WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing performance feedback

  1. 5 CFR 9701.407 - Monitoring performance and providing feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... implementing directives and policies, supervisors must— (a) Monitor the performance of their employees and the organization; and (b) Provide timely periodic feedback to employees on their actual performance with respect to their performance expectations, including one or more interim performance reviews during each appraisal...

  2. Feedback providing improvement strategies and reflection on feedback use: Effects on students' writing motivation, process, and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhouwer, H.; Prins, F.J.; Stokking, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feedback providing improvement strategies and a reflection assignment on students’ writing motivation, process, and performance. Students in the experimental feedback condition (n = 41) received feedback including improvement strategies, whereas students in the

  3. Feedback Providing Improvement Strategies and Reflection on Feedback Use: Effects on Students' Writing Motivation, Process, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijnhouwer, Hendrien; Prins, Frans J.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feedback providing improvement strategies and a reflection assignment on students' writing motivation, process, and performance. Students in the experimental feedback condition (n = 41) received feedback including improvement strategies, whereas students in the control feedback condition (n = 41) received…

  4. The Effect of Performance Feedback Provided to Student-Teachers Working with Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Pinar; Yilmaz, Hatice Cansu; Demiryurek, Pinar; Dogus, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of performance feedback (PF) provided to student teachers working with students with multiple disabilities and visual impairment (MDVI) on their teaching skills. The study group of the research was composed of 11 student teachers attending to the final year of the Teaching Students with Visual…

  5. Enhanced jump performance when providing augmented feedback compared to an external or internal focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martin; Lauber, Benedikt; Gottschalk, Marius; Taube, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Factors such as an external focus of attention (EF) and augmented feedback (AF) have been shown to improve performance. However, the efficacy of providing AF to enhance motor performance has never been compared with the effects of an EF or an internal focus of attention (IF). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify which of the three conditions (AF, EF or IF) leads to the highest performance in a countermovement jump (CMJ). Nineteen volunteers performed 12 series of 8 maximum CMJs. Changes in jump height between conditions and within the series were analysed. Jump heights differed between conditions (P jump heights at the end of the series in AF (+1.60%) and lower jump heights at the end of the series in EF (-1.79%) and IF (-1.68%) were observed. Muscle activity did not differ between conditions. The differences between conditions and within the series provide evidence that AF leads to higher performance and better progression within one series than EF and IF. Consequently, AF seems to outperform EF and IF when maximising jump height.

  6. Analyzing effects of providing performance feedback at ward rounds on guideline adherence - the importance of feedback usage analysis and statistical control charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Eslami, Saeid; Schultz, Marcus J; de Jonge, Evert; de Keizer, Nicolette F

    2010-01-01

    Feedback to clinicians on their past performance is often aimed at increasing adherence to guidelines. We investigate how various analytical approaches influence the interpretation of adherence data. The analytical approaches vary in considering the actual or the intended use of the feedback, and whether outcomes are inspected over time. At base line, a computerized decision support system was employed at the ICU bedside to increase adherence to a mechanical ventilation strategy. We intervened by providing feedback about adherence to the guideline at the daily ward rounds. The outcome measure was the percentage of ventilation time (VT) in excess of the guideline's recommendation. Actual usage of the feedback was logged and data analysis was carried out using two approaches: classical statistics, and statistical process control (SPC) that inspect progress of an outcome over time. Prospective, before/after study. The classical analysis stated that the percentage of ventilation time in excess of the guideline's recommendation decreased significantly due to the feedback (5% reduction, p analysis of the outcome was applied, the effect was deemed not significant. When the actual delivery of feedback over time was also included it showed that the experiment does not allow for conclusive results. The concluded effect of providing feedback on adherence to a guideline depends on whether the actual usage pattern of the feedback and the inspection of the outcome over time are considered. Future evaluative studies should report on usage patterns and progression of outcomes over time.

  7. Using Audience Response Technology to provide formative feedback on pharmacology performance for non-medical prescribing students - a preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostyn Alison

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of anonymous audience response technology (ART to actively engage students in classroom learning has been evaluated positively across multiple settings. To date, however, there has been no empirical evaluation of the use of individualised ART handsets and formative feedback of ART scores. The present study investigates student perceptions of such a system and the relationship between formative feedback results and exam performance. Methods Four successive cohorts of Non-Medical Prescribing students (n=107 had access to the individualised ART system and three of these groups (n=72 completed a questionnaire about their perceptions of using ART. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of seven students who achieved a range of scores on the formative feedback. Using data from all four cohorts of students, the relationship between mean ART scores and summative pharmacology exam score was examined using a non-parametric correlation. Results Questionnaire and interview data suggested that the use of ART enhanced the classroom environment, motivated students and promoted learning. Questionnaire data demonstrated that students found the formative feedback helpful for identifying their learning needs (95.6%, guiding their independent study (86.8%, and as a revision tool (88.3%. Interviewees particularly valued the objectivity of the individualised feedback which helped them to self-manage their learning. Interviewees’ initial anxiety about revealing their level of pharmacology knowledge to the lecturer and to themselves reduced over time as students focused on the learning benefits associated with the feedback. A significant positive correlation was found between students’ formative feedback scores and their summative pharmacology exam scores (Spearman’s rho = 0.71, N=107, p Conclusions Despite initial anxiety about the use of individualised ART units, students rated the helpfulness of the

  8. Analyzing effects of providing performance feedback at ward rounds on guideline adherence - The importance of feedback usage analysis and statistical control charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Eslami, Saeid; Schultz, Marcus J.; de Jonge, Evert; de Keizer, Nicolette F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Feedback to clinicians on their past performance is often aimed at increasing adherence to guidelines. We investigate how various analytical approaches influence the interpretation of adherence data. The analytical approaches vary in considering the actual or the intended use of the

  9. Providing Feedback: Practical Skills and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkany, David; Deitte, Lori

    2017-06-01

    Feedback is an essential component of education. It is designed to influence, reinforce, and change behaviors, concepts, and attitudes in learners. Although providing constructive feedback can be challenging, it is a learnable skill. The negative consequences of destructive feedback or lack of feedback all together are far-reaching. This article summarizes the components of constructive feedback and provides readers with tangible skills to enhance their ability to give effective feedback to learners and peers. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Audience Response Technology to provide formative feedback on pharmacology performance for non-medical prescribing students--a preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostyn, Alison; Meade, Oonagh; Lymn, Joanne S

    2012-11-13

    The use of anonymous audience response technology (ART) to actively engage students in classroom learning has been evaluated positively across multiple settings. To date, however, there has been no empirical evaluation of the use of individualised ART handsets and formative feedback of ART scores. The present study investigates student perceptions of such a system and the relationship between formative feedback results and exam performance. Four successive cohorts of Non-Medical Prescribing students (n=107) had access to the individualised ART system and three of these groups (n=72) completed a questionnaire about their perceptions of using ART. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of seven students who achieved a range of scores on the formative feedback. Using data from all four cohorts of students, the relationship between mean ART scores and summative pharmacology exam score was examined using a non-parametric correlation. Questionnaire and interview data suggested that the use of ART enhanced the classroom environment, motivated students and promoted learning. Questionnaire data demonstrated that students found the formative feedback helpful for identifying their learning needs (95.6%), guiding their independent study (86.8%), and as a revision tool (88.3%). Interviewees particularly valued the objectivity of the individualised feedback which helped them to self-manage their learning. Interviewees' initial anxiety about revealing their level of pharmacology knowledge to the lecturer and to themselves reduced over time as students focused on the learning benefits associated with the feedback.A significant positive correlation was found between students' formative feedback scores and their summative pharmacology exam scores (Spearman's rho = 0.71, N=107, p<.01). Despite initial anxiety about the use of individualised ART units, students rated the helpfulness of the individualised handsets and personalised formative feedback highly

  11. Investigating the Practice of Providing Written Corrective Feedback Types by ESL Teachers at the Upper Secondary Level in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Norasyikin

    2016-01-01

    The past few decades has seen the rapid development of WCF (written corrective feedback) study. The present study examined the practice of providing WCF by teachers. The aim of this study was to determine the types of WCF used by English teachers. The study is an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design using open-ended and close-ended survey…

  12. Providing Effective Feedback to EFL Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi; Al-Adawi, Hamed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Feedback on school practicum is of utmost importance for student teachers to help them to develop their pedagogical and teaching skills. This paper attempts to collect data from both student teachers and their mentors in an ELT teacher training programme in Oman to answer the questions which are raised by this study: 1) What kind of feedback do…

  13. Starting Block Performance in Sprinters: A Statistical Method for Identifying Discriminative Parameters of the Performance and an Analysis of the Effect of Providing Feedback over a 6-Week Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Sylvie; Basset, Fabien A; Mbourou, Ginette A; Favérial, Jérôme; Teasdale, Normand

    2005-06-01

    (a) to examine if kinetic and kinematic parameters of the sprint start could differentiate elite from sub-elite sprinters and, (b) to investigate whether providing feedback (FB) about selected parameters could improve starting block performance of intermediate sprinters over a 6-week training period. Twelve male sprinters, assigned to an elite or a sub-elite group, participated in Experiment 1. Eight intermediate sprinters participated in Experiment 2. All athletes were required to perform three sprint starts at maximum intensity followed by a 10-m run. To detect differences between elite and sub-elite groups, comparisons were made using t-tests for independent samples. Parameters reaching a significant group difference were retained for the linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The LDA yielded four discriminative kinetic parameters. Feedback about these selected parameters was given to sprinters in Experiment 2. For this experiment, data acquisition was divided into three periods. The first six sessions were without specific FB, whereas the following six sessions were enriched by kinetic FB. Finally, athletes underwent a retention session (without FB) 4 weeks after the twelfth session. Even though differences were found in the time to front peak force, the time to rear peak force, and the front peak force in the retention session, the results of the present study showed that providing FB about selected kinetic parameters differentiating elite from sub-elite sprinters did not improve the starting block performance of intermediate sprinters. Key PointsThe linear discriminative analysis allows the identification of starting block parameters differentiating elite from sub-elite athletes.6-week of feedback does not alter starting block performance in training context.The present results failed to confirm previous studies since feedback did not improve targeted kinetic parameters of the complex motor task in real-world context.

  14. Diversity in School Performance Feedback Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Goedele; Schildkamp, Kim; Luyten, Hans; Valcke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    As data-based decision making is receiving increased attention in education, more and more school performance feedback systems (SPFSs) are being developed and used worldwide. These systems provide schools with data on their functioning. However, little research is available on the characteristics of the different SPFSs. Therefore, this study…

  15. STARTING BLOCK PERFORMANCE IN SPRINTERS: A STATISTICAL METHOD FOR IDENTIFYING DISCRIMINATIVE PARAMETERS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF PROVIDING FEEDBACK OVER A 6-WEEK PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Fortier

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold: (a to examine if kinetic and kinematic parameters of the sprint start could differentiate elite from sub-elite sprinters and, (b to investigate whether providing feedback (FB about selected parameters could improve starting block performance of intermediate sprinters over a 6-week training period. Twelve male sprinters, assigned to an elite or a sub-elite group, participated in Experiment 1. Eight intermediate sprinters participated in Experiment 2. All athletes were required to perform three sprint starts at maximum intensity followed by a 10-m run. To detect differences between elite and sub-elite groups, comparisons were made using t-tests for independent samples. Parameters reaching a significant group difference were retained for the linear discriminant analysis (LDA. The LDA yielded four discriminative kinetic parameters. Feedback about these selected parameters was given to sprinters in Experiment 2. For this experiment, data acquisition was divided into three periods. The first six sessions were without specific FB, whereas the following six sessions were enriched by kinetic FB. Finally, athletes underwent a retention session (without FB 4 weeks after the twelfth session. Even though differences were found in the time to front peak force, the time to rear peak force, and the front peak force in the retention session, the results of the present study showed that providing FB about selected kinetic parameters differentiating elite from sub-elite sprinters did not improve the starting block performance of intermediate sprinters

  16. Model depicting aspects of audit and feedback that impact physicians' acceptance of clinical performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Velma L; Hysong, Sylvia J

    2016-07-13

    Audit and feedback (A&F) is a strategy that has been used in various disciplines for performance and quality improvement. There is limited research regarding medical professionals' acceptance of clinical-performance feedback and whether feedback impacts clinical practice. The objectives of our research were to (1) investigate aspects of A&F that impact physicians' acceptance of performance feedback; (2) determine actions physicians take when receiving feedback; and (3) determine if feedback impacts physicians' patient-management behavior. In this qualitative study, we employed grounded theory methods to perform a secondary analysis of semi-structured interviews with 12 VA primary care physicians. We analyzed a subset of interview questions from the primary study, which aimed to determine how providers of high, low and moderately performing VA medical centers use performance feedback to maintain and improve quality of care, and determine perceived utility of performance feedback. Based on the themes emergent from our analysis and their observed relationships, we developed a model depicting aspects of the A&F process that impact feedback acceptance and physicians' patient-management behavior. The model is comprised of three core components - Reaction, Action and Impact - and depicts elements associated with feedback recipients' reaction to feedback, action taken when feedback is received, and physicians modifying their patient-management behavior. Feedback characteristics, the environment, external locus-of-control components, core values, emotion and the assessment process induce or deter reaction, action and impact. Feedback characteristics (content and timeliness), and the procedural justice of the assessment process (unjust penalties) impact feedback acceptance. External locus-of-control elements (financial incentives, competition), the environment (patient volume, time constraints) and emotion impact patient-management behavior. Receiving feedback generated

  17. Feedback in Clinical Education, Part I: Characteristics of Feedback Provided by Approved Clinical Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, Sara; Henning, Jolene

    2014-01-01

    Context Providing students with feedback is an important component of athletic training clinical education; however, little information is known about the feedback that Approved Clinical Instructors (ACIs; now known as preceptors) currently provide to athletic training students (ATSs). Objective To characterize the feedback provided by ACIs to ATSs during clinical education experiences. Design Qualitative study. Setting One National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletic training facility and 1 outpatient rehabilitation clinic that were clinical sites for 1 entry-level master's degree program accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Patients or Other Participants A total of 4 ACIs with various experience levels and 4 second-year ATSs. Data Collection and Analysis Extensive field observations were audio recorded, transcribed, and integrated with field notes for analysis. The constant comparative approach of open, axial, and selective coding was used to inductively analyze data and develop codes and categories. Member checking, triangulation, and peer debriefing were used to promote trustworthiness of the study. Results The ACIs gave 88 feedback statements in 45 hours and 10 minutes of observation. Characteristics of feedback categories included purpose, timing, specificity, content, form, and privacy. Conclusions Feedback that ACIs provided included several components that made each feedback exchange unique. The ACIs in our study provided feedback that is supported by the literature, suggesting that ACIs are using current recommendations for providing feedback. Feedback needs to be investigated across multiple athletic training education programs to gain more understanding of certain areas of feedback, including frequency, privacy, and form. PMID:24143902

  18. Using Turnitin to Provide Feedback on L2 Writers' Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Ilka; Maliborska, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Second language (L2) writing instructors have varying tools at their disposal for providing feedback on students' writing, including ones that enable them to provide written and audio feedback in electronic form. One tool that has been underexplored is Turnitin, a widely used software program that matches electronic text to a wide range of…

  19. Physician Perceptions of Performance Feedback in a Quality Improvement Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Aimee R; Hansen, Elizabeth; Hagen, Michael D; Peterson, Lars E

    2017-10-01

    Physician performance and peer comparison feedback can affect physician care quality and patient outcomes. This study aimed to understand family physician perspectives of the value of performance feedback in quality improvement (QI) activities. This study analyzed American Board of Family Medicine open-ended survey data collected between 2004 and 2014 from physicians who completed a QI module that provided pre- and post-QI project individual performance data and peer comparisons. Physicians made 3480 comments in response to a question about this performance feedback, which were generally positive in nature (86%). Main themes that emerged were importance of accurate feedback data, enhanced detail in the content of feedback, and ability to customize peer comparison groups to compare performance to peers with similar patient populations or practice characteristics. Meaningful and tailored performance feedback may be an important tool for physicians to improve their care quality and should be considered an integral part of QI project design.

  20. Repeated training with augmentative vibrotactile feedback increases object manipulation performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara E Stepp

    Full Text Available Most users of prosthetic hands must rely on visual feedback alone, which requires visual attention and cognitive resources. Providing haptic feedback of variables relevant to manipulation, such as contact force, may thus improve the usability of prosthetic hands for tasks of daily living. Vibrotactile stimulation was explored as a feedback modality in ten unimpaired participants across eight sessions in a two-week period. Participants used their right index finger to perform a virtual object manipulation task with both visual and augmentative vibrotactile feedback related to force. Through repeated training, participants were able to learn to use the vibrotactile feedback to significantly improve object manipulation. Removal of vibrotactile feedback in session 8 significantly reduced task performance. These results suggest that vibrotactile feedback paired with training may enhance the manipulation ability of prosthetic hand users without the need for more invasive strategies.

  1. 10 CFR 850.40 - Performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance feedback. 850.40 Section 850.40 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.40 Performance feedback. (a) The responsible employer must conduct periodic analyses and assessments of...

  2. Physician performance feedback in a Canadian academic center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Dennis; Worthington, James; McGuire, Shaun; Burgetz, Stephanie; Forster, Alan J; Patey, Andrea; Gerin-Lajoie, Caroline; Turnbull, Jeffrey; Roth, Virginia

    2017-10-02

    Purpose This paper aims at the implementation and early evaluation of a comprehensive, formative annual physician performance feedback process in a large academic health-care organization. Design/methodology/approach A mixed methods approach was used to introduce a formative feedback process to provide physicians with comprehensive feedback on performance and to support professional development. This initiative responded to organization-wide engagement surveys through which physicians identified effective performance feedback as a priority. In 2013, physicians primarily affiliated with the organization participated in a performance feedback process, and physician satisfaction and participant perceptions were explored through participant survey responses and physician leader focus groups. Training was required for physician leaders prior to conducting performance feedback discussions. Findings This process was completed by 98 per cent of eligible physicians, and 30 per cent completed an evaluation survey. While physicians endorsed the concept of a formative feedback process, process improvement opportunities were identified. Qualitative analysis revealed the following process improvement themes: simplify the tool, ensure leaders follow process, eliminate redundancies in data collection (through academic or licensing requirements) and provide objective quality metrics. Following physician leader training on performance feedback, 98 per cent of leaders who completed an evaluation questionnaire agreed or strongly agreed that the performance feedback process was useful and that training objectives were met. Originality/value This paper introduces a physician performance feedback model, leadership training approach and first-year implementation outcomes. The results of this study will be useful to health administrators and physician leaders interested in implementing physician performance feedback or improving physician engagement.

  3. Performance feedback and impact on work motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine job performance feedback and its impact on work motivation. Quantitative data from 221 employees, working for an organization, was gathered and hypotheses were tested using variables identified by the self-determination theory of motivation and human resource literature surrounding performance appraisal effectiveness. The findings revealed that satisfaction with performance feedback is a moderate predictor of intrinsic motivation in a work setting. It w...

  4. Performance feedback and impact on work motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in Business administration : Executive MBA The aim of this study was to examine job performance feedback and its impact on work motivation. Quantitative data from 221 employees, working for an organization, was gathered and hypotheses were tested using variables identified by the self-determination theory of motivation and human resource literature surrounding performance appraisal effectiveness. The findings revealed that satisfaction with performance feedback is a moder...

  5. Examining clinical performance feedback in Patient-Aligned Care Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Knox, Melissa K; Haidet, Paul

    2014-07-01

    The move to team-based models of health care represents a fundamental shift in healthcare delivery, including major changes in the roles and relationships among clinical personnel. Audit and feedback of clinical performance has traditionally focused on the provider; however, a team-based model of care may require different approaches. Identify changes in audit and feedback of clinical performance to primary care clinical personnel resulting from implementing team-based care in their clinics. Semi-structured interviews with primary care clinicians, their department heads, and facility leadership at 16 geographically diverse VA Medical Centers, selected purposively by their clinical performance profile. An average of three interviewees per VA medical center, selected from physicians, nurses, and primary care and facility directors who participated in 1-hour interviews. Interviews focused on how clinical performance information is fed back to clinicians, with particular emphasis on external peer-review program measures and changes in feedback associated with team-based care implementation. Interview transcripts were analyzed, using techniques adapted from grounded theory and content analysis. Ownership of clinical performance still rests largely with the provider, despite transitioning to team-based care. A panel-management information tool emerged as the most prominent change to clinical performance feedback dissemination, and existing feedback tools were seen as most effective when monitored by the nurse members of the team. Facilities reported few, if any, appreciable changes to the assessment of clinical performance since transitioning to team-based care. Although new tools have been created to support higher-quality clinical performance feedback to primary care teams, such tools have not necessarily delivered feedback consistent with a team-based approach to health care. Audit and feedback of clinical performance has remained largely unchanged, despite material

  6. Computer-Supported Feedback Message Tailoring for Healthcare Providers in Malawi: Proof-of-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis-Lewis, Zach; Douglas, Gerald P; Hochheiser, Harry; Kam, Matthew; Gadabu, Oliver; Bwanali, Mwatha; Jacobson, Rebecca S

    2015-01-01

    Although performance feedback has the potential to help clinicians improve the quality and safety of care, healthcare organizations generally lack knowledge about how this guidance is best provided. In low-resource settings, tools for theory-informed feedback tailoring may enhance limited clinical supervision resources. Our objectives were to establish proof-of-concept for computer-supported feedback message tailoring in Malawi, Africa. We conducted this research in five stages: clinical performance measurement, modeling the influence of feedback on antiretroviral therapy (ART) performance, creating a rule-based message tailoring process, generating tailored messages for recipients, and finally analysis of performance and message tailoring data. We retrospectively generated tailored messages for 7,448 monthly performance reports from 11 ART clinics. We found that tailored feedback could be routinely generated for four guideline-based performance indicators, with 35% of reports having messages prioritized to optimize the effect of feedback. This research establishes proof-of-concept for a novel approach to improving the use of clinical performance feedback in low-resource settings and suggests possible directions for prospective evaluations comparing alternative designs of feedback messages. PMID:26958217

  7. Providing Rapid Feedback in Generated Modular Language Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, L.C.L.; De Jonge, M.; Nilsson-Nyman, E.; Visser, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a pre-print of: Providing Rapid Feedback in Generated Modular Language Environments. Adding Error Recovery to Scannerless Generalized-LR Parsing. In: Gary T. Leavens, editor, Proceedings of the 24th ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Object-Oriented Programing, Systems, Languages, and

  8. A method for calculating active feedback system to provide vertical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 68; Issue 4. A method for calculating active feedback system to provide vertical position control of plasma in a tokamak. Nizami Gasilov. Research ... Nizami Gasilov1. Faculty of Engineering, Baskent University, Eskisehir Yolu 20. km, Baglica, 06530 Ankara, Turkey ...

  9. Enhancing Healthcare Provider Feedback and Personal Health Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    In this protocol for a pilot study we seek to establish the feasibility of using a web-based survey to simultaneously supply healthcare organisations and agencies with feedback on a key aspect of the care experience they provide and increase the generic health decision literacy of the individuals...

  10. Adding vibrotactile feedback to a myoelectric-controlled hand improves performance when online visual feedback is disturbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Eitan; Portnoy, Sigal; Friedman, Jason

    2018-01-17

    We investigated whether adding vibrotactile feedback to a myoelectric-controlled hand, when visual feedback is disturbed, can improve performance during a functional test. For this purpose, able-bodied subjects, activating a myoelectric-controlled hand attached to their right hand performed the modified Box & Blocks test, grasping and manipulating wooden blocks over a partition. This was performed in 3 conditions, using a repeated-measures design: in full light, in a dark room where visual feedback was disturbed and no auditory feedback - one time with the addition of tactile feedback provided during object grasping and manipulation, and one time without any tactile feedback. The average time needed to transfer one block was measured, and an infrared camera was used to give information on the number of grasping errors during performance of the test. Our results show that when vibrotactile feedback was provided, performance time was reduced significantly, compared with when no vibrotactile feedback was available. Furthermore, the accuracy of grasping and manipulation was improved, reflected by significantly fewer errors during test performance. In conclusion, adding vibrotactile feedback to a myoelectric-controlled hand has positive effects on functional performance when visual feedback is disturbed. This may have applications to current myoelectric-controlled hands, as adding tactile feedback may help prosthesis users to improve their functional ability during daily life activities in different environments, particularly when limited visual feedback is available or desirable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A feedback system in residency to evaluate CanMEDS roles and provide high-quality feedback : Exploring its application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renting, Nienke; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Van Der Wal, Martha A.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    Introduction: Residents benefit from regular, high quality feedback on all CanMEDS roles during their training. However, feedback mostly concerns Medical Expert, leaving the other roles behind. A feedback system was developed to guide supervisors in providing feedback on CanMEDS roles. We analyzed

  12. Supervising Paraprofessionals: Performance-Related Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, James D.; And Others

    Although increasing use of paraprofessionals to implement key program concepts has the advantage of increased availability and lower salaries, problems in maintaining acceptable levels of performance have also been reported. This study assessed the role of performance-related feedback on the work behavior of paraprofessional tutors in a remedial…

  13. A flexible postoperative debriefing process can effectively provide formative resident feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Mackenzie R; Watters, Jennifer M; Barton, Jeffrey S; Kamin, Carol; Brown, Sarah N; Deveney, Karen E; Kiraly, Laszlo N

    2015-05-01

    Providing residents with formative operative feedback is one of the ongoing challenges in modern surgical education. This is highlighted by the recent American Board of Surgery requirement for formal operative assessments. A flexible and adaptable procedure feedback process may allow attending surgeons to provide qualitative and quantitative feedback to residents while encouraging surgeons-in-training to critically reflect on their own performance. We designed and implemented a flexible feedback process in which residents initiated a postoperative feedback discussion and completed a Procedure Feedback Form (PFF) with their supervising attending surgeon. Comparisons were made between the quantitative and qualitative assessments of attending and resident surgeons. Free text statements describing strengths and weaknesses were analyzed using grounded theory with constant comparison. We identified 346 assessments of 48 surgery residents performing 38 different cases. There was good inter-rater reliability between resident and attending surgeons' quantitative assessment, Goodman and Kruskal gamma > 0.65. Key themes identified on qualitative analysis included flow, technique, synthesis/decision, outcomes, knowledge, and communication/attitudes. Subthematic analysis demonstrated that our novel debriefing procedure was easily adaptable to a wide variety of clinical settings and grew more individualized for senior learners. This procedure feedback process is easily adaptable to a wide variety of cases and supports resident self-reflection. The process grows in nuance and complexity with the learner and may serve as a guide for a flexible and widely applicable postoperative feedback process. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Learning expressive percussion performance under different visual feedback conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Brandmeyer, A.; Timmers, R.; Sadakata, M.; Desain, P.

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to test the effect of two different forms of real-time visual feedback on expressive percussion performance. Conservatory percussion students performed imitations of recorded teacher performances while receiving either high-level feedback on the expressive style of their performances, low-level feedback on the timing and dynamics of the performed notes, or no feedback. The high-level feedback was based on a Bayesian analysis of the performances, while the low-level feedb...

  15. Feedback-giving behaviour in performance evaluations during clinical clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Harold G J; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Spruijt, Annemarie; Van Beukelen, Peter; Van Der Vleuten, Cees P M; Teunissen, Pim W

    2016-01-01

    Narrative feedback documented in performance evaluations by the teacher, i.e. the clinical supervisor, is generally accepted to be essential for workplace learning. Many studies have examined factors of influence on the usage of mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) instruments and provision of feedback, but little is known about how these factors influence teachers' feedback-giving behaviour. In this study, we investigated teachers' use of mini-CEX in performance evaluations to provide narrative feedback in undergraduate clinical training. We designed an exploratory qualitative study using an interpretive approach. Focusing on the usage of mini-CEX instruments in clinical training, we conducted semi-structured interviews to explore teachers' perceptions. Between February and June 2013, we conducted interviews with 14 clinicians participated as teachers during undergraduate clinical clerkships. Informed by concepts from the literature, we coded interview transcripts and iteratively reduced and displayed data using template analysis. We identified three main themes of interrelated factors that influenced teachers' practice with regard to mini-CEX instruments: teacher-related factors; teacher-student interaction-related factors, and teacher-context interaction-related factors. Four issues (direct observation, relationship between teacher and student, verbal versus written feedback, formative versus summative purposes) that are pertinent to workplace-based performance evaluations were presented to clarify how different factors interact with each other and influence teachers' feedback-giving behaviour. Embedding performance observation in clinical practice and establishing trustworthy teacher-student relationships in more longitudinal clinical clerkships were considered important in creating a learning environment that supports and facilitates the feedback exchange. Teachers' feedback-giving behaviour within the clinical context results from the interaction

  16. TRAINING EFFECTS OF FEEDBACK AND MODELING PROCEDURES ON TEACHING PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALLEN, DWIGHT W.; MCDONALD, FREDERICK J.

    THIS REPORT DESCRIBES A SERIES OF EXPERIMENTS TO ASSESS THE USEFULNESS OF TELEVISION RECORDINGS IN IMPROVING TEACHING PERFORMANCE. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ARE (1) TO COMPARE THE EFFECTS OF SELF-EVALUATION OF A TEACHING PERFORMANCE WITH FEEDBACK PROVIDED BY A SUPERVISING INSTRUCTOR, (2) TO COMPARE THE EFFECTS OF REINFORCEMENT DELAY, AND (3) TO…

  17. Task-Irrelevant Auditory Feedback Facilitates Motor Performance in Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Virginia; Altenmüller, Eckart; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    An efficient and fast auditory–motor network is a basic resource for trained musicians due to the importance of motor anticipation of sound production in musical performance. When playing an instrument, motor performance always goes along with the production of sounds and the integration between both modalities plays an essential role in the course of musical training. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of task-irrelevant auditory feedback during motor performance in musicians using a serial reaction time task (SRTT). Our hypothesis was that musicians, due to their extensive auditory–motor practice routine during musical training, have superior performance and learning capabilities when receiving auditory feedback during SRTT relative to musicians performing the SRTT without any auditory feedback. Behaviorally, we found that auditory feedback reinforced SRTT performance of the right hand (referring to absolute response speed) while learning capabilities remained unchanged. This finding highlights a potential important role for task-irrelevant auditory feedback in motor performance in musicians, a finding that might provide further insight into auditory–motor integration independent of the trained musical context. PMID:22623920

  18. A qualitative study on feedback provided by students in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y; Stanley, David John; Meadus, Robert J; Chien, Wai Tong

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to help nurse educators/academics understand the perspectives and expectations of students providing their feedback to educators about teaching performance and subject quality. The aim of this study is to reveal students' voices regarding their feedback in nurse education in order to shed light on how the current student feedback practice may be modified. A qualitative study using focus group inquiry. Convenience sampling was adopted and participants recruited from one school of nursing in Hong Kong. A total of 66 nursing students from two pre-registration programs were recruited for seven focus group interviews: one group of Year 1 students (n=21), two groups of Year 3 students (n=27), and four groups of Final Year students (n=18). The interviews were guided by a semi-structured interview guideline and the interview narratives were processed through content analysis. The trustworthiness of this study was guaranteed through peer checking, research meetings, and an audit trail. The participants' privacy was protected throughout the study. Four core themes were discerned based on the narratives of the focus group interviews: (1) "timing of collecting feedback at more than one time point"; (2) "modify the questions being asked in collecting student feedback"; (3) "are electronic means of collecting feedback good enough?; and (4) "what will be next for student feedback?". This study is significant in the following three domains: 1) it contributed to student feedback because it examined the issue from a student's perspective; 2) it explored the timing and channels for collecting feedback from the students' point of view; and 3) it showed the preferred uses of student feedback. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Use of Performance Feedback in School Improvement in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildkamp, Kim; Visscher, Adrie

    2010-01-01

    Although school performance feedback is available in schools all over the world, there is a dearth of information about the use made of feedback and about the effects of its use. This paper presents case study research into the use of school performance feedback and its perceived effects. All schools used the feedback in writing school improvement…

  20. Can Performance Feedback during Instruction Boost Knowledge Acquisition? Contrasting Criterion-Based and Social Comparison Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollöffel, Bas; de Jong, Ton

    2016-01-01

    Feedback indicating how well students are performing during a learning task can be very stimulating. In this study with a pre- and post-test design, the effects of two types of performance feedback on learning results were compared: feedback during a learning task was either stated in terms of how well the students were performing relative to…

  1. Multi source feedback based performance appraisal system using Fuzzy logic decision support system

    OpenAIRE

    Meenakshi, G.

    2012-01-01

    In Multi-Source Feedback or 360 Degree Feedback, data on the performance of an individual are collected systematically from a number of stakeholders and are used for improving performance. The 360-Degree Feedback approach provides a consistent management philosophy meeting the criterion outlined previously. The 360-degree feedback appraisal process describes a human resource methodology that is frequently used for both employee appraisal and employee development. Used in employee performance...

  2. Providing physicians with feedback on how they supervise students during patient contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmans, D H J M; Wolfhagen, H A P; Gerver, W J; De Grave, W; Scherpbier, A J J A

    2004-08-01

    In this descriptive study an instrument is presented that has been developed to provide physicians with feedback about their strengths and weaknesses in facilitating student learning during patient contacts. The instrument is strongly theory based, i.e. it is based on current general theories of context-bound learning environments, and forms of facilitation promoting transfer of knowledge to actual professional practice. In addition, it has been developed in cooperation with physicians supervising students during patient contacts. The authors have shown how physicians can be provided with individualized feedback on their performance in supervising students during patient contacts.

  3. Can performance feedback during instruction boost knowledge acquisition? Contrasting criterion-based and social comparison feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolloffel, Bas Jan; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Feedback indicating how well students are performing during a learning task can be very stimulating. In this study with a pre- and post-test design, the effects of two types of performance feedback on learning results were compared: feedback during a learning task was either stated in terms of how

  4. Task-irrelevant auditory feedback facilitates motor performance in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia eConde

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and fast auditory–motor network is a basic resource for trained musicians due to the importance of motor anticipation of sound production in musical performance. When playing an instrument, motor performance always goes along with the production of sounds and the integration between both modalities plays an essential role in the course of musical training. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of task-irrelevant auditory feedback during motor performance in musicians using a serial reaction time task (SRTT. Our hypothesis was that musicians, due to their extensive auditory–motor practice routine during musical training, have a superior performance and learning capabilities when receiving auditory feedback during SRTT relative to musicians performing the SRTT without any auditory feedback. Here we provide novel evidence that task-irrelevant auditory feedback is capable to reinforce SRTT performance but not learning, a finding that might provide further insight into auditory-motor integration in musicians on a behavioral level.

  5. A method for calculating active feedback system to provide vertical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    not difficult to see that ϕ (+∞)=+∞. Therefore, for the equation ϕ (γ)=0to have no positive root, the fulfillment of the following condition is necessary: ϕ (0) = (R−1w, a) − w0 ≥ 0. (12). We will call (12) as the necessary condition of vertical position control by active feedbacks. 5. Problem of selection of active feedback system.

  6. Teacher's Attitude into Different Approach to Providing Feedback to Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaqmaqchee, Zina Adil

    2015-01-01

    Feedback within higher education has an effective role in teaching staffs mode. The treatise on teachers' methods of feedback is represented to demonstrate how the novel feedback can help the academic staffs to provide an effective feedback for students in their assignments and written draft. The study investigates the academic staff's methods of…

  7. Pharmacy students' views of faculty feedback on academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Maurice; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Quinn, Siobhan

    2012-02-10

    To investigate students' views on and satisfaction with faculty feedback on their academic performance. A 41-item survey instrument was developed based on a literature review relating to effective feedback. All pharmacy undergraduate students were invited via e-mail to complete the self-administered electronic questionnaire relating to their views on feedback, including faculty feedback received to date regarding their academic performance. A response rate of 61% (343/561) was obtained. Only 32.3% of students (107/331) agreed that they were satisfied with the feedback they received; dissatisfaction with examination feedback was particularly high. The provision of faculty feedback was perceived to be variable in terms of quality and quantity. There are some inconsistencies relating to provision of feedback within the MPharm degree program at Queen's University Belfast. Further work is needed to close the gap between student expectations and the faculty's delivery of feedback on academic performance.

  8. The Impact of Middle-School Students' Feedback Choices and Performance on Their Feedback Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutumisu, Maria; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel examination of the impact of students' feedback choices and performance on their feedback memory. An empirical study was designed to collect the choices to seek critical feedback from a hundred and six Grade 8 middle-school students via Posterlet, a digital assessment game in which students design posters. Upon…

  9. Exploring the value of peer feedback in online learning for the provider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijke Kral; Gino Camp; Esther van Popta; Robert Jan Simons; Rob L. Martens

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of peer feedback from the novel perspective of the providers of that feedback. The possible learning benefits of providing peer feedback in online learning have not been extensively studied. The goal of this study was therefore to explore the process of providing online

  10. The Performance versus Ability Distinction Following Social Comparison Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Justin T.; LeBeau, Lavonia Smith; Klein, William M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that self-evaluations can be influenced by social comparison feedback. The present study tested whether social comparison feedback has stronger effects on self-evaluations of performance than ability. Participants received social comparison feedback indicating that they had performed above or below average. In addition…

  11. The use of performance feedback in school improvement in Louisiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schildkamp, Kim; Visscher, Arend J.

    2010-01-01

    Although school performance feedback is available in schools all over the world, there is a dearth of information about the use made of feedback and about the effects of its use. This paper presents case study research into the use of school performance feedback and its’ perceived effects. All

  12. Using alternative feedback strategies to improve aircraft inspection performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkuekool, Sittichai

    The aircraft inspection and maintenance system consists of several interrelated human and machine components, with visual inspection playing a significant role in ensuring aircraft safety. Training has been identified as one of the most important intervention strategies for enhancing the quality and reliability of aircraft inspection. This process has the potential to be improved using advancements in computer technology, especially virtual reality (VR) technology, which is becoming increasingly more affordable and prevalent. In light of this situation, this study investigated the use of VR technology to support training in the improvement of aircraft inspection performance. An experiment was developed to investigate the use of performance and process feedback in both statistical and graphical forms in two different task environments. In addition, information on defect criticality, defect location, and occurrence of defect was provided to subjects to study the effectiveness of feedforward information on inspection performance. Specifically, the experiment involved the inspection of an aircraft cargo bay using VR technology with eye tracking movement devices and a 6 degree of freedom mouse for pointing and clicking on defects. Results from the feedback training indicated that providing process along with performance feedback improved inspection performance as evidenced in the speed, accuracy and search strategy measures. Similar results were shown for both task environments. However, the addition feedforward information in the heterogeneous task environment yielded ever better inspection performance, and process and performance feedback coupled with feedforward information on defect criticality, defect location, and occurrence of defect yielded the best inspection performance as seen in the speed, accuracy and search strategy measures. The findings of this study indicate that using a combination of training intervention strategies leads to an improvement in

  13. Comparison of modes of feedback on glide performance in swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Jacqueline L; Naemi, Roozbeh; Sanders, Ross H

    2012-01-01

    The software product "GlideCoach" was recently developed to give quantitative and qualitative feedback on the glide performance of a swimmer (Naemi & Sanders, 2008 ). This study compared the effect of feedback on glide performance from GlideCoach with video and verbal feedback. Nineteen elite swimmers were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Group 1 and 2 included six swimmers and Group 3 included seven swimmers. All participants performed ten dives in each of five sessions. Each group received one of three forms of feedback (video, video and verbal, and GlideCoach and verbal) for four sessions. In the fifth, retest session, performed 4 weeks after the fourth session, all groups received GlideCoach and verbal feedback only. This enabled the analysis of GlideCoach and verbal feedback on performance of the groups that had not yet received this feedback and assessment of the retention ability for the group that had. Feedback resulted in all groups recording an improvement, as indicated by effect sizes, for average velocity, glide factor (related to resistive drag), and initial velocity (P feedback was greater than that of the two other feedback methods for all variables of interest (P feedback methods. We conclude that GlideCoach feedback is effective in improving glide performance.

  14. Can Turnitin Be Used to Provide Instant Formative Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Vivien

    2011-01-01

    New students face the challenge of making a smooth transition between school and university, and with regards to academic practice, there are often gaps between student expectations and university requirements. This study supports the use of the plagiarism detection service Turnitin to give students instant feedback on essays to help improve…

  15. Learning from feedback: the neural mechanisms of feedback processing facilitating better performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi

    2014-03-15

    Different levels of feedback, from sensory signals to verbal advice, are needed not only for learning new skills, but also for monitoring performance. A great deal of research has focused on the electrophysiological correlates of feedback processing and how they relate to good learning. In this paper, studies on the EEG correlates of learning from feedback are reviewed. The main objective is to discuss these findings whilst also considering some key theoretical aspects of learning. The learning processes, its operational definition and the feedback characteristics are discussed and used as reference for integrating the findings in the literature. The EEG correlates of feedback processing for learning using various analytical approaches are discussed, including ERPs, oscillations and inter-site synchronization. How these EEG responses to feedback are related to learning is discussed, highlighting the gaps in the literature and suggesting future directions for understanding the neural underpinnings of learning from feedback. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Attention Paid to Feedback Provided by a Computer-Based Assessment for Learning on Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Caroline; Veldkamp, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Three studies are presented on attention paid to feedback provided by a computer-based assessment for learning on information literacy. Results show that the attention paid to feedback varies greatly. In general the attention focuses on feedback of incorrectly answered questions. In each study approximately fifty percent of the respondents paid…

  17. Learning expressive percussion performance under different visual feedback conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmeyer, Alex; Timmers, Renee; Sadakata, Makiko; Desain, Peter

    2011-03-01

    A study was conducted to test the effect of two different forms of real-time visual feedback on expressive percussion performance. Conservatory percussion students performed imitations of recorded teacher performances while receiving either high-level feedback on the expressive style of their performances, low-level feedback on the timing and dynamics of the performed notes, or no feedback. The high-level feedback was based on a Bayesian analysis of the performances, while the low-level feedback was based on the raw participant timing and dynamics data. Results indicated that neither form of feedback led to significantly smaller timing and dynamics errors. However, high-level feedback did lead to a higher proficiency in imitating the expressive style of the target performances, as indicated by a probabilistic measure of expressive style. We conclude that, while potentially disruptive to timing processes involved in music performance due to extraneous cognitive load, high-level visual feedback can improve participant imitations of expressive performance features.

  18. Mobile in vivo camera robots provide sole visual feedback for abdominal exploration and cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentschler, M E; Dumpert, J; Platt, S R; Ahmed, S I; Farritor, S M; Oleynikov, D

    2006-01-01

    The use of small incisions in laparoscopy reduces patient trauma, but also limits the surgeon's ability to view and touch the surgical environment directly. These limitations generally restrict the application of laparoscopy to procedures less complex than those performed during open surgery. Although current robot-assisted laparoscopy improves the surgeon's ability to manipulate and visualize the target organs, the instruments and cameras remain fundamentally constrained by the entry incisions. This limits tool tip orientation and optimal camera placement. The current work focuses on developing a new miniature mobile in vivo adjustable-focus camera robot to provide sole visual feedback to surgeons during laparoscopic surgery. A miniature mobile camera robot was inserted through a trocar into the insufflated abdominal cavity of an anesthetized pig. The mobile robot allowed the surgeon to explore the abdominal cavity remotely and view trocar and tool insertion and placement without entry incision constraints. The surgeon then performed a cholecystectomy using the robot camera alone for visual feedback. This successful trial has demonstrated that miniature in vivo mobile robots can provide surgeons with sufficient visual feedback to perform common procedures while reducing patient trauma.

  19. Learning expressive percussion performance under different visual feedback conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandmeyer, A.; Timmers, R.; Sadakata, M.; Desain, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to test the effect of two different forms of real-time visual feedback on expressive percussion performance. Conservatory percussion students performed imitations of recorded teacher performances while receiving either high-level feedback on the expressive style of their

  20. A method of providing engaging formative feedback to large cohort first-year physiology and anatomy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston-Green, Katrina; Wallace, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates a critical role for effective, meaningful feedback to enhance student learning. Effective feedback can become part of the learning cycle that is not only a learning opportunity for the student but can also be used to inform the teacher and ongoing curriculum development. Feedback is considered particularly important during the first year of university and can even be viewed as a retention strategy that can help attenuate student performance anxieties and solidify perceptions of academic support. Unfortunately, the provision of individualized, timely feedback can be particularly challenging in first-year courses as they tend to be large and diverse cohort classes that pose challenges of time and logistics. Various forms of generic feedback can provide rapid and cost-effect feedback to large cohorts but may be of limited benefit to students other than signaling weaknesses in knowledge. The present study describes a method that was used to provide formative task-related feedback to a large cohort of first-year physiology and anatomy students. Based on student evaluations presented in this study, this method provided feedback in a manner that engaged students, uncovered underlying misconceptions, facilitated peer discussion, and provided opportunity for new instruction while allowing the lecturer to recognize common gaps in knowledge and inform ongoing curriculum development. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  1. Teaching and Learning Writing through Providing Teacher’s Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihem Boubekeur

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English as a foreign language refers to instructing English to learners who are non native speakers. Mastering the language very well does not mean neither that the teacher can instruct writing in a good way; nor the student can compose coherently. Writing is a fundamental skill in both learning and teaching processes; in which EFL students need to master. Yet; the latter is considered as a complex and difficult task in that learners have to explore their thoughts and ideas via communicating on a paper; but clearly. Thus; since learners are required to write extended essays appropriately; they need to be aware of their mistakes via receiving teachers’ feedback which could be an effective strategy that enhances the students’ writing capacities.

  2. Using School Performance Feedback: Perceptions of Primary School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Goedele; Vanhoof, Jan; Valcke, Martin; Van Petegem, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The present study focuses on the perception of primary school principals of school performance feedback (SPF) and of the actual use of this information. This study is part of a larger project which aims to develop a new school performance feedback system (SPFS). The study builds on an eclectic framework that integrates the literature on SPFSs.…

  3. Feedback effects on students' writing motivation, process, and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhouwer, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836230

    2010-01-01

    Many students’ writing capacities remain insufficient during college years (Kellogg & Whiteford, 2009). Teachers try to improve students’ writing skills by providing them with feedback on their texts. Remarkably, research on the effects of feedback provided on written products is scarce (Graham &

  4. A Surgical Robot Teleoperation Framework for Providing Haptic Feedback Incorporating Virtual Environment-Based Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Munawar, Adnan; Fischer, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    In robot-assisted teleoperated laparoscopic surgeries, the patient side manipulators are controlled via the master manipulators, operated by the surgeon. The current generation of robots approved for laparoscopic surgery lack haptic feedback. In theory, haptic feedback could enhance the surgical procedures by providing a palpable sense of the environment as a function of surgeon’s hands movements. This research presents an overall control framework for haptic feedback on existing robot platfo...

  5. The effect of performance feedback on drivers' hazard perception ability and self-ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horswill, Mark S; Garth, Megan; Hill, Andrew; Watson, Marcus O

    2017-04-01

    Drivers' hazard perception ability has been found to predict crash risk, and novice drivers appear to be particularly poor at this skill. This competency appears to develop only slowly with experience, and this could partially be a result of poor quality performance feedback. We report an experiment in which we provided high-quality artificial feedback on individual drivers' performance in a validated video-based hazard perception test via either: (1) a graph-based comparison of hazard perception response times between the test-taker, the average driver, and an expert driver; (2) a video-based comparison between the same groups; or (3) both. All three types of feedback resulted in both an improvement in hazard perception performance and a reduction in self-rated hazard perception skill, compared with a no-feedback control group. Video-based and graph-based feedback combined resulted in a greater improvement in hazard perception performance than either of the individual components, which did not differ from one another. All three types of feedback eliminated participants' self-enhancement bias for hazard perception skill. Participants judged both interventions involving video feedback to be significantly more likely to improve their real-world driving than the no feedback control group. While all three forms of feedback had some value, the combined video and graph feedback intervention appeared to be the most effective across all outcome measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality of Feedback Following Performance Assessments: Does Assessor Expertise Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, Marjan J. B.; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate quality of feedback as offered by supervisor-assessors with varying levels of assessor expertise following assessment of performance in residency training in a health care setting. It furthermore investigates if and how different levels of assessor expertise influence feedback characteristics.…

  7. Musical training and the role of auditory feedback during performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q

    2012-04-01

    Recent research has shown that music training enhances music-related sensorimotor associations, such as the relationship between a key press on the keyboard and its associated musical pitch (auditory feedback). Such results suggest that the role of auditory feedback in performance may be based on learned associations that are task specific. Here, results from various studies will be presented that suggest that the real state of affairs is more complex. Several recent studies have shown similar effects of altered auditory feedback during piano performance for pianists and individuals with no piano training. Other recent research suggests dramatic differences between pianists and nonmusicians concerning the influence of auditory feedback on melody switching that suggest greater influence of auditory feedback among nonmusicians than pianists. Taken together, results suggest that musical training refines preexisting sensorimotor associations. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Volunteer Expert Readers: Drawing on the University Community to Provide Professional Feedback for Engineering Student Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovitz, Cary

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a 3-year study utilizing a novel approach to providing students in an introductory engineering course with feedback on drafts of course writing projects. In the Volunteer Expert Reader (VER) approach, students are matched with university alumni or employees who have the background to give feedback from the perspective of the…

  9. Performance Measure as Feedback Variable in Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Danijela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the view of image processing performance measure presenting the use of this measure as an actual value in a feedback structure. The idea behind is that the control loop, which is built in that way, drives the actual feedback value to a given set point. Since the performance measure depends explicitly on the application, the inclusion of feedback structures and choice of appropriate feedback variables are presented on example of optical character recognition in industrial application. Metrics for quantification of performance at different image processing levels are discussed. The issues that those metrics should address from both image processing and control point of view are considered. The performance measures of individual processing algorithms that form a character recognition system are determined with respect to the overall system performance.

  10. Auris System: Providing Vibrotactile Feedback for Hearing Impaired Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alves Araujo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deafness, an issue that affects millions of people around the globe, is manifested in different intensities and related to many causes. This impairment negatively affects different aspects of the social life of the deaf people, and music-centered situations (concerts, religious events, etc. are obviously not inviting for them. The Auris System was conceived to provide the musical experimentation for people who have some type of hearing loss. This system is able to extract musical information from audio and create a representation for music pieces using different stimuli, a new media format to be interpreted by other senses than the hearing. In addition, the system defines a testing methodology based on a noninvasive brain activity recording using an electroencephalographic (EEG device. The results of the tests are being used to better understand the human musical cognition, in order to improve the accuracy of the Auris musical representation.

  11. Auris System: Providing Vibrotactile Feedback for Hearing Impaired Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Araujo, Felipe; Lima Brasil, Fabricio; Candido Lima Santos, Allison; de Sousa Batista Junior, Luzenildo; Pereira Fonseca Dutra, Savio; Eduardo Coelho Freire Batista, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Deafness, an issue that affects millions of people around the globe, is manifested in different intensities and related to many causes. This impairment negatively affects different aspects of the social life of the deaf people, and music-centered situations (concerts, religious events, etc.) are obviously not inviting for them. The Auris System was conceived to provide the musical experimentation for people who have some type of hearing loss. This system is able to extract musical information from audio and create a representation for music pieces using different stimuli, a new media format to be interpreted by other senses than the hearing. In addition, the system defines a testing methodology based on a noninvasive brain activity recording using an electroencephalographic (EEG) device. The results of the tests are being used to better understand the human musical cognition, in order to improve the accuracy of the Auris musical representation.

  12. Online performance evaluation of motor imagery BCI with augmented-reality virtual hand feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Zheng Yang; Ang, Kai Keng; Wang, Chuanchu; Guan, Cuntai

    2010-01-01

    The online performance of a motor imagery-based Brain-Computer Interface (MI-BCI) influences its effectiveness and usability in real-world clinical applications such as the restoration of motor control. The online performance depends on factors such as the different feedback techniques and motivation of the subject. This paper investigates the online performance of the MI-BCI with an augmented-reality (AR) 3D virtual hand feedback. The subject experiences the interaction with 3D virtual hands, which have been superimposed onto his real hands and displayed on the computer monitor from a first person point-of-view. While performing motor imagery, he receives continuous visual feedback from the MI-BCI in the form of different degrees of reaching and grasping actions of the 3D virtual hands with other virtual objects. The AR feedback is compared with the conventional horizontal bar feedback on 8 subjects, of whom 7 are BCI-naïve. The subjects found the AR feedback to be more engaging and motivating. Despite the higher mental workload involved in the AR feedback, their online MI-BCI performance compared to the conventional horizontal bar feedback was not affected. The results provide motivation to further develop and refine the AR feedback protocol for MI-BCI.

  13. Eye movement feedback fails to improve visual search performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Chad; Becker, Mark W

    2017-01-01

    Many real-world searches (e.g., radiology and baggage screening) have rare targets. When targets are rare, observers perform rapid, incomplete searches, leading to higher miss rates. To improve search for rare (10% prevalence) targets, we provided eye movement feedback (EMF) to observers during their searches. Although the nature of the EMF varied across experiments, each method informed observers about the regions of the display that had not yet been inspected. We hypothesized that feedback would help guide attention to unsearched areas and increase the proportion of the display searched before making a target-absent response, thereby increasing accuracy. An eye tracker was used to mark fixated areas by either removing a semiopaque gray overlay (Experiments 1 and 4) as portions of the display were fixated or by adding the overlay once the eye left a segment of the image (Experiments 2 and 4). Experiment 3 provided automated EMF, such that a new region was uncovered every 540 milliseconds. Across experiments, we varied whether people searched for "Waldo" in images from "Where's Waldo?" search books or searched for a T among offset Ls. We found weak evidence that EMF improves accuracy in Experiment 1. However, in the remaining experiments, EMF had no effect (Experiment 4), or even reduced accuracy (Experiments 2 and 3). We conclude that the one positive result we found is likely a Type I error and that the EMF method that we used is unlikely to improve visual search performance.

  14. Barriers to using eHealth data for clinical performance feedback in Malawi: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis-Lewis, Zach; Manjomo, Ronald; Gadabu, Oliver J; Kam, Matthew; Simwaka, Bertha N; Zickmund, Susan L; Chimbwandira, Frank; Douglas, Gerald P; Jacobson, Rebecca S

    2015-10-01

    Sub-optimal performance of healthcare providers in low-income countries is a critical and persistent global problem. The use of electronic health information technology (eHealth) in these settings is creating large-scale opportunities to automate performance measurement and provision of feedback to individual healthcare providers, to support clinical learning and behavior change. An electronic medical record system (EMR) deployed in 66 antiretroviral therapy clinics in Malawi collects data that supervisors use to provide quarterly, clinic-level performance feedback. Understanding barriers to provision of eHealth-based performance feedback for individual healthcare providers in this setting could present a relatively low-cost opportunity to significantly improve the quality of care. The aims of this study were to identify and describe barriers to using EMR data for individualized audit and feedback for healthcare providers in Malawi and to consider how to design technology to overcome these barriers. We conducted a qualitative study using interviews, observations, and informant feedback in eight public hospitals in Malawi where an EMR system is used. We interviewed 32 healthcare providers and conducted seven hours of observation of system use. We identified four key barriers to the use of EMR data for clinical performance feedback: provider rotations, disruptions to care processes, user acceptance of eHealth, and performance indicator lifespan. Each of these factors varied across sites and affected the quality of EMR data that could be used for the purpose of generating performance feedback for individual healthcare providers. Using routinely collected eHealth data to generate individualized performance feedback shows potential at large-scale for improving clinical performance in low-resource settings. However, technology used for this purpose must accommodate ongoing changes in barriers to eHealth data use. Understanding the clinical setting as a complex adaptive

  15. Analytically exploiting noise correlations inside the feedback loop to improve locked-oscillator performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sastrawan, J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available , providing a means to capture the stochastic evolution of the local oscillator frequency during the measurement cycle. We present analytic calculations and numerical simulations of oscillator performance under competing feedback schemes and demonstrate...

  16. Effects of visual feedback on manipulation performance and patient ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triano, John J; Scaringe, John; Bougie, Jacqueline; Rogers, Carolyn

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the explicit targeted outcome (a criterion standard) and visual feedback on the immediate change in and the short-term retention of performance by novice operators for a high-velocity, low-amplitude procedure under realistic conditions. This study used a single-blind randomized experimental design. Forty healthy male (n = 26) and female (n = 14) chiropractic student volunteers with no formal training in spinal manipulative therapy participated. Biomechanical parameters of an L4 mammillary push spinal manipulation procedure performed by novice operators were quantified. Participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups and paired. One group received visual feedback from load-time histories of their performance compared with a criterion standard before a repeat performance. Participants then performed a 10-minute distractive exercise consisting of National Board of Chiropractic Examiners review questions. The second group received no feedback. An independent rating of performance was conducted for each participant by his/her partner. Results were analyzed separately for biomechanical parameters for partner ratings using the Student t test with levels of significance (P visual feedback was associated with change in the biomechanical performance of group 2, a minimum of 14% and a maximum of 32%. Statistical analysis rating of the performance favored the feedback group on 4 of the parameters (fast, P < .0008; force, P < .0056; precision, P < .0034; and composite, P < .0016). Quantitative feedback, based on a tangible conceptualization of the target performance, resulted in immediate and significant improvement in all measured parameters. Newly developed skills were retained at least over short intervals even after distractive tasks. Learning what to do with feedback on one's own performance may be more important than the classic teaching of how to do it.

  17. Grading by Category: A simple method for providing students with meaningful feedback on exams in large courses

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Cassandra; Weiss, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Many instructors choose to assess their students using open-ended written exam items that require students to show their understanding of physics by solving a problem and/or explaining a concept. Grading these items is fairly time consuming, and in large courses time constraints prohibit providing significant individualized feedback on students' exams. Instructors typically cross out areas of the response that are incorrect and write the total points awarded or subtracted. Sometimes, instructors will also write a word or two to indicate the error. This paper describes a grading method that provides greater individualized feedback, clearly communicates to students expected performance levels, takes no more time than traditional grading methods for open-ended responses, and seems to encourage more students to take advantage of the feedback provided.

  18. The effect of positive and negative verbal feedback on surgical skills performance and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannappan, Aarthy; Yip, Dana T; Lodhia, Nayna A; Morton, John; Lau, James N

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable effort and time invested in providing feedback to medical students and residents during their time in training. However, little effort has been made to measure the effects of positive and negative verbal feedback on skills performance and motivation to learn and practice. To probe these questions, first-year medical students (n = 25) were recruited to perform a peg transfer task on Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery box trainers. Time to completion and number of errors were recorded. The students were then randomized to receive either positive or negative verbal feedback from an expert in the field of laparoscopic surgery. After this delivery of feedback, the students repeated the peg transfer task. Differences in performance pre- and post-feedback and also between the groups who received positive feedback (PF) vs negative feedback (NF) were analyzed. A survey was then completed by all the participants. Baseline task times were similar between groups (PF 209.3 seconds; NF 203 seconds, p = 0.58). The PF group averaged 1.83 first-time errors while the NF group 1 (p = 0.84). Post-feedback task times were significantly decreased for both groups (PF 159.75 seconds, p = 0.05; NF 132.08 seconds, p = 0.002). While the NF group demonstrated a greater improvement in mean time than the PF group, this was not statistically significant. Both groups also made fewer errors (PF 0.33 errors, p = 0.04; NF 0.38 errors, p = 0.23). When surveyed about their responses to standardized feedback scenarios, the students stated that both positive and negative verbal feedback could be potent stimulants for improved performance and motivation. Further research is required to better understand the effects of feedback on learner motivation and the interpersonal dynamic between mentors and their trainees. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical performance feedback and quality improvement opportunities for perioperative physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaye AD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Alan David Kaye,1 Olutoyin J Okanlawon,2 Richard D Urman21Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston MA, USAAbstract: Clinical performance feedback is an important component of the ongoing development and education of health care practitioners. For physicians, feedback about their clinical practice and outcomes is central to developing both confidence and competence at all stages of their medical careers. Cultural and financial infrastructures need to be in place, and the concept of feedback needs to be readily embraced and encouraged by clinical leadership and other stakeholders. The "buy-in" includes the expectation and view that feedback occurs on a routine basis, and those engaged in the process are both encouraged to participate and held accountable. Feedback must be part of an overarching quality improvement and physician education agenda; it is not meant to be an isolated, fragmented initiative that is typically undermined by lack of resources or systemic barriers to gaining improvement within programs. Effective feedback should be an integral part of clinical practice. Anesthesiologists and other perioperative physicians are identifying specialty-specific indicators that can be used when creating a broader quality improvement agenda. Placing a more immediate formal feedback strategy that focuses on goal-oriented behavior is rapidly becoming a mainstay. Physicians may use their individual feedback reports for reflection and designing personal development plans as lifelong learners and leaders in improving patient care.Keywords: physician education, outcomes measurement, performance improvement, anesthesiology

  20. Writing Helpful Feedback: The Influence of Feedback Type on Students' Perceptions and Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Taylor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Written feedback on students’ assignments is a common method that instructors and teaching assistants use to inform students about their performance or guide revisions. Despite its frequency of use, written feedback often lacks sufficient detail to be beneficial to students, and additional empirical research should examine its effectiveness as a teaching tool. The current study examined the effectiveness of two different types of feedback, developed and undeveloped, in terms of its influence on students’ subsequent writing performance and students’ perceptions of the feedback. Results demonstrated that the type of feedback significantly affected students’ perceptions, with developed feedback related to higher ratings of fairness and helpfulness; however, this feedback did not have a significant positive effect on students’ written performance.Les commentaires écrits sur les travaux sont une méthode courante utilisée par les enseignants et les aides-enseignants pour renseigner les étudiants sur leurs performances ou pour orienter les révisions. Malgré leur fréquence, il arrive souvent que les commentaires écrits ne soient pas assez détaillés pour être profitables aux étudiants. De plus amples recherches empiriques devraient se pencher sur l’efficacité de cet outil d'enseignement. La présente étude porte sur l'efficacité de différents types de commentaires élaborés et sous-élaborés; sur leur influence sur la performance écrite subséquente des étudiants et sur la perception de ces derniers à propos des commentaires. Les résultats démontrent que le type de commentaires influe significativement sur la perception des étudiants, les commentaires élaborés entraînant des évaluations supérieures en ce qui a trait à l’impartialité et à l'utilité; cependant, ces commentaires n'ont pas d'effets positifs importants sur la performance écrite des étudiants.

  1. Towards real-time feedback in high performance speed skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Eb, Jeroen; Zandee, Willem; van den Bogaard, Timo; Geraets, Sjoerd; Veeger, H.E.J.; Beek, Peter; Potthast, Wolfgang; Niehoff, Anja; David, Sina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to evaluate several performance indicators to be used as real-time feedback in the coming experiments to enhance performance of elite speeds skaters. Six speed skaters, wearing one IMU per skate, collected data over one full training season to evaluate and pinpoint

  2. Performance Feedback Processing Is Positively Biased As Predicted by Attribution Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Christoph W; Rosenblau, Gabriela; Rodriguez Buritica, Julia M; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-01-01

    A considerable literature on attribution theory has shown that healthy individuals exhibit a positivity bias when inferring the causes of evaluative feedback on their performance. They tend to attribute positive feedback internally (e.g., to their own abilities) but negative feedback externally (e.g., to environmental factors). However, all empirical demonstrations of this bias suffer from at least one of the three following drawbacks: First, participants directly judge explicit causes for their performance. Second, participants have to imagine events instead of experiencing them. Third, participants assess their performance only after receiving feedback and thus differences in baseline assessments cannot be excluded. It is therefore unclear whether the classically reported positivity bias generalizes to setups without these drawbacks. Here, we aimed at establishing the relevance of attributions for decision-making by showing an attribution-related positivity bias in a decision-making task. We developed a novel task, which allowed us to test how participants changed their evaluations in response to positive and negative feedback about performance. Specifically, we used videos of actors expressing different facial emotional expressions. Participants were first asked to evaluate the actors' credibility in expressing a particular emotion. After this initial rating, participants performed an emotion recognition task and did--or did not--receive feedback on their veridical performance. Finally, participants re-rated the actors' credibility, which provided a measure of how they changed their evaluations after feedback. Attribution theory predicts that participants change their evaluations of the actors' credibility toward the positive after receiving positive performance feedback and toward the negative after negative performance feedback. Our results were in line with this prediction. A control condition without feedback showed that correct or incorrect performance

  3. Developing Performance Management Competence: An Exercise Leveraging Video Technology and Multisource Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Troy V.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to competently manage employee performance is critical for students graduating with degrees in management. This article provides a competency development exercise (CDE) for use in graduate and undergraduate management courses to increase students' performance management competence. The CDE includes providing employee feedback,…

  4. Providing Behavioral Feedback to Students in an Alternative High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Sara A.; Hefter, Sheera; Barker, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This column provides an example method for improving the consistency and quality of daily behavioral feedback provided to students in an alternative high school setting. Often, homeroom or advisory periods are prime points in the day for students to review their behavior from the previous day and set goals for a successful day to come. The method…

  5. Dual Delayed Feedback Provides Sensitivity and Robustness to the NF-κB Signaling Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Jeffrey D.; Hasty, Jeff; Hoffmann, Alexander; Tsimring, Lev S.

    2013-01-01

    Many cellular stress-responsive signaling systems exhibit highly dynamic behavior with oscillatory features mediated by delayed negative feedback loops. What remains unclear is whether oscillatory behavior is the basis for a signaling code based on frequency modulation (FM) or whether the negative feedback control modules have evolved to fulfill other functional requirements. Here, we use experimentally calibrated computational models to interrogate the negative feedback loops that regulate the dynamic activity of the transcription factor NF-B. Linear stability analysis of the model shows that oscillatory frequency is a hard-wired feature of the primary negative feedback loop and not a function of the stimulus, thus arguing against an FM signaling code. Instead, our modeling studies suggest that the two feedback loops may be tuned to provide for rapid activation and inactivation capabilities for transient input signals of a wide range of durations; by minimizing late phase oscillations response durations may be fine-tuned in a graded rather than quantized manner. Further, in the presence of molecular noise the dual delayed negative feedback system minimizes stochastic excursions of the output to produce a robust NF-B response. PMID:23825938

  6. The Effect of Corrective Feedback on Performance in Basic Cognitive Tasks: An Analysis of RT Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Moret-Tatay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the effect of trial-by-trial feedback about correct and error responding on performance in two basic cognitive tasks: a classic Stroop task (n = 40 and a color-word matching task ('n' = 30. Standard measures of both RT and accuracy were examined in addition to measures obtained from fitting the ex-Gaussian distributional model to the correct RTs. For both tasks, RTs were faster in blocks of trials with feedback than in blocks without feedback, but this difference was not significant. On the other hand, with respect to the distributional analyses, providing feedback served to significantly reduce the size of the tails of the RT distributions. Such results suggest that, for conditions in which accuracy is fairly high, the effect of corrective feedback might either be to reduce the tendency to double-check before responding or to decrease the amount of attentional lapsing.

  7. Are They Using My Feedback? The Extent of Students' Feedback Use Has a Large Impact on Subsequent Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardi, Kirsten; Colthorpe, Kay; Dekker, Andrew; Engstrom, Craig; Bugarcic, Andrea; Worthy, Peter; Victor, Ruban; Chunduri, Prasad; Lluka, Lesley; Long, Phil

    2017-01-01

    Feedback is known to have a large influence on student learning gains, and the emergence of online tools has greatly enhanced the opportunity for delivering timely, expressive, digital feedback and for investigating its learning impacts. However, to date there have been no large quantitative investigations of the feedback provided by large teams…

  8. Effect of Performance Feedback on Community Health Workers’ Motivation and Performance in Madhya Pradesh, India: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheke-Fischer, Michael; Lesh, Neal

    2016-01-01

    Background Small-scale community health worker (CHW) programs provide basic health services and strengthen health systems in resource-poor settings. This paper focuses on improving CHW performance by providing individual feedback to CHWs working with an mHealth program to address malnutrition in children younger than 5 years. Objective The paper aims to evaluate the immediate and retention effects of providing performance feedback and supportive supervision on CHW motivation and performance for CHWs working with an mHealth platform to reduce malnutrition in five districts of Madhya Pradesh, India. We expected a positive impact on CHW performance for the indicator they received feedback on. Performance on indicators the CHW did not receive feedback on was not expected to change. Methods In a randomized controlled trial, 60 CHWs were randomized into three treatment groups based on overall baseline performance ranks to achieve balanced treatment groups. Data for each treatment indicator were analyzed with the other two treatments acting as the control. In total, 10 CHWs were lost to follow-up. There were three performance indicators: case activity, form submissions, and duration of counseling. Each group received weekly calls to provide performance targets and discuss their performance on the specific indicator they were allocated to as well as any challenges or technical issues faced during the week for a 6-week period. Data were collected for a further 4 weeks to assess intertemporal sustained effects of the intervention. Results We found positive and significant impacts on duration of counseling, whereas case activity and number of form submissions did not show significant improvements as a result of the intervention. We found a moderate to large effect (Glass’s delta=0.97, P=.004) of providing performance feedback on counseling times in the initial 6 weeks. These effects were sustained in the postintervention period (Glass’s delta=1.69, Pperformed the analysis

  9. Effect of Performance Feedback on Community Health Workers' Motivation and Performance in Madhya Pradesh, India: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphle, Sangya; Matheke-Fischer, Michael; Lesh, Neal

    2016-12-07

    Small-scale community health worker (CHW) programs provide basic health services and strengthen health systems in resource-poor settings. This paper focuses on improving CHW performance by providing individual feedback to CHWs working with an mHealth program to address malnutrition in children younger than 5 years. The paper aims to evaluate the immediate and retention effects of providing performance feedback and supportive supervision on CHW motivation and performance for CHWs working with an mHealth platform to reduce malnutrition in five districts of Madhya Pradesh, India. We expected a positive impact on CHW performance for the indicator they received feedback on. Performance on indicators the CHW did not receive feedback on was not expected to change. In a randomized controlled trial, 60 CHWs were randomized into three treatment groups based on overall baseline performance ranks to achieve balanced treatment groups. Data for each treatment indicator were analyzed with the other two treatments acting as the control. In total, 10 CHWs were lost to follow-up. There were three performance indicators: case activity, form submissions, and duration of counseling. Each group received weekly calls to provide performance targets and discuss their performance on the specific indicator they were allocated to as well as any challenges or technical issues faced during the week for a 6-week period. Data were collected for a further 4 weeks to assess intertemporal sustained effects of the intervention. We found positive and significant impacts on duration of counseling, whereas case activity and number of form submissions did not show significant improvements as a result of the intervention. We found a moderate to large effect (Glass's delta=0.97, P=.004) of providing performance feedback on counseling times in the initial 6 weeks. These effects were sustained in the postintervention period (Glass's delta=1.69, Pperformed the analysis by replacing the CHWs lost to follow

  10. Real-Time Performance Feedback for the Manual Control of Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasinski, John Austin

    Real-time performance metrics were developed to quantify workload, situational awareness, and manual task performance for use as visual feedback to pilots of aerospace vehicles. Results from prior lunar lander experiments with variable levels of automation were replicated and extended to provide insights for the development of real-time metrics. Increased levels of automation resulted in increased flight performance, lower workload, and increased situational awareness. Automated Speech Recognition (ASR) was employed to detect verbal callouts as a limited measure of subjects' situational awareness. A one-dimensional manual tracking task and simple instructor-model visual feedback scheme was developed. This feedback was indicated to the operator by changing the color of a guidance element on the primary flight display, similar to how a flight instructor points out elements of a display to a student pilot. Experiments showed that for this low-complexity task, visual feedback did not change subject performance, but did increase the subjects' measured workload. Insights gained from these experiments were applied to a Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) inspection task. The effects of variations of an instructor-model performance-feedback strategy on human performance in a novel SAFER inspection task were investigated. Real-time feedback was found to have a statistically significant effect of improving subject performance and decreasing workload in this complicated four degree of freedom manual control task with two secondary tasks.

  11. Feedback-giving behaviour in performance evaluations during clinical clerkships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, Harold G. J.; Jaarsma, Debbie A. D. C.; Spruijt, Annemarie; Van Beukelen, Peter; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Teunissen, Pim W.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Narrative feedback documented in performance evaluations by the teacher, i.e. the clinical supervisor, is generally accepted to be essential for workplace learning. Many studies have examined factors of influence on the usage of mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) instruments and

  12. Adherence with Universal Precautions after Immediate, Personalized Performance Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Molli M.; Alavosius, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of immediate, personalized performance feedback on adherence with hand hygiene by health-care staff in the context of a multiple baseline design across participants. Target behaviors reached mastery levels and were maintained near 100% throughout 2 months of maintenance probes. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  13. Performance, Feedback, and Revision: Metacognitive Approaches to Undergraduate Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which frequent feedback and clear assessment criteria can improve students' essay writing performance in a first-year English literature course. Students (n = 68) completed a series of three scaffolded exercises over the course of a semester, where they evaluated undergraduate essays using a predetermined assessment…

  14. The effects of classroom feedback on the academic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study inestigated the effects of classroom feedback on the academic performance of senior secondary students in Bassa LGA of Plateau State. The research made use of the experimental design with a total of 60 participants comprising of 33 boys and 27 girls within the age range of 15-17. To achieve the purpose of the ...

  15. The Role of Locus of Control and Feedback on Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined Students' Locus of Control and Teacher Feedback using a 2x3 factorial to measure the performance of thirty-six (36) primary school students utilizing the two locus of control types and three levels of teacher feedback: no feedback, attributional feedback, and progressive feedback. No significant ...

  16. Frequency and determinants of residents' narrative feedback on the teaching performance of faculty: narratives in numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leeuw, Renée M.; Overeem, Karlijn; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Physicians involved in residency training often receive feedback from residents on their teaching. Research shows that learners value narrative feedback, but knowledge of the frequency and determinants of narrative feedback in teaching performance evaluation is lacking. This study aims to

  17. Persuasive performance feedback: the effect of framing on self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Bongshin; Munson, Sean; Pratt, Wanda; Kientz, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    Self-monitoring technologies have proliferated in recent years as they offer excellent potential for promoting healthy behaviors. Although these technologies have varied ways of providing real-time feedback on a user's current progress, we have a dearth of knowledge of the framing effects on the performance feedback these tools provide. With an aim to create influential, persuasive performance feedback that will nudge people toward healthy behaviors, we conducted an online experiment to investigate the effect of framing on an individual's self-efficacy. We identified 3 different types of framing that can be applicable in presenting performance feedback: (1) the valence of performance (remaining vs. achieved framing), (2) presentation type (text-only vs. text with visual), and (3) data unit (raw vs. percentage). Results show that the achieved framing could lead to an increased perception of individual's performance capabilities. This work provides empirical guidance for creating persuasive performance feedback, thereby helping people designing self-monitoring technologies to promote healthy behaviors.

  18. What Motivates Students to Provide Feedback to Teachers about Teaching and Learning? An Expectancy Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Jay

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical research study was to investigate what motivates students to provide formative anonymous feedback to teachers regarding their perceptions of the teaching and learning experience in order to improve student learning. Expectancy theory, specifically Vroom's Model, was used as the conceptual framework for the study.…

  19. Performance Appraisal 360 Feedback: "sebuah Pendekatan untuk Menciptakan Competitive Advantage Bagi Organisasi"

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmayati, Fachrully

    2006-01-01

    The success of organization in managing the performance is determined by appraisal system that can accommodate the organization’s need to create competitive advantage. Organization wants to know how well the human resource performs on their jobs. One of the popular tools today is the performance appraisal 360-degree, which provides a multidirectional measurement scope for employee performance. Using the performance appraisal 3600 feedback, the organization can assess human resource&rsqu...

  20. Teachers' Accounts of Their Perceptions and Practices of Providing Written Feedback to Nursing Students on Their Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sajid; Gul, Raisa; Lakhani, Arusa; Rizvi, Nusrat Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Written feedback can facilitate students' learning in several ways. However, the teachers' practices of written feedback may be affected by various factors. This study aimed to explore the nurse teachers' accounts of their perceptions and practices of providing written feedback. A descriptive exploratory design was employed in the study. A…

  1. Haptic force-feedback devices for the office computer: performance and musculoskeletal loading issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerlein, J T; Yang, M C

    2001-01-01

    Pointing devices, essential input tools for the graphical user interface (GUI) of desktop computers, require precise motor control and dexterity to use. Haptic force-feedback devices provide the human operator with tactile cues, adding the sense of touch to existing visual and auditory interfaces. However, the performance enhancements, comfort, and possible musculoskeletal loading of using a force-feedback device in an office environment are unknown. Hypothesizing that the time to perform a task and the self-reported pain and discomfort of the task improve with the addition of force feedback, 26 people ranging in age from 22 to 44 years performed a point-and-click task 540 times with and without an attractive force field surrounding the desired target. The point-and-click movements were approximately 25% faster with the addition of force feedback (paired t-tests, p < 0.001). Perceived user discomfort and pain, as measured through a questionnaire, were also smaller with the addition of force feedback (p < 0.001). However, this difference decreased as additional distracting force fields were added to the task environment, simulating a more realistic work situation. These results suggest that for a given task, use of a force-feedback device improves performance, and potentially reduces musculoskeletal loading during mouse use. Actual or potential applications of this research include human-computer interface design, specifically that of the pointing device extensively used for the graphical user interface.

  2. The results of a survey highlighting issues with feedback on medical training in the United Kingdom and how a Smartphone App could provide a solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Thomas G; Hood, Gill; Farrell, Tom

    2015-11-06

    Feedback drives learning in medical education. Healthcare Supervision Logbook (HSL) is a Smartphone App developed at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals for providing feedback on medical training, from both a trainee's and a supervisor's perspective. In order to establish a mandate for the role of HSL in clinical practice, a large survey was carried out. Two surveys (one for doctors undertaking specialty training and a second for consultants supervising their training) were designed. The survey for doctors-in-training was distributed to all specialty trainees in the South and West localities of the Health Education Yorkshire and the Humber UK region. The survey for supervisors was distributed to all consultants involved in educational and clinical supervision of specialty trainees at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals. The results confirm that specialty trainees provide feedback on their training infrequently-66 % do so only annually. 96 % of the specialty trainees owned a Smartphone and 45 % said that they would be willing to use a Smartphone App to provide daily feedback on the clinical and educational supervision they receive. Consultant supervisors do not receive regular feedback on the educational and clinical supervision they provide to trainees-56 % said they never received such feedback and 33 % said it was only on an annual basis. 86 % of consultants surveyed owned a Smartphone and 41 % said they would be willing to use a Smartphone App to provide feedback on the performance of trainees they were supervising. Feedback on medical training is recorded by specialty trainees infrequently and consultants providing educational and clinical supervision often do not receive any feedback on their performance in this area. HSL is a simple, quick and efficient way to collect and collate feedback on medical training to improve this situation. Good support and education needs to be provided when implementing this new technology.

  3. Provider Customer Service Program - Performance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is continuously analyzing performance and quality of the Provider Customer Service Programs (PCSPs) of the contractors and will be identifying trends and making...

  4. Effects of bogus feedback on intelligence test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, F L; McKelvie, S J

    2000-01-01

    French-Canadian high school students (N = 196) completed different forms of the Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT; E. F. Wonderlic, 1983) on two occasions. Before the second test, they received negative or positive bogus feedback about their initial performance. Most students (n = 158) were informed that the WPT measured intelligence, and the instruction was issued before either the first (n = 42) or the second test (n = 116). In the latter case, WPT validity either was not mentioned (n = 36) or was described as high or low (ns = 39 and 41, respectively). WPT performance improved on the second test, but it was not related to feedback in any of the instruction conditions. Reasons for these results and their practical implications are discussed.

  5. Electrotactile feedback improves performance and facilitates learning in the routine grasping task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Isaković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of electrotactile feedback in closed loop training of force control during the routine grasping task. The feedback was provided using an array electrode and a simple six-level spatial coding, and the experiment was conducted in three amputee subjects. The psychometric tests confirmed that the subjects could perceive and interpret the electrotactile feedback with a high success rate. The subjects performed the routine grasping task comprising 4 blocks of 60 grasping trials. In each trial, the subjects employed feedforward control to close the hand and produce the desired grasping force (four levels. First (baseline and the last (validation session were performed in open loop, while the second and the third session (training included electrotactile feedback. The obtained results confirmed that using the feedback improved the accuracy and precision of the force control. In addition, the subjects performed significantly better in the validation vs. baseline session, therefore suggesting that electrotactile feedback can be used for learning and training of myoelectric control.

  6. Relationship between subjective test feedback provided by high-school athletes during computer-based assessment of baseline cognitive functioning and self-reported symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Philip; Neidzwski, Katherine; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Karpf, Robin

    2010-06-01

    Subjective feedback about distractions or problems encountered during computerized assessment was provided by 538 out of a pool of 1659 high-school athletes who completed baseline testing using ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing). Three types of feedback were included: (a) environmental, (b) computer-based (mechanical), and (c) instruction-based (associated with difficulty understanding test instructions). One-way analyses of variance were conducted and revealed relationships between greater symptom reporting and any type of feedback, environmental feedback, and instruction-based feedback. Increased symptom reporting was noted for female students. Additional relationships were noted between providing computer-based feedback and faster reaction time; and between history of concussion and providing instruction-based feedback. Athletes endorsing more symptoms at baseline scored significantly worse on ImPACT, as reflected in decreased visual memory performance. Results suggest that feedback provided during computerized assessment may yield information about symptom reporting and test-taking style, which may also be of particular interpretive utility when athletes minimize their symptoms.

  7. Effect of providing feedback and prescribing education on prescription writing: An intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajemigbitse, Adetutu A; Omole, Moses Kayode; Erhun, Wilson O

    2016-01-01

    Accurate medication prescribing important to avoid errors and ensure best possible outcomes. This is a report of assessment of the impact of providing feedback and educational intervention on prescribing error types and rates in routine practice. Doctors' prescriptions from selected wards in two tertiary hospitals in central Nigeria were prospectively reviewed for a 6-month period and assessed for errors; grouped into six categories. Intervention was by providing feedback and educational outreach on the specialty/departmental level at one hospital while the other acted as the control. Chi-squared statistics was used to compare prescribing characteristics pre- and post-intervention. At baseline, error rate was higher at the control site. At the intervention site, statistically significant reductions were obtained for errors involving omission of route of administration (P error rate post intervention (P = 0.984). Though House Officers and Registrars wrote most prescriptions, highest reduction in prescribing error rates post intervention was by the registrars (0.93% to 0.29%, P prescriptions that lacked essential details was common. Intervention resulted in modest changes. Routinely providing feedback and continuing prescriber education will likely sustain error reduction.

  8. A Component Analysis of the Impact of Evaluative and Objective Feedback on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the frequency with which performance feedback interventions are used in organizational behavior management, component analyses of such feedback are rare. It has been suggested that evaluation of performance and objective details about performance are two necessary components for performance feedback. The present study was designed to help…

  9. Training residential supervisors to provide feedback for maintaining staff teaching skills with people who have severe disabilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, M B; Reid, D H

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated procedures for training supervisors in a residential setting to provide feedback for maintaining direct-service staff members ' teaching skills with people who have severe disabilities. Using classroom-based instruction and on-the-job observation and feedback, 10 supervisors were initially trained to implement teaching programs themselves. The training improved supervisors' teaching skills but was insufficient to improve the quality of feedback they provided to direct-service sta...

  10. Using Press Ganey Provider Feedback to Improve Patient Satisfaction: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newgard, Craig D; Fu, Rongwei; Heilman, James; Tanski, Mary; John Ma, O; Lines, Alan; Keith French, L

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to conduct a pilot randomized controlled trial to assess the feasibility, logistics, and potential effect of monthly provider funnel plot feedback reports from Press Ganey data and semiannual face-to-face coaching sessions to improve patient satisfaction scores. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial of 25 emergency medicine faculty providers in one urban academic emergency department. We enrolled full-time clinical faculty with at least 12 months of baseline Press Ganey data, who anticipated working in the ED for at least 12 additional months. Providers were randomized into intervention or control groups in a 1:1 ratio. The intervention group had an initial 20-minute meeting to introduce the funnel plot feedback tool and standardized feedback based on their baseline Press Ganey scores and then received a monthly e-mail with their individualized funnel plot depicting cumulative Press Ganey scores (compared to their baseline score and the mean score of all providers) for 12 months. The primary outcome was the difference in Press Ganey "doctor-overall" scores between treatment groups at 12 months. We used a weighted analysis of covariance model to analyze the study groups, accounting for variation in the number of surveys by provider and baseline scores. Of 36 eligible faculty, we enrolled 25 providers, 13 of whom were randomized to the intervention group and 12 to the control group. During the study period, there were 815 Press Ganey surveys returned, ranging from four to 71 surveys per provider. For the standardized overall doctor score over 12 months (primary outcome), there was no difference between the intervention and control groups (difference = 1.3 points, 95% confidence interval = -2.4 to 5.9, p = 0.47). Similarly, there was no difference between groups when evaluating the four categories of doctor-specific patient satisfaction scores from the Press Ganey survey (all p > 0.05). In this pilot trial of monthly provider funnel plot

  11. The association of positive and negative feedback with clinical performance, self-evaluation and practice contribution of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakht, Ygal; Shiyovich, Arthur; Nusbaum, Lika; Raizer, Haya

    2013-10-01

    Providing consistent and high-quality feedback is a crucial component of clinical instruction. Such feedback can improve the students' ability to reflect themselves more accurately. However, giving feedback, especially negative is intricate. To evaluate the level of feedback provided to nursing students during clinical practice and investigate their association with related outcomes, such us clinical performance, self-evaluation of achievements and contribution of the practice to the professional skills. Cross-sectional study. 124 third-year nursing students during their "Emergency Nursing" (EN) clinical practice were instructed, criticized and graded by three teachers from the university staff. Following their clinical practice the students filled-out a questionnaire, in which they evaluated the feedback provided by their teachers, the contribution of the practice to their professional skills and their personal performance. Additionally, the teachers' grades of students' achievements were collected. Accuracy of students' self-evaluation was calculated as the arithmetical difference between the students' grades and the teachers' grades. The mean grades of positive and negative feedback were 74.5/100 and 70.7/100, respectively. Higher-quality positive feedback was associated with higher teachers' grade (p=0.027) and with "very high" evaluation of the contribution of the practice (p=0.022). Higher-quality positive feedback was associated with student's over-self-evaluation (p=0.02), whereas higher-quality negative feedback was associated with more accurate self-evaluation (p=0.015). High-quality positive feedback is associated with higher grades, higher contribution of the clinical practice to the student and over-self-evaluation whereas high-quality negative feedback is related to an accurate self evaluation of the students' performance. Teachers should pay more attention to administering high-quality positive and negative feedback. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd

  12. The Rightful Demise of the Sh*t Sandwich: Providing Effective Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ian Andrew

    2015-11-01

    As a trainee cognitive therapist in the early 1990s, I was taught the Sh*t Sandwich by my supervisor. I continued to use this technique for many years without seeing the need to extend my repertoire of feedback strategies. This article describes a number of other feedback techniques, raising awareness of the processes underpinning feedback, and facilitating reflection on feedback methods. This review examines feedback and the methods of feedback used to improve clinical competence. Evidence informs us that the use of good feedback has a significant effect on learners' outcomes (Milne, 2009). However, despite recognition of its importance, many supervisors fail to give adequate feedback and utilize methods that are sub-optimal. One such problematic method is the notorious "Sh*t Sandwich" (SS), which attempts to hide criticism within a cushion of two positive statements. This paper looks at various models of giving negative and positive feedback, suggesting that our repertoire of feedback methods may require expanding. The review suggests that feedback is a complex process and methods that place an emphasis on the learner as an active participant in the learning process (i.e. interactive approaches) should be encouraged. The paper suggests that negative feedback should generally be avoided in favour of constructive support, accompanied by specific, descriptive, balanced feedback, with new learning being consolidated by role play. Generally, feedback should be given about the task rather than the person, but when it is personalized it should relate to effort rather than ability.

  13. A counterbalanced cross-over study of the effects of visual, auditory and no feedback on performance measures in a simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baxley Susan M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has demonstrated that trained rescuers have difficulties achieving and maintaining the correct depth and rate of chest compressions during both in and out of hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Feedback on rate and depth mitigate decline in performance quality but not completely with the residual performance decline attributed to rescuer fatigue. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of feedback (none, auditory only and visual only on the quality of CPR and rescuer fatigue. Methods Fifteen female volunteers performed 10 minutes of 30:2 CPR in each of three feedback conditions: none, auditory only, and visual only. Visual feedback was displayed continuously in graphic form. Auditory feedback was error correcting and provided by a voice assisted CPR manikin. CPR quality measures were collected using SkillReporter® software. Blood lactate (mmol/dl and perceived exertion served as indices of fatigue. One-way and two way repeated measures analyses of variance were used with alpha set a priori at 0.05. Results Visual feedback yielded a greater percentage of correct compressions (78.1 ± 8.2% than did auditory (65.4 ± 7.6% or no feedback (44.5 ± 8.1%. Compression rate with auditory feedback (87.9 ± 0.5 compressions per minute was less than it was with both visual and no feedback (p Conclusions In this study feedback mitigated the negative effects of fatigue on CPR performance and visual feedback yielded better CPR performance than did no feedback or auditory feedback. The perfect confounding of sensory modality and periodicity of feedback (visual feedback provided continuously and auditory feedback provided to correct error leaves unanswered the question of optimal form and timing of feedback.

  14. Performance feedback, paraeducators, and literacy instruction for students with significant disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, Jennifer M; Martin, Emma J

    2014-12-01

    Literacy skills are fundamental for all learners. For students with significant disabilities, strong literacy skills provide a gateway to generative communication, genuine friendships, improved access to academic opportunities, access to information technology, and future employment opportunities. Unfortunately, many educators lack the knowledge to design or implement appropriate evidence-based literacy instruction for students with significant disabilities. Furthermore, students with significant disabilities often receive the majority of their instruction from paraeducators. This single-subject design study examined the effects of performance feedback on the delivery skills of paraeducators during systematic and explicit literacy instruction for students with significant disabilities. The specific skills targeted for feedback were planned opportunities for student responses and correct academic responses. Findings suggested that delivery of feedback on performance resulted in increased pacing, accuracy in student responses, and subsequent attainment of literacy skills for students with significant disabilities. Implications for the use of performance feedback as an evaluation and training tool for increasing effective instructional practices are provided. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The Effectiveness of Instructor Personalized and Formative Feedback Provided by Instructor in an Online Setting: Some Unresolved Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planar, Dolors; Moya, Soledad

    2016-01-01

    Formative feedback has great potential for teaching and learning in online undergraduate programmes. There is a large number of courses where the main source of feedback is provided by the instructor. This is particularly seen in subjects where assessments are designed based on specific activities which are the same for all students, and where the…

  16. Neural correlates of anticipation and processing of performance feedback in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Carina Y; Peterburs, Jutta; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Hallfarth, Marlit C; Böhme, Stephanie; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Fear of negative evaluation, such as negative social performance feedback, is the core symptom of social anxiety. The present study investigated the neural correlates of anticipation and perception of social performance feedback in social anxiety. High (HSA) and low (LSA) socially anxious individuals were asked to give a speech on a personally relevant topic and received standardized but appropriate expert performance feedback in a succeeding experimental session in which neural activity was measured during anticipation and presentation of negative and positive performance feedback concerning the speech performance, or a neutral feedback-unrelated control condition. HSA compared to LSA subjects reported greater anxiety during anticipation of negative feedback. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results showed deactivation of medial prefrontal brain areas during anticipation of negative feedback relative to the control and the positive condition, and medial prefrontal and insular hyperactivation during presentation of negative as well as positive feedback in HSA compared to LSA subjects. The results indicate distinct processes underlying feedback processing during anticipation and presentation of feedback in HSA as compared to LSA individuals. In line with the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential information processing and the insula in interoception, social anxiety seems to be associated with lower self-monitoring during feedback anticipation, and an increased self-focus and interoception during feedback presentation, regardless of feedback valence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The effects of tournament incentive contracts and relative performance feedback on task effort, learning effort, and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, George

    2015-01-01

    When employees work hard, they exert more effort on job tasks (task effort); and when employees learn hard, they exert more effort to learn (learning effort). Task effort and learning effort are important causes of improved performance. This thesis investigates whether the use of tournament schemes motivates employees to work harder and learn harder, and also whether providing performance feedback in tournament schemes has any impact on task effort and learning effort.This thesis has three go...

  18. Robot-Assisted Proprioceptive Training with Added Vibro-Tactile Feedback Enhances Somatosensory and Motor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppone, Anna Vera; Squeri, Valentina; Semprini, Marianna; Masia, Lorenzo; Konczak, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the trainability of the proprioceptive sense and explored the relationship between proprioception and motor learning. With vision blocked, human learners had to perform goal-directed wrist movements relying solely on proprioceptive/haptic cues to reach several haptically specified targets. One group received additional somatosensory movement error feedback in form of vibro-tactile cues applied to the skin of the forearm. We used a haptic robotic device for the wrist and implemented a 3-day training regimen that required learners to make spatially precise goal-directed wrist reaching movements without vision. We assessed whether training improved the acuity of the wrist joint position sense. In addition, we checked if sensory learning generalized to the motor domain and improved spatial precision of wrist tracking movements that were not trained. The main findings of the study are: First, proprioceptive acuity of the wrist joint position sense improved after training for the group that received the combined proprioceptive/haptic and vibro-tactile feedback (VTF). Second, training had no impact on the spatial accuracy of the untrained tracking task. However, learners who had received VTF significantly reduced their reliance on haptic guidance feedback when performing the untrained motor task. That is, concurrent VTF was highly salient movement feedback and obviated the need for haptic feedback. Third, VTF can be also provided by the limb not involved in the task. Learners who received VTF to the contralateral limb equally benefitted. In conclusion, somatosensory training can significantly enhance proprioceptive acuity within days when learning is coupled with vibro-tactile sensory cues that provide feedback about movement errors. The observable sensory improvements in proprioception facilitates motor learning and such learning may generalize to the sensorimotor control of the untrained motor tasks. The implications of these findings for

  19. Robot-Assisted Proprioceptive Training with Added Vibro-Tactile Feedback Enhances Somatosensory and Motor Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vera Cuppone

    Full Text Available This study examined the trainability of the proprioceptive sense and explored the relationship between proprioception and motor learning. With vision blocked, human learners had to perform goal-directed wrist movements relying solely on proprioceptive/haptic cues to reach several haptically specified targets. One group received additional somatosensory movement error feedback in form of vibro-tactile cues applied to the skin of the forearm. We used a haptic robotic device for the wrist and implemented a 3-day training regimen that required learners to make spatially precise goal-directed wrist reaching movements without vision. We assessed whether training improved the acuity of the wrist joint position sense. In addition, we checked if sensory learning generalized to the motor domain and improved spatial precision of wrist tracking movements that were not trained. The main findings of the study are: First, proprioceptive acuity of the wrist joint position sense improved after training for the group that received the combined proprioceptive/haptic and vibro-tactile feedback (VTF. Second, training had no impact on the spatial accuracy of the untrained tracking task. However, learners who had received VTF significantly reduced their reliance on haptic guidance feedback when performing the untrained motor task. That is, concurrent VTF was highly salient movement feedback and obviated the need for haptic feedback. Third, VTF can be also provided by the limb not involved in the task. Learners who received VTF to the contralateral limb equally benefitted. In conclusion, somatosensory training can significantly enhance proprioceptive acuity within days when learning is coupled with vibro-tactile sensory cues that provide feedback about movement errors. The observable sensory improvements in proprioception facilitates motor learning and such learning may generalize to the sensorimotor control of the untrained motor tasks. The implications of these

  20. THE MEDIATING ROLE OF INTRINSIC MOTIVATION ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEVELOPMENTAL FEEDBACK AND EMPLOYEE JOB PERFORMANCE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yun Guo; Jianqiao Liao; Shudi Liao; Yanhong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    ... on employee job performance. In this study, the researchers examined the influences of intrinsic motivation and social exchange on the relationship between developmental feedback and job performance...

  1. A counterbalanced cross-over study of the effects of visual, auditory and no feedback on performance measures in a simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Carolyn L; Trowbridge, Cynthia; Baxley, Susan M; Ricard, Mark D

    2011-08-02

    Previous research has demonstrated that trained rescuers have difficulties achieving and maintaining the correct depth and rate of chest compressions during both in and out of hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Feedback on rate and depth mitigate decline in performance quality but not completely with the residual performance decline attributed to rescuer fatigue. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of feedback (none, auditory only and visual only) on the quality of CPR and rescuer fatigue. Fifteen female volunteers performed 10 minutes of 30:2 CPR in each of three feedback conditions: none, auditory only, and visual only. Visual feedback was displayed continuously in graphic form. Auditory feedback was error correcting and provided by a voice assisted CPR manikin. CPR quality measures were collected using SkillReporter® software. Blood lactate (mmol/dl) and perceived exertion served as indices of fatigue. One-way and two way repeated measures analyses of variance were used with alpha set a priori at 0.05. Visual feedback yielded a greater percentage of correct compressions (78.1 ± 8.2%) than did auditory (65.4 ± 7.6%) or no feedback (44.5 ± 8.1%). Compression rate with auditory feedback (87.9 ± 0.5 compressions per minute) was less than it was with both visual and no feedback (p < 0.05). CPR performed with no feedback (39.2 ± 0.5 mm) yielded a shallower average depth of compression and a lower percentage (55 ± 8.9%) of compressions within the accepted 38-50 mm range than did auditory or visual feedback (p < 0.05). The duty cycle for auditory feedback (39.4 ± 1.6%) was less than it was with no feedback (p < 0.05). Auditory feedback produced lower lactate concentrations than did visual feedback (p < 0.05) but there were no differences in perceived exertion. In this study feedback mitigated the negative effects of fatigue on CPR performance and visual feedback yielded better CPR performance than did no feedback or auditory feedback

  2. Collective Efficacy and Group Functioning: The Effect of Performance Feedback on Efficacy Assessments, Goal Setting, Task Persistence and Overall Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meisenhelder, Helen

    2002-01-01

    .... Specifically, this experiment used performance feedback to manipulate efficacy levels in order to investigate the effect of efficacy on group goal setting, task persistence, and overall performance...

  3. Sensory feedback by peripheral nerve stimulation improves task performance in individuals with upper limb loss using a myoelectric prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefer, Matthew; Tan, Daniel; Sidek, Steven M.; Tyler, Dustin J.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Tactile feedback is critical to grip and object manipulation. Its absence results in reliance on visual and auditory cues. Our objective was to assess the effect of sensory feedback on task performance in individuals with limb loss. Approach. Stimulation of the peripheral nerves using implanted cuff electrodes provided two subjects with sensory feedback with intensity proportional to forces on the thumb, index, and middle fingers of their prosthetic hand during object manipulation. Both subjects perceived the sensation on their phantom hand at locations corresponding to the locations of the forces on the prosthetic hand. A bend sensor measured prosthetic hand span. Hand span modulated the intensity of sensory feedback perceived on the thenar eminence for subject 1 and the middle finger for subject 2. We performed three functional tests with the blindfolded subjects. First, the subject tried to determine whether or not a wooden block had been placed in his prosthetic hand. Second, the subject had to locate and remove magnetic blocks from a metal table. Third, the subject performed the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP). We also measured the subject’s sense of embodiment with a survey and his self-confidence. Main results. Blindfolded performance with sensory feedback was similar to sighted performance in the wooden block and magnetic block tasks. Performance on the SHAP, a measure of hand mechanical function and control, was similar with and without sensory feedback. An embodiment survey showed an improved sense of integration of the prosthesis in self body image with sensory feedback. Significance. Sensory feedback by peripheral nerve stimulation improved object discrimination and manipulation, embodiment, and confidence. With both forms of feedback, the blindfolded subjects tended toward results obtained with visual feedback.

  4. Multisource feedback, human capital, and the financial performance of organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Yong; Atwater, Leanne; Patel, Pankaj C; Smither, James W

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between organizations' use of multisource feedback (MSF) programs and their financial performance. We proposed a moderated mediation framework in which the employees' ability and knowledge sharing mediate the relationship between MSF and organizational performance and the purpose for which MSF is used moderates the relationship of MSF with employees' ability and knowledge sharing. With a sample of 253 organizations representing 8,879 employees from 2005 to 2007 in South Korea, we found that MSF had a positive effect on organizational financial performance via employees' ability and knowledge sharing. We also found that when MSF was used for dual purpose (both administrative and developmental purposes), the relationship between MSF and knowledge sharing was stronger, and this interaction carried through to organizational financial performance. However, the purpose of MSF did not moderate the relationship between MSF and employees' ability. The theoretical relevance and practical implications of the findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Instructor feedback versus no instructor feedback on performance in a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandbygaard, Jeanett; Bjerrum, Flemming; Maagaard, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    increases the efficiency when training a complex operational task on a virtual reality simulator; time and repetitions used to achieve a predefined proficiency level were significantly reduced in the group that received instructor feedback compared with the control group. Trial registration number: NCT......OBJECTIVE:: To investigate the impact of instructor feedback versus no instructor feedback when training a complex operational task on a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator. BACKGROUND:: Simulators are now widely accepted as a training tool, but there is insufficient knowledge about how much...... feedback is necessary, which is useful for sustainable implementation. METHODS:: A randomized trial complying with CONSORT Statement. All participants had to reach a predefined proficiency level for a complex operational task on a virtual reality simulator. The intervention group received standardized...

  6. A Within-Person Perspective on Feedback Seeking about Task Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Anseel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In organisations, feedback about multiple performance dimensions is often available. Consequently, employees have to decide on which performance dimensions they will be seeking feedback. In a lab experiment 126 students indicated on which performance dimensions they wanted to receive feedback after completing a computerized in-basket task. Results showed that participants especially sought feedback about their best and most important performance dimensions. Individuals with a high learning goal orientation sought more feedback about their least important performance dimensions as compared to individuals with a low learning goal orientation. In general, results indicated that previous findings obtained in between-person studies of feedback seeking hold relatively well at a within-person level of analysis. The results of the current study illustrate how adopting a within-person perspective can broaden our understanding of the feedback-seeking process in organisations.

  7. The Effect of Feedback on Cost Performance Report Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Definition of Feedback. According to Huczynski, much of the pioneering work in the area of feedback is credited to Leon Festinger and his "social...Feedback Sources as a Function of Role and Organizational Level," Journal of Apolied Psychology . 65: 24-27 (February 1980) 11. Harrell, Adrian M. "The...Safety Program," Journal of Applied Psychology . 65: 261-270 (June 1980). 16. Marrella, Lt. Col. Leonard S. The Effect of the Cost/Schedule Control

  8. The Impact of Feedback Frequency on Learning and Task Performance: Challenging the "More Is Better" Assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chak Fu; DeRue, D. Scott; Karam, Elizabeth P.; Hollenbeck, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on feedback frequency suggests that more frequent feedback improves learning and task performance (Salmoni, Schmidt, & Walter, 1984). Drawing from resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989), we challenge the "more is better" assumption and propose that frequent feedback can overwhelm an individual's cognitive resource…

  9. Effects of four types of non-obtrusive feedback on computer behaviour, task performance and comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, E.M.; Huijsmans, M.A.; de Jong, A.M.; van de Ven, J.G.M.; Ruijsendaal, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of non-obtrusive feedback on continuous lifted hand/finger behaviour, task performance and comfort. In an experiment with 24 participants the effects of two visual and two tactile feedback signals were compared to a no-feedback condition in a computer task.

  10. Feedback Effects on Performance, Motivation and Mood: Are They Moderated by the Learner's Self-Concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baadte, Christiane; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the assumption that the effectiveness of feedback with regard to performance, motivation, and affect is moderated by the learners' self-concept. A total of 72 sixth-graders completed a web-based interactive learning program. Half of the sample received feedback and the other half received no feedback. Differential feedback…

  11. Prescribed Performance Fuzzy Adaptive Output-Feedback Control for Nonlinear Stochastic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A prescribed performance fuzzy adaptive output-feedback control approach is proposed for a class of single-input and single-output nonlinear stochastic systems with unmeasured states. Fuzzy logic systems are used to identify the unknown nonlinear system, and a fuzzy state observer is designed for estimating the unmeasured states. Based on the backstepping recursive design technique and the predefined performance technique, a new fuzzy adaptive output-feedback control method is developed. It is shown that all the signals of the resulting closed-loop system are bounded in probability and the tracking error remains an adjustable neighborhood of the origin with the prescribed performance bounds. A simulation example is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Providing rapid feedback to residents on their teaching skills: an educational strategy for contemporary trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Sidlow, Rachel J; Baer, Tamar G; Gershel, Jeffrey C

    2016-03-20

    The objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of contemporary residents toward receiving rapid feedback on their teaching skills from their medical student learners. Participants consisted of 20 residents in their second post-graduate training year. These residents facilitated 44 teaching sessions with medical students within our Resident-as-Teacher program. Structured, written feedback from students was returned to the resident within 3 days following each session. Residents completed a short survey about the utility of the feedback, whether they would make a change to future teaching sessions based on the feedback, and what specifically they might change. The survey utilized a 4-point scale ("Not helpful/likely=1" to "Very helpful/likely=4"), and allowed for one free-text response. Free-text responses were hand-coded and underwent qualitative analysis to identify themes. There were 182 student feedback encounters resulting from 44 teaching sessions. The survey response rate was 73% (32/44). Ninety-four percent of residents rated the rapid feedback as "very helpful," and 91% would "very likely" make a change to subsequent sessions based on student feedback. Residents' proposed changes included modifications to session content and/or their personal teaching style. Residents found that rapid feedback received from medical student learners was highly valuable to them in their roles as teachers. A rapid feedback strategy may facilitate an optimal educational environment for contemporary trainees.

  13. Performance analysis of approximate Affine Projection Algorithm in acoustic feedback cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikjoo S, Mohammad; Seyedi, Amir; Tehrani, Arash Saber

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic feedback is an annoying problem in several audio applications and especially in hearing aids. Adaptive feedback cancellation techniques have attracted recent attention and show great promise in reducing the deleterious effects of feedback. In this paper, we investigated the performance of a class of adaptive feedback cancellation algorithms viz. the approximated Affine Projection Algorithms (APA). Mixed results were obtained with the natural speech and music data collected from five different commercial hearing aids in a variety of sub-oscillatory and oscillatory feedback conditions. The performance of the approximated APA was significantly better with music stimuli than natural speech stimuli.

  14. Using Track Changes and Word Processor to Provide Corrective Feedback to Learners in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuSeileek, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of computer-mediated corrective feedback types in an English as a foreign language (EFL) intact class over time. The participants were 64 English majors who were assigned randomly into three treatment conditions that gave and received computer-mediated corrective feedback while writing (track changes, word…

  15. Effectiveness of a training program in supervisors' ability to provide feedback on residents' communication skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junod Perron, N.; Nendaz, M.; Louis-Simonet, M.; Sommer, J.; Gut, A.; Baroffio, A.; Dolmans, D.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Teaching communication skills (CS) to residents during clinical practice remains problematic. Direct observation followed by feedback is a powerful way to teach CS in clinical practice. However, little is known about the effect of training on feedback skills in this field. Controlled studies are

  16. Ring a bell? Adaptive Auditory Game Feedback to Sustain Performance in Stroke Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kasper; Knoche, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of adaptive auditory feed- back on continued player performance for stroke patients in a Whack- a-Mole style tablet game. The feedback consisted of accumulatively in- creasing the pitch of positive feedback sounds on tasks with fast reaction time and resetting...... it after slow reaction times. The analysis was based on data was obtained in a field trial with lesion patients during their regular rehabilitation. The auditory feedback events were categorized by feedback type (positive/negative) and the associated pitch change of ei- ther high or low magnitude. Both...... feedback type and magnitude had a significant effect on players performance. Negative feedback improved re- action time on the subsequent hit by 0.42 second and positive feedback impaired performance by 0.15 seconds....

  17. Using physiological monitoring data for performance feedback: an initiative using thermoregulation metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görges, Matthias; West, Nicholas C; Whyte, Simon D

    2017-03-01

    Feedback of performance data can improve professional practice and outcomes. Vital signs are not routinely used for quality improvement because of their limited access. Intraoperative hypothermia has been associated with deleterious effects, including surgical site infections and bleeding. We speculated that providing feedback could help keep temperature monitoring and management a priority in the anesthesiologist's mind, thereby improving perioperative temperature management. We hypothesized that feedback on thermoregulation metrics, without changes in policy, could reduce temperature-monitoring delays at the start of scoliosis correction surgery. Although our tertiary pediatric centre does not have an anesthesia information management system, vital signs for all surgical cases are recorded in real time. Temperature data from children undergoing spine surgery are extracted from a vital signs databank and analyzed using MATLAB. Spine team anesthesiologists are provided with both team and individualized feedback regarding two variables: the percentage of time that patients are hypothermic and the time delay from the start of the case to the first temperature monitoring (our primary outcome). These data are shared every six months as run charts for the entire group and as anonymized (coded) box-and-whisker plots for each anesthesiologist. This feedback of temperature-delay data reduced the median [interquartile range] delay from 39.0 [18.7-61.5] min to 14.4 [10.8-22.9] min (median reduction, 21.8 min; 95% confidence interval, 14.9 to 28.2; P thermoregulation management improved both group and individual performances as measured by significant, sustained reductions in temperature-monitoring delays. Thus, intraoperative vital signs data may improve the quality of, and reduce the variability in, anesthetic practice.

  18. Flemish Primary Teachers' Use of School Performance Feedback and the Relationship with School Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoof, Jan; Verhaeghe, Goedele; Van Petegem, Peter; Valcke, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools are increasingly confronted with the challenges that information about school performance brings with it. It is common for schools' use of performance feedback to be limited. Equally, however, there are documented cases in which school performance feedback is meaningfully used. Purpose: This study looks at how Flemish primary…

  19. Feedback-controlled stimulation enhances human paralyzed muscle performance

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Richard K.; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Cole, Keith R.

    2006-01-01

    Chronically paralyzed muscle requires extensive training before it can deliver a therapeutic dose of repetitive stress to the musculoskeletal system. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation, under feedback control, may subvert the effects of fatigue, yielding more rapid and extensive adaptations to training. The purposes of this investigation were to 1) compare the effectiveness of torque feedback-controlled (FDBCK) electrical stimulation with classic open-loop constant-frequency (CONST) stimula...

  20. Climate Feedback: Bringing the Scientific Community to Provide Direct Feedback on the Credibility of Climate Media Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, E. M.; Matlock, T.; Westerling, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    While most scientists recognize climate change as a major societal and environmental issue, social and political will to tackle the problem is still lacking. One of the biggest obstacles is inaccurate reporting or even outright misinformation in climate change coverage that result in the confusion of the general public on the issue.In today's era of instant access to information, what we read online usually falls outside our field of expertise and it is a real challenge to evaluate what is credible. The emerging technology of web annotation could be a game changer as it allows knowledgeable individuals to attach notes to any piece of text of a webpage and to share them with readers who will be able to see the annotations in-context -like comments on a pdf.Here we present the Climate Feedback initiative that is bringing together a community of climate scientists who collectively evaluate the scientific accuracy of influential climate change media coverage. Scientists annotate articles sentence by sentence and assess whether they are consistent with scientific knowledge allowing readers to see where and why the coverage is -or is not- based on science. Scientists also summarize the essence of their critical commentary in the form of a simple article-level overall credibility rating that quickly informs readers about the credibility of the entire piece.Web-annotation allows readers to 'hear' directly from the experts and to sense the consensus in a personal way as one can literaly see how many scientists agree with a given statement. It also allows a broad population of scientists to interact with the media, notably early career scientists.In this talk, we will present results on the impacts annotations have on readers -regarding their evaluation of the trustworthiness of the information they read- and on journalists -regarding their reception of scientists comments.Several dozen scientists have contributed to this effort to date and the system offers potential to

  1. Strategies to improve effectiveness of physical activity coaching systems: Development of personas for providing tailored feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterkamp, Reinoud; Dekker-Van Weering, Marit Gh; Evering, Richard Mh; Tabak, Monique; Timmerman, Josien G; Hermens, Hermie J; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Mr

    2016-06-27

    Mobile physical activity interventions can be improved by incorporating behavioural change theories. Relations between self-efficacy, stage of change, and physical activity are investigated, enabling development of feedback strategies that can be used to improve their effectiveness. A total of 325 healthy control participants and 82 patients wore an activity monitor. Participants completed a self-efficacy or stage of change questionnaire. Results show that higher self-efficacy is related to higher activity levels. Patients are less active than healthy controls and show a larger drop in physical activity over the day. Patients in the maintenance stage of change are more active than patients in lower stages of change, but show an equally large drop in level of physical activity. Findings suggest that coaching should at least be tailored to level of self-efficacy, stage of change, and physical activity pattern. Tailored coaching strategies are developed, which suggest that increasing self-efficacy of users is most important. Guidelines are provided. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. A system for improving the communication of emotion in music performance by feedback learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin; Friberg, Anders; Bresin, Roberto; Juslin, Patrik

    2002-05-01

    Expressivity is one of the most important aspects of music performance. However, in music education, expressivity is often overlooked in favor of technical abilities. This could possibly depend on the difficulty in describing expressivity, which makes it problematic to provide the student with specific feedback. The aim of this project is to develop a computer program, which will improve the students' ability in communicating emotion in music performance. The expressive intention of a performer can be coded in terms of performance parameters (cues), such as tempo, sound level, timbre, and articulation. Listeners' judgments can be analyzed in the same terms. An algorithm was developed for automatic cue extraction from audio signals. Using note onset-offset detection, the algorithm yields values of sound level, articulation, IOI, and onset velocity for each note. In previous research, Juslin has developed a method for quantitative evaluation of performer-listener communication. This framework forms the basis of the present program. Multiple regression analysis on performances of the same musical fragment, played with different intentions, determines the relative importance of each cue and the consistency of cue utilization. Comparison with built-in listener models, simulating perceived expression using a regression equation, provides detailed feedback regarding the performers' cue utilization.

  3. Effectiveness of a training program in supervisors' ability to provide feedback on residents' communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod Perron, Noelle; Nendaz, Mathieu; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Sommer, Johanna; Gut, Anne; Baroffio, Anne; Dolmans, Diana; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-12-01

    Teaching communication skills (CS) to residents during clinical practice remains problematic. Direct observation followed by feedback is a powerful way to teach CS in clinical practice. However, little is known about the effect of training on feedback skills in this field. Controlled studies are scarce as well as studies that go beyond self-reported data. The aim of the study was to develop and assess the effectiveness of a training program for clinical supervisors on how to give feedback on residents' CS in clinical practice. The authors designed a pretest-posttest controlled study in which clinical supervisors working in two different medical services were invited to attend a sequenced and multifaceted program in teaching CS over a period of 6-9 months. Outcome measures were self-perceived and observed feedback skills collected during questionnaires and three videotaped objective structured teaching encounters. The videotaped feedbacks made by the supervisors were analysed using a 20-item feedback rating instrument. Forty-eight clinical supervisors participated (28 in the intervention, 20 in the control group). After training, a higher percentage of trained participants self-reported and demonstrated statistically significant improvement in making residents more active by exploring residents' needs, stimulating self-assessment, and using role playing to test strategies and checking understanding, with effect sizes ranging from 0.93 to 4.94. A training program on how to give feedback on residents' communication skills was successful in improving clinical supervisors' feedback skills and in helping them operate a shift from a teacher-centered to a more learner-centered approach.

  4. Is sensorimotor BCI performance influenced differently by mono, stereo, or 3-D auditory feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreadie, Karl A; Coyle, Damien H; Prasad, Girijesh

    2014-05-01

    Imagination of movement can be used as a control method for a brain-computer interface (BCI) allowing communication for the physically impaired. Visual feedback within such a closed loop system excludes those with visual problems and hence there is a need for alternative sensory feedback pathways. In the context of substituting the visual channel for the auditory channel, this study aims to add to the limited evidence that it is possible to substitute visual feedback for its auditory equivalent and assess the impact this has on BCI performance. Secondly, the study aims to determine for the first time if the type of auditory feedback method influences motor imagery performance significantly. Auditory feedback is presented using a stepped approach of single (mono), double (stereo), and multiple (vector base amplitude panning as an audio game) loudspeaker arrangements. Visual feedback involves a ball-basket paradigm and a spaceship game. Each session consists of either auditory or visual feedback only with runs of each type of feedback presentation method applied in each session. Results from seven subjects across five sessions of each feedback type (visual, auditory) (10 sessions in total) show that auditory feedback is a suitable substitute for the visual equivalent and that there are no statistical differences in the type of auditory feedback presented across five sessions.

  5. Temporal coordination in joint music performance: effects of endogenous rhythms and auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamm, Anna; Pfordresher, Peter Q; Palmer, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    Many behaviors require that individuals coordinate the timing of their actions with others. The current study investigated the role of two factors in temporal coordination of joint music performance: differences in partners' spontaneous (uncued) rate and auditory feedback generated by oneself and one's partner. Pianists performed melodies independently (in a Solo condition), and with a partner (in a duet condition), either at the same time as a partner (Unison), or at a temporal offset (Round), such that pianists heard their partner produce a serially shifted copy of their own sequence. Access to self-produced auditory information during duet performance was manipulated as well: Performers heard either full auditory feedback (Full), or only feedback from their partner (Other). Larger differences in partners' spontaneous rates of Solo performances were associated with larger asynchronies (less effective synchronization) during duet performance. Auditory feedback also influenced temporal coordination of duet performance: Pianists were more coordinated (smaller tone onset asynchronies and more mutual adaptation) during duet performances when self-generated auditory feedback aligned with partner-generated feedback (Unison) than when it did not (Round). Removal of self-feedback disrupted coordination (larger tone onset asynchronies) during Round performances only. Together, findings suggest that differences in partners' spontaneous rates of Solo performances, as well as differences in self- and partner-generated auditory feedback, influence temporal coordination of joint sensorimotor behaviors.

  6. Post-Event Processing and Memory Bias for Performance Feedback in Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Meghan W.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite predictions following from cognitive theories of anxiety, evidence for memory biases in social anxiety has been mixed. This study extends previous research by using stimuli relevant to participants’ concerns and allowing time for post-event processing. Participants high (n = 42) or low (n = 39) in social anxiety symptoms gave speeches and received standardized feedback on their and a confederate’s performance. Participants then took recognition and recall tests for the feedback immediately after it was given and after a two-day delay. Results showed no recall biases. However, the hypothesized recognition biases were found: the high social anxiety group remembered the confederate’s feedback more positively than their own, remembered their negative feedback as worse than the low group, and diminished positive feedback over time. Moreover, post-event processing mediated the relationship between social anxiety and memory for negative feedback. Results suggest that biased recognition of social feedback is linked to social anxiety. PMID:20399601

  7. Immediate Feedback on Accuracy and Performance: The Effects of Wireless Technology on Food Safety Tracking at a Distribution Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of wireless ring scanners, which provided immediate auditory and visual feedback, were evaluated to increase the performance and accuracy of order selectors at a meat distribution center. The scanners not only increased performance and accuracy compared to paper pick sheets, but were also instrumental in immediate and accurate data…

  8. High-speed visual feedback for realizing high-performance robotic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Bergström, N.; Yamakawa, Y.; Senoo, T.; Ishikawa, M.

    2017-02-01

    High-speed vision sensing becomes a driving factor in developing new methods for robotic manipulation. In this paper we present two such methods in order to realize high-performance manipulation. First, we present a dynamic compensation approach which aims to achieve simultaneously fast and accurate positioning under various (from system to external environment) uncertainties. Second, a high-speed motion strategy for manipulating flexible objects is introduced to address the issue of deformation uncertainties. Both methods rely on high-speed visual feedback and are model independent, which we believe is essential to ensure good flexibility in a wide range of applications. The high-speed visual feedback tracks the relative error between the working tool and the target in image coordinates, which implies that there is no need for accurate calibrations of the vision system. Tasks for validating these methods were implemented and experimental results were provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  9. Evaluating the Evidence Base of Performance Feedback in Preservice Special Education Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Kyena E.; Nagro, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Performance feedback is commonly used during field experiences to improve desired teaching behaviors in preservice teachers. The authors identify eight single-subject studies examining the effects of performance feedback in preservice teachers to determine the evidence base for this practice. These eight studies are reviewed using quality…

  10. Treatment Integrity Enhancement via Performance Feedback Conceptualized as an Exercise in Social Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erchul, William P.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary is in response to the article "Effects of Verbal and Written Performance Feedback on Treatment Adherence" (Kaufman, Codding, Markus, Tryon, & Kyse, this issue). The overall recommendation to those who study treatment integrity using performance feedback methods is to incorporate theories and research on social…

  11. Instructor feedback versus no instructor feedback on performance in a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oestergaard, Jeanett; Bjerrum, Flemming; Maagaard, Mathilde

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have found a positive effect on the learning curve as well as the improvement of basic psychomotor skills in the operating room after virtual reality training. Despite this, the majority of surgical and gynecological departments encounter hurdles when implementing this form...... of training. This is mainly due to lack of knowledge concerning the time and human resources needed to train novice surgeons to an adequate level. The purpose of this trial is to investigate the impact of instructor feedback regarding time, repetitions and self-perception when training complex operational...

  12. A Surgical Robot Teleoperation Framework for Providing Haptic Feedback Incorporating Virtual Envrioment-Based Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Munawar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In robot-assisted tele-operated laparoscopic surgeries, the patient side manipulators are controlled via the master manipulators that are controlled by the surgeon. The current generation of robots approved for laparoscopic surgery lack haptic feedback. In theory, haptic feedback would enhance the surgical procedures by enabling better coordination between the hand movements that are improved by the tactile sense of the operating environment. This research presents an overall control framework for a haptic feedback on existing robot platforms, and demonstrated on the daVinci Research Kit (dVRK system. The paper discusses the implementation of a flexible framework that incorporates a stiffness control with gravity compensation for the surgeons manipulator and a sensing and collision detection algorithm for calculating the interaction between the patients manipulators and the surgical area.

  13. Audio-visual feedback improves the BCI performance in the navigational control of a humanoid robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Gergondet, Pierre; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2014-01-01

    Advancement in brain computer interfaces (BCI) technology allows people to actively interact in the world through surrogates. Controlling real humanoid robots using BCI as intuitively as we control our body represents a challenge for current research in robotics and neuroscience. In order to successfully interact with the environment the brain integrates multiple sensory cues to form a coherent representation of the world. Cognitive neuroscience studies demonstrate that multisensory integration may imply a gain with respect to a single modality and ultimately improve the overall sensorimotor performance. For example, reactivity to simultaneous visual and auditory stimuli may be higher than to the sum of the same stimuli delivered in isolation or in temporal sequence. Yet, knowledge about whether audio-visual integration may improve the control of a surrogate is meager. To explore this issue, we provided human footstep sounds as audio feedback to BCI users while controlling a humanoid robot. Participants were asked to steer their robot surrogate and perform a pick-and-place task through BCI-SSVEPs. We found that audio-visual synchrony between footsteps sound and actual humanoid's walk reduces the time required for steering the robot. Thus, auditory feedback congruent with the humanoid actions may improve motor decisions of the BCI's user and help in the feeling of control over it. Our results shed light on the possibility to increase robot's control through the combination of multisensory feedback to a BCI user.

  14. Adjustment, depression, and minimal goal setting: the moderating effect of performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, S J

    1991-06-01

    In this study I tested hypotheses about changes in expectancy and minimal goal statements and the relations of these variables to adjustment. Seventy-seven male college students completed the Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank and the Beck Depression Inventory and subsequently received success or failure feedback on tasks for which they provided expectancy and minimal goal statements. Expectancies and minimal goals changed differently, relative to each other, as a function of performance feedback. Modest relations of adjustment and dysphoria with minimal goals were found, but these were moderated by performance feedback: Under failure, poorer adjustment and greater dysphoria were associated with higher minimal goals; under success, poorer adjustment and greater dysphoria were associated with lower minimal goals, contrary to a widely held hypothesis. Moreover, although the effects of adjustment and dysphoria on minimal goal setting were similar in strength and direction, these effects were independent of each other. Thus, adjustment-minimal goal relations must be understood in light of situational parameters and may reflect two processes, only one of which is related to mood.

  15. Audio-visual feedback improves the BCI performance in the navigational control of a humanoid robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuele eTidoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in brain computer interfaces (BCI technology allows people to actively interact in the world through surrogates. Controlling real humanoid robots using BCI as intuitively as we control our body represents a challenge for current research in robotics and neuroscience. In order to successfully interact with the environment the brain integrates multiple sensory cues to form a coherent representation of the world. Cognitive neuroscience studies demonstrate that multisensory integration may imply a gain with respect to a single modality and ultimately improve the overall sensorimotor performance. For example, reactivity to simultaneous visual and auditory stimuli may be higher than to the sum of the same stimuli delivered in isolation or in temporal sequence. Yet, knowledge about whether audio-visual integration may improve the control of a surrogate is meager. To explore this issue, we provided human footstep sounds as audio feedback to BCI users while controlling a humanoid robot. Participants were asked to steer their robot surrogate and perform a pick-and-place task through BCI-SSVEPs. We found that audio-visual synchrony between footsteps sound and actual humanoid’s walk reduces the time required for steering the robot. Thus, auditory feedback congruent with the humanoid actions may improve motor decisions of the BCI’s user and help in the feeling of control over it. Our results shed light on the possibility to increase robot’s control through the combination of multisensory feedback to a BCI user.

  16. Strategies for effective feedback

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kritek, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Provision of regular feedback to trainees on clinical performance by supervising providers is increasingly recognized as an essential component of undergraduate and graduate health sciences education...

  17. Providing Graduated Corrective Feedback in an Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Haiyang

    2017-01-01

    Corrective feedback (CF), a response to linguistic errors made by second language (L2) learners, has received extensive scholarly attention in second language acquisition. While much of the previous research in the field has focused on whether CF facilitates or impedes L2 development, few studies have examined the efficacy of gradually modifying…

  18. Strategies to improve effectiveness of physical activity coaching systems: Development of personas for providing tailored feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterkamp, Reinoud; van Weering, Marit; Evering, R.M.H.; Tabak, Monique; Timmerman, Josien; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2017-01-01

    Mobile physical activity interventions can be improved by incorporating behavioural change theories. Relations between self-efficacy, stage of change, and physical activity are investigated, enabling development of feedback strategies that can be used to improve their effectiveness. A total of 325

  19. Providing Feedback on Computer-Based Algebra Homework in Middle-School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    Homework is transforming at a rapid rate with continuous advances in educational technology. Computer-based homework, in particular, is gaining popularity across a range of schools, with little empirical evidence on how to optimize student learning. The current aim was to test the effects of different types of feedback on computer-based homework.…

  20. Performance feedback, self-esteem, and cardiovascular adaptation to recurring stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eoin G; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2017-05-01

    This study sought to examine the effects of performance feedback and individual differences in self-esteem on cardiovascular habituation to repeat stress exposure. Sixty-six university students (n = 39 female) completed a self-esteem measure and completed a cardiovascular stress-testing protocol involving repeated exposure to a mental arithmetic task. Cardiovascular functioning was sampled across four phases: resting baseline, initial stress exposure, a recovery period, and repeated stress exposure. Participants were randomly assigned to receive fictional positive feedback, negative feedback, or no feedback following the recovery period. Negative feedback was associated with a sensitized blood pressure response to a second exposure of the stress task. Positive feedback was associated with decreased cardiovascular and psychological responses to a second exposure. Self-esteem was also found to predict reactivity and this interacted with the type of feedback received. These findings suggest that negative performance feedback sensitizes cardiovascular reactivity to stress, whereas positive performance feedback increases both cardiovascular and psychological habituation to repeat exposure to stressors. Furthermore, an individual's self-esteem also appears to influence this process.

  1. Perception of CPR quality: Influence of CPR feedback, Just-in-Time CPR training and provider role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Overly, Frank; Kessler, David; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Yiqun; Doan, Quynh; Duff, Jonathan P; Tofil, Nancy M; Bhanji, Farhan; Adler, Mark; Charnovich, Alex; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Brown, Linda L

    2015-02-01

    Many healthcare providers rely on visual perception to guide cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but little is known about the accuracy of provider perceptions of CPR quality. We aimed to describe the difference between perceived versus measured CPR quality, and to determine the impact of provider role, real-time visual CPR feedback and Just-in-Time (JIT) CPR training on provider perceptions. We conducted secondary analyses of data collected from a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial of 324 healthcare providers who participated in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario between July 2012 and April 2014. Participants were randomized to one of four permutations of: JIT CPR training and real-time visual CPR feedback. We calculated the difference between perceived and measured quality of CPR and reported the proportion of subjects accurately estimating the quality of CPR within each study arm. Participants overestimated achieving adequate chest compression depth (mean difference range: 16.1-60.6%) and rate (range: 0.2-51%), and underestimated chest compression fraction (0.2-2.9%) across all arms. Compared to no intervention, the use of real-time feedback and JIT CPR training (alone or in combination) improved perception of depth (pPerception of depth is more accurate in CPR providers versus team leaders (27.8% vs. 7.4%; p=0.043) when using real-time feedback. Healthcare providers' visual perception of CPR quality is poor. Perceptions of CPR depth are improved by using real-time visual feedback and with prior JIT CPR training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Robust Stabilization Approach and ∞ Performance via Static Output Feedback for a Class of Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Bedioui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the stability and stabilization problems for a class of discrete-time nonlinear systems. The systems are composed of a linear constant part perturbated by an additive nonlinear function which satisfies a quadratic constraint. A new approach to design a static output feedback controller is proposed. A sufficient condition, formulated as an LMI optimization convex problem, is developed. In fact, the approach is based on a family of LMI parameterized by a scalar, offering an additional degree of freedom. The problem of performance taking into account an ∞ criterion is also investigated. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed conditions.

  3. Effects of four types of non-obtrusive feedback on computer behaviour, task performance and comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korte, Elsbeth M; Huysmans, Maaike A; de Jong, Annelise M; van de Ven, Josine G M; Ruijsendaal, Mark

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of non-obtrusive feedback on continuous lifted hand/finger behaviour, task performance and comfort. In an experiment with 24 participants the effects of two visual and two tactile feedback signals were compared to a no-feedback condition in a computer task. Results from the objective measures showed that all types of feedback were equally effective to reduce lifted hand/finger behaviour (effectiveness) compared to absence of feedback, while task performance was not affected (efficiency). In contrast to objective measures, subjective user experience was significantly different for the four types of feedback signals. Continuous tactile feedback appeared to be the best signal; not only the effectiveness and efficiency were rated reasonable, it also scored best on perceived match between signal and required action. This study shows the importance of including user experiences when investigating usability of feedback signals. Non-obtrusive feedback embedded in products and environments may successfully be used to support office workers to adopt healthy, productive and comfortable working behaviour. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationship between Teacher's Written Feedback and Student's' Writing Performance: Sociocultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijami, Maryam; Pandian, Ambigapathy; Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2016-01-01

    Feedback plays a fundamental role in writing development. The present study seeks to investigate the impact of teacher's written feedback on the writing performance of Iranian undergraduates. The subjects were 400 students majoring in the fields of English language translation and English language literature in four universities, namely Shahaid…

  5. Motivated or Paralyzed? Individuals' Beliefs about Intelligence Influence Performance Outcome of Expecting Rapid Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Zhang, Jie; Vance, Kaleigh

    2013-01-01

    The current research examines whether and how beliefs about intelligence moderate the effects of expecting rapid feedback on exam performance. Thirty-six undergraduates participated in a field experiment with two between-subjects independent variables: anticipated feedback proximity and beliefs about intelligence. The results show that expecting…

  6. The Role of Organizational Insiders' Developmental Feedback and Proactive Personality on Newcomers' Performance: An Interactionist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Harris, T. Brad; Boswell, Wendy R.; Xie, Zhitao

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from an interactionist approach and feedback research, we examine the role of developmental feedback and proactive personality on newcomer task performance and helping behavior. Data were collected from 2 high-tech joint-ventures within the information technology and manufacturing industries located in Shanghai, China. Results based on 151…

  7. New approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for effective improvement of evaluated nuclear data files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo; Hursin, Mathieu; Kodeli, Ivo; Gabrielli, Fabrizio; Hummel, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    A critical examination of the role of uncertainty assessment, target accuracies, role of integral experiment for validation and, consequently, of data adjustments methods is underway since several years at OECD-NEA, the objective being to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and experimentalists in order to improve without ambiguities the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications and to meet new requirements and constraints for innovative reactor and fuel cycle system design. An approach will be described that expands as much as possible the use in the adjustment procedure of selected integral experiments that provide information on “elementary” phenomena, on separated individual physics effects related to specific isotopes or on specific energy ranges. An application to a large experimental data base has been performed and the results are discussed in the perspective of new evaluation projects like the CIELO initiative.

  8. New approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for effective improvement of evaluated nuclear data files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo; Hursin, Mathieu; Kodeli, Ivo; Gabrielli, Fabrizio; Hummel, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    A critical examination of the role of uncertainty assessment, target accuracies, role of integral experiment for validation and, consequently, of data adjustments methods is underway since several years at OECD-NEA, the objective being to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and experimentalists in order to improve without ambiguities the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications and to meet new requirements and constraints for innovative reactor and fuel cycle system design. An approach will be described that expands as much as possible the use in the adjustment procedure of selected integral experiments that provide information on "elementary" phenomena, on separated individual physics effects related to specific isotopes or on specific energy ranges. An application to a large experimental data base has been performed and the results are discussed in the perspective of new evaluation projects like the CIELO initiative.

  9. Framing of feedback impacts student's satisfaction, self-efficacy and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ridder, J M Monica; Peters, Claudia M M; Stokking, Karel M; de Ru, J Alexander; Ten Cate, Olle Th J

    2015-08-01

    Feedback is considered important to acquire clinical skills. Research evidence shows that feedback does not always improve learning and its effects may be small. In many studies, a variety of variables involved in feedback provision may mask either one of their effects. E.g., there is reason to believe that the way oral feedback is framed may affect its effect if other variables are held constant. In a randomised controlled trial we investigated the effect of positively and negatively framed feedback messages on satisfaction, self-efficacy, and performance. A single blind randomised controlled between-subject design was used, with framing of the feedback message (positively-negatively) as independent variable and examination of hearing abilities as the task. First year medical students' (n = 59) satisfaction, self-efficacy, and performance were the dependent variables and were measured both directly after the intervention and after a 2 weeks delay. Students in the positively framed feedback condition were significantly more satisfied and showed significantly higher self-efficacy measured directly after the performance. Effect sizes found were large, i.e., partial η (2) = 0.43 and η (2) = 0.32 respectively. They showed a better performance throughout the whole study. Significant performance differences were found both at the initial performance and when measured 2 weeks after the intervention: effects were of medium size, respectively r = -.31 and r = -.32. Over time in both conditions performance and self-efficacy decreased. Framing the feedback message in either a positive or negative manner affects students' satisfaction and self-efficacy directly after the intervention be it that these effects seem to fade out over time. Performance may be enhanced by positive framing, but additional studies need to confirm this. We recommend using a positive frame when giving feedback on clinical skills.

  10. Using Performance Feedback of Reciprocal Teaching Strategies to Increase Reading Comprehension Srategy Use with Seventh Grade Students with Comprehension Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Maki, Kathrin E.; Karich, Abbey C.; Coolong-Chaffin, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    The current study used a multiple-baseline design to examine the effect of providing performance feedback on comprehension strategy use and reading comprehension. The participants were four seventh grade students with comprehension difficulties. The students were taught the reciprocal teaching comprehension strategies of generating questions,…

  11. Can providing feedback on driving behavior and training on parental vigilant care affect male teen drivers and their parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Haneen; Musicant, Oren; Shimshoni, Yaara; Toledo, Tomer; Grimberg, Einat; Omer, Haim; Lotan, Tsippy

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on investigating the driving behavior of young novice male drivers during the first year of driving (three months of accompanied driving and the following nine months of solo driving). The study's objective is to examine the potential of various feedback forms on driving to affect young drivers' behavior and to mitigate the transition from accompanied to solo driving. The study examines also the utility of providing parents with guidance on how to exercise vigilant care regarding their teens' driving. Driving behavior was evaluated using data collected by In-Vehicle Data Recorders (IVDR), which document events of extreme g-forces measured in the vehicles. IVDR systems were installed in 242 cars of the families of young male drivers, however, only 217 families of young drivers aged 17-22 (M=17.5; SD=0.8) completed the one year period. The families were randomly allocated into 4 groups: (1) Family feedback: In which all the members of the family were exposed to feedback on their own driving and on that of the other family members; (2) Parental training: in which in addition to the family feedback, parents received personal guidance on ways to enhance vigilant care regarding their sons' driving; (3) Individual feedback: In which family members received feedback only on their own driving behavior (and were not exposed to the data on other family members); (4) CONTROL: Group that received no feedback at all. The feedback was provided to the different groups starting from the solo period, thus, the feedback was not provided during the supervised period. The data collected by the IVDRs was first analyzed using analysis of variance in order to compare the groups with respect to their monthly event rates. Events' rates are defined as the number of events in a trip divided by its duration. This was followed by the development and estimation of random effect negative binomial models that explain the monthly event rates of young drivers and their parents

  12. Does Constructive Performance Feedback Improve Citizenship Intentions and Job Satisfaction? The Roles of Perceived Opportunities for Advancement, Respect, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Kristin L.; Kulkarni, Mukta

    2012-01-01

    Organizational experts have long touted the importance of delivering negative performance feedback in a manner that enhances employee receptivity to feedback, yet the broader impacts of constructive feedback have received relatively little attention. The present investigation explored the impact of constructive, critical feedback on organizational…

  13. Documenting clinical performance problems among medical students: feedback for learner remediation and curriculum enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavis, Brian E; Wagner, Dianne P; Henry, Rebecca C; Carravallah, Laura; Gold, Jon; Maurer, Joel; Mohmand, Asad; Osuch, Janet; Roskos, Steven; Saxe, Andrew; Sousa, Aron; Prins, Vince Winkler

    2013-07-22

    We operationalized the taxonomy developed by Hauer and colleagues describing common clinical performance problems. Faculty raters pilot tested the resulting worksheet by observing recordings of problematic simulated clinical encounters involving third-year medical students. This approach provided a framework for structured feedback to guide learner improvement and curricular enhancement. Eighty-two problematic clinical encounters from M3 students who failed their clinical competency examination were independently rated by paired clinical faculty members to identify common problems related to the medical interview, physical examination, and professionalism. Eleven out of 26 target performance problems were present in 25% or more encounters. Overall, 37% had unsatisfactory medical interviews, with 'inadequate history to rule out other diagnoses' most prevalent (60%). Seventy percent failed because of physical examination deficiencies, with missing elements (69%) and inadequate data gathering (69%) most common. One-third of the students did not introduce themselves to their patients. Among students failing based on standardized patient (SP) ratings, 93% also failed to demonstrate competency based on the faculty ratings. Our review form allowed clinical faculty to validate pass/fail decisions based on standardized patient ratings. Detailed information about performance problems contributes to learner feedback and curricular enhancement to guide remediation planning and faculty development.

  14. Documenting clinical performance problems among medical students: feedback for learner remediation and curriculum enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E. Mavis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We operationalized the taxonomy developed by Hauer and colleagues describing common clinical performance problems. Faculty raters pilot tested the resulting worksheet by observing recordings of problematic simulated clinical encounters involving third-year medical students. This approach provided a framework for structured feedback to guide learner improvement and curricular enhancement. Methods: Eighty-two problematic clinical encounters from M3 students who failed their clinical competency examination were independently rated by paired clinical faculty members to identify common problems related to the medical interview, physical examination, and professionalism. Results: Eleven out of 26 target performance problems were present in 25% or more encounters. Overall, 37% had unsatisfactory medical interviews, with ‘inadequate history to rule out other diagnoses’ most prevalent (60%. Seventy percent failed because of physical examination deficiencies, with missing elements (69% and inadequate data gathering (69% most common. One-third of the students did not introduce themselves to their patients. Among students failing based on standardized patient (SP ratings, 93% also failed to demonstrate competency based on the faculty ratings. Conclusions: Our review form allowed clinical faculty to validate pass/fail decisions based on standardized patient ratings. Detailed information about performance problems contributes to learner feedback and curricular enhancement to guide remediation planning and faculty development.

  15. Effect of state feedback coupling on the transient performance of voltage source inverters with LC filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michele; Antonio DeSouza Ribeiro, Luiz

    2016-01-01

    State feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current deteriorates notably the performance during transients of voltage and current regulators in stand-alone systems based on voltage source inverters. A decoupling technique is proposed, considering the limitations introduced...

  16. Combining the formative with the summative: the development of a two-stage online test to encourage engagement and provide personal feedback in large classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Voelkel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this action research project was to improve student learning by encouraging more “time on task” and to improve self-assessment and feedback through the introduction of weekly online tests in a Year 2 lecture module in biological sciences. Initially voluntary online tests were offered to students and those who participated achieved higher exam marks than those who did not, but completion rate was low. Making the tests compulsory led to high completion rates, but class performance decreased, indicating that using the same assessment for formative and for summative purposes is not always beneficial for learning. Finally, these problems were resolved by introducing a two-stage approach: the first stage of each test was formative and provided prompt feedback. However, students had to achieve 80% to progress to the second summative stage of the test. The two-stage online tests led to significantly improved class performance. This novel test design ensures that students go through at least two attempts and therefore fully benefit from the learning opportunities presented by the formative stage. Two-stage online tests present the opportunity to provide regular feedback in large classes and to improve performance not only of good but also of “weak” students.

  17. Feedback-controlled stimulation enhances human paralyzed muscle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Richard K; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Cole, Keith R

    2006-11-01

    Chronically paralyzed muscle requires extensive training before it can deliver a therapeutic dose of repetitive stress to the musculoskeletal system. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation, under feedback control, may subvert the effects of fatigue, yielding more rapid and extensive adaptations to training. The purposes of this investigation were to 1) compare the effectiveness of torque feedback-controlled (FDBCK) electrical stimulation with classic open-loop constant-frequency (CONST) stimulation, and 2) ascertain which of three stimulation strategies best maintains soleus torque during repetitive stimulation. When torque declined by 10%, the FDBCK protocol modulated the base stimulation frequency in three ways: by a fixed increase, by a paired pulse (doublet) at the beginning of the stimulation train, and by a fixed decrease. The stimulation strategy that most effectively restored torque continued for successive contractions. This process repeated each time torque declined by 10%. In fresh muscle, FDBCK stimulation offered minimal advantage in maintaining peak torque or mean torque over CONST stimulation. As long-duration fatigue developed in subsequent bouts, FDBCK stimulation became most effective ( approximately 40% higher final normalized torque than CONST). The high-frequency strategy was selected approximately 90% of the time, supporting that excitation-contraction coupling compromise and not neuromuscular transmission failure contributed to fatigue of paralyzed muscle. Ideal stimulation strategies may vary according to the site of fatigue; this stimulation approach offered the advantage of online modulation of stimulation strategies in response to fatigue conditions. Based on stress-adaptation principles, FDBCK-controlled stimulation may enhance training effects in chronically paralyzed muscle.

  18. Validity of the Microsoft Kinect for providing lateral trunk lean feedback during gait retraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ross A; Pua, Yong-Hao; Bryant, Adam L; Hunt, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Gait retraining programs are prescribed to assist in the rehabilitation process of many clinical conditions. Using lateral trunk lean modification as the model, the aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of kinematic data recorded using a marker-based 3D motion analysis (3DMA) system and a low-cost alternative, the Microsoft Kinect™ (Kinect), during a gait retraining session. Twenty healthy adults were trained to modify their gait to obtain a lateral trunk lean angle of 10°. Real-time biofeedback of the lateral trunk lean angle was provided on a computer screen in front of the subject using data extracted from the Kinect skeletal tracking algorithm. Marker coordinate data were concurrently recorded using the 3DMA system, and the similarity and equivalency of the trunk lean angle data from each system were compared. The lateral trunk lean angle data obtained from the Kinect system without any form of calibration resulted in errors of a high (>2°) magnitude (mean error=3.2±2.2°). Performing global and individualized calibration significantly (PKinect can be used to create a real-time biofeedback system for gait retraining. Given that this system is low-cost, portable and does not require any sensors to be attached to the body, it could provide numerous advantages when compared to laboratory-based gait retraining systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Stereotype threat engenders neural attentional bias toward negative feedback to undermine performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Chad E; Leitner, Jordan B

    2014-10-01

    Stereotype threat, a situational pressure individuals experience when they fear confirming a negative group stereotype, engenders a cascade of physiological stress responses, negative appraisals, and performance monitoring processes that tax working memory resources necessary for optimal performance. Less is known, however, about how stereotype threat biases attentional processing in response to performance feedback, and how such attentional biases may undermine performance. Women received feedback on math problems in stereotype threatening compared to stereotype-neutral contexts while continuous EEG activity was recorded. Findings revealed that stereotype threatened women elicited larger midline P100 ERPs, increased phase locking between anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (two regions integral for attentional processes), and increased power in left fusiform gyrus in response to negative feedback compared to positive feedback and women in stereotype-neutral contexts. Increased power in left fusiform gyrus in response to negative feedback predicted underperformance on the math task among stereotype threatened women only. Women in stereotype-neutral contexts exhibited the opposite trend. Findings suggest that in stereotype threatening contexts, neural networks integral for attention and working memory are biased toward negative, stereotype confirming feedback at very early speeds of information processing. This bias, in turn, plays a role in undermining performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of feedback of intraoperative technical performance in surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehan, Abhishek; Barnett-Vanes, Ashton; Carty, Matthew J; McCulloch, Peter; Maruthappu, Mahiben

    2015-06-15

    Increasing patient demands, costs and emphasis on safety, coupled with reductions in the length of time surgical trainees spend in the operating theatre, necessitate means to improve the efficiency of surgical training. In this respect, feedback based on intraoperative surgical performance may be beneficial. Our aim was to systematically review the impact of intraoperative feedback based on surgical performance. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched. Two reviewers independently reviewed citations using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. 32 data-points per study were extracted. The search strategy yielded 1531 citations. Three studies were eligible, which comprised a total of 280 procedures by 62 surgeons. Overall, feedback based on intraoperative surgical performance was found to be a powerful method for improving performance. In cholecystectomy, feedback led to a reduction in procedure time (p=0.022) and an improvement in economy of movement (pfeedback led to improvements in instrument path length (p=0.001) and instrument smoothness (p=0.045). Feedback also reduced error scores in cholecystectomy (p=0.003), simulated laparoscopic colectomy (pfeedback improved balloon placement accuracy (p=0.041), and resulted in a smoother learning curve and earlier plateau in performance in simulated renal artery angioplasty. Intraoperative feedback appears to be associated with an improvement in performance, however, there is a paucity of research in this area. Further work is needed in order to establish the long-term benefits of feedback and the optimum means and circumstances of feedback delivery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. How to improve prescription of inhaled salbutamol by providing standardised feedback on administration: a controlled intervention pilot study with follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Martina P; Kaune, Almuth; Bertsche, Astrid; Rink, Jessica; Musiol, Juliane; Frontini, Roberto; Prenzel, Freerk; Kiess, Wieland; Bertsche, Thilo

    2015-01-28

    The effectiveness of inhaled salbutamol in routine care depends particularly on prescribed dosage and applied inhalation technique. To achieve maximum effectiveness and to prevent drug-related problems, prescription and administration need to work in concert. We performed a controlled intervention pilot study with 4 consecutive groups in a general paediatric unit and assessed problems in salbutamol prescribing and administration. Control group [i]: Routine care without additional support. First intervention group [ii]: We carried out a teaching session for nurses aimed at preventing problems in inhalation technique. Independently from this, a pharmacist counselled physicians on problems in salbutamol prescribing. Second intervention group [iii]: Additionally to the first intervention, physicians received standardised feedback on the inhalation technique. Follow-up group [iv]: Subsequently, without any delay after the second intervention group had been completed, sustainability of the measures was assessed. We performed the chi-square test to calculate the level of significance with p ≤ 0.05 to indicate a statistically significant difference for the primary outcome. As we performed multiple testing, an adjusted p ≤ 0.01 according to Bonferroni correction was considered as significant. We included a total of 225 patients. By counselling the physicians, we reduced the number of patients with problems from 55% to 43% (control [i] vs. first intervention [ii], n.s.). With additional feedback to physicians, this number was further reduced to 25% ([i] vs. [iii], p < 0.001). In the follow-up [iv], the number rose again to 48% (p < 0.01 compared to feedback group). Teaching nurses, counselling physicians, and providing feedback on the quality of inhalation technique effectively reduced problems in salbutamol treatment. However, for success to be sustained, continuous support needs to be provided. German Clinical Trials register: DRKS00006792 .

  2. Exergaming for elderly: effects of different types of game feedback on performance of a balance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoth, Claudine J C; Alingh, Rolinde; Caljouw, Simone R

    2012-01-01

    Balance training to improve postural control in elderly can contribute to the prevention of falls. Video games that require body movements have the potential to improve balance. However, research about the effects of type of visual feedback (i.e. the exergame) on the quality of movement and experienced workout intensity is scarce. In this study twelve healthy older and younger subjects performed anterior-posterior or mediolateral oscillations on a wobble board, in three conditions: no feedback, real-time visual feedback, and real-time visual feedback with a competitive game element. The Elderly moved slower, less accurately and more irregularly than younger people. Both feedback conditions ensured a more controlled movement technique on the wobble-board and increased experienced workout intensity. The participants enjoyed the attention demanding competitive game element, but this game did not improve balance performance more than interacting with a game that incorporated visual feedback. These results show the potential of exergames with visual feedback to enhance postural control.

  3. Feedback Valence Affects Auditory Perceptual Learning Independently of Feedback Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they were doing equally well, while 10% positive or 90% negative feedback informed them they were doing equally badly. In all conditions the feedback was random in relation to the listeners’ responses (because the task was to discriminate three identical tones), yet both the valence (negative vs. positive) and the probability of feedback (10% vs. 90%) affected learning. Feedback that informed listeners they were doing badly resulted in better post-training performance than feedback that informed them they were doing well, independent of valence. In addition, positive feedback during training resulted in better post-training performance than negative feedback, but only positive feedback indicating listeners were doing badly on the task resulted in learning. As we have previously speculated, feedback that better reflected the difficulty of the task was more effective in driving learning than feedback that suggested performance was better than it should have been given perceived task difficulty. But contrary to expectations, positive feedback was more effective than negative feedback in driving learning. Feedback thus had two separable effects on learning: feedback valence affected motivation on a subjectively difficult task, and learning occurred only when feedback probability reflected the subjective difficulty. To optimize learning, training programs need to take into consideration both feedback valence and probability. PMID:25946173

  4. Online feedback op schriftelijk werk: betere feedback in minder tijd.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, B.A.M.; van der Hulst, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Feedback is a powerful teaching technic to raise students’ performance, provided that the feedback is informative on how to improve, is given in a timely manner and students have the opportunity to act upon it. Therefore, many institutions want their students to receive feedback on their performance

  5. A High Performance Tactile Feedback Display and Its Integration in Teleoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarakoglou, I; Garcia-Hernandez, N; Tsagarakis, N G; Caldwell, D G

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a compact tactile display and its integration in teleoperation. The system's operation is based on the display of surface shape to an area of the fingertip through a 4 × 4 array of tactors moving perpendicularly to the skin surface. The tactors are spring loaded and are actuated remotely by dc motors through a flexible tendon transmission. This novel implementation of conventional actuation principles achieves a compact design with superior performance compared to devices of a similar footprint, demonstrating an excellent combination of tactor spatiotemporal resolution, force, and amplitude. The display's ergonomic design and high performance make it suitable for integration on haptic devices for tactile feedback in VR and in Teleoperation. This paper presents the design, control, and performance of the tactile display and of the transmission system. It also demonstrates its integration on an Omega7 force feedback device for the teleoperation of an LWR KUKA manipulator. An experiment is presented where users teleoperated the stylus of the robot in a 3D contour following task with and without tactile feedback. In this experiment, force feedback from the slave is fused with model-based local tactile feedback. Subjects' performances indicate an improvement in teleoperation when both tactile and force feedback are present.

  6. Auditory feedback and memory for music performance: sound evidence for an encoding effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Steven A; Palmer, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    Research on the effects of context and task on learning and memory has included approaches that emphasize processes during learning (e.g., Craik & Tulving, 1975) and approaches that emphasize a match of conditions during learning with conditions during a later test of memory (e.g., Morris, Bransford, & Franks, 1977; Proteau, 1992; Tulving & Thomson, 1973). We investigated the effects of auditory context on learning and retrieval in three experiments on memorized music performance (a form of serial recall). Auditory feedback (presence or absence) was manipulated while pianists learned musical pieces from notation and when they later played the pieces from memory. Auditory feedback during learning significantly improved later recall. However, auditory feedback at test did not significantly affect recall, nor was there an interaction between conditions at learning and test. Auditory feedback in music performance appears to be a contextual factor that affects learning but is relatively independent of retrieval conditions.

  7. Contradictory yet coherent? : Inconsistency in performance feedback and R&D investment change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas, G.J.M.; Knoben, J.; Meeus, M.T.H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study to what extent inconsistent feedback signals about performance affect firm adaptive behavior in terms of changes made to research-and-development (R&D) investments. We argue that inconsistency in performance feedback—based on discrepancies between two distinct performance

  8. Influence of visual feedback on human task performance in ITER remote handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schropp, Gwendolijn Y.R., E-mail: g.schropp@heemskerk-innovative.nl [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Heemskerk, Cock J.M. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Tiest, Wouter M. Bergmann [Helmholtz Institute-Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Elzendoorn, Ben S.Q. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM/FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Clusterand ITER-NL, PO box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bult, David [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM/FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Clusterand ITER-NL, PO box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The performance of human operators in an ITER-like test facility for remote handling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different sources of visual feedback influence how fast one can complete a maintenance task. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insights learned could be used in design of operator work environment or training procedures. - Abstract: In ITER, maintenance operations will be largely performed by remote handling (RH). Before ITER can be put into operation, safety regulations and licensing authorities require proof of maintainability for critical components. Part of the proof will come from using standard components and procedures. Additional verification and validation is based on simulation and hardware tests in 1:1 scale mockups. The Master Slave manipulator system (MS2) Benchmark Product was designed to implement a reference set of maintenance tasks representative for ITER remote handling. Experiments were performed with two versions of the Benchmark Product. In both experiments, the quality of visual feedback varied by exchanging direct view with indirect view (using video cameras) in order to measure and analyze its impact on human task performance. The first experiment showed that both experienced and novice RH operators perform a simple task significantly better with direct visual feedback than with camera feedback. A more complex task showed a large variation in results and could not be completed by many novice operators. Experienced operators commented on both the mechanical design and visual feedback. In a second experiment, a more elaborate task was tested on an improved Benchmark product. Again, the task was performed significantly faster with direct visual feedback than with camera feedback. In post-test interviews, operators indicated that they regarded the lack of 3D perception as the primary factor hindering their performance.

  9. Mindful acceptance dampens neuroaffective reactions to external and rewarding performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teper, Rimma; Inzlicht, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Previous research on mindfulness has suggested that individuals high in trait mindfulness show heightened sensitivity to visceral and internally generated stimuli. However, when mindful individuals are exposed to external stimuli-such as pictures or faces-their emotional responses are typically attenuated. In the current study, we tested how trait mindfulness relates to reactivity in response to a different type of external stimulus, namely, performance feedback. Using electroencephalography, we recorded participants' neuroaffective reactions to rewarding, aversive, and neutral feedback, as indexed by the feedback-related negativity (FRN). The FRN is a brain response that peaks approximately 250 ms after feedback presentation, and it is thought to differentiate feedback indicating favorable versus unfavorable outcomes. Our findings suggest trait mindfulness predicts less differentiation of rewarding from neutral feedback, but does not predict brain differentiation of aversive from neutral feedback. This was the case particularly for individuals who scored highly on the "acceptance" facet of mindfulness, a facet that assesses the nonjudgmental acceptance of thoughts and emotions. We discuss the implications of these findings for current theory on mindfulness and emotion regulation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. User-centered development and testing of a monitoring system that provides feedback regarding physical functioning to elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen J

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Joan Vermeulen,1 Jacques CL Neyens,1 Marieke D Spreeuwenberg,1 Erik van Rossum,1,2 Walther Sipers,3 Herbert Habets,3 David J Hewson,4 Luc P de Witte1,2 1School for Public Health and Primary Care (CAPHRI, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2Research Center for Technology in Care, Zuyd University of Applied Sciences, Heerlen, The Netherlands; 3Expertise Center for Elderly Care, Orbis Medical Center, Sittard, The Netherlands; 4Institute Charles Delaunay, Université de Technologie de Troyes, Troyes, France Purpose: To involve elderly people during the development of a mobile interface of a monitoring system that provides feedback to them regarding changes in physical functioning and to test the system in a pilot study. Methods and participants: The iterative user-centered development process consisted of the following phases: (1 selection of user representatives; (2 analysis of users and their context; (3 identification of user requirements; (4 development of the interface; and (5 evaluation of the interface in the lab. Subsequently, the monitoring and feedback system was tested in a pilot study by five patients who were recruited via a geriatric outpatient clinic. Participants used a bathroom scale to monitor weight and balance, and a mobile phone to monitor physical activity on a daily basis for six weeks. Personalized feedback was provided via the interface of the mobile phone. Usability was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 7 using a modified version of the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ; higher scores indicated better usability. Interviews were conducted to gain insight into the experiences of the participants with the system. Results: The developed interface uses colors, emoticons, and written and/or spoken text messages to provide daily feedback regarding (changes in weight, balance, and physical activity. The participants rated the usability of the monitoring and feedback system with a mean score of 5

  11. New perspectives concerning feedback influences on cardiorespiratory control during rhythmic exercise and on exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jerome A

    2012-09-01

    The cardioaccelerator and ventilatory responses to rhythmic exercise in the human are commonly viewed as being mediated predominantly via feedforward 'central command' mechanisms, with contributions from locomotor muscle afferents to the sympathetically mediated pressor response. We have assessed the relative contributions of three types of feedback afferents on the cardiorespiratory response to voluntary, rhythmic exercise by inhibiting their normal 'tonic' activity in healthy animals and humans and in chronic heart failure. Transient inhibition of the carotid chemoreceptors during moderate intensity exercise reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow; and reducing the normal level of respiratory muscle work during heavier intensity exercise increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow. These cardiorespiratory effects were prevented via ganglionic blockade and were enhanced in chronic heart failure and in hypoxia. Blockade of μ opioid sensitive locomotor muscle afferents, with preservation of central motor output via intrathecal fentanyl: (a) reduced the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate and ventilatory responses to all steady state exercise intensities; and (b) during sustained high intensity exercise, reduced O(2) transport, increased central motor output and end-exercise muscle fatigue and reduced endurance performance. We propose that these three afferent reflexes - probably acting in concert with feedforward central command - contribute significantly to preserving O(2) transport to locomotor and to respiratory muscles during exercise. Locomotor muscle afferents also appear to provide feedback concerning the metabolic state of the muscle to influence central motor output, thereby limiting peripheral fatigue development.

  12. Training Sessional Academic Staff to Provide Quality Feedback on University Students' Assessment: Lessons from a Faculty of Law Learning and Teaching Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kelly; Bell, Tamara; Dwyer, Angela

    2017-01-01

    The quality of feedback provided to university students has long been recognised as the most important predictor of student learning and satisfaction. However, providing quality feedback to students is challenging in the current context, in which universities increasingly rely on casualised and inexperienced academic staff to assess undergraduate…

  13. Effects of angular gain transformations between movement and visual feedback on coordination performance in unimanual circling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eRieger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tool actions are characterized by a transformation (of spatio-temporal and/or force-related characteristics between movements and their resulting consequences in the environment. This transformation has to be taken into account, when planning and executing movement and its existence may affect performance. In the present study we investigated how angular gain transformations between movement and visual feedback during circling movements affect coordination performance. Participants coordinated the visual feedback (feedback dot with a continuously circling stimulus (stimulus dot on a computer screen in order to produce mirror symmetric trajectories of them. The movement angle was multiplied by a gain factor (0.5 to 2; 9 levels before it was presented on the screen. Thus, the angular gain transformations changed the spatio-temporal relationship between the movement and its feedback in visual space, and resulted in a non-constant mapping of movement to feedback positions. Coordination performance was best with gain = 1. With high gains the feedback dot was in lead of the stimulus dot, with small gains it lagged behind. Anchoring (reduced movement variability occurred when the two trajectories were close to each other. Awareness of the transformation depended on the deviation of the gain from 1. In conclusion, the size of an angular gain transformation as well as its mere presence influence performance in a situation in which the mapping of movement positions to visual feedback positions is not constant. When designing machines or tools that involve transformations between movements and their external consequences, one should be aware that the mere presence of angular gains may result in performance decrements and that there can be flaws in the representation of the transformation.

  14. Feedback-based error monitoring processes during musical performance: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahira, Kentaro; Abla, Dilshat; Masuda, Sayaka; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2008-05-01

    Auditory feedback is important in detecting and correcting errors during sound production when a current performance is compared to an intended performance. In the context of vocal production, a forward model, in which a prediction of action consequence (corollary discharge) is created, has been proposed to explain the dampened activity of the auditory cortex while producing self-generated vocal sounds. However, it is unclear how auditory feedback is processed and what neural mechanism underlies the process during other sound production behavior, such as musical performances. We investigated the neural correlates of human auditory feedback-based error detection using event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded during musical performances. Keyboard players of two different skill levels played simple melodies using a musical score. During the performance, the auditory feedback was occasionally altered. Subjects with early and extensive piano training produced a negative ERP component N210, which was absent in non-trained players. When subjects listened to music that deviated from a corresponding score without playing the piece, N210 did not emerge but the imaginary mismatch negativity (iMMN) did. Therefore, N210 may reflect a process of mismatch between the intended auditory image evoked by motor activity, and actual auditory feedback.

  15. Improving Nursing Home Care through Feedback On PerfoRMance Data (INFORM): Protocol for a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoben, Matthias; Norton, Peter G; Ginsburg, Liane R; Anderson, Ruth A; Cummings, Greta G; Lanham, Holly J; Squires, Janet E; Taylor, Deanne; Wagg, Adrian S; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2017-01-10

    Audit and feedback is effective in improving the quality of care. However, methods and results of international studies are heterogeneous, and studies have been criticized for a lack of systematic use of theory. In TREC (Translating Research in Elder Care), a longitudinal health services research program, we collect comprehensive data from care providers and residents in Canadian nursing homes to improve quality of care and life of residents, and quality of worklife of caregivers. The study aims are to a) systematically feed back TREC research data to nursing home care units, and b) compare the effectiveness of three different theory-based feedback strategies in improving performance within care units. INFORM (Improving Nursing Home Care through Feedback On PerfoRMance Data) is a 3.5-year pragmatic, three-arm, parallel, cluster-randomized trial. We will randomize 67 Western Canadian nursing homes with 203 care units to the three study arms, a standard feedback strategy and two assisted and goal-directed feedback strategies. Interventions will target care unit managerial teams. They are based on theory and evidence related to audit and feedback, goal setting, complex adaptive systems, and empirical work on feeding back research results. The primary outcome is the increased number of formal interactions (e.g., resident rounds or family conferences) involving care aides - non-registered caregivers providing up to 80% of direct care. Secondary outcomes are a) other modifiable features of care unit context (improved feedback, social capital, slack time) b) care aides' quality of worklife (improved psychological empowerment, job satisfaction), c) more use of best practices, and d) resident outcomes based on the Resident Assessment Instrument - Minimum Data Set 2.0. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, immediately after the 12-month intervention period, and 18 months post intervention. INFORM is the first study to systematically assess the effectiveness of different

  16. Utilizing Provider Feedback to Develop Opioid Risk Mitigation Tools for the Military Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-27

    complex environment of care, treating patients who are often mobile and whose prior prescription history may be difficult to access. Clinical Decision...Support (CDS) tools provide healthcare providers with knowledge and detailed information to enhance decision-making in the clinical workflow and

  17. Providing Written Feedback on Students' Mathematical Arguments: Proof Validations of Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiler, Sarah K.; Thompson, Denisse R.; Krajcevski, Milé

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics teachers play a unique role as experts who provide opportunities for students to engage in the practices of the mathematics community. Proof is a tool essential to the practice of mathematics, and therefore, if teachers are to provide adequate opportunities for students to engage with this tool, they must be able to validate student…

  18. Movement-related feedback and temporal accuracy in clarinet performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, C.; Koopmans, E.; Loehr, J.D.; Carter, C.

    2009-01-01

    SENSORY INFORMATION AVAILABLE WHEN MUSICIANS' fingers arrive on instrument keys contributes to temporal accuracy in piano performance (Goebl & Palmer, 2008). The hypothesis that timing accuracy is related to sensory (tactile) information available at finger-key contact was extended to clarinetists'

  19. Influence of Strategies-Based Feedback in Students' Oral Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisquiarco, Angie; Rojas, Santiago Sánchez; Abad, José Vicente

    2018-01-01

    This article reports on an action research study that assessed the influence of cognitive and metacognitive strategies-based feedback in the oral performance of a group of 6th grade students at a public school in Medellin, Colombia. Researchers analyzed students' oral performance through assessment and self-assessment rubrics, applied inventories…

  20. Success, Failure and Emotions: Examining the Relationship between Performance Feedback and Emotions in Diagnostic Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Amanda; Harley, Jason M.; Lajoie, Susanne; Naismith, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Students experience a variety of emotions following achievement outcomes which stand to influence how they learn and perform in academic settings. However, little is known about the link between student outcome emotions and dimensions of performance feedback in computer-based learning environments (CBLEs). Understanding the dynamics of this…

  1. The effect of organizational learning from performance feedback on team attention focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas, G.J.M.; Zijlmans, Marius; Meeus, M.T.H.; Blettner, D.P.; Sund, K.J.; Galavan, R.J.; Huff, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a theory on how organizational performance feedback influences individual decision-maker cognitions and thereby changes a team’s attention focus in terms of strategy. We argue that when performance compares unfavorably to aspiration levels, decision-makers reconsider

  2. A Comparison of Self- and Peer-Delivered Immediate Corrective Feedback on Multiplication Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Christopher H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared effects of peer-delivered (PDF) and self-delivered (SDF) immediate corrective feedback intervention on multiplication performance of six second grade students. SDF resulted in greater multiplication performance for four of six students, suggesting that SDF interventions may be more efficient and less obtrusive than PDF interventions and…

  3. Real-time driver drowsiness feedback improves driver alertness and self-reported driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidman, Eugene; Chadunow, Carolyn; Johnson, Kayla; Reece, John

    2015-08-01

    Driver drowsiness has been implicated as a major causal factor in road accidents. Tools that allow remote monitoring and management of driver fatigue are used in the mining and road transport industries. Increasing drivers' own awareness of their drowsiness levels using such tools may also reduce risk of accidents. The study examined the effects of real-time blink-velocity-derived drowsiness feedback on driver performance and levels of alertness in a military setting. A sample of 15 Army Reserve personnel (1 female) aged 21-59 (M=41.3, SD=11.1) volunteered to being monitored by an infra-red oculography-based Optalert Alertness Monitoring System (OAMS) while they performed their regular driving tasks, including on-duty tasks and commuting to and from duty, for a continuous period of 4-8 weeks. For approximately half that period, blink-velocity-derived Johns Drowsiness Scale (JDS) scores were fed back to the driver in a counterbalanced repeated-measures design, resulting in a total of 419 driving periods under "feedback" and 385 periods under "no-feedback" condition. Overall, the provision of real-time feedback resulted in reduced drowsiness (lower JDS scores) and improved alertness and driving performance ratings. The effect was small and varied across the 24-h circadian cycle but it remained robust after controlling for time of day and driving task duration. Both the number of JDS peaks counted for each trip and their duration declined in the presence of drowsiness feedback, indicating a dynamic pattern that is consistent with a genuine, entropy-reducing feedback mechanism (as distinct from random re-alerting) behind the observed effect. Its mechanisms and practical utility have yet to be fully explored. Direct examination of the alternative, random re-alerting explanation of this feedback effect is an important step for future research. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of feedback on performance in a fracture detection task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Tim; Manning, David J.; Phillips, Peter W.; Higham, Stephen; Crawford, Trevor

    2005-04-01

    Four observer groups with different levels of expertise were tested to determine the effect of feedback on eye movements and accuracy whilst performing a simple radiological task. The observer groups were 8 experts, 9 year 1 radiography students, 9 year 3 radiography students, and 10 naive observers (psychology students). The task was fracture detection in the wrist. A test bank of 32 films was compiled with 14 normals, 6 grade 1 fractures (subtle appearance), 6 grade 2 fractures, and 6 grade 3 fractures (obvious appearance). Eye tracking was carried out on all observers to demonstrate differences in visual activity. Observers were asked to rate their confidence in their decision on a ten point scale. Feedback was presented to the observers in the form of circles displayed on the film where fixations had occurred, the size of which was proportional to the length of fixation. Observers were asked to repeat their decision rating. Accuracy was determined by ROC analysis and the area under the curve (AUC). In two groups, the novices and first year radiography students, the feedback resulted in no significant difference in the AUC. In the other two groups, experts (p = 0.002) and second year radiography students (p = 0.031), feedback had a negative effect on performance. The eye tracking parameters were measured for all subjects and compared. This is work in progress, but initial analysis of the data suggests that in a simple radiological task such as fracture detection, where search is very limited, feedback by encouraging observers to look harder at the image can have a negative effect on image interpretation performance, however for the novice feedback is beneficial as post feedback eye-tracking parameters measured more closely matched those of the experts.

  5. The Impact of Incentivizing the Use of Feedback on Learning and Performance in Educational Videogames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacruz, Girlie C.

    2012-01-01

    Educational videogames can be designed to provide instructional feedback responsive to specific actions. However, existing research indicates that students tend to ignore the feedback provided. That is, students often use ineffective help-seeking strategies. Research on the topic of help-seeking in learning environments have primarily focused on the role of cognitive factors, the nature of the help, or issues of timing and frequency. There is a noticeable gap in understanding how to motivate the use provided feedback. This study examined the relation between incentivizing the use of feedback and providing an explanation of the game's scoring rules on math learning in a pre-algebra videogame. A randomized-control design was used, comparing learning outcomes of students who received the incentive with those who did not. Results indicated that students given the incentive to use feedback had significantly higher normalized change scores on math items (d = .53), with stronger effects for students with low academic intrinsic motivation (d = .88 - 1.17).

  6. Design Considerations for Smoking Cessation Apps: Feedback From Nicotine Dependence Treatment Providers and Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Hartzler, Andrea L; Catz, Sheryl L

    2016-02-12

    Hundreds of smoking cessation apps are commercially available, but most are not theory-based or designed to take advantage of mobile technology in ways that could make them more engaging and possibly more effective. Considering input from both clinical experts (who understand best practice nicotine dependence treatment requirements) to inform appropriate content and from smokers (the end users) to express their preferences is important in designing these programs in the future. To assess and compare the opinions of nicotine dependence treatment providers and smokers regarding the design of future smoking cessation apps. We surveyed providers (n=264) and smokers who own smartphones (n=40) to assess their opinions on the importance of 21 app design features. Features represented 5 domains: cost, reputation, privacy and security, content and user experience, and communication. Domains were chosen to reflect best practice treatment, leverage mobile technology to support smoking cessation, and elicit important user preferences. Data were collected between June and July 2015. Most providers agreed that mHealth apps hold promise for helping people quit smoking (203/264, 76.9%) and would recommend them to their clients/patients (201/264, 76.1%), especially if the app were empirically validated (236/264, 89.4%). Few providers believe effective cessation apps currently exist (112/264, 42.4%). Few smokers (5/40, 13%) had ever downloaded a smoking cessation app; of the ones who had not, most said they would consider doing so (29/35, 83%). Both respondent groups indicated the following features were very to extremely important to include in cessation apps: free or low cost, keeps information private, matches individual needs and interests, adapts as one's needs and interests change, helps to manage nicotine withdrawal symptoms and medication side effects, and allows users to track their progress. Providers and smokers also indicated gaming and social media connectivity were

  7. The Influence of Mirror-Visual Feedback on Training-Induced Motor Performance Gains in the Untrained Hand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Reissig

    Full Text Available The well-documented observation of bilateral performance gains following unilateral motor training, a phenomenon known as cross-limb transfer, has important implications for rehabilitation. It has recently been shown that provision of a mirror image of the active hand during unilateral motor training has the capacity to enhance the efficacy of this phenomenon when compared to training without augmented visual feedback (i.e., watching the passive hand, possibly via action observation effects [1]. The current experiment was designed to confirm whether mirror-visual feedback (MVF during motor training can indeed elicit greater performance gains in the untrained hand compared to more standard visual feedback (i.e., watching the active hand. Furthermore, discussing the mechanisms underlying any such MVF-induced behavioural effects, we suggest that action observation and the cross-activation hypothesis may both play important roles in eliciting cross-limb transfer. Eighty participants practiced a fast-as-possible two-ball rotation task with their dominant hand. During training, three different groups were provided with concurrent visual feedback of the active hand, inactive hand or a mirror image of the active hand with a fourth control group receiving no training. Pre- and post-training performance was measured in both hands. MVF did not increase the extent of training-induced performance changes in the untrained hand following unilateral training above and beyond those observed for other types of feedback. The data are consistent with the notion that cross-limb transfer, when combined with MVF, is mediated by cross-activation with action observation playing a less unique role than previously suggested. Further research is needed to replicate the current and previous studies to determine the clinical relevance and potential benefits of MVF for cases that, due to the severity of impairment, rely on unilateral training programmes of the unaffected limb

  8. Maximizing Performance: Augmented Feedback, Focus of Attention, and/or Reward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wälchli, Michael; Ruffieux, Jan; Bourquin, Yann; Keller, Martin; Taube, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Different approaches like providing augmented feedback (aF), applying an external focus of attention (EF), or rewarding participants with money (RE) have been shown to instantly enhance motor performance. So far, these approaches have been tested either in separate studies or directly against each other. However, there is no study that combined aF, EF, and/or RE to test whether this provokes additional benefits. The aim of the present study was therefore to identify the most powerful combination. Eighteen participants performed maximal countermovement jumps in six different conditions: neutral (NE), aF, RE, aF + EF, aF + RE, and aF + EF + RE. Participants demonstrated the highest jump heights with aF + EF, followed by aF + EF + RE, aF + RE, aF, RE, and finally, NE. Activity of the M. rectus femoris differed significantly between conditions resulting in lower muscular activity in aF + EF and aF + EF + RE compared with NE. All other parameters, such as ground reaction forces and joint angles, were comparable across conditions. This is the first study showing superior performance when combining aF with EF. As reduced muscular activity was found only in conditions with EF, it is argued in line with the constrained action hypothesis that adopting an EF improves movement efficiency. In contrast, aF seems to rather enhance (intrinsic) motivation. However, monetary reward did not further amplify performance.

  9. [Effects of real-time audiovisual feedback on secondary-school students' performance of chest compressions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio; Vilas-Pintos, Elisardo; Prieto Saborit, José Antonio; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    To describe the quality of chest compressions performed by secondary-school students trained with a realtime audiovisual feedback system. The learners were 167 students aged 12 to 15 years who had no prior experience with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). They received an hour of instruction in CPR theory and practice and then took a 2-minute test, performing hands-only CPR on a child mannequin (Prestan Professional Child Manikin). Lights built into the mannequin gave learners feedback about how many compressions they had achieved and clicking sounds told them when compressions were deep enough. All the learners were able to maintain a steady enough rhythm of compressions and reached at least 80% of the targeted compression depth. Fewer correct compressions were done in the second minute than in the first (P=.016). Real-time audiovisual feedback helps schoolchildren aged 12 to 15 years to achieve quality chest compressions on a mannequin.

  10. Factors affecting the performance of maternal health care providers in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltero Lauren

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last five years, international development organizations began to modify and adapt the conventional Performance Improvement Model for use in low-resource settings. This model outlines the five key factors believed to influence performance outcomes: job expectations, performance feedback, environment and tools, motivation and incentives, and knowledge and skills. Each of these factors should be supplied by the organization in which the provider works, and thus, organizational support is considered as an overarching element for analysis. Little research, domestically or internationally, has been conducted on the actual effects of each of the factors on performance outcomes and most PI practitioners assume that all the factors are needed in order for performance to improve. This study presents a unique exploration of how the factors, individually as well as in combination, affect the performance of primary reproductive health providers (nurse-midwives in two regions of Armenia. Methods Two hundred and eighty-five nurses and midwives were observed conducting real or simulated antenatal and postpartum/neonatal care services and interviewed about the presence or absence of the performance factors within their work environment. Results were analyzed to compare average performance with the existence or absence of the factors; then, multiple regression analysis was conducted with the merged datasets to obtain the best models of "predictors" of performance within each clinical service. Results Baseline results revealed that performance was sub-standard in several areas and several performance factors were deficient or nonexistent. The multivariate analysis showed that (a training in the use of the clinic tools; and (b receiving recognition from the employer or the client/community, are factors strongly associated with performance, followed by (c receiving performance feedback in postpartum care. Other – extraneous

  11. Localized adenosine signaling provides fine-tuned negative feedback over a wide dynamic range of neocortical network activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Magnus J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Although the patterns of activity produced by neocortical networks are now better understood, how these states are activated, sustained, and terminated still remains unclear. Negative feedback by the endogenous neuromodulator adenosine may potentially play an important role, as it can be released by activity and there is dense A1 receptor expression in the neocortex. Using electrophysiology, biosensors, and modeling, we have investigated the properties of adenosine signaling during physiological and pathological network activity in rat neocortical slices. Both low- and high-rate network activities were reduced by A1 receptor activation and enhanced by block of A1 receptors, consistent with activity-dependent adenosine release. Since the A1 receptors were neither saturated nor completely unoccupied during either low- or high-rate activity, adenosine signaling provides a negative-feedback mechanism with a wide dynamic range. Modeling and biosensor experiments show that during high-rate activity increases in extracellular adenosine concentration are highly localized and are uncorrelated over short distances that are certainly adenosine release during low-rate activity, although it is present, is probably a consequence of small localized increases in adenosine concentration that are rapidly diminished by diffusion and active removal mechanisms. Saturation of such removal mechanisms when higher concentrations of adenosine are released results in the accumulation of inosine, explaining the strong purine signal during high-rate activity. PMID:25392170

  12. But the Scores Don't Show How I Really Function: A Feedback Method to Reveal Cognitive Distortions Regarding Normal Neuropsychological Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Dominic A

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychologists commonly provide feedback to patients with a high degree of cognitive complaints in the context of normal neuropsychological test performance. Patients are sometimes not reassured by this feedback because they blame external factors (e.g., the tests are wrong) and do not develop insight about internal factors (e.g., distorted self-perception) that could lead to better understanding about why high symptom reporting is present in the context of normal test results. This article presents the first formal feedback model for neuropsychologists to use with such patients that helps reveal the presence of cognitive distortions that result in high cognitive complaints. The critical elements of this model incorporate self-ratings of neuropsychological test performance, comparing those ratings to actual test performance, and presenting discrepancies to patients in an objective, professional, and respectful manner. Ways in which this feedback model may lead to improved patient outcomes and reductions in healthcare costs are discussed.

  13. The Use of E-Mail to Deliver Performance-Based Feedback to Early Childhood Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Erin E.; Pribble, Lois; Chen, Ching-I

    2013-01-01

    Three studies are described that examined the relation between performance-based (PB) feedback delivered via e-mail and preschool teachers' use of recommended practices. The authors conducted the first two studies in the same classroom with different classroom staff. The third study was conducted with three different teachers employed in…

  14. Students Reflecting on Test Performance and Feedback: An On-Line Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Georgina; Fyfe, Sue; Meyer, Jan; Ziman, Mel; Sanders, Kathy; Hill, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate students accessing on-line tests in Human Biology in three Western Australian universities were asked to complete an on-line post-test reflective survey about their perceptions of their test performance in light of automated feedback. The survey allowed pre-determined choices and comment text boxes relating to students' perceptions…

  15. The impact of online video lecture recordings and automated feedback on student performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, M. B.; Hofman, W. H. A.

    To what extent a blended learning configuration of face-to-face lectures, online on-demand video recordings of the face-to-face lectures and the offering of online quizzes with appropriate feedback has an additional positive impact on the performance of these students compared to the traditional

  16. Awareness of group performance in a CSCL-environment: Effects of peer feedback and reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phielix, Chris; Prins, Frans; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Phielix, C., Prins, F. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Awareness of group performance in a CSCL-environment: Effects of peer feedback and reflection. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(2), 151-161. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2009.10.011

  17. How do physicians assess their family physician colleagues' performance?: creating a rubric to inform assessment and feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Joan; Macleod, Tanya; Sinclair, Douglas; Power, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta and Nova Scotia (CPSNS) use a standardized multisource feedback program, the Physician Achievement Review (PAR/NSPAR), to provide physicians with performance assessment data via questionnaires from medical colleagues, coworkers, and patients on 5 practice domains: consultation communication, patient interaction, professional self-management, clinical competence, and psychosocial management of patients. Physicians receive a confidential report; the intent is practice improvement. However, research indicates that feedback from medical colleagues appears to be less understood than that from coworkers or patients, due to a lack of specificity and concerns regarding feedback credibility. The purpose of this study was to determine how physicians make decisions about performance ratings for family physician (FP) colleagues in the 5 practice domains. This was an exploratory qualitative study using focus groups-one with 11 family physicians and one with 12 specialists-who had served as NSPAR "medical colleague'' reviewers. We analyzed focus group transcripts using content analysis. Family and specialist physicians provided examples of behaviors indicative of both high- and low-scoring performance for items within the 5 practice domains. From these, an assessment rubric was created to inform both external reviewers and the physicians being reviewed of performance expectations. Reviewers reported using varied sources of information to make assessments, including shared patients, medical records, referral letters, feedback from others, and self-reference. The CPSNS has used the assessment rubric to create an online resource to inform medical colleague assessment and enhance the usefulness of their NSPAR scores. Further research will be required to determine its impact. Copyright © 2011 The Alliance for Continuing Medical Education, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for

  18. We're All in This Together Now: Group Performance Feedback to Increase Classroom Team Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E.; Eisenhart, Donald; Kane, Meghan; Schoener, Christine; Turkel, Kimberly; Riley, Megan; Mandell, David S.

    2011-01-01

    This study's primary goal was to evaluate the use of performance feedback procedures delivered to a classroom team to increase daily data collection. Performance feedback (PFB) was delivered to four classroom teams responsible for the daily collection of data representing student performance during prescribed instructional activities. Using a…

  19. Development and implementation of an objective structured clinical examination to provide formative feedback on communication and interpersonal skills in geriatric training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Patricia; Chao, Serena; Russell, Matthew; Levine, Sharon; Fabiny, Anne

    2008-09-01

    Teaching and assessment of communication and interpersonal skills, one of the American Council for Graduate Medical Education-designated core competencies, is an important but difficult task in the training of physicians. Assessment of trainees offers an opportunity to provide explicit feedback on their skills and encourages learning. This article describes a pilot study in which clinician-educators affiliated with the geriatrics training programs at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Boston University Medical Center designed and piloted a novel Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess the communication and interpersonal skills of medical, dental, and geriatric psychiatry fellows. The OSCE consisted of three stations where geriatricians and standardized patients evaluated candidates using specifically designed checklists and an abbreviated version of the Master Interview Rating Scale. Communication skills were assessed through performance of specific "real life" clinical tasks, such as obtaining a medical history, explaining a diagnosis and prognosis, giving therapeutic instructions, and counseling. Interpersonal skills were assessed through the effect of the communication between doctor and standardized patient on fostering trust, relieving anxiety, and establishing a therapeutic relationship. This pilot study demonstrated that the OSCE format of assessment provides a valid means of evaluating the communication and interpersonal skills of interdisciplinary geriatric trainees and provides a valuable forum for formative assessment and feedback. Given that geriatricians and non geriatricians involved in elder care both need communication and interpersonal skills, this novel OSCE can be used for assessment of these skills in trainees in diverse healthcare subspecialties.

  20. From feedback- to response-based performance monitoring in active and observational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellebaum, Christian; Colosio, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Humans can adapt their behavior by learning from the consequences of their own actions or by observing others. Gradual active learning of action-outcome contingencies is accompanied by a shift from feedback- to response-based performance monitoring. This shift is reflected by complementary learning-related changes of two ACC-driven ERP components, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the error-related negativity (ERN), which have both been suggested to signal events "worse than expected," that is, a negative prediction error. Although recent research has identified comparable components for observed behavior and outcomes (observational ERN and FRN), it is as yet unknown, whether these components are similarly modulated by prediction errors and thus also reflect behavioral adaptation. In this study, two groups of 15 participants learned action-outcome contingencies either actively or by observation. In active learners, FRN amplitude for negative feedback decreased and ERN amplitude in response to erroneous actions increased with learning, whereas observational ERN and FRN in observational learners did not exhibit learning-related changes. Learning performance, assessed in test trials without feedback, was comparable between groups, as was the ERN following actively performed errors during test trials. In summary, the results show that action-outcome associations can be learned similarly well actively and by observation. The mechanisms involved appear to differ, with the FRN in active learning reflecting the integration of information about own actions and the accompanying outcomes.

  1. Can Composite Measures Provide a Different Perspective on Provider Performance Than Individual Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwartz, Michael; Rosen, Amy K; Burgess, James F

    2017-12-01

    Composite measures, which aggregate performance on individual measures into a summary score, are increasingly being used to evaluate facility performance. There is little understanding of the unique perspective that composite measures provide. To examine whether high/low (ie, high or low) performers on a composite measures are also high/low performers on most of the individual measures that comprise the composite. We used data from 2 previous studies, one involving 5 measures from 632 hospitals and one involving 28 measures from 112 Veterans Health Administration (VA) nursing homes; and new data on hospital readmissions for 3 conditions from 131 VA hospitals. To compare high/low performers on a composite to high/low performers on the component measures, we used 2-dimensional tables to categorize facilities into high/low performance on the composite and on the individual component measures. In the first study, over a third of the 162 hospitals in the top quintile based on the composite were in the top quintile on at most 1 of the 5 individual measures. In the second study, over 40% of the 27 high-performing nursing homes on the composite were high performers on 8 or fewer of the 28 individual measures. In the third study, 20% of the 61 low performers on the composite were low performers on only 1 of the 3 individual measures. Composite measures can identify as high/low performers facilities that perform "pretty well" (or "pretty poorly") across many individual measures but may not be high/low performers on most of them.

  2. Enhanced primary and secondary performance through cognitive relaying and leveraging primary feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.

    2014-06-01

    We consider a spectrum-sharing system, where the primary terminal operates in a time-slotted fashion and is active only when it has a packet to send. The secondary terminal uses spectrum sensing results and the primary automatic repeat request (ARQ) feedback to access the channel probabilistically. To enhance the primary\\'s system performance, the secondary user (SU) acts as a relay for the primary user (PU) in the event of transmission failure on the direct link of the latter. Closed-form expressions for the primary and secondary throughputs are obtained for the described scheme. The optimal medium access probabilities are then obtained by maximizing the secondary throughput subject to constraints that guarantee the stability of the considered queues, a minimum primary throughput, and a maximum primary queueing delay. The results clearly indicate the benefits of cognitive relaying in enhancing the throughput performance for both the PU and SU. Furthermore, by guaranteeing minimum rate and maximum delay requirements, our scheme is shown to provide a definitive notion of protection for the licensed users of the network. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. The effects of providing visual feedback and auditory stimulation using a robotic device on balance and gait abilities in persons with stroke: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jae Ho Park; ; Yijung Chung

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of providing visual feedback and auditory stimulation using a robotic device on balance and gait abilities in stroke patients. Design...

  4. Perceived success, auditory feedback, and mental imagery: what best predicts improved efficacy and motor performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bradley J; O'Halloran, Paul D

    2013-06-01

    Performance enhancement techniques can improve self-efficacy (SE) and task performance. The focus of this study was to determine which techniques could best achieve this with three novel tasks. Participants (n = 98) were counterbalanced across tasks and conditions (48 participants assigned to each condition in each task) and completed two trials of putting (imagery vs. no imagery), throwing (easy vs. difficult), and kicking (verbal feedback vs. no feedback) tasks, and SE and performance scores were recorded. The results revealed that the auditory feedback condition had the greatest impact as it significantly explained both SE and performance scores, with a greater effect recorded for SE scores. Use of imagery or allocation to the easy-to-score condition did not improve performance or SE scores more than did the control conditions. These findings were unexpected as successful past performance is often cited as the main determinant of SE change. Further empirical investigation is required to determine if these findings are repeatable and if they generalize to sporting settings.

  5. Latest Performance Results from the FONT5 Intra-train Beam Position and Angle Feedback System at ATF2

    CERN Document Server

    Christian, G B; Bett, D R; Blaskovic Kraljevic, N; Burrows, P N; Davis, M R; Gerbershagen, A; Perry, C; Constance, B; Resta-Lopez, J

    2012-01-01

    A prototype Interaction Point beam-based feedback system for future electron-positron colliders, such as the International Linear Collider, has been designed and tested on the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The FONT5 intra-train feedback system aims to stabilize the beam orbit by correcting both the position and angle jitter in the vertical plane on bunch-tobunch time scales, providing micron-level stability at the entrance to the ATF2 final-focus system. The system comprises three stripline beam position monitors (BPMs) and two stripline kickers, custom low-latency analogue front-end BPM processors, a custom FPGA-based digital processing board with fast ADCs, and custom kickerdrive amplifiers. The latest results from beam tests at ATF2 will be presented, including the system latency and correction performance.

  6. The Effects of Performance Feedback and Social Reinforcement on Up-Selling at Fast-Food Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesman, Daryl W.

    2006-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the effects of feedback and positive social reinforcement on the performance of restaurant drive-thru window order-takers in asking customers to "upsize" their order at a specific prompt. A multiple baseline across settings was followed by the introduction of an intervention of weekly performance feedback and…

  7. The Role of Visual Feedback and Creative Exploration for the Improvement of Timing Accuracy in Performing Musical Ornaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, R.; Sadakata, M.; Desain, P.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    in developing a visual feedback system for a creative activity such as music performance, the objective is not just to reinforce one particular manner of performing. Instead, a desirable characteristic might be that the visual feedback enhances flexibility and originality, in addition to

  8. Effectiveness of a Training Program in Supervisors' Ability to Provide Feedback on Residents' Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod Perron, Noelle; Nendaz, Mathieu; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Sommer, Johanna; Gut, Anne; Baroffio, Anne; Dolmans, Diana; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Teaching communication skills (CS) to residents during clinical practice remains problematic. Direct observation followed by feedback is a powerful way to teach CS in clinical practice. However, little is known about the effect of training on feedback skills in this field. Controlled studies are scarce as well as studies that go beyond…

  9. Effects of loss of visual feedback on performance of two swimming strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicciarella, C F

    1982-12-01

    20 subjects, aged 11 to 21 yr., skilled in competitive swimming in both the crawl and the breaststroke, performed a total of 8 timed swimming trials of 25 yd. in both strokes both with and without blindfolds to test the hypothesis that the loss in performance which would occur with loss of visual feedback is related to the complexity of the motor skill being performed. After correction for differences in the speed of each stroke, the loss in speed (performance decrement) in the more complex stroke (crawl) was significantly greater than the decrement in the less complex (breast) stroke.

  10. Elite Youth Soccer Players' Physiological Responses, Time-Motion Characteristics, and Game Performance in 4 vs. 4 Small-Sided Games: The Influence of Coach Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Mirko; Elvers, Sebastian

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of mild vs. strongly pushed coach feedback on the physiological response, ratio of perceived exertion (RPE), and time-motion characteristics in soccer training with small-sided games (SSGs). Sixteen elite youth soccer players (aged 17.2 ± 0.7 years, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 62.1 ± 3.8 ml·kg·min) played two 4 vs. 4 small-sided games each. In random order, the coach provided a mild, unobtrusive, or a strongly pushed feedback throughout the game. Physiological measurements included heart rate expressed in mean values and intensity zones, blood lactate concentration, and RPE. The distance traveled, number of sprints, and work:rest ratio were captured by global positioning systems at 5 Hz. Game performance, such as volume of play and efficacy index, was estimated using the Team Sports Assessment Procedure. No differences were found for the physiological response and time-motion characteristics, but effect sizes demonstrated an increase in RPE (+0.4, p = 0.27) and a decrease in game performance (e.g., volume of play, -2.5, p = 0.08) under pushed feedback. Although a pushed feedback raises RPE, it negatively affected the players' game performance, without necessarily provoking higher physiological responses. These results should help coaches to understand that modifying the type of feedback provided during SSG does not impact the physiological response if SSG are already played with high intensity but that the feedback affects RPE and game performance. To keep a better game performance, soccer coaches are encouraged to provide smooth feedback during SSG.

  11. Longitudinal development of frontoparietal activity during feedback learning: Contributions of age, performance, working memory and cortical thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Peters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Feedback learning is a crucial skill for cognitive flexibility that continues to develop into adolescence, and is linked to neural activity within a frontoparietal network. Although it is well conceptualized that activity in the frontoparietal network changes during development, there is surprisingly little consensus about the direction of change. Using a longitudinal design (N = 208, 8–27 years, two measurements in two years, we investigated developmental trajectories in frontoparietal activity during feedback learning. Our first aim was to test for linear and nonlinear developmental trajectories in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, superior parietal cortex (SPC, supplementary motor area (SMA and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Second, we tested which factors (task performance, working memory, cortical thickness explained additional variance in time-related changes in activity besides age. Developmental patterns for activity in DLPFC and SPC were best characterized by a quadratic age function leveling off/peaking in late adolescence. There was a linear increase in SMA and a linear decrease with age in ACC activity. In addition to age, task performance explained variance in DLPFC and SPC activity, whereas cortical thickness explained variance in SMA activity. Together, these findings provide a novel perspective of linear and nonlinear developmental changes in the frontoparietal network during feedback learning.

  12. Self-Affirmation Theory and Performance Feedback: When Scoring High Makes You Feel Low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, John A; Hanus, Michael D

    2016-12-01

    Video games have a wide variety of benefits for players. The current study examines how video games can also increase players' willingness to internalize important but threatening self-information. Research suggests that negative information regarding a valued self-image evokes defensive strategies aimed at dismissing or discrediting the source of information. Self-Affirmation Theory proposes that affirming or bolstering an important self-image unrelated to the previous threat can be an effective strategy for reducing defensiveness. Participants in the current study completed a fictitious intelligence test and received negative or no feedback, followed by 15 minutes of video game play that resulted in positive or no feedback. Results suggest that participants who valued video game success as part of their identity exhibited less defensive strategies in the form of increased test credibility ratings and lower self-perceptions of intelligence. This suggests that performing well on a video game is an affirmational resource for players whose identities are contingent upon such success. However, results also indicate that players who did not value video game success but received positive video game feedback exhibited more defensive reactions to the negative intelligence test feedback. This suggests that while players who value video game success as part of their identity may reap benefits from video game play after a self-threat, those who do not value such success may experience more harmful effects.

  13. Development of the Teacher Feedback Observation Scheme: evaluating the quality of feedback in peer groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Kreijns, Karel; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that feedback is an essential element in learning. This study focuses on feedback that teachers provide in reciprocal peer groups to improve their performance in the classroom. The Teacher Feedback Observation Scheme (TFOS) was developed to identify feedback patterns, which

  14. Effects of Visual Force Feedback on Robot-Assisted Surgical Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiley, Carol E.; Akinbiyi, Takintope; Burschka, Darius; Chang, David C.; Okamura, Allison M.; Yuh, David D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Direct haptic (force or tactile) feedback is negligible in current surgical robotic systems. The relevance of haptic feedback in robot-assisted performances of surgical tasks is controversial. We studied the effects of visual force feedback (VFF), a haptic feedback surrogate, on tying surgical knots with fine sutures similar to those used in cardiovascular surgery. Methods Using a modified da Vinci robotic system (Intuitive Surgical, Inc.) equipped with force-sensing instrument tips and real-time VFF overlays in the console image, ten surgeons each tied 10 knots with and 10 knots without VFF. Four surgeons had significant prior da Vinci experience while the remaining six surgeons did not. Performance parameters, including suture breakage and secure knots, peak and standard deviation of applied forces, and completion times using 5-0 silk sutures were recorded. Chi-square and Student’s t-test analyses determined differences between groups. Results Among surgeon subjects with robotic experience, no differences in measured performance parameters were found between robot-assisted knot ties executed with and without VFF. Among surgeons without robotic experience, however, VFF was associated with lower suture breakage rates, peak applied forces, and standard deviations of applied forces. VFF did not impart differences in knot completion times or loose knots for either surgeon group. Conclusions VFF resulted in reduced suture breakage, lower forces, and decreased force inconsistencies among novice robotic surgeons, although elapsed time and knot quality were unaffected. In contrast, VFF did not affect these metrics among experienced da Vinci surgeons. These results suggest that VFF primarily benefits novice robot-assisted surgeons, with diminishing benefits among experienced surgeons. PMID:18179942

  15. Strategies for providing upper extremity amputees with tactile and hand position feedback--moving closer to the bionic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riso, R R

    1999-01-01

    A continuing challenge for prostheses developers is to replace the sensory function of the hand. This includes tactile sensitivity such as finger contact, grip force, object slippage, surface texture and temperature, as well as proprioceptive sense. One approach is sensory substitution whereby an intact sensory system such as vision, hearing or cutaneous sensation elsewhere on the body is used as an input channel for information related to the prosthesis. A second technique involves using electrical stimulation to deliver sensor derived information directly to the peripheral afferent nerves within the residual limb. Stimulation of the relevant afferent nerves can ultimately come closest to restoring the original sensory perceptions of the hand, and to this end, researchers have already demonstrated some degree of functionality of the transected sensory nerves in studies with amputee subjects. This paper provides an overview of different types of nerve interface components and the advantages and disadvantages of employing each of them in sensory feedback systems. Issues of sensory perception, neurophysiology and anatomy relevant to hand sensation and function are discussed with respect to the selection of the different types of nerve interfaces. The goal of this paper is to outline what can be accomplished for implementing sensation into artificial arms in the near term by applying what is present or presently attainable technology.

  16. Systematic review and meta-analysis of internet-delivered interventions providing personalized feedback for weight loss in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrington, A; Newham, J J; Bell, R; Adamson, A; McColl, E; Araujo-Soares, V

    2016-06-01

    Obesity levels continue to rise annually. Face-to-face weight loss consultations have previously identified mixed effectiveness and face high demand with limited resources. Therefore, alternative interventions, such as internet-delivered interventions, warrant further investigation. The aim was to assess whether internet-delivered weight loss interventions providing personalized feedback were more effective for weight loss in overweight and obese adults in comparison with control groups receiving no personalized feedback. Nine databases were searched, and 12 studies were identified that met all inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis, identified participants receiving personalized feedback via internet-delivered interventions, had 2.13 kg mean difference (SMD) greater weight loss (and BMI change, waist circumference change and 5% weight loss) in comparison with control groups providing no personalized feedback. This was also true for results at 3 and 6-month time points but not for studies where interventions lasted ≥12 months. This suggests that personalized feedback may be an important behaviour change technique (BCT) to incorporate within internet-delivered weight loss interventions. However, meta-analysis results revealed no differences between internet-delivered weight loss interventions with personalized feedback and control interventions ≥12 months. Further investigation into longer term internet-delivered interventions is required to examine how weight loss could be maintained. Future research examining which BCTs are most effective for internet-delivered weight loss interventions is suggested. © 2016 World Obesity.

  17. Network performance and fault analytics for LTE wireless service providers

    CERN Document Server

    Kakadia, Deepak; Gilgur, Alexander

    2017-01-01

     This book is intended to describe how to leverage emerging technologies big data analytics and SDN, to address challenges specific to LTE and IP network performance and fault management data in order to more efficiently manage and operate an LTE wireless networks. The proposed integrated solutions permit the LTE network service provider to operate entire integrated network, from RAN to Core , from UE to application service, as one unified system and correspondingly collect and align disparate key metrics and data, using an integrated and holistic approach to network analysis. The LTE wireless network performance and fault involves the network performance and management of network elements in EUTRAN, EPC and IP transport components, not only as individual components, but also as nuances of inter-working of these components. The key metrics for EUTRAN include radio access network accessibility, retainability, integrity, availability and mobility. The key metrics for EPC include MME accessibility, mobility and...

  18. The influence of stress and energy level on learning muscle relaxation during gross-motor task performance using electromyographic feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, H; Voerman, Gerlienke; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    The aim was to investigate the influence of mood on learning muscle relaxation. Self-reported mood (assessed by the Stress-Energy Checklist) at baseline was related to learning muscle relaxation induced by electromyographic feedback training during performance of a gross-motor task. Feedback

  19. High-learners present larger mid-frontal theta power and connectivity in response to incorrect performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Nolte, Guido; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2013-01-30

    A crucial aspect of cognitive control and learning is the ability to integrate feedback, that is, to evaluate action outcomes and their deviations from the intended goals and to adjust behavior accordingly. However, how high-learners differ from low-learners in relation to feedback processing has not been characterized. Further, little is known about the underlying brain connectivity patterns during feedback processing. This study aimed to fill these gaps by analyzing electrical brain responses from healthy adult human participants while they performed a time estimation task with correct and incorrect feedback. As compared with low-learners, high-learners presented larger mid-frontal theta (4-8 Hz) oscillations and lower sensorimotor beta (17-24 Hz) oscillations in response to incorrect feedback. Further, high-learners showed larger theta connectivity from left central, associated with motor activity, to mid-frontal, associated with performance monitoring, immediately after feedback (0-0.3 s), followed by (from 0.3 to 0.6 s after feedback) a flux from mid-frontal to prefrontal, associated with executive functioning. We suggest that these results reflect two cognitive processes related to successful feedback processing: first, the obtained feedback is compared with the expected one, and second, the feedback history is updated based on this information. Our results also indicate that high- and low-learners differ not only on how they react to incorrect feedback, but also in relation to how their distant brain areas interact while processing both correct and incorrect feedback. This study demonstrates the neural underpinnings of individual differences in goal-directed adaptive behavior.

  20. Instructor feedback versus no instructor feedback on performance in a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator: a randomized educational trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oestergaard Jeanett

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have found a positive effect on the learning curve as well as the improvement of basic psychomotor skills in the operating room after virtual reality training. Despite this, the majority of surgical and gynecological departments encounter hurdles when implementing this form of training. This is mainly due to lack of knowledge concerning the time and human resources needed to train novice surgeons to an adequate level. The purpose of this trial is to investigate the impact of instructor feedback regarding time, repetitions and self-perception when training complex operational tasks on a virtual reality simulator. Methods/Design The study population consists of medical students on their 4th to 6th year without prior laparoscopic experience. The study is conducted in a skills laboratory at a centralized university hospital. Based on a sample size estimation 98 participants will be randomized to an intervention group or a control group. Both groups have to achieve a predefined proficiency level when conducting a laparoscopic salpingectomy using a surgical virtual reality simulator. The intervention group receives standardized instructor feedback of 10 to 12 min a maximum of three times. The control group receives no instructor feedback. Both groups receive the automated feedback generated by the virtual reality simulator. The study follows the CONSORT Statement for randomized trials. Main outcome measures are time and repetitions to reach the predefined proficiency level on the simulator. We include focus on potential sex differences, computer gaming experience and self-perception. Discussion The findings will contribute to a better understanding of optimal training methods in surgical education. Trial Registration NCT01497782

  1. [Effects of Self-directed Feedback Practice using Smartphone Videos on Basic Nursing Skills, Confidence in Performance and Learning Satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seul Gi; Shin, Yun Hee

    2016-04-01

    This study was done to verify effects of a self-directed feedback practice using smartphone videos on nursing students' basic nursing skills, confidence in performance and learning satisfaction. In this study an experimental study with a post-test only control group design was used. Twenty-nine students were assigned to the experimental group and 29 to the control group. Experimental treatment was exchanging feedback on deficiencies through smartphone recorded videos of nursing practice process taken by peers during self-directed practice. Basic nursing skills scores were higher for all items in the experimental group compared to the control group, and differences were statistically significant ["Measuring vital signs" (t=-2.10, p=.039); "Wearing protective equipment when entering and exiting the quarantine room and the management of waste materials" (t=-4.74, pConfidence in performance was higher in the experimental group compared to the control group, but the differences were not statistically significant. However, after the complete practice, there was a statistically significant difference in overall performance confidence (t=-3.07. p=.003). Learning satisfaction was higher in the experimental group compared to the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (t=-1.67, p=.100). Results of this study indicate that self-directed feedback practice using smartphone videos can improve basic nursing skills. The significance is that it can help nursing students gain confidence in their nursing skills for the future through improvement of basic nursing skills and performance of quality care, thus providing patients with safer care.

  2. Research and Teaching: Exploring the Use of an Online Quiz Game to Provide Formative Feedback in a Large-Enrollment, Introductory Biochemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Rachel; Parrish, Jonathan; Wright, Adrienne; Gnarpe, Judy; Keenan, Louanne

    2015-01-01

    In a large-enrollment, introductory biochemistry course for nonmajors, the authors provide students with formative feedback through practice questions in PDF format. Recently, they investigated possible benefits of providing the practice questions via an online game (Brainspan). Participants were randomly assigned to either the online game group…

  3. Providing web-based feedback and social norms information to reduce student alcohol intake: a multisite investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Bridgette M; West, Robert; Gill, Jan; O'May, Fiona; Mulhern, Brendan; Barkham, Michael; Hill, Andrew J

    2010-12-19

    Unhealthy alcohol use among university students is cause for concern, yet the level of help seeking behavior for alcohol use is low within the student population. Electronic brief interventions delivered via the Internet present an alternative to traditional treatments and could enable the delivery of interventions on a population basis. Further evidence is needed of the effectiveness of Internet-delivered interventions and of their generalizability across educational institutions. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness across 4 UK universities of a Web-based intervention for student alcohol use. In total, 1112 participants took part. Participants were stratified by educational institution, gender, age group, year of study, and self-reported weekly consumption of alcohol and randomly assigned to either the control arm or to the immediate or delayed intervention arms. Intervention participants gained access to the intervention between weeks 1 to 7 or weeks 8 to 15, respectively. The intervention provided electronic personalized feedback and social norms information on drinking behavior accessed by logging on to a website. Participants registered interest by completing a brief screening questionnaire and were then asked to complete 4 further assessments across the 24 weeks of the study. Assessments included a retrospective weekly drinking diary, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and a readiness-to-change algorithm. The outcome variable was the number of units of alcohol consumed in the last week. The effect of treatment arm and time on units consumed last week and average units consumed per drinking occasion were investigated using repeated measures multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). In addition, the data were modeled using a longitudinal regression with time points clustered within students. MANCOVA revealed a main effect of time on units of alcohol consumed over the last week. A longitudinal regression model showed an

  4. Fast feedback for linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, L.; Adolphsen, C.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Grossberg, P.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; MacKenzie, R.; Minty, M.; Sass, R. [and others

    1995-05-01

    A fast feedback system provides beam stabilization for the SLC. As the SLC is in some sense a prototype for future linear colliders, this system may be a prototype for future feedbacks. The SLC provides a good base of experience for feedback requirements and capabilities as well as a testing ground for performance characteristics. The feedback system controls a wide variety of machine parameters throughout the SLC and associated experiments, including regulation of beam position, angle, energy, intensity and timing parameters. The design and applications of the system are described, in addition to results of recent performance studies.

  5. Impact of the feedback provided by a gastric electrical stimulation system on eating behavior and physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busetto, Luca; Torres, Antonio J; Morales-Conde, Salvador; Alarcón Del Agua, Isaias; Moretto, Carlo; Fierabracci, Paola; Rovera, Giuseppe; Segato, Gianni; Rubio, Miguel A; Favretti, Franco

    2017-03-01

    The closed-loop gastric electrical stimulation (CLGES) abiliti(®) system provides tailored gastric electrical stimulation activated by food entry into the stomach and sensor-based data to medical professionals. The aim of this study was to analyze behavior changes using sensor-based food intake and activity data in participants treated with the CLGES system. Food intake and activity data (3D accelerometer) were downloaded at baseline and monthly/bimonthly for 12 months in a subset of patients with obesity (N = 45) participating in a multicenter trial with CLGES. Measured food intake parameters included the number of intakes during allowed and disallowed periods, nighttime intakes, and between-meal snacks (average/d). Activity parameters included time in different levels of physical activity (min/d), sleep/sedentary (h/d), and estimated energy expenditure (EE). Weight loss at 12 months averaged 15.7 ± 7.7% of the baseline body weight. Stable reduction in the number of disallowed meals and between-meal snacks (P < 0.05), an increase in all levels of physical activity (P < 0.001), and an increase in activity-based EE (303 ± 53 kcal/d on average, P < 0.001) were seen. Significant improvement in eating and activity was seen in participants. It is hypothesized that feedback of the sensor-based data induced behavioral changes and contributed to weight loss in patients treated with CLGES. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  6. Effects of providing personalized feedback of child's obesity risk on mothers' food choices using a virtual reality buffet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, C M; Persky, S; Wagner, L K; Faith, M S; Ward, D S

    2013-10-01

    Providing personalized genetic-risk feedback of a child's susceptibility to adult-onset health conditions is a topic of considerable debate. Family health history (FHH), specifically parental overweight/obesity status, is a useful assessment for evaluating a child's genetic and environmental risk of becoming obese. It is unclear whether such risk information may influence parents' efforts to reduce their child's risk of obesity. To evaluate whether telling mothers the magnitude of their child's risk of becoming obese based on personal FHH influenced food choices for their young child from a virtual reality-based buffet restaurant. Overweight/obese mothers of a child aged 4-5 years who met eligibility criteria (N=221) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental arms, which emphasized different health information: arm 1, food safety control (Control); arm 2, behavioral-risk information (BRI) alone or arm 3, behavioral-risk information plus personal FHH-based risk assessment (BRI+FHH). Mothers donned a head-mounted display to be immersed in a virtual restaurant buffet, where they selected virtual food and beverages as a lunch for their child. Mothers who were randomized to BRI+FHH filled the index child's plate with an average of 45 fewer calories than those in the Control arm (Pparent). The influence of communicating a child's inherited risk of obesity on mothers' feeding practices may vary by the risk level conveyed. High-risk messages may best be coupled with strategies to increase mother's perceptions that efforts can be undertaken to reduce risk and build requisite behavioral skills to reduce risk.

  7. Providing 360-degree multisource feedback to nurse educators in the country of Georgia: a formative evaluation of acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStephano, Christopher Carl; Crawford, Kimberley Anne; Jashi, Maia; Wold, Judith Lupo

    2014-06-01

    Due to insufficient nursing education standards in the country of Georgia, 15 health professionals participated in a USAID grant-funded nurse educator faculty development program. These educators then offered continuing education courses and taught more than 1,700 practicing Georgian nurses over 3 years. Using a 360-degree multisource feedback model (MSF), self, video, learner, peer, and program coordinator evaluations of teaching effectiveness were completed. After nurse educators reviewed their results and identified areas for improvement, a questionnaire about the perceived acceptability of teacher evaluations was completed. Of the 15 nurse educators, 93.3% indicated that nurse educators should receive feedback through self, learner, peer, and video evaluations, and 100% indicated that nurse educators should receive feedback from the program coordinator. The accuracy and usefulness of the program coordinator evaluation was rated the highest, whereas peer evaluation was rated the lowest. This study revealed that MSF was acceptable to Georgian nurse educators. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Internet-based tools to assess diet and provide feedback in chronic kidney disease stage IV: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Sameer; Arab, Lenore; Vargas, Roberto; Rastogi, Anjay; Ang, Alfonso; Shetty, Nidhi

    2013-03-01

    Successfully changing patients' dietary behavior is a challenging problem in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted a pilot study to test the feasibility and acceptability of an Internet-based, self-administered, dietary assessment tool equipped with instructional feedback, aimed at facilitating dietary adherence to disease-specific nutritional guidelines among CKD stage IV patients while reducing resource burdens on providers. Focus groups were used to develop a user-friendly dietary reporting format. The report was then calibrated to the dietary guidelines outlined by Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) and incorporated into the assessment tool. Elements of the report were developed based on the "transtheoretical model of behavior change" theory, aimed at facilitating patients to enter the action stage of change. The tool was later deployed in a nephrology care site at an academic medical center, where 12 patients diagnosed with stage IV CKD (late-stage, predialysis) completed a dietary assessment before their provider encounter as well as questionnaires gauging their computer literacy, nutritional education history, nutritional knowledge and awareness, and acceptability of the tool. The report was made available to the provider during the clinical encounter, and both patient and physician perception of the report's utility was assessed after the encounter. Approximately 25% to 30% of the patients were severely noncompliant to the K/DOQI guidelines for each nutrient. Awareness about the role of diet in CKD management was widely variable, ranging from 0% to 58% of the patients over different nutrients. All of the patients successfully completed the Web-based dietary assessment. Eighty-four percent of the patients positively rated the tool on its ability to record the patients' dietary data, 58% noted the tool was always able to satisfactorily estimate portion sizes, and 50% thought the navigation was easy or very easy. Eleven

  9. Measured performance of a semi-active tuned mass damper with acceleration feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maślanka, Marcin

    2017-04-01

    Semi-active tuned mass dampers (STMDs) with magnetorheological (MR) dampers are becoming promising alternative to passive tuned mass dampers (TMDs) and active tuned mass dampers (ATMDs). In this paper, a new control algorithm for STMDs with acceleration feedback is experimentally evaluated in a laboratory wind tower - nacelle model equipped with a prototype STMD. The control algorithm adopts an existing acceleration feedback control approach which was originally proposed for ATMDs. The STMD consists of a mass, passive springs and an MR damper. The fail-safe operation of the STMD is reported due to both an internal friction of the STMD and a residual force of the MR damper at its off-state. The paper compares the simulated performance of the STMD with the measured performance of the fail-safe STMD under harmonic force excitation and discusses the major deteriorating factors that limit the measured performance. Despite the limitations, the paper reports that at low excitation the fail-safe STMD acts similarly to the TMD with same mass, while already at moderate excitation its performance is almost equally good as that of the TMD with two times larger mass.

  10. Olfactory Performance Can Be Influenced by the Presentation Order, Background Noise, and Positive Concurrent Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliczek-Dworschak, Ute; Pellegrino, Robert; Lee, Shangwa; Hummel, Cornelia; Hähner, Antje; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Sniffin' Sticks have become a popular procedure to measure overall olfactory functionality with 3 subtest: phenyl ethyl alcohol threshold test (T), discrimination (D), and identification (I). However, several procedural components specified by the original paper have not been tested nor has the impact of deviations been measured. The aim of the present work was to measure olfactory performance under modified testing procedures. First, the reverse order of subtests (IDT) was compared with more standard practices (TDI). Next, the possible impact of background noise and positive concurrent feedback were assessed. A total of 120 individuals participated in the study where the 3 conditional experiments, each involving 40 participants, were completed. Testing procedures that reversed the presentation order of subtests (I->D->T) scored a significantly lower overall TDI score than standard testing order with the threshold subtest being the most influenced. Additionally, nonverbal background noise lowered overall olfactory performance while concurrent feedback modulated threshold performance. These results emphasize the importance of testing parameters where olfactory perception and tasks may be modulated by adaptation and attentional distraction, respectively. This study helped furthermore to demonstrate that the investigated 3 deviations from the standard procedure revealed a significant impact on the performance outcome in olfactory assessment using the Sniffin' Sticks. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Does feedback matter? Practice-based learning for medical students after a multi-institutional clinical performance examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Malathi; Hauer, Karen E; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Wilkes, Michael; Gesundheit, Neil

    2007-09-01

    Achieving competence in 'practice-based learning' implies that doctors can accurately self- assess their clinical skills to identify behaviours that need improvement. This study examines the impact of receiving feedback via performance benchmarks on medical students' self-assessment after a clinical performance examination (CPX). The authors developed a practice-based learning exercise at 3 institutions following a required 8-station CPX for medical students at the end of Year 3. Standardised patients (SPs) scored students after each station using checklists developed by experts. Students assessed their own performance immediately after the CPX (Phase 1). One month later, students watched their videotaped performance and reassessed (Phase 2). Some students received performance benchmarks (their scores, plus normative class data) before the video review. Pearson's correlations between self-ratings and SP ratings were calculated for overall performance and specific skill areas (history taking, physical examination, doctor-patient communication) for Phase 1 and Phase 2. The 2 correlations were then compared for each student group (i.e. those who received and those who did not receive feedback). A total of 280 students completed both study phases. Mean CPX scores ranged from 51% to 71% of items correct overall and for each skill area. Phase 1 self-assessment correlated weakly with SP ratings of student performance (r = 0.01-0.16). Without feedback, Phase 2 correlations remained weak (r = 0.13-0.18; n = 109). With feedback, Phase 2 correlations improved significantly (r = 0.26-0.47; n = 171). Low-performing students showed the greatest improvement after receiving feedback. The accuracy of student self-assessment was poor after a CPX, but improved significantly with performance feedback (scores and benchmarks). Videotape review alone (without feedback) did not improve self-assessment accuracy. Practice-based learning exercises that incorporate feedback to medical

  12. Experimental evaluation of user performance in a pursuit tracking task with multimodal feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrenović Željko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the results of experimental evaluation of user performance in a pursuit-tracking task with multimodal feedback. Our experimental results indicate that audio can significantly improve the accuracy of pursuit tracking. Experiments with 19 participants have shown that addition of acoustic modalities reduces the error during pursuit tracking for up to 19%. Moreover, experiments indicated the existence of perceptual boundaries of multimodal HCI for different scene complexity and target speeds. We have also shown that the most appealing paradigms are not the most effective ones, which necessitates a careful quantitative analysis of proposed multimodal HCI paradigms.

  13. Strategies for effective feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritek, Patricia A

    2015-04-01

    Provision of regular feedback to trainees on clinical performance by supervising providers is increasingly recognized as an essential component of undergraduate and graduate health sciences education; however, many individuals have not been formally trained in this pedagogical skill. At the bedside or in the clinic, effective performance feedback can be accomplished by following four key steps. Begin by setting expectations that incorporate the trainee's personal goals and external objectives. Delineate how and when you will provide feedback to the learner. Next, directly observe the trainee's performance. This can be challenging while engaged on a busy clinical service, but a focus on discrete activities or interactions (e.g., family meeting, intravascular volume assessment using bedside ultrasound, or obtaining informed consent) is helpful. The third step is to plan and prioritize the feedback session. Feedback is most effective when given in a timely fashion and delivered in a safe environment. Limit the issues addressed because learners often disengage if confronted with too many deficiencies. Finally, when delivering feedback, begin by listening to the trainee's self-evaluation and then take a balanced approach. Describe in detail what the trainee does well and discuss opportunities for improvement with emphasis on specific, modifiable behaviors. The feedback loop is completed with a plan for follow-up reassessment. Through the use of these relatively simple practices, both the trainee and teacher can have a more productive learning experience.

  14. Adaptation effects in static postural control by providing simultaneous visual feedback of center of pressure and center of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kenta; Mani, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Naoya; Sato, Yuki; Tanaka, Shintaro; Maejima, Hiroshi; Asaka, Tadayoshi

    2017-07-19

    The benefit of visual feedback of the center of pressure (COP) on quiet standing is still debatable. This study aimed to investigate the adaptation effects of visual feedback training using both the COP and center of gravity (COG) during quiet standing. Thirty-four healthy young adults were divided into three groups randomly (COP + COG, COP, and control groups). A force plate was used to calculate the coordinates of the COP in the anteroposterior (COPAP) and mediolateral (COPML) directions. A motion analysis system was used to calculate the coordinates of the center of mass (COM) in both directions (COMAP and COMML). The coordinates of the COG in the AP direction (COGAP) were obtained from the force plate signals. Augmented visual feedback was presented on a screen in the form of fluctuation circles in the vertical direction that moved upward as the COPAP and/or COGAP moved forward and vice versa. The COP + COG group received the real-time COPAP and COGAP feedback simultaneously, whereas the COP group received the real-time COPAP feedback only. The control group received no visual feedback. In the training session, the COP + COG group was required to maintain an even distance between the COPAP and COGAP and reduce the COGAP fluctuation, whereas the COP group was required to reduce the COPAP fluctuation while standing on a foam pad. In test sessions, participants were instructed to keep their standing posture as quiet as possible on the foam pad before (pre-session) and after (post-session) the training sessions. In the post-session, the velocity and root mean square of COMAP in the COP + COG group were lower than those in the control group. In addition, the absolute value of the sum of the COP - COM distances in the COP + COG group was lower than that in the COP group. Furthermore, positive correlations were found between the COMAP velocity and COP - COM parameters. The results suggest that the novel visual feedback training that

  15. Providing feedback following Leadership WalkRounds is associated with better patient safety culture, higher employee engagement and lower burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, J Bryan; Adair, Kathryn C; Leonard, Michael W; Frankel, Terri Christensen; Proulx, Joshua; Watson, Sam R; Magnus, Brooke; Bogan, Brittany; Jamal, Maleek; Schwendimann, Rene; Frankel, Allan S

    2017-10-09

    There is a poorly understood relationship between Leadership WalkRounds (WR) and domains such as safety culture, employee engagement, burnout and work-life balance. This cross-sectional survey study evaluated associations between receiving feedback about actions taken as a result of WR and healthcare worker assessments of patient safety culture, employee engagement, burnout and work-life balance, across 829 work settings. 16 797 of 23 853 administered surveys were returned (70.4%). 5497 (32.7% of total) reported that they had participated in WR, and 4074 (24.3%) reported that they participated in WR with feedback. Work settings reporting more WR with feedback had substantially higher safety culture domain scores (first vs fourth quartile Cohen's d range: 0.34-0.84; % increase range: 15-27) and significantly higher engagement scores for four of its six domains (first vs fourth quartile Cohen's d range: 0.02-0.76; % increase range: 0.48-0.70). This WR study of patient safety and organisational outcomes tested relationships with a comprehensive set of safety culture and engagement metrics in the largest sample of hospitals and respondents to date. Beyond measuring simply whether WRs occur, we examine WR with feedback, as WR being done well. We suggest that when WRs are conducted, acted on, and the results are fed back to those involved, the work setting is a better place to deliver and receive care as assessed across a broad range of metrics, including teamwork, safety, leadership, growth opportunities, participation in decision-making and the emotional exhaustion component of burnout. Whether WR with feedback is a manifestation of better norms, or a cause of these norms, is unknown, but the link is demonstrably potent. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Learning from Performance Feedback: Performance Information, Aspiration Levels, and Managerial Priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Aaes

    2014-01-01

    While performance management is increasingly widespread, we still know little about how performance information generates learning and affects organizational responses. Recent work on performance information and learning in private business organizations, however, suggests that perceived negative...... performance triggers important strategic responses related to problem identification, search, and change. In turn, how performance is perceived depends on whether performance falls short of aspiration levels that are based on an organization’s historical performance and the performance of peer organizations....... This article adapts this model to a public sector context and tests one implication of the model, namely that public managers will increase their prioritization of goals that are currently performing below aspirations. This is a central question to the study of public organizations pursuing multiple...

  17. Feedback: Breakfast of Champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, Jeffrey J.

    Feedback is an important skill that people need to learn in life. Feedback is crucial in a public speaking class to improve speaking skills. Providing and receiving feedback is what champions feed on to be successful, thus feedback is called the "Breakfast of Champions." Feedback builds speakers' confidence. Providing in-depth feedback…

  18. The effects of substitute multisensory feedback on task performance and the sense of presence in a virtual reality environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milella, Ferdinando; Pinto, Carlo; Cant, Iain; White, Mark; Meyer, Georg

    2018-01-01

    Objective and subjective measures of performance in virtual reality environments increase as more sensory cues are delivered and as simulation fidelity increases. Some cues (colour or sound) are easier to present than others (object weight, vestibular cues) so that substitute cues can be used to enhance informational content in a simulation at the expense of simulation fidelity. This study evaluates how substituting cues in one modality by alternative cues in another modality affects subjective and objective performance measures in a highly immersive virtual reality environment. Participants performed a wheel change in a virtual reality (VR) environment. Auditory, haptic and visual cues, signalling critical events in the simulation, were manipulated in a factorial design. Subjective ratings were recorded via questionnaires. The time taken to complete the task was used as an objective performance measure. The results show that participants performed best and felt an increased sense of immersion and involvement, collectively referred to as ‘presence’, when substitute multimodal sensory feedback was provided. Significant main effects of audio and tactile cues on task performance and on participants' subjective ratings were found. A significant negative relationship was found between the objective (overall completion times) and subjective (ratings of presence) performance measures. We conclude that increasing informational content, even if it disrupts fidelity, enhances performance and user’s overall experience. On this basis we advocate the use of substitute cues in VR environments as an efficient method to enhance performance and user experience. PMID:29390023

  19. The effects of substitute multisensory feedback on task performance and the sense of presence in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Natalia; Milella, Ferdinando; Pinto, Carlo; Cant, Iain; White, Mark; Meyer, Georg

    2018-01-01

    Objective and subjective measures of performance in virtual reality environments increase as more sensory cues are delivered and as simulation fidelity increases. Some cues (colour or sound) are easier to present than others (object weight, vestibular cues) so that substitute cues can be used to enhance informational content in a simulation at the expense of simulation fidelity. This study evaluates how substituting cues in one modality by alternative cues in another modality affects subjective and objective performance measures in a highly immersive virtual reality environment. Participants performed a wheel change in a virtual reality (VR) environment. Auditory, haptic and visual cues, signalling critical events in the simulation, were manipulated in a factorial design. Subjective ratings were recorded via questionnaires. The time taken to complete the task was used as an objective performance measure. The results show that participants performed best and felt an increased sense of immersion and involvement, collectively referred to as 'presence', when substitute multimodal sensory feedback was provided. Significant main effects of audio and tactile cues on task performance and on participants' subjective ratings were found. A significant negative relationship was found between the objective (overall completion times) and subjective (ratings of presence) performance measures. We conclude that increasing informational content, even if it disrupts fidelity, enhances performance and user's overall experience. On this basis we advocate the use of substitute cues in VR environments as an efficient method to enhance performance and user experience.

  20. Effects of Periodic Task-Specific Test Feedback on Physical Performance in Older Adults Undertaking Band-Based Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Hasegawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of periodic task-specific test feedback on performance improvement in older adults undertaking community- and home-based resistance exercises (CHBRE. Fifty-two older adults (65–83 years were assigned to a muscular perfsormance feedback group (MPG, n=32 or a functional mobility feedback group (FMG, n=20. Both groups received exactly the same 9-week CHBRE program comprising one community-based and two home-based sessions per week. Muscle performance included arm curls and chair stands in 30 seconds, while functional mobility was determined by the timed up and go (TUG test. MPG received fortnightly test feedback only on muscle performance and FMG received feedback only on the TUG. Following training, there was a significant (P<0.05 interaction for all performance tests with MPG improving more for the arm curls (MPG 31.4%, FMG 15.9% and chair stands (MPG 33.7%, FMG 24.9% while FMG improved more for the TUG (MPG-3.5%, FMG-9.7%. Results from this nonrandomized study suggest that periodic test feedback during resistance training may enhance task-specific physical performance in older persons, thereby augmenting reserve capacity or potentially reducing the time required to recover functional abilities.

  1. Providing time-discrete gait information by wearable feedback apparatus for lower-limb amputees: usability and functional validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Simona; Cipriani, Christian; Donati, Marco; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Vitiello, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Here we describe a novel wearable feedback apparatus for lower-limb amputees. The system is based on three modules: a pressure-sensitive insole for the measurement of the plantar pressure distribution under the prosthetic foot during gait, a computing unit for data processing and gait segmentation, and a set of vibrating elements placed on the thigh skin. The feedback strategy relies on the detection of specific gait-phase transitions of the amputated leg. Vibrating elements are activated in a time-discrete manner, simultaneously with the occurrence of the detected gait-phase transitions. Usability and effectiveness of the apparatus were successfully assessed through an experimental validation involving ten healthy volunteers.

  2. Offering effective feedback to trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Morkos

    2015-01-01

    Effective feedback on performance is an integral part of clinical training. It allows the trainee to critically reflect on their development, as well as enable the teacher to chart progress and detect areas for development. In order to provide effective feedback, we need to take into account the performance itself, but also the setting where feedback is offered, and the expected outcomes of the encounter. As ever, negative feedback remains more difficult to give and receive, and as such requires a greater degree of delicacy to produce a positive result.

  3. Decomposing developmental differences in probabilistic feedback learning: A combined performance and heart-rate analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijvenvoorde, A.C.K.; Jansen, B.R.J.; Griffioen, E.S.; van der Molen, M.W.; Huizenga, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Learning on the basis of outcome feedback shows pronounced developmental changes, however, much is still unknown about its underlying processes. In the current study, we aimed at decomposing how value updating, feedback monitoring and executing behavioral control contribute to children's

  4. Age-related changes in deterministic learning from positive versus negative performance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, I.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; de Wit, S.

    2015-01-01

    Feedback-based learning declines with age. Because older adults are generally biased toward positive information ("positivity effect"), learning from positive feedback may be less impaired than learning from negative outcomes. The literature documents mixed results, due possibly to variability

  5. The Effect of Teachers’ Written Corrective Feedback (WCF Types on Intermediate EFL Learners’ Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Aghajanloo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Written Corrective Feedback (WCF is a controversial topic among theorists and researchers in L2 studies. Ellis, Sheen, Murakami, and Takashima (2008 identify two dominant dichotomies in this regard, that is focused vs. unfocused WCF and direct vs. indirect WCF. This study considered both dichotomies in a matrix format, resulted in the recognition of four types of operationally defined WCF, and aimed at: (1 investigating the effects of four types of WCF (i.e., focused direct CF, unfocused direct CF, focused indirect CF, and unfocused indirect CF on intermediate EFL learners’ writing performance; (2 finding out the most effective type of WCF for intermediate EFL learners’ writing performance; (3 determining learners’ attitudes toward the effectiveness of using WCF and the types which they had received. After conducting Nelson English Language Test (Test 300 D, out of 140 male and female Iranian EFL learners, 120 of them were selected as intermediate learners, aging from 14-18. The subjects were then assigned randomly to four homogeneous groups (each group including 30 participants. The pre-test and post-test both included a writing test which assessed learners’ writing performance, and then their scores were analyzed by using analytic marking scale. The results indicated that, learners outperformed in all of the four groups, validating WCF as an effective technique which can be used in EFL classes. A clear implication of the study is that WCF types (specially unfocused direct CF should be emphasized as an essential tool for developing writing ability of intermediate EFL learners. Keywords: Written Corrective Feedback (WCF, Focused CF, Unfocused CF, Direct CF, Indirect CF, Writing Performance, Intermediate EFL Learners

  6. Performance of the provider satisfaction inventory to measure provider satisfaction with diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montori, Victor M; Tweedy, Deborah A; Vogelsang, Debra A; Schryver, Patricia G; Naessens, James M; Smith, Steven A

    2002-01-01

    To develop and validate an inventory to measure provider satisfaction with diabetes management. Using the Mayo Clinic Model of Care, a review of the literature, and expert input, we developed a 4-category (chronic disease management, collaborative team practice, outcomes, and supportive environment), 29-item, 7-point-per-item Provider Satisfaction Inventory (PSI). For evaluation of the PSI, we mailed the survey to 192 primary-care and specialized providers from 8 practice sites (of whom 60 primary-care providers were participating in either usual or planned diabetes care). The Cronbach a score was used to assess the instrument's internal reliability. Participating providers indicated satisfaction or dissatisfaction with management of chronic disease by responding to 29 statements. The response rate was 58%. In each category, the Cronbach a score ranged from 0.71 to 0.90. Providers expressed satisfaction with patient-physician relationships, with the contributions of the nurse educator to the team, and with physician leadership. Providers were dissatisfied with their ability to spend adequate time with the patient (3.6 +/- 1.4), their ability to give patients with diabetes necessary personal attention (4.1 +/- 1.2), the efficient passing of communication (4.3 +/- 1.2), and the opportunities for input to change practice (4.3 +/- 1.6). No statistically significant difference (P = 0.12) was found in mean total scores between planned care (5.0 +/- 0.5) and usual care (4.7 +/- 0.6) providers. Moreover, no significant differences were noted across practice sites. The PSI is a reliable and preliminarily valid instrument for measuring provider satisfaction with diabetes care. Use in research and quality improvement activities awaits further validation.

  7. A Diagnosis-Prognosis Feedback Loop for Improved Performance Under Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, Patrick E.; Warner, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The feed-forward relationship between diagnosis and prognosis is the foundation of both aircraft structural health management and the digital twin concept. Measurements of structural response are obtained either in-situ with mounted sensor networks or offline using more traditional techniques (e.g., nondestructive evaluation). Diagnosis algorithms process this information to detect and quantify damage and then feed this data forward to a prognostic framework. A prognosis of the structure's future operational readiness (e.g., remaining useful life or residual strength) is then made and is used to inform mission- critical decision-making. Years of research have been devoted to improving the elements of this process, but the process itself has not changed significantly. Here, a new approach is proposed in which prognosis information is not only fed forward for decision-making, but it is also fed back to the forthcoming diagnosis. In this way, diagnosis algorithms can take advantage of a priori information about the expected state of health, rather than operating in an uninformed condition. As a feasibility test, a diagnosis-prognosis feedback loop of this manner is demonstrated. The approach is applied to a numerical example in which fatigue crack growth is simulated in a simple aluminum alloy test specimen. A prognosis was derived from a set of diagnoses which provided feedback to a subsequent set of diagnoses. Improvements in accuracy and a reduction in uncertainty in the prognosis- informed diagnoses were observed when compared with an uninformed diagnostic approach.

  8. Feedback, Incentives and Peer Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie Claire

    . The pay schemes are a piece rate payment scheme and a winner takes-all tournament. We find that the principal should not provide any information on relative  performance, regardless of the pay scheme used, since feedback does not improve performance. Indeed, we do not find evidence of positive peer...... effects in the piece-rate pay scheme. In both pay schemes, interim feedback generates negative quality peer effects on the less able performers. We find however evidence of positive peer effects in the tournament scheme since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly......This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback about relative performance...

  9. The Effects of Multimodal Feedback and Gender on Task Performance of Stylus Pen Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunil Park

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As various interactive input devices for computers have become available, the role of multimodal feedbacks generated by the devices has gained an increasing emphasis in recent years, with debates surrounding the relative efficiency of different feedback types of input devices. To address this and related issues, the present study conducted a 4 (types of feedback: visual vs. tactile vs. auditory vs. combined feedback x 2 (gender: male vs. female within-subject experiment to examine the effects of the type of feedbacks and gender on the efficiency and accuracy of a multimodal stylus pen. Results from the experiment showed that, regardless of the feedback type, males clicked the stylus faster than females while making more errors. A similar pattern was discovered when used the pen for dragging; males completed the dragging task faster than females while producing more errors. Interactions between the feedback type and gender as well as implications and limitations of the present study are discussed.

  10. Effects of performance measure implementation on clinical manager and provider motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damschroder, Laura J; Robinson, Claire H; Francis, Joseph; Bentley, Douglas R; Krein, Sarah L; Rosland, Ann-Marie; Hofer, Timothy P; Kerr, Eve A

    2014-12-01

    Clinical performance measurement has been a key element of efforts to transform the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). However, there are a number of signs that current performance measurement systems used within and outside the VHA may be reaching the point of maximum benefit to care and in some settings, may be resulting in negative consequences to care, including overtreatment and diminished attention to patient needs and preferences. Our research group has been involved in a long-standing partnership with the office responsible for clinical performance measurement in the VHA to understand and develop potential strategies to mitigate the unintended consequences of measurement. Our aim was to understand how the implementation of diabetes performance measures (PMs) influences management actions and day-to-day clinical practice. This is a mixed methods study design based on quantitative administrative data to select study facilities and quantitative data from semi-structured interviews. Sixty-two network-level and facility-level executives, managers, front-line providers and staff participated in the study. Qualitative content analyses were guided by a team-based consensus approach using verbatim interview transcripts. A published interpretive motivation theory framework is used to describe potential contributions of local implementation strategies to unintended consequences of PMs. Implementation strategies used by management affect providers' response to PMs, which in turn potentially undermines provision of high-quality patient-centered care. These include: 1) feedback reports to providers that are dissociated from a realistic capability to address performance gaps; 2) evaluative criteria set by managers that are at odds with patient-centered care; and 3) pressure created by managers' narrow focus on gaps in PMs that is viewed as more punitive than motivating. Next steps include working with VHA leaders to develop and test implementation approaches to help

  11. Method and device for intraoperative imaging of lumpectomy specimens to provide feedback to breast surgeon for prompt re-excision during the same procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Andrzej; Hemingway, Susan; Kort, Kara; de la Rosa, Gustavo; Adhikary, Ravi; Masrani, Deepa; Feiglin, David; O'Connell, Avice; Nagarajan, Mahesh; Yang, Chien-Chun; Wismüller, Axel

    2014-03-01

    Breast conserving therapy (BCT) of breast cancer is now widely accepted due to improved cosmetic outcome and improved patients' quality of life. One of the critical issues in performing breast-conserving surgery is trying to achieve microscopically clear surgical margins while maintaining excellent cosmesis. Unfortunately, unacceptably close or positive surgical margins occur in at least 20-25% of all patients undergoing BCT requiring repeat surgical excision days or weeks later, as permanent histopathology routinely takes days to complete. Our aim is to develop a better method for intraoperative imaging of non-palpable breast malignancies excised by wire or needle localization. Providing non-deformed three dimensional imaging of the excised breast tissue should allow more accurate assessment of tumor margins and consequently allow further excision at the time of initial surgery thus limiting the enormous financial and emotional burden of additional surgery. We have designed and constructed a device that allows preservation of the excised breast tissue in its natural anatomic position relative to the breast as it is imaged to assess adequate excision. We performed initial tests with needle-guided lumpectomy specimens using micro-CT and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Our device consists of a plastic sphere inside a cylindrical holder. The surgeon inserts a freshly excised piece of breast tissue into the sphere and matches its anatomic orientation with the fiducial markers on the sphere. A custom-shaped foam is placed inside the sphere to prevent specimen deformation due to gravity. DBT followed by micro-CT images of the specimen were obtained. We confirmed that our device preserved spatial orientation of the excised breast tissue and that the location error was lower than 10mm and 10 degrees. The initial obtained results indicate that breast lesions containing microcalcifications allow a good 3D imaging of margins providing immediate intraoperative feedback for

  12. Mirror visual feedback-induced performance improvement and the influence of hand dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola eRjosk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror Visual Feedback (MVF is a promising technique in clinical settings that can be used to augment performance of an untrained limb. Several studies with healthy volunteers and patients using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI indicate that functional alterations within primary motor cortex (M1 might be one candidate mechanism that could explain MVF-induced changes in behavior. Until now, most studies have used MVF to improve performance of the non-dominant hand. The question remains if the behavioural effect of MVF differs according to hand dominance. Here, we conducted a study with two groups of young, healthy right-handed volunteers who performed a complex ball-rotation task while receiving MVF of the dominant (n = 16, group 1, MVFDH or non-dominant hand (n = 16, group 2, MVFNDH. We found no significant differences in baseline performance of the untrained hand between groups before MVF was applied. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount of performance improvement between MVFDH and MVFNDH indicating that the outcome of MVF seems not to be influenced by hand dominance. Thus our findings might have important implications in neurorehabilitation suggesting that patients suffering from unilateral motor impairments might benefit from MVF regardless of the dominance of the affected limb.

  13. Does real-time objective feedback and competition improve performance and quality in manikin CPR training--a prospective observational study from several European EMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, J R; Kranz, K; Carmona, F; Lindner, T W; Newton, A

    2015-10-15

    Previous studies have reported that the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is important for patient survival. Real time objective feedback during manikin training has been shown to improve CPR performance. Objective measurement could facilitate competition and help motivate participants to improve their CPR performance. The aims of this study were to investigate whether real time objective feedback on manikins helps improve CPR performance and whether competition between separate European Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and between participants at each EMS helps motivation to train. Ten European EMS took part in the study and was carried out in two stages. At Stage 1, each EMS provided 20 pre-hospital professionals. A questionnaire was completed and standardised assessment scenarios were performed for adult and infant out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). CPR performance was objectively measured and recorded but no feedback given. Between Stage 1 and 2, each EMS was given access to manikins for 6 months and instructed on how to use with objective real-time CPR feedback available. Stage 2 was undertaken and was a repeat of Stage 1 with a questionnaire with additional questions relating to usefulness of feedback and the competition nature of the study (using a 10 point Likert score). The EMS that improved the most from Stage 1 to Stage 2 was declared the winner. An independent samples Student t-test was used to analyse the objective CPR metrics with the significance level taken as p performance from Stage 1 to Stage 2 was significant. The improvement was greater for the infant assessment. The participants thought the real-time feedback very useful (mean score of 8.5) and very easy to use (mean score of 8.2). Competition between EMS organisations recorded a mean score of 5.8 and competition between participants recorded a mean score of 6.0. The results suggest that the use of real time objective feedback can significantly help improve CPR performance

  14. Modelling diffusion feedbacks between technology performance, cost and consumer behaviour for future energy-transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Martino; Brand, Christian; Banister, David

    2014-04-01

    Emerging technologies will have important impacts on sustainability objectives. Yet little is known about the explicit feedbacks between consumer behaviour and technological change, and the potential impact on mass market penetration. We use the UK as a case-study to explore the dynamic interactions between technology supply, performance, cost, and heterogeneous consumer behaviour and the resulting influence on long term market diffusion. Simulations of competing vehicle technologies indicate that petrol hybrids (HEVs) dominate the market over the long-term because they benefit from improved performance and are able to reach the steep part of the diffusion curve by 2025 while competing technologies remain in the early stages of growth and are easier to displace in the market. This is due to the cumulative build-up of stock and slow fleet turnover creating inertia in the technological system. Consequently, it will be difficult to displace incumbent technologies because of system inertia, cumulative growth in stock, long operational life, and consumer risk aversion to new unproven technologies. However, when accounting for both technological and behavioural change, simulations indicate that if investment can reach 30-40% per annum growth in supply, combined with steady technology improvements, and more sophisticated agent decision making such as accounting for full technology lifecycle cost and performance, full battery electric vehicles could displace the incumbent system by 2050.

  15. The Effect of Providing Breakfast in Class on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imberman, Scott A.; Kugler, Adriana D.

    2014-01-01

    Many schools have recently experimented with moving breakfast from the cafeteria to the classroom. We examine whether such a program increases achievement, grades, and attendance rates. We exploit quasi-random timing of program implementation that allows for a difference-in-differences identification strategy. We find that providing breakfast in…

  16. Physical Profiling Performance of Air Force Primary Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-09

    MTF medical treatment facility OR odds ratio PCP primary care provider PHA Periodic Health Assessment SE standard error SME subject matter expert ...ascertain if predictors existed to augment PCP screening. This study was a cross-sectional, retrospective medical records review of active duty U.S. Air...Force (AF) members receiving care in an AF medical treatment facility (MTF) between October 31, 2013, and September 30, 2014, who had at least one

  17. Effort provides its own reward: endeavors reinforce subjective expectation and evaluation of task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zheng, Jiehui; Meng, Liang

    2017-04-01

    Although many studies have investigated the relationship between the amount of effort invested in a certain task and one's attitude towards the subsequent reward, whether exerted effort would impact one's expectation and evaluation of performance feedback itself still remains to be examined. In the present study, two types of calculation tasks that varied in the required effort were adopted, and we resorted to electroencephalography to probe the temporal dynamics of how exerted effort would affect one's anticipation and evaluation of performance feedback. In the high-effort condition, a more salient stimulus-preceding negativity was detected during the anticipation stage, which was accompanied with a more salient FRN/P300 complex (a more positive P300 and a less negative feedback-related negativity) in response to positive outcomes in the evaluation stage. These results suggested that when more effort was invested, an enhanced anticipatory attention would be paid toward one's task performance feedback and that positive outcomes would be subjectively valued to a greater extent.

  18. Written Teacher Feedback: Student Perceptions, Teacher Perceptions, and Actual Teacher Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Li

    2016-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate a teacher's and her students' perceptions of written teacher feedback in a college English as a foreign language (EFL) writing class in China. Essays, questionnaires, and interviews were employed to identify the types of feedback given by the teacher, the perceptions and preferences of students and the…

  19. The Joint Multivariate Modeling of Multiple Mixed Response Sources: Relating Student Performances with Feedback Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, J.P.; Klein Entink, R.; Timmers, C.

    2014-01-01

    The present study concerns a Dutch computer-based assessment, which includes an assessment process about information literacy and a feedback process for students. The assessment is concerned with the measurement of skills in information literacy and the feedback process with item-based support to

  20. Evaluation of physicians' professional performance: an iterative development and validation study of multisource feedback instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, Karlijn; Wollersheim, Hub C; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Cruijsberg, Juliette K; Grol, Richard P T M; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H

    2012-03-26

    There is a global need to assess physicians' professional performance in actual clinical practice. Valid and reliable instruments are necessary to support these efforts. This study focuses on the reliability and validity, the influences of some sociodemographic biasing factors, associations between self and other evaluations, and the number of evaluations needed for reliable assessment of a physician based on the three instruments used for the multisource assessment of physicians' professional performance in the Netherlands. This observational validation study of three instruments underlying multisource feedback (MSF) was set in 26 non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands. In total, 146 hospital-based physicians took part in the study. Each physician's professional performance was assessed by peers (physician colleagues), co-workers (including nurses, secretary assistants and other healthcare professionals) and patients. Physicians also completed a self-evaluation. Ratings of 864 peers, 894 co-workers and 1960 patients on MSF were available. We used principal components analysis and methods of classical test theory to evaluate the factor structure, reliability and validity of instruments. We used Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear mixed models to address other objectives. The peer, co-worker and patient instruments respectively had six factors, three factors and one factor with high internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha 0.95 - 0.96). It appeared that only 2 percent of variance in the mean ratings could be attributed to biasing factors. Self-ratings were not correlated with peer, co-worker or patient ratings. However, ratings of peers, co-workers and patients were correlated. Five peer evaluations, five co-worker evaluations and 11 patient evaluations are required to achieve reliable results (reliability coefficient ≥ 0.70). The study demonstrated that the three MSF instruments produced reliable and valid data for evaluating physicians' professional

  1. Developing a Web-Based Developmental Feedback Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Developmental feedback programs provide an opportunity to improve leadership practices by giving leaders feedback about their performance from a number of sources, This thesis expanded on Capt Doug Patton's pilot study (2002...

  2. Automatic capture of student notes to augment mentor feedback and student performance on patient write-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickard, Anderson; Gigante, Joseph; Stein, Glenn; Denny, Joshua C

    2008-07-01

    To determine whether the integration of an automated electronic clinical portfolio into clinical clerkships can improve the quality of feedback given to students on their patient write-ups and the quality of students' write-ups. The authors conducted a single-blinded, randomized controlled study of an electronic clinical portfolio that automatically collects all students' clinical notes and notifies their teachers (attending and resident physicians) via e-mail. Third-year medical students were randomized to use the electronic portfolio or traditional paper means. Teachers in the portfolio group provided feedback directly on the student's write-up using a web-based application. Teachers in the control group provided feedback directly on the student's write-up by writing in the margins of the paper. Outcomes were teacher and student assessment of the frequency and quality of feedback on write-ups, expert assessment of the quality of student write-ups at the end of the clerkship, and participant assessment of the value of the electronic portfolio system. Teachers reported giving more frequent and detailed feedback using the portfolio system (p = 0.01). Seventy percent of students who used the portfolio system, versus 39% of students in the control group (p = 0.001), reported receiving feedback on more than half of their write-ups. Write-ups of portfolio students were rated of similar quality to write-ups of control students. Teachers and students agreed that the system was a valuable teaching tool and easy to use. An electronic clinical portfolio that automatically collects students' clinical notes is associated with improved teacher feedback on write-ups and similar quality of write-ups.

  3. The Unresponsive Partner: Roles of Social Status, Auditory Feedback, and Animacy in Coordination of Joint Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Demos, Alexander P.; Carter, Daniel J.; Wanderley, Marcelo M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    We examined temporal synchronization in joint music performance to determine how social status, auditory feedback, and animacy influence interpersonal coordination. A partner’s coordination can be bidirectional (partners adapt to the actions of one another) or unidirectional (one partner adapts). According to the dynamical systems framework, bidirectional coordination should be the optimal (preferred) state during live performance. To test this, 24 skilled pianists each performed with a confe...

  4. Evaluating Elementary-Aged Students' Abilities to Generalize and Maintain Fluency Gains of a Performance Feedback Writing Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hier, Bridget O.; Eckert, Tanya L.

    2014-01-01

    National estimates of students' writing abilities in the United States indicate that in 2002, 72% of elementary-aged students were unable to write with grade-level proficiency (Persky, Daane, & Jin, 2003). Although performance feedback is one type of intervention that improves students' writing skills, no study to date has examined…

  5. Evaluating elementary-aged students' abilities to generalize and maintain fluency gains of a performance feedback writing intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hier, Bridget O; Eckert, Tanya L

    2014-12-01

    National estimates of students' writing abilities in the United States indicate that in 2002, 72% of elementary-aged students were unable to write with grade-level proficiency (Persky, Daane, & Jin, 2003). Although performance feedback is one type of intervention that improves students' writing skills, no study to date has examined the generalization and maintenance of writing fluency improvements developed through these interventions. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether elementary-aged students assigned to a performance feedback intervention condition demonstrated evidence of greater immediate treatment effects, generalization, and maintenance than students assigned to a practice-only condition. Results revealed that in comparison with the practice-only condition (n = 52), students assigned to the performance feedback condition (n = 51) demonstrated significantly greater immediate and generalized writing fluency improvements. However, evidence of maintenance of intervention effects was limited. These findings suggest that, in isolation, performance feedback may produce short-term desired effects on students' writing fluency growth, but that explicit programming of generality may be required to produce long-term achievement gains. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Performance Feedback on Teachers' Treatment Integrity: A Meta-Analysis of the Single-Case Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Benjamin G.; Klein, Suzanne A.; Politylo, Bethany C.

    2012-01-01

    Performance feedback (PF) has become popular in the school-based literature as a method to increase the treatment integrity of prescribed interventions. The current study extracted and aggregated data from single-case studies that used PF in school settings to increase teachers' use of classroom-based interventions. Results suggest PF is…

  7. The Effects of Expectancy-Incongruent Feedback and Self-Affirmation on Task Performance of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baadte, Christiane; Kurenbach, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the assumption was tested that expectancy-incongruent feedback in conjunction with explicit self-affirmation directs attention away from the task and to the self. As a result, performance should decrease in resource-sensitive text/picture comprehension tasks as compared to resource-insensitive tasks. Three hundred and…

  8. Group awareness of social and cognitive performance in a CSCL environment: Effects of a peer feedback and reflection tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phielix, Chris; Prins, Frans; Kirschner, Paul A.; Erkens, Gijsbert; Jaspers, Jos

    2010-01-01

    Phielix, C., Prins, F. J., Kirschner, P. A., Erkens, G., & Jaspers, J. (2011). Group awareness of social and cognitive performance in a CSCL environment: Effects of a peer feedback and reflection tool. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(3), 1087-1102. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.06.024

  9. Effects of different real-time feedback types on human performance in high-demanding work conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, I.; Brinkman, W.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Experiencing stress during training is a way to prepare professionals for real-life crises. With the help of feedback tools, professionals can train to recognize and overcome negative effects of stress on task performances. This paper reports two studies that empirically examined the effect of such

  10. Plant–soil feedback effects on plant quality and performance of an aboveground herbivore interact with fertilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kos, Martine; Tuijl, Maarten A. B.; de Roo, Joris; Mulder, Patrick P. J.; Bezemer, T. Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Plant–soil feedback (PSF) effects on plant performance can be influenced by the availability of nutrients in the soil. Recent studies have shown that PSF effects can also change aboveground plant–insect interactions via soil-mediated changes in plant quality, but whether this is influenced by soil

  11. Plant-soil feedback effects on plant quality and performance of an aboveground herbivore interact with fertilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kos, M.; Maarten, A.; Tuijl, M.A.B.; Roo, de J.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Plant–soil feedback (PSF) effects on plant performance can be influenced by the availability of nutrients in the soil. Recent studies have shown that PSF effects can also change aboveground plant–insect interactions via soil-mediated changes in plant quality, but whether this is influenced by soil

  12. Interactive balance training integrating sensor-based visual feedback of movement performance: a pilot study in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Michael; Grewal, Gurtej S; Honarvar, Bahareh; Schwenk, Stefanie; Mohler, Jane; Khalsa, Dharma S; Najafi, Bijan

    2014-12-13

    Wearable sensor technology can accurately measure body motion and provide incentive feedback during exercising. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness and user experience of a balance training program in older adults integrating data from wearable sensors into a human-computer interface designed for interactive training. Senior living community residents (mean age 84.6) with confirmed fall risk were randomized to an intervention (IG, n = 17) or control group (CG, n = 16). The IG underwent 4 weeks (twice a week) of balance training including weight shifting and virtual obstacle crossing tasks with visual/auditory real-time joint movement feedback using wearable sensors. The CG received no intervention. Outcome measures included changes in center of mass (CoM) sway, ankle and hip joint sway measured during eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) balance test at baseline and post-intervention. Ankle-hip postural coordination was quantified by a reciprocal compensatory index (RCI). Physical performance was quantified by the Alternate-Step-Test (AST), Timed-up-and-go (TUG), and gait assessment. User experience was measured by a standardized questionnaire. After the intervention sway of CoM, hip, and ankle were reduced in the IG compared to the CG during both EO and EC condition (p = .007-.042). Improvement was obtained for AST (p = .037), TUG (p = .024), fast gait speed (p = . 010), but not normal gait speed (p = .264). Effect sizes were moderate for all outcomes. RCI did not change significantly. Users expressed a positive training experience including fun, safety, and helpfulness of sensor-feedback. Results of this proof-of-concept study suggest that older adults at risk of falling can benefit from the balance training program. Study findings may help to inform future exercise interventions integrating wearable sensors for guided game-based training in home- and community environments. Future studies should evaluate the

  13. Attentional focus of feedback for improving performance of reach-to-grasp after stroke: a randomised crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, K F; Sackley, C M; Wright, C C; Wing, A M; Edwards, M G; van Vliet, P

    2014-06-01

    To investigate whether feedback inducing an external focus (EF) of attention (about movement effects) was more effective for retraining reach-to-grasp after stroke compared with feedback inducing an internal focus (IF) of attention (about body movement). It was predicted that inducing an EF of attention would be more beneficial to motor performance. Crossover trial where participants were assigned at random to two feedback order groups: IF followed by EF or EF followed by IF. Research laboratory. Forty-two people with upper limb impairment after stroke. Participants performed three reaching tasks: (A) reaching to grasp a jar; (B) placing a jar forwards on to a table; and (C) placing a jar on to a shelf. Ninety-six reaches were performed in total over one training session. Kinematic measures were collected using motion analysis. Primary outcome measures were movement duration, peak velocity of the wrist, size of peak aperture and peak elbow extension. Feedback inducing an EF of attention produced shorter movement durations {first feedback order group: IF mean 2.53 seconds [standard deviation (SD) 1.85]; EF mean 2.12 seconds (SD 1.63), mean difference 0.41 seconds; 95% confidence interval -0.68 to 1.5; P=0.008}, an increased percentage time to peak deceleration (P=0.01) when performing Task B, and an increased percentage time to peak velocity (P=0.039) when performing Task A compared with feedback inducing an IF of attention. However, an order effect was present whereby performance was improved if an EF of attention was preceded by an IF of attention. Feedback inducing an EF of attention may be of some benefit for improving motor performance of reaching in people with stroke in the short term; however, these results should be interpreted with caution. Further research using a randomised design is recommended to enable effects on motor learning to be assessed. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies on effects of feedback delay on the convergence performance of adaptive time-domain equalizers for fiber dispersive channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qun; Xu, Bo; Qiu, Kun

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive time-domain equalizer (TDE) is an important module for digital optical coherent receivers. From an implementation perspective, we analyze and compare in detail the effects of error signal feedback delay on the convergence performance of TDE using either least-mean square (LMS) or constant modulus algorithm (CMA). For this purpose, a simplified theoretical model is proposed based on which iterative equations on the mean value and the variance of the tap coefficient are derived with or without error signal feedback delay for both LMS- and CMA-based methods for the first time. The analytical results show that decreased step size has to be used for TDE to converge and a slower convergence speed cannot be avoided as the feedback delay increases. Compared with the data-aided LMS-based method, the CMA-based method has a slower convergence speed and larger variation after convergence. Similar results are confirmed using numerical simulations for fiber dispersive channels. As the step size increases, a feedback delay of 20 clock cycles might cause the TDE to diverge. Compared with the CMA-based method, the LMS-based method has a higher tolerance on the feedback delay and allows a larger step size for a faster convergence speed.

  15. Age-related changes in deterministic learning from positive versus negative performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; de Wit, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    Feedback-based learning declines with age. Because older adults are generally biased toward positive information ("positivity effect"), learning from positive feedback may be less impaired than learning from negative outcomes. The literature documents mixed results, due possibly to variability between studies in task design. In the current series of studies, we investigated the influence of feedback valence on reinforcement learning in young and older adults. We used nonprobabilistic learning tasks, to more systematically study the effects of feedback magnitude, learning of stimulus-response (S-R) versus stimulus-outcome (S-O) associations, and working-memory capacity. In most experiments, older adults benefitted more from positive than negative feedback, but only with large feedback magnitudes. Positivity effects were pronounced for S-O learning, whereas S-R learning correlated with working-memory capacity in both age groups. These results underline the context dependence of positivity effects in learning and suggest that older adults focus on high gains when these are informative for behavior.

  16. Evaluation of physicians' professional performance: An iterative development and validation study of multisource feedback instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overeem Karlijn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a global need to assess physicians' professional performance in actual clinical practice. Valid and reliable instruments are necessary to support these efforts. This study focuses on the reliability and validity, the influences of some sociodemographic biasing factors, associations between self and other evaluations, and the number of evaluations needed for reliable assessment of a physician based on the three instruments used for the multisource assessment of physicians' professional performance in the Netherlands. Methods This observational validation study of three instruments underlying multisource feedback (MSF was set in 26 non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands. In total, 146 hospital-based physicians took part in the study. Each physician's professional performance was assessed by peers (physician colleagues, co-workers (including nurses, secretary assistants and other healthcare professionals and patients. Physicians also completed a self-evaluation. Ratings of 864 peers, 894 co-workers and 1960 patients on MSF were available. We used principal components analysis and methods of classical test theory to evaluate the factor structure, reliability and validity of instruments. We used Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear mixed models to address other objectives. Results The peer, co-worker and patient instruments respectively had six factors, three factors and one factor with high internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha 0.95 - 0.96. It appeared that only 2 percent of variance in the mean ratings could be attributed to biasing factors. Self-ratings were not correlated with peer, co-worker or patient ratings. However, ratings of peers, co-workers and patients were correlated. Five peer evaluations, five co-worker evaluations and 11 patient evaluations are required to achieve reliable results (reliability coefficient ≥ 0.70. Conclusions The study demonstrated that the three MSF instruments produced

  17. Follower-Centered Perspective on Feedback: Effects of Feedback Seeking on Identification and Feedback Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Zhenxing; Li, Miaomiao; Qi, Yaoyuan; Zhang, Na

    2017-01-01

    In the formation mechanism of the feedback environment, the existing research pays attention to external feedback sources and regards individuals as objects passively accepting feedback. Thus, the external source fails to realize the individuals’ need for feedback, and the feedback environment cannot provide them with useful information, leading to a feedback vacuum. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of feedback-seeking by different strategies on the supervisor-feedback environme...

  18. The effect of non-contingent and accurate performance feedback on pacing and time trial performance in 4-km track cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, A R; Jones, A M; Williams, C A

    2011-03-01

    To determine whether the provision of comparative performance feedback during 4 km track cycling affects completion time. Five highly trained male cyclists first performed a baseline (BL) 4-km time trial (TT) on a velodrome track, followed by two further randomised 4-km TT, during which riders received either correct (COR) or non-contingent (FAL) feedback based on their BL performance. Participants completed the COR TT in a significantly faster time (t(4)=-3.10, p<0.05) than the FAL TT (341 (8) s vs 350 (12) s). Over the TT, a significant difference in mean speed was apparent between the two conditions (F(15,60)=1.95, p<0.05) on the second (t(4)=4.71, p<0.05), 15th (t(4)=3.45, p<0.05) and final lap (t(4)=3.30, p<0.05). The significant difference in completion time and pacing strategy between the two conditions suggests that accurate, comparative performance feedback is beneficial to performance, especially during the start and end of an exercise bout. The results support the previously unfounded assumption that performance feedback is advantageous during exercise and highlights the importance of an athlete's support team during an event.

  19. Supporting Early Childhood Educators' Use of Embedded Communication Strategies by Providing Feedback via Bug-in-Ear Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggie, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coaching provided with bug-in-ear technology, the frequency of the early childhood educators' use of targeted communication strategies and children's expressive communication. Four multiple-baseline single-case design experiments were completed to evaluate these relationships.…

  20. Providing Feedback, Orientation and Opportunities for Reflection as Key Elements for Successful Mentoring Programs: Reviewing a Program for Future Business Education Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Riebenbauer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction to teaching is critical for novice teachers. Near the end of their master’s program, students of Business Education and Development in Austria spend one semester at an assigned school. They are introduced to teaching, while being assisted by peer students, mentoring teachers, and a companion course. Mentors receive special training and preparation in advance, thus contributing to a high quality mentoring program. The program is organized threefold: (1 providing feedback, (2 opportunities for reflection and (3 career orientation. The purpose of this paper is to assess key elements of successful mentoring programs and to question which competences of mentors contribute most to the success of those programs. Between 2012 and 2015, 188 persons (student teachers and their mentors responded to an online survey at the end of their mentoring program. Additionally, data from a study (1,245 questionnaires regarding the student teachers’ perception of their own competence was utilized, allowing for a comparison of student teacher confidence in their abilities before and after the mentoring program. The present results provide insight into the key elements of successful mentoring programs; both from a student teacher’s and mentor’s perspective. During the semester, students showed an increase regarding their self-perception of their professional competences. It was found that students and mentoring teachers valued feedback after each lesson more than feedback in regular meetings. Opportunities for reflection (e.g. exchange with peer students, learning diaries were considered helpful. The mentoring program helped students to decide whether to become a teacher or not.

  1. The Unresponsive Partner: Roles of Social Status, Auditory Feedback, and Animacy in Coordination of Joint Music Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Alexander P; Carter, Daniel J; Wanderley, Marcelo M; Palmer, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    We examined temporal synchronization in joint music performance to determine how social status, auditory feedback, and animacy influence interpersonal coordination. A partner's coordination can be bidirectional (partners adapt to the actions of one another) or unidirectional (one partner adapts). According to the dynamical systems framework, bidirectional coordination should be the optimal (preferred) state during live performance. To test this, 24 skilled pianists each performed with a confederate while their coordination was measured by the asynchrony in their tone onsets. To promote social balance, half of the participants were told the confederate was a fellow participant - an equal social status. To promote social imbalance, the other half was told the confederate was an experimenter - an unequal social status. In all conditions, the confederate's arm and finger movements were occluded from the participant's view to allow manipulation of animacy of the confederate's performances (live or recorded). Unbeknownst to the participants, half of the confederate's performances were replaced with pre-recordings, forcing the participant into unidirectional coordination during performance. The other half of the confederate's performances were live, which permitted bidirectional coordination between performers. In a final manipulation, both performers heard the auditory feedback from one or both of the performers' parts removed at unpredictable times to disrupt their performance. Consistently larger asynchronies were observed in performances of unidirectional (recorded) than bidirectional (live) performances across all conditions. Participants who were told the confederate was an experimenter reported their synchrony as more successful than when the partner was introduced as a fellow participant. Finally, asynchronies increased as auditory feedback was removed; removal of the confederate's part hurt coordination more than removal of the participant's part in live

  2. Effect of State Feedback Coupling and System Delays on the Transient Performance of Stand-Alone VSI with LC Output Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The influence of state feedback coupling in the dynamics performance of power converters for stand-alone microgrids is investigated. Computation and PWM delays are the main factors that limit the achievable bandwidth of current regulators in digital implementations. In particular, the performance...... provided. A proportional resonant voltage controller is designed according to Nyquist criterion taking into account application requirements. For this purpose, a mathematical expression based on root locus analysis is proposed to find the minimum value of the fundamental resonant gain. Experimental tests...

  3. Data delivery performance of space-to-ground optical communication systems employing rate-constrained feedback protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieler, C. M.; Robinson, B. S.; Boroson, D. M.

    2017-02-01

    Space-based optical communication systems that transmit directly to Earth must provision for changing conditions such as received power fluctuations that can occur due to atmospheric turbulence. One way of ensuring error-free communication in this environment is to introduce link-layer feedback protocols that use an Earth-toSpace uplink to request retransmission of erroneous or missing frames. In this paper, we consider near-Earth systems that use low-bandwidth uplinks to supply feedback for automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocols. Constraining the uplink signaling bandwidth can reduce the complexity of the space terminal, but it also decreases the efficacy of feedback schemes. Using a Markov-based model of the link-layer channel, we give an analytical result for the downlink performance penalty of a system employing a data-rate-constrained selective-repeat ARQ protocol. We find that the tradeoff between downlink performance and feedback rate is primarily influenced by the coherence time of the atmospheric channel.

  4. The Unresponsive Partner: Roles of Social Status, Auditory Feedback, and Animacy in Coordination of Joint Music Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Alexander P.; Carter, Daniel J.; Wanderley, Marcelo M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    We examined temporal synchronization in joint music performance to determine how social status, auditory feedback, and animacy influence interpersonal coordination. A partner’s coordination can be bidirectional (partners adapt to the actions of one another) or unidirectional (one partner adapts). According to the dynamical systems framework, bidirectional coordination should be the optimal (preferred) state during live performance. To test this, 24 skilled pianists each performed with a confederate while their coordination was measured by the asynchrony in their tone onsets. To promote social balance, half of the participants were told the confederate was a fellow participant – an equal social status. To promote social imbalance, the other half was told the confederate was an experimenter – an unequal social status. In all conditions, the confederate’s arm and finger movements were occluded from the participant’s view to allow manipulation of animacy of the confederate’s performances (live or recorded). Unbeknownst to the participants, half of the confederate’s performances were replaced with pre-recordings, forcing the participant into unidirectional coordination during performance. The other half of the confederate’s performances were live, which permitted bidirectional coordination between performers. In a final manipulation, both performers heard the auditory feedback from one or both of the performers’ parts removed at unpredictable times to disrupt their performance. Consistently larger asynchronies were observed in performances of unidirectional (recorded) than bidirectional (live) performances across all conditions. Participants who were told the confederate was an experimenter reported their synchrony as more successful than when the partner was introduced as a fellow participant. Finally, asynchronies increased as auditory feedback was removed; removal of the confederate’s part hurt coordination more than removal of the participant

  5. video supported performance feedback to nursing students after simulated practice events.

    OpenAIRE

    Monger, Eloise; Weal, Mark J.; Gobbi, Mary; Michaelides, Danius; Shepherd, Matthew; Wilson, Matthew; Barnard, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Within the field of health care education, simulation is used increasingly to provide students with opportunities to develop their clinical skills (Alnier, 2006), often occurring in specially designed facilities with audio-video capture of student performance. The video capture enables analysis and assessment of student performance and or competence, the analysis of events (DiGiacomo et al, 1997), processes (Ram et al, 1999), and Objective Clinical Examinations (Humphris and Kaney, 2000 ; Viv...

  6. Effect of e-Learning and Repeated Performance Feedback on Spirometry Test Quality in Family Practice: A Cluster Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Tjard R.; Akkermans, Reinier P.; Crockett, Alan J.; van Montfort, Marian; Grootens-Stekelenburg, Joke; Stout, Jim W.; Pieters, Willem

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Spirometry has become an indispensable tool in primary care to exclude, diagnose, and monitor chronic respiratory conditions, but the quality of spirometry tests in family practices is a reason for concern. Aim of this study was to investigate whether a combination of e-learning and bimonthly performance feedback would improve spirometry test quality in family practices in the course of 1 year. METHODS Our study was a cluster trial with 19 family practices allocated to intervention or control conditions through minimization. Intervention consisted of e-learning and bimonthly feedback reports to practice nurses. Control practices received only the joint baseline workshop. Spirometry quality was assessed by independent lung function technicians. Two outcomes were defined, with the difference between rates of tests with 2 acceptable and repeatable blows being the primary outcome and the difference between rates of tests with 2 acceptable blows being the secondary outcome. We used multilevel logistic regression analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for an adequate test in intervention group practices. RESULTS We analyzed 1,135 tests. Rate of adequate tests was 33% in intervention and 30% in control group practices (OR = 1.3; P=.605). Adequacy of tests did not differ between groups but tended to increase with time: OR = 2.2 (P = .057) after 3 and OR = 2.0 (P = .086) in intervention group practices after 4 feedback reports. When ignoring test repeatability, these differences between the groups were slightly more pronounced: OR = 2.4 (P = .033) after 3 and OR=2.2 (P = .051) after 4 feedback reports. CONCLUSIONS In the course of 1 year, we observed a small and late effect of e-learning and repeated feedback on the quality of spirometry as performed by family practice nurses. This intervention does not seem to compensate the lack of rigorous training and experience in performing spirometry tests in most practices. PMID:21747104

  7. Effect of e-learning and repeated performance feedback on spirometry test quality in family practice: a cluster trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Tjard R; Akkermans, Reinier P; Crockett, Alan J; van Montfort, Marian; Grootens-Stekelenburg, Joke; Stout, Jim W; Pieters, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Spirometry has become an indispensable tool in primary care to exclude, diagnose, and monitor chronic respiratory conditions, but the quality of spirometry tests in family practices is a reason for concern. Aim of this study was to investigate whether a combination of e-learning and bimonthly performance feedback would improve spirometry test quality in family practices in the course of 1 year. Our study was a cluster trial with 19 family practices allocated to intervention or control conditions through minimization. Intervention consisted of e-learning and bimonthly feedback reports to practice nurses. Control practices received only the joint baseline workshop. Spirometry quality was assessed by independent lung function technicians. Two outcomes were defined, with the difference between rates of tests with 2 acceptable and repeatable blows being the primary outcome and the difference between rates of tests with 2 acceptable blows being the secondary outcome. We used multilevel logistic regression analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for an adequate test in intervention group practices. We analyzed 1,135 tests. Rate of adequate tests was 33% in intervention and 30% in control group practices (OR = 1.3; P=.605). Adequacy of tests did not differ between groups but tended to increase with time: OR = 2.2 (P = .057) after 3 and OR = 2.0 (P = .086) in intervention group practices after 4 feedback reports. When ignoring test repeatability, these differences between the groups were slightly more pronounced: OR = 2.4 (P = .033) after 3 and OR=2.2 (P = .051) after 4 feedback reports. In the course of 1 year, we observed a small and late effect of e-learning and repeated feedback on the quality of spirometry as performed by family practice nurses. This intervention does not seem to compensate the lack of rigorous training and experience in performing spirometry tests in most practices.

  8. Effects of multi-directional vibrotactile feedback on vestibular-deficient postural performance during continuous multi-directional support surface perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienko, K H; Balkwill, M D; Oddsson, L I E; Wall, C

    2008-01-01

    Single-axis vibrotactile feedback of trunk tilt provided in real-time has previously been shown to significantly reduce the root-mean-square (RMS) trunk sway in subjects with vestibular loss during single-axis perturbation. This research examines the effect of multi-directional vibrotactile feedback on postural sway during continuous multi-directional surface perturbations when the subjects' eyes are closed. Eight subjects with vestibular loss donned a multi-axis feedback device that mapped body tilt estimates onto their torsos with a 3-row by 16-column array of tactile actuators (tactors). Tactor row indicated tilt magnitude and tactor column indicated tilt direction. Root-mean-square trunk tilt, elliptical fits to trunk sway trajectory areas, percentage of time spent outside a no vibrotactile feedback zone, RMS center of pressure, and anchoring index parameters indicating intersegmental coordination were used to assess the efficacy of the multi-directional vibrotactile balance aid. Four tactor display configurations in addition to the tactors off configuration were evaluated. Subjects had significantly reduced RMS trunk sway, significantly smaller elliptical fits of the trajectory area, and spent significantly less time outside of the no feedback zone in the tactors on versus the tactors off configuration. Among the displays evaluated in this study, there was not an optimal tactor column configuration for standing tasks involving continuous surface perturbations. Furthermore, subjects performed worse when erroneous information was displayed. Therefore, a spatial resolution of 90 degrees (4 columns) seems to be as effective as a spatial resolution of 22.5 degrees (16 columns) for control of standing.

  9. The effect of performance agreement, employee involvement, facilitation, assessment and feedback towards employee performance: a study in Pt. Surya Pamenang, Jawa Timur Province, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    ANSORY AL FADJAR; SALIM UBUD; SUDIRO ACHMAD; KHUSNIAH NUR

    2016-01-01

    Facing ASEAN Economic Community to deal with foreign companies from various countries needs optimal resources so that local enterprises could increase the employee performance. This study aims to analyze the influence of performance agreement, facilitation, assessment, feedback, employee involvement towards employee performance. The inferential statistical analysis used was SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) by collecting data through a survey at PT. Surya Pamenang, Kediri, Jawa Timur Provinc...

  10. From Sensor Data to Audience Feedback: A Web-based Visualisation Tool for Performing Artists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Röggla (Tom)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThis work reports the implementation and evaluation of a platform for visualising GSR (Galvanic Skin Response) sensor data from audiences. This platform is especially tar- geted at performing artists to provide them with a way to gain deeper insight into how audiences perceive their

  11. MicroRNA-146a provides feedback regulation of lyme arthritis but not carditis during infection with Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B Lochhead

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been shown to be important regulators of inflammatory and immune responses and are implicated in several immune disorders including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, but their role in Lyme borreliosis remains unknown. We performed a microarray screen for expression of miRNAs in joint tissue from three mouse strains infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. This screen identified upregulation of miR-146a, a key negative regulator of NF-κB signaling, in all three strains, suggesting it plays an important role in the in vivo response to B. burgdorferi. Infection of B6 miR-146a-/- mice with B. burgdorferi revealed a critical nonredundant role of miR-146a in modulating Lyme arthritis without compromising host immune response or heart inflammation. The impact of miR-146a was specifically localized to the joint, and did not impact lesion development or inflammation in the heart. Furthermore, B6 miR-146a-/- mice had elevated levels of NF-κB-regulated products in joint tissue and serum late in infection. Flow cytometry analysis of various lineages isolated from infected joint tissue of mice showed that myeloid cell infiltration was significantly greater in B6 miR-146a-/- mice, compared to B6, during B. burgdorferi infection. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages, we found that TRAF6, a known target of miR-146a involved in NF-κB activation, was dysregulated in resting and B. burgdorferi-stimulated B6 miR-146a-/- macrophages, and corresponded to elevated IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL1 production. This dysregulated protein production was also observed in macrophages treated with IL-10 prior to B. burgdorferi stimulation. Peritoneal macrophages from B6 miR-146a-/- mice also showed enhanced phagocytosis of B. burgdorferi. Together, these data show that miR-146a-mediated regulation of TRAF6 and NF-κB, and downstream targets such as IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL1, are critical for modulation of Lyme arthritis during chronic infection with B

  12. Exergaming for elderly: : effects of different types of game feedback on performance of a balance task.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, Claude; Alingh, Rolinde; Caljouw, Simone; Wiederhold, B.K.; Riva, G.

    Balance training to improve postural control in elderly can contribute to the prevention of falls. Video games that require body movements have the potential to improve balance. However, research about the effects of type of visual feedback (i.e. the exergame) on the quality of movement and

  13. Engaging Students with Self-Assessment and Tutor Feedback to Improve Performance and Support Assessment Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKevitt, Conor Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Assessment is one of the most important elements of student life and significantly shapes their learning. Consequently, tutors need to ensure that student awareness regarding assessment is promoted. Students should get the opportunity to practise assessing work and receive tutor feedback so that they might improve on both the work and their…

  14. The Effect of Teachers' Written Corrective Feedback (WCF) Types on Intermediate EFL Learners' Writing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanloo, Khadijeh; Mobini, Fariba; Khosravi, Robab

    2016-01-01

    Written Corrective Feedback (WCF) is a controversial topic among theorists and researchers in L2 studies. Ellis, Sheen, Murakami, and Takashima (2008) identify two dominant dichotomies in this regard, that is focused vs. unfocused WCF and direct vs. indirect WCF. This study considered both dichotomies in a matrix format, resulted in the…

  15. Performance analysis of preemptive priority retrial queue with immediate Bernoulli feedback under working vacations and vacation interruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakkirisami Rajadurai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with performance analysis of single server preemptive priority retrial queue with immediate Bernoulli feedback. There are two types of customers are considered, which are priority customers and ordinary customers. The priority customers do not form any queue and have an exclusive preemptive priority to receive their services over ordinary customers. After completion of regular service for ordinary customer, the customer is allowed to make an immediate feedback with probability r. When the orbit becomes empty at service completion instant for a priority customer or ordinary customer; the server goes for multiple working vacations. By using the supplementary variable technique, we obtained the steady state probability generating functions for the system/orbit. Some important system performance measures, the mean busy period and the mean busy cycle are discussed. Finally, some numerical examples are presented.

  16. The effect of metrics-based feedback on acquisition of sonographic skills relevant to performance of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, O M A; Niessen, T; O'Donnell, B D; Gallagher, A G; Breslin, D S; DunnGalvin, A; Shorten, G D

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of metrics-based vs. non-metrics-based feedback on novices learning predefined competencies for acquisition and interpretation of sonographic images relevant to performance of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block. Twelve anaesthetic trainees were randomly assigned to either metrics-based-feedback or non-metrics-based feedback groups. After a common learning phase, all participants attempted to perform a predefined task that involved scanning the left axilla of a single volunteer. Following completion of the task, all participants in each group received feedback from a different expert in regional blocks (consultant anaesthetist) and were allowed to practise the predefined task for up to 1 h. Those in the metrics-based feedback group received feedback based on previously validated metrics, and they practised each metric item until it was performed satisfactorily, as assessed by the supervising consultant. Subsequently, each participant attempted to perform ultrasonography of the left axilla on the same volunteer. Two trained consultant anaesthetists independently scored the video recording pre- and post-feedback scans using the validated metrics list. Both groups showed improvement from pre-feedback to post-feedback scores. Compared with participants in the non-metrics-based feedback group, those in the metrics-based feedback group completed more steps: median (IQR [range]) 18.8 (1.5 [17-20]) vs. 14.3 (4.5 [11-18.5]), p = 0.009, and made fewer errors 0.5 (1 [0-1.5]) vs. 1.5 (2 [1-6]), p = 0.041 postfeedback. In this study, novices' sonographic skills showed greater improvement when feedback was combined with validated metrics. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Audio Feedback -- Better Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Susanne; Mello, Luciane V.

    2014-01-01

    National Student Survey (NSS) results show that many students are dissatisfied with the amount and quality of feedback they get for their work. This study reports on two case studies in which we tried to address these issues by introducing audio feedback to one undergraduate (UG) and one postgraduate (PG) class, respectively. In case study one…

  18. Does source matter? Nurses' and Physicians' perceptions of interprofessional feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Sandrijn M; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Eva, Kevin W; Irby, David M; Regehr, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    Receptiveness to interprofessional feedback, which is important for optimal collaboration, may be influenced by 'in-group or out-group' categorisation, as suggested by social identity theory. We used an experimental design to explore how nurses and resident physicians perceive feedback from people within and outside their own professional group. Paediatric residents and nurses participated in a simulation-based team exercise. Two nurses and two physicians wrote anonymous performance feedback for each participant. Participants each received a survey containing these feedback comments with prompts to rate (i) the usefulness (ii) the positivity and (iii) their agreement with each comment. Half of the participants received feedback labelled with the feedback provider's profession (two comments correctly labelled and two incorrectly labelled). Half received unlabelled feedback and were asked to guess the provider's profession. For each group, we performed separate three-way anovas on usefulness, positivity and agreement ratings to examine interactions between the recipient's profession, actual provider profession and perceived provider profession. Forty-five out of 50 participants completed the survey. There were no significant interactions between profession of the recipient and the actual profession of the feedback provider for any of the 3 variables. Among participants who guessed the source of the feedback, we found significant interactions between the profession of the feedback recipient and the guessed source of the feedback for both usefulness (F1,48 = 25.6; p feedback they guessed to be from nurses were higher than ratings of feedback they guessed to be from physicians, and vice versa. Among participants who received labelled feedback, we noted a similar interaction between the profession of the feedback recipient and labelled source of feedback for usefulness ratings (F1,92 = 4.72; p feedback to the in-group than to the out-group. This finding has potential

  19. Technologies for learner-centered feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Costello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As the number, type, and use of technologies to support learning increases, so do the opportunities for using these technologies for feedback. Learner-centered feedback is a core to the teaching-learning process. It is related to assessment in describing how learners perform in their learning, their gain in knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Feedback, types of feedback, guidelines for effective learner-centered feedback, and feedback’s relationship to assessment are presented. Methods of providing feedback, for example, automated, audio scribe pens, digital audio, etc., and the related technologies are described. Technologies that allow instructors to make informed decisions about the use of various methods for feedback are discussed.

  20. Frequent feedback enhances complex motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, G; Shea, C H; Matschiner, S

    1998-06-01

    Feedback frequency effects on the learning of a complex motor skill, the production of slalom-type movements on a ski-simulator, were examined. In Experiment 1, a movement feature that characterizes expert performance was identified. Participants (N = 8) practiced the task for 6 days. Significant changes across practice were found for movement amplitude and relative force onset. Relative force onset is considered a measure of movement efficiency; relatively late force onsets characterize expert performance. In Experiment 2, different groups of participants (N = 27) were given concurrent feedback about force onset on either 100% or 50% of the practice trials; a control group was given no feedback. The following hypothesis was tested: Contrary to previous findings concerning relatively simple tasks, for the learning of a complex task such as the one used here, a high relative feedback frequency (100%) is more beneficial for learning than a reduced feedback frequency (50%). Participants practiced the task on 2 consecutive days and performed a retention test without feedback on Day 3. The 100% feedback group demonstrated later relative force onsets than the control group in retention; the 50% feedback group showed intermediate performance. The results provide support for the notion that high feedback frequencies are beneficial for the learning of complex motor skills, at least until a certain level of expertise is achieved. That finding suggests that there may be an interaction between task difficulty and feedback frequency similar to the interaction found in the summary-KR literature.

  1. The role of formative feedback in promoting higher order thinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feedback plays an important role in the teaching and learning environment because it provides learners with information intended to help them improve their learning. For feedback to be successful in this role, the information from feedback must also highlight the type of thinking exhibited in performing any tasks. However ...

  2. A Content Analysis of Peer Feedback in Triadic Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avent, Janeé R.; Wahesh, Edward; Purgason, Lucy L.; Borders, L. DiAnne; Mobley, A. Keith

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research on the types of peer feedback exchanged during triadic supervision. Through a content analysis, the authors found that students provided feedback about counseling performance and cognitive counseling skills most often in supervision sessions. However, there were differences in the types of feedback exchanged across three…

  3. Nonlinear power flow feedback control for improved stability and performance of airfoil sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2013-09-03

    A computer-implemented method of determining the pitch stability of an airfoil system, comprising using a computer to numerically integrate a differential equation of motion that includes terms describing PID controller action. In one model, the differential equation characterizes the time-dependent response of the airfoil's pitch angle, .alpha.. The computer model calculates limit-cycles of the model, which represent the stability boundaries of the airfoil system. Once the stability boundary is known, feedback control can be implemented, by using, for example, a PID controller to control a feedback actuator. The method allows the PID controller gain constants, K.sub.I, K.sub.p, and K.sub.d, to be optimized. This permits operation closer to the stability boundaries, while preventing the physical apparatus from unintentionally crossing the stability boundaries. Operating closer to the stability boundaries permits greater power efficiencies to be extracted from the airfoil system.

  4. Performance and LHC beam stability issue related to Q/Q' diagnostics and feedback systems

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhagen, Ralph J

    2010-01-01

    The baseline tune (Q) and chromaticity (Q’) diagnostics and associated feedback systems played a crucial role during the LHC commissioning, in establishing circulating beam, the first ramps and their fill-to-fill feed-forward correction. Early on, they also allowed to identify issues such as the residual tune stability, beam spectrum interferences and beam-beam effects – all of which may impact beam lifetimes and thus need to be addressed in view of nominal LHC operation.

  5. Can virtual reality reduce reality distortion? Impact of performance feedback on symptom change in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Voigt, Miriam; Köther, Ulf; Leighton, Lucy; Kjahili, Besiane; Babur, Zehra; Jungclaussen, David; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Grzella, Karsten

    2014-06-01

    There is emerging evidence that the induction of doubt can reduce positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Based on prior investigations indicating that brief psychological interventions may attenuate core aspects of delusions, we set up a proof of concept study using a virtual reality experiment. We explored whether feedback for false judgments positively influences delusion severity. A total of 33 patients with schizophrenia participated in the experiment. Following a short practice trial, patients were instructed to navigate through a virtual street on two occasions (noise versus no noise), where they met six different pedestrians in each condition. Subsequently, patients were asked to recollect the pedestrians and their corresponding facial affect in a recognition task graded for confidence. Before and after the experiment, the Paranoia Checklist (frequency subscale) was administered. The Paranoia Checklist score declined significantly from pre to post at a medium effect size. We split the sample into those with some improvement versus those that either showed no improvement, or worsened. Improvement was associated with lower confidence ratings (both during the experiment, particularly for incorrect responses, and according to retrospect assessment). No control condition, unclear if improvement is sustained. The study tentatively suggests that a brief virtual reality experiment involving error feedback may ameliorate delusional ideas. Randomized controlled trials and dismantling studies are now needed to substantiate the findings and to pinpoint the underlying therapeutic mechanisms, for example error feedback or fostering attenuation of confidence judgments in the face of incomplete evidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating the effectiveness of a tailored multifaceted performance feedback intervention to improve the quality of care: protocol for a cluster randomized trial in intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westert Gert P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feedback is potentially effective in improving the quality of care. However, merely sending reports is no guarantee that performance data are used as input for systematic quality improvement (QI. Therefore, we developed a multifaceted intervention tailored to prospectively analyzed barriers to using indicators: the Information Feedback on Quality Indicators (InFoQI program. This program aims to promote the use of performance indicator data as input for local systematic QI. We will conduct a study to assess the impact of the InFoQI program on patient outcome and organizational process measures of care, and to gain insight into barriers and success factors that affected the program's impact. The study will be executed in the context of intensive care. This paper presents the study's protocol. Methods/design We will conduct a cluster randomized controlled trial with intensive care units (ICUs in the Netherlands. We will include ICUs that submit indicator data to the Dutch National Intensive Care Evaluation (NICE quality registry and that agree to allocate at least one intensivist and one ICU nurse for implementation of the intervention. Eligible ICUs (clusters will be randomized to receive basic NICE registry feedback (control arm or to participate in the InFoQI program (intervention arm. The InFoQI program consists of comprehensive feedback, establishing a local, multidisciplinary QI team, and educational outreach visits. The primary outcome measures will be length of ICU stay and the proportion of shifts with a bed occupancy rate above 80%. We will also conduct a process evaluation involving ICUs in the intervention arm to investigate their actual exposure to and experiences with the InFoQI program. Discussion The results of this study will inform those involved in providing ICU care on the feasibility of a tailored multifaceted performance feedback intervention and its ability to accelerate systematic and local quality

  7. PEER FEEDBACK ON LANGUAGE FORM IN TELECOLLABORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige Ware

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We performed a two-phase, year-long research project that explored the impact of peer feedback on language development. We investigated specifically how and when post-secondary learners of English and Spanish provide corrective feedback on their partners' use of the target language in weekly asynchronous discussions by assigning them to one of two conditions: e-tutoring, in which students were asked to provide peer feedback on any linguistic form they perceived as incorrect; and e-partnering, in which students were not required to provide peer feedback but could do so on their own initiative. We examined the frequency and type of language use by coding the feedback for language-related episodes (Swain & Lapkin, 1998 and for feedback strategies (Ros i Solé & Truman, 2005. The findings indicate that students in both conditions preferred an inclusion of feedback on form as part of their exchange, but such feedback only occurred when explicitly required in the e-tutoring condition. Pedagogical implications include the need to situate peer feedback on form within current models of telecollaboration and to assist students in using feedback strategies such as reformulations, which do not rely on a deep understanding of the target or native language grammar.

  8. Feedback and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2009-01-01

    use two pay schemes, a piece rate and a tournament. We find that overall feedback does not improve performance. In contrast to the piece-rate pay scheme there is some evidence of positive peer effects in tournaments since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly......This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay schemes and relative performance feedback policies on employee effort. We explore three feedback rules: no feedback on relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback. We...... behind, and front runners do not slack off. But in both pay schemes relative performance feedback reduces the quality of the low performers' work; we refer to this as a "negative quality peer effect"....

  9. Influence of feedback schedule in motor performance and learning of a lumbar multifidus muscle task using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Wendy J; Heiss, Deborah Givens; Basso, D Michele

    2008-02-01

    Low back pain (LBP) may be associated with inadequate multifidus muscle function. Varying the frequency and timing of feedback may enhance acquisition and retention of multifidus muscle recruitment during exercise. Subjects without LBP (n=30) were randomly assigned to a constant (CON) or variable (VAR) feedback group. Twenty-eight subjects (mean age=28 years, SD=8.0; mean body mass index=24 kg/m(2), SD=0.70) completed training, and 23 completed retention testing. Eight training sessions over 4 weeks included multifidus muscle exercise with rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) feedback. Retention was assessed at 1 week and >or=1 month. At the start, both groups had similar performances of multifidus muscle recruitment (Fisher exact test, P=.26). Early in training, the CON group had good success (mean=80%) that was maintained at session 8 (mean=84%), with no difference between sessions 1 and 8 (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P=.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-9%, 42%). The VAR group gradually increased success (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P=.002, 95% CI=17%, 59%) between sessions 1 and 8. Both groups sustained their session 8 success when tested for short-term retention at 1 week (CON group: Wilcoxon signed rank test, P=.79; VAR group: Wilcoxon signed rank test, P=.36). At the long-term retention test, the VAR group outperformed the CON group (Wilcoxon score test, P=.04), indicating superior motor learning. Variable feedback provided by RUSI resulted in greater success in lumbar multifidus muscle recruitment up to 3 to 4 months after training.

  10. How we give personalised audio feedback after summative OSCEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher J; Molyneux, Adrian J; Blackwell, Sara; Wass, Valerie J

    2015-04-01

    Students often receive little feedback after summative objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) to enable them to improve their performance. Electronic audio feedback has shown promise in other educational areas. We investigated the feasibility of electronic audio feedback in OSCEs. An electronic OSCE system was designed, comprising (1) an application for iPads allowing examiners to mark in the key consultation skill domains, provide "tick-box" feedback identifying strengths and difficulties, and record voice feedback; (2) a feedback website giving students the opportunity to view/listen in multiple ways to the feedback. Acceptability of the audio feedback was investigated, using focus groups with students and questionnaires with both examiners and students. 87 (95%) students accessed the examiners' audio comments; 83 (90%) found the comments useful and 63 (68%) reported changing the way they perform a skill as a result of the audio feedback. They valued its highly personalised, relevant nature and found it much more useful than written feedback. Eighty-nine per cent of examiners gave audio feedback to all students on their stations. Although many found the method easy, lack of time was a factor. Electronic audio feedback provides timely, personalised feedback to students after a summative OSCE provided enough time is allocated to the process.

  11. Tracking performance under time sharing conditions with a digit processing task: A feedback control theory analysis. [attention sharing effect on operator performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopher, D.; Wickens, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    A one dimensional compensatory tracking task and a digit processing reaction time task were combined in a three phase experiment designed to investigate tracking performance in time sharing. Adaptive techniques, elaborate feedback devices, and on line standardization procedures were used to adjust task difficulty to the ability of each individual subject and manipulate time sharing demands. Feedback control analysis techniques were employed in the description of tracking performance. The experimental results show that when the dynamics of a system are constrained, in such a manner that man machine system stability is no longer a major concern of the operator, he tends to adopt a first order control describing function, even with tracking systems of higher order. Attention diversion to a concurrent task leads to an increase in remnant level, or nonlinear power. This decrease in linearity is reflected both in the output magnitude spectra of the subjects, and in the linear fit of the amplitude ratio functions.

  12. All about the money – External performance monitoring is affected by monetary, but not by socially conveyed feedback cues in more antisocial individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Melitta Pfabigan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between feedback processing and antisocial personality traits measured by the PSSI questionnaire (Kuhl & Kazén, 1997 in a healthy undergraduate sample. While event-related potentials (Feedback Related Negativity [FRN], P300 were recorded, participants encountered expected and unexpected feedback during a gambling task. As recent findings suggest learning problems and deficiencies during feedback processing in clinical populations of antisocial individuals, we performed two experiments with different healthy participants in which feedback about monetary gains or losses consisted either of social-emotional (facial emotion displays or non-social cues (numerical stimuli. Since the FRN and P300 are both sensitive to different aspects of feedback processing we hypothesized that they might help to differentiate between individuals scoring high and low on an antisocial trait measure.In line with previous evidence FRN amplitudes were enhanced after negative and after unexpected feedback stimuli. Crucially, participants scoring high on antisocial traits displayed larger FRN amplitudes than those scoring low only in response to expected and unexpected negative numerical feedback, but not in response to social-emotional feedback - irrespective of expectancy. P300 amplitudes were not modulated by antisocial traits at all, but by subjective reward probabilities. The present findings indicate that individuals scoring high on antisociality attribute higher motivational salience to monetary compared to emotional-social feedback which is reflected in FRN amplitude enhancement. Contrary to recent findings, however, no processing deficiencies concerning social-emotional feedback stimuli were apparent in those individuals. This indicates that stimulus salience is an important aspect in learning and feedback processes in individuals with antisocial traits which has potential implications for therapeutic interventions in

  13. High-performance brain-machine interface enabled by an adaptive optimal feedback-controlled point process decoder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanechi, Maryam M; Orsborn, Amy; Moorman, Helene; Gowda, Suraj; Carmena, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) performance has been improved using Kalman filters (KF) combined with closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA). CLDA fits the decoder parameters during closed-loop BMI operation based on the neural activity and inferred user velocity intention. These advances have resulted in the recent ReFIT-KF and SmoothBatch-KF decoders. Here we demonstrate high-performance and robust BMI control using a novel closed-loop BMI architecture termed adaptive optimal feedback-controlled (OFC) point process filter (PPF). Adaptive OFC-PPF allows subjects to issue neural commands and receive feedback with every spike event and hence at a faster rate than the KF. Moreover, it adapts the decoder parameters with every spike event in contrast to current CLDA techniques that do so on the time-scale of minutes. Finally, unlike current methods that rotate the decoded velocity vector, adaptive OFC-PPF constructs an infinite-horizon OFC model of the brain to infer velocity intention during adaptation. Preliminary data collected in a monkey suggests that adaptive OFC-PPF improves BMI control. OFC-PPF outperformed SmoothBatch-KF in a self-paced center-out movement task with 8 targets. This improvement was due to both the PPF's increased rate of control and feedback compared with the KF, and to the OFC model suggesting that the OFC better approximates the user's strategy. Also, the spike-by-spike adaptation resulted in faster performance convergence compared to current techniques. Thus adaptive OFC-PPF enabled proficient BMI control in this monkey.

  14. A feedback protocol improves the diagnostic performance of MR arthrography by experienced musculoskeletal radiologists in patients with traumatic anterior shoulder instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinsven, S. van; Loon, C. van; Gorp, M. van; Kints, M. van; Konings, P.; Kampen, A. van

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic-resonance-arthrography (MRA) by experienced musculoskeletal radiologists in patients with traumatic-anterior-shoulder-instability (TASI), after feedback protocol execution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five surgically

  15. When visuo-motor incongruence aids motor performance : the effect of perceiving motion structures during transformed visual feedback on bimanual coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerts, H; Buekers, MJ; Zaal, FT; Swinnen, SP

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which bimanual coordination tasks were performed under correct and transformed visual feedback conditions. Participants were to generate cyclical line-drawing patterns, with varying degrees of coordinative stability, while perceiving correct or transformed visual

  16. Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrojo Ruiz, María; Hong, Sang Bin; Hennig, Holger; Altenmüller, Eckart; Kühn, Andrea A

    2014-01-01

    Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome) of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback. As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS. Overall, the present investigations demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN-DBS, which suggests that cortico

  17. Leader-member exchange and member performance: a new look at individual-level negative feedback-seeking behavior and team-level empowerment climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ziguang; Lam, Wing; Zhong, Jian An

    2007-01-01

    From a basis in social exchange theory, the authors investigated whether, and how, negative feedback-seeking behavior and a team empowerment climate affect the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) and member performance. Results showed that subordinates' negative feedback-seeking behavior mediated the relationship between LMX and both objective and subjective in-role performance. In addition, the level of a team's empowerment climate was positively related to subordinates' own sense of empowerment, which in turn negatively moderated the effects of LMX on negative feedback-seeking behavior. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Delayed, but not immediate, feedback after multiple-choice questions increases performance on a subsequent short-answer, but not multiple-choice, exam: evidence for the dual-process theory of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Neha; Glass, Arnold Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments, two performed in the laboratory and one embedded in a college psychology lecture course, investigated the effects of immediate versus delayed feedback following a multiple-choice exam on subsequent short answer and multiple-choice exams. Performance on the subsequent multiple-choice exam was not affected by the timing of the feedback on the prior exam; however, performance on the subsequent short answer exam was better following delayed than following immediate feedback. This was true regardless of the order in which immediate versus delayed feedback was given. Furthermore, delayed feedback only had a greater effect than immediate feedback on subsequent short answer performance following correct, confident responses on the prior exam. These results indicate that delayed feedback cues a student's prior response and increases subsequent recollection of that response. The practical implication is that delayed feedback is better than immediate feedback during academic testing.

  19. Feedback Valence Affects Auditory Perceptual Learning Independently of Feedback Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they wer...

  20. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Affects Performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task during Provision of Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Ko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Early functional neuroimaging studies of tasks evaluating executive processes, such as the Wisconsin card sorting task (WCST, only assessed trials in blocks that may contain a large amount of different cognitive processes. More recently, we showed using event-related fMRI that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC significantly increased activity during feedback but not matching periods of the WCST, consistent with its proposed role in the monitoring of information in working memory. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a method that allows to disrupt processing within a given cortical region and to affect task performance for which this region is significantly solicited. Here we applied rTMS to test the hypothesis that the DL-PFC stimulation influences monitoring of working memory without interfering with other executive functions. We applied rTMS to the right DL-PFC and the vertex (control site in different time points of the WCST. When rTMS was applied to the DL-PFC specifically during the period when subjects were receiving feedback regarding their previous response, WCST performance deteriorated, while rTMS did not affect performance during matching either when maintaining set or during set-shifting. This selective impairment of the DL-PFC is consistent with its proposed role in monitoring of events in working memory.

  1. Influence of feedback characteristics on perceived learning value of feedback in clerkships: does culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhoyo, Yoyo; Van Hell, Elisabeth A; Kerdijk, Wouter; Emilia, Ova; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-04-05

    Various feedback characteristics have been suggested to positively influence student learning. It is not clear how these feedback characteristics contribute to students' perceived learning value of feedback in cultures classified low on the cultural dimension of individualism and high on power distance. This study was conducted to validate the influence of five feedback characteristics on students' perceived learning value of feedback in an Indonesian clerkship context. We asked clerks in Neurology (n = 169) and Internal Medicine (n = 132) to assess on a 5-point Likert scale the learning value of the feedback they received. We asked them to record whether the feedback provider (1) informed the student what went well, (2) mentioned which aspects of performance needed improvement, (3) compared the student's performance to a standard, (4) further explained or demonstrated the correct performance, and (5) prepared an action plan with the student to improve performance. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression. A total of 250 students participated in this study, 131 from Internal Medicine (response rate 99%) and 119 from Neurology (response rate 70%). Of these participants, 225 respondents (44% males, 56% females) completed the form and reported 889 feedback moments. Students perceived feedback as more valuable when the feedback provider mentioned their weaknesses (β = 0.153, p learning value of feedback. No gender differences were found for perceived learning value. In Indonesia, we could validate four out of the five characteristics for effective feedback. We argue that our findings relate to culture, in particular to the levels of individualism and power distance. The recognized characteristics of what constitutes effective feedback should be validated across cultures.

  2. Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eHerrojo Ruiz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback.As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS.Overall, the present investigations are the first to demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN

  3. 42 CFR 493.19 - Provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-field or phase-contrast microscopy. (4) The specimen is labile or delay in performing the test could... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures. 493....19 Provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures. (a) Requirement. To be categorized as a PPM...

  4. Combining the formative with the summative: the development of a twostage online test to encourage engagement and provide personal feedback in large classes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Susanne Voelkel

    2013-01-01

      The aim of this action research project was to improve student learning by encouraging more "time on task" and to improve self-assessment and feedback through the introduction of weekly online tests...

  5. Combining the formative with the summative: the development of a two-stage online test to encourage engagement and provide personal feedback in large classes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voelkel, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this action research project was to improve student learning by encouraging more "time on task" and to improve self-assessment and feedback through the introduction of weekly online tests...

  6. Pay-for-performance for healthcare providers: Design, performance measurement, and (unintended) effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Eijkenaar (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractHealthcare systems around the world are characterized by a suboptimal delivery of healthcare services. There has been a growing belief among policymakers that many deficiencies (e.g., in the quality of care) stem from flawed provider payment systems creating perverse incentives for

  7. Nurses' perceptions of feedback to nursing teams on quality measurements: An embedded case study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, A.P.; Schouteten, R.L.; Poutsma, E.; Heijden, B.I. van der; Achterberg, T. van

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Providing nursing teams with feedback on quality measurements is used as a quality improvement instrument in healthcare organizations worldwide. Previous research indicated contradictory results regarding the effect of such feedback on both nurses' well-being and performance. OBJECTIVES:

  8. Effects of performance feedback and coaching on the problem-solving process: Improving the integrity of implementation and enhancing student outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Allison A.

    Schools implementing Response to Intervention (RtI) procedures frequently engage in team problem-solving processes to address the needs of students who require intensive and individualized services. Because the effectiveness of the problem-solving process will impact the overall success of RtI systems, the present study was designed to learn more about how to strengthen the integrity of the problem-solving process. Research suggests that school districts must ensure high quality training and ongoing support to enhance the effectiveness, acceptability, and sustainability of the problem-solving process within an RtI model; however, there is a dearth of research examining the effectiveness of methods to provide this training and support. Consequently, this study investigated the effects of performance feedback and coaching strategies on the integrity with which teams of educators conducted the problem-solving process in schools. In addition, the relationships between problem-solving integrity, teacher acceptability, and student outcomes were examined. Results suggested that the performance feedback increased problem-solving procedural integrity across two of the three participating schools. Conclusions about the effectiveness of the (a) coaching intervention and (b) interventions implemented in the third school were inconclusive. Regression analyses indicated that the integrity with which the teams conducted the problem-solving process was a significant predictor of student outcomes. However, the relationship between problem-solving procedural integrity and teacher acceptability was not statistically significant.

  9. Performance Measurement for a Logistics Services Provider to the Polymer Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tok, King Lai

    2007-01-01

    This management project discusses the form of performance measurement system suitable for a logistics services provider who focuses on providing its services to large multinational petrochemical companies in the polymer industry

  10. Compliance Performance: Effects of a Provider Incentive Program and Coding Compliance Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tudela, Joseph A

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to study provider and coder related performance, i.e., provider compliance rate and coder productivity/accuracy rates and average dollar difference between coder and auditor, at Brooke Army Medical Center...

  11. Effects of Immediate Feedback and Pacing of Item Presentation on Ability Test Performance and Psychological Reactions to Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    hypothesized to increase anxie - ty, and positive feedback is hypothesized to decrease anxiety. Failure feedback would tend to i-icrease expectancy of poor...withheld, students reported anxie - ty levels that varied significantly as a function of testing condition, with significant differences occuring only for...which feedback is paired. Differences in empirical results dealing with the effect feedback has oi test-taking motivation may stem from variation in

  12. Performance Evaluation Workshop for In-Service Managers. Module 4: Employee Feedback and Development. The Urban Management Curriculum Development Project, Package XIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scontrino, M. Peter

    This is the fourth module in a four-module training package for use in inservice seminars or workshops on performance appraisal and employee development. Module 4 addresses employee feedback and counseling aspects of performance evaluation. Primary emphasis is on use of performance reviews as employee development tools. Two related content areas…

  13. Audit and feedback and clinical practice guideline adherence: making feedback actionable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Best, Richard G; Pugh, Jacqueline A

    2006-04-28

    As a strategy for improving clinical practice guideline (CPG) adherence, audit and feedback (A&F) has been found to be variably effective, yet A&F research has not investigated the impact of feedback characteristics on its effectiveness. This paper explores how high performing facilities (HPF) and low performing facilities (LPF) differ in the way they use clinical audit data for feedback purposes. Descriptive, qualitative, cross-sectional study of a purposeful sample of six Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) with high and low adherence to six CPGs, as measured by external chart review audits. One-hundred and two employees involved with outpatient CPG implementation across the six facilities participated in one-hour semi-structured interviews where they discussed strategies, facilitators and barriers to implementing CPGs. Interviews were analyzed using techniques from the grounded theory method. High performers provided timely, individualized, non-punitive feedback to providers, whereas low performers were more variable in their timeliness and non-punitiveness and relied on more standardized, facility-level reports. The concept of actionable feedback emerged as the core category from the data, around which timeliness, individualization, non-punitiveness, and customizability can be hierarchically ordered. Facilities with a successful record of guideline adherence tend to deliver more timely, individualized and non-punitive feedback to providers about their adherence than facilities with a poor record of guideline adherence. Consistent with findings from organizational research, feedback intervention characteristics may influence the feedback's effectiveness at changing desired behaviors.

  14. Feedback and assessment for clinical placements: achieving the right balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Annette Burgess, Craig Mellis Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: During clinical placements, the provision of feedback forms an integral part of the learning process and enriches students' learning experiences. The purpose of feedback is to improve the learner's knowledge, skills, or behavior. Receipt of accurate feedback can help to narrow the gap between actual and desired performance. Effective and regular feedback has the potential to reinforce good practice and motivate the learner toward the desired outcome. Despite the obvious role of feedback in effective teaching and learning, a common complaint from students is that they do not receive adequate feedback. Unfortunately, skills in giving and receiving feedback are rarely taught to students or clinicians. This study aims to provide an understanding of the role of feedback within the learning process, consider consequences of inadequate or poorly given feedback, consider the barriers to the feedback process, provide practical guidelines for providing feedback, and consider the need for student and faculty development in feedback skills. Keywords: medical students, formative, summative, assessment

  15. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  16. Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms Can Classify Open-Text Feedback of Doctor Performance With Human-Level Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Chris; Richards, Suzanne; Valderas, Jose Maria; Campbell, John

    2017-03-15

    Machine learning techniques may be an effective and efficient way to classify open-text reports on doctor's activity for the purposes of quality assurance, safety, and continuing professional development. The objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of machine learning algorithms trained to classify open-text reports of doctor performance and to assess the potential for classifications to identify significant differences in doctors' professional performance in the United Kingdom. We used 1636 open-text comments (34,283 words) relating to the performance of 548 doctors collected from a survey of clinicians' colleagues using the General Medical Council Colleague Questionnaire (GMC-CQ). We coded 77.75% (1272/1636) of the comments into 5 global themes (innovation, interpersonal skills, popularity, professionalism, and respect) using a qualitative framework. We trained 8 machine learning algorithms to classify comments and assessed their performance using several training samples. We evaluated doctor performance using the GMC-CQ and compared scores between doctors with different classifications using t tests. Individual algorithm performance was high (range F score=.68 to .83). Interrater agreement between the algorithms and the human coder was highest for codes relating to "popular" (recall=.97), "innovator" (recall=.98), and "respected" (recall=.87) codes and was lower for the "interpersonal" (recall=.80) and "professional" (recall=.82) codes. A 10-fold cross-validation demonstrated similar performance in each analysis. When combined together into an ensemble of multiple algorithms, mean human-computer interrater agreement was .88. Comments that were classified as "respected," "professional," and "interpersonal" related to higher doctor scores on the GMC-CQ compared with comments that were not classified (P.05). Machine learning algorithms can classify open-text feedback of doctor performance into multiple themes derived by human raters with high

  17. Relevance Feedback in Content Based Image Retrieval: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manesh B. Kokare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the technical achievements in the research area of relevance feedback (RF in content-based image retrieval (CBIR. Relevance feedback is a powerful technique in CBIR systems, in order to improve the performance of CBIR effectively. It is an open research area to the researcher to reduce the semantic gap between low-level features and high level concepts. The paper covers the current state of art of the research in relevance feedback in CBIR, various relevance feedback techniques and issues in relevance feedback are discussed in detail.

  18. Evaluation of physicians' professional performance: an iterative development and validation study of multisource feedback instruments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, K.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Arah, O.A.; Cruijsberg, J.K.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Lombarts, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a global need to assess physicians' professional performance in actual clinical practice. Valid and reliable instruments are necessary to support these efforts. This study focuses on the reliability and validity, the influences of some sociodemographic biasing factors,

  19. Combining the Formative with the Summative: The Development of a Two-Stage Online Test to Encourage Engagement and Provide Personal Feedback in Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this action research project was to improve student learning by encouraging more "time on task" and to improve self-assessment and feedback through the introduction of weekly online tests in a Year 2 lecture module in biological sciences. Initially voluntary online tests were offered to students and those who participated…

  20. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students with good quality feedback to enhance student learning in an online community of practice (COP). The aim of the study is to identify feedback mechanisms in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and to create a full formative...... feedback episode (FFE) through an online dialogue. The paper argues that dialogue is crucial for student learning and that feedback is not only something the teacher gives to the student. Viewing good quality feedback as social, situated, formative, emphasis is put on the establishment of dialogue. We...... refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...

  1. Immediate effects of Alpha/theta and Sensory-Motor Rhythm feedback on music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzelier, J H; Hirst, L; Holmes, P; Leach, J

    2014-07-01

    This is one of a series of investigations comparing two EEG-neurofeedback protocols - Alpha/theta (A/T) and Sensory-Motor Rhythm (SMR) - for performance enhancement in the Arts, here with the focus on music. The original report (Egner and Gruzelier, 2003) established a beneficial outcome for elite conservatoire musicians following A/T training in two investigations. Subsequently this A/T advantage was replicated for both advanced instrumental and novice singing abilities, including improvisation, while SMR training benefited novice performance only (Gruzelier, Holmes et al., 2014). Here we report a replication of the latter study in university instrumentalists who as before were novice singers with one design change - post-training performances were conducted within the tenth final session instead of on a subsequent occasion. As before expert judges rated the domains of Creativity/Musicality, Communication/Presentation and Technique. The proximity to training of the music performances within the last session likely compromised gains from A/T learning, but perhaps reinforced the impact of SMR training efficacy. In support of validation there was evidence of strong within- and across-session A/T learning and positive linear trends for across-session SMR/theta and SMR/beta-2 ratio learning. In support of mediation learning correlated with music performance. The A/T outcome was markedly discrepant from previous studies and should dispel any impression that the hypnogogic state itself is transferred to the performance context. The effects of SMR ratio training are consistent with an impact on lower-order abilities required in novice performance such as sustained attention and memory, and benefiting all three domains of music assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Useful but Different: Resident Physician Perceptions of Interprofessional Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesel, Travis P; O'Brien, Bridget C; Henry, Duncan M; van Schaik, Sandrijn M

    2016-01-01

    Phenomenon: Based on recently formulated interprofessional core competencies, physicians are expected to incorporate feedback from other healthcare professionals. Based on social identity theory, physicians likely differentiate between feedback from members of their own profession and others. The current study examined residents' experiences with, and perceptions of, interprofessional feedback. In 2013, Anesthesia, Obstetrics-Gynecology, Pediatrics, and Psychiatry residents completed a survey including questions about frequency of feedback from different professionals and its perceived value (5-point scale). The authors performed an analysis of variance to examine interactions between residency program and profession of feedback provider. They conducted follow-up interviews with a subset of residents to explore reasons for residents' survey ratings. Fifty-two percent (131/254) of residents completed the survey, and 15 participated in interviews. Eighty percent of residents reported receiving written feedback from physicians, 26% from nurses, and less than 10% from other professions. There was a significant interaction between residency program and feedback provider profession, F(21, 847) = 3.82, p feedback provider profession, F(7, 847) = 73.7, p feedback from attending physicians higher than feedback from others, and anesthesia residents rated feedback from other professionals significantly lower than other residents. Ten major themes arose from qualitative data analysis, which revealed an overall positive attitude toward interprofessional feedback and clarified reasons behind residents' perceptions and identified barriers. Insights: Residents in our study reported limited exposure to interprofessional feedback and valued such feedback less than intraprofessional feedback. However, our data suggest opportunities exist for effective utilization of interprofessional feedback.

  3. Performance Feedback & Control of Solar Concentrators Using Wave Front Sensing Techniques (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beasley, Jason N

    2007-01-01

    The major requirement for using concentrating Solar Thermal devices is the proper placement of the focal spot on the absorber to provide heating of the working fluid to produce thrust or to generate electricity...

  4. The effect of providing feedback on inhaler technique and adherence from an electronic audio recording device, INCA®, in a community pharmacy setting: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Susan Mary; MacHale, Elaine; Sulaiman, Imran; Holmes, Martin; Hughes, Cian; D'Arcy, Shona; Rapcan, Viliam; Taylor, Terence; Boland, Fiona; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Reilly, Richard B; Ryder, Sheila A; Costello, Richard W

    2016-05-04

    Poor adherence to inhaled medication may lead to inadequate symptom control in patients with respiratory disease. In practice it can be difficult to identify poor adherence. We designed an acoustic recording device, the INCA® (INhaler Compliance Assessment) device, which, when attached to an inhaler, identifies and records the time and technique of inhaler use, thereby providing objective longitudinal data on an individual's adherence to inhaled medication. This study will test the hypothesis that providing objective, personalised, visual feedback on adherence to patients in combination with a tailored educational intervention in a community pharmacy setting, improves adherence more effectively than education alone. The study is a prospective, cluster randomised, parallel-group, multi-site study conducted over 6 months. The study is designed to compare current best practice in care (i.e. routine inhaler technique training) with the use of the INCA® device for respiratory patients in a community pharmacy setting. Pharmacies are the unit of randomisation and on enrolment to the study they will be allocated by the lead researcher to one of the three study groups (intervention, comparator or control groups) using a computer-generated list of random numbers. Given the nature of the intervention neither pharmacists nor participants can be blinded. The intervention group will receive feedback from the acoustic recording device on inhaler technique and adherence three times over a 6-month period along with inhaler technique training at each of these times. The comparator group will also receive training in inhaler use three times over the 6-month study period but no feedback on their habitual performance. The control group will receive usual care (i.e. the safe supply of medicines and advice on their use). The primary outcome is the rate of participant adherence to their inhaled medication, defined as the proportion of correctly taken doses of medication at the correct

  5. Influence of visual feedback on human task performance in ITER remote handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schropp, Gwendolijn Y R; Heemskerk, Cock J M; Kappers, Astrid M L; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Elzendoorn, Ben S Q; Bult, David

    In ITER, maintenance operations will be largely performed by remote handling (RH). Before ITER can be put into operation, safety regulations and licensing authorities require proof of maintainability for critical components. Part of the proof will come from using standard components and procedures.

  6. Influence of visual feedback on human task performance in ITER remote handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwendolijn Y.R. Schropp,; Heemskerk, C. J. M.; Astrid M.L. Kappers,; Wouter M. Bergmann Tiest,; Elzendoorn, B. S. Q.; David Bult,

    2012-01-01

    In ITER, maintenance operations will be largely performed by remote handling (RH). Before ITER can be put into operation, safety regulations and licensing authorities require proof of maintainability for critical components. Part of the proof will come from using standard components and procedures.

  7. The missing link between information and action: Hastenings and delays as universal reactions to performance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schryver, T. de; Eisinga, R.N.; Teelken, J.C.; Poutsma, F.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter focuses on what the key decision makers in organizations decide after having received information on the current state of the organizational performance. Because of strong attributions to success and failure, it is impossible to predict in advance which concrete actions will occur. We

  8. Trainees' Perceptions of Feedback: Validity Evidence for Two FEEDME (Feedback in Medical Education) Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing-You, Robert; Ramesh, Saradha; Hayes, Victoria; Varaklis, Kalli; Ward, Denham; Blanco, Maria

    2017-12-14

    Construct: Medical educators consider feedback a core component of the educational process. Effective feedback allows learners to acquire new skills, knowledge, and attitudes. Learners' perceptions of feedback are an important aspect to assess with valid methods in order to improve the feedback skills of educators and the feedback culture. Although guidelines for delivering effective feedback have existed for several decades, medical students and residents often indicate that they receive little feedback. A recent scoping review on feedback in medical education did not reveal any validity evidence on instruments to assess learner's perceptions of feedback. The purpose of our study was to gather validity evidence on two novel FEEDME (Feedback in Medical Education) instruments to assess medical students' and residents' perceptions of the feedback that they receive. After the authors developed an initial instrument with 54 items, cognitive interviews with medical students and residents suggested that 2 separate instruments were needed, one focused on the feedback culture (FEEDME-Culture) and the other on the provider of feedback (FEEDME-Provider). A Delphi study with 17 medical education experts and faculty members assessed content validity. The response process was explored involving 31 medical students and residents at 2 academic institutions. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analyses were performed on completed instruments. Two Delphi consultation rounds refined the wording of items and eliminated several items. Learners found both instruments easy and quick to answer; it took them less than 5 minutes to complete. Learners preferred an electronic format of the instruments over paper. Factor analysis revealed a two- and three-factor solution for the FEEDME-Culture and FEEDME-Provider instruments, respectively. Cronbach's alpha was greater than 0.80 for all factors. Items on both instruments were moderately to highly correlated (range, r = .3-.7). Our

  9. Usability Results from Human Performance Feedback and Development (HPFD) and ePerformance System Users: Technical Report #1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dean, Elizabeth; Aspinwall, Kimberly R; Schwerin, Michael J; Kendrick, Douglas E

    2006-01-01

    ...) and ePerformance system. This second and final iteration of usability testing was designed to verify the functionality of system revisions made as a result of recommendations offered in Schwerin et al. (2004...

  10. Measuring Provider Performance for Physicians Participating in the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squitieri, Lee; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-07-01

    In 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services began requiring all eligible providers to participate in the Quality Payment Program or face financial reimbursement penalty. The Quality Payment Program outlines two paths for provider participation: the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System and Advanced Alternative Payment Models. For the first performance period beginning in January of 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services estimates that approximately 83 to 90 percent of eligible providers will not qualify for participation in an Advanced Alternative Payment Model and therefore must participate in the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System program. The Merit-Based Incentive Payment System path replaces existing quality-reporting programs and adds several new measures to evaluate providers using four categories of data: (1) quality, (2) cost/resource use, (3) improvement activities, and (4) advancing care information. These categories will be combined to calculate a weighted composite score for each provider or provider group. Composite Merit-Based Incentive Payment System scores based on 2017 performance data will be used to adjust reimbursed payment in 2019. In this article, the authors provide relevant background for understanding value-based provider performance measurement. The authors also discuss Merit-Based Incentive Payment System reporting requirements and scoring methodology to provide plastic surgeons with the necessary information to critically evaluate their own practice capabilities in the context of current performance metrics under the Quality Payment Program.

  11. Effects of Informative and Confirmatory Feedback on Brain Activation During Negative Feedback Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Kyoung eWoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study compared the effects of informative and confirmatory feedback on brain activation during negative feedback processing. For confirmatory feedback trials, participants were informed that they had failed the task, whereas informative feedback trials presented task relevant information along with the notification of their failure. Fourteen male undergraduates performed a series of spatial-perceptual tasks and received feedback while their brain activity was recorded. During confirmatory feedback trials, greater activations in the amygdala, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and the thalamus (including the habenular were observed in response to incorrect responses. These results suggest that confirmatory feedback induces negative emotional reactions to failure. In contrast, informative feedback trials elicited greater activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC when participants experienced failure. Further psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis revealed a negative coupling between the DLPFC and the amygdala during informative feedback relative to confirmatory feedback trials. These findings suggest that providing task-relevant information could facilitate implicit down-regulation of negative emotions following failure.

  12. A feasibility study of a web-based performance improvement system for substance abuse treatment providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Robert; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Kaynak, Ovgü; Worley, Matt; Hantula, Donald A; Kulaga, Agatha; Rotrosen, John; Chu, Melissa; Gallop, Robert; Potter, Jennifer; Muchowski, Patrice; Brower, Kirk; Strobbe, Stephen; Magruder, Kathy; Chellis, A'Delle H; Clodfelter, Tad; Cawley, Margaret

    2007-12-01

    We report here on the feasibility of implementing a semiautomated performance improvement system-Patient Feedback (PF)-that enables real-time monitoring of patient ratings of therapeutic alliance, treatment satisfaction, and drug/alcohol use in outpatient substance abuse treatment clinics. The study was conducted in six clinics within the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. It involved a total of 39 clinicians and 6 clinic supervisors. Throughout the course of the study (consisting of five phases: training period [4 weeks], baseline [4 weeks], intervention [12 weeks], postintervention assessment [4 weeks], sustainability [1 year]), there was an overall collection rate of 75.5% of the clinic patient census. In general, the clinicians in these clinics had very positive treatment satisfaction and alliance ratings throughout the study. However, one clinic had worse drug use scores at baseline than other participating clinics and showed a decrease in self-reported drug use at postintervention. Although the implementation of the PF system proved to be feasible in actual clinical settings, further modifications of the PF system are needed to enhance any potential clinical usefulness.

  13. High-accuracy brain-machine interfaces using feedback information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Gi Yeom

    Full Text Available Sensory feedback is very important for movement control. However, feedback information has not been directly used to update movement prediction model in the previous BMI studies, although the closed-loop BMI system provides the visual feedback to users. Here, we propose a BMI framework combining image processing as the feedback information with a novel prediction method. The feedback-prediction algorithm (FPA generates feedback information from the positions of objects and modifies movement prediction according to the information. The FPA predicts a target among objects based on the movement direction predicted from the neural activity. After the target selection, the FPA modifies the predicted direction toward the target and modulates the magnitude of the predicted vector to easily reach the target. The FPA repeats the modification in every prediction time points. To evaluate the improvements of prediction accuracy provided by the feedback, we compared the prediction performances with feedback (FPA and without feedback. We demonstrated that accuracy of movement prediction can be considerably improved by the FPA combining feedback information. The accuracy of the movement prediction was significantly improved for all subjects (P<0.001 and 32.1% of the mean error was reduced. The BMI performance will be improved by combining feedback information and it will promote the development of a practical BMI system.

  14. RF feedback for KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezura, Eizi; Yoshimoto, Shin-ichi; Akai, Kazunori [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the present status of the RF feedback development for the KEK B-Factory (KEKB). A preliminary experiment concerning the RF feedback using a parallel comb-filter was performed through a choke-mode cavity and a klystron. The RF feedback has been tested using the beam of the TRISTAN Main Ring, and has proved to be effective in damping the beam instability. (author)

  15. Performance measurement of employee using an integrated 360° feedback system and AHP method: A case study of municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younos Vakil Alroaia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement plays an essential role on accelerating the efficiency of any organization. There are literally different methods for measuring the relative performance of a particular unit and many of them are involved considering various criteria. In this paper, we propose 360° feedback system for performance measurement of all employees who work for municipality of the city of Tabas located in east part of Iran. The proposed model of this paper also uses hierarchical method to cluster different attributes based on various characteristics and implements analytical hierarchy process to find the relative importance of all items. The survey uses five personal characteristics including cognitive, technical, personal and human skills and for each major item, the proposed model considers various sub-criteria. The results indicate that technical and cognitive skills are the most important personal characteristics followed by human and personal characteristics. The results of this survey show that responsibility and quality of work are the most important employee characteristics.

  16. Clarifying students' feedback-seeking behaviour in clinical clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Harold G J; Teunissen, Pim W; Spruijt, Annemarie; Fokkema, Joanne P I; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2013-03-01

    Why and how do students seek feedback on their performance in the clinical workplace and which factors influence this? These questions have remained largely unanswered in research into workplace learning during clinical clerkships. Research on feedback has focused mainly on feedback providers. Whether and how feedback recipients actively seek feedback are under-examined issues. Research in organisational psychology has proposed a mechanism whereby feedback seeking is influenced by motives and goal orientation mediated by the perceived costs and benefits of feedback. Building on a recently published model of resident doctors' feedback-seeking behaviour, we conducted a qualitative study to explore students' feedback-seeking behaviours in the clinical workplace. Between April and June 2011, we conducted semi-structured face-to-face interviews with veterinary medicine students in Years 5 and 6 about their feedback-seeking behaviour during clinical clerkships. In the interviews, 14 students were asked about their goals and motives for seeking feedback, the characteristics of their feedback-seeking behaviour and factors influencing that behaviour. Using template analysis, we coded the interview transcripts and iteratively reduced and displayed the data until agreement on the final template was reached. The students described personal and interpersonal factors to explain their reasons for seeking feedback. The factors related to intentions and the characteristics of the feedback provider, and the relationship between the feedback seeker and provider. Motives relating to image and ego, particularly when students thought that feedback might have a positive effect on image and ego, influenced feedback-seeking behaviour and could induce specific behaviours related to students' orientation towards particular sources of feedback, their orientation towards particular topics for and timing of feedback, and the frequency and method of feedback-seeking behaviour. This study shows

  17. Encouraging residents to seek feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, Dianne; Sargeant, Joan; Miller, Stephen; Holland, Joanna; Alexiadis Brown, Peggy; Leblanc, Constance; Lightfoot, Kathryn; Mann, Karen

    2013-12-01

    To explore resident and faculty perceptions of the feedback process, especially residents' feedback-seeking activities. We conducted focus groups of faculty and residents exploring experiences in giving and receiving feedback, feedback-seeking, and suggestions to support feedback-seeking. Using qualitative methods and an iterative process, all authors analyzed the transcribed audiotapes to identify and confirm themes. Emerging themes fit a framework situating resident feedback-seeking as dependent on four central factors: (1) learning/workplace culture, (2) relationships, (3) purpose/quality of feedback, (4) emotional responses to feedback. Residents and faculty agreed on many supports and barriers to feedback-seeking. Strengthening the workplace/learning culture through longitudinal experiences, use of feedback forms and explicit expectations for residents to seek feedback, coupled with providing a sense of safety and adequate time for observation and providing feedback were suggested. Tensions between faculty and resident perceptions regarding feedback-seeking related to fear of being found deficient, the emotional costs related to corrective feedback and perceptions that completing clinical work is more valued than learning. Resident feedback-seeking is influenced by multiple factors requiring attention to both faculty and learner roles. Further study of specific influences and strategies to mitigate the tensions will inform how best to support residents in seeking feedback.

  18. Optimal Control Allocation with Load Sensor Feedback for Active Load Suppression, Flight-Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Goodrick, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. The aircraft structure and the control architecture must be designed to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to utilize high structural margins, restrict control surface commands to a limited set of analyzed combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage. An optimal control technique has been explored and shown to achieve desirable vehicle control performance while limiting sensed structural loads to specified values. This technique has been implemented and flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed aircraft. The flight tests illustrate that the approach achieves the desired performance and show promising potential benefits. The flights also uncovered some important issues that will need to be addressed for production application.

  19. Real-Time Performance of Mechatronic PZT Module Using Active Vibration Feedback Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggogeri, Francesco; Borboni, Alberto; Merlo, Angelo; Pellegrini, Nicola; Ricatto, Raffaele

    2016-09-25

    This paper proposes an innovative mechatronic piezo-actuated module to control vibrations in modern machine tools. Vibrations represent one of the main issues that seriously compromise the quality of the workpiece. The active vibration control (AVC) device is composed of a host part integrated with sensors and actuators synchronized by a regulator; it is able to make a self-assessment and adjust to alterations in the environment. In particular, an innovative smart actuator has been designed and developed to satisfy machining requirements during active vibration control. This study presents the mechatronic model based on the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the AVC device. To ensure a real time performance, a H2-LQG controller has been developed and validated by simulations involving a machine tool, PZT actuator and controller models. The Hardware in the Loop (HIL) architecture is adopted to control and attenuate the vibrations. A set of experimental tests has been performed to validate the AVC module on a commercial machine tool. The feasibility of the real time vibration damping is demonstrated and the simulation accuracy is evaluated.

  20. Feedback in surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Boghdady, Michael; Alijani, Afshin

    2017-04-01

    The positive effect of feedback has long been recognized in surgical education. Surgical educators convey feedback to improve the performance of the surgical trainees. We aimed to review the scientific classification and application of feedback in surgical education, and to propose possible future directions for research. A literature search was performed using Pubmed, OVID, CINAHL, Web of science, EMBASE, ERIC database and Google Scholar. The following search terms were used: 'feedback', 'feedback in medical education', 'feedback in medical training' and 'feedback in surgery'. The search was limited to articles in English. From 1157 citations, 12 books and 43 articles met the inclusion criteria and were selected for this review. Feedback comes in a variety of types and is an essential tool for learning and developing performance in surgical education. Different methods of feedback application are evolving and future work needs to concentrate on the value of each method as well as the role of new technologies in surgical education. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the performance of millimeter wave-based RF-FSO links with HARQ feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2016-12-24

    This paper studies the performance of hybrid radio-frequency (RF) and free-space optical (FSO) links in the cases with and without hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ). Considering millimeter wave (mmwave) characteristics in the RF link and pointing errors in the FSO link, we derive closed-form expressions for the message decoding probabilities as well as the throughput and the outage probability of the RF-FSO setups. We also evaluate the effect of various parameters such as power amplifiers efficiency, different transmission techniques in the FSO link, pointing errors in the FSO link as well as different coherence times/symbol rates of the RF and the FSO links on the throughput and outage probability. The results show the efficiency of the RF-FSO links in different conditions. Moreover, the HARQ can effectively improve the outage probability/energy efficiency, and compensate the effect of hardware impairments in RF-FSO links.

  2. Large performance incentives had the greatest impact on providers whose quality metrics were lowest at baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith H; Overton, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the impact of Fairview Health Services' primary care provider compensation model, in which 40 percent of compensation was based on clinic-level quality outcomes. Fairview Health Services is a Pioneer accountable care organization in Minnesota. Using publicly reported performance data from 2010 and 2012, we found that Fairview's improvement in quality metrics was not greater than the improvement in other comparable Minnesota medical groups. An analysis of Fairview's administrative data found that the largest predictor of improvement over the first two years of the compensation model was primary care providers' baseline quality performance. Providers whose baseline performance was in the lowest tertile improved three times more, on average, across the three quality metrics studied than those in the middle tertile, and almost six times more than those in the top tertile. As a result, there was a narrowing of variation in performance across all primary care providers at Fairview and a narrowing of the gap in quality between providers who treated the highest-income patient panels and those who treated the lowest-income panels. The large quality incentive fell short of its overall quality improvement aim. However, the results suggest that payment reform may help narrow variation in primary care provider performance, which can translate into narrowing socioeconomic disparities. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. The Effect of Performance Feedback on Student Help-Seeking and Learning Strategy Use: Do Clickers Make a Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Haffie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two studies were performed to investigate the impact of students’ clicker performance feedback on their help-seeking behaviour and use of other learning strategies. In study 1, we investigated the relationship between students’ clicker performance, self-efficacy, help-seeking behavior, and academic achievement. We found that there was a significant positive correlation between their clicker performance and their course grades, and help-seeking behavior was negatively and significantly related to clicker and course performance but only for participants with high self-efficacy. In study 2, we expanded our focus to determine if participants modified a number of learning strategies as a result of receiving clicker performance feedback as well as attempting to replicate the clicker-course performance relationship found in study 1. Although participants reported an increase in their use of various learning strategies as a result of using the clickers, changes in learning strategy use was not significantly related to clicker or term test performance. The relationship between clicker and course performance was replicated. The results suggest that clicker-based feedback alone may not be sufficient to lead to a successful change in learning strategy use and that students may need more specific instruction on self-regulation and effective learning strategy use in order to improve their learning.Deux études ont évalué l’impact de la rétroaction sur la performance des étudiants indiquée par télévoteur sur leur comportement de recherche d’aide et sur les autres stratégies d’apprentissage utilisées. Dans la première étude, les chercheurs se sont penchés sur la relation entre la performance indiquée par télévoteur, le sentiment d’auto-efficacité, la recherche d’aide et la réussite scolaire. Nous avons trouvé une corrélation positive significative entre la performance indiquée par télévoteur et les notes de cours. De plus

  4. Classification accuracy of claims-based methods for identifying providers failing to meet performance targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Rebecca A.; Benjamin-Johnson, Rhondee; Onega, Tracy; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Zhu, Weiwei; Fenton, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Quality assessment is critical for healthcare reform but data sources are lacking for measurement of many important healthcare outcomes. With over 49 million people covered by Medicare as of 2010, Medicare claims data offer a potentially valuable source that could be used in targeted health care quality improvement efforts. However, little is known about the operating characteristics of provider profiling methods using claims-based outcome measures that may estimate provider performance with error. Motivated by the example of screening mammography performance, we compared approaches to identifying providers failing to meet guideline targets using Medicare claims data. We used data from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium and linked Medicare claims to compare claims-based and clinical estimates of cancer detection rate. We then demonstrated the performance of claim-based estimates across a broad range of operating characteristics using simulation studies. We found that identification of poor performing providers was extremely sensitive to algorithm specificity, with no approach identifying more than 65% of poorly performing providers when claims-based measures had specificity of 0.995 or less. We conclude that claims have the potential to contribute important information on healthcare outcomes to quality improvement efforts. However, to achieve this potential, development of highly accurate claims-based outcome measures should remain a priority. PMID:25302935

  5. Feedback stabilization initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  6. Spatial Intercell Interference Cancellation with CSI Training and Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun; Letaief, Khaled B

    2011-01-01

    We investigate intercell interference cancellation (ICIC) with a practical downlink training and uplink channel state information (CSI) feedback model. The average downlink throughput for such a 2-cell network is derived. The user location has a strong effect on the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) and the channel estimation error. This motivates adaptively switching between traditional (single-cell) beamforming and ICIC at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) where ICIC is preferred only with low SIR and accurate channel estimation, and the use of ICIC with optimized training and feedback at high SNR. For a given channel coherence time and fixed training and feedback overheads, we develop optimal data vs. pilot power allocation for CSI training as well as optimal feedback resource allocation to feed back CSI of different channels. Both analog and finite-rate digital feedback are considered. With analog feedback, the training power optimization provides a more significant performance gain than feedback optimizat...

  7. Procurement risk management practices and supply chain performance among mobile phone service providers in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Adhiambo Okonjo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between procurement risk management practices and supply chain performance among mobile phone service providers in Kenya. The study specifically set out to establish the extent to which mobile phone service providers have implemented procurement risk management practices and to determine the relationship between procurement risk management practices and supply chain performance. The study adopted a descriptive study design by collecting data from the four (4 mobile telecommunication companies in Kenya using a self-administered questionnaire. Means, standard deviation, and regression analysis were used to analyze the data collected. The study established that most of the mobile phone service providers in Kenya had implemented procurement risk management practices. It was also clear that there was a very significant relationship between procurement risk management practices and supply chain performance.

  8. Effect of Prior Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Knowledge on Compression Performance by Hospital Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Joshua N.; Glick, Joshua E.; Terndrup, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge of hospital providers and whether knowledge affects performance of effective compressions during a simulated cardiac arrest. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated the CPR knowledge and performance of medical students and ED personnel with current CPR certification. We collected data regarding compression rate, hand placement, depth, and recoil via a questionnaire to determine knowledge, and then we assessed performance using 60 seconds of compressions on a simulation mannequin. Results Data from 200 enrollments were analyzed by evaluators blinded to subject knowledge. Regarding knowledge, 94% of participants correctly identified parameters for rate, 58% for hand placement, 74% for depth, and 94% for recoil. Participants identifying an effective rate of ≥100 performed compressions at a significantly higher rate than participants identifying <100 (μ=117 vs. 94, p<0.001). Participants identifying correct hand placement performed significantly more compressions adherent to guidelines than those identifying incorrect placement (μ=86% vs. 72%, p<0.01). No significant differences were found in depth or recoil performance based on knowledge of guidelines. Conclusion Knowledge of guidelines was variable; however, CPR knowledge significantly impacted certain aspects of performance, namely rate and hand placement, whereas depth and recoil were not affected. Depth of compressions was poor regardless of prior knowledge, and knowledge did not correlate with recoil performance. Overall performance was suboptimal and additional training may be needed to ensure consistent, effective performance and therefore better outcomes after cardiopulmonary arrest. PMID:25035744

  9. Effect of Prior Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Knowledge on Compression Performance by Hospital Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua N. Burkhardt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR knowledge of hospital providers and whether knowledge affects performance of effective compressions during a simulated cardiac arrest. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated the CPR knowledge and performance of medical students and ED personnel with current CPR certification. We collected data regarding compression rate, hand placement, depth, and recoil via a questionnaire to determine knowledge, and then we assessed performance using 60 seconds of compressions on a simulation mannequin. Results: Data from 200 enrollments were analyzed by evaluators blinded to subject knowledge. Regarding knowledge, 94% of participants correctly identified parameters for rate, 58% for hand placement, 74% for depth, and 94% for recoil. Participants identifying an effective rate of ≥100 performed compressions at a significantly higher rate than participants identifying <100 (µ=117 vs. 94, p<0.001. Participants identifying correct hand placement performed significantly more compressions adherent to guidelines than those identifying incorrect placement (µ=86% vs. 72%, p<0.01. No significant differences were found in depth or recoil performance based on knowledge of guidelines. Conclusion: Knowledge of guidelines was variable; however, CPR knowledge significantly impacted certain aspects of performance, namely rate and hand placement, whereas depth and recoil were not affected. Depth of compressions was poor regardless of prior knowledge, and knowledge did not correlate with recoil performance. Overall performance was suboptimal and additional training may be needed to ensure consistent, effective performance and therefore better outcomes after cardiopulmonary arrest.

  10. Generalized fast feedback system in the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, L.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; Rouse, F.; Sass, R.; Shoaee, H.

    1991-11-01

    A generalized fast feedback system has been developed to stabilize beams at various locations in the SLC. The system is designed to perform measurements and change actuator settings to control beam states such as position, angle and energy on a pulse to pulse basis. The software design is based on the state space formalism of digital control theory. The system is database-driven, facilitating the addition of new loops without requiring additional software. A communications system, KISNet, provides fast communications links between microprocessors for feedback loops which involve multiple micros. Feedback loops have been installed in seventeen locations throughout the SLC and have proven to be invaluable in stabilizing the machine.

  11. Composite Measures of Health Care Provider Performance: A Description of Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwartz, Michael; Restuccia, Joseph D; Rosen, Amy K

    2015-01-01

    Context Since the Institute of Medicine’s 2001 report Crossing the Quality Chasm, there has been a rapid proliferation of quality measures used in quality-monitoring, provider-profiling, and pay-for-performance (P4P) programs. Although individual performance measures are useful for identifying specific processes and outcomes for improvement and tracking progress, they do not easily provide an accessible overview of performance. Composite measures aggregate individual performance measures into a summary score. By reducing the amount of data that must be processed, they facilitate (1) benchmarking of an organization’s performance, encouraging quality improvement initiatives to match performance against high-performing organizations, and (2) profiling and P4P programs based on an organization’s overall performance. Methods We describe different approaches to creating composite measures, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and provide examples of their use. Findings The major issues in creating composite measures are (1) whether to aggregate measures at the patient level through all-or-none approaches or the facility level, using one of the several possible weighting schemes; (2) when combining measures on different scales, how to rescale measures (using z scores, range percentages, ranks, or 5-star categorizations); and (3) whether to use shrinkage estimators, which increase precision by smoothing rates from smaller facilities but also decrease transparency. Conclusions Because provider rankings and rewards under P4P programs may be sensitive to both context and the data, careful analysis is warranted before deciding to implement a particular method. A better understanding of both when and where to use composite measures and the incentives created by composite measures are likely to be important areas of research as the use of composite measures grows. PMID:26626986

  12. Online assessment: what influences students to engage with feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Alan

    2014-07-01

    The intention of giving written feedback is to close the gap between the standard achieved and the standard desired, but students do not always read it. Web-based marking tools are increasingly being used in assessment practices to deliver the feedback. What motivates students to read the feedback provided, especially since the advent of these online marking tools, is poorly understood. This research looked at the factors likely to influence a medical student's engagement with written feedback delivered through an online marking tool (grademark by Turnitin). What motivates students to read the feedback provided Third-year medical students on a UK undergraduate medical course submitted an assignment online. A questionnaire was distributed to a cohort of them following the release of their results and feedback, allowing quantitative and qualitative data collection. Software recorded whether they opened their feedback. Previous examination performance figures were also collated. Online feedback is accessible and acceptable to the majority of students. Personal demographics, computer literacy, previous course performance, or personal motivational drivers did not predict those who did or did not read it. Some students reported seeing little value in feedback because of their previous negative experiences. A minority found feedback hurtful, and were likely to show avoidance behaviours. This research found that feedback provided through an online marking tool overcame many of the problems associated with handwritten feedback, but alone was not enough to ensure universal engagement. Feedback dialogues are proposed as a method to overcome negative student experiences, enhance tutor performance and encourage future student engagement. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Views of mental health care consumers on public reporting of information on provider performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Bradley D; Kogan, Jane N; Essock, Susan; Fudurich, Stephanie

    2009-05-01

    This qualitative study examined consumer preferences regarding the content and use of provider performance data and other provider information to aid in consumers' decision making. Focus groups were conducted with 41 adults who were consumers of mental health care, and discussions were transcribed and analyzed with standard qualitative research methods. Consumers supported trends toward enhancing information about providers and its availability. Several key themes emerged, including the need for easily accessible information and the most and least useful types of information. Current efforts to share provider performance information do not meet consumer preferences. Modest changes in the types of information being shared and the manner in which it is shared may substantially enhance use of such information. Such changes may help consumers to be more informed and empowered in making decisions about care, improve the quality of the care delivered, and support the movement toward a more recovery-focused system of care.

  14. When the chips are down: effects of attributional feedback on self-efficacy and task performance following initial and repeated failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee, Pete; Rees, Tim

    2011-02-01

    In two experiments, we manipulated the controllability and stability of causes of failure and explored the impact of these factors on self-efficacy and performance. In Experiment 1, participants (N=80; mean age 20.0 years, s=1.0) were provided with false negative feedback following performance on a blindfolded dart-throwing task. Consistent with theory and recent research, an induced belief that failure was beyond control and unlikely to change led to lower self-efficacy and poorer performance (all F1,754>5.49, all Pperformance (all F1,75>4.53, all P0.004). All effects were mediated by self-efficacy: Sobel's (1982) test, all z>1.97 (in absolute magnitude), all P0.22 (in absolute magnitude). These findings suggest that in novel circumstances individuals believe in the best for themselves unless possibilities to self-enhance are explicitly precluded, and only reinvest efforts when opportunities for self-enhancement become clearly admissible.

  15. Delivering Faster Congestion Feedback with the Mark-Front Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Jain, Raj

    2001-01-01

    Computer networks use congestion feedback from the routers and destinations to control the transmission load. Delivering timely congestion feedback is essential to the performance of networks. Reaction to the congestion can be more effective if faster feedback is provided. Current TCP/IP networks use timeout, duplicate Acknowledgement Packets (ACKs) and explicit congestion notification (ECN) to deliver the congestion feedback, each provides a faster feedback than the previous method. In this paper, we propose a markfront strategy that delivers an even faster congestion feedback. With analytical and simulation results, we show that mark-front strategy reduces buffer size requirement, improves link efficiency and provides better fairness among users. Keywords: Explicit Congestion Notification, mark-front, congestion control, buffer size requirement, fairness.

  16. Comparing the performance of English mental health providers in achieving patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Valerie; Jacobs, Rowena

    2015-09-01

    Evidence on provider payment systems that incorporate patient outcomes is limited for mental health care. In England, funding for mental health care services is changing to a prospective payment system with a future objective of linking some part of provider payment to outcomes. This research examines performance of mental health providers offering hospital and community services, in order to investigate if some are delivering better outcomes. Outcomes are measured using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) - a clinician-rated routine outcome measure (CROM) mandated for national use. We use data from the Mental Health Minimum Data Set (MHMDS) - a dataset on specialist mental health care with national coverage - for the years 2011/12 and 2012/13 with a final estimation sample of 305,960 observations with follow-up HoNOS scores. A hierarchical ordered probit model is used and outcomes are risk adjusted with independent variables reflecting demographic, need, severity and social indicators. A hierarchical linear model is also estimated with the follow-up total HoNOS score as the dependent variable and the baseline total HoNOS score included as a risk-adjuster. Provider performance is captured by a random effect that is quantified using Empirical Bayes methods. We find that worse outcomes are associated with severity and better outcomes with older age and social support. After adjusting outcomes for various risk factors, variations in performance are still evident across providers. This suggests that if the intention to link some element of provider payment to outcomes becomes a reality, some providers may gain financially whilst others may lose. The paper contributes to the limited literature on risk adjustment of outcomes and performance assessment of providers in mental health in the context of prospective activity-based payment systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Provider performance measures in private and public programs: achieving meaningful alignment with flexibility to innovate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Aparna; Veselovskiy, German; McKown, Lauren

    2013-08-01

    In recent years there has been a significant expansion in the use of provider performance measures for quality improvement, payment, and public reporting. Using data from a survey of health plans, we characterize the use of such performance measures by private payers. We also compare the use of these measures among selected private and public programs. We studied twenty-three health plans with 121 million commercial enrollees--66 percent of the national commercial enrollment. The health plans reported using 546 distinct performance measures. There was much variation in the use of performance measures in both private and public payment and care delivery programs, despite common areas of focus that included cardiovascular conditions, diabetes, and preventive services. We conclude that policy makers and stakeholders who seek less variability in the use of performance measures to increase consistency should balance this goal with the need for flexibility to meet the needs of specific populations and promote innovation.

  18. Assessing the performance of formulations for nonlinear feedback of surface gravity waves on ocean currents over coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Sheng, Jinyu; Hannah, Charles

    2017-08-01

    This study presents applications of a two-way coupled wave-circulation modelling system over coastal waters, with a special emphasis of performance assessments of two different methods for nonlinear feedback of ocean surface gravity waves on three-dimensional (3D) ocean currents. These two methods are the vortex force (VF) formulation suggested by Bennis et al. (2011) and the latest version of radiation stress (RS) formulation suggested by Mellor (2015). The coupled modelling system is first applied to two idealized test cases of surf-zone scales to validate implementations of these two methods in the coupled wave-circulation system. Model results show that the latest version of RS has difficulties in producing the undertow over the surf zone. The coupled system is then applied to Lunenburg Bay (LB) of Nova Scotia during Hurricane Juan in 2003. The coupled system using both the VF and RS formulations generates much stronger and more realistic 3D circulation in the Bay during Hurricane Juan than the circulation-only model, demonstrating the importance of surface wave forces to the 3D ocean circulation over coastal waters. However, the RS formulation generates some weak unphysical currents outside the wave breaking zone due to a less reasonable representation for the vertical distribution of the RS gradients over a slopping bottom. These weak unphysical currents are significantly magnified in a two-way coupled system when interacting with large surface waves, degrading the model performance in simulating currents at one observation site. Our results demonstrate that the VF formulation with an appropriate parameterization of wave breaking effects is able to produce reasonable results for applications over coastal waters during extreme weather events. The RS formulation requires a complex wave theory rather than the linear wave theory for the approximation of a vertical RS term to improve its performance under both breaking and non-breaking wave conditions.

  19. Feedback and Incentives:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback about relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedba...... of positive peer effects since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly behind, and frontrunners do not slack off. Moreover, in both pay schemes information feedback reduces the quality of the low performers' work.......This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback about relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback....... The pay schemes are a piece rate payment scheme and a winner-takes-all tournament. We find that, regardless of the pay scheme used, feedback does not improve performance. There are no significant peer effects in the piece-rate pay scheme. In contrast, in the tournament scheme we find some evidence...

  20. The Effects of Cover, Copy, and Compare, Performance Feedback and Rewards on the Mathematical Calculation Skills of Students Identified with Math Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Geetal

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the isolated effects of Cover, Copy and Compare (CCC) and the effects of CCC paired with performance feedback (CCC + PF) and rewards (CCC + RW) on the mathematical calculation skills of first grade students identified with math difficulty. Four research questions were addressed in this study. 1. Does Cover, Copy, and Compare…

  1. How Can Students' Academic Performance in Statistics Be Improved? Testing the Influence of Social and Temporal-Self Comparison Feedback in a Web-Based Training Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaval, Marine; Michinov, Nicolas; Le Bohec, Olivier; Le Hénaff, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how social or temporal-self comparison feedback, delivered in real-time in a web-based training environment, could influence the academic performance of students in a statistics examination. First-year psychology students were given the opportunity to train for a statistics examination during a semester by…

  2. Residents' narrative feedback on teaching performance of clinical teachers: analysis of the content and phrasing of suggestions for improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leeuw, Renée M.; Schipper, Mirjam P.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.

    2016-01-01

    High-quality teaching performance is important to ensure patient safety and encourage residents' learning. This study aims to explore the content and phrasing of suggestions for improvement that residents provide to support excellent teaching performance of their supervisors. From February 2010 to

  3. Effect of decision feedback equalizer taps on 3×6- channel mode-wavelength division multiplexing system performance in multimode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunda, Tendai; Amphawan, Angela; Al-dawoodi, Aras

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the effect of tap configurations in a decision feedback equalizer is investigated for controlling modal dispersion in a 60Gb/s 18-channel mode division multiplexing - wavelength division multiplexing system in a 2.5km multimode fiber on three Laguerre-Gaussian modes and six wavelengths centered at 1550nm. Spectrum analyser diagrams and bit error rate measurements show satisfactory performance for feed forward - feedback tap combinations (10,5), (14,0), (15,6) and (15,10) by effectively suppressing higher order modes.

  4. Does the new conceptual framework provide adequate concepts for reporting relevant information about performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.; Faramarzi, A; Hoogendoorn, M.

    2014-01-01

    The basic question we raise in this paper is whether the 2013 Discussion Paper (DP 2013) on the Conceptual Framework provides adequate principles for reporting an entity’s performance and what improvements could be made in light of both user needs and evidence from academic literature. DP 2013

  5. 16 CFR 1401.5 - Providing performance and technical data to purchasers by labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Providing performance and technical data to purchasers by labeling. 1401.5 Section 1401.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... identification and warning statement may appear on a firmly affixed tag, tape, card, or sticker or similar...

  6. 16 CFR 1407.3 - Providing performance and technical data to purchasers by labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Providing performance and technical data to purchasers by labeling. 1407.3 Section 1407.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... the portable generator that cannot be removed without the use of tools, and (B) On a location that is...

  7. AGN feedback in dwarf galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashyan, Gohar; Silk, Joseph; Mamon, Gary A.; Dubois, Yohan; Hartwig, Tilman

    2018-02-01

    Dwarf galaxy anomalies, such as their abundance and cusp-core problems, remain a prime challenge in our understanding of galaxy formation. The inclusion of baryonic physics could potentially solve these issues, but the efficiency of stellar feedback is still controversial. We analytically explore the possibility of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in dwarf galaxies and compare AGN and supernova (SN) feedback. We assume the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole within low-mass galaxies and standard scaling relations between the relevant physical quantities. We model the propagation and properties of the outflow and explore the critical condition for global gas ejection. Performing the same calculation for SNe, we compare the ability of AGNs and SNe to drive gas out of galaxies. We find that a critical halo mass exists below which AGN feedback can remove gas from the host halo and that the critical halo mass for an AGN is greater than the equivalent for SNe in a significant part of the parameter space, suggesting that an AGN could provide an alternative and more successful source of negative feedback than SNe, even in the most massive dwarf galaxies.

  8. Should trained lay providers perform HIV testing? A systematic review to inform World Health Organization guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C E; Yeh, P T; Johnson, C; Baggaley, R

    2017-12-01

    New strategies for HIV testing services (HTS) are needed to achieve UN 90-90-90 targets, including diagnosis of 90% of people living with HIV. Task-sharing HTS to trained lay providers may alleviate health worker shortages and better reach target groups. We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating HTS by lay providers using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Peer-reviewed articles were included if they compared HTS using RDTs performed by trained lay providers to HTS by health professionals, or to no intervention. We also reviewed data on end-users' values and preferences around lay providers preforming HTS. Searching was conducted through 10 online databases, reviewing reference lists, and contacting experts. Screening and data abstraction were conducted in duplicate using systematic methods. Of 6113 unique citations identified, 5 studies were included in the effectiveness review and 6 in the values and preferences review. One US-based randomized trial found patients' uptake of HTS doubled with lay providers (57% vs. 27%, percent difference: 30, 95% confidence interval: 27-32, p Cambodia, Malawi, and South Africa comparing testing quality between lay providers and laboratory staff found little discordance and high sensitivity and specificity (≥98%). Values and preferences studies generally found support for lay providers conducting HTS, particularly in non-hypothetical scenarios. Based on evidence supporting using trained lay providers, a WHO expert panel recommended lay providers be allowed to conduct HTS using HIV RDTs. Uptake of this recommendation could expand HIV testing to more people globally.

  9. Feedback in the OSCE: What Do Residents Remember?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Mihok, Marika; Pugh, Debra; Touchie, Claire; Halman, Samantha; Wood, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    The move to competency-based education has heightened the importance of direct observation of clinical skills and effective feedback. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is widely used for assessment and affords an opportunity for both direct observation and feedback to occur simultaneously. For feedback to be effective, it should include direct observation, assessment of performance, provision of feedback, reflection, decision making, and use of feedback for learning and change. If one of the goals of feedback is to engage students to think about their performance (i.e., reflection), it would seem imperative that they can recall this feedback both immediately and into the future. This study explores recall of feedback in the context of an OSCE. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to (a) determine the amount and the accuracy of feedback that trainees remember immediately after an OSCE, as well as 1 month later, and (b) assess whether prompting immediate recall improved delayed recall. Internal medicine residents received 2 minutes of verbal feedback from physician examiners in the context of an OSCE. The feedback was audio-recorded and later transcribed. Residents were randomly allocated to the immediate recall group (immediate-RG; n = 10) or the delayed recall group (delayed-RG; n = 8). The immediate-RG completed a questionnaire prompting recall of feedback received immediately after the OSCE, and then again 1 month later. The delayed-RG completed a questionnaire only 1 month after the OSCE. The total number and accuracy of feedback points provided by examiners were compared to the points recalled by residents. Results comparing recall at 1 month between the immediate-RG and the delayed-RG were also studied. Physician examiners provided considerably more feedback points (M = 16.3) than the residents recalled immediately after the OSCE (M = 2.61, p feedback points recalled upon completion of the OSCE (2.61) compared to 1 month later (M = 1

  10. Constructive feedback as a learning tool to enhance students' self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If feedback is provided in a way that can develop students' self-regulatory skills, it could enhance learning and, consequently, lead to improved performance. To improve teaching and learning in higher education (HE), this study sought to determine whether the feedback to first-year students affords them an opportunity to ...

  11. The Medicare Electronic Health Record Incentive Program: provider performance on core and menu measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Feblowitz, Joshua; Samal, Lipika; McCoy, Allison B; Sittig, Dean F

    2014-02-01

    To measure performance by eligible health care providers on CMS's meaningful use measures. Medicare Electronic Health Record Incentive Program Eligible Professionals Public Use File (PUF), which contains data on meaningful use attestations by 237,267 eligible providers through May 31, 2013. Cross-sectional analysis of the 15 core and 10 menu measures pertaining to use of EHR functions reported in the PUF. Providers in the dataset performed strongly on all core measures, with the most frequent response for each of the 15 measures being 90-100 percent compliance, even when the threshold for a particular measure was lower (e.g., 30 percent). PCPs had higher scores than specialists for computerized order entry, maintaining an active medication list, and documenting vital signs, while specialists had higher scores for maintaining a problem list, recording patient demographics and smoking status, and for providing patients with an after-visit summary. In fact, 90.2 percent of eligible providers claimed at least one exclusion, and half claimed two or more. Providers are successfully attesting to CMS's requirements, and often exceeding the thresholds required by CMS; however, some troubling patterns in exclusions are present. CMS should raise program requirements in future years. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. Enhanced Motor Imagery Training Using a Hybrid BCI With Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyou; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Fangyi; Zhang, Rui; Gu, Zhenghui; Cichocki, Andrzej; Li, Yuanqing

    2015-07-01

    Motor imagery-related mu/beta rhythms, which can be voluntarily modulated by subjects, have been widely used in EEG-based brain computer interfaces (BCIs). Moreover, it has been suggested that motor imagery-specific EEG differences can be enhanced by feedback training. However, the differences observed in the EEGs of naive subjects are typically not sufficient to provide reliable EEG control and thus result in unintended feedback. Such feedback can frustrate subjects and impede training. In this study, a hybrid BCI paradigm combining motor imagery and steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) has been proposed to provide effective continuous feedback for motor imagery training. During the initial training sessions, subjects must focus on flickering buttons to evoke SSVEPs as they perform motor imagery tasks. The output/feedback of the hybrid BCI is based on hybrid features consisting of motor imagery- and SSVEP-related brain signals. In this context, the SSVEP plays a more important role than motor imagery in generating feedback. As the training progresses, the subjects can gradually decrease their visual attention to the flickering buttons, provided that the feedback is still effective. In this case, the feedback is mainly based on motor imagery. Our experimental results demonstrate that subjects generate distinguishable brain patterns of hand motor imagery after only five training sessions lasting approximately 1.5 h each. The proposed hybrid feedback paradigm can be used to enhance motor imagery training. This hybrid BCI system with feedback can effectively identify the intentions of the subjects.

  13. Evaluation of Augmented Reality Feedback in Surgical Training Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahiri, Mohsen; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2017-11-01

    Providing computer-based laparoscopic surgical training has several advantages that enhance the training process. Self-evaluation and real-time performance feedback are 2 of these advantages, which avoid dependency of trainees on expert feedback. The goal of this study was to investigate the use of a visual time indicator as real-time feedback correlated with the laparoscopic surgical training. Twenty novices participated in this study working with (and without) different presentations of time indicators. They performed a standard peg transfer task, and their completion times and muscle activity were recorded and compared. Also of interest was whether the use of this type of feedback induced any side effect in terms of motivation or muscle fatigue. Of the 20 participants, 15 (75%) preferred using a time indicator in the training process rather than having no feedback. However, time to task completion showed no significant difference in performance with the time indicator; furthermore, no significant differences in muscle activity or muscle fatigue were detected with/without time feedback. The absence of significant difference between task performance with/without time feedback shows that using visual real-time feedback can be included in surgical training based on user preference. Trainees may benefit from this type of feedback in the form of increased motivation. The extent to which this can influence training frequency leading to performance improvement is a question for further study.

  14. The influence of system quality characteristics on health care providers' performance: Empirical evidence from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Salleh, Mohd Idzwan; Zakaria, Nasriah; Abdullah, Rosni

    The Ministry of Health Malaysia initiated the total hospital information system (THIS) as the first national electronic health record system for use in selected public hospitals across the country. Since its implementation 15 years ago, there has been the critical requirement for a systematic evaluation to assess its effectiveness in coping with the current system, task complexity, and rapid technological changes. The study aims to assess system quality factors to predict the performance of electronic health in a single public hospital in Malaysia. Non-probability sampling was employed for data collection among selected providers in a single hospital for two months. Data cleaning and bias checking were performed before final analysis in partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Convergent and discriminant validity assessments were satisfied the required criterions in the reflective measurement model. The structural model output revealed that the proposed adequate infrastructure, system interoperability, security control, and system compatibility were the significant predictors, where system compatibility became the most critical characteristic to influence an individual health care provider's performance. The previous DeLone and McLean information system success models should be extended to incorporate these technological factors in the medical system research domain to examine the effectiveness of modern electronic health record systems. In this study, care providers' performance was expected when the system usage fits with patients' needs that eventually increased their productivity. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nonlinear output feedback control of underwater vehicle propellers using feedback form estimated axial flow velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossen, T.I.; Blanke, M.

    2000-01-01

    Accurate propeller shaft speed controllers can be designed by using nonlinear control theory and feedback from the axial water velocity in the propeller disc. In this paper, an output feedback controller is derived, reconstructing the axial flow velocity from vehicle speed measurements, using...... a three-state model of propeller shaft speed, forward (surge) speed of the vehicle, and the axial flow velocity. Lyapunov stability theory is used to prove that a nonlinear observer combined with an output feedback integral controller provide exponential stability. The output feedback controller...... velocity can be estimated with good accuracy. In addition, the output feedback integral controller shows superior performance and robustness compared to a conventional shaft speed controller....

  16. Medicare FFS Physician Feedback Program Value-Based Payment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Physician Feedback - Value-Based Modifier Program provides comparative performance information to physicians as one part of Medicares efforts to improve the...

  17. Real-time video communication improves provider performance in a simulated neonatal resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jennifer L; Carey, William A; Lang, Tara R; Lohse, Christine M; Colby, Christopher E

    2014-11-01

    To determine if a real-time audiovisual link with a neonatologist, termed video-assisted resuscitation or VAR, improves provider performance during a simulated neonatal resuscitation scenario. Using high-fidelity simulation, 46 study participants were presented with a neonatal resuscitation scenario. The control group performed independently, while the intervention group utilized VAR. Time to effective ventilation was compared using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Providers' use of the corrective steps for ineffective ventilation per the NRP algorithm was compared using Cochran-Armitage trend tests. The time needed to establish effective ventilation was significantly reduced in the intervention group when compared to the control group (mean time 2 min 42 s versus 4 min 11 s, presuscitation scenario significantly reduces the time to establish effective ventilation and improves provider adherence to NRP guidelines. This technology may be a means for regional centers to support local providers during a neonatal emergency to improve patient safety and improve neonatal outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Formativ Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldahl, Kirsten Kofod

    Denne bog undersøger, hvordan lærere kan anvende feedback til at forbedre undervisningen i klasselokalet. I denne sammenhæng har John Hattie, professor ved Melbourne Universitet, udviklet en model for feedback, hvilken er baseret på synteser af meta-analyser. I 2009 udgav han bogen "Visible...

  19. The effect of oral interactive feedback on the accuracy and complexity of EFL learners’ writing performance: Uptake and retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Akbarzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of teacher-student interaction and collaboration in solving linguistic problems has recently been in the center of SLA research. Accordingly, this study investigated the effect of Oral Interactive Feedback (OIF on the accuracy and complexity of Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ writing. After ensuring the homogeneity using Preliminary English Test (PET, the researchers randomly assigned 50 sophomores into OIF group and Explicit Feedback (EF group, with 25 students in each of them. The participants in the OIF group received oral interactive feedback, including elicitation and metalinguistic clues, on their written errors, while those in the EF group received oral explicit correction on their written errors. Data collection was based on immediate revisions of compositions and a post-test. Using ANCOVA, the researchers found that the OIF group outperformed the EF group in terms of both accuracy and complexity in both revised compositions and post-test. The findings from the study may encourage language teachers’ further use

  20. Driver feedback mobile APP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriguera Marti, F.; Miralles Miquel, E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper faces the human factor in driving and its consequences for road safety. It presents the concepts behind the development of a smartphone app capable of evaluating drivers’ performance. The app provides feedback to the driver in terms of a grade (between 0 and 10) depending on the aggressiveness and risks taken while driving. These are computed from the cumulative probability distribution function of the jerks (i.e. the time derivative of acceleration), which are measured using the smartphones’ accelerometer. Different driving contexts (e.g. urban, freeway, congestion, etc.) are identified applying cluster analysis to the measurements, and treated independently. Using regression analysis, the aggressiveness indicator is related to the drivers' safety records and to the probability of having an accident, through the standard DBQ - Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Results from a very limited pilot test show a strong correlation between the 99th percentile of the jerk measurements and the DBQ results. A linear model is fitted. This allows quantifying the safe driving behavior only from smartphone measurements. Finally, this indicator is translated into a normalized grade and feedback to the driver. This feedback will challenge the driver to train and to improve his performance. The phone will be blocked while driving and will incorporate mechanisms to prevent bad practices, like competition in aggressive driving. The app is intended to contribute to the improvement of road safety, one of the major public health problems, by tackling the human factor which is the trigger of the vast majority of traffic accidents. Making explicit and quantifying risky behaviors is the first step towards a safer driving. (Author)

  1. A Journey towards Sustainable Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, Allyson; Young, Charlotte; Davey, Tamzyn; Fitzgerald, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Meeting students' expectations associated with the provision of feedback is a perennial challenge for tertiary education. Efforts to provide comprehensive, timely feedback within our own first year undergraduate public health courses have not always met students' expectations. In response, we sought to develop peer feedback activities to support…

  2. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The computer program LFSC (Feedback Simulation Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

  3. The Impact of Order Source Misattribution on Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) Performance Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, George A; Catzoela, Linda; Patel, Lajja; Bruner, Kylynn; Friedman, Felix; Ramirez, Ricardo; Saucedo, Lilliana; Webster, S Luke; Gillean, John A

    2017-01-01

    One strategy to foster adoption of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) by physicians is the monthly distribution of a list identifying the number and use rate percentage of orders entered electronically versus on paper by each physician in the facility. Physicians care about CPOE use rate reports because they support the patient safety and quality improvement objectives of CPOE implementation. Certain physician groups are also motivated because they participate in contracted financial and performance arrangements that include incentive payments or financial penalties for meeting (or failing to meet) a specified CPOE use rate target. Misattribution of order sources can hinder accurate measurement of individual physician CPOE use and can thereby undermine providers' confidence in their reported performance, as well as their motivation to utilize CPOE. Misattribution of order sources also has significant patient safety, quality, and medicolegal implications. This analysis sought to evaluate the magnitude and sources of misattribution among hospitalists with high CPOE use and, if misattribution was found, to formulate strategies to prevent and reduce its recurrence, thereby ensuring the integrity and credibility of individual and facility CPOE use rate reporting. A detailed manual order source review and validation of all orders issued by one hospitalist group at a midsize community hospital was conducted for a one-month study period. We found that a small but not dismissible percentage of orders issued by hospitalists-up to 4.18 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 3.84-4.56 percent) per month-were attributed inaccurately. Sources of misattribution by department or function were as follows: nursing, 42 percent; pharmacy, 38 percent; laboratory, 15 percent; unit clerk, 3 percent; and radiology, 2 percent. Order management and protocol were the most common correct order sources that were incorrectly attributed. Order source misattribution can negatively affect

  4. Energy Feedback Systems: Evaluation of Meta-studies on energy savings through feedback

    OpenAIRE

    RIBEIRO SERRENHO TIAGO; ZANGHERI PAOLO; BERTOLDI PAOLO

    2015-01-01

    The Energy Efficiency Directive, in its Articles 9 to 11 focuses on the availability of accurate, up to date information to be provided to final energy consumers in a cost-effective way. The present study proposes a literature review on existing studies regarding energy feedback systems, having in consideration the type of feedback, its duration, the geographical area where these have been performed and the correlation from these with the type of energy carrier being used by the final consume...

  5. Enhancing the Performance of Distributed Feedback Dye Lasers and Plasmonic V-grooves for Lab-on-a-chip Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron

    The ability to perform laboratory operations in compact systems is not only advantageous for the development of diagnostics tools and their production, but also provides unique opportunities to explore the natural world on the micro- and nanoscale. To this end, we focus on two optical schemes: 1)...... to the advantages they bring to lab-on-a-chip systems....

  6. More feedback is better than less: Learning a novel upper limb joint coordination pattern with augmented auditory feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya eFujii

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning is a process whereby the acquisition of new skills occurs with practice, and can be influenced by the provision of feedback. An important question is what frequency of feedback facilitates motor learning. The guidance hypothesis assumes that the provision of less augmented feedback is better than more because a learner can use his/her own inherent feedback. However, it is unclear whether this hypothesis holds true for all types of augmented feedback, including for example sonified information about performance. Thus, we aimed to test what frequency of augmented sonified feedback facilitates the motor learning of a novel joint coordination pattern. Twenty healthy volunteers first reached to a target with their arm (baseline phase. We manipulated this baseline kinematic data for each individual to create a novel target joint coordination pattern. Participants then practiced to learn the novel target joint coordination pattern, receiving either feedback on every trial i.e. 100% feedback (n = 10, or every other trial, i.e. 50% feedback (n = 10 (acquisition phase. We created a sonification system to provide the feedback. This feedback was a pure tone that varied in intensity in proportion to the error of the performed joint coordination relative to the target pattern. Thus, the auditory feedback contained information about performance in real-time (i.e. concurrent, knowledge of performance feedback. Participants performed the novel joint coordination pattern with no-feedback immediately after the acquisition phase (immediate retention phase, and on the next day (delayed retention phase. The root-mean squared error (RMSE and variable error (VE of joint coordination were significantly reduced during the acquisition phase in both 100% and 50% feedback groups. There was no significant difference in VE between the groups at immediate and delayed retention phases. However, at both these retention phases, the 100% feedback group showed

  7. Real-World Verbal Communication Performance of Children Provided With Cochlear Implants or Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Hartmut; Keilmann, Annerose; Leonhard, Katharina; Streicher, Barbara; Müller, Linda; Lang-Roth, Ruth

    2015-07-01

    To compare the real-world verbal communication performance of children provided with cochlear implants (CIs) with their peers with hearing aids (HAs). Cross-sectional study in university tertiary referral centers and at hearing aid dispensers. Verbal communication performance was assessed by the Functioning after Pediatric Cochlear Implantation (FAPCI) instrument. The FAPCI was administered to 38 parents of children using CIs and 62 parents of children with HAs. According to the WHO classification, children with HAs were categorized into three groups (mild-moderate-severe hearing loss). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the FAPCI scores, with study group, hearing age (i.e., device experience), and age at hearing intervention as sources of variation. ANOVA showed that hearing age and study group significantly contribute to the FAPCI outcome. In all study groups except the children with mild hearing loss, FAPCI scores increased alongside growing experience with the devices. Children with mild hearing loss using HAs showed higher scores than those with severe hearing loss or implanted children. There were no significant differences between the children with CIs and the children with moderate or severe hearing loss using HAs. Real-world verbal communication abilities of children with CIs are similar to those of children with moderate-to-severe hearing loss using amplification. Because hearing age significantly influences performance, children with moderate-to-severe hearing loss using HAs and implanted children catch up with children with mild hearing loss at a hearing age of approximately 3 years.

  8. Fear of feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Jay M; Strober, Myra H

    2003-04-01

    Nobody likes performance reviews. Subordinates are terrified they'll hear nothing but criticism. Bosses think their direct reports will respond to even the mildest criticism with anger or tears. The result? Everyone keeps quiet. That's unfortunate, because most people need help figuring out how to improve their performance and advance their careers. This fear of feedback doesn't come into play just during annual reviews. At least half the executives with whom the authors have worked never ask for feedback. Many expect the worst: heated arguments, even threats of dismissal. So rather than seek feedback, people try to guess what their bosses are thinking. Fears and assumptions about feedback often manifest themselves in psychologically maladaptive behaviors such as procrastination, denial, brooding, jealousy, and self-sabotage. But there's hope, say the authors. Those who learn adaptive techniques can free themselves from destructive responses. They'll be able to deal with feedback better if they acknowledge negative emotions, reframe fear and criticism constructively, develop realistic goals, create support systems, and reward themselves for achievements along the way. Once you've begun to alter your maladaptive behaviors, you can begin seeking regular feedback from your boss. The authors take you through four steps for doing just that: self-assessment, external assessment, absorbing the feedback, and taking action toward change. Organizations profit when employees ask for feedback and deal well with criticism. Once people begin to know how they are doing relative to management's priorities, their work becomes better aligned with organizational goals. What's more, they begin to transform a feedback-averse environment into a more honest and open one, in turn improving performance throughout the organization.

  9. BUSINESS PERFORMANCE OF HEALTH TOURISM SERVICE PROVIDERS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrkljan, Sanela; Hendija, Zvjezdana

    2016-03-01

    Health tourism can be generally divided into medical, health spa and wellness tourism. Health spa tourism services are provided in special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts, and include under medical supervision controlled use of natural healing factors and physical therapy in order to improve and preserve health. There are 13 special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts in Croatia. Most of them are financed through the state budget and lesser by sale on the market. More than half of their accommodation capacity is offered for sale on the market while the rest is under contract with the Croatian Health Insurance Fund. Domestic overnights are several times higher than foreign overnights. The aim of this study was to analyze business performance of special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts in Croatia in relation to the sources of financing and the structure of service users. The assumption was that those who are more market-oriented achieve better business performance. In proving these assumptions, an empirical research was conducted and the assumptions were tested. A positive correlation was proven in tested indicators of business performance of the analyzed service providers of health-spa tourism with a higher amount of overnight stays realized through sales on the market in relation to total overnight stays, with a greater share of foreign overnights in total of overnights and with a higher share of realized revenue on the market out of total revenue. The results of the research show that special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts that are more market-oriented are more successful in their business performance. These findings are important for planning the health and tourism policies in countries like Croatia.

  10. Effects of Immediate Feedback Delivered via Webcam and Bug-in-Ear Technology on Preservice Teacher Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeler, Mary Catherine; McKinnon, Kathleen; Stout, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    University faculty and supervisors dedicated to the preparation of future teachers are facing more challenges than ever before in doing more with less. This includes supervising more preservice teachers in more schools, spread out over a wide geographic area. Feedback is essential to learning, and recent research suggests that the most effective…

  11. Real-Time Visual Feedback for Learning to Perform Short Rhythms with Variations in Timing and Loudness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadakata, M.; Hoppe, D.; Brandmeyer, A.; Timmers, R.; Desain, P.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    According to learning theories and empirical observations, communication between teachers and students is a crucial factor in effective learning of musical expressions. One possibility for improving this communication could be the introduction of visual feedback (VFB) in the lesson. In the current

  12. Performance investigation of stochastic resonance in bistable systems with time-delayed feedback and three types of asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Youguo

    2018-03-01

    The simultaneous influence of potential asymmetries and time-delayed feedback on stochastic resonance (SR) subject to both periodic force and additive Gaussian white noise is investigated by using two-state theory and small-delay approximation, where three types of asymmetries include well-depth, well-width, and both well-depth and well-width asymmetries, respectively. The asymmetric types and time-delayed feedback determine the behaviors of SR, especially output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) peaks, optimal additive noise intensity and feedback intensity. Moreover, the largest SNR in asymmetric SR is found to be relatively larger than symmetric one in some cases, whereas in other cases the symmetric SR is superior to asymmetric one, which is of dependence on time delay and feedback intensity. In addition, the SR with well-width asymmetry can suppress stronger noise than that with well-depth asymmetry under the action of same time delay, which is beneficial to weak signal detection.

  13. The Effect of Oral Interactive Feedback on the Accuracy and Complexity of EFL Learners' Writing Performance: Uptake and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Roya; Saeidi, Mahnaz; Chehreh, Mahtaj

    2014-01-01

    The role of teacher-student interaction and collaboration in solving linguistic problems has recently been in the center of SLA research. Accordingly, this study investigated the effect of Oral Interactive Feedback (OIF) on the accuracy and complexity of Iranian intermediate EFL learners' writing. After ensuring the homogeneity using Preliminary…

  14. Performances of sexuality counselling: a framework for provider-client encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kwaak, Anke; Ferris, Kristina; van Kats, Jetty; Dieleman, Marjolein

    2010-12-01

    Adequately assessing quality of care poses enormous challenges. While conducting fieldwork, we were struck by the need for a framework that encapsulates provider-client encounters. Little evidence exists concerning the most effective training, and management of health staff engaged in sexuality, reproductive health and HIV related health services. This paper proposes a framework for analysing these encounters. This paper is based on five studies. Mixed method studies were carried out in Uganda and Kenya. Two additional studies looked into the effect of HIV on health worker performance in Uganda and Zambia. As a result of the findings, a desk review looked into factors affecting provider-client encounters in order to improve the responsiveness of programs. Positive encounters between provider and client are built on trust and respect, consist of communication, practice and process, and are influenced by space, place and context. Combining these facets allows for a better understanding of their interactions. A holistic perspective in which the breadth of dynamics and processes are described should be used when assessing the quality of provider-client encounters. Within training, management and human resource planning, these dynamics need to be utilized to realize the best possible care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance evaluation of hospitals that provide care in the public health system, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cristiano de Azevedo Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if size, administrative level, legal status, type of unit and educational activity influence the hospital network performance in providing services to the Brazilian Unified Health System.METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated data from the Hospital Information System and the Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde (National Registry of Health Facilities, 2012, in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. We calculated performance indicators, such as: the ratio of hospital employees per bed; mean amount paid for admission; bed occupancy rate; average length of stay; bed turnover index and hospital mortality rate. Data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. The groups were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA and Bonferroni correction.RESULTS The hospital occupancy rate in small hospitals was lower than in medium, big and special-sized hospitals. Higher hospital occupancy rate and bed turnover index were observed in hospitals that include education in their activities. The hospital mortality rate was lower in specialized hospitals compared to general ones, despite their higher proportion of highly complex admissions. We found no differences between hospitals in the direct and indirect administration for most of the indicators analyzed.CONCLUSIONS The study indicated the importance of the scale effect on efficiency, and larger hospitals had a higher performance. Hospitals that include education in their activities had a higher operating performance, albeit with associated importance of using human resources and highly complex structures. Specialized hospitals had a significantly lower rate of mortality than general hospitals, indicating the positive effect of the volume of procedures and technology used on clinical outcomes. The analysis related to the administrative level and legal status did not show any significant performance differences between the categories of public hospitals.

  16. Audit and feedback and clinical practice guideline adherence: Making feedback actionable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Best Richard G

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a strategy for improving clinical practice guideline (CPG adherence, audit and feedback (A&F has been found to be variably effective, yet A&F research has not investigated the impact of feedback characteristics on its effectiveness. This paper explores how high performing facilities (HPF and low performing facilities (LPF differ in the way they use clinical audit data for feedback purposes. Method Descriptive, qualitative, cross-sectional study of a purposeful sample of six Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs with high and low adherence to six CPGs, as measured by external chart review audits. One-hundred and two employees involved with outpatient CPG implementation across the six facilities participated in one-hour semi-structured interviews where they discussed strategies, facilitators and barriers to implementing CPGs. Interviews were analyzed using techniques from the grounded theory method. Results High performers provided timely, individualized, non-punitive feedback to providers, whereas low performers were more variable in their timeliness and non-punitiveness and relied on more standardized, facility-level reports. The concept of actionable feedback emerged as the core category from the data, around which timeliness, individualization, non-punitiveness, and customizability can be hierarchically ordered. Conclusion Facilities with a successful record of guideline adherence tend to deliver more timely, individualized and non-punitive feedback to providers about their adherence than facilities with a poor record of guideline adherence. Consistent with findings from organizational research, feedback intervention characteristics may influence the feedback's effectiveness at changing desired behaviors.

  17. Case-based discussion: perceptions of feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanaruban, Aruchuna; Flanders, Lucy; Rees, Huw

    2017-04-12

    Over recent years there has been a trend towards developing high-quality assessments to assess a doctor's performance in the workplace. Case-based discussion (CbD) is a form of workplace-based assessment that has the potential to provide feedback to trainees on their performance or management of a specific case. The aim of this study was to explore how CbDs are perceived and implemented in practice amongst a UK cohort of medical trainees. This study involved 78 medical trainees at a UK hospital completing a questionnaire rating their last CbD experience, including the duration spent receiving feedback, whether it was pre-planned or ad hoc and how they responded to the feedback received. Focus groups were conducted involving 12 trainees to discuss common themes on feedback arising from the questionnaire, and thematic analysis was carried out following these discussions. Only 19 per cent of assessments were pre-planned and the average duration of assessments was 6-10 minutes, with feedback lasting less than 5 minutes. A total of 76 per cent of trainees responded to the feedback they received by completing self-directed learning or by addressing the specific action points arising from the feedback. The focus groups highlighted the barriers to incorporating these assessments into everyday practice, including appreciating the time constraints and the importance of trainer engagement in the assessment process. The aim of this study was to explore how CbDs are perceived and implemented in practice CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that most trainees appreciate the educational value of CbDs, but more emphasis and training is required in planning these assessments and in providing feedback that is both specific and actionable. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  18. Comparison of two reading feedback strategies in improving the oral and written language performance of children with language-learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Linda K

    2003-02-01

    Twelve school-age children with language-learning disabilities (LLD) participated in a study comparing the effects of two reading feedback strategies for improving their oral and written language performance. Children were matched for age, disability, gender, and general reading performance. Participants were assigned to one of three study groups, Treatment 1 (T1), Treatment 2 (T2), or Control (C). Children were pre- and posttested on standardized tests of reading and oral vocabulary. T1 and T2 participated in 6 weeks of reading intervention. T1 used traditional decoding-based feedback strategies, and T2 used meaning-based feedback strategies, termed Communicative Reading Strategies (CRS). Significant differences across groups were found for reading comprehension, oral reading, and expressive vocabulary measures. Pairwise comparisons indicated that T2 performed significantly better than T1 and C on reading comprehension at posttest. Though not reaching levels of significance, T2 made greater gains than T1 and C on oral reading and expressive vocabulary measures. Results are discussed with implications for using CRS (T2) with school-age poor readers.

  19. The role of kaizen in creating radical performance results in a logistics service provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erez Agmoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the role of an incremental change in organizational process in creating radical performance results in a service provider company. The role of Kaizen is established prominently in manufacturing, but is nascent in service applications. This study examines the impact of introducing Kaizen as an ODI tool-how it is applied, how it works, and whether participants believe it helps service groups form more effective working relationships that result in significant performance improvements. Methods: Exploring the evolving role of Kaizen in service contexts, this study explores a variety of facets of human communication in the context of continuous improvement and teamwork inter-organizationally. The paper consists of an archival study and an action research case study. A pre-intervention study consisting of observations, interviews, and submission of questionnaires to employees of a manufacturing and air-sea freight firm was conducted. A Kaizen intervention occurred subsequently, and a post-intervention study was then conducted. Results: Radical improvements in both companies such as 30% financial growth, 81% productivity improvement and more are demonstrated in this paper. Conclusions: Findings offer unique insights into the effects of Kaizen in creating radical performance improvements in a service company and its customer. Both qualitative and quantitative results of business, satisfaction, and productivity suggest time invested in introducing Kaizen into a service organization helps the companies improve relationships and improve the bottom line dramatically.

  20. Development of a Child Abuse Checklist to Evaluate Prehospital Provider Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonso, Aimee; Auerbach, Marc; Bechtel, Kirsten; Bilodeau, Kyle; Gawel, Marcie; Koziel, Jeannette; Whitfill, Travis; Tiyyagura, Gunjan Kamdar

    2017-01-01

    To develop and provide validity evidence for a performance checklist to evaluate the child abuse screening behaviors of prehospital providers. Checklist Development: We developed the first iteration of the checklist after review of the relevant literature and on the basis of the authors' clinical experience. Next, a panel of six content experts participated in three rounds of Delphi review to reach consensus on the final checklist items. Checklist Validation: Twenty-eight emergency medical services (EMS) providers (16 EMT-Basics, 12 EMT-Paramedics) participated in a standardized simulated case of physical child abuse to an infant followed by one-on-one semi-structured qualitative interviews. Three reviewers scored the videotaped performance using the final checklist. Light's kappa and Cronbach's alpha were calculated to assess inter-rater reliability (IRR) and internal consistency, respectively. The correlation of successful child abuse screening with checklist task completion and with participant characteristics were compared using Pearson's chi squared test to gather evidence for construct validity. The Delphi review process resulted in a final checklist that included 24 items classified with trichotomous scoring (done, not done, or not applicable). The overall IRR of the three raters was 0.70 using Light's kappa, indicating substantial agreement. Internal consistency of the checklist was low, with an overall Cronbach's alpha of 0.61. Of 28 participants, only 14 (50%) successfully screened for child abuse in simulation. Participants who successfully screened for child abuse did not differ significantly from those who failed to screen in terms of training level, past experience with child abuse reporting, or self-reported confidence in detecting child abuse (all p > 0.30). Of all 24 tasks, only the task of exposing the infant significantly correlated with successful detection of child abuse (p child abuse checklist that demonstrated strong content validity and

  1. Facilitating the Feedback Process on a Clinical Clerkship Using a Smartphone Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Aditya; Generalla, Jenilee; Thompson, Britta; Haidet, Paul

    2017-04-18

    This pilot study evaluated the effects of a smartphone-triggered method of feedback delivery on students' perceptions of the feedback process. An interactive electronic feedback form was made available to students through a smartphone app. Students were asked to evaluate various aspects of the feedback process. Responses from a previous year served as control. In the first three quarters of academic year 2014-2015 (pre-implementation), only 65% of responders reported receiving oral feedback and 40% reported receiving written feedback. During the pilot phase (transition), these increased to 80% for both forms. Following full implementation in academic year 2015-2016 (post-implementation), 97% reported receiving oral feedback, and 92% reported receiving written feedback. A statistically significant difference was noted pre- to post-implementation for both oral and written feedback (p performance; 69% indicated the feedback method as better compared to other methods. Students acknowledged the facilitation of conversation with supervisors and the convenience of receiving feedback, as well as the promptness with which feedback was provided. The use of a drop-down menu was thought to limit the scope of conversation. These data point to the effectiveness of this method to cue supervisors to provide feedback to students.

  2. 42 CFR 493.53 - Notification requirements for laboratories issued a certificate for provider-performed microscopy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... certificate for provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures. 493.53 Section 493.53 Public Health CENTERS... CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Registration Certificate, Certificate for Provider-performed Microscopy... certificate for provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures. Laboratories issued a certificate for PPM...

  3. The Effects of Corrective Feedback on Chinese Learners' Writing Accuracy: A Quantitative Analysis in an EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Scholars debate whether corrective feedback contributes to improving L2 learners' grammatical accuracy in writing performance. Some researchers take a stance on the ineffectiveness of corrective feedback based on the impracticality of providing detailed corrective feedback for all L2 learners and detached grammar instruction in language…

  4. Teaching leadership in trauma resuscitation: Immediate feedback from a real-time, competency-based evaluation tool shows long-term improvement in resident performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Shea C; Heffernan, Daithi S; Connolly, Michael D; Stephen, Andrew H; Leuckel, Stephanie N; Harrington, David T; Machan, Jason T; Adams, Charles A; Cioffi, William G

    2016-10-01

    Limited data exist on how to develop resident leadership and communication skills during actual trauma resuscitations. An evaluation tool was developed to grade senior resident performance as the team leader during full-trauma-team activations. Thirty actions that demonstrated the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies were graded on a Likert scale of 1 (poor) to 5 (exceptional). These actions were grouped by their respective core competencies on 5 × 7-inch index cards. In Phase 1, baseline performance scores were obtained. In Phase 2, trauma-focused communication in-services were conducted early in the academic year, and immediate, personalized feedback sessions were performed after resuscitations based on the evaluation tool. In Phase 3, residents received only evaluation-based feedback following resuscitations. In Phase 1 (October 2009 to April 2010), 27 evaluations were performed on 10 residents. In Phase 2 (April 2010 to October 2010), 28 evaluations were performed on nine residents. In Phase 3 (October 2010 to January 2012), 44 evaluations were performed on 13 residents. Total scores improved significantly between Phases 1 and 2 (p = 0.003) and remained elevated throughout Phase 3. When analyzing performance by competency, significant improvement between Phases 1 and 2 (p communication and professionalism" (p = 0.56). Statistically similar scores were observed between Phases 2 and 3 in all competencies with the exception of "medical knowledge," which showed ongoing significant improvement (p = 0.003). Directed resident feedback sessions utilizing data from a real-time, competency-based evaluation tool have allowed us to improve our residents' abilities to lead trauma resuscitations over a 30-month period. Given pressures to maximize clinical educational opportunities among work-hour constraints, such a model may help decrease the need for costly simulation-based training. Therapeutic study, level III.

  5. Administrative data provide vital research evidence for maximizing health-system performance and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, David; Buckley, Elizabeth

    2017-06-01

    Although the quality of administrative data is frequently questioned, these data are vital for health-services evaluation and complement data from trials, other research studies and registries for research. Trials generally provide the strongest evidence of outcomes in research settings but results may not apply in many service environments. High-quality observational research has a complementary role where trials are not applicable and for assessing whether trial results apply to groups excluded from trials. Administrative data have a broader system-wide reach, enabling system-wide health-services research and monitoring of performance markers. Where administrative data raise questions about service outcomes, follow-up enquiry may be required to investigate validity and service implications. Greater use should be made of administrative data for system-wide monitoring and for research on service effectiveness and equity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Social anxiety and the ironic effects of positive interviewer feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnick, Christopher J; Kowal, Marta; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2015-01-01

    Positive interviewer feedback should encourage positive experiences and outcomes for interviewees. Yet, positive feedback is inconsistent with socially anxious interviewees' negative self-views. Socially anxious interviewees might experience increased self-focus while attempting to reconcile the inconsistency between their self-perceptions and that feedback. This could interfere with successful interview performance. This study used a 3 (feedback: positive, negative, no) × 2 (social anxiety: high, low) between-subjects design. Undergraduate students (N = 88) completed a measure of dispositional social anxiety. They then engaged in a simulated interview with a White confederate trained to adhere to a standardized script. Interviewees received positive, negative, or no interviewer feedback. Each interview was video recorded to code anxiety displays, impression management tactics, and interview success. Following positive feedback, socially anxious interviewees displayed more anxiety, less assertiveness, and received lower success ratings. Among anxious interviewees, increased self-focus provided an indirect path between positive feedback and lower success. Consistent with self-verification theory, anxious interviewees had poorer interview performance following positive feedback that contradicted their negative self-views. Thus, socially anxious interviewees might be at a disadvantage when interviewing, especially following positive feedback. Implications for interviewees and interviewers are discussed.

  7. Constructive real time feedback for a temporal bone simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Bailey, James; Ioannou, Ioanna; Wijewickrema, Sudanthi; Kennedy, Gregor; O'Leary, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    As demands on surgical training efficiency increase, there is a stronger need for computer assisted surgical training systems. The ability to provide automated performance feedback and assessment is a critical aspect of such systems. The development of feedback and assessment models will allow the use of surgical simulators as self-guided training systems that act like expert trainers and guide trainees towards improved performance. This paper presents an approach based on Random Forest models to analyse data recorded during surgery using a virtual reality temporal bone simulator and generate meaningful automated real-time performance feedback. The training dataset consisted of 27 temporal bone simulation runs composed of 16 expert runs provided by 7 different experts and 11 trainee runs provided by 6 trainees. We demonstrate how Random Forest models can be used to predict surgical expertise and deliver feedback that improves trainees' surgical technique. We illustrate the potential of the approach through a feasibility study.

  8. Static Output-Feedback Control for Vehicle Suspensions: A Single-Step Linear Matrix Inequality Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Rubió-Massegú

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new strategy to design static output-feedback controllers for a class of vehicle suspension systems is presented. A theoretical background on recent advances in output-feedback control is first provided, which makes possible an effective synthesis of static output-feedback controllers by solving a single linear matrix inequality optimization problem. Next, a simplified model of a quarter-car suspension system is proposed, taking the ride comfort, suspension stroke, road holding ability, and control effort as the main performance criteria in the vehicle suspension design. The new approach is then used to design a static output-feedback H∞ controller that only uses the suspension deflection and the sprung mass velocity as feedback information. Numerical simulations indicate that, despite the restricted feedback information, this static output-feedback H∞ controller exhibits an excellent behavior in terms of both frequency and time responses, when compared with the corresponding state-feedback H∞ controller.

  9. Teacher feedback during active learning: current practices in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-06-01

    Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears difficult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the existing knowledge about feedback and to give directions to improve teacher feedback in the context of active learning. The participants comprised 32 teachers who practiced active learning in the domain of environmental studies in the sixth, seventh, or eighth grade of 13 Dutch primary schools. A total of 1,465 teacher-student interactions were examined. Video observations were made of active learning lessons in the domain of environmental studies. A category system was developed based on the literature and empirical data. Teacher-student interactions were assessed using this system. Results. About half of the teacher-student interactions contained feedback. This feedback was usually focused on the tasks that were being performed by the students and on the ways in which these tasks were processed. Only 5% of the feedback was explicitly related to a learning goal. In their feedback, the teachers were directing (rather than facilitating) the learning processes. During active learning, feedback on meta-cognition and social learning is important. Feedback should be explicitly related to learning goals. In practice, these kinds of feedback appear to be scarce. Therefore, giving feedback during active learning seems to be an important topic for teachers' professional development. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Exploring Performance Determinants of China’s Cable Operators and OTT Service Providers in the Era of Digital Convergence—From the Perspective of an Industry Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates key determinants of business performance in China’s video industry in the era of digital convergence. Specifically, we analyze China’s OTT (over-the-top service providers and cable operators based on the perspective of an industry platform, which acts as the core module of a business ecosystem and is capable of facilitating and coordinating interdependence among different agents. Panel data models are established to empirically explore what factors impact the performance of these two types of players. The findings demonstrate that both platform use and the size of an installed base are crucial for the determinants of the performance of OTT service providers and cable operators. An online video platform can also benefit from an increasing proportion of mobile viewers by implementing a multi-screen strategy. Further, an OTT service provider can profit from the interaction between its installed base and UGC (user-generated content, while cable operators can take advantage of positive feedback between their demand side and supply side.

  11. Excited, Proud, and Accomplished: Exploring the Effects of Feedback Supplemented with Web-Based Peer Benchmarking on Self-Regulated Learning in Marketing Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raska, David

    2014-01-01

    This research explores and tests the effect of an innovative performance feedback practice--feedback supplemented with web-based peer benchmarking--through a lens of social cognitive framework for self-regulated learning. The results suggest that providing performance feedback with references to exemplary peer output is positively associated with…

  12. Interface Prostheses With Classifier-Feedback-Based User Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yinfeng; Zhou, Dalin; Li, Kairu; Liu, Honghai

    It is evident that user training significantly affects performance of pattern-recognition-based myoelectric prosthetic device control. Despite plausible classification accuracy on offline datasets, online accuracy usually suffers from the changes in physiological conditions and electrode displacement. The user ability in generating consistent electromyographic (EMG) patterns can be enhanced via proper user training strategies in order to improve online performance. This study proposes a clustering-feedback strategy that provides real-time feedback to users by means of a visualized online EMG signal input as well as the centroids of the training samples, whose dimensionality is reduced to minimal number by dimension reduction. Clustering feedback provides a criterion that guides users to adjust motion gestures and muscle contraction forces intentionally. The experiment results have demonstrated that hand motion recognition accuracy increases steadily along the progress of the clustering-feedback-based user training, while conventional classifier-feedback methods, i.e., label feedback, hardly achieve any improvement. The result concludes that the use of proper classifier feedback can accelerate the process of user training, and implies prosperous future for the amputees with limited or no experience in pattern-recognition-based prosthetic device manipulation.It is evident that user training significantly affects performance of pattern-recognition-based myoelectric prosthetic device control. Despite plausible classification accuracy on offline datasets, online accuracy usually suffers from the changes in physiological conditions and electrode displacement. The user ability in generating consistent electromyographic (EMG) patterns can be enhanced via proper user training strategies in order to improve online performance. This study proposes a clustering-feedback strategy that provides real-time feedback to users by means of a visualized online EMG signal input as well

  13. Feedback control of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaely, Boaz

    This thesis is concerned with the development an application of feedback control techniques for active sound control. Both fixed and adaptive controllers are considered. The controller design problem for active sound control is formulated as a constrained optimisation problem with an H2 performance objective, of minimising the variance of the control error, and H2 and H∞ design constraints involving control power output, disturbance enhancement, and robust stability. An Internal Model Controller with an FIR control filter is assumed. Conventional H2 design methods for feedback controllers are studied first. Although such controllers can satisfy the design constraints by employing effort terms in the quadratic cost function, they do not achieve the best possible performance, and when adapted using LMS-based algorithms, they suffer from instabilities if the plant response varies significantly. Improved H2/H∞ design methods for fixed and adaptive controllers are then developed, which achieve the best H2 performance under the design constraints, offer an improved stability when made adaptive, and in general outperform the conventional H2 controllers. The H2/H∞ design problems employ convex programming to ensure a unique solution. The Sequential Quadratic Programming methods is used for the off-line design of fixed controllers, and penalty and barrier function methods, together with frequency domain LMS-based algorithms are employed in the H2/H∞ adaptive controllers. The controllers studied and developed here were applied to three active sound control systems: a noise-reducing headset, an active headrest, and a sound radiating panel. The emphasis was put on developing control strategies that improve system performance. First, a high performance controller for the noise-reducing headset was implemented in real-time, which combines analogue and adaptive digital controllers, and can thus reject disturbances which has both broad-band and periodic components. Then

  14. GIVING AND RECEIVING CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Олійник

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article scrutinizes the notion of feedback applicable in classrooms where team teaching is provided. The experience of giving and receiving feedback has been a good practice in cooperation between a U.S. Peace Corps volunteer and a Ukrainian counterpart. Giving and receiving feedback is an effective means of classroom observation that provides better insight into the process of teaching a foreign language. The article discusses the stages of feedback and explicates the notion of sharing experience between two teachers working simultaneously in the same classroom. The guidelines for giving and receiving feedback have been provided as well as the most commonly used vocabulary items have been listed. It has been proved that mutual feedback leads to improving teaching methods and using various teaching styles and techniques.

  15. Learner-centred feedback using remote assessment of clinical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger Kneebone; Fernando Bello; Debra Nestel; Neville Mooney; Andrew Codling; Faranak Yadollahi; Tanya Tierney; David Wilcockson; Ara Darzi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the Imperial College Feedback and Assessment System (ICFAS) and explores its feasibility in supporting the learning of practical clinical procedures. ICFAS is an innovative combination of existing technologies which brings together video recording, networked mobile computers (laptop and handheld) and content management software. The aim is to observe, record, assess and provide feedback on multiple simulated encounters. We have developed ICFAS within the framework of our Integrated Procedural Performance Instrument (IPPI) (Kneebone et al. 2006a,b), providing a technology-based 'feedback space' for maximizing educational value.

  16. Uplink Contention-based CSI Feedback with Prioritized Layers for a Multi-Carrier System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneko, Megumi; Hayashi, Kazunori; Popovski, Petar

    2012-01-01

    performance analysis of the proposed scheme, assuming Maximum CSI (Max CSI) and normalized Proportional Fair Scheduler (PFS), where a tight approximation of the achievable throughput is obtained assuming discrete Adaptive Modulation (AM) and CSI feedback which are relevant for the practical systems....... Analytical and simulation results show that our proposed scheme provides an excellent trade-off between system performance and feedback overhead....

  17. Feedback strategies for wireless communication

    CERN Document Server

    Ozbek, Berna

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the different strategies regarding the feedback information for wireless communication systems. The text analyzes the impact of quantization and correlation of channel state information (CSI) on the system performance. The authors show the effect of the reduced and limited feedback information and gives an overview about the feedback strategies in the standards. This volume presents theoretical analysis as well as practical algorithms for the required feedback information at the base stations to perform adaptive resource allocation efficiently and mitigate interference coming from other cells.

  18. Intelligent dental training simulator with objective skill assessment and feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhienmora, Phattanapon; Haddawy, Peter; Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Dailey, Matthew N

    2011-06-01

    We present a dental training simulator that provides a virtual reality (VR) environment with haptic feedback for dental students to practice dental surgical skills in the context of a crown preparation procedure. The simulator addresses challenges in traditional training such as the subjective nature of surgical skill assessment and the limited availability of expert supervision. We identified important features for characterizing the quality of a procedure based on interviews with experienced dentists. The features are patterns combining tool position, tool orientation, and applied force. The simulator monitors these features during the procedure, objectively assesses the quality of the performed procedure using hidden Markov models (HMMs), and provides objective feedback on the user's performance in each stage of the procedure. We recruited five dental students and five experienced dentists to evaluate the accuracy of our skill assessment method and the quality of the system's generated feedback. The experimental results show that HMMs with selected features can correctly classify all test sequences into novice and expert categories. The evaluation also indicates a high acceptance rate from experts for the system's generated feedback. In this work, we introduce our VR dental training simulator and describe a mechanism for providing objective skill assessment and feedback. The HMM is demonstrated as an effective tool for classifying a particular operator as novice-level or expert-level. The simulator can generate tutoring feedback with quality comparable to the feedback provided by human tutors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Peer feedback as an aid to learning--what do we want? Feedback. When do we want it? Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Annie; Abbott, Stephen; Lothian, Doug; Hall, Angela; Westwood, Olwyn M R

    2011-01-01

    With 360° appraisals integral to professional life, learning how to give constructive feedback is an essential generic skill. To use a formative objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for skills acquisition and development in giving feedback, whilst facilitating awareness of the importance of communication skills in clinical practice. Medical and nursing students took part in a formative OSCE. Using actors as simulated patients, a three-station OSCE circuit was repeated three times so that students could rotate through the roles as 'candidate', 'examiner' and 'observer'. As 'candidates', they received immediate feedback on their consultation from the 'examiner'/'observer'. The events were evaluated using a questionnaire and focus groups. Students immensely valued this learning event for considering expectations for a performance (91-100%). Concerns around giving peers feedback were acknowledged, and they were divided on preference for feedback from peers or tutors (48% versus 52%). But training in providing feedback and criteria for assessment were considered helpful, as was instruction by faculty to give corrective feedback to peers. Peer observation and professional accountability for giving constructive feedback enhanced awareness of their skills education and training needs. It also opened the dialogue for identifying opportunities for peer assessment and feedback to support work-based education and skills development.

  20. The performance implications of outsourcing customer support to service providers in emerging versus established economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raassens, N.; Wuyts, S.H.K.; Geyskens, I.

    Recent discussions in the business press query the contribution of customer-support outsourcing to firm performance. Despite the controversy surrounding its performance implications, customer-support outsourcing is still on the rise, especially to emerging markets. Against this backdrop, we study

  1. Performance assessment in health care providers: a critical review of evidence and current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Karen E Stc; Coates, Vivien; Kelly, Billy; Boore, Jennifer R P; Cundell, Jill H; Gracey, Jacquie; McFetridge, Brian; McGonigle, Mary; Sinclair, Marlene

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate methods of performance assessment through an international literature review and a survey of current practice. Over the past two decades health care organizations have focussed on promoting high quality care in conjunction with retaining motivated staff. Cognisant of such initiatives, we sought to evaluate assessment methods for qualified staff according to their utility in the working environment. A systematic literature search was completed and each paper independently reviewed. All health care organizations in Northern Ireland submitted details of their performance assessments. Each was critically appraised using a utility index. Performance was not universally defined. A broad range of assessments were identified, each method had advantages and disadvantages. Although many lacked rigorous testing, areas of good practice were also noted. No single method is appropriate for assessing clinical performance. Rather, this study endorses proposals for a multi-method strategy to ensure that performance assessment demonstrates all attributes required for effective nursing and midwifery practice.

  2. The Art of Giving Online Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibold, Nancyruth; Schwarz, Laura Marie

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of providing online feedback that is positive, effective, and enhances the learning experience is a valuable educator skill. Acquisition of the art of providing feedback is through education, practice, and faculty development. This article provides information about the best practices for delivering online feedback to learners. An…

  3. Comparative Performance of Complex-Valued B-Spline and Polynomial Models Applied to Iterative Frequency-Domain Decision Feedback Equalization of Hammerstein Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Hong, Xia; Khalaf, Emad F; Alsaadi, Fuad E; Harris, Chris J

    2017-12-01

    Complex-valued (CV) B-spline neural network approach offers a highly effective means for identifying and inverting practical Hammerstein systems. Compared with its conventional CV polynomial-based counterpart, a CV B-spline neural network has superior performance in identifying and inverting CV Hammerstein systems, while imposing a similar complexity. This paper reviews the optimality of the CV B-spline neural network approach. Advantages of B-spline neural network approach as compared with the polynomial based modeling approach are extensively discussed, and the effectiveness of the CV neural network-based approach is demonstrated in a real-world application. More specifically, we evaluate the comparative performance of the CV B-spline and polynomial-based approaches for the nonlinear iterative frequency-domain decision feedback equalization (NIFDDFE) of single-carrier Hammerstein channels. Our results confirm the superior performance of the CV B-spline-based NIFDDFE over its CV polynomial-based counterpart.

  4. How can information systems provide support to nurses' hand hygiene performance? Using gamification and indoor location to improve hand hygiene awareness and reduce hospital infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rita; Gregório, João; Pinheiro, Fernando; Póvoa, Pedro; da Silva, Miguel Mira; Lapão, Luís Velez

    2017-01-31

    Hospital-acquired infections are still amongst the major problems health systems are facing. Their occurrence can lead to higher morbidity and mortality rates, increased length of hospital stay, and higher costs for both hospital and patients. Performing hand hygiene is a simple and inexpensive prevention measure, but healthcare workers' compliance with it is often far from ideal. To raise awareness regarding hand hygiene compliance, individual behaviour change and performance optimization, we aimed to develop a gamification solution that collects data and provides real-time feedback accurately in a fun and engaging way. A Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM) was used to conduct this work. DSRM is useful to study the link between research and professional practices by designing, implementing and evaluating artifacts that address a specific need. It follows a development cycle (or iteration) composed by six activities. Two work iterations were performed applying gamification components, each using a different indoor location technology. Preliminary experiments, simulations and field studies were performed in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a Portuguese tertiary hospital. Nurses working on this ICU were in a focus group during the research, participating in several sessions across the implementation process. Nurses enjoyed the concept and considered that it allows for a unique opportunity to receive feedback regarding their performance. Tests performed on the indoor location technology applied in the first iteration regarding distances estimation presented an unacceptable lack of accuracy. Using a proximity-based technique, it was possible to identify the sequence of positions, but beacons presented an unstable behaviour. In the second work iteration, a different indoor location technology was explored but it did not work properly, so there was no chance of testing the solution as a whole (gamification application included). Combining automated monitoring

  5. Effect of task-related continuous auditory feedback during learning of tracking motion exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosati Giulio

    2012-10-01

    visuomotor perturbation, whereas controller-task-related sound feedback did not. This result was particularly interesting, as the subjects relied more on auditory augmentation of the visualized target motion (which was altered with respect to arm motion by the visuomotor perturbation, rather than on sound feedback provided in the controller space, i.e., information directly related to the effective target motion of their arm. Conclusions Our results indicate that auditory augmentation of visual feedback can be beneficial during the execution of upper limb movement exercises. In particular, we found that continuous task-related information provided through sound, in addition to visual feedback can improve not only performance but also the learning of a novel visuomotor perturbation. However, error-related information provided through sound did not improve performance and negatively affected learning in the presence of the visuomotor perturbation.

  6. Effect of task-related continuous auditory feedback during learning of tracking motion exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    controller-task-related sound feedback did not. This result was particularly interesting, as the subjects relied more on auditory augmentation of the visualized target motion (which was altered with respect to arm motion by the visuomotor perturbation), rather than on sound feedback provided in the controller space, i.e., information directly related to the effective target motion of their arm. Conclusions Our results indicate that auditory augmentation of visual feedback can be beneficial during the execution of upper limb movement exercises. In particular, we found that continuous task-related information provided through sound, in addition to visual feedback can improve not only performance but also the learning of a novel visuomotor perturbation. However, error-related information provided through sound did not improve performance and negatively affected learning in the presence of the visuomotor perturbation. PMID:23046683

  7. What higher education students do with teacher feedback: Feedback ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Writing pedagogy research has constantly maintained that feedback is 'an essential component of virtually every model of the writing process' (Hall, 1990: 43) as it motivates writers to improve their next draft. Feedback during the writing process improves not only student attitude to writing but writing performance if students ...

  8. Multivariable Feedback Control of Unstable Aircraft Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Abhishek

    The purpose of a flight control system is to provide stability and control for the aircraft with the help of control surfaces. FCS helps improve aircraft performance characteristics during flight. Stability is secured by the mechanism of feedback. Feedback plays an important part in providing a baseline control approach for stabilizing a non-linear unstable aircraft. It helps suppress effects of disturbances. Numerical Linearization is used to design a stabilizing controller for a non-linear model of the F-16 Fighting Falcon jet initialized with nominal flight condition. First a single-loop at a time feedback is designed using Matlab for longitudinal stabilization. Then the lateral modes of the aircraft are fed back and used in a single-loop at a time fashion to stabilize the lateral dynamics. Then, a multivariable feedback approach is used to stabilize the lateral dynamics for a constant turn rate condition using a cost function optimization approach to find suitable gains for the feedback loops. All of these controllers are tested by using a non-linear Simulink simulation of the scale-model F-16 dynamics.

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare e-Feedback Versus "Standard" Face-to-Face Verbal Feedback to Improve the Acquisition of Procedural Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jundi, Wissam; Elsharif, Mohamed; Anderson, Melanie; Chan, Phillip; Beard, Jonathan; Nawaz, Shah

    Constructive feedback plays an important role in learning during surgical training. Standard feedback is usually given verbally following direct observation of the procedure by a trained assessor. However, such feedback requires the physical presence of expert faculty members who are usually busy and time-constrained by clinical commitments. We aim to evaluate electronic feedback (e-feedback) after video observation of surgical suturing in comparison with standard face-to-face verbal feedback. A prospective, blinded, randomized controlled trial comparing e-feedback with standard verbal feedback was carried out in February 2015 using a validated pro formas for assessment. The study participants were 38 undergraduate medical students from the University of Sheffield, UK. They were recorded on video performing the procedural skill, completed a self-evaluation form, and received e-feedback on the same day (group 1); observed directly by an assessor, invited to provide verbal self-reflection, and then received standard verbal feedback (group 2). In both groups, the feedback was provided after performing the procedure. The participants returned 2 days later and performed the same skill again. Poststudy questionnaire was used to assess the acceptability of each feedback among the participants. Overall, 19 students in group 1 and 18 students in group 2 completed the study. Although there was a significant improvement in the overall mean score on the second performance of the task for all participants (first performance mean 11.59, second performance mean 15.95; p ≤ 0.0001), there was no difference in the overall mean improvement score between group 1 and group 2 (4.74 and 3.94, respectively; p = 0.49). The mean overall scores for the e-feedback group at baseline recorded by 2 independent investigators showed good agreement (mean overall scores of 12.84 and 11.89; Cronbach α = 0.86). Poststudy questionnaire demonstrated that both e-feedback and standard verbal feedback

  10. Feedback in Clinical Education, Part II: Approved Clinical Instructor and Student Perceptions of and Influences on Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, Sara; Henning, Jolene

    2014-01-01

    Context: Approved Clinical Instructors (ACIs; now known as preceptors) are expected to provide feedback to athletic training students (ATSs) during clinical education experiences. Researchers in other fields have found that clinical instructors and students often have different perceptions of actual and ideal feedback and that several factors may influence the feedback exchanges between instructors and students. However, understanding of these issues in athletic training education is minimal. Objective: To investigate the current characteristics and perceptions of and the influences on feedback exchanges between ATSs and ACIs. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: One entry-level master's degree program accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Patients or Other Participants: Four ACIs and 4 second-year ATSs. Data Collection and Analysis: Individual, semistructured interviews were conducted with participants and integrated with field notes and observations for analysis. We used the constant comparative approach to inductively analyze data and develop codes and categories. Member checking, triangulation, and peer debriefing were used to promote trustworthiness of the study. Results: Participants described that feedback plays an important role in clinical education and has several purposes related to improving performance. The ACIs and ATSs also discussed several preferred characteristics of feedback. Participants identified 4 main influences on their feedback exchanges, including the ACI, the ATS, personalities, and the learning environment. Conclusions: The ACIs and ATSs had similar perceptions of ideal feedback in addition to the actual feedback that was provided during their clinical education experiences. Most of the preferences for feedback were aligned with recommendations in the literature, suggesting that existing research findings are applicable to athletic training clinical education. Several factors influenced the

  11. Improving Challenge/Skill Ratio in a Multimodal Interface by Simultaneously Adapting Game Difficulty and Haptic Assistance through Psychophysiological and Performance Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Guerrero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to harmonize robotic devices with human beings, the robots should be able to perceive important psychosomatic impact triggered by emotional states such as frustration or boredom. This paper presents a new type of biocooperative control architecture, which acts toward improving the challenge/skill relation perceived by the user when interacting with a robotic multimodal interface in a cooperative scenario. In the first part of the paper, open-loop experiments revealed which physiological signals were optimal for inclusion in the feedback loop. These were heart rate, skin conductance level, and skin conductance response frequency. In the second part of the paper, the proposed controller, consisting of a biocooperative architecture with two degrees of freedom, simultaneously modulating game difficulty and haptic assistance through performance and psychophysiological feedback, is presented. With this setup, the perceived challenge can be modulated by means of the game difficulty and the perceived skill by means of the haptic assistance. A new metric (FlowIndex is proposed to numerically quantify and visualize the challenge/skill relation. The results are contrasted with comparable previously published work and show that the new method afforded a higher FlowIndex (i.e., a superior challenge/skill relation and an improved balance between augmented performance and user satisfaction (higher level of valence, i.e., a more enjoyable and satisfactory experience.

  12. Compliance Performance: Effects of a Provider Incentive Program and Coding Compliance Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tudela, Joseph A

    2004-01-01

    ...) and select attributes and experience/training variables. For BAMC's provider incentive program, analysis reveals statistical significance for record compliance rates with data dated measures, F(underscored)(1,103)= 4.74, p(underscored) = .03...

  13. VISION: a regional performance improvement initiative for HIV health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Theodore O; Hicks, Charles B; Naggie, Susanna; Wohl, David A; Albrecht, Helmut; Thielman, Nathan M; Rabin, Daniel U; Layton, Sherry; Subramaniam, Chitra; Grichnik, Katherine P; Shlien, Amanda; Weyer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    VISION (HIV Integrated Learning ModuleS: Achieving Performance Improvement through CollaboratiON) was a regional performance improvement (PI) continuing medical education (CME) initiative designed to increase guideline-conforming practice of clinicians who manage patients with HIV infection. The 3-part activity consisted of (1) clinical practice assessment and development of an action plan for practice change, (2) completion of relevant education, and (3) reassessment. The activity did not change practitioners' performance in clinical status monitoring and in patient treatment, in large part because guidelines were being appropriately implemented at baseline as well as after the educational intervention. There was a trend toward improvement, however, in practitioner performance in the area of patient medication adherence (increased from 66% to 74%). Results observed in the VISION initiative were consistent with HIVQUAL metrics. Ongoing education in HIV is important, and VISION demonstrated performance improvement in medication adherence, a critical aspect of health care. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  14. Interpreting Feedback: A Discourse Analysis of Teacher Feedback and Student Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J. T.; Anguiano, Carlos J.

    2016-01-01

    Feedback has typically been studied as a means of improving academic performance. Few studies inquire into the processes by which feedback shapes student identity. The authors carry out a discourse analysis of written comments to explore how feedback is discursively constructed by both teachers and students. Analysis of written feedback,…

  15. Computational reproducibility of "Goal relevance and goal conduciveness appraisals lead to differential autonomic reactivity in emotional responding to performance feedback" (Kreibig, Gendolla, & Scherer, 2012): A guide and new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibig, Sylvia D

    2017-09-01

    The emerging field of the psychophysiology of motivation bears many new findings, but little replication. Using my own data (Kreibig, Gendolla, & Scherer, 2012), I test the reproducibility of this specific study, provide the necessary materials to make the study reproducible, and instantiate proper reproducibility practices that other researchers can use as a road map toward the same goal. In addition, based on re-analyses of the original data, I report new evidence for the motivational effects of emotional responding to performance feedback. Specifically, greater appraisal of goal relevance amplifies the emotional response to events appraised as conducive (i.e., effort mobilization), but not to those appraised as obstructive to a person's goals (i.e., effort withdrawal). I conclude by providing a ten-step road map of best practices to facilitate computational reproducibility for future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electroencephalogy (EEG) Feedback in Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) Feedback In Decision- Making The goal of this project is to investigate whether Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) can provide useful...feedback when training rapid decision-making. More specifically, EEG will allow us to provide online feedback about the neural decision processes...Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) Feedback In Decision-Making Report Title The goal of this project is to investigate whether Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) can provide useful

  17. Providing the Answers Does Not Improve Performance on a College Final Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Arnold Lewis; Sinha, Neha

    2013-01-01

    In the context of an upper-level psychology course, even when students were given an opportunity to refer to text containing the answers and change their exam responses in order to improve their exam scores, their performance on these questions improved slightly or not at all. Four experiments evaluated competing explanations for the students'…

  18. Comparison of audio vs. written feedback on clinical assignments of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgault, Annette M; Mundy, Cynthia; Joshua, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study explored using audio recordings as method of feedback for weekly clinical assignments of nursing students. Feedback that provides students with insight into their performance is an essential component of nursing education. Audio methods have been used to communicate feedback on written assignments in other disciplines, but this method has not been reported in the nursing literature. A survey and VARK questionnaire were completed by eight nursing students. Each student had randomly received written and audio feedback during an eight-week period. There were no differences between written and audio methods. Students perceived audio as the most personal, easy to understand, and positive method. Only one student expressed a preference for written feedback.There was no difference in instructor time. Audio feedback is an innovative method of feedback for clinical assignments of 'Net Generation' nursing students.

  19. Emotional feedback for mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Seebode, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates the functional adequacy as well as the affective impression made by feedback messages on mobile devices. It presents an easily adoptable experimental setup to examine context effects on various feedback messages, and applies it to auditory, tactile and auditory-tactile feedback messages. This approach provides insights into the relationship between the affective impression and functional applicability of these messages as well as an understanding of the influence of unimodal components on the perception of multimodal feedback messages. The developed paradigm can also be extended to investigate other aspects of context and used to investigate feedback messages in modalities other than those presented. The book uses questionnaires implemented on a Smartphone, which can easily be adopted for field studies to broaden the scope even wider. Finally, the book offers guidelines for the design of system feedback.

  20. Correlation between provider computer experience and accuracy of electronic anesthesia charting A pilot study and performance improvement project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    Anesthesia recordkeeping: Accuracy of recall with computerized and manual entry recordkeeping. CORRELATION BETWEEN PROVIDER COMPUTER EXPERIENCE 39...Unexpected increased mortality after implementation of a CORRELATION BETWEEN PROVIDER COMPUTER EXPERIENCE 40 commercially sold computerized physician...Correlation between provider computer experience and accuracy of electronic anesthesia charting – A pilot study and performance improvement

  1. Timing matters: The impact of immediate and delayed feedback on artificial language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram Opitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present experiment, we used event-related potentials (ERP to investigate the role of immediate and delayed feedback in an artificial grammar learning task. Two groups of participants were engaged in classifying non-word strings according to an underlying rule system, not known to the participants. Visual feedback was provided after each classification either immediately or with a short delay of one second. Both groups were able to learn the artificial grammar system as indicated by an increase in classification performance. However, the gain in performance was significantly larger for the group receiving immediate feedback as compared to the group receiving delayed feedback. Learning was accompanied by an increase in P300 activity in the ERP for delayed as compared to immediate feedback. Irrespective of feedback delay, both groups exhibited learning related decreases in the feedback-related positivity (FRP elicited by positive feedback only. The feedback-related negativity (FRN, however, remained constant over the course of learning. These results suggest, first, that delayed feedback is less effective for artificial grammar learning as task requirements are very demanding, and second, that the FRP elicited by positive prediction errors decreases with learning while the FRN to negative prediction errors is elicited in an all-or-none fashion by negative feedback throughout the entire experiment.

  2. Factors shaping e-feedback utilization following electronic Objective Structured Clinical Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Samantha E; Snodgrass, Suzanne H; Rivett, Darren A; Russell, Trevor

    2016-09-01

    The development of student-practitioners' practical clinical skills is essential in health professional education. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations are central to the assessment of students performing clinical procedures on simulated patients (actors). While feedback is considered core to learning providing timely, individualised student OSCE feedback is difficult. This study explored the perceptions of students about the multiple factors which shape the utility of e-feedback following an electronic Objective Structured Clinical Examinations, which utilized iPad and specialised software. The e-feedback was trialled in four courses within occupational therapy and physiotherapy pre-professional programs with a cohort of 204 students. Evaluation of student perceptions about feedback was collected using two surveys and eight focus groups. This data showed three factors shaped perceptions of the utility of e- Objective Structured Clinical Examinations feedback: 1) timely accessibility within one day of the assessment, 2) feedback demonstrating examiners' academic literacy and 3) feedback orientated to ways of improving future performance of clinical skills. The study found training in the provision of feedback using IPads and software is needed for examiners to ensure e-feedback meets students' needs for specific, future-oriented e-feedback and institutional requirements for justification of grades. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Medical student perspective: working toward specific and actionable clinical clerkship feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Haley A; Derman, Peter B; Clement, R Carter

    2012-01-01

    Feedback on the wards is an important component of medical student education. Medical schools have incorporated formalized feedback mechanisms such as clinical encounter cards and standardized patient encounters into clinical curricula. However, the system could be further improved as medical students frequently feel uncomfortable requesting feedback, and are often dissatisfied with the quality of the feedback they receive. This article explores the shortcomings of the existing medical student feedback system and examines the relevant literature in an effort to shed light on areas in which the system can be enhanced. The discussion focuses on resident-provided feedback but is broadly applicable to delivering feedback in general. A review of the organizational psychology and business administration literature on fostering effective feedback was performed. These insights were then applied to the setting of medical education. Providing effective feedback requires training and forethought. Feedback itself should be specific and actionable. Utilizing these strategies will help medical students and educators get the most out of existing feedback systems.

  4. Performances of sexuality counselling : a framework for provider-client encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kwaak, Anke; Ferris, Kristina; van Kats, Jetty; Dieleman, Marjolein

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adequately assessing quality of care poses enormous challenges. While conducting fieldwork, we were struck by the need for a framework that encapsulates provider-client encounters. Little evidence exists concerning the most effective training, and management of health staff engaged in

  5. The role of feedback in clinical education: Principles, strategies, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Feedback is an inseparable and integral part of learning. It promotes students' learning towards achieving goals. In the training of health professions, little feedback or a paucity of feedback can be observed. Giving correct feedback is another important matter that must be taken into account. Therefore, the aim of this study was to present the principles of feedback, its effective characteristics, the strategies, and models of feedback. Methods: In order to identify the relevant articles, online databases as Elsevier, Google Scholar, SID, and Magiran were searched using keywords such as feedback, clinical evaluation, clinical education, and feedback models were used. About Persian articles, the year of 1385, and Latin articles the year of 2000 have been considered as a base year. Totally, 49 articles were met the review potentiality. 34 articles were identified as relevant ones and included in the study as well as 15 papers were excluded due to being irrelevant. Results: Feedback must be considered as one of the most important tenets of clinical education like an agent for reflection and improvement. Feedback will be considered effective when it is intended as a certain period in education and its principles and characteristics will be considered and presented with appropriate strategies and models. If feedback is provided in an appropriate manner and with suitable information, the performance of the learner can be improved. Conclusion: Constructive and meaningful feedback is an essential part of teaching and learning for students to get instrumental information. Thus, teachers and clinical instructors must receive adequate training on feedback. Familiarity with models and strategies of feedback can pave the way towards providing effective and constructive feedback.

  6. Interdepartmental Occupational Standards for Social Service Providers and Their Role in Improving Job Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabrodin Yu.M.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the occupational standards development abroad and in Russia. It focuses on interdepartmental occupational standards for social service providers. While creating occupational standards for social services as an integrated industry it is advisable to consider the design of whole system and its macro-level effects in a document called “sectoral qualification framework”. It is pointed out that 1 real professional activity in social sphere has a clear humanitarian focus, and its objects are radically different population groups; 2 the complexity of the social work is often associated with the interaction between various professionals and their activity have to be interdepartmentally organized. The author identifies the factors influencing development and implementation of professional standards in different countries and consider the main strategy directions of development and application of occupational standards of education and social service providers in Russia.

  7. Prefrontal cortex and striatal activation by feedback in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keitz, Martijn; Koerts, Janneke; Kortekaas, Rudie; Renken, Remco; de Jong, Bauke M.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2008-01-01

    Positive feedbacks reinforce goal-directed behavior and evoke pleasure. in Parkinson's disease (PD) the striatal dysfunction impairs motor performance, but also may lead to decreased positive feedback (reward) processing. This study investigates two types of positive feedback processing (monetary

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of a 360-degree performance appraisal and feedback in a selected steel organisation / Koetlisi Eugene Lithakong

    OpenAIRE

    Lithakong, Koetlisi Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Most companies are competing in the diverse global markets, and competitive advantage through human capital is becoming very important. Employee development for high productivity and the use of effective tools to measure their performance are therefore paramount. One such tool is the 360-degree performance appraisal system. The study on the effectiveness of the 360-degree performance appraisal was conducted on a selected steel organisation. The primary objective of the research...

  9. Mixing students and performance artists to provide innovative ways of communicating scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    In May 2007 the Open University (U.K.) in conjunction with the MK (Milton Keynes) Gallery invited performance artists Noble and Silver to work with a group of students to design innovative methods of disseminating their research to a general audience. The students created a multitude of well-received live and multimedia performances based on their research. Students found they greatly benefited from the artists' and each others' different viewpoints and backgrounds, resulting in improved communication skills and varying interpretations of their own topic of interest. This work focuses on research aimed at identifying precursory activity at volcanoes using temperature, earthquake and ground movement data, to aid improvement of early warning systems. For this project an aspect of the research relevant to the public was chosen: the importance of appropriately timed warnings regarding the possibility of an eruption. If a warning is issued too early it may cause complacency and apathy towards the situation, whereas issuing a warning too late may endanger lives and property. An interactive DVD was produced which leads the user through the events preceding a volcanic eruption. The goal is to warn the public about the impending eruption at the most appropriate time. Data is presented in short film clips, after which questions are posed. Based on the player's answers the consequences or follow-up events of the choices are explored. We aim to improve and expand upon this concept in the near future, as well as making the DVD available to schools for educational purposes.

  10. Improving quality of care through improved audit and feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hysong Sylvia J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA has led the industry in measuring facility performance as a critical element in improving quality of care, investing substantial resources to develop and maintain valid and cost-effective measures. The External Peer Review Program (EPRP of the VA is the official data source for monitoring facility performance, used to prioritize the quality areas needing most attention. Facility performance measurement has significantly improved preventive and chronic care, as well as overall quality; however, much variability still exists in levels of performance across measures and facilities. Audit and feedback (A&F, an important component of effective performance measurement, can help reduce this variability and improve overall performance. Previous research suggests that VA Medical Centers (VAMCs with high EPRP performance scores tend to use EPRP data as a feedback source. However, the manner in which EPRP data are used as a feedback source by individual providers as well as service line, facility, and network leadership is not well understood. An in-depth understanding of mental models, strategies, and specific feedback process characteristics adopted by high-performing facilities is thus urgently needed. This research compares how leaders of high, low, and moderately performing VAMCs use clinical performance data from the EPRP as a feedback tool to maintain and improve quality of care. Methods We will conduct a qualitative, grounded theory analysis of up to 64 interviews using a novel method of sampling primary care, facility, and Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN leadership at high-, moderate-, and low-performing facilities. We will analyze interviews for evidence of cross-facility differences in perceptions of performance data usefulness and strategies for disseminating performance data evaluating performance, with particular attention to timeliness, individualization, and punitiveness

  11. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Makkar

    Full Text Available Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase

  12. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, S K; Rath, N C; Packialakshmi, B; Zhou, Z Y; Huff, G R; Donoghue, A M

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase resistance of

  13. Assessing medical students' performance in core competencies using multiple admission programs for colleges and universities: From the perspective of multi-source feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Tseng Fang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 1994, Taiwanese medical universities have employed the multiple application method comprising "recommendations and screening" and "admission application." The purpose of this study is to examine whether medical students admitted using different admission programs gave different performances. Methods: To evaluate the six core competencies for medical students proposed by Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME, this study employed various assessment tools, including student opinion feedback, multi-source feedback (MSF, course grades, and examination results.MSF contains self-assessment scale, peer assessment scale, nursing staff assessment scale, visiting staff assessment scale, and chief resident assessment scale. In the subscales, the CronbachÊs alpha were higher than 0.90, indicating good reliability. Research participants consisted of 182 students from the School of Medicine at Chang Gung University. Results: Regarding studentsÊ average grade for the medical ethics course, the performance of students who were enrolled through school recommendations exceeded that of students who were enrolled through the National College University Entrance Examination (NCUEE p = 0.011, and all considered "teamwork" as the most important. Different entry pipelines of students in the "communication," "work attitude," "medical knowledge," and "teamwork" assessment scales showed no significant difference. The improvement rate of the students who were enrolled through the school recommendations was better than that of the students who were enrolled through the N CUEE in the "professional skills," "medical core competencies," "communication," and "teamwork" projects of self-assessment and peer assessment scales. However, the students who were enrolled through the NCUEE were better in the "professional skills," "medical core competencies," "communication," and "teamwork" projects of the visiting staff assessment scale and the

  14. Designing feedback to mitigate teen distracted driving: A social norms approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrikhpour, Maryam; Donmez, Birsen

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate teens' perceived social norms and whether providing normative information can reduce distracted driving behaviors among them. Parents are among the most important social referents for teens; they have significant influences on teens' driving behaviors, including distracted driving which significantly contributes to teens' crash risks. Social norms interventions have been successfully applied in various domains including driving; however, this approach is yet to be explored for mitigating driver distraction among teens. Forty teens completed a driving simulator experiment while performing a self-paced visual-manual secondary task in four between-subject conditions: a) social norms feedback that provided a report at the end of each drive on teens' distracted driving behavior, comparing their distraction engagement to their parent's, b) post-drive feedback that provided just the report on teens' distracted driving behavior without information on their parents, c) real-time feedback in the form of auditory warnings based on eyes of road-time, and d) no feedback as control. Questionnaires were administered to collect data on these teens' and their parents' self-reported engagement in driver distractions and the associated social norms. Social norms and real-time feedback conditions resulted in significantly smaller average off-road glance duration, rate of long (>2s) off-road glances, and standard deviation of lane position compared to no feedback. Further, social norms feedback decreased brake response time and percentage of time not looking at the road compared to no feedback. No major effect was observed for post-drive feedback. Questionnaire results suggest that teens appeared to overestimate parental norms, but no effect of feedback was found on their perceptions. Feedback systems that leverage social norms can help mitigate driver distraction among teens. Overall, both social norms and real-time feedback induced

  15. The Relationship between Environmental Turbulence, Management Support, Organizational Collaboration, Information Technology Solution Realization, and Process Performance, in Healthcare Provider Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muglia, Victor O.

    2010-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between environmental turbulence, management support, organizational collaboration, information technology solution realization, and process performance in healthcare provider organizations. Method: A descriptive/correlational study of Hospital medical services process…

  16. Assessment of the Nurses Performance in Providing Care to Patients Undergoing Nasogastric Tube in Suez Canal University Hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magda Abdelaziz Mohammed; Mahmoud el Prince Mahmoud; Hamdy A Sleem; Mariam Sabry Shehab

    2017-01-01

    .... In general, tube feeding is a technique used for those who are unable to eat on their own. The aim of the present study is to assess nurses' performance in providing care to patients undergoing nasogastric tube...

  17. Difficulty giving feedback on underperformance undermines the educational value of multi-source feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, John R; Anderson, Elizabeth J; Pugsley, Lesley

    2013-10-01

    Multi-source feedback (MSF) was intended to provide both a summative and formative assessment of doctors' attitudes and behaviours. To explore the influences of feedback quality and trainees' acceptance of the assessment on formative educational gains from MSF. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of eight dermatology trainees, from an insider researcher position, following two pilot interviews. Interviews were manually transcribed and coded to permit template analysis, a subtype of thematic analysis. The interview data indicated that MSF provides relatively little formative educational gains largely because of a paucity of constructive feedback on sub-optimal performance. This was due to difficulties encountered by raters giving developmental feedback, in particular, potential loss of anonymity, and by trainees selecting raters expected to give favourable comments. Dual use of MSF as a summative assessment in annual appraisals also inhibited educational gains by promotion of a 'tick box' mentality in which trainees' need to pass their assessment superseded their desire for self-improvement. A relative lack of developmental feedback limits the formative educational gains from MSF and could provide false reassurance that might reinforce negative behaviours.

  18. Augmented visual feedback-aided interventions for motor rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Elaine; Shellikeri, Sanjana; Martino, Rosemary; Yunusova, Yana

    2018-01-09

    A systematic review was performed to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of augmented visual feedback-based treatments for motor rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease, and (2) examine treatment design factors associated with enhanced outcomes following these treatments. Eight databases were searched from their start-date up to January 2017 using the key terms Parkinson's Disease and augmented visual feedback. Two independent raters screened the abstracts and full articles for inclusion. Relevant data were extracted and summarized, and methodological quality of accepted articles was assessed. Eight single-group studies and 10 randomized control trials were included in the review. Augmented visual feedback-based treatments resulted in improved outcomes with small to large effect sizes post-treatment for the majority of impairment, activity, participation, and global motor function measures, and these improvements were often superior to traditional rehabilitation/education programs. Enhanced treatment outcomes were observed in studies that provided large amounts and high intensities of treatment; gamified feedback; and provided knowledge of performance feedback in real-time on 100% of practice trials. Augmented visual feedback appears to be a useful motor rehabilitation tool in Parkinson's disease; however, high-quality, rigorous studies remain limited. Future studies should consider factors that enhance rehabilitation outcomes when designing augmented visual feedback-based interventions. Implications for rehabilitation Augmented visual feedback is a useful tool for motor rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease; augmented visual feedback-based treatments are often superior to traditional programs. These treatments are associated with improved outcomes in impairment, activity, participation, and global motor function domains. Rehabilitation professionals can optimize their use of augmented visual feedback-based treatments by providing large amounts and a high intensity of

  19. Access to high-volume surgeons and the opportunity cost of performing radical prostatectomy by low-volume providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzi, Afsaneh; Klein, Eric A; Daneshmand, Siamak; Gill, Inderbir; Quinn, David I; Sadeghi, Sarmad

    2017-07-01

    Evidence suggests that redirecting surgeries to high-volume providers may be associated with better outcomes and significant societal savings. Whether such referrals are feasible remains unanswered. Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data, SEER 18, and US Incidence data were used to determine the geographic distribution and radical prostatectomy volume for providers. Access was defined as availability of a high-volume provider within driving distance of 100 miles. The opportunity cost was defined as the value of benefits achievable by performing the surgery by a high-volume provider that was forgone by not making a referral. The savings per referral were derived from a published Markov model for radical prostatectomy. A total of 14% of providers performed>27% of the radical prostatectomies with>30 cases per year and were designated high-volume providers. Providers with below-median volume (≤16 prostatectomies per year) performed>32% of radical prostatectomies. At least 47% of these were within a 100-mile driving distance (median = 22 miles), and therefore had access to a high-volume provider (>30 prostatectomies per year). This translated into a discounted savings of more than $24 million per year, representing the opportunity cost of not making a referral. The average volume for high- and low-volume providers was 55 and 13, respectively, resulting in an annual experience gap of 43 and a cumulative gap of 125 surgeries over 3 years. In 2014, the number of surgeons performing radical prostatectomy decreased by 5% while the number of high- and low-volume providers decreased by 25% and 11% showing a faster decline in the number of high-volume providers compared with low-volume surgeons. About half of prostatectomies performed by surgeons with below-median annual volume were within a 100-mile driving distance (median of 22 miles) of a high-volume surgeon. Such a referral may result in minimal additional costs and substantially improved outcomes. Copyright

  20. Interpreting feedback: a discourse analysis of teacher feedback and student identity

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, JT; Anguiano, Carlos J.

    2016-01-01

    Feedback has typically been studied as a means of improving academic performance. Few studies inquire into the processes by which feedback shapes student identity. The authors carry out a discourse analysis of written comments to explore how feedback is discursively constructed by both teachers and students. Analysis of written feedback, think-aloud protocols, and semi-structured interviews work to arrive at an understanding of how feedback is interpreted by both teachers and students, paying...