting HBOC risk criteria. Specifically, the initiative used 2008–2009 state cancer registry data to identify all providers who had diagnosed breast cancers in women ≤50 years of age, male breast cancers, and ovarian cancers in four health systems with newly established cancer genetics clinics. Using a method coined bidirectional reporting (BDR, reports highlighting how many of these cases each provider had seen were generated and mailed. Reports on 475 cancers (9.5% of the 5005 cases statewide meeting criteria were sent to 69 providers with information about how and why to refer such patients for genetic counseling. Providers who received a report were contacted to assess whether the reports increased awareness or resulted in action (genetic counseling/referral. Based on the few responses received, despite multiple attempts to contact, and attrition rate, it is not possible to ascertain the impact of this initiative on providers. However the project resulted in the MDHHS identifying which providers see the largest proportion of at-risk patients, creating an opportunity to target those providers with HBOC education efforts. The second initiative involved creating and broadly disseminating an online, interactive case-based educational module to increase awareness and referral decisions for HBOC using high- and low-risk patient scenarios. A total of 1835 unique users accessed the module in a one year. Collectively the users viewed topic pages 2724 times and the interactive case studies 1369 times. Point of care tools (fact sheets were viewed 1624 times and downloaded 764 times. Satisfaction
Full Text Available This study aims to give a deeper understanding on emerging business models in the context of education. Industry 4.0/the Industrial Internet in general and especially recent advances in cloud computing enable a new kind of service offering in the education sector and lead to new business models for education: Education-as-a-Service (EaaS. Within EaaS, learning, and teaching contents are delivered as services. By combining a literature review with a qualitative case study, this paper makes a three-fold contribution to the field of business models in education: First, we provide a theoretical definition for a common understanding of EaaS. Second, we present the state-of-the-art research on this new paradigm. Third, in the case study we describe a “best practices” business model of an existing EaaS provider. These insights build a theoretical foundation for further research in this area. The paper concludes with a research agenda for further research in this emerging field.
Goldstein, Zil; Corneil, Trevor A; Greene, Dina N
Transgender is an umbrella term used to describe individuals who identify with a gender incongruent to or variant from their sex recorded at birth. Affirming gender identity through a variety of social, medical, and surgical interventions is critical to the mental health of transgender individuals. In recent years, awareness surrounding transgender identities has increased, which has highlighted the health disparities that parallel this demographic. These disparities are reflected in the experience of transgender patients and their providers when seeking clinical laboratory services. Little is known about the effect of gender-affirming hormone therapy and surgery on optimal laboratory test interpretation. Efforts to diminish health disparities encountered by transgender individuals and their providers can be accomplished by increasing social and clinical awareness regarding sex/gender incongruence and gaining insight into the physiological manifestations and laboratory interpretations of gender-affirming strategies. This review summarizes knowledge required to understand transgender healthcare including current clinical interventions for gender dysphoria. Particular attention is paid to the subsequent impact of these interventions on laboratory test utilization and interpretation. Common nomenclature and system barriers are also discussed. Understanding gender incongruence, the clinical changes associated with gender transition, and systemic barriers that maintain a gender/sex binary are key to providing adequate healthcare to transgender community. Transgender appropriate reference interval studies are virtually absent within the medical literature and should be explored. The laboratory has an important role in improving the physiological understanding, electronic medical system recognition, and overall social awareness of the transgender community. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.
Andrea L. Brookhart
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact pharmacist-provided screening and education had on patient knowledge of osteoporosis and preventive strategies. Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted at 16 locations of a national supermarket chain pharmacy in the Richmond, Virginia area. Women 30 years and older with no history of osteoporosis were enrolled in the study. Patients self-selected into the study by agreeing to the bone density screening, pharmacist-provided education, and completion of a knowledge survey. Subjects were randomized to complete the osteoporosis-related knowledge survey either before (Group A or after (Group B the screening and education session. The survey was developed after guideline and literature evaluation and was pretested with a group of patients for content and clarity. The survey evaluated knowledge of osteoporosis, risk factors for the disease, appropriate age for testing, and preventive strategies. Groups A and B were compared using t-tests. Results: A total of 110 women were enrolled in the study. The mean (±SD age was 52.5 ± 13.1 years in Group A (n=52 and 52.7 ± 11.5 years in Group B (n=58. Knowledge scores were higher in the group who received pharmacist-provided education prior to completing the survey in each category (knowledge of the disease, risk factors, preventive strategies, and appropriate age for testing and overall (p<0.001. Conclusions: Community pharmacist-provided osteoporosis screening and education increased patient knowledge about osteoporosis and preventive strategies. Community pharmacist involvement with increasing patient knowledge may empower patients to engage in prevention strategies to improve bone mass. Type: Original Research
Taber, Traci A; Lambright, Nathan; Luiselli, James K
We evaluated the effects of abbreviated (i.e., one-session) video modeling on delivery of student-preferred attention by educational care-providers. The video depicted a novel care-provider interacting with and delivering attention to the student. Within a concurrent multiple baseline design, video modeling increased delivery of the targeted attention for all participants as well as their delivery of another type of attention that was not trained although these effects were variable within and between care-providers. We discuss the clinical and training implications from these findings.
Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Alavi Majd, Hamid
The sex lives of women are strongly affected by menopause. Non-pharmacologic approaches to improving the sexual function of postmenopausal women might prove effective. To compare two methods of intervention (formal sex education and Kegel exercises) with routine postmenopausal care services in a randomized clinical trial. A randomized clinical trial was conducted of 145 postmenopausal women residing in Chalus and Noshahr, Iran. Their sexual function statuses were assessed using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. After obtaining written informed consents, they were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (i) formal sex education, (ii) Kegel exercises, or (iii) routine postmenopausal care. After 12 weeks, all participants completed the FSFI again. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the participants' sexual function before and after the interventions, and multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the predictive factors for variation in FSFI scores in the postintervention stage. Sexual function was assessed using the FSFI. There were no statistically significant differences in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and FSFI total scores among the three study groups at the outset of the study. After 12 weeks, the scores of arousal in the formal sex education and Kegel groups were significantly higher compared with the control group (3.38 and 3.15 vs 2.77, respectively). The scores of orgasm and satisfaction in the Kegel group were significantly higher compared with the control group (4.43 and 4.88 vs 3.95 and 4.39, respectively). Formal sex education and Kegel exercises were used as two non-pharmacologic approaches to improve the sexual function of women after menopause. The main strength of this study was its design: a well-organized randomized trial using precise eligibility criteria with a small sample loss. The second strength was the methods of intervention used, namely non-pharmacologic approaches that are
Murphy, Judy I; Nimmagadda, Jayashree
Learning to effectively communicate and work with other professionals requires skill, yet interprofessional education is often not included in the undergraduate healthcare provider curriculum. Simulation is an effective pedagogy to bring students from multiple professions together for learning. This article describes a pilot study where nursing and social work students learned together in a simulated learning activity, which was evaluated to by the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). The RIPLS was used before and after the simulated activity to determine if this form of education impacted students' perceptions of readiness to learn together. Students from both professions improved in their RIPLS scores. Students were also asked to identify their interprofessional strengths and challenges before and after the simulation. Changes were identified in qualitative data where reports of strengths and challenges indicated learning and growth had occurred. In conclusion, this pilot study suggests that interprofessional simulation can be an effective method to integrate Interprofessional Education Collaborative core competencies into the curriculum.
Strasburger, Victor C
In the absence of effective sex education in the United States, the media have arguably become the leading sex educator for children and teenagers. Considerable research now exists that attests to the ability of the media to influence adolescents' attitudes and beliefs about sex and sexuality. In addition, new research has found a significant link between exposure to sexual content in the media and earlier onset of sexual intercourse. Although there is little research on the behavioral effects of "new" media, they are discussed as well. Suggestions for clinicians, parents, the federal government, and the entertainment industry are provided.
Chen, Shu-Ping; Krupa, Terry; Lysaght, Rosemary; McCay, Elizabeth; Piat, Myra
Mental health system transformation toward a recovery-orientation has created a demand for education to equip providers with recovery competencies. This report describes the development of a recovery education program designed specifically for inpatient providers. Part 1 of the education is a self-learning program introducing recovery concepts and a recovery competency framework; Part 2 is a group-learning program focusing on real-life dilemmas and applying the Appreciative Inquiry approach to address these clinical dilemmas. A pilot study with a pretest/posttest design was used to evaluate the program. Participants included 26 inpatient multidisciplinary providers from 3 hospitals. The results showed participants' improvement on recovery knowledge (z = -2.55, p = .011) after the self-learning program. Evaluations of the group-learning program were high (4.21 out of 5). These results support continued efforts to refine the program. Inpatient providers could use this program to lead interprofessional practice in promoting recovery. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Billings, Jenny R.; Hashem, Ferhana; Macvarish, Jan
This document reports on the findings from a project exploring teenage looked-after children’s views of sex and relationships education and sexual health services. Commissioned and funded by the Kent Teenage Pregnancy Partnership, this project formed part of a larger programme of study on teenage pregnancy that took place across Kent between 2004 and 2007.
Currin, Joseph M.; Hubach, Randolph D.; Durham, André R.; Kavanaugh, Katherine E.; Vineyard, Zachary; Croff, Julie M.
The information shared in schools on sex education in the USA is highly variable depending on the state and sometimes city in which a student lives. Gay and bisexual students living in a socially conservative, primarily rural state such as Oklahoma often receive little information about sexual health information that pertains to their behaviours…
Masanet, Maria-Jose; Buckingham, David
Previous research has pointed to the potential of entertainment media as a source of informal sex education for young people. New social media may offer additional potential in this respect. In this paper, we consider the pedagogical possibilities and limitations of online fan forums, via a case study of the forums of the controversial British…
Silva, Monica; Ross, Ines
Evaluated a 1-year sex education program for low income male high school students in Chile. Findings for 92 students in the baseline year, 1993, and 196 students in the 1998 cohort show a reduction in the percentage of students reporting having had sexual intercourse, changes attitudes toward abstinence, and differences in communication about…
This paper presents findings from focus group interviews conducted in Swedish government group homes for young people with a history of psychosocial problems, substance misuse and criminal behaviour. Participants were asked to reflect on a newly developed sex education curriculum located within a harm-reduction paradigm prior to its…
Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; Lie, Rico; Leerlooijer, Joanne N.; Eiling, Ellen; Atema, Vera; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.
This article presents a process evaluation of the implementation of the sex education programme the World Starts With Me (WSWM) for secondary school students in Uganda. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine factors associated with dose delivered (number of lessons implemented) and fidelity of implementation (implementation…
By recognising the limitations of formal sex education, young people are able to seek out alternative material, gaining informal sexual knowledge through their own means and through a wide variety of sources. This paper derives from part of a larger study centred on feminism and heterosexuality in practice which features 17 feminist-identified…
Rijsdijk, L.E.; Bos, A.E.R.; Lie, R.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Eiling, E.; Atema, V.; Gebhardt, W.A.; Ruiter, R.A.C.
This article presents a process evaluation of the implementation of the sex education programme the World Starts With Me (WSWM) for secondary school students in Uganda. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine factors associated with dose delivered (number of lessons implemented) and
Sadigh, Gelareh; Hawkins, C Matthew; O'Keefe, John J; Khan, Ramsha; Duszak, Richard
To assess the readability of online education materials offered by hospitals describing commonly performed interventional radiology (IR) procedures. Online patient education materials from 402 hospitals selected from the Medicare Hospital Compare database were assessed. The presence of an IR service was determined by representation in the Society of Interventional Radiology physician finder directory. Patient online education materials about (i) uterine artery embolization for fibroid tumors, (ii) liver cancer embolization, (iii) varicose vein treatment, (iv) central venous access, (v) inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement, (vi) nephrostomy tube insertion, (vii) gastrostomy tube placement, and (viii) vertebral augmentation were targeted and assessed by using six validated readability scoring systems. Of 402 hospitals sampled, 156 (39%) were presumed to offer IR services. Of these, 119 (76%) offered online patient education material for one or more of the eight service lines. The average readability scores corresponding to grade varied between the ninth- and 12th-grade levels. All were higher than the recommended seventh-grade level (P Reading Ease scores ranged from 42 to 69, corresponding with fairly difficult to difficult readability for all service lines except IVC filter and gastrostomy tube placement, which corresponded with standard readability. A majority of hospitals offering IR services provide at least some online patient education material. Most, however, are written significantly above the reading comprehension level of most Americans. More attention to health literacy by hospitals and IR physicians is warranted. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mpofu, Elias; Mutepfa, Magen Mhaka; Hallfors, Denise Dion
The authors used state-of-the-art concept mapping approaches to examine structural institutional effects of church and secular high schools on the types of sexual and HIV-prevention education messages transmitted to learners in Zimbabwe. Participants were school teachers (n = 26), school counselors (n = 28), and pastors involved in student pastoral care (n = 14; males = 27, females = 41). They reported on messages perceived to influence sexual decisions of learners in their school setting. The self-report data were clustered into message types using concept mapping and contrasted for consistency of content and structure both between and within type of school. The authors also engaged in curriculum document study with member checks in the participant schools to determine convergence of the evidence on school-type effects of the messages transmitted to students. Church schools prioritized faith-informed sexual and HIV-prevention messages, whereas both types of schools prioritized Life skills education and a future focus. Secular schools prioritized sex and HIV messages in the context of community norms. Facts about HIV and AIDS were relatively underemphasized by church schools. The implicit knowledge values that differentiate types of schools influence learner access to information important for their sexual decisions.
Booker, Nancy Achieng'; Miller, Ann Neville; Ngure, Peter
Extremely popular with Kenyan youth, the entertainment-education drama Shuga was designed with specific goals of promoting condom use, single versus multiple sexual partners, and destigmatization of HIV. Almost as soon as it aired, however, it generated controversy due to its extensive sexual themes and relatively explicit portrayal of sexual issues. To determine how safer sex, antistigma messages, and overall sexual content were integrated into Shuga, we conducted a content analysis. Results indicated that condom use and HIV destigmatization messages were frequently and clearly communicated. Negative consequences for risky sexual behavior were communicated over the course of the entire series. Messages about multiple concurrent partnerships were not evident. In addition, in terms of scenes per hour of programming, Shuga had 10.3 times the amount of sexual content overall, 8.2 times the amount of sexual talk, 17.8 times the amount of sexual behavior, and 9.4 times the amount of sexual intercourse as found in previous analysis of U.S. entertainment programming. Research is needed to determine how these factors may interact to influence adolescent viewers of entertainment education dramas.
Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen
Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age and education to inform programming. Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age and education. Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e., early marriage, forced marriage and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p gender inequitable norms in the household but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices.
Considering various themes, this study aims to examine the content of web sites of universities that provide sports management education in higher education level in Turkey and in England. Within this framework, the websites of the higher education institutions that provide sports management education are analyzed by using the content analysis…
Sauerteig, Lutz, Ed.; Davidson, Roger, Ed.
The history of sex education enables us to gain valuable insights into the cultural constructions of what different societies have defined as 'normal' sexuality and sexual health. Yet, the history of sex education has only recently attracted the full attention of historians of modern sexuality. "Shaping Sexual Knowledge: A Cultural History of…
This news brief discusses the first campaign to stop the spread of AIDS in Russia. The government is investing in newspaper advertising in order to prevent the spread of AIDS, because the alternative health care model is too expensive. The country is unable to afford the expensive drugs for treating AIDS and HIV infections, and the health care system, in general, is in decline. The health ministry is relying on the support from Medecins sans Frontieres (Doctors without Borders) to mount a newspaper campaign to urge condom use and other safe sex practices. The campaign will also involve television and radio advertisements, followed by billboards on subway stops and city buses. Since the communist break-up, IV drug use and prostitution have become widespread problems. Borders were opened, and drugs entered the country. Under the former Soviet regime, contact with foreigners was discouraged and travel was restricted. The public was exposed to AIDS information in the campaigns conducted in 1990. The public is generally informed about AIDS. The new campaign focuses on safe sex, which is a new concept for Russians. There is a wide gap between knowledge and adoption of safe sex practices. Official records indicate about 4400 HIV cases, of which 259 are in advanced stages of AIDS. Official figures are considered underestimates. Over 75% of current HIV cases involve IV drug users, but the potential for heterosexual transmission is great. About 50% of the HIV cases were recorded in Kaliningrad, a port city with a growing population of IV drug users. The city provides easy access to the rest of Europe and exposure to HIV/AIDS that is not yet found in most other Russian cities.
Puckett, Mary C; Townsend, Julie S; Gelb, Cynthia A; Hager, Polly; Conlon, Amy; Stewart, Sherri L
Because no effective methods for preventing or screening for ovarian cancer exist, symptom recognition is integral to its early detection. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts about Gynecologic Cancer campaign was developed to raise awareness and educate women and providers about risk factors, symptoms, recommended screening, and prevention strategies for the five main gynecologic cancers, including ovarian cancer. Inside Knowledge campaign materials were utilized by CDC's National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program grantees to educate women and providers about gynecologic cancer from 2014 to 2015. Grantees recruited participants and held educational sessions using Inside Knowledge materials. Questionnaires were given before and after the sessions to assess changes in awareness, confidence, and behavioral intentions around gynecologic cancer information and analyzed in 2016. This analysis focused on an assessment of changes related to ovarian cancer information. Participants' knowledge increased after educational sessions. Among women, there were increases in correctly identifying that the Papanicolaou (Pap) test does not screen for ovarian cancer (89.2%) and that genetic testing is available (77.9%). There was a lower increase in knowledge that HPV is not a cause of ovarian cancer (56.4%). Providers and women reported significant increases in their confidence in their ability to talk to each other about gynecologic cancer post-session. Ovarian cancer awareness, confidence, and related behaviors increased in participants exposed to Inside Knowledge materials. Using these materials to increase knowledge could lead to more empowered patients, better provider-patient communications, and improved care for gynecologic cancers, including ovarian cancer.
From its beginning in 1885, the Hull House was beacon for social progress and urban reform. Founders Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr recruited talented, passionate partners from diverse fields to address issues from street sanitation to education in Chicago's immigrant communities. Among residents' many projects, their involvement in the…
Dent, Lauren; Maloney, Patricia
While an overwhelming majority of people in the USA support some form of school-based sexual education, the specific content and context for that instruction varies widely, making it difficult to assess support for particular types of programmes. This is particularly the case for evangelical Christians, about whom there is a lack of scholarly…
Sullivan, Amanda; Caterino, Linda C.
This paper addresses the need for sexuality education for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. It provides a brief overview of autism and Asperger's Syndrome as well as a summary of the existing literature regarding the sexuality of this population. The existing research suggests that there is a high frequency of sexual behaviors among…
Glick, Georgia S.; Upton, Linda Kulow
This instructor's guide addresses issues of sex bias as they occur in the shop area of the Culinary Arts Program. The first part gives general background by discussing sex discrimination and schools and course enrollments by sex and the Culinary Arts shop at the Minuteman Regional Vocational Technical School, Massachusetts. A second, and much…
Pound, Pandora; Denford, Sarah; Shucksmith, Janet; Tanton, Clare; Johnson, Anne M; Owen, Jenny; Hutten, Rebecca; Mohan, Leanne; Bonell, Chris; Abraham, Charles; Campbell, Rona
Sex and relationship education (SRE) is regarded as vital to improving young people's sexual health, but a third of schools in England lacks good SRE and government guidance is outdated. We aimed to identify what makes SRE programmes effective, acceptable, sustainable and capable of faithful implementation. This is a synthesis of findings from five research packages that we conducted (practitioner interviews, case study investigation, National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, review of reviews and qualitative synthesis). We also gained feedback on our research from stakeholder consultations. Primary research and stakeholder consultations were conducted in the UK. Secondary research draws on studies worldwide. Our findings indicate that school-based SRE and school-linked sexual health services can be effective at improving sexual health. We found professional consensus that good programmes start in primary school. Professionals and young people agreed that good programmes are age-appropriate, interactive and take place in a safe environment. Some young women reported preferring single-sex classes, but young men appeared to want mixed classes. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should take a 'life skills' approach and not focus on abstinence. Young people advocated a 'sex-positive' approach but reported this was lacking. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should discuss risks, but young people indicated that approaches to risk need revising. Professionals felt teachers should be involved in SRE delivery, but many young people reported disliking having their teachers deliver SRE and we found that key messages could become lost when interpreted by teachers. The divergence between young people and professionals was echoed by stakeholders. We developed criteria for best practice based on the evidence. We identified key features of effective and acceptable SRE. Our best practice criteria can be used to evaluate existing programmes
Lirgg, C D
The purpose of this field experiment was to investigate the effects of attending either a coeducational or a same-sex physical education class on several self-perception variables. Middle and high school youth who had previously been in coeducational classes were assigned to either a same-sex or a new coeducational physical education class for a 10-lesson unit of basketball. Analyses were conducted at both the group and the individual levels. Self-perception variables examined included perceived self-confidence of learning basketball, perceived usefulness of basketball, and perceived gender-appropriateness of basketball. Results of hierarchical linear model group level analyses indicated that the variability in groups for self-confidence could be explained by grade, class type, and the interaction between gender and class type. At the individual level, multivariate results showed that, after the unit, males in coeducational classes were significantly more confident in their ability to learn basketball than males in same-sex classes. Also, males in same-sex classes decreased in confidence from pretreatment to posttreatment. Perceived usefulness of basketball emerged as the strongest predictor of self-confidence for learning basketball for both genders. In general, middle school students preferred same-sex classes, whereas high school students preferred coeducational classes.
Full Text Available Introduction: There is lack of information on couple’s sexual relation during pregnancy and also the lack of a national written training protocol in this regard in Iran. State authorities want to develop and implement such a protocol. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a sex education package on the sexual function of pregnant women. Methods: 88 women in their 8 to 14 weeks of pregnancy were randomly allocated into two groups of intervention and control. In the intervention group a midwife carried out sex education in two 60 minutes lecture sessions and group discussions for the participants. Moreover, educational booklets were distributed at the end of the first session and couple’s questions were answered by telephone. In the control group women were taught nutritional education with the same procedure. Sexual function was evaluated using the female sexual function index (FSFI before and four weeks after the education. Paired t-test, student's t-test and chi square were used to analyze the data. Results: There were no significant differences among the groups in terms of their baseline characteristics, including mean sexual function scores before the education. After the education the mean of the total score of sexual function was significantly higher in the intervention group compared with the control group [mean difference 7.0 (95% CI 4.1, 9.9]. Such a significant difference also existed in all the six domains of sexual function, i.e. desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Providing such sexual education during routine prenatal care may improve couples’ sexual health during pregnancy.
DeMuro, Scott; Wanberg, Kenneth; Anderson, Rachel
The therapeutic educator who provides services to driving while impaired (DWI) offenders is a unique professional hybrid, combining education and therapeutic service delivery. In an effort to understand and address this service provider, a 69-item DWI Therapeutic Educator Inventory (DTEI) was constructed. Using principal components and common…
Prendergast, Mark; O'Donoghue, John
This research investigates the influence that gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling can have on students' mathematics education in second-level Irish classrooms. Although gender differences in mathematics education have been the subject of research for many years, recent results from PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) show that there are still marked differences between the achievement and attitude of male and female students in Irish mathematics classrooms. This paper examines the influence of gender in more detail and also investigates the impact of single-sex or co-educational schooling. This is a follow on study which further analyses data collected by the authors when they designed a pedagogical framework and used this to develop, implement and evaluate a teaching intervention in four second-level Irish schools. The aim of this pedagogical framework was to promote student interest in the topic of algebra through effective teaching of the domain. This paper further analyses the quantitative data collected and investigates whether there were differences in students' enjoyment and achievement scores based on their gender and whether they attended single-sex or co-educational schools.
After 1945 rapidly climbing figures of venereal disease infections menaced the health of the war-ridden German population. Physicians sought to gain control over this epidemic and initiated large-scale sex education campaigns to inform people about identification, causes and treatment of VD and advised them on appropriate moral sexual behaviour as a prophylactic measure. Film played a crucial role in these campaigns. As mass medium it was believed film could reach out to large parts of society and quickly disseminate sexual knowledge and moral codes of conduct amongst the population. This essay discusses the transition of the initial central role of sex education films in the fight against venereal disease in the immediate post-war years towards a more critical stance as to the effects of cinematographic education of the young in an East and West German context.
Castellanous Simons, B; Gonzalez Hernandez, A
until the completion of ever more time-consuming educations, is a factor in increased premarital sex although it is not a determinant of it. An adequate sex education program would help adolescents develop responsible attitudes and good foundations for their future sexual adjustments. It would also help prevent adolescent pregnancy, with its frequent negative consequences.
Anthony Kudjo Donkor
Full Text Available The incidence of teenage pregnancy has been on the rise in Ghana, especially in the Bawku-East Municipality. In Ghana adults rarely discussed sexual matters with the youth. Thus, the youth have little or no information about the biological changes that take place in their bodies during the transitional period from youth to adulthood. This has resulted in unplanned pregnancies for the vast majority of teenagers, which have serious developmental and socioeconomic implications. The study was to explore how sex education could mitigate teenage pregnancy in the Bawku-East Municipality. A total sample size of one hundred and twenty-five (125 respondents was used for the study. Questionnaires, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and observation were used to collect data for the study. The study revealed that poor parenting, poverty and peer influence were the major causes of teenage pregnancy in the study area. In addition, concealing sex education and sex-knowledge from the youth made them more curious and vulnerable. There is the need for parents and schools to empower the youth through sex education to equip them with knowledge in order to overcome the potentially corrupt information through the social media and friends. The study will be useful to students, parents, teachers and vulnerable group (girl-child advocates in communities.
Whitton, Sarah W; Weitbrecht, Eliza M; Kuryluk, Amanda D; Hutsell, David W
Relationship education, effective in improving relationship quality among different-sex couples, represents a promising and nonstigmatizing approach to promoting the health and stability of same-sex couples. A new culturally sensitive relationship education program was developed specifically for male same-sex couples, which includes adaptations of evidence-based strategies to build core relationship skills (e.g., communication skills training) and newly developed content to address unique challenges faced by this group (e.g., discrimination; low social support). A small randomized waitlist-control trial (N = 20 couples) was conducted to evaluate the program. To assess program efficacy, dyadic longitudinal data (collected at pre- and postprogram and 3-month follow-up) were analyzed using multilevel models that accounted for nonindependence in data from indistinguishable dyads. Results indicated significant program effects in comparison to waitlist controls on couple constructive and destructive communication, perceived stress, and relationship satisfaction. Gains in each of these areas were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Although there was no evidence of within-person program effects on social support, satisfaction, or relationship instability immediately postprogram, all 3 showed within-person improvements by follow-up. Ratings of program satisfaction were high. In summary, study findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of the program and highlight the potential value of culturally sensitive adaptations of relationship education for same-sex couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Gibson, Philip A; Baker, Elizabeth H; Milner, Adrienne N
Men are less likely to experience depression and both women and men who self-assess as high in traits associated with masculinity are less likely to experience depression. Recent theoretical developments stress that the context of gender construction varies by other aspects of social status such as education. Data come from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Wave III, romantic relationship sub-sample, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students in the U.S. in 1997. Wave III data were collected in 2001-2002 when they are ages 18-26. A subsample of individuals who were or currently are in a romantic relationship (N=4302) were administered the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). We find that femininity, not masculinity, results in less depressive symptoms among women regardless of education. Femininity is associated with less depressive symptoms among college educated men, but masculinity is associated with less depressive symptoms among non-college educated men. Sex differences in the association between gender traits and depression symptoms are smaller among those who have attended college. Results stress the importance of context for understanding the relationship between sex, gender, and depression. Individuals benefit more from both masculinity and femininity with increased education. Conversely, those with less education may be penalized for sex-gender incongruent traits in terms of mental health. These analyses are cross-sectional, making causal inference impossible. This sample is limited to young adults who were or had been in a romantic relationship at the time of the survey. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ferranti, Dina; Lorenzo, Dalia; Munoz-Rojas, Derby; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M
To explore the health education needs and learning preferences of female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors in a social service agency located in South Florida, United States. An exploratory two-phase sequential mixed-methods study was completed through semistructured interviews with social service providers (n = 10), followed by a survey with predominately female IPV survivors (n = 122, 98.4%). Data obtained from interviews with social service providers were analyzed through conventional thematic content analysis. Data from interviews were used in developing a health survey completed by IPV survivors and analyzed utilizing descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and t tests. Three themes emerged from interviews including multidimensional health needs, navigating barriers to health care, and self-improvement specific to survivors of intimate partner violence. Survey results indicated that depression and self-esteem were the health education needs of highest priority. Demographic characteristics, including age and language use, were significantly associated to preferred methods of learning, p education needs. Current study findings can inform public health nurses in developing interventions or health-based programs for female IPV survivors in social service agency settings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Byrne, J. L.; Davies, Melanie J; Willaing, I.
: The present study shows that healthcare professionals report being insufficiently equipped to provide diabetes self-management education, including emotional and psychological aspects of diabetes, and many are not receiving postgraduate training in any part (including medical care) of the management......Aims: To consider the global provision of self-management diabetes education and training for healthcare professionals using data from the second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study. Methods: A total of 4785 healthcare professionals caring for people with diabetes were surveyed in 17.......6–70.6% variation). Training in psychological management was low (19.1%), ranging from 3.6 to 36.5%, while 20.4% (a range of 3.6–36.4% across countries) had received no postgraduate training. Overall, the greatest training need was in the management of psychological aspects of diabetes (59.5%). For some, training...
Canipe, Marti; Buxner, Sanlyn; Jones, Andrea; Hsu, Brooke; Shaner, Andy; Bleacher, Lora
In order to integrate current scientific discoveries in the classroom, K-12 teachers benefit from professional development and support. The Lunar Workshops for Educators is a series of weeklong workshops for grade 6-9 science teachers focused on lunar science and exploration, sponsored by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and conducted by the LRO Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Team. The Lunar Workshops for Educators, have provided this professional development for teachers for the last five years. Program evaluation includes pre- and post- content tests and surveys related to classroom practice, daily surveys, and follow-up surveys conducted during the academic year following the summer workshops to assess how the knowledge and skills learned at the workshop are being used in the classroom. The evaluation of the workshop shows that the participants increased their overall knowledge of lunar science and exploration. Additionally, they gained knowledge about student misconceptions related to the Moon and ways to address those misconceptions. The workshops impacted the ways teachers taught about the Moon by providing them with resources to teach about the Moon and increased confidence in teaching about these topics. Participants reported ways that the workshop impacted their teaching practices beyond teaching about the Moon, encouraging them to include more inquiry and other teaching techniques demonstrated in the workshops in their science classes. Overall, the program evaluation has shown the Lunar Workshops for Educators are effective at increasing teachers’ knowledge about the Moon and use of inquiry-based teaching into their classrooms. Additionally, the program supports participant teachers in integrating current scientific discoveries into their classrooms.
Siddhanamatha, Harish Rajashekarappa; Heung, Eric; Lopez-Olivo, Maria de Los Angeles; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Ojeda-Prias, Ana; Willcockson, Irmgard; Leong, Amye; Suarez-Almazor, Maria Eugenia
We performed an environmental scan of currently available websites providing educational information about rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and evaluated the quality of these websites. We searched three separate search engines, Google, Bing, and Ask.com, on August 27, 2015, using two search terms, "arthritis" and "rheumatoid." Only patient education websites were included. Two independent investigators evaluated the accuracy, completeness, technical elements, design and esthetics, readability, usability, and accessibility of the websites. The navigation experience was also evaluated by an adult training expert. We identified 46 websites. Nearly all websites (98%) provided accurate information. However, no website covered all essential RA topics. Common essential topics not covered included epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment and disease monitoring, complications, self-management, risks and benefits of treatment, prognosis, treatment adherence, questions for patients to ask their doctors, and costs. For the technical elements, all websites disclosed their ownership, but the date that the content was last updated was mentioned in only 10 websites, ranging from 2007 to 2015. The mean reading level was grade 12.1 (standard deviation ±2.3). Most websites (78%) were easy to navigate but only 33% were friendly for people with visual and/or hearing impairments. The navigation experience was rated fair or poor in 41% of the websites. Current patient information on the Internet does not comprehensively address all educational needs of patients with RA, and is often outdated. The findings from our study highlight potential areas for improvement in online education materials for patients with RA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Seeland, Ute; Nauman, Ahmad T; Cornelis, Alissa; Ludwig, Sabine; Dunkel, Mathias; Kararigas, Georgios; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera
Sex and Gender Medicine is a novel discipline that provides equitable medical care for society and improves outcomes for both male and female patients. The integration of sex- and gender-specific knowledge into medical curricula is limited due to adequate learning material, systematic teacher training and an innovative communication strategy. We aimed at initiating an e-learning and knowledge-sharing platform for Sex and Gender Medicine, the eGender platform (http://egender.charite.de), to ensure that future doctors and health professionals will have adequate knowledge and communication skills on sex and gender differences in order to make informed decisions for their patients. The web-based eGender knowledge-sharing platform was designed to support the blended learning pedagogical teaching concept and follows the didactic concept of constructivism. Learning materials developed by Sex and Gender Medicine experts of seven universities have been used as the basis for the new learning tools . The content of these tools is patient-centered and provides add-on information on gender-sensitive aspects of diseases. The structural part of eGender was designed and developed using the open source e-learning platform Moodle. The eGender platform comprises an English and a German version of e-learning modules: one focusing on basic knowledge and seven on specific medical disciplines. Each module consists of several courses corresponding to a disease or symptom complex. Self-organized learning has to be managed by using different learning tools, e.g., texts and audiovisual material, tools for online communication and collaborative work. More than 90 users from Europe registered for the eGender Medicine learning modules. The most frequently accessed module was "Gender Medicine-Basics" and the users favored discussion forums. These e-learning modules fulfill the quality criteria for higher education and are used within the elective Master Module "Gender Medicine
West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C
Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...
Betschart, Patrick; Zumstein, Valentin; Bentivoglio, Maico; Engeler, Daniel; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Abt, Dominik
To assess the readability of the web-based patient education material provided by the European Association of Urology. English patient education materials (PEM) as available in May 2017 were obtained from the EAU website. Each topic was analyzed separately using six well-established readability assessment tools, including Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), SMOG Grade Level (SMOG), Coleman-Liau Index (CLI), Gunning Fog Index (GFI), Flesch Reading Ease Formula (FRE) and Fry Readability Graph (FRG). A total of 17 main topics were identified of which separate basic and in-depth information is provided for 14 topics. Calculation of grade levels (FKGL, SMOG, CLI, GFI) showed readability scores of 7th-13th grade for basic information, 8th-15th grade for in-depth information and 7th-15th grade for single PEM. Median FRE score was 54 points (range 45-65) for basic information and 56 points (41-64) for in-depth information. The FRG as a graphical assessment revealed only 13 valid results with an approximate 8th-17th grade level. The EAU provides carefully worked out PEM for 17 urological topics. Although improved readability compared to similar analyses was found, a simplification of certain chapters might be helpful to facilitate better patient understanding.
Fulton, Brent D; Scheffler, Richard M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Levine, Peter; Stone, Susan; Brown, Timothy T; Modrek, Sepideh
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnostic prevalence and medication use vary across U.S. census regions, but little is known about state-level variation. The purpose of this study was to estimate this variation across states and examine whether a state's health care provider characteristics and education policies are associated with this variation. Logistic regression models were estimated with 69,505 children aged four to 17 from the state-stratified and nationally representative 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diagnostic prevalence was higher in the South (odds ratio [OR]=1.42, p<.001) than in the West; among children with ADHD diagnoses, medication use was higher in the South (OR=1.60, p<.01) and the Midwest (OR=1.53, p<.01) versus the West. On these measures, several states differed from the U.S. averages, including some states that, on the basis of the regional patterns found above, would not be expected to differ: Michigan had a high diagnostic prevalence; Vermont, South Dakota, and Nebraska had low diagnostic prevalences; and Connecticut, New Jersey, and Kentucky had low medication rates. Both diagnosis and medication status were associated with the number, age, and type of physicians within a state, particularly pediatricians. However, state education policies were not significantly associated with either diagnostic prevalence or medication rates. To better understand the association between a state's health care provider characteristics and both diagnostic prevalence and medication use, it may be fruitful to examine the content of provider continuing education programs, including the recommendations of major health professional organization guidelines to treat ADHD.
Hoffman, Jeanne; Salzman, Cynthia; Garbaccio, Chris; Burns, Stephen P.; Crane, Deborah; Bombardier, Charles
Background/objective Persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) have a high lifetime need for ongoing patient education to reduce the risk of serious and costly medical conditions. We have addressed this need through monthly in-person public education programs called SCI Forums. More recently, we began videotaping these programs for streaming on our website to reach a geographically diverse audience of patients, caregivers, and providers. Design/methods We compared information from the in-person forums to that of the same forums shown streaming on our website during a 1-year period. Results Both the in-person and Internet versions of the forums received high overall ratings from individuals who completed evaluation forms. Eighty-eight percent of online evaluators and 96% of in-person evaluators reported that they gained new information from the forum; 52 and 64% said they changed their attitude, and 61 and 68% said they would probably change their behavior or take some kind of action based on information they learned. Ninety-one percent of online evaluators reported that video is better than text for presenting this kind of information. Conclusion Online video is an accessible, effective, and well-accepted way to present ongoing SCI education and can reach a wider geographical audience than in-person presentations. PMID:21903014
In March of 1992, the League of Women Voters Education Fund (LWVEF) signed a five-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide American citizens with information and training on the management and clean up of nuclear waste from both civilian and defense sources. During Year 1 of the agreement the LWVEF updated The Nuclear Waste Primer: A Citizens Handbook. Activities in Year 2 of the agreement will include: (1) Oversight of the project by an Advisory Committee; (2) A national Train-the-Trainers Conference; (3) Grants to state and local Leagues for model community education projects; (4) Publication of Taking Nuclear Waste Issues to the Village Square, a discussion leader's guide on organizing community education programs on nuclear wastes issues and a magazine article on defense waste issues in the the National Voter, the membership magazine of the League of Women Voters of the United States; and (5) Technical assistance to Leagues and other organizations via a Citizen's Nuclear Waste Clearinghouse
Luck, Tobias; Pabst, Alexander; Rodriguez, Francisca S; Schroeter, Matthias L; Witte, Veronica; Hinz, Andreas; Mehnert, Anja; Engel, Christoph; Loeffler, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
To provide new age-, sex-, and education-specific reference values for an extended version of the well-established Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) that additionally includes the Trail Making Test and the Verbal Fluency Test-S-Words. Norms were calculated based on the cognitive performances of n = 1,888 dementia-free participants (60-79 years) from the population-based German LIFE-Adult-Study. Multiple regressions were used to examine the association of the CERAD-NAB scores with age, sex, and education. In order to calculate the norms, quantile and censored quantile regression analyses were performed estimating marginal means of the test scores at 2.28, 6.68, 10, 15.87, 25, 50, 75, and 90 percentiles for age-, sex-, and education-specific subgroups. Multiple regression analyses revealed that younger age was significantly associated with better cognitive performance in 15 CERAD-NAB measures and higher education with better cognitive performance in all 17 measures. Women performed significantly better than men in 12 measures and men than women in four measures. The determined norms indicate ceiling effects for the cognitive performances in the Boston Naming, Word List Recognition, Constructional Praxis Copying, and Constructional Praxis Recall tests. The new norms for the extended CERAD-NAB will be useful for evaluating dementia-free German-speaking adults in a broad variety of relevant cognitive domains. The extended CERAD-NAB follows more closely the criteria for the new DSM-5 Mild and Major Neurocognitive Disorder. Additionally, it could be further developed to include a test for social cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
at the same period, staff performance were not desirable in some processes and/or sub-processes. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the educational needs of family health providers in 6 task processes and prioritized them according to their views. Regular and comprehensive educational needs assessments are required to revise staff training programs, in order to give quality services to general population.
Sakharkar, V P; Frankson, M A; Sakharkar, P R
To determine the relationship of determinants such as age, ethnicity, education and sexual behaviour with repeat teenage pregnancy and to determine the impact of 'Providing Access to Continued Education' (PACE) programme in reducing repeat teenage pregnancy amongst its participants in The Bahamas. This retrospective cohort study included 397 attendees of the Adolescent Health Centre (AHC). Eighty-eight out of 139 registered participants completed the PACE programme. Data on age, ethnicity, education, sexual behaviour and repeat pregnancy in two years were analysed for descriptive statistics, and association of demographic characteristics and participation in the PACE programme with repeat pregnancy using the Chi-squared test. Mean age of participants was 16.4 ± 1.1 years; median school grade and mean grade point average (GPA) was 11 and 1.97 ± 0.7, respectively. The mean age at the first sexual activity was 14.9 ± 1.2 years. The mean age and number of sexual partners were 21 ± 4.3 years and 2 ± 1, respectively. Overall, repeat pregnancy rate was 39%: 37.4% amongst PACE registered and 31.8% amongst PACE completed mothers. No significant difference was observed in repeat pregnancy between registered and non-registered as well as those who completed the programme and those who did not. The odds ratio of 0.525 suggested that completion of the PACE programme had a moderate protective effect on reducing repeat pregnancy. Age, ethnicity, education and sexual behaviour showed no association with repeat pregnancy. The PACE programme did not reduce repeat pregnancy rate significantly. However, completion of the programme offered a moderate protection.
Feagan, Lori M; Fisher, Nancy J
The majority of acute care facilities have not developed policies or guidelines to facilitate family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Prior studies have shown that the personal beliefs and attitudes of hospital personnel involved in resuscitation efforts are the primary reasons family presence is not offered. This 2-phase, before/after study was conducted in a 388-bed academic trauma center, and in a 143-bed community hospital in eastern Washington State in 2008. In phase I, a convenience sample of physicians and registered nurses from both facilities were surveyed about their opinions and beliefs regarding family-witnessed resuscitation (FWR). Spearman's rho and independent t-tests were used to compare support of FWR between and within roles and practice location subgroups. In phase II of the study, clinician subgroups in the community hospital were re-surveyed following an educational program that used evidence-based information. Independent t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare pre and post-education mean scores of subgroups on indicators of effective teaching strategies and improved FWR support. Opinions on FWR vary within and between practice roles and locations, with the strongest variable of support being prior experience with FWR. Following FWR education, mean scores improved for survey variables chosen as indicators of FWR support and teaching effectiveness. When CPR providers are presented with FWR education, their opinion-based beliefs may be modified, decreasing barriers to family witnessed resuscitation and improving overall support of FWR as an extension of family-centered care. Copyright © 2011 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control. Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93; large effect size 0.95, p < 0.001; the control group remained stable, moving from 13.54 to 13.59 (0.05 increase, 95% CI: (-0.12, 0.22; negligible effect size 0.03, p = 0.684. Attitudes were enhanced on all 13 items for the intervention group, remaining stable in the control, with significant differences between groups on all items (p < 0.05. Gains were largely sustained at four month follow-up. Findings support education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior.US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301.
Mathews, Ben; Yang, Chengwu; Lehman, Erik B; Mincemoyer, Claudia; Verdiglione, Nicole; Levi, Benjamin H
Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs) work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control). Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93); large effect size 0.95, p < 0.001); the control group remained stable, moving from 13.54 to 13.59 (0.05 increase, 95% CI: (-0.12, 0.22); negligible effect size 0.03, p = 0.684). Attitudes were enhanced on all 13 items for the intervention group, remaining stable in the control, with significant differences between groups on all items (p < 0.05). Gains were largely sustained at four month follow-up. Findings support education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior. US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301.
Chaiet, Scott R; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Sturm, Angela; Flanary, Valerie; Ishman, Stacey; Streed, Carl G
Currently, there are limited resources and training available for otolaryngologists and otolaryngology practice personnel to provide gender-affirming care for transgender or gender nonconforming patients. This unique patient population may present to our offices for gender-specific care or with complaints of the ear, nose, and throat unrelated to gender identity. Our current practice has unintentional but direct consequences on our patients care, as transgender patients often report negative experiences in the healthcare setting related to their gender identity. The absence of resources and training is also seen in other specialties. Physicians who create an environment where patients of all gender identities feel welcome can better meet their patients' health care needs. In addition, otolaryngologists can play a role in easing the gender dysphoria experienced by transgender patients. We suggest educational content should be created for and made available to otolaryngologists and office staff to provide gender-affirming care.
Goldman, Juliette D. G.
Many primary school teachers avoid teaching sexuality education. In light of the earlier maturing of both boys and girls, and the educationally and personally significant effects of their experience of puberty, this is unfair to children. In response to this avoidance, however, some schools employ external providers of sexuality education, who…
Shaikh, Masood Ali; Mubeen, Syed Muhammand; Furqan, Muhammad
Puberty heralds the onset of adulthood, and is fraught with complex physiological and psychological changes and emotions. In this study, we looked at the sources of information about puberty and sex education among males and females, age at which they learned about them, and the opinions on the role of schools and parents in imparting this education among medical students.A cross-sectional pilot study, using convenience sampling was conducted among 153 medical students of the Hamdard College of Medicine and Dentistry (HCM&D) in Karachi. Regarding most common source of information about puberty; 23 (25.3%) males identified friends as the most important source of information. While 31 (50.0%) women identified their mothers as the most important source.Regarding most common source of information about reproductive systems and sex; 17 (27.4%) women identified school teachers as the most common source of information, while 26 (28.6%) men identified books and magazines.
Jin, Helen; Dasgupta, Shoumita
Does the prevalence of online education in fertility center websites differ for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) couples compared to online education for heterosexual couples? This review of fertility center websites showed that the majority of websites with patient education for heterosexual couples do not have similar materials for LGBT couples. In order to have biologically related children, LGBT individuals or couples utilize assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Fertility clinic websites provide online education to familiarize patients with the different ART procedures; however, no studies have examined the prevalence of educational information for LGBT couples compared to information for heterosexual couples utilizing ART. This website review evaluated Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-reported fertility center websites. Websites were reviewed in 2014 using the latest 2011 CDC report, and reviewed again in 2015 with the latest 2013 CDC report. Patient education information was coded using categories determined after a sample review, and differences were analyzed with χ(2) tests, with P-values calculated with Fisher's exact test. In 2014, 31.1% (121) of 389 websites with information for heterosexual couples also contained information for LGBT couples. In 2015, the number of fertility centers with information for LGBT couples increased by 52.9% to 185 (P online information on fertility center websites may not directly reflect the quality of care LGBT individuals or couples receive in the clinic, and the effect of this absence of online information on the clinical experiences of LGBT patients is unknown. These findings add to the growing body of work showing disparities in the treatment of LGBT persons compared to the overall population. To overcome these discrepancies, healthcare providers should adapt their practice to include this growing and underserved patient population. Funding was provided by the Medical Student Summer
Díaz, Margarita; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Sousa, Maria Helena de; Cabral, Francisco; Silva, Ricardo de Castro e; Campos, Márcia; Faúndes, Anibal
Three different school-based sex education and citizenship programs in public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador, Brazil, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study comparing knowledge, attitudes, and practices in sexuality, citizenship, and gender issues among adolescents participating in the programs' activities as compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without such programs (controls). Results showed that Salvador's program achieved good results, with significant c...
Tamayo, Teresa; Jacobs, David R; Strassburger, Klaus; Giani, Guido; Seeman, Teresa E; Matthews, Karen; Roseman, Jeffrey M; Rathmann, Wolfgang
Low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adulthood. Our aim was to examine if maternal and paternal education, as indicators of childhood SES, equally contributed to increased HOMA-IR in later life. Of 5,115 adults from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986, data on 1,370 females and 1,060 males with baseline and 20 year follow-up data were used to estimate associations of maternal and paternal education with HOMA-IR, adjusting for personal education, BMI, lipids, blood pressure, and lifestyle factors. Parental education was determined as high with ≥ 12 years of schooling and classified as both high, only mother high, only father high, both low education. Distinct combinations of maternal and paternal education were associated with HOMA-IR across race and sex groups. Lowest year 20 HOMA-IR in European American (EA) females occurred when both parents were better educated, but was highest when only the father had better education. HOMA-IR was lowest in African American (AA) participants when the mother was better educated but the father had less education, but was highest when both parents were better educated. Parental education was unrelated to HOMA-IR in EA males. Associations of parental education with HOMA-IR are seen in AA females, AA males, and EA females but not in EA males. The distinct combinations of parental education and their associations with HOMA-IR especially in AA participants need to be addressed in further research on health disparities.
Dellinger, Ann M; West, Bethany A
Traffic crashes are the leading cause of death among teens. Health care providers have an opportunity to address what works to keep teens safe on the road during the patient visit. An online survey was conducted of 1088 health care providers who saw patients at or near driving age. The survey assessed which road safety topics were discussed and which types of educational products were used most often. Family and general practice physicians represented 44.3% of the sample, followed by pediatricians (22.5%), nurse practitioners (17.6%), and internists (15.5%). Nearly all respondents (92.9%) reported addressing one or more driving safety factors (seat belt use, nighttime driving, fatigue, teen passengers, alcohol/drug use, speeding/reckless driving, and cell phone use/texting) with adolescent patients and/or their parents. Seat belt use was reported more often (83.7%) than other topics. The use of parent-teen driving agreements, a known effective intervention, was reported by less than 10% of respondents. Since health care providers expressed interest in receiving written resource materials, distribution of parent-teen driving agreements to health care providers might encourage greater uptake and use of this effective intervention.
Donisch, Katelyn; Bray, Chris; Gewirtz, Abigail
This study systematically examined child-service providers' conceptualizations of trauma-informed practice (TIP) across service systems, including child welfare, juvenile justice, mental health, and education. Eleven focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted, totaling 126 child-service providers. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data with interrater reliability analyses indicating near perfect agreement between coders. Qualitative analysis revealed that child-service providers identified traumatic stress as an important common theme among children and families served as well as the interest in TIP in their service systems. At the same time, child-service providers generally felt knowledgeable about what they define TIP to be, although they articulated wide variations in the degree to which they are taught skills and strategies to respond to their traumatized clients. The results of this study suggest a need for a common lexicon and metric with which to advance TIP within and across child-service systems. © The Author(s) 2016.
Goldsberry, Jennifer; Moore, Leslie; MacMillan, Deborah; Butler, Scott
College years are a time young adults examine high-risk sexual behaviors, increasing their risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Fraternity/sorority membership has been identified as one factor contributing to increased risky sexual behavior in college students. This study measured the effectiveness of an educational intervention targeting STD prevention in fraternity and sorority members, and examined relationships between STD knowledge, attitudes, and demographics. A descriptive, correlational design was used. Pre- and posttest data were collected from fraternity and sorority members (N = 132). Instruments measured demographic characteristics, STD knowledge, and attitudes toward safe sex behaviors. There was a significant increase in STD knowledge from baseline (M = 13.03, SD = 6.5) to 1 week (M = 20.27, SD = 4.9) t (131) = -13.53, p = .000. Males were more likely to report attitudes toward risky sexual behavior rs(132) = .323, p = .000, and as knowledge increased, attitudes became more favorable to safe sex behaviors (pre-STD knowledge and preintervention attitudes, r(132) = -.249, p = .004; post-STD knowledge and postintervention attitudes, rs(132) = -.307, p = .000). Results support that brief STD educational interventions can increase STD knowledge. College health centers must aim to provide sexual health education to all students at every visit. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Chen, M Q; Cheng, W B; Xu, H F; Cai, Y S; Fan, L R; Zhong, F; Chen, X; Jin, W; Chen, X B; Li, J Y
Objective: To explore prevalence and predictors of the use of Rush poppers among men who have sex with men in education in Guangdong Province. Methods: An internet survey was conducted via a gay website from March to August 2014 and a sample of 833 male respondents over 16 years who had ever had anal sex with a male, studied in Guangdong Province and who had completed an online questionnaire was identified- of which 93.4% ( n =825) provided valid responses and were included in the study. Respondents provided information on their socio-demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, sexual activity in last 3 months, Rush poppers use and time since first sexual encounter with a male. We used the Chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression modeling to identify the predictors of Rush poppers use in this population group. Results: Among our sample of 825 MSM, whose ages ranged from 21-27 years, 14.8% ( n =122) reported having used Rush poppers in the past 3 months. Rates of use were higher among those who had ever been tested for HIV (16.7% vs. 10.9%, χ 2 =4.80, P= 0.028), had anal intercourse in the last 3 months (16.8% vs. 10.7%, χ 2 =5.48, P= 0.019), had multiple sexual partners in the past 3 months (19.3% vs. 13.1%, χ 2 =5.14, P= 0.023), had a casual partner (18.0% vs. 12.1%, χ 2 =5.68, P= 0.017) or had a sexually transmitted infection (23.4% vs. 14.0%, χ 2 =4.85, P= 0.028). Those who reported having had their first sexual encounter with another male over 5 years prior had higher rates of use (18.0%) than for those who had been sexually active ≤1 year (10.7%) or 2-4 years (12.5%, χ 2 =6.41, P= 0.041). HIV testing ( OR : 1.70, 95% CI: 1.07-2.70), having a casual partner ( OR : 1.67, 95% CI: 1.12-2.50) and being sexually active with other males for over 5 years ( OR : 1.87, 95% CI: 1.05-3.31) were significantly associated with Rush poppers use. Conclusion: A large proportion of student MSM in Guangdong Province used Rush poppers. Proxy measures of
Huston, Sandra J.
In the article, "Enhancing links between research and practice to improve consumer financial education and well-being" Billy J. Hensley, Director of Education at National Endowment for Financial Education® (NEFE®), outlines his perspective on the current relation between financial education and financial outcome (downstream financial…
Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie
The Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organisation aiming at furthering all branches of soil science in Austria. The ASSS provides information on the current state of soil research in Austria and abroad. It organizes annual conferences for scientists from soil and related sciences to exchange their recent studies and offers a journal for scientific publications. Annually, ASSS awards the Kubiena Research Prize for excellent scientific studies provided by young scientists. In order to conserve and improve soil science in the field, excursions are organized, also in cooperation with other scientific organisations. Due to well-established contacts with soil scientists and soil science societies in many countries, the ASSS is able to provide its members with information about the most recent developments in the field of soil science. This contributes to a broadening of the current scientific knowledge on soils. The ASSS also co-operates in the organisation of excursions and meetings with neighbouring countries. Several members of the ASSS teach soil science at various Austrian universities. More detail on said conferences, excursions, publications and awards will be given in the presentation. Beside its own scientific journal, published once or twice a year, and special editions such as guidebooks for soil classification, the ASSS runs a website providing information on the Society, its activities, meetings, publications, awards and projects. Together with the Environment Agency Austria the ASSS runs a soil platform on the internet. It is accessible for the public and thus informs society about soil issues. This platform offers a calendar with national and international soil events, contacts of soil related organisations and networks, information on national projects and publications. The society has access to products, information material and information on educational courses. Last but not least information on specific soil
The Moffitt Cancer Network's (MCN) goal is to provide up-to-date oncology related information, resources, and education to oncology health care providers and researchers for the prevention and cure of cancer...
Chan, Zenobia C Y; Stanley, David John; Meadus, Robert J; Chien, Wai Tong
This study aims to help nurse educators/academics understand the perspectives and expectations of students providing their feedback to educators about teaching performance and subject quality. The aim of this study is to reveal students' voices regarding their feedback in nurse education in order to shed light on how the current student feedback practice may be modified. A qualitative study using focus group inquiry. Convenience sampling was adopted and participants recruited from one school of nursing in Hong Kong. A total of 66 nursing students from two pre-registration programs were recruited for seven focus group interviews: one group of Year 1 students (n=21), two groups of Year 3 students (n=27), and four groups of Final Year students (n=18). The interviews were guided by a semi-structured interview guideline and the interview narratives were processed through content analysis. The trustworthiness of this study was guaranteed through peer checking, research meetings, and an audit trail. The participants' privacy was protected throughout the study. Four core themes were discerned based on the narratives of the focus group interviews: (1) "timing of collecting feedback at more than one time point"; (2) "modify the questions being asked in collecting student feedback"; (3) "are electronic means of collecting feedback good enough?; and (4) "what will be next for student feedback?". This study is significant in the following three domains: 1) it contributed to student feedback because it examined the issue from a student's perspective; 2) it explored the timing and channels for collecting feedback from the students' point of view; and 3) it showed the preferred uses of student feedback. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taber, J.; Toigo, M.; Bravo, T. K.; Hubenthal, M.; McQuillan, P. J.; Welti, R.
The IRIS Education and Outreach Program has been an integral part of IRIS for the past 10 years and during that time has worked to advance awareness and understanding of seismology and earth science while inspiring careers in geophysics. The focus on seismology and the use of seismic data has allowed the IRIS E&O program to develop and disseminate a unique suite of products and services for a wide range of audiences. One result of that effort has been increased access to the IRIS Data Management System by non-specialist audiences and simplified use of location and waveform data. The Seismic Monitor was one of the first Web-based tools for observing near-real-time seismicity. It continues to be the most popular IRIS web page, and thus it presents aspects of seismology to a very wide audience. For individuals interested in more detailed ground motion information, waveforms can be easily viewed using the Rapid Earthquake Viewer, developed by the University of South Carolina in collaboration with IRIS E&O. The Seismographs in Schools program gives schools the opportunity to apply for a low-cost educational seismograph and to receive training for its use in the classroom. To provide better service to the community, a new Seismographs in Schools website was developed in the past year with enhanced functions to help teachers improve their teaching of seismology. The site encourages schools to make use of seismic data and communicate with other educational seismology users throughout the world. Users can view near-real-time displays of other participating schools, upload and download data, and use the “find a teacher” tool to contact nearby schools that also may be operating seismographs. In order to promote and maintain program participation and communication, the site features a discussion forum to encourage and support the growing global community of educational seismograph users. Any data that is submitted to the Seismographs in Schools Website is also accessible
Gonzalez, Raul S; Amer, Sadiq M; Yahia, Nejib Ben; Costa, Felipe D'Almeida; Noatay, Manu; Qiao, Jian-Hua; Rosado, Flavia G; Rosen, Yale; Sedassari, Bruno Tavares; Yantiss, Rhonda K; Gardner, Jerad M
- Facebook (Menlo Park, California) is one of many online sites that provide potential educational tools for pathologists. We have each founded Facebook groups dedicated to anatomic pathology, in which members can share cases, ask questions, and contribute to discussions. - To report our experiences in founding and maintaining these Facebook groups and to characterize the contributed content. - We circulated a survey among the group founders, then compiled and analyzed the responses. - The groups varied in membership and in the quality of member contribution. Most posts were of pathology cases, although other topics (such as research articles) were also shared. All groups remained active and received posts from users all over the world, although all groups had many noncontributing members and received unwanted messages (which were screened and removed). Most founders were glad they had founded the groups because they provided an opportunity to both teach and learn. - Each analyzed Facebook group had a different character, and some downsides exist, but the groups all provided a no-cost way for pathologists and others across the world to interact online with many colleagues.
Hubbard, Lea; Datnow, Amanda
Single-sex public schools are seen as a vehicle for improving the educational experiences of low-income and minority students. Our two-year ethnographic study of low-income and minority students who attended experimental single-sex academies in California indicates that improving achievement involves more than separating students by gender. Using…
Silver, Julie K; Binder, David S; Zubcevik, Nevena; Zafonte, Ross D
Physicians and other healthcare professionals are often the end users of medical innovation; however, they are rarely involved in the beginning design stages. This often results in ineffective healthcare solutions with poor adoption rates. At the early design stage, innovation would benefit from input from healthcare professionals. This report describes the first-ever rehabilitation hackathon-an interdisciplinary and competitive team event aimed at accelerating and improving healthcare solutions and providing an educational experience for participants. Hackathons are gaining traction as a way to accelerate innovation by bringing together a diverse group of interdisciplinary professionals from different industries who work collaboratively in teams and learn from each other, focus on a specific problem ("pain point"), develop a solution using design thinking techniques, pitch the solution to participants, gather fast feedback and quickly alter the prototype design ("pivoting"). 102 hackers including 19 (18.6 %) physicians and other professionals participated, and over the course of 2 days worked in teams, pitched ideas and developed design prototypes. Three awards were given for prototypes that may improve function in persons with disabilities. 43 hackers were women (42.2 %) and 59 men (57.8 %); they ranged in age from 16 to 79 years old; and, of the 75 hackers who reported their age, 63 (84 %) were less than 40 years old and 12 (16 %) were 40 years or older. This report contributes to the emerging literature on healthcare hackathons as a means of providing interdisciplinary education and training and supporting innovation.