WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing neurophysiological explanations

  1. African American Preschoolers' Emotion Explanations Can Provide Evidence of Their Pragmatic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curenton, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides qualitative and quantitative evidence of how an emotion explanation task can reflect African American preschoolers' pragmatic skills. We used an emotion explanation task to assess pragmatic skills among 19 children (aged 3-5 years) related to (1) engaging in conversational turn-taking, (2) answering "Wh-" questions,…

  2. Formative evaluation of a telemedicine model for delivering clinical neurophysiology services part I: Utility, technical performance and service provider perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breen Patricia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Formative evaluation is conducted in the early stages of system implementation to assess how it works in practice and to identify opportunities for improving technical and process performance. A formative evaluation of a teleneurophysiology service was conducted to examine its technical and sociological dimensions. Methods A teleneurophysiology service providing routine EEG investigation was established. Service use, technical performance and satisfaction of clinical neurophysiology personnel were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. These were contrasted with a previously reported analysis of the need for teleneurophysiology, and examination of expectation and satisfaction with clinical neurophysiology services in Ireland. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis was also conducted. Results Over the course of 40 clinical sessions during 20 weeks, 142 EEG investigations were recorded and stored on a file server at a satellite centre which was 130 miles away from the host clinical neurophysiology department. Using a virtual private network, the EEGs were accessed by a consultant neurophysiologist at the host centre for interpretation. The model resulted in a 5-fold increase in access to EEG services as well as reducing average waiting times for investigation by a half. Technically the model worked well, although a temporary loss of virtual private network connectivity highlighted the need for clarity in terms of responsibility for troubleshooting and repair of equipment problems. Referral quality, communication between host and satellite centres, quality of EEG recordings, and ease of EEG review and reporting indicated that appropriate organisational processes were adopted by the service. Compared to traditional CN service delivery, the teleneurophysiology model resulted in a comparable unit cost per EEG. Conclusion Observations suggest that when traditional organisational boundaries are crossed challenges associated with the

  3. Neurophysiology of delirium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to characterize the neurophysiology of delirium and to assess whether alterations in the neurophysiology of delirium, could provide opportunities for delirium detection. In the first part of the thesis, it is shown that by the analysis of the electroencephalogram

  4. Which Cognitive Processes Support Learning during Small-Group Discussion? The Role of Providing Explanations and Listening to Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2011-01-01

    Seventy students participated in an experiment to measure the effects of either providing explanations or listening during small group discussions on recall of related subject-matter studied after the discussion. They watched a video of a small group discussing a problem. In the first experimental condition, the video was stopped at various points…

  5. `Quantum Mechanics' and `Scientific Explanation' An Explanatory Strategy Aiming at Providing `Understanding'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzidaki, Pandora

    2008-01-01

    Empirical studies persistently indicate that the usual explanatory strategies used in quantum mechanics (QM) instruction fail, in general, to yield understanding. In this study, we propose an instructional intervention, which: (a) incorporates into its subject matter a critical comparison of QM scientific content with the fundamental epistemological and ontological commitments of the prominent philosophical theories of explanation, a weak form of which we meet in QM teaching; (b) illuminates the reasons of their failure in the quantum domain; and (c) implements an explanatory strategy highly inspired by the epistemological pathways through which, during the birth-process of QM, science has gradually reached understanding. This strategy, an inherent element of which is the meta-cognitive and meta-scientific thinking, aims at leading learners not only to an essential understanding of QM worldview, but to a deep insight into the ‘Nature of Science’ as well.

  6. A need to provide explanations for observed biological effects of radiofrequency exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C-K

    2015-09-01

    Although there is scientific consensus that radiofrequency (RF) exposure at high intensity can cause thermal effects, including well-established adverse health effects, there is still considerable controversy on whether low-intensity RF exposure can cause biological effects, especially adverse health effects. The objective of this paper is to describe several reported "non-thermal" effects that were later shown to be due to a weak thermal effect or an experimental artifact by properly conducted and thorough follow-on scientific research. First, the multiple factors that can cause different RF energy absorption in biological tissues are reviewed and second, several examples of experimental artifacts in published papers are described to demonstrate the importance of paying attention to dosimetry and temperature control. For example, isolated nerve response studies show that when temperature of the RF-exposed tissues is controlled, effects disappeared. During RF exposure, conductive electrodes routinely used in physiological studies have been shown to cause field intensification at the tips or contacts of the electrodes with biological tissue; thus, the RF exposure at the site of measurement could be much higher than the incident field. In some in vitro studies, a lack of temperature uniformity in RF-exposed cell cultures and rate of heating explain changes originally reported to be due to low-level RF exposure. In other studies, detailed dosimetry studies have identified artifacts that explain the reasons why so-called "non-thermal" effects were mistakenly reported. Researchers should look for explanations for their own findings, and not expect others to figure out what was the reason for their observed effects.

  7. New wine in an old bottle: does alienation provide an explanation of the origins of physician discontent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, John B; Marceau, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    We have witnessed transformational changes to the U.S. health care system over several decades. Alongside these changes is an increasing number of research reports and commentaries on physician workplace dissatisfaction and discontent. Primary care physicians, in particular, report dissatisfaction with conditions on the ground. Is there solid evidence concerning the magnitude of doctors' discontent, and how is it changing over time? Is it confined to the United States, or is it also occurring in other countries with different health care systems? Does physician discontent affect the processes, quality, and outcomes of medical care? This article addresses these questions. It considers the dimensions of physician dissatisfaction, whether there is a problem, and competing contributions to physician discontent. The authors suggest that the classic concept of alienation may build upon valuable earlier work and provide a new, coherent explanation of the workplace origins of physician discontent. Alienation theory combines both structural and psychological components associated with workplace discontent and has the potential to explain the changing position of knowledge workers (such as physicians) in the new economy.

  8. [Mental Imagery: Neurophysiology and Implications in Psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Nathalie Tamayo

    2014-03-01

    To provide an explanation about what mental imagery is and some implications in psychiatry. This article is a narrative literature review. There are many terms in which imagery representations are described in different fields of research. They are defined as perceptions in the absence of an external stimulus, and can be created in any sensory modality. Their neurophysiological substrate is almost the same as the one activated during sensory perception. There is no unified theory about its function, but it is possibly the way that our brain uses and manipulates the information to respond to the environment. Mental imagery is an everyday phenomenon, and when it occurs in specific patterns it can be a sign of mental disorders. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Supporting students' scientific explanations: A case study investigating the synergy focusing on a teacher's practices when providing instruction and using mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delen, Ibrahim

    Engage students in constructing scientific practices is a critical component of science instruction. Therefore a number of researchers have developed software programs to help students and teachers in this hard task. The Zydeco group, designed a mobile application called Zydeco, which enables students to collect data inside and outside the classroom, and then use the data to create scientific explanations by using claim-evidence-reasoning framework. Previous technologies designed to support scientific explanations focused on how these programs improve students' scientific explanations, but these programs ignored how scientific explanation technologies can support teacher practices. Thus, to increase our knowledge how different scaffolds can work together, this study aimed to portray the synergy between a teacher's instructional practices (part 1) and using supports within a mobile devices (part 2) to support students in constructing explanations. Synergy can be thought of as generic and content-specific scaffolds working together to enable students to accomplish challenging tasks, such as creating explanations that they would not normally be able to do without the scaffolds working together. Providing instruction (part 1) focused on understanding how the teacher scaffolds students' initial understanding of the claim-evidence-reasoning (CER) framework. The second component of examining synergy (part 2: using mobile devices) investigated how this teacher used mobile devices to provide feedback when students created explanations. The synergy between providing instruction and using mobile devices was investigated by analyzing a middle school teacher's practices in two different units (plants and water quality). Next, this study focused on describing how the level of synergy influenced the quality of students' scientific explanations. Finally, I investigated the role of focused teaching intervention sessions to inform teacher in relation to students' performance. In

  10. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillén Yolanda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. Results In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. Conclusions D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution.

  11. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Yolanda; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2012-02-01

    Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution.

  12. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. Results In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. Conclusions D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution. PMID:22296923

  13. Polycomb repressive complex 1 provides a molecular explanation for repeat copy number dependency in FSHD muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, Valentina; Runfola, Valeria; Micheloni, Stefano; Aziz, Arif; Dilworth, F Jeffrey; Gabellini, Davide

    2017-02-15

    Repression of repetitive elements is crucial to preserve genome integrity and has been traditionally ascribed to constitutive heterochromatin pathways. FacioScapuloHumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD), one of the most common myopathies, is characterized by a complex interplay of genetic and epigenetic events. The main FSHD form is linked to a reduced copy number of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat on 4q35, causing loss of silencing and aberrant expression of the D4Z4-embedded DUX4 gene leading to disease. By an unknown mechanism, D4Z4 copy-number correlates with FSHD phenotype. Here we show that the DUX4 proximal promoter (DUX4p) is sufficient to nucleate the enrichment of both constitutive and facultative heterochromatin components and to mediate a copy-number dependent gene silencing. We found that both the CpG/GC dense DNA content and the repetitive nature of DUX4p arrays are important for their repressive ability. We showed that DUX4p mediates a copy number-dependent Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) recruitment, which is responsible for the copy-number dependent gene repression. Overall, we directly link genetic and epigenetic defects in FSHD by proposing a novel molecular explanation for the copy number-dependency in FSHD pathogenesis, and offer insight into the molecular functions of repeats in chromatin regulation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Motivated explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Operskalski, Joachim T.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2015-01-01

    Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of “motivated thinking,” its powerful and pervasive influence on specifically explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or “epistemic” criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or following Kunda's usage, “directional” motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. We propose that “real life” explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. We review emerging evidence from psychology and neuroscience to support this framework and to elucidate the central role of motivation in human thought and explanation. PMID:26528166

  15. Neurophysiological biomarkers for Lewy body dementias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromarty, Ruth A.; Elder, Greg J.; Graziadio, Sara; Baker, Mark; Bonanni, Laura; Onofrj, Marco; O’Brien, John T.; Taylor, John-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lewy body dementias (LBD) include both dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease with dementia (PDD), and the differentiation of LBD from other neurodegenerative dementias can be difficult. Currently, there are few biomarkers which might assist early diagnosis, map onto LBD symptom severity, and provide metrics of treatment response. Traditionally, biomarkers in LBD have focussed on neuroimaging modalities; however, as biomarkers need to be simple, inexpensive and non-invasive, neurophysiological approaches might also be useful as LBD biomarkers. Methods In this review, we searched PubMED and PsycINFO databases in a semi-systematic manner in order to identify potential neurophysiological biomarkers in the LBDs. Results We identified 1491 studies; of these, 37 studies specifically examined neurophysiological biomarkers in LBD patients. We found that there was substantial heterogeneity with respect to methodologies and patient cohorts. Conclusion Generally, many of the findings have yet to be replicated, although preliminary findings reinforce the potential utility of approaches such as quantitative electroencephalography and motor cortical stimulation paradigms. Significance Various neurophysiological techniques have the potential to be useful biomarkers in the LBDs. We recommend that future studies focus on maximising the diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the most promising neurophysiological biomarkers. PMID:26183755

  16. Motivated Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard ePatterson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of motivated thinking, its powerful and pervasive influence on explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or epistemic criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving of explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or (following Kunda’s usage, directional motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms, combined with an effort to preserve the appearance of accuracy; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. In short, real life explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. Our proposals are largely programmatic, although we do review a good deal of relevant behavioral and neurological evidence. Specifically, we recognize five generative processes, some of which cover further sub-processes, and six evaluative processes. All of these are potential points of entry for the influence of motivation. We then suggest in some detail how specific sorts of explanatory motivation interact with specific explanatory processes.

  17. Providing an intelligible explanation to pet owners by using three-dimensional CT images: use of clinical imaging for better informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Miori; Yamada, Kazutaka; Shimizu, Junichiro; Lee, Ki-Ja; Watarai, Hirokazu; Hassan, Hany Y; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to discuss the level of intelligibility of three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) images of clinical patients for persons who are lacking veterinary knowledge. 143 undergraduate students were participated in this study. They were entirely unfamiliar with veterinary anatomy. A survey was conducted using the visual analog scale method with a focus on the level of intelligibility of the 3D-CT images compared to that of the two-dimensional CT images or radiographs. As a result, the mean value of the intelligibility of the 3D-CT image was 88.4 +/- 17.8 points out of 100 points. In clinical cases, it is very difficult for pet owners lacking veterinary knowledge to understand the clinical status of their pets even with explanations using illustrations, radiographs, and transverse CT images. It is considered that better informed consent and patient satisfaction will be obtained provided veterinarians make an effort towards intelligible patient education by using 3D-CT images.

  18. The neurophysiology of paediatric movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Verity M

    2017-12-01

    To demonstrate how neurophysiological tools have advanced our understanding of the pathophysiology of paediatric movement disorders, and of neuroplasticity in the developing brain. Delineation of corticospinal tract connectivity using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is being investigated as a potential biomarker for response to therapy. TMS measures of cortical excitability and neuroplasticity are also being used to investigate the effects of therapy, demonstrating neuroplastic changes that relate to functional improvements. Analyses of evoked potentials and event-related changes in the electroencephalogaphy spectral activity provide growing evidence for the important role of aberrant sensory processing in the pathophysiology of many different movement disorders. Neurophysiological findings demonstrate that children with clinically similar phenotypes may have differing underlying pathophysiology, which in turn may explain differential response to therapy. Neurophysiological parameters can act as biomarkers, providing a means to stratify individuals, and are well suited to provide biofeedback. They therefore have enormous potential to facilitate improvements to therapy. Although currently a small field, the role of neurophysiology in paediatric movement disorders is poised to expand, both fuelled by and contributing to the rapidly growing fields of neuro-rehabilitation and neuromodulation and the move towards a more individualized therapeutic approach.

  19. Intraoperative neurophysiological assessment of disabling symptoms in DBS surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Journee, H. L.; Postma, A. A.; Staal, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. - Neurophysiological assessment can provide quantitative measures for the selected motor signs that have been targeted for surgery and may be helpful in predicting the therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on pathological tremor, motor performance, and rigidity.

  20. Creating visual explanations improves learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Eliza; Tversky, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Many topics in science are notoriously difficult for students to learn. Mechanisms and processes outside student experience present particular challenges. While instruction typically involves visualizations, students usually explain in words. Because visual explanations can show parts and processes of complex systems directly, creating them should have benefits beyond creating verbal explanations. We compared learning from creating visual or verbal explanations for two STEM domains, a mechanical system (bicycle pump) and a chemical system (bonding). Both kinds of explanations were analyzed for content and learning assess by a post-test. For the mechanical system, creating a visual explanation increased understanding particularly for participants of low spatial ability. For the chemical system, creating both visual and verbal explanations improved learning without new teaching. Creating a visual explanation was superior and benefitted participants of both high and low spatial ability. Visual explanations often included crucial yet invisible features. The greater effectiveness of visual explanations appears attributable to the checks they provide for completeness and coherence as well as to their roles as platforms for inference. The benefits should generalize to other domains like the social sciences, history, and archeology where important information can be visualized. Together, the findings provide support for the use of learner-generated visual explanations as a powerful learning tool.

  1. Explanation and inference: mechanistic and functional explanations guide property generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Gwynne, Nicholas Z.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to generalize from the known to the unknown is central to learning and inference. Two experiments explore the relationship between how a property is explained and how that property is generalized to novel species and artifacts. The experiments contrast the consequences of explaining a property mechanistically, by appeal to parts and processes, with the consequences of explaining the property functionally, by appeal to functions and goals. The findings suggest that properties that are explained functionally are more likely to be generalized on the basis of shared functions, with a weaker relationship between mechanistic explanations and generalization on the basis of shared parts and processes. The influence of explanation type on generalization holds even though all participants are provided with the same mechanistic and functional information, and whether an explanation type is freely generated (Experiment 1), experimentally provided (Experiment 2), or experimentally induced (Experiment 2). The experiments also demonstrate that explanations and generalizations of a particular type (mechanistic or functional) can be experimentally induced by providing sample explanations of that type, with a comparable effect when the sample explanations come from the same domain or from a different domains. These results suggest that explanations serve as a guide to generalization, and contribute to a growing body of work supporting the value of distinguishing mechanistic and functional explanations. PMID:25309384

  2. Neurophysiological evidence of methylmercury neurotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murata, Katsuyuki; Grandjean, Philippe; Dakeishi, Miwako

    2007-01-01

    neurotoxicity and to examine the usefulness of those measures. METHODS: The reports addressing both neurophysiological measures and methylmercury exposure in humans were identified and evaluated. RESULTS: The neurological signs and symptoms of MD included paresthesias, constriction of visual fields, impairment...... disease (MD; methylmercury poisoning). In recent years, some of these methods have been used for the risk assessment of low-level methylmercury exposure in asymptomatic children. The objectives of this article were to present an overview of neurophysiological findings involved in methylmercury...... of hearing and speech, mental disturbances, excessive sweating, and hypersalivation. Neuropathological lesions involved visual, auditory, and post- and pre-central cortex areas. Neurophysiological changes involved in methylmercury, as assessed by EPs and HRV, were found to be in accordance with both clinical...

  3. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring for the anaesthetist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring for the anaesthetist Part 1: A review of the theory and practice of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. ... A thorough knowledge of the physics and physiology behind these techniques will ensure better outcomes and successful implementation in neurosurgical centres.

  4. Students Performance And Perception Of Neurophysiology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students Performance And Perception Of Neurophysiology: Feedback For Innovative Curricular Reform In A Nigerian Medical School. ... The reported students perception of their neurophysiology learning included uninteresting, abstract concepts, lack of real examples and conflicting facts with their prior basic knowledge.

  5. Sequential and simultaneous multiple explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Litchfield

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two experiments comparing variants of multiple explanation applied in the early stages of a judgment task (a case involving employee theft where participants are not given a menu of response options. Because prior research has focused on situations where response options are provided to judges, we identify relevant dependent variables that an intervention might affect when such options are not given. We use these variables to build a causal model of intervention that illustrates both the intended effects of multiple explanation and some potentially competing processes that it may trigger. Although multiple explanation clearly conveys some benefits (e.g., willingness to delay action to engage in information search, increased detail, quality and confidence in alternative explanations in the present experiments, we also found evidence that it may initiate or enhance processes that attenuate its advantages (e.g., feelings that one does not need more data if one has multiple good explanations.

  6. Evaluation of TV commercials using neurophysiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Do-Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Choi, Jinsook; Kim, Chajoong; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2015-04-24

    In recent years, neuroscientific knowledge has been applied to marketing as a novel and efficient means to comprehend the cognitive and behavioral aspects of consumers. A number of studies have attempted to evaluate media contents, especially TV commercials using various neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG). Yet neurophysiological examination of detailed cognitive and affective responses in viewers is still required to provide practical information to marketers. Here, this study develops a method to analyze temporal patterns of EEG data and extract affective and cognitive indices such as happiness, surprise, and attention for TV commercial evaluation. Twenty participants participated in the study. We developed the neurophysiological indices for TV commercial evaluation using classification model. Specifically, these model-based indices were customized using individual EEG features. We used a video game for developing the index of attention and four video clips for developing indices of happiness and surprise. Statistical processes including one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and the cross validation scheme were used to select EEG features for each index. The EEG features were composed of the combinations of spectral power at selected channels from the cross validation for each individual. The Fisher's linear discriminant classifier (FLDA) was used to estimate each neurophysiological index during viewing four different TV commercials. Post hoc behavioral responses of preference, short-term memory, and recall were measured. Behavioral results showed significant differences for all preference, short-term memory rates, and recall rates between commercials, leading to a 'high-ranked' commercial group and a 'low-ranked' group (P TV commercials.

  7. Axis: Generating Explanations at Scale with Learnersourcing and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph Jay; Kim, Juho; Rafferty, Anna; Heffernan, Neil; Maldonado, Samuel; Gajos, Krzysztof Z.; Lasecki, Walter S.; Heffernan, Neil

    2016-01-01

    While explanations may help people learn by providing information about why an answer is correct, many problems on online platforms lack high-quality explanations. This paper presents AXIS (Adaptive eXplanation Improvement System), a system for obtaining explanations. AXIS asks learners to generate, revise, and evaluate explanations as they solve…

  8. Handling Metadata in a Neurophysiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehl, Lyuba; Jaillet, Florent; Stoewer, Adrian; Grewe, Jan; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Brochier, Thomas G; Riehle, Alexa; Denker, Michael; Grün, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    To date, non-reproducibility of neurophysiological research is a matter of intense discussion in the scientific community. A crucial component to enhance reproducibility is to comprehensively collect and store metadata, that is, all information about the experiment, the data, and the applied preprocessing steps on the data, such that they can be accessed and shared in a consistent and simple manner. However, the complexity of experiments, the highly specialized analysis workflows and a lack of knowledge on how to make use of supporting software tools often overburden researchers to perform such a detailed documentation. For this reason, the collected metadata are often incomplete, incomprehensible for outsiders or ambiguous. Based on our research experience in dealing with diverse datasets, we here provide conceptual and technical guidance to overcome the challenges associated with the collection, organization, and storage of metadata in a neurophysiology laboratory. Through the concrete example of managing the metadata of a complex experiment that yields multi-channel recordings from monkeys performing a behavioral motor task, we practically demonstrate the implementation of these approaches and solutions with the intention that they may be generalized to other projects. Moreover, we detail five use cases that demonstrate the resulting benefits of constructing a well-organized metadata collection when processing or analyzing the recorded data, in particular when these are shared between laboratories in a modern scientific collaboration. Finally, we suggest an adaptable workflow to accumulate, structure and store metadata from different sources using, by way of example, the odML metadata framework.

  9. Neurophysiological responses during cooking food associated with different emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Grootjen, M.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Zandstra, E.H.

    2017-01-01

    Neurophysiological correlates of affective experience could potentially provide continuous information about a person’s experience when cooking and tasting food, without explicitly verbalizing this. Such measures would be helpful to understand people’s implicit food preferences and choices. This

  10. [Neurophysiological aspects of Proteus syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manquillo, A; Martínez-Mena, J; Quintana, P; Paradinas, F; Sáez, J; Revilla, C; Galán, J M

    1997-10-01

    The Proteus Syndrome was defined in 1983 by Wiedeman. However, the first case mentioned in the literature was that of Joseph Merrick, the Elephant Man, presented by Sir Frederick Treves in 1884. It is a rare pathological condition. Its multiple clinical features include; partial gigantism of hands and/or feet, pigmented nevi, hemihypertrophy of the body, tumors, skeletal anomalies, growth disorders and visceral anomalies. Hereditary transmission has not been clearly defined. Diagnosis and treatment require the participation of experts from several medical and surgical specialties. We present a case sent to our hospital for the surgical correction of cranio-facial malformations. Epileptic crises post-operatively indicated the need for neurological and neuro-physiological study. This was done by means of conventional electro-encephalography: brainstem, somato-sensorial and visual auditory evoked potentials, together with imaging techniques which showed the structural and functional asymmetry of the central nervous system at both cerebral and brainstem levels. Few neuro-physiological studies are included in the literature we reviewed for this paper. Therefore we do not know whether the functional anomalies of the central nervous system which we describe should be considered to be part of the syndrome.

  11. Sublime Views and Beautiful Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan; Hatch, Mary Jo

    To create a generative theory that provides beautiful explanations and sublime views requires both a crafts and an art approach to scientific theorizing. The search for generativity leads scholars to perform various theorizing moves between the confines of simple, yet eloquent beauty, and the ran......To create a generative theory that provides beautiful explanations and sublime views requires both a crafts and an art approach to scientific theorizing. The search for generativity leads scholars to perform various theorizing moves between the confines of simple, yet eloquent beauty...

  12. Students Performance And Perception Of Neurophysiology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We also surveyed learning experience of a batch of graduating doctors in neurosciences (n=50) and surveyed the staff and students' perception of the teaching of neurophysiology. The students performances in neurophysiology was comparatively poorer than in cardiovascular and endocrinology aspects of the subject over ...

  13. Neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Akash J; Agadi, Satish; Thomas, Jonathan G; Schmidt, Robert J; Hwang, Steven W; Fulkerson, Daniel H; Glover, Chris D; Jea, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Neurophysiological monitoring during complex spine procedures may reduce risk of injury by providing feedback to the operating surgeon. This tool is a well-established and important surgical adjunct in adults, but clinical data in children are not well described. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring data have not been reported in children with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Down syndrome, who commonly present with craniocervical instability requiring internal fixation. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability and safety of neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring in a group of children with Down syndrome undergoing neurosurgical spine procedures. A total of six consecutive spinal procedures in six children with Down syndrome (three boys and three girls; mean age 10 years, range 4-16 years) were analyzed between January 1, 2008 and June 31, 2011. Somatosensory evoked potentials were stimulated at the ulnar nerve and tibial nerve for upper and lower extremities, respectively, and recorded at Erb's point and the scalp. Motor evoked potentials were elicited by transcranial electrical stimulation and recorded at the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle and tibialis anterior muscle for upper and lower extremities, respectively. A standardized anesthesia protocol for monitoring consisted of a titrated propofol drip combined with bolus dosing of fentanyl or sufentanil. Somatosensory and motor evoked potentials were documented at the beginning and end of the procedure in all six patients. Changes during the surgery were recorded. Five patients maintained somatosensory potentials throughout surgery. One patient demonstrated a >10% increase in latency or >50% decrease in amplitude suggesting spinal cord dysfunction. A mean baseline stimulation threshold for motor evoked potentials of 485 + 85 V (range 387-600 V) was used. Four patients maintained motor evoked potentials throughout surgery. One patient had loss

  14. Incorporating neurophysiological concepts in mathematical thermoregulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Boris R. M.; Vosselman, M. J.; Frijns, A. J. H.; van Steenhoven, A. A.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W. D.

    2014-01-01

    Skin blood flow (SBF) is a key player in human thermoregulation during mild thermal challenges. Various numerical models of SBF regulation exist. However, none explicitly incorporates the neurophysiology of thermal reception. This study tested a new SBF model that is in line with experimental data on thermal reception and the neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control. Additionally, a numerical thermoregulation model was used as a platform to test the function of the neurophysiological SBF model for skin temperature simulation. The prediction-error of the SBF-model was quantified by root-mean-squared-residual (RMSR) between simulations and experimental measurement data. Measurement data consisted of SBF (abdomen, forearm, hand), core and skin temperature recordings of young males during three transient thermal challenges (1 development and 2 validation). Additionally, ThermoSEM, a thermoregulation model, was used to simulate body temperatures using the new neurophysiological SBF-model. The RMSR between simulated and measured mean skin temperature was used to validate the model. The neurophysiological model predicted SBF with an accuracy of RMSR thermoregulation models can be equipped with SBF control functions that are based on neurophysiology without loss of performance. The neurophysiological approach in modelling thermoregulation is favourable over engineering approaches because it is more in line with the underlying physiology.

  15. Post-hypoxic Myoclonus: Current Concepts, Neurophysiology, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Harsh V; Caviness, John N

    2016-01-01

    Myoclonus may occur after hypoxia. In 1963, Lance and Adams described persistent myoclonus with other features after hypoxia. However, myoclonus occurring immediately after hypoxia may demonstrate different syndromic features from classic Lance-Adams syndrome (LAS). The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date information about the spectrum of myoclonus occurring after hypoxia with emphasis on neurophysiological features. A literature search was performed on PubMed database from 1960 to 2015. The following search terms were used: "myoclonus," "post anoxic myoclonus," "post hypoxic myoclonus," and "Lance Adams syndrome." The articles describing clinical features, neurophysiology, management, and prognosis of post-hypoxic myoclonus cases were included for review. Several reports in the literature were separated clinically into "acute post-hypoxic myoclonus," which occurred within hours of severe hypoxia, and "chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus," which occurred with some recovery of mental status as the LAS. Acute post-hypoxic myoclonus was generalized in the setting of coma. Chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus presented as multifocal cortical action myoclonus that was significantly disabling. There was overlap of neurophysiological findings for these two syndromes but also different features. Treatment options for these two distinct clinical-neurophysiologic post-hypoxic myoclonus syndromes were approached differently. The review of clinical and neurophysiological findings suggests that myoclonus after hypoxia manifests in one or a combination of distinct syndromes: acute and/or chronic myoclonus. The mechanism of post-hypoxic myoclonus may arise either from cortical and/or subcortical structures. More research is needed to clarify mechanisms and treatment of post-hypoxic myoclonus.

  16. Post-hypoxic Myoclonus: Current Concepts, Neurophysiology, and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Harsh V.; Caviness, John N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Myoclonus may occur after hypoxia. In 1963, Lance and Adams described persistent myoclonus with other features after hypoxia. However, myoclonus occurring immediately after hypoxia may demonstrate different syndromic features from classic Lance?Adams syndrome (LAS). The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date information about the spectrum of myoclonus occurring after hypoxia with emphasis on neurophysiological features. Methods A literature search was performed on PubMed datab...

  17. Preliminary evidence of a neurophysiological basis for individual discrimination in filial imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Stephen Michael

    2011-12-01

    Filial imprinting involves a predisposition for biologically important stimuli and a learning process directing preferences towards a particular stimulus. Learning underlies discrimination between imprinted and unfamiliar individuals and depends upon the IMM (intermediate and medial mesopallium). Here, IMM neurons responded differentially to familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics following socialization and the neurophysiological effects of social experience differed between hemispheres. Such findings may provide a neurophysiological basis for individual discrimination in imprinting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Human skin wetness perception: psychophysical and neurophysiological bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Havenith, George

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perceive thermal changes in the surrounding environment is critical for survival. However, sensing temperature is not the only factor among the cutaneous sensations to contribute to thermoregulatory responses in humans. Sensing skin wetness (i.e. hygrosensation) is also critical both for behavioral and autonomic adaptations. Although much has been done to define the biophysical role of skin wetness in contributing to thermal homeostasis, little is known on the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning the ability to sense skin wetness. Humans are not provided with skin humidity receptors (i.e., hygroreceptors) and psychophysical studies have identified potential sensory cues (i.e. thermal and mechanosensory) which could contribute to sensing wetness. Recently, a neurophysiological model of human wetness sensitivity has been developed. In helping clarifying the peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved in sensing skin wetness, this model has provided evidence for the existence of a specific human hygrosensation strategy, which is underpinned by perceptual learning via sensory experience. Remarkably, this strategy seems to be shared by other hygroreceptor-lacking animals. However, questions remain on whether these sensory mechanisms are underpinned by specific neuromolecular pathways in humans. Although the first study on human wetness perception dates back to more than 100 years, it is surprising that the neurophysiological bases of such an important sensory feature have only recently started to be unveiled. Hence, to provide an overview of the current knowledge on human hygrosensation, along with potential directions for future research, this review will examine the psychophysical and neurophysiological bases of human skin wetness perception. PMID:27227008

  19. Spontaneous Grammar Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoo, Hong Sing; Lewis, Marilyn

    1998-01-01

    Describes one New Zealand university language teacher's reflection on her own grammar explanations to university-level students of Bahasa Indonesian. Examines form-focused instruction through the teacher's spontaneous answers to students' questions about the form of the language they are studying. The teacher's experiences show that it takes time…

  20. SPIRIT 2013 explanation and elaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials). The SPIRIT Statement provides guidance in the form of a checklist of recommended items to include in a clinical trial protocol. This SPIRIT 2013 Explanation and Elaboration paper provides important information to promote full...... understanding of the checklist recommendations. For each checklist item, we provide a rationale and detailed description; a model example from an actual protocol; and relevant references supporting its importance. We strongly recommend that this explanatory paper be used in conjunction with the SPIRIT Statement...

  1. Neurophysiological evaluation of healthy human anorectal sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M L; Hobson, A R; Hamdy, S; Thompson, D G; Akkermans, L M; Aziz, Q

    2006-11-01

    Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders often demonstrate abnormal visceral sensation. Currently, rectal sensation is assessed by manual balloon distension or barostat. However, neither test is adaptable for use in the neurophysiological characterization of visceral afferent pathways by sensory evoked potentials. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and quality of sensation evoked by electrical stimulation (ES) and rapid balloon distension (RBD) in the anorectum and to apply the optimum stimulus to examine the visceral afferent pathway with rectal evoked potentials. Healthy subjects (n = 8, median age 33 yr) were studied on three separate occasions. Variability, tolerance, and stimulus characteristics were assessed with each technique. Overall ES consistently invoked pain and was chosen for measuring rectal evoked potential whereas RBD in all cases induced the strong urge to defecate. Rectal intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for ES and RBD (0.82 and 0.72, respectively) demonstrated good reproducibility at pain/maximum tolerated volume but not at sensory threshold. Only sphincter ICC for ES at pain showed acceptable between-study reproducibility (ICC 0.79). Within studies ICC was good (>0.6) for anorectal ES and RBD at both levels of sensation. All subjects reported significantly more unpleasantness during RBD than ES (P processing of the sensory input. This is of relevance in interpreting findings of neuroimaging studies of anorectal sensation and may provide insight into the physiological characteristics of visceral afferent pathways in health and disease.

  2. Individual neurophysiological profile in external effects investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtseva, Daria; Tatiana Kotrovskaya, D..

    Cortex biopotentials are the significant elements in human psychophysiological individuality. Considered that cortical biopotentials are diverse and individually stable, therefore there is the existence of certain dependence between the basic properties of higher nervous activity and cerebral bioelectric activity. The main purpose of the study was to reveal the individual neurophysiological profile and CNS initial functional state manifestation in human electroencephalogram (EEG) under effect of inert gases (argon, xenon, helium), hypoxia, pressure changes (0.02 and 0.2 MPa). We obtained 5-minute eyes closed background EEG on 19 scalp positions using Ag/AgCl electrodes mounted in an electrode cap. All EEG signals were re-referenced to average earlobes; Fast Furies Transformation analysis was used to calculate the relative power spectrum of delta-, theta-, alpha- and beta frequency band in artifact-free EEG. The study involved 26 healthy men who provided written informed consent, aged 20 to 35 years. Data obtained depend as individual EEG type and initial central nervous functional state as intensity, duration and mix of factors. Pronounced alpha rhythm in the raw EEG correlated with their adaptive capacity under studied factor exposure. Representation change and zonal distribution perversion of EEG alpha rhythm were accompanied by emotional instability, increased anxiety and difficulty adapting subjects. High power factor or combination factor with psychological and emotional or physical exertion minimizes individual EEG pattern.

  3. Behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of target interception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Hugo; Zarco, Wilbert; Prado, Luis; Pérez, Oswaldo

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of manual interception. We review the most important elements of an interceptive action from the sensory and cognitive stage to the motor side of this behavior. We describe different spatial and temporal target parameters that can be used to control the interception movement, as well as the different strategies used by the subject to intercept a moving target. We review the neurophysiological properties of the parietofrontal system during target motion processing and during a particular experiment of target interception. Finally, we describe the neural responses associated with the temporal and spatial parameters of a moving target and the possible neurophysiological mechanisms used to integrate this information in order to trigger an interception movement.

  4. Cross-Country Individual Participant Analysis of 4.1 Million Singleton Births in 5 Countries with Very High Human Development Index Confirms Known Associations but Provides No Biologic Explanation for 2/3 of All Preterm Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, David M; Larson, Jim; Jacobsson, Bo; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Norman, Jane E; Martin, James N; D'Alton, Mary; Castelazo, Ernesto; Howson, Chris P; Sengpiel, Verena; Bottai, Matteo; Mayo, Jonathan A; Shaw, Gary M; Verdenik, Ivan; Tul, Nataša; Velebil, Petr; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; Rushwan, Hamid; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam; Howse, Jennifer L; Simpson, Joe Leigh

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most common single cause of perinatal and infant mortality, affecting 15 million infants worldwide each year with global rates increasing. Understanding of risk factors remains poor, and preventive interventions have only limited benefit. Large differences exist in preterm birth rates across high income countries. We hypothesized that understanding the basis for these wide variations could lead to interventions that reduce preterm birth incidence in countries with high rates. We thus sought to assess the contributions of known risk factors for both spontaneous and provider-initiated preterm birth in selected high income countries, estimating also the potential impact of successful interventions due to advances in research, policy and public health, or clinical practice. We analyzed individual patient-level data on 4.1 million singleton pregnancies from four countries with very high human development index (Czech Republic, New Zealand, Slovenia, Sweden) and one comparator U.S. state (California) to determine the specific contribution (adjusting for confounding effects) of 21 factors. Both individual and population-attributable preterm birth risks were determined, as were contributors to cross-country differences. We also assessed the ability to predict preterm birth given various sets of known risk factors. Previous preterm birth and preeclampsia were the strongest individual risk factors of preterm birth in all datasets, with odds ratios of 4.6-6.0 and 2.8-5.7, respectively, for individual women having those characteristics. In contrast, on a population basis, nulliparity and male sex were the two risk factors with the highest impact on preterm birth rates, accounting for 25-50% and 11-16% of excess population attributable risk, respectively (pcountry lacks a plausible biologic explanation, and 63% of difference between countries cannot be explained with known factors; thus, research is necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of

  5. Inside case-based explanation

    CERN Document Server

    Schank, Roger C; Riesbeck, Christopher K

    2014-01-01

    This book is the third volume in a series that provides a hands-on perspective on the evolving theories associated with Roger Schank and his students. The primary focus of this volume is on constructing explanations. All of the chapters relate to the problem of building computer programs that can develop hypotheses about what might have caused an observed event. Because most researchers in natural language processing don't really want to work on inference, memory, and learning issues, most of their sample text fragments are chosen carefully to de-emphasize the need for non text-related reasoni

  6. Explanations and expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

    2015-01-01

    drug use ‘aetiologies’ drawn upon by the interviewees. These cover childhood experiences, self-medication, the influence of friends and cannabis use as a specific lifestyle. A central argument of the article is that these explanations not only concern the past but also point towards the future...... by assigning the interviewee a more or less agential position in relation to drugs. Further, the drug narratives are viewed as interactional achievements, related to the social context in which they were produced, namely, the institutional setting of the treatment centres. The article is based on 30...

  7. Neurophysiological, Psychological, Sport and Health dimensions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to record experiences of three meditation conditions: Ratio Breathing, Transcendental Meditation and Zazen, with special reference to sport, health, neuro-physiology and sense of coherence. The participants (N=9), seven males and two females were all British, actively competing across a range of ...

  8. Neurophysiologic, phenomenological, cultural, social and spiritual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this research was to explore neurophysiologic, phenomenological, cultural and social correlates of recipients' experiences of empathy within the context of Wilber's Integral approach and Person Centered theory and practice. Thirteen psychologists participated as co-researchers in a triangulated, ...

  9. Validity Evidence for a Learning Progression of Scientific Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian-Xin; Guo, Yu-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Providing scientific explanations for natural phenomena is a fundamental aim of science; therefore, scientific explanation has been selected as one of the key practices in science education policy documents around the world. To further elaborate on existing educational frameworks of scientific explanation in K-12, we propose a learning progression…

  10. Constructing Scientific Explanations: a System of Analysis for Students' Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Vanessa; Freire, Sofia; Baptista, Mónica

    2017-08-01

    This article describes a system of analysis aimed at characterizing students' scientific explanations. Science education literature and reform documents have been highlighting the importance of scientific explanations for students' conceptual understanding and for their understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge. Nevertheless, and despite general agreement regarding the potential of having students construct their own explanations, a consensual notion of scientific explanation has still not been reached. As a result, within science education literature, there are several frameworks defining scientific explanations, with different foci as well as different notions of what accounts as a good explanation. Considering this, and based on a more ample project, we developed a system of analysis to characterize students' explanations. It was conceptualized and developed based on theories and models of scientific explanations, science education literature, and from examples of students' explanations collected by an open-ended questionnaire. With this paper, it is our goal to present the system of analysis, illustrating it with specific examples of students' collected explanations. In addition, we expect to point out its adequacy and utility for analyzing and characterizing students' scientific explanations as well as for tracing their progression.

  11. Clinical studies on neurophysiological and biochemical basis of acupuncture analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G B; Li, S C; Jiang, C C

    1986-01-01

    From November 1965 to December 1978, about 10,635 cranio-cerebral operations were performed under acupuncture anesthesia in 24 neurosurgical departments in China. The extensive clinical practices have proved that acupuncture surely has analgesic effect. So far most researches upon the mechanism for analgesia by acupuncture were based on animal experiments, but not confirmed or evidenced in human beings. For this reason, a series of clinical studies upon the neurophysiological and biochemical basis for acupuncture analgesia has been made utilizing the facilities of a neurologic clinic provided that the patient's condition is not adversely affected and therapeutic efficiency is enhanced. The results are summarized as follows.

  12. Neurophysiology versus clinical genetics in Rett syndrome: A multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Nicky; Julu, Peter; Witt‐Engerström, Ingegerd; Pini, Giorgio; Bigoni, Stefania; Hansen, Stig; Apartopoulos, Flora; Delamont, Robert; van Roozendaal, Kees; Scusa, Maria F.; Borelli, Paolo; Candel, Math; Curfs, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have attempted to establish the genotype–phenotype correlation in Rett syndrome (RTT). Cardiorespiratory measurements provide robust objective data, to correlate with each of the different clinical phenotypes. It has important implications for the management and treatment of this syndrome. The aim of this study was to correlate the genotype with the quantitative cardiorespiratory data obtained by neurophysiological measurement combined with a clinical severity score. This international multicenter study was conducted in four European countries from 1999 to 2012. The study cohort consisted of a group of 132 well‐defined RTT females aged between 2 and 43 years with extended clinical, molecular, and neurophysiological assessments. Diagnosis of RTT was based on the consensus criteria for RTT and molecular confirmation. Genotype–phenotype analyses of clinical features and cardiorespiratory data were performed after grouping mutations by the same type and localization or having the same putative biological effect on the MeCP2 protein, and subsequently on eight single recurrent mutations. A less severe phenotype was seen in females with CTS, p.R133C, and p.R294X mutations. Autonomic disturbances were present in all females, and not restricted to nor influenced by one specific group or any single recurrent mutation. The objective information from non‐invasive neurophysiological evaluation of the disturbed central autonomic control is of great importance in helping to organize the lifelong care for females with RTT. Further research is needed to provide insights into the pathogenesis of autonomic dysfunction, and to develop evidence‐based management in RTT. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27354166

  13. Examining elementary teachers' knowledge and instruction of scientific explanations for fostering children's explanations in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebke, Heidi Lynn

    This study employed an embedded mixed methods multi-case study design (Creswell, 2014) with six early childhood (grades K-2) teachers to examine a) what changes occurred to their subject matter knowledge (SMK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching scientific explanations while participating in a professional development program, b) how they planned for and implemented scientific explanation instruction within a teacher developed unit on properties of matter, and c) what affordances their instruction of scientific explanations had on fostering their students' abilities to generate explanations in science. Several quantitative and qualitative measures were collected and analyzed in accordance to this studies conceptual framework, which consisted of ten instructional practices teachers should consider assimilating or accommodating into their knowledge base (i.e., SMK & PCK) for teaching scientific explanations. Results of this study indicate there was little to no positive change in the teachers' substantive and syntactic SMK. However, all six teachers did make significant changes to all five components of their PCK for teaching explanations in science. While planning for scientific explanation instruction, all six teachers' contributed some ideas for how to incorporate seven of the ten instructional practices for scientific explanations within the properties of matter unit they co-developed. When enacting the unit, the six teachers' employed seven to nine of the instructional practices to varying levels of effectiveness, as measured by researcher developed rubrics. Given the six teachers' scientific explanation instruction, many students did show improvement in their ability to formulate a scientific explanation, particularly their ability to provide multiple pieces of evidence. Implications for professional developers, teacher educators, researchers, policy makers, and elementary teachers regarding how to prepare teachers for and support students

  14. The psychological and neurophysiological concomitants of mindfulness forms of meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovski, Belinda; Malhi, Gin S

    2007-04-01

    To provide a comprehensive review and evaluation of the psychological and neurophysiological literature pertaining to mindfulness meditation. A search for papers in English was undertaken using PsycINFO (from 1804 onward), MedLine (from 1966 onward) and the Cochrane Library with the following search terms: Vipassana, Mindfulness, Meditation, Zen, Insight, EEG, ERP, fMRI, neuroimaging and intervention. In addition, retrieved papers and reports known to the authors were also reviewed for additional relevant literature. Mindfulness-based therapeutic interventions appear to be effective in the treatment of depression, anxiety, psychosis, borderline personality disorder and suicidal/self-harm behaviour. Mindfulness meditation per se is effective in reducing substance use and recidivism rates in incarcerated populations but has not been specifically investigated in populations with psychiatric disorders. Electroencephalography research suggests increased alpha, theta and beta activity in frontal and posterior regions, some gamma band effects, with theta activity strongly related to level of experience of meditation; however, these findings have not been consistent. The few neuroimaging studies that have been conducted suggest volumetric and functional change in key brain regions. Preliminary findings from treatment outcome studies provide support for the application of mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment of affective, anxiety and personality disorders. However, direct evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation per se in the treatment of psychiatric disorders is needed. Current neurophysiological and imaging research findings have identified neural changes in association with meditation and provide a potentially promising avenue for future research.

  15. SWIMMY: Free Software for Teaching Neurophysiology of Neuronal Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A; Krasne, Franklin B

    2008-01-01

    To circumvent the many problems in teaching neurophysiology as a "wet lab," we developed SWIMMY, a virtual fish that swims by moving its virtual tail by means of a virtual neural circuit. SWIMMY diminishes the need for expensive equipment, troubleshooting, and manual skills that require practice. Also, SWIMMY effectively replaces live preparations, which some students find objectionable. Using SWIMMY, students (1) review the basics of neurophysiology, (2) identify the neurons in the circuit, (3) ascertain the neurons' synaptic interconnections, (4) discover which cells generate the motor pattern of swimming, (5) discover how the rhythm is generated, and finally (6) use an animation that corresponds to the activity of the motoneurons to discover the behavioral effects produced by various lesions and explain them in terms of their neural underpinnings. SWIMMY is a genuine inquiry-based exercise producing data that requires individual thought and interpretation. It is neither a cookbook exercise nor a demonstration. We have used SWIMMY for several terms with great success. SWIMMY solidifies students' understanding of material learned in traditional lecture courses because they must apply the concepts. Student ratings of SWIMMY have been very positive, particularly ratings from students who have also been exposed to a "wet" neurophysiology lab. Because SWIMMY requires only computers for implementation and makes minimal demands on instructional resources, it provides for a great deal of flexibility. Instructors could use SWIMMY as part of a traditional lab course, as a classroom exercise, in distance learning, or in blended instructional formats (internet with classroom). SWIMMY is now available for free online complete with student and instructor manuals at http://mdcune.psych.ucla.edu.

  16. [The links between neuropsychology and neurophysiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarska-Weryńska, Urszula; Biedroń, Agnieszka; Kaciński, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish current scope of knowledge regarding associations between neurophysiological functioning, neuropsychology and psychoterapy. A systematic review was performed including 93 publications from Science Server, which contains the collections of Elsevier, Springer Journals, SCI-Ex/ICM, MEDLINE/PubMed, and SCOPUS. The works have been selected basing on following key words: 'neuropsychology, neurocognitive correlates, electrodermal response, event related potential, EEG, pupillography, electromiography' out of papers published between 2004-2015. Present reports on the use of neurophysiological methods in psychology can be divided into two areas: experimental research and research of the practical use of conditioning techniques and biofeedback in the treatment of somatic disease. Among the experimental research the following have been distinguished: research based on the startle reflex, physiological reaction to novelty, stress, type/amount of cognitive load and physiological correlates of emotion; research on the neurophysiological correlates of mental disorders, mostly mood and anxiety disorders, and neurocognitive correlates: of memory, attention, learning and intelligence. Among papers regarding the use of neurophysiological methods in psychology two types are the most frequent: on the mechanisms of biofeedback, related mainly to neuro- feedback, which is a quickly expanding method of various attention and mental disorders'treatment, and also research of the use of conditioning techniques in the treatment of mental disorders, especially depression and anxiety. A special place among all the above is taken by the research on electrophysiological correlates of psychotherapy, aiming to differentiate between the efficacy of various psychotherapeutic schools (the largest amount of publications regard the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) in patients of different age groups and different diagnosis.

  17. The effect of placebo and neurophysiological involvements

    OpenAIRE

    Galli, Federica; Riccio, Barbara; Guidetti, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Placebo and placebo effect are important issues related to the drug therapy for clinical and scientific meanings. The rates of placebo may get as many as 50% for analgesic drugs in headache. The high answer to placebo brings questions on pathophysiology of headache. Answers may offer a new strategy in the implementation of trials and new insight in neurophysiology of headache. Current knowledge on placebo and placebo effect will be analysed and dicussed looking for new direction in headache f...

  18. Clinical neurophysiology referral patterns to a tertiary hospital--a prospective audit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Renganathan, R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Cork University Hospital (CUH) provides a tertiary service for all neurophysiology referrals in the Southern Health Board region. AIM: To ascertain the number, source, symptoms and diagnosis of neurophysiology referrals at CUH. METHODS: We did a prospective audit of the referral patterns to the neurophysiology department over a 12 -week period. RESULTS: Of 635 referrals, 254 had electromyograms (EMG), 359 had electro-encephalograms (EEG), 18 had visual evoked potentials (VEP), three had somato-sensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and one had multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT). We analysed the demographic pattern, reason for referrals, the average waiting time for neurophysiology tests and the patterns of diagnosis in this audit. CONCLUSIONS: Patients from County Cork are making more use of the neurophysiology services than patients from other counties within the Southern Health Board. The average waiting time for an EEG was 32 days and for an EMG was 74 days. However, more than 35% of those patients waiting for an EEG or an EMG had their tests done within four weeks of referral. The appointments of EEG and EMG were assigned on the basis of clinical need.

  19. Application of Higuchi's fractal dimension from basic to clinical neurophysiology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesić, Srdjan; Spasić, Sladjana Z

    2016-09-01

    For more than 20 years, Higuchi's fractal dimension (HFD), as a nonlinear method, has occupied an important place in the analysis of biological signals. The use of HFD has evolved from EEG and single neuron activity analysis to the most recent application in automated assessments of different clinical conditions. Our objective is to provide an updated review of the HFD method applied in basic and clinical neurophysiological research. This article summarizes and critically reviews a broad literature and major findings concerning the applications of HFD for measuring the complexity of neuronal activity during different neurophysiological conditions. The source of information used in this review comes from the PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and IEEE Xplore Digital Library databases. The review process substantiated the significance, advantages and shortcomings of HFD application within all key areas of basic and clinical neurophysiology. Therefore, the paper discusses HFD application alone, combined with other linear or nonlinear measures, or as a part of automated methods for analyzing neurophysiological signals. The speed, accuracy and cost of applying the HFD method for research and medical diagnosis make it stand out from the widely used linear methods. However, only a combination of HFD with other nonlinear methods ensures reliable and accurate analysis of a wide range of neurophysiological signals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The neurophysiological bases of EEG and EEG measurement: a review for the rest of us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alice F; Bolger, Donald J

    2014-11-01

    A thorough understanding of the EEG signal and its measurement is necessary to produce high quality data and to draw accurate conclusions from those data. However, publications that discuss relevant topics are written for divergent audiences with specific levels of expertise: explanations are either at an abstract level that leaves readers with a fuzzy understanding of the electrophysiology involved, or are at a technical level that requires mastery of the relevant physics to understand. A clear, comprehensive review of the origin and measurement of EEG that bridges these high and low levels of explanation fills a critical gap in the literature and is necessary for promoting better research practices and peer review. The present paper addresses the neurophysiological source of EEG, propagation of the EEG signal, technical aspects of EEG measurement, and implications for interpretation of EEG data. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. Impact of fatigue on neurophysiologic measures of surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahol, Kanav; Smith, Marshall; Brandenberger, Jared; Ashby, Aaron; Ferrara, John J

    2011-07-01

    To gain additional insight into the impact of fatigue on surgery resident proficiency, we set out to quantify its impact on behavioral and neurophysiologic measures. Simulations were first created using a visio-haptic joystick attached to a surgical instrument (tool) that allows realistic interactions. Before baseline (pre-call) and after call, 7 PGY1 surgery residents performed simulation tasks that required varying levels of psychomotor and cognitive skill. Residents completed 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. Surgical proficiency was established using 5 metrics: hand movement smoothness; instrument movement smoothness; time to task completion; gesture level proficiency and cognitive errors. Data (percent change from baseline, pre-call) were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. While performing these tasks, the residents also wore an EEG cap (B-Alert; Advanced Brain Monitoring), the data from which provided second to second insight into the effects of workload, distraction, and attention on task performance. Mean (±SD) pre-call and post-call values for each were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Residents experienced significant (p < 0.014) post-call erosions in surgical proficiency, punctuated by dramatic increases in cognitive errors. EEG-based attention scores showed a significant (p < 0.014) concomitant decrement of 40%; distraction/drowsiness scores increased by 91%; and workload score increased by 51%. Fatigue adversely affects PGY1 resident surgical proficiency and neurophysiologic performance. Copyright © 2011 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Theory-based explanation as intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Kara; Markman, Ellen M

    2017-10-01

    Cogent explanations are an indispensable means of providing new information and an essential component of effective education. Beyond this, we argue that there is tremendous untapped potential in using explanations to motivate behavior change. In this article we focus on health interventions. We review four case studies that used carefully tailored explanations to address gaps and misconceptions in people's intuitive theories, providing participants with a conceptual framework for understanding how and why some recommended behavior is an effective way of achieving a health goal. These case studies targeted a variety of health-promoting behaviors: (1) children washing their hands to prevent viral epidemics; (2) parents vaccinating their children to stem the resurgence of infectious diseases; (3) adults completing the full course of an antibiotic prescription to reduce antibiotic resistance; and (4) children eating a variety of healthy foods to improve unhealthy diets. Simply telling people to engage in these behaviors has been largely ineffective-if anything, concern about these issues is mounting. But in each case, teaching participants coherent explanatory frameworks for understanding health recommendations has shown great promise, with such theory-based explanations outperforming state-of-the-art interventions from national health authorities. We contrast theory-based explanations both with simply listing facts, information, and advice and with providing a full-blown educational curriculum, and argue for providing the minimum amount of information required to understand the causal link between a target behavior and a health outcome. We argue that such theory-based explanations lend people the motivation and confidence to act on their new understanding.

  3. Reward mechanisms in the brain and their role in dependence : evidence from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Soelch, C; Leenders, KL; Chevalley, AF; Missimer, J; Kunig, G; Magyar, S; Mino, A; Schultz, W

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews neuronal activity related to reward processing in primate and human brains. In the primate brain, neurophysiological methods provide a differentiated view of reward processing in a limited number of brain structures. Dopamine neurons respond to unpredictable rewards and produce

  4. Neurophysiological reflex mechanisms' lack of contribution to the success of PNF stretches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ulrike H; Myrer, J William; Hopkins, J Ty; Hunter, Iain; Feland, J Brent; Hilton, Sterling C

    2009-08-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretches are widely used in athletics and rehabilitation. Although it has been shown that they produce better range-of-motion (ROM) increases than the slow or static stretch, the mechanisms responsible remain an enigma. This study was conducted to determine whether the previously proposed neurophysiological mechanisms of reciprocal inhibition and autogenic inhibition are responsible for the success of PNF stretches. In addition, the authors assessed the existence of the phenomenon of successive induction because it is used to strengthen reciprocal inhibition. Eighteen subjects 17-44 y performed the PNF stretches contract-relax (CR) and contract-relax, agonist contract (CRAC). EMG data were collected from the medial hamstring muscles via surface and indwelling wire electrodes and analyzed for reciprocal inhibition and successive induction, as well as autogenic inhibition (surface electrodes only). Reciprocal inhibition was not evident. The results indicated an elevated rather than an inhibited EMG during the antagonist contraction, possibly representing cocontraction. The authors did confirm the presence of successive induction. Autogenic inhibition was also not evident, and the expected inhibition and therefore lower EMG values after muscle contraction were not observed; instead, they were higher than baseline. Previous neurophysiological explanations for mechanisms of PNF stretching appear to be inadequate. This study corroborates previous findings that a muscle's tone increases during its antagonist's contraction. Other explanations should be considered regarding the mechanism for the effectiveness of the CRAC and CR PNF techniques in a nonneurologically impaired population.

  5. Misconceived Causal Explanations for Emergent Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Michelene T. H.; Roscoe, Rod D.; Slotta, James D.; Roy, Marguerite; Chase, Catherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Studies exploring how students learn and understand science processes such as "diffusion" and "natural selection" typically find that students provide misconceived explanations of how the patterns of such processes arise (such as why giraffes' necks get longer over generations, or how ink dropped into water appears to "flow"). Instead of…

  6. Cross-Country Individual Participant Analysis of 4.1 Million Singleton Births in 5 Countries with Very High Human Development Index Confirms Known Associations but Provides No Biologic Explanation for 2/3 of All Preterm Births

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrero, David M; Larson, Jim; Jacobsson, Bo; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Norman, Jane E; Martin, Jr, James N; D'Alton, Mary; Castelazo, Ernesto; Howson, Chris P; Sengpiel, Verena; Bottai, Matteo; Mayo, Jonathan A; Shaw, Gary M; Verdenik, Ivan; Tul, Nataša; Velebil, Petr; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; Rushwan, Hamid; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam; Howse, Jennifer L; Simpson, Joe Leigh

    2016-01-01

    .... We thus sought to assess the contributions of known risk factors for both spontaneous and provider-initiated preterm birth in selected high income countries, estimating also the potential impact...

  7. Self-Explanation and Explanatory Feedback in Games: Individual Differences, Gameplay, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Stephen S.; Clark, Douglas B.; Adams, Deanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of two explanation-based approaches for increasing learning in educational games. The first involves asking students to explain their answers (self-explanation) and the second involves providing correct explanations (explanatory feedback). This study (1) compared self-explanation and explanatory…

  8. Cognitive and neurophysiological evaluation of Japanese dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, M; Koeda, T; Takeshita, K

    2000-10-01

    Seven Japanese dyslexic boys were evaluated as to their pedagogic performance on the pupil rating scale (PRS), and psychological and neurophysiological characteristics. One of them suffered from severe English dyslexia despite that his Japanese dyslexia was feeble. PRS did not successfully reveal their reading difficulties. Psychological examination (WISC-R and K-ABC) revealed their cognitive dysfunction, but the results were heterogeneous. The Token test was most useful for detecting their poor reading comprehension. Electroencephalogram (EEG) coherence analysis showed high inter- and intra-hemispheric values. These findings may imply hyperconnectivity of the cerebral white matter in dyslexia. We assumed that the Token test demonstrates the discrepancy between reading and hearing comprehension best of all among these psychological tests and that connectivity between non-functional cortical lesions remains in dyslexic children.

  9. Explanations in Negative Messages: More Insights from Speech Act Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kim Sydow

    1990-01-01

    Applies speech act theory to professional writing. Argues that speech act theory supports the use of an explanation in composing negative messages and also provides a useful classification of such explanations based on five universal strategies for politely refusing requests. Notes that this classification illuminates novice writers' problems in…

  10. Whole genome sequencing provides possible explanations for the difference in phage susceptibility among two Salmonella Typhimurium phage types (DT8 and DT30) associated with a single foodborne outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Manal; Cormican, Martin

    2015-11-27

    Phage typing has been used for decades as a rapid, low cost approach for the epidemiological surveillance of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Although molecular methods are replacing phage typing the system is still in use and provides a valuable model for study of phage-host interaction. Phage typing depends on the pattern of bacterial resistance or sensitivity to a panel of specific bacteriophages. In the phage typing scheme, S. Typhimurium definitive phage types (DT) 8 and 30 differ greatly in their susceptibility to the 30 typing phages of S. Typhimurium; DT8 is susceptible to 11 phages whereas DT30 is resistant to all typing phages except one phage although both DT8 and DT30 were reported to be associated with a single foodborne salmonellosis outbreak in Ireland between 2009 and 2011. We wished to study the genomic correlates of the DT8 and DT30 difference in phage susceptibility using the whole genome sequence (WGS) of S. Typhimurium DT8 and DT30 representatives. Comparative genome analysis revealed that both S. Typhimurium DT8 and DT30 are lysogenic for three prophages including two S. Typhimurium associated prophages (Gifsy-2 and ST64B) and one S. Enteritidis associated prophage (Enteritidis lysogenic phage S) which has not been detected previously in S. Typhimurium. Furthermore, DT8 and DT30 contain identical clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). Interestingly, S. Typhimurium DT8 harbours an accessory genome represented by a virulence plasmid that is highly related to the pSLT plasmid of S. Typhimurium strain LT2 (phage typed as DT4) and codes a unique methyltransferase (MTase); M.EcoGIX related MTase. This plasmid is not detected in DT30. On the other hand, DT30 carries a unique genomic island similar to the integrative and conjugative element (ICE) of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and encodes type IV secretion pathway system (T4SS) and several hypothetical proteins. This genomic island is

  11. Visualizing the Invisible: Generating Explanations of Scientific Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Eliza

    contained greater amounts of function and were more likely to include specific examples. In both domains, text was often spontaneously added to visual explanations. In Experiment 1, added text was equally likely to describe structure or function; in Experiment 2, added text was more likely to describe function. Taken together, the studies provide support for the use of learner-generated visual explanations as a powerful learning tool and suggest that visual explanations are superior because they demand and provide a check for completeness of explanations.

  12. Evolutionary Explanations of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evolutionary explanations of anorexia nervosa are presented together with their main weaknesses. Evolutionary explanations of eating disorders based on the reproductive suppression hypothesis and its variants derived from kin selection theory and the model of parental manipulation were elaborated. The sexual competition hypothesis of eating disorder, adapted to flee famine hypothesis as well as explanation based on the concept of social attention holding power and the need to belonging were also explained. The importance of evolutionary theory in modern conceptualization and research of eating disorders is emphasized.

  13. Economic explanations for concurrent sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent sourcing is a phenomenon where firms simultaneously make and buy the same good, i.e. they simultaneously use the governance modes of market and hierarchy. Though concurrent sourcing seems to be widespread, few studies of sourcing have focused on this phenomenon. This paper reviews diff...... different economic explanations for why firms use concurrent sourcing. The distinctive features of the explanations are compared, and it is discussed how they may serve as a springboard for research on concurrent sourcing. Managerial implications are also offered....

  14. "Why does rain fall?": children prefer to learn from an informant who uses noncircular explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corriveau, Kathleen H; Kurkul, Katelyn E

    2014-01-01

    These two studies explored 3- and 5-year-olds' evaluation of noncircular and circular explanations, and their use of such explanations to determine informant credibility. Although 5-year-olds demonstrated a selective preference for noncircular over circular explanations (Experiment 1: Long Explanations; Experiment 2: Short Explanations), 3-year-olds only demonstrated a preference for the noncircular when the explanations were shortened (Experiment 2). Children's evaluation of the explanations extended to their inferences about the informants' future credibility. Both age groups demonstrated a selective preference for learning novel explanations from an informant who had previously provided noncircular explanations-although only 5-year-olds also preferred to learn novel labels from her. The implications and scope of children's ability to monitor the quality of an informant's explanation are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Arterial stiffening provides sufficient explanation for primary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas H Pettersen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the most common age-related chronic disorders, and by predisposing individuals for heart failure, stroke, and kidney disease, it is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Its etiology remains enigmatic despite intense research efforts over many decades. By use of empirically well-constrained computer models describing the coupled function of the baroreceptor reflex and mechanics of the circulatory system, we demonstrate quantitatively that arterial stiffening seems sufficient to explain age-related emergence of hypertension. Specifically, the empirically observed chronic changes in pulse pressure with age and the impaired capacity of hypertensive individuals to regulate short-term changes in blood pressure arise as emergent properties of the integrated system. The results are consistent with available experimental data from chemical and surgical manipulation of the cardio-vascular system. In contrast to widely held opinions, the results suggest that primary hypertension can be attributed to a mechanogenic etiology without challenging current conceptions of renal and sympathetic nervous system function.

  16. Supernatural Explanations: Science or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the advice of supposedly authoritative sources, the a priori exclusion of supernatural explanations or claims from scientific scrutiny is not appropriate. This paper shows how supernatural hypotheses or claims should be treated by science and, in the process, differentiates scientific and non-scientific hypotheses or claims.…

  17. The continuing evolution of the Journal of Neurophysiology: 2018 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Bill J

    2018-03-01

    The Journal of Neurophysiology continues to evolve to meet the needs of its authors and readers. This article summarizes recent changes intended to improve our evaluation and communication of neuroscience research.

  18. Neurophysiological characterization of persistent pain after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, G; Kehlet, H; Aasvang, E K

    2011-01-01

    About 2-5% of patients undergoing laparoscopic inguinal repair experience persistent pain influencing everyday activities. However, compared with persistent pain after open repair, the combined clinical and neurophysiological characteristics have not been described in detail. Thus, the aim...

  19. Advancing the Neurophysiological Understanding of Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Mouhsin M; Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Fong, Tamara G; Jones, Richard N; Marcantonio, Edward R; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Inouye, Sharon K

    2017-06-01

    Delirium is a common problem associated with substantial morbidity and increased mortality. However, the brain dysfunction that leads some individuals to develop delirium in response to stressors is unclear. In this article, we briefly review the neurophysiologic literature characterizing the changes in brain function that occur in delirium, and in other cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Based on this literature, we propose a conceptual model for delirium. We propose that delirium results from a breakdown of brain function in individuals with impairments in brain connectivity and brain plasticity exposed to a stressor. The validity of this conceptual model can be tested using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in combination with Electroencephalography, and, if accurate, could lead to the development of biomarkers for delirium risk in individual patients. This model could also be used to guide interventions to decrease the risk of cerebral dysfunction in patients preoperatively, and facilitate recovery in patients during or after an episode of delirium. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. The system neurophysiological basis of backward inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Fischer, Rico; Beste, Christian

    2016-12-01

    Task switching is regularly required in our everyday life. To succeed in switching, it is important to inhibit the most recently performed task and instead activate the currently relevant task. The process that inhibits a recently performed task when a new task is to be performed is referred to as 'backward inhibition' (BI). While the BI effect has been subject to intense research in cognitive psychology, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms that are related to the BI effect and those that relate to differences in the magnitude of the BI effect. In the current study, we examined the system neurophysiological basis of BI processes using event-related potentials (ERPs) and sLORETA by also taking inter-individual differences in the magnitude of the BI into account. The results suggest that BI processes and inter-individual differences in them strongly depend upon attentional selection mechanisms (reflected by N1-ERP modulations in the current task/trial) mediated via networks consisting of extrastriate occipital areas, the temporo-parietal junction and the inferior frontal gyrus. Other processes and mechanisms related to conflict monitoring, response selection, or the updating, organization and implementation of a new task-set (i.e. N2 and P3 processes) were not shown to be modulated by BI processes and differences in their magnitude, as evoked with a common BI paradigm.

  1. School sport--a neurophysiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; Vogt, Tobias; Frysch, Johanna; Guardiera, Petra; Strüder, Heiko K

    2009-12-25

    The aim of this study was to identify neurophysiological correlates for previously reported positive effects of exercise on academic achievement in school children using a distributed source localization algorithm. Electro-cortical activity of 11 school children (9-10y) was recorded before and after a moderate 15-min bike exercise. Data were analyzed using standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) in the alpha (7.5-12.5Hz) and beta (12.5-35Hz) frequency range. We were able to show a significant increase in alpha activity post-exercise, which could be localized in the precuneus. Moreover a distinct decrease in beta activity could be noticed post-exercise in left temporal areas including Wernicke's area. We propose that apart from health-promoting aspects school sport serves a second even more important challenge. On a central level a well observed overall state of physical relaxation after exercise is reflected by a more synchronized state in the precuneus. We speculate this to be responsible for an increase in concentrativeness and cognitive function post-exercise. Moreover a previously reported increase in academic achievement post-exercise could be directly linked to exercise induced neuroplasticity in regions that are relevant for language processing.

  2. ASD: Psychopharmacologic Treatments and Neurophysiologic Underpinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodish, Ian; Rockhill, Carol M; Webb, Sara J

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder encompasses a range of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by early deficits in social communication in addition to restricted and repetitive behaviors. Symptoms are increasingly understood to be associated with abnormalities in the coordination of neuronal assemblies responsible for processing information essential for early adaptive behaviors. Pharmacologic treatments carry evidence for clinically significant benefit of multiple impairing symptoms of ASD, yet these benefits are limited and range across a broad spectrum of medication classes, making it difficult to characterize associated neurochemical impairments. Increasing prevalence of both ASD and its pharmacologic management calls for greater understanding of the neurophysiologic basis of the disorder. This paper reviews underlying alterations in local brain regions and coordination of brain activation patterns during both resting state and task-related processes. We propose that new pharmacologic treatments may focus on realigning trajectories of network specialization across development by working in combination with behavioral treatments to enhance social and emotional learning by bolstering the impact of experience-induced plasticity on neuronal network connectivity.

  3. The role of dispositions in explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín VICENTE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a model defended by some authors, dispositional concepts can be legitimately used in causal explanations, although such a use is not necessary. I argue, however, that there is a kind of use of dispositions in explanations that does not fall within this model: we will miss some explanations if we forsake dispositional concepts and explanations.

  4. Learning clinical neurophysiology: gaming is better than lectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Lori; Burdette, David E; Schultz, Lonni; Silver, Brian

    2008-06-01

    We sought to find evidence for generalizability of a game and team oriented educational intervention in clinical neurophysiology in a neurology residency program. A prospective educational intervention was studied in a single neurology residency program and compared with a historical control. Seventeen PGY 2-4 residents studied neurophysiology in 2004-2005. The historical control was 20 PGY 2-4 residents from 1998 to 2002. The neurophysiology educational intervention consisted of weekly presentations, followed by a game show-type oral quiz which was team-based and required all residents to participate. The control group attended faculty-prepared didactic lectures. Outcome measures were percent correct subset neurophysiology Residency Inservice Training Examination scores. United States Medical Licensing Examination step 1 scores were also compared between the groups. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance methods accounting for multiple measurements. The mean+/-standard error neurophysiology subset percent correct Residency Inservice Training Examination score was 63.6+/-4.12 for the intervention group and 49.4+/-2.35 for the control (P=0.002). There was no difference in United States Medical Licensing Examination step 1 scores between the two groups (P=0.11). We found evidence for generalizability of the effectiveness of a team-oriented educational intervention in clinical neurophysiology with gaming and oral quizzing in improving subset Residency Inservice Training Examination performance compared with faculty prepared didactics.

  5. Concoradance of clinical and neurophysiologic diagnoses of carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. Clinical presentation and neurophysiological examination are crucial in diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. The aim of this study was to determine sensitivity and specificity of clinical examination for diagnosing of CTS in relation to neurophysiological evaluation. Methods. The sample included 181 patients referred to the neurologist for further diagnosis of pain and parestesias in the arm (81 women and 100 men mean age 42 ± 14 years and 52 ± 16 years, respectively. All the patients were neurophysiologicly tested. Results. Out of 181 patients, clinical findings were considered positive for CTS in 37 patients. The neurophysiological findings for CTS were positive in 60 patients. Both clinical and neurophysiological findings were positive in 31 patients and both findings were negative in 115 patients (sensitivity 0,51; specificity 0,95. Conclusion. Low sensitivity and high specificity suggest that it is easier to exclude rather than to accurately diagnose CTS based on clinical examination alone. Thus, there is the need for neurophysiological evaluation of patients with complains in the arm.

  6. Cognitive and physical training for the elderly: evaluating outcome efficacy by means of neurophysiological synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzidis, Christos A; Ladas, Aristea-Kiriaki I; Vivas, Ana B; Tsolaki, Magda; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2014-07-01

    Recent neuroscientific research has demonstrated that both healthy and pathological aging induces alterations in the co-operative capacity of neuronal populations in the brain. Both compensatory and neurodegenerative mechanisms contribute to neurophysiological synchronization patterns, which provide a valuable marker for age-related cognitive decline. In this study, we propose that neuroplasticity-based training may facilitate coherent interaction of distant brain regions and consequently enhance cognitive performance in elderly people. If this is true, this would make neurophysiological synchronization a valid outcome measure to assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions to prevent or delay age-related cognitive decline. The present study aims at providing an objective, synchronization-based tool to assess cognitive and/or physical interventions, adopting the notion of Relative Wavelet Entropy. This mathematical model employs a robust and parameter-free synchronization metric. By using data mining techniques, a distance value was computed for all participants so as to quantify the proximity of their individual profile to the mean group synchronization increase. In support of our hypothesis, results showed a significant increase in synchronization, for four electrode pairs, in the intervention group as compared to the active control group. It is concluded that the novel introduction of neurophysiological synchronization features could be used as a valid and reliable outcome measure; while the distance-based analysis could provide a reliable means of evaluating individual benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Causality, teleology and explanation in social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo, Ricardo F

    2016-01-01

    Causality and explanation are hot topics in the contemporary philosophy of natural and social sciences. The dissatisfaction with some “classical” accounts of scientific explanation (such as the deductive-nomological or covering law model, or the inductive and deductive statistical explanation) leads philosophers of science to probe the possibilities of causal explanations. However, instead of unanimous notions on causation and explanation, a plethora of concepts emerged.2 This ...

  8. Turing patterns and biological explanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Turing patterns are a class of minimal mathematical models that have been used to discover and conceptualize certain abstract features of early biological development. This paper examines a range of these minimal models in order to articulate and elaborate a philosophical analysis of their episte......Turing patterns are a class of minimal mathematical models that have been used to discover and conceptualize certain abstract features of early biological development. This paper examines a range of these minimal models in order to articulate and elaborate a philosophical analysis......, promoting theory exploration, and acting as constitutive parts of empirically adequate explanations of naturally occurring phenomena, such as biological pattern formation. Focusing on the roles that minimal model explanations play in science motivates the adoption of a broader diachronic view of scientific...

  9. [Intersubjectivity: Between Explanation and Understanding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely Ávila, Flor Emilce

    2014-03-01

    The discussion on explanation and understanding has led to a division in the sciences, based on what is considered to be inherent to each of the domains. The task of the natural sciences would be the explanation, while that of the social sciences would be understanding or interpretation.There is a line of work that currently seeks to overcome the methodological dualism and to propose more interdisciplinary studies, such as the studies on emergence of the mental in the framework of intersubjective relationships. In particular, the concept of intersubjectivity defended by the phenomenology as an embodied practice, is being supported by the results of investigations carried out on the basis of the cognitive neuroscience and developmental psychology. Authors from different roots, such as J. Bruner and S. Gallagher propose considering these types of interdisciplinary collaboration as a possible way to integrate the traditions of the explanation and understanding. The purpose of this paper is to analyze to what extent this collaboration between phenomenology and sciences, particularly on the subject of understanding others and their relevance for the understanding of certain psychopathologies, has allowed to close the gap that had opened in the nineteenth century between these traditions. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Computational models of neurophysiological correlates of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaette, Roland; Kempter, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of tinnitus has progressed considerably in the past decade, but the details of the mechanisms that give rise to this phantom perception of sound without a corresponding acoustic stimulus have not yet been pinpointed. It is now clear that tinnitus is generated in the brain, not in the ear, and that it is correlated with pathologically altered spontaneous activity of neurons in the central auditory system. Both increased spontaneous firing rates and increased neuronal synchrony have been identified as putative neuronal correlates of phantom sounds in animal models, and both phenomena can be triggered by damage to the cochlea. Various mechanisms could underlie the generation of such aberrant activity. At the cellular level, decreased synaptic inhibition and increased neuronal excitability, which may be related to homeostatic plasticity, could lead to an over-amplification of natural spontaneous activity. At the network level, lateral inhibition could amplify differences in spontaneous activity, and structural changes such as reorganization of tonotopic maps could lead to self-sustained activity in recurrently connected neurons. However, it is difficult to disentangle the contributions of different mechanisms in experiments, especially since not all changes observed in animal models of tinnitus are necessarily related to tinnitus. Computational modeling presents an opportunity of evaluating these mechanisms and their relation to tinnitus. Here we review the computational models for the generation of neurophysiological correlates of tinnitus that have been proposed so far, and evaluate predictions and compare them to available data. We also assess the limits of their explanatory power, thus demonstrating where an understanding is still lacking and where further research may be needed. Identifying appropriate models is important for finding therapies, and we therefore, also summarize the implications of the models for approaches to treat tinnitus.

  11. Computational models of neurophysiological correlates of tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eSchaette

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of tinnitus has progressed considerably in the past decade, but the details of the mechanisms that give rise to this phantom perception of sound without a corresponding acoustic stimulus have not been pinpointed yet. It is now clear that tinnitus is generated in the brain, not in the ear, and that it is correlated with pathologically altered spontaneous activity of neurons in the central auditory system. Both increased spontaneous firing rates and increased neuronal synchrony have been identified as putative neuronal correlates of phantom sounds in animal models, and both phenomena can be triggered by damage to the cochlea. Various mechanisms could underlie the generation of such aberrant activity. At the cellular level, decreased synaptic inhibition and increased neuronal excitability, which may be related to homeostatic plasticity, could lead to an over-amplification of natural spontaneous activity. At the network level, lateral inhibition could amplify differences in spontaneous activity, and structural changes such as reorganization of tonotopic maps could lead to self-sustained activity in recurrently connected neurons. It is difficult to disentangle the contributions of different mechanisms in experiments, especially since not all changes observed in animal models of tinnitus are necessarily related to tinnitus. Computational modelling presents an opportunity of evaluating these mechanisms and their relation to tinnitus. Here we review the computational models for the generation of neurophysiological correlates of tinnitus that have been proposed so far, evaluate predictions and compare them to available data. We also evaluate the limits of their explanatory power, thus demonstrating where an understanding is still lacking and where further research may be needed. Identifying appropriate models is important for finding therapies and we therefore also summarize the implications of the models for approaches to treat

  12. Neurophysiological Correlates of Various Mental Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo eHinterberger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A common view of consciousness is that our mind presents emotions, experiences and images in an internal mental (re-presentation space which in a state of wakefulness is triggered by the world outside. Consciousness can be defined as the observation of this inner mental space. We propose a new model, in which the state of the conscious observer is defined by the observer’s mental position and focus of attention. The mental position of the observer can either be within the mental self (intrapersonal space, in the mental outer world (extrapersonal space or in an empathic connection, i.e. within the intrapersonal space of another person (perspective taking. The focus of attention can be directed towards the self or towards the outside world. This mental space model can help us to understand the patterns of relationships and interactions with other persons as they occur in social life.To investigate the neurophysiological correlates and discriminability of the different mental states, we conducted an EEG experiment measuring the brain activity of 16 subjects via 64 electrodes while they engaged in different mental positions (intrapersonal, extrapersonal, perspective taking with different attentional foci (self, object. Compared to external mental locations, internal ones showed significantly increased alpha2 power, especially when the observer was focusing on an object. Alpha2 and beta2 were increased in the empathic condition compared to the extrapersonal perspective. Delta power was significantly higher when the attentional focus was directed towards an object in comparison to the participant’s own self. This exploratory study demonstrates highly significant differences between various mental locations and foci, suggesting that the proposed categories of mental location and intra- and interpersonal attentional foci are not only helpful theoretical concepts but are also physiologically relevant and therefore may relate to basic brain processing

  13. In vivo evidence of neurophysiological maturation of the human adolescent striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Larsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Maturation of the striatum has been posited to play a primary role in observed increases in adolescent sensation-seeking. However, evidence of neurophysiological maturation in the human adolescent striatum is limited. We applied T2*-weighted imaging, reflecting indices of tissue–iron concentration, to provide direct in vivo evidence of neurophysiological development of the human adolescent striatum. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA of striatal T2*-weighted signal generated age predictions that accounted for over 60% of the sample variance in 10–25 year olds, using both task-related and resting state fMRI. Dorsal and ventral striatum showed age related increases and decreases respectively of striatal neurophysiology suggesting qualitative differences in the maturation of limbic and executive striatal systems. In particular, the ventral striatum was found to show the greatest developmental differences and contribute most heavily to the multivariate age predictor. The relationship of the T2*-weighted signal to the striatal dopamine system is discussed. Together, results provide evidence for protracted maturation of the striatum through adolescence.

  14. Is explanation overrated? : A research on how explanation affects performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hörberg, Eric

    2015-01-01

    School results are dropping in Sweden and actions are taken by the swedish government to prevent it. This report questions these actions.With a parallel between school and video games, in that they are both about teaching a student/player how to do something, a game is made to test how further explanation of the games mechanics affects the players ability to learn about them. The results are in line with other studies, overexplaining is hurting the players ability to learn about the game.

  15. Constructing scientific explanations through premise-reasoning-outcome (PRO): an exploratory study to scaffold students in structuring written explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kok-Sing

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on the design and enactment of an instructional strategy aimed to support students in constructing scientific explanations. Informed by the philosophy of science and linguistic studies of science, a new instructional framework called premise-reasoning-outcome (PRO) was conceptualized, developed, and tested over two years in four upper secondary (9th-10th grade) physics and chemistry classrooms. This strategy was conceptualized based on the understanding of the structure of a scientific explanation, which comprises three primary components: (a) premise - accepted knowledge that provides the basis of the explanation, (b) reasoning - logical sequences that follow from the premise, and (c) outcome - the phenomenon to be explained. A study was carried out to examine how the PRO strategy influenced students' written explanations using multiple data sources (e.g. students' writing, lesson observations, focus group discussions). Analysis of students' writing indicates that explanations with a PRO structure were graded better by the teachers. In addition, students reported that the PRO strategy provided a useful organizational structure for writing scientific explanations, although they had some difficulties in identifying and using the structure. With the PRO as a new instructional tool, comparison with other explanation frameworks as well as implications for educational research and practice are discussed.

  16. American neurophysiology and two nineteenth-century American Physiological Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, J Wayne

    2017-01-01

    This article contrasts two American Physiological Societies, one founded near the beginning of the nineteenth century in 1837 and the other founded near its end in 1887. The contrast allows a perspective on how much budding neuroscience had developed during the nineteenth century in America. The contrast also emphasizes the complicated structure needed in both medicine and physiology to allow neurophysiology to flourish. The objectives of the American Physiological Society of 1887 were (and are) to promote physiological research and to codify physiology as a discipline. These would be accomplished by making physiology much more inclusive than traditionally accepted by raising research standards, by giving prestige to its members, by providing members a source of professional interchange, by protecting its members from antivivisectionists, and by promoting physiology as fundamental to medicine. The quantity of neuroscientific experiments by its members was striking. The main organizers of the society were Silas Weir Mitchell, John Call Dalton, Henry Pickering Bowditch, and Henry Newell Martin. The objective of the American Physiological Society of 1837 was to disperse knowledge of the "laws of life" and to promote human health and longevity. The primary organizers were William Andrus Alcott and Sylvester Graham with the encouragement of John Benson. Its technique was to use physiological information, not create it as was the case in 1887. Its object was to disseminate the word that healthy eating will improve the quality of life.

  17. Afference copy as a quantitative neurophysiological model for consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Hugo; Coop, Allan D

    2014-06-01

    Consciousness is a topic of considerable human curiosity with a long history of philosophical analysis and debate. We consider there is nothing particularly complicated about consciousness when viewed as a necessary process of the vertebrate nervous system. Here, we propose a physiological "explanatory gap" is created during each present moment by the temporal requirements of neuronal activity. The gap extends from the time exteroceptive and proprioceptive stimuli activate the nervous system until they emerge into consciousness. During this "moment", it is impossible for an organism to have any conscious knowledge of the ongoing evolution of its environment. In our schematic model, a mechanism of "afference copy" is employed to bridge the explanatory gap with consciously experienced percepts. These percepts are fabricated from the conjunction of the cumulative memory of previous relevant experience and the given stimuli. They are structured to provide the best possible prediction of the expected content of subjective conscious experience likely to occur during the period of the gap. The model is based on the proposition that the neural circuitry necessary to support consciousness is a product of sub/preconscious reflexive learning and recall processes. Based on a review of various psychological and neurophysiological findings, we develop a framework which contextualizes the model and briefly discuss further implications.

  18. Thermal sensation: a mathematical model based on neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, B R M; Schellen, L; Frijns, A J H; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    2012-06-01

    Thermal sensation has a large influence on thermal comfort, which is an important parameter for building performance. Understanding of thermal sensation may benefit from incorporating the physiology of thermal reception. The main issue is that humans do not sense temperature directly; the information is coded into neural discharge rates. This manuscript describes the development of a mathematical model of thermal sensation based on the neurophysiology of thermal reception. Experimental data from two independent studies were used to develop and validate the model. In both studies, skin and core temperature were measured. Thermal sensation votes were asked on the seven-point ASHRAE thermal sensation scale. For the development dataset, young adult males (N=12, 0.04Clo) were exposed to transient conditions; Tair 30-20-35-30°C. For validation, young adult males (N=8, 1.0Clo) were exposed to transient conditions; Tair: 17-25-17°C. The neurophysiological model significantly predicted thermal sensation for the development dataset (r2=0.89, Pthermal sensation within acceptable range (root mean squared residual=0.38). The neurophysiological model captured the dynamics of thermal sensation. Therefore, the neurophysiological model of thermal sensation can be of great value in the design of high-performance buildings. The presented method, based on neurophysiology, can be highly beneficial for predicting thermal sensation under complex environments with respect to transient environments. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Neurophysiological correlates of musical creativity: The example of improvisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skirtach I.A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the turn of this century, a substantial body of research has been published on the neuroscience of creativity. Now, it is necessary to study the neurophysiological correlates in true-to-life, professionally specific situations. The aim of our empirical research was to study the neurophysiological correlates of musical improvisation, a spontaneous creative activity. The participants were 136 right-handed practicing musicians aged 19 to 36 (102 males and 34 females, divided into two groups—professionals (56 people and amateurs (80 people. EEG signals were recorded in a resting state (eyes closed and during three types of internal musical activity (perceiving, mentally reproducing, and mentally improvising from 21 scalp electrodes according to the International 10-20 System. For statistical analysis, we used ANOVA and post hoc analysis. For the main neurophysiological correlates of musical creativity, we revealed higher values of EEG spectral power in the delta band and the dominance of long-distance functional cortical connections in the high-frequency bands. Variable neurophysiological correlates were differentiated according to emotions and the professional level of the musicians. The distinguishing EEG pattern in the professional musicians during improvisation was the predominant activation of the left- hemisphere cortical regions simultaneously with high interhemispheric integration in the high-frequency band along the “creativity axis.” The revealed neurophysiological correlates of musical creativity during improvisation included basic and variable components and were characterized by a specific frequency-spatial organization of bioelectric cortical activity in the musicians.

  20. Neurophysiological evaluation of patients with degenerative diseases of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tihomir V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Diagnostic protocol for patients with degenerative diseases of the cervical spine demands, in parallel with neuroimaging methods, functional evaluation through neurophysiological methods (somatosensitive and motor evoked potentials and electromyoneurography aiming to evaluate possible subclinical affection of spinal medula resulting in neurological signs of long tract abnormalities. Considering diversities of clinical outcomes for these patients, complex diagnostic evaluation provides a prognosis of the disease progression. Methods. The study included 21 patients (48.24 ± 11.01 years of age with clinical presentation of cervical spondylarthropathy, without neuroradiological signs of myelopathy. For each patient, in addition to conventional neurophysiological tests (somatisensory evoked potentials - SSEP, motor evoked potentials - MEP, electromyoneurography - EMG, nerve conduction studies, we calculated central motor conduction time (CMCTF, as well the same parameter in relation to a different position of the head (maximal anteflexion and retroflexion, so-called dynamic tests. Results. Abnormalities of the peripheral motor neurone by conventional EMNeG was established in 2/3 of the patients, correponding to the findings of root condution time. Prolonged conventional CVMPF were found in 29% of the patients, comparing to 43% CVMPF abnormalities found with the dynamic tests. In addition, the SSEP findings were abnormal in 38% of the patients with degenerative diseases of the cervical spine. Conclusion. An extended neurophysiological protocol of testing corticospinal functions, including dynamic tests of central and periheral motor neurons are relevant for detection of subclinical forms of cervical spondylothic myelopathy, even at early stages. In addition to the conventional neurophysiological tests, we found usefull to include the dynamic motor tests and root conduction time measurement in diagnostic evaluation.

  1. Neurophysiological basis of creativity in healthy elderly people: a multiscale entropy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Kanji; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Koichi; Mizukami, Kimiko; Tanaka, Yuji; Wada, Yuji

    2015-03-01

    Creativity, which presumably involves various connections within and across different neural networks, reportedly underpins the mental well-being of older adults. Multiscale entropy (MSE) can characterize the complexity inherent in EEG dynamics with multiple temporal scales. It can therefore provide useful insight into neural networks. Given that background, we sought to clarify the neurophysiological bases of creativity in healthy elderly subjects by assessing EEG complexity with MSE, with emphasis on assessment of neural networks. We recorded resting state EEG of 20 healthy elderly subjects. MSE was calculated for each subject for continuous 20-s epochs. Their relevance to individual creativity was examined concurrently with intellectual function. Higher individual creativity was linked closely to increased EEG complexity across higher temporal scales, but no significant relation was found with intellectual function (IQ score). Considering the general "loss of complexity" theory of aging, our finding of increased EEG complexity in elderly people with heightened creativity supports the idea that creativity is associated with activated neural networks. Results reported here underscore the potential usefulness of MSE analysis for characterizing the neurophysiological bases of elderly people with heightened creativity. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Forty-two years of neurophysiology in Aragon in relation to other neurological specialties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Alegría, F

    1998-04-01

    Forty two years after the first EEG had been done in our community we decided (encouraged by the Sociedad Aragonesa de Neurofisiología Clínica) to write a biographical synopsis of the specialty of neurophysiology in Aragón, since knowledge of the past usually makes for a better future. Initially, seven specialists, many others with their smaller contributions, the proceedings of the Sociedad Aragonesa de Neurofisiología Clínica, the proceedings of Serrate and the archives of the chair of Psychiatry of Zaragoza University have all provided information about the history of neurophysiology in Aragón. We studied the activities of public hospitals, private centres as well as academic neurophysiology activities. We also evaluated influences from outside our community in training different specialists, finding information about training in France and Germany an, in our country, in Barcelona and Pamplona. We observed that the specialty has now become fully developed in our community. However, it had done so in close relationship with the specialties of Neurology and Psychiatry, with which it is perfectly integrated. The university has been successfully involved in development of the specialty and, in recent years, so has the Sociedad Aragonesa de Neurofisiología Clínica.

  3. Psychological pain interventions and neurophysiology: implications for a mechanism-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Herta

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an illustrative overview of neurophysiological changes related to acute and chronic pain involving structural and functional brain changes, which might be the targets of psychological interventions. A number of psychological pain treatments have been examined with respect to their effects on brain activity, ranging from cognitive- and operant behavioral interventions, meditation and hypnosis, to neuro- and biofeedback, discrimination training, imagery and mirror treatment, as well as virtual reality and placebo applications. These treatments affect both ascending and descending aspects of pain processing and act through brain mechanisms that involve sensorimotor areas as well as those involved in affective-motivational and cognitive-evaluative aspects. The analysis of neurophysiological changes related to effective psychological pain treatment can help to identify subgroups of patients with chronic pain who might profit from different interventions, can aid in predicting treatment outcome, and can assist in identifying responders and nonresponders, thus enhancing the efficacy and efficiency of psychological interventions. Moreover, new treatment targets can be developed and tested. Finally, the use of neurophysiological measures can also aid in motivating patients to participate in psychological interventions and can increase their acceptance in clinical practice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Clinical and neurophysiologic assessment of strength and spasticity during intrathecal baclofen titration in incomplete spinal cord injury: single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Mark; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2009-01-01

    Spasticity after spinal cord injury (SCI) is commonly managed with oral and intrathecal baclofen (ITB), with less attention to the effects on voluntary motor control. Studies combining clinical and neurophysiologic assessments during dose optimization are rare. Study aims (a) systematically evaluate effects of varied doses of oral and ITB on clinical and neurophysiologic measures of strength and spasticity and (b) relate clinical and neurophysiologic findings. A 41-year-old man with an incomplete T11-ASIA D SCI was studied during ITB titration. Spasticity and strength in the lower extremities were assessed clinically and neurophysiologically at 5 different daily dosages of baclofen: (a) 80 mg oral, (b) 80 mg oral/50 microg ITB, (c) 80 mg oral/125 microg ITB, (d) 30 mg oral/125 microg ITB, and (e) 125 microg ITB only. A dose-dependent change in the Ashworth score and lower limb motor score was observed during titration of oral and ITB. Whereas the Hoffman (H)-reflex was abolished after the introduction of ITB, the flexion withdrawal reflex approximated a dose-dependent pattern. Changes in the motor score and EMG during voluntary muscle activation were proportionally smaller than the corresponding changes in clinical and neurophysiologic measures of spasticity. Neurophysiologic assessment largely paralleled clinical findings. This single-subject study shows that the control of spasticity can be achieved without detrimental effects on strength in incomplete SCI and suggests the need for including strength testing in comprehensive clinical assessment of spasticity. The study shows convergent validity between clinical and neurophysiologic assessments during ITB dose titration. Adding neurophysiologic assessment to clinical assessment may provide objectivity and sensitivity and facilitate decision-making during ITB titration.

  5. Implementation of a telemetry system for neurophysiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorbergsson, P T; Garwicz, M; Schouenborg, J; Johansson, A J

    2008-01-01

    With an ever increasing need for assessment of neurophysiological activity in connection with injury and basic research, the demand for an efficient and reliable data acquisition system rises. Brain-machine interfaces is one class of such systems that targets the central nervous system. A necessary step in the development of a brain-machine interface is to design and implement a reliable and efficient measurement system for neurophysiological signals. The use of telemetric devices increases the flexibility of the devices in terms of subject mobility and unobtrusiveness of the equipment. In this paper, we present a complete system architecture for a wearable telemetry system for the acquisition of neurophysiological data. The system has been miniaturized and implemented using surface-mount technology. System performance has been successfully verified and bottlenecks in the architecture have been identified.

  6. Motivated shortcomings in explanation: the role of comparative self-evaluation and awareness of explanation recipient's knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Devin G; Neugebauer, Josephine; Sassenberg, Kai; Buder, Jürgen; Hesse, Friedrich W

    2013-05-01

    Being aware of someone else's existing knowledge is a prerequisite to effectively adapting an explanation to that person's learning needs. However, such knowledge awareness introduces the potential for motivated self-evaluation based on relative knowledge, that is, for social comparison. Because favorable social comparisons are actively defended, we propose that knowledge awareness might undermine information sharing in explanation when social comparison motives are active. We tested this hypothesis in a series of experiments in which participants provided explanations to an ostensible learning partner with or without knowledge awareness. Both dispositionally and situationally motivated social comparison interacted with knowledge awareness to reduce information sharing in explanation. Intriguingly, knowledge awareness uniformly facilitated adaptation of the information that was shared to address partner knowledge deficit. These results illustrate a tension in the components of effective explanation. At the same time that knowledge awareness effectively coordinates explanation content, it can lead to knowledge hoarding by knowledgeable explainers who are motivated to rely on knowledge differences between the self and the explanation recipient for self-evaluation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Explanations and Teleology in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    It has been commonly assumed that teleological explanations are unnecessary and have no place in the physical sciences. However, there are indications that teleology is fairly common in the instructional explanations of teachers and students in chemistry classrooms. In this study we explore the role and nature of teleological explanations and the…

  8. Neurophysiological dynamics of phrase-structure building during sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew J; El Karoui, Imen; Giber, Kristof; Yang, Xiaofang; Cohen, Laurent; Koopman, Hilda; Cash, Sydney S; Naccache, Lionel; Hale, John T; Pallier, Christophe; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2017-05-02

    Although sentences unfold sequentially, one word at a time, most linguistic theories propose that their underlying syntactic structure involves a tree of nested phrases rather than a linear sequence of words. Whether and how the brain builds such structures, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we used human intracranial recordings and visual word-by-word presentation of sentences and word lists to investigate how left-hemispheric brain activity varies during the formation of phrase structures. In a broad set of language-related areas, comprising multiple superior temporal and inferior frontal sites, high-gamma power increased with each successive word in a sentence but decreased suddenly whenever words could be merged into a phrase. Regression analyses showed that each additional word or multiword phrase contributed a similar amount of additional brain activity, providing evidence for a merge operation that applies equally to linguistic objects of arbitrary complexity. More superficial models of language, based solely on sequential transition probability over lexical and syntactic categories, only captured activity in the posterior middle temporal gyrus. Formal model comparison indicated that the model of multiword phrase construction provided a better fit than probability-based models at most sites in superior temporal and inferior frontal cortices. Activity in those regions was consistent with a neural implementation of a bottom-up or left-corner parser of the incoming language stream. Our results provide initial intracranial evidence for the neurophysiological reality of the merge operation postulated by linguists and suggest that the brain compresses syntactically well-formed sequences of words into a hierarchy of nested phrases.

  9. CONSORT 2010 explanation and elaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moher, David; Hopewell, Sally; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2012-01-01

    that inadequate reporting and design are associated with biased estimates of treatment effects. Such systematic error is seriously damaging to RCTs, which are considered the gold standard for evaluating interventions because of their ability to minimise or avoid bias. A group of scientists and editors developed...... the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement to improve the quality of reporting of RCTs. It was first published in 1996 and updated in 2001. The statement consists of a checklist and flow diagram that authors can use for reporting an RCT. Many leading medical journals and major...... international editorial groups have endorsed the CONSORT statement. The statement facilitates critical appraisal and interpretation of RCTs. During the 2001 CONSORT revision, it became clear that explanation and elaboration of the principles underlying the CONSORT statement would help investigators and others...

  10. Self, intentionality, and immunological explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, M

    2000-06-01

    In this paper I propose that there are a number of conceptual reasons to preserve self-concepts in immunology. First, I contend that immunological language, including self-terminology, is neither genuinely anthropomorphic, nor perniciously teleological. Furthermore, although teleology associated with future-directed purposive intent is clearly inappropriate in biological contexts, a special type of teleology, intentionality-as-aboutness, needs to be present if there is to be functional explanation in immunology. Second, based on an analogy with the human self, a self comprised of both non-specific innate functions and somatic self-representation, I claim that self-terminology is very appropriate in immunological contexts. Finally, given the appropriateness of self-concepts in immunology, I suggest that the most satisfactory conceptual structure for self-nonself discrimination probably includes both innate and somatic mechanisms. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. A Bottom-up Approach to Data Annotation in Neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Jan; Wachtler, Thomas; Benda, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Metadata providing information about the stimulus, data acquisition, and experimental conditions are indispensable for the analysis and management of experimental data within a lab. However, only rarely are metadata available in a structured, comprehensive, and machine-readable form. This poses a severe problem for finding and retrieving data, both in the laboratory and on the various emerging public data bases. Here, we propose a simple format, the "open metaData Markup Language" (odML), for collecting and exchanging metadata in an automated, computer-based fashion. In odML arbitrary metadata information is stored as extended key-value pairs in a hierarchical structure. Central to odML is a clear separation of format and content, i.e., neither keys nor values are defined by the format. This makes odML flexible enough for storing all available metadata instantly without the necessity to submit new keys to an ontology or controlled terminology. Common standard keys can be defined in odML-terminologies for guaranteeing interoperability. We started to define such terminologies for neurophysiological data, but aim at a community driven extension and refinement of the proposed definitions. By customized terminologies that map to these standard terminologies, metadata can be named and organized as required or preferred without softening the standard. Together with the respective libraries provided for common programming languages, the odML format can be integrated into the laboratory workflow, facilitating automated collection of metadata information where it becomes available. The flexibility of odML also encourages a community driven collection and definition of terms used for annotating data in the neurosciences.

  12. A Bottom-up Approach to Data Annotation in Neurophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Jan; Wachtler, Thomas; Benda, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Metadata providing information about the stimulus, data acquisition, and experimental conditions are indispensable for the analysis and management of experimental data within a lab. However, only rarely are metadata available in a structured, comprehensive, and machine-readable form. This poses a severe problem for finding and retrieving data, both in the laboratory and on the various emerging public data bases. Here, we propose a simple format, the “open metaData Markup Language” (odML), for collecting and exchanging metadata in an automated, computer-based fashion. In odML arbitrary metadata information is stored as extended key–value pairs in a hierarchical structure. Central to odML is a clear separation of format and content, i.e., neither keys nor values are defined by the format. This makes odML flexible enough for storing all available metadata instantly without the necessity to submit new keys to an ontology or controlled terminology. Common standard keys can be defined in odML-terminologies for guaranteeing interoperability. We started to define such terminologies for neurophysiological data, but aim at a community driven extension and refinement of the proposed definitions. By customized terminologies that map to these standard terminologies, metadata can be named and organized as required or preferred without softening the standard. Together with the respective libraries provided for common programming languages, the odML format can be integrated into the laboratory workflow, facilitating automated collection of metadata information where it becomes available. The flexibility of odML also encourages a community driven collection and definition of terms used for annotating data in the neurosciences. PMID:21941477

  13. Intentional Explanations and Teleological Explanations of Animal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danón, Laura

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines two philosophical proposals about the requirements which must be satisfied in order to legitimately apply intentional explanations to non-human animals. Firstly, I evaluate Daniel Dennett’s intentional stance approach, and I present a well-known critique against it: the risk of over-attribution of intentional states that it comports. Secondly, I turn to Mark Okrent’s attempt to refine Dennett’s original position, by distinguishing between an intentional stance and a teleological one. Even when this strategy seems useful to deal with the problem of over-attribution of intentionality, it faces its own problems. As I will try to show, there are behaviors of non-human animals that can be explained neither by the teleological stance, nor by the intentional stance. Finally, I will suggest that, in order to overcome this problem, Okrent’s requirements for the legitimate application of the intentional stance should be revised and mitigated.

  14. The value of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in tethered cord surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Eelco W.; Haitsma, Esther; Ophuis, Charlotte M. C. Oude; Journee, Henricus L.

    The value of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) with surgical detethering in dysraphic patients has been questioned. A retrospective analysis of our series of 65 patients is presented with special focus on technical set-up and outcome. All patients were diagnosed with a tethered

  15. Influence of actual and virtual chess on neurophysiology and cognition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports on a single case study experiment to investigate effects of actual and virtual chess on neurophysiology and cognition. Quantitative and qualitative results indicated that, compared to virtual and rest conditions, actual chess play was associated with significantly more stress, as indicated by increased pulse, ...

  16. Evaluation of Alpha Theta training on neurophysiology, mood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this small scale study was to evaluate changes in consciousness, with special reference to neurophysiology, mood, mindfulness, health and spirituality, related to an alpha theta training programme of five sessions. There were 6 participants, 4 men and 2 women with mean age of 43 years and age range of 26 to ...

  17. [Neurophysiology and analysis of the phenomenon of catalepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmanova, I G; Mileĭkovskiĭ, B Iu

    1997-04-01

    Neurophysiological mechanisms of the photogenic catalepsy (the "animal hypnosis"), genetic catalepsy, and cataplexy are discussed. The data obtained demonstrates a significance of the brainstem structures suppressing motor activity and the muscle tone in these conditions. Motor disorders associated with the general immobility are discussed from the standpoint of the evolutionary theory.

  18. Neurophysiological Basis of Cerebral Blood Flow Control: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The book describes the current understanding of cerebral blood flow control. Subjects covered indude the autonomic nervous system, cellular neurophysiology and neurotransmitter systems. There is a good section on ionic channels and ionic pumps, as well as receptors and metaoolism of the central nervous system.

  19. The role of the circadian system in fractal neurophysiological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin R; Scheer, Frank A J L; Butler, Matthew P; Shea, Steven A; Hu, Kun

    2013-11-01

    Many neurophysiological variables such as heart rate, motor activity, and neural activity are known to exhibit intrinsic fractal fluctuations - similar temporal fluctuation patterns at different time scales. These fractal patterns contain information about health, as many pathological conditions are accompanied by their alteration or absence. In physical systems, such fluctuations are characteristic of critical states on the border between randomness and order, frequently arising from nonlinear feedback interactions between mechanisms operating on multiple scales. Thus, the existence of fractal fluctuations in physiology challenges traditional conceptions of health and disease, suggesting that high levels of integrity and adaptability are marked by complex variability, not constancy, and are properties of a neurophysiological network, not individual components. Despite the subject's theoretical and clinical interest, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying fractal regulation remain largely unknown. The recent discovery that the circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nucleus) plays a crucial role in generating fractal patterns in motor activity and heart rate sheds an entirely new light on both fractal control networks and the function of this master circadian clock, and builds a bridge between the fields of circadian biology and fractal physiology. In this review, we sketch the emerging picture of the developing interdisciplinary field of fractal neurophysiology by examining the circadian system's role in fractal regulation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  20. Backwards and Forwards: Behavioral and Neurophysiological Investigations into Dependency Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the processing of sentences involving long-distance linguistic dependencies, or sentences containing elements that must be linked across intervening words and phrases. Specifically, both behavioral (self-paced reading and eye tracking) and neurophysiological (electroencephalography) methods were used (a) to evaluate the…

  1. Towards an Explanation Generation System for Robots: Analysis and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Meadows

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge in robotics is to reason with incomplete domain knowledge to explain unexpected observations and partial descriptions extracted from sensor observations. Existing explanation generation systems draw on ideas that can be mapped to a multidimensional space of system characteristics, defined by distinctions, such as how they represent knowledge and if and how they reason with heuristic guidance. Instances in this multidimensional space corresponding to existing systems do not support all of the desired explanation generation capabilities for robots. We seek to address this limitation by thoroughly understanding the range of explanation generation capabilities and the interplay between the distinctions that characterize them. Towards this objective, this paper first specifies three fundamental distinctions that can be used to characterize many existing explanation generation systems. We explore and understand the effects of these distinctions by comparing the capabilities of two systems that differ substantially along these axes, using execution scenarios involving a robot waiter assisting in seating people and delivering orders in a restaurant. The second part of the paper uses this study to argue that the desired explanation generation capabilities corresponding to these three distinctions can mostly be achieved by exploiting the complementary strengths of the two systems that were explored. This is followed by a discussion of the capabilities related to other major distinctions to provide detailed recommendations for developing an explanation generation system for robots.

  2. A bottom-up approach to data annotation in neurophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grewe

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Metadata providing information about the stimulus, data acquisition, and experimentalconditions are indispensable for the analysis and management of experimental data withina lab. However, only rarely are metadata available in a structured, comprehensive, andmachine-readable form. This poses a severe problem for finding and retrieving data, bothin the laboratory and on the various emerging public data bases. Here, we propose a simpleformat, the Open metaData Markup Language (od ML, for collecting and exchangingmetadata in an automated, computer-based fashion. In od ML arbitrary metadata informa-tion is stored as extended key-value pairs in a hierarchical structure. Central to od ML isa clear separation of format and content, i.e. neither keys nor values are defined by theformat. This makes od ML flexible enough for storing all available metadata instantly with-out the necessity to submit new keys to an ontology or controlled terminology. Commonstandard keys can be defined in od ML terminologies for guaranteeing interoperability. Westarted to define such terminologies for neurophysiological data, but aim at a communitydriven extension and refinement of the proposed definitions. By customized terminologiesthat map to these standard terminologies, metadata can be named and organized as requiredor preferred without softening the standard. Together with the respective libraries providedfor common programming languages, the od ML format can be integrated into the labora-tory workflow, facilitating automated collection of metadata information where it becomesavailable. The flexibility of od ML also encourages a community driven collection anddefinition of terms used for annotating data in the neurosciences.

  3. Scientific explanation from an antirealist point view. Theoretical explanations, incompatibility and the troubles with causal explanations in physics

    OpenAIRE

    Rivadulla Rodríguez, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Carl Gustav Hempel published his famous book Aspects of Scientific Explanation. Since then the number of publications on this subject has grown exponentially. An occasion like this deserves to be commemorated. In this article I offer a modest tribute to this great methodologist of science. This paper tackles the uses of explanation in theoretical sciences. In particular it is concerned with the possibility of causal explanations in physics. What I intend to do is to focus ...

  4. Model-based explanation of plant knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuskonen, P.J. [VTT Electronics, Oulu (Finland). Embedded Software

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with computer explanation of knowledge related to design and operation of industrial plants. The needs for explanation are motivated through case studies and literature reviews. A general framework for analysing plant explanations is presented. Prototypes demonstrate key mechanisms for implementing parts of the framework. Power plants, steel mills, paper factories, and high energy physics control systems are studied to set requirements for explanation. The main problems are seen to be either lack or abundance of information. Design knowledge in particular is found missing at plants. Support systems and automation should be enhanced with ways to explain plant knowledge to the plant staff. A framework is formulated for analysing explanations of plant knowledge. It consists of three parts: 1. a typology of explanation, organised by the class of knowledge (factual, functional, or strategic) and by the target of explanation (processes, automation, or support systems), 2. an identification of explanation tasks generic for the plant domain, and 3. an identification of essential model types for explanation (structural, behavioural, functional, and teleological). The tasks use the models to create the explanations of the given classes. Key mechanisms are discussed to implement the generic explanation tasks. Knowledge representations based on objects and their relations form a vocabulary to model and present plant knowledge. A particular class of models, means-end models, are used to explain plant knowledge. Explanations are generated through searches in the models. Hypertext is adopted to communicate explanations over dialogue based on context. The results are demonstrated in prototypes. The VICE prototype explains the reasoning of an expert system for diagnosis of rotating machines at power plants. The Justifier prototype explains design knowledge obtained from an object-oriented plant design tool. Enhanced access mechanisms into on-line documentation are

  5. Outlier Detection and Explanation for Domain Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micenková, Barbora

    In many data exploratory tasks, extraordinary and rarely occurring patterns called outliers are more interesting than the prevalent ones. For example, they could represent frauds in insurance, intrusions in network and system monitoring, or motion in video surveillance. Decades of research have...... produced various outlier detection algorithms. It is commonly known that these algorithms are difficult to apply and interpret in practice for a variety of reasons. In this thesis we propose novel algorithms that provide robust performance, support for validation and interpretability for outlier detection...... in practice and we empirically evaluate them on synthetic and real world data sets. First, we tackle the problem that most algorithms leave the end user without any explanation of how or why the identified outliers deviate. Such knowledge is important for domain experts in order to be able to validate...

  6. Experimental Philosophy of Explanation Rising: The Case for a Plurality of Concepts of Explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Matteo

    2017-03-01

    This paper brings together results from the philosophy and the psychology of explanation to argue that there are multiple concepts of explanation in human psychology. Specifically, it is shown that pluralism about explanation coheres with the multiplicity of models of explanation available in the philosophy of science, and it is supported by evidence from the psychology of explanatory judgment. Focusing on the case of a norm of explanatory power, the paper concludes by responding to the worry that if there is a plurality of concepts of explanation, one will not be able to normatively evaluate what counts as good explanation. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Neurophysiological aspects of musical auditory stimulation on the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Lima Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The literature has shown that musical stimulation can influence the cardiovascular system, however, the neurophysiological aspects of this influence are not yet fully elucidated. Objective: This study describes the influence of music on the neurophysiological mechanisms in the human body, specifically the variable blood pressure, as well as the neural mechanisms of music processing. Methods: Searches were conducted in Medline, PEDro, Lilacs and SciELO using the intersection of the keyword “music” with the keyword descriptors “blood pressure” and “neurophysiology”. Results: There were selected 11 articles, which indicated that music interferes in some aspects of physiological variables. Conclusion: Studies have indicated that music interferes on the control of blood pressure, heart and respiratory rate, through possible involvement of limbic brain areas which modulate hypothalamic-pituitary functions. Further studies are needed in order to identify the mechanisms by which this influence occurs.

  8. Neurophysiological investigation of idiopathic acquired auditory-visual synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afra, Pegah; Anderson, Jeffrey; Funke, Michael; Johnson, Michael; Matsuo, Fumisuke; Constantino, Tawnya; Warner, Judith

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of acquired auditory-visual synesthesia and its neurophysiological investigation in a healthy 42-year-old woman. She started experiencing persistent positive and intermittent negative visual phenomena at age 37 followed by auditory-visual synesthesia. Her neurophysiological investigation included video-EEG, fMRI, and MEG. Auditory stimuli (700 Hz, 50 ms duration, 0.5 s ISI) were presented binaurally at 60 db above the hearing threshold in a dark room. The patient had bilateral symmetrical auditory-evoked neuromagnetic responses followed by an occipital-evoked field 16.3 ms later. The activation of occipital cortex following auditory stimuli may represent recruitment of existing cross-modal sensory pathways.

  9. [Neurophysiological mechanisms and effects of emotional regulation on time perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

    2016-08-25

    Time is an important element for cognitive processes. Timing and time perception have been investigated by neuroscientists and psychologists for many years. It is well accepted that emotions could alter our experience of time. Previous studies of the emotional modulation on temporal perception focus primarily on behavioral and psychological experiments. In recent years, studies about the neurophysiological mechanisms of time perception have made some progress. Therefore, researchers started to explore how emotions influence our sense of time on the aspects of neural networks, neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity. In this paper, we tried to review current studies about the effects of emotional regulation on time perception and the relevant neurophysiological mechanisms. This review will help us to deeply understand the neural mechanisms of time perception.

  10. EEG INTERFACE MODULE FOR COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT THROUGH NEUROPHYSIOLOGIC TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Lal Verma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive signal processing is one of the important interdisciplinary field came from areas of life sciences, psychology, psychiatry, engi-neering, mathematics, physics, statistics and many other fields of research. Neurophysiologic tests are utilized to assess and treat brain injury, dementia, neurological conditions, and useful to investigate psychological and psychiatric disorders. This paper presents an ongoing research work on development of EEG interface device based on the principles of cognitive assessments and instrumentation. The method proposed engineering and science of cogni-tive signal processing in case of brain computer in-terface based neurophysiologic tests. The future scope of this study is to build a low cost EEG device for various clinical and pre-clinical applications with specific emphasis to measure the effect of cognitive action on human brain.

  11. Causal and Teleological Explanations in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Cheng-Wai

    2009-01-01

    A causal explanation in biology focuses on the mechanism by which a biological process is brought about, whereas a teleological explanation considers the end result, in the context of the survival of the organism, as a reason for certain biological processes or structures. There is a tendency among students to offer a teleological explanation…

  12. On Durkheim's Explanation of Division of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueschemeyer, Dietrich

    1982-01-01

    In De la Division du Travail Social, Durkheim's causal explanation for secular increases in the division of labor and the differentiation of social structure is flawed. His metatheoretical concerns expressed in the critique of utilitarian social theory flawed his contributions to a causal explanation of social differentiation. (Author/AM)

  13. Biofuels E0, E15, E85 Neurophysiology Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visual, auditory, somatosensory, and peripheral nerve evoked responses.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Herr , D., D. Freeborn , L. Degn , S.A. Martin, J. Ortenzio, L. Pantlin, C. Hamm , and W. Boyes. Neurophysiological Assessment of Auditory, Peripheral Nerve, Somatosensory, and Visual System Function After Developmental Exposure to Gasoline, E15 and E85 Vapors. NEUROTOXICOLOGY AND TERATOLOGY. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 54: 78-88, (2016).

  14. Neurophysiology training in the Neurology Specialist Education Program in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Antigüedad, A; Matías-Guiu, J; Hernández-Pérez, M A; Jiménez Hernández, M D; Martín González, M R; Morales Ortiz, A; Delgado, G; Frank, A; López de Silanes, C; Martínez-Vila, E

    2011-06-01

    The training period in neurophysiology is a substantial part of the Neurology Specialist Program in Spain. The National Neurology Committee (La Comisión Nacional de Neurología (CNN), which is the body reporting to the Ministries of Health and Education, must ensure compliance to the Program. During the first trimester of 2008, the CNN sent a questionnaire, in which there was a question asking about this training period, to each of the managers of the 69 teaching units accredited for neurology training in Spain, for them to answer. Of the 69 questionnaires issued, 49 were received completed, which was a response rate of 71%. The neurophysiology training period of the neurology specialist program in Spain was carried out in the same hospital in 44 teaching unit (90%): the remaining 5 sent their neurology trainees to 4 different hospitals. The Unit that carried out the neurophysiology training period was incorporated into the Neurology Department in 27 (55%) cases, and the formula was mixed in 3 (6%). A total of 69% of tutors were satisfied with the training, but was 90% in the hospitals where the unit was integrated into Neurology, and was 65% where this relationship did not exist. The neurologists in training were informed about EEG in 49% of education units, performed EMG/ENG 57%, and informed about evoked potentials in 35% after their training period. Although the level of satisfaction is high, the level of responsibility assumed by the neurologists in training during their rotation into neurophysiology does not appear to comply to the demands laid out in the training program, particularly in these units not integrated into Neurology Departments. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Practical neurophysiological analysis of readability as a usability dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, I.; Guimarães, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses opportunities and feasibility of integrating neurophysiologic analysis methods, based on electroencephalography (EEG), in the current landscape of usability evaluation methods. The rapid evolution and growing availability of low-cost, easier to use devices and the accumulated knowledge in feature extraction and processing algorithms allow us to foresee the practicality of this integration. The work presented in this paper is focused on reading and readability, identified ...

  16. Mind the Brain: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Siobhán; Sella, Francesco; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2017-01-01

    Most studies involving experimental manipulations or interventions tailored to modulate behavior do not account for variability in the critical antecedent of behavior, the brain. Here, we describe elegant approaches to model the role that neurophysiology can play in mediating or moderating relationships in this context. We highlight the capacity for these approaches to improve the inferential power of research, bridge the gap between neural and behavioral levels of analysis, and bolster the prospects for reproducibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurophysiologic Correlates of Post-stroke Mood and Emotional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruk, Deniz; Simis, Marcel; Imamura, Marta; Brunoni, André R.; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Anghinah, Renato; Fregni, Felipe; Battistella, Linamara R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Emotional disturbance is a common complication of stroke significantly affecting functional recovery and quality of life. Identifying relevant neurophysiologic markers associated with post-stroke emotional disturbance may lead to a better understanding of this disabling condition, guiding the diagnosis, development of new interventions and the assessments of treatment response. Methods: Thirty-five subjects with chronic stroke were enrolled in this study. The emotion sub-domain of Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-Emotion) was used to assess post-stroke mood and emotional control. The relation between SIS-Emotion and neurophysiologic measures was assessed by using covariance mapping and univariate linear regression. Multivariate analyses were conducted to identify and adjust for potential confounders. Neurophysiologic measures included power asymmetry and coherence assessed by electroencephalography (EEG); and motor threshold, intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Results: Lower scores on SIS-Emotion was associated with (1) frontal EEG power asymmetry in alpha and beta bands, (2) central EEG power asymmetry in alpha and theta bands, and (3) lower inter-hemispheric coherence over frontal and central areas in alpha band. SIS-Emotion also correlated with higher ICF and MT in the unlesioned hemisphere as measured by TMS. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study using EEG and TMS to index neurophysiologic changes associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control. Our results suggest that inter-hemispheric imbalance measured by EEG power and coherence, as well as an increased ICF in the unlesioned hemisphere measured by TMS might be relevant markers associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control which can guide future studies investigating new diagnostic and treatment modalities in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:27625600

  18. Neurophysiologic Correlates of Post-Stroke Mood and Emotional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Doruk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Emotional disturbance is a common complication of stroke significantly affecting functional recovery and quality of life. Identifying relevant neurophysiologic markers associated with post-stroke emotional disturbance may lead to a better understanding of this disabling condition, guiding the diagnosis, development of new interventions and the assessments of treatment response. Methods: Thirty-five subjects with chronic stroke were enrolled in this study. The emotion sub-domain of Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-Emotion was used to assess post-stroke mood and emotional control. The relation between SIS-Emotion and neurophysiologic measures was assessed by using covariance mapping and univariate linear regression. Multivariate analyses were conducted to identify and adjust for potential confounders. Neurophysiologic measures included power asymmetry and coherence assessed by electroencephalography (EEG; and motor threshold, intracortical inhibition (ICI and intracortical facilitation (ICF measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Results: Lower scores on SIS-Emotion was associated with 1 frontal EEG power asymmetry in alpha and beta bands, 2 central EEG power asymmetry in alpha and theta bands, and 3 lower inter-hemispheric coherence over frontal and central areas in alpha band. SIS-Emotion also correlated with higher ICF and MT in the unlesioned hemisphere as measured by TMS. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study using EEG and TMS to index neurophysiologic changes associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control. Our results suggest that inter-hemispheric imbalance measured by EEG power and coherence, as well as an increased intracortical facilitation in the unlesioned hemisphere measured by TMS might be relevant markers associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control which can guide future studies investigating new diagnostic and treatment modalities in stroke rehabilitation.

  19. The role of submicroscopic and symbolic representations in chemical explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagust, David F.; Chittleborough, Gail; Mamiala, Thapelo L.

    2003-11-01

    Chemistry is commonly portrayed at three different levels of representation - macroscopic, submicroscopic and symbolic - that combine to enrich the explanations of chemical concepts. In this article, we examine the use of submicroscopic and symbolic representations in chemical explanations and ascertain how they provide meaning. Of specific interest is the development of students' levels of understanding, conceived as instrumental (knowing how) and relational (knowing why) understanding, as a result of regular Grade 11 chemistry lessons using analogical, anthropomorphic, relational, problem-based, and model-based explanations. Examples of both teachers' and students' dialogue are used to illustrate how submicroscopic and symbolic representations are manifested in their explanations of observed chemical phenomena. The data in this research indicated that effective learning at a relational level of understanding requires simultaneous use of submicroscopic and symbolic representations in chemical explanations. Representations are used to help the learner learn; however, the research findings showed that students do not always understand the role of the representation that is assumed by the teacher.

  20. Practice guidelines for the supervising professional: intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Stanley A; Cohen, Bernard Allan; Morledge, David Eric; McAuliffe, John J; Hastings, John Daniel; Yingling, Charles D; McCaffrey, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The American Society of Neurophysiological Monitoring (ASNM) was founded in 1988 as the American Society of Evoked Potential Monitoring. From the beginning, the Society has been made up of physicians, doctoral degree holders, technologists, and all those interested in furthering the profession. The Society changed its name to the ASNM and held its first Annual Meeting in 1990. It remains the largest worldwide organization dedicated solely to the scientifically based advancement of intraoperative neurophysiology. The primary goal of the ASNM is to assure the quality of patient care during monitored procedures along the neuraxis. This goal is accomplished through programs in education, advocacy of basic and clinical research, and publication of guidelines. The ASNM is committed to the development of medically sound and clinically relevant guidelines for intraoperative neurophysiology. Guidelines are formulated based on exhaustive literature review, recruitment of expert opinion, and broad consensus among ASNM membership. Input is likewise sought from sister societies and related constituencies. Adherence to a literature-based, formalized process characterizes the construction of all ASNM guidelines. The guidelines covering the Professional Practice of intraoperative monitoring were established by a committee of nearly 30 total participants and ultimately endorsed by the Board of Directors of ASNM on January 24th 2013. That document follows.

  1. Mapping chemical performance on molecular structures using locally interpretable explanations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, Leanne S; Hudson, Corey M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present an application of Locally Interpretable Machine-Agnostic Explanations to 2-D chemical structures. Using this framework we are able to provide a structural interpretation for an existing black-box model for classifying biologically produced fuel compounds with regard to Research Octane Number. This method of "painting" locally interpretable explanations onto 2-D chemical structures replicates the chemical intuition of synthetic chemists, allowing researchers in the field to directly accept, reject, inform and evaluate decisions underlying inscrutably complex quantitative structure-activity relationship models.

  2. Case Study: Feeling Detoxified: Expectations, Effects, and Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Giselle; Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    The idea for this case study came about after a student described her experience at a spa with an ionic foot bath. The student was skeptical about the explanation provided to her about the underlying mechanism of the foot bath and wished to know more about it. The story of this case mirrors the student's experience and investigates the possible…

  3. Collaborative vs Individual Learning and the Role of Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, Sheila Haley; Resnick, Lauren B.

    This study sought to examine why peer interaction can facilitate learning, with the hypothesis that collaborative learning provides a social context that is conducive to the generating of explanations (an activity positively associated with learning). Individualistic and collaborative learning contexts were compared for 96 college students (19…

  4. Neurophysiological maturation in adolescence - vulnerability and counteracting addiction to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwedorowicz, Roman; Skarżyński, Henryk; Pucek, Weronika; Studziński, Tadeusz

    2017-03-22

    The results of contemporary studies confirm the formation of two neural networks in the brain during the period of adolescence. The first is defined as emotional, located in the limbic system, develops earlier, quicker, and more intensively than the second one in the prefrontal cortex, called the judgement network, which fulfils the role of control and inhibition of emotional reactions. The domination of the emotional network in adolescence is manifested by hyperactivity of the limbic system, accompanied by intensified undertaking of courageous, reckless, risky, or even sometimes dangerous actions, so very characteristic in the maturation. The aim of the article is to present the state of the art in the field of latest achievements in experimental neurophysiology related to the maturation of the structural end functional processes in adolescents, and to alcohol vulnerability. Alcohol effect initiation starts in early adolescence, and therefore is connected with alcohol abuse and addiction in adulthood, which confirms the necessity for provision of an early prophylactic protection for juveniles, even before entering the phase of early adolescence. Some electrophysiological characteristics, such as low P3 amplitude of the Event-Related Potential (ERP) and Event-Related Oscillations (EROs), are manifested by their high risk offspring, and are considered to be biological markers (endophenotypes) of a predisposition to develop alcohol use disorders. Electroencephalographic oscillations induced within the range of the theta and delta waves (Event-Related Oscillation- ERO), considered as endophenotypes and markers of increased vulnerability for addiction, present three groups of genes and three types of neurotransmitters, with gamma aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine and glutamate as neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. A new research approach consisting in the application of electroencephalographic methods and techniques in developmental and genetic studies of

  5. Grounding language processing on basic neurophysiological principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederici, Angela D; Singer, Wolf

    2015-06-01

    In animal models the neural basis of cognitive and executive processes has been studied extensively at various hierarchical levels from microcircuits to distributed functional networks. This work already provides compelling evidence that diverse cognitive functions are based on similar basic neuronal mechanisms. More recent data suggest that even cognitive functions realized only in human brains rely on these canonical neuronal mechanisms. Here we argue that language, like other cognitive functions, depends on distributed computations in specialized cortical areas forming large-scale dynamic networks and examine to what extent empirical results support this view. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High-density electroencephalography developmental neurophysiological trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Bernard; Pelc, Karine; Cebolla, Ana M; Cheron, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to document early changes in the developing brain have resulted in the construction of increasingly accurate structural images based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in newborn infants. Tractography diagrams obtained through diffusion tensor imaging have focused on white matter microstructure, with particular emphasis on neuronal connectivity at the level of fibre tract systems. Electroencephalography (EEG) provides a complementary approach with more direct access to brain electrical activity. Its temporal resolution is excellent, and its spatial resolution can be enhanced to physiologically relevant levels, through the combination of high-density recordings (e.g. by using 64 channels in newborn infants) and mathematical models (e.g. inverse modelling computation), to identify generators of different oscillation bands and synchrony patterns. The integration of functional and structural topography of the neonatal brain provides insights into typical brain organization, and the deviations seen in particular contexts, for example the effect of hypoxic-ischaemic insult in terms of damage, eventual reorganization, and functional changes. Endophenotypes can then be used for pathophysiological reasoning, management planning, and outcome measurements, and allow a longitudinal approach to individual developmental trajectories. © The Authors. Journal compilation © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  7. Is the bias for function-based explanations culturally universal? Children from China endorse teleological explanations of natural phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Zhu, Liqi; Li, Jing; Kelemen, Deborah

    2017-05-01

    Young children in Western cultures tend to endorse teleological (function-based) explanations broadly across many domains, even when scientifically unwarranted. For instance, in contrast to Western adults, they explicitly endorse the idea that mountains were created for climbing, just like hats were created for warmth. Is this bias a product of culture or a product of universal aspects of human cognition? In two studies, we explored whether adults and children in Mainland China, a highly secular, non-Western culture, show a bias for teleological explanations. When explaining both object properties (Experiment 1) and origins (Experiment 2), we found evidence that they do. Whereas Chinese adults restricted teleological explanations to scientifically warranted cases, Chinese children endorsed them more broadly, extending them across different kinds of natural phenomena. This bias decreased with rising grade level across first, second, and fourth grades. Overall, these data provide evidence that children's bias for teleological explanations is not solely a product of Western Abrahamic cultures. Instead, it extends to other cultures, including the East Asian secular culture of modern-day China. This suggests that the bias for function-based explanations may be driven by universal aspects of human cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic schemes and schemata in neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemelman, B V; Miesenböck, G

    2001-08-01

    Information in nervous systems is often carried by neural ensembles--groups of neurons in transient functional linkage--and written in a code that involves the spatial locations of active neurons or synapses and the times at which activity occurs. Even in favorable neuroanatomical circumstances, studying neural ensemble function presents a serious experimental challenge. One recent strategy to overcome this challenge relies on protein-based sensors that provide direct optical images of neural activity, and on protein-based effectors that interfere with it. Because these molecules are encodable in DNA, they can be introduced into intact animals by genetic manipulation, and their expression pattern can be tailored to include--exclusively and at the same time comprehensively--the neurons of interest. Circumscribed populations of neurons can thus be studied in virtual isolation at defined stages of intact neural pathways.

  9. Autogenous Vein Wrapping versus In Situ Decompression for Management of Secondary Cubital Tunnel Syndrome after Surgical Fixation of Elbow Fractures: Short-Term Functional and Neurophysiological Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Ahmed F; Fouly, Ezzat H; Abdel-Aziz, Adel A; Sayed, Mohammed A; El-Mahboub, Nehad M; Hamdy, Mona

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the functional and neurophysiological outcome of in situ decompression versus in situ decompression augmented with autogenous vein wrapping in management of secondary cubital tunnel syndrome at the elbow following fixation of elbow fractures. A prospective comparative randomized study was performed on 29 patients who were divided into two groups: group I (in situ decompression) and group II (in situ decompression augmented with autogenous vein wrapping). We measured the patients' demographics, subjective reports of symptoms, and objective evaluation of the functional and neurophysiological outcomes of both groups. Group II patients achieved statistically better results in both neurophysiological scoring and clinical sensory rating but not in all other parameters. Autogenous vein wrapping for secondary cubital tunnel syndrome after elbow fracture fixation only provides a better sensory outcome. Level II, therapeutic prospective comparative study.

  10. A contrastive account of explanation generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Parker, Seth; Bradner, Alexandra

    2017-10-01

    In this article, we propose a contrastive account of explanation generation. Though researchers have long wrestled with the concepts of explanation and understanding, as well as with the procedures by which we might evaluate explanations, less attention has been paid to the initial generation stages of explanation. Before an explainer can answer a question, he or she must come to some understanding of the explanandum-what the question is asking-and of the explanatory form and content called for by the context. Here candidate explanations are constructed to respond to the particular interpretation of the question, which, according to the pragmatic approach to explanation, is constrained by a contrast class-a set of related but nonoccurring alternatives to the topic that emerge from the surrounding context and the explainer's prior knowledge. In this article, we suggest that generating an explanation involves two operations: one that homes in on an interpretation of the question, and a second one that locates an answer. We review empirical work that supports this account, consider the implications of these contrastive processes, and identify areas for future study.

  11. Explanation mode for Bayesian automatic object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Thomas L.; Cofer, Rufus H.; Brown, Harold K.

    1992-09-01

    One of the more useful techniques to emerge from AI is the provision of an explanation modality used by the researcher to understand and subsequently tune the reasoning of an expert system. Such a capability, missing in the arena of statistical object recognition, is not that difficult to provide. Long standing results show that the paradigm of Bayesian object recognition is truly optimal in a minimum probability of error sense. To a large degree, the Bayesian paradigm achieves optimality through adroit fusion of a wide range of lower informational data sources to give a higher quality decision--a very 'expert system' like capability. When various sources of incoming data are represented by C++ classes, it becomes possible to automatically backtrack the Bayesian data fusion process, assigning relative weights to the more significant datums and their combinations. A C++ object oriented engine is then able to synthesize 'English' like textural description of the Bayesian reasoning suitable for generalized presentation. Key concepts and examples are provided based on an actual object recognition problem.

  12. The metaphorical foundations of chemical explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Theodore L

    2003-05-01

    To address the question of whether typical chemical explanations have characteristics that distinguish them from explanations in other sciences, it is important to recognize the deeply metaphorical nature of scientific explanation in general. The theory of conceptual metaphor, based on results from modern cognitive sciences, postulates that largely unconscious thought processes, grounded in embodied experience and in experiences drawn from the social domain, are at the core of scientific reasoning. I argue, using several examples, that models employed by chemists as explanatory instruments are metaphorical in nature and have a character distinguishable from explanatory representations employed in other fields of science.

  13. Prediction of electroencephalographic spectra from neurophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.; Rennie, C. J.; Wright, J. J.; Bahramali, H.; Gordon, E.; Rowe, D. L.

    2001-02-01

    A recent neurophysical model of propagation of electrical waves in the cortex is extended to include a physiologically motivated subcortical feedback loop via the thalamus. The electroencephalographic spectrum when the system is driven by white noise is then calculated analytically in terms of physiological parameters, including the effects of filtering of signals by the cerebrospinal fluid, skull, and scalp. The spectral power at low frequencies is found to vary as f-1 when awake and f-3 when asleep, with a breakpoint to a steeper power-law tail at frequencies above about 20 Hz in both cases; the f-1 range concurs with recent magnetoencephalographic observations of such a regime. Parameter sensitivities are explored, enabling a model with fewer free parameters to be proposed, and showing that spectra predicted for physiologically reasonable parameter values strongly resemble those observed in the laboratory. Alpha and beta peaks seen near 10 Hz and twice that frequency, respectively, in the relaxed wakeful state are generated via subcortical feedback in this model, thereby leading to predictions of their frequencies in terms of physiological parameters, and of correlations in their occurrence. Subcortical feedback is also predicted to be responsible for production of anticorrelated peaks in deep sleep states that correspond to the occurrence of theta rhythm at around half the alpha frequency and sleep spindles at 3/2 times the alpha frequency. An additional positively correlated waking peak near three times the alpha frequency is also predicted and tentatively observed, as are two new types of sleep spindle near 5/2 and 7/2 times the alpha frequency, and anticorrelated with alpha. These results provide a theoretical basis for the conventional division of EEG spectra into frequency bands, but imply that the exact bounds of these bands depend on the individual. Three types of potential instability are found: one at zero frequency, another in the theta band at around

  14. Society by Numbers : Studies on Model-Based Explanations in the Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Kuorikoski, Jaakko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to provide conceptual tools for the social scientist for clarifying, evaluating and comparing explanations of social phenomena based on formal mathematical models. The focus is on relatively simple theoretical models and simulations, not statistical models. These studies apply a theory of explanation according to which explanation is about tracing objective relations of dependence, knowledge of which enables answers to contrastive why and how-questions. This th...

  15. ACQ4: an open-source software platform for data acquisition and analysis in neurophysiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnola, Luke; Kratz, Megan B; Manis, Paul B

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of modern neurophysiology experiments requires specialized software to coordinate multiple acquisition devices and analyze the collected data. We have developed ACQ4, an open-source software platform for performing data acquisition and analysis in experimental neurophysiology. This software integrates the tasks of acquiring, managing, and analyzing experimental data. ACQ4 has been used primarily for standard patch-clamp electrophysiology, laser scanning photostimulation, multiphoton microscopy, intrinsic imaging, and calcium imaging. The system is highly modular, which facilitates the addition of new devices and functionality. The modules included with ACQ4 provide for rapid construction of acquisition protocols, live video display, and customizable analysis tools. Position-aware data collection allows automated construction of image mosaics and registration of images with 3-dimensional anatomical atlases. ACQ4 uses free and open-source tools including Python, NumPy/SciPy for numerical computation, PyQt for the user interface, and PyQtGraph for scientific graphics. Supported hardware includes cameras, patch clamp amplifiers, scanning mirrors, lasers, shutters, Pockels cells, motorized stages, and more. ACQ4 is available for download at http://www.acq4.org.

  16. ACQ4: an open-source software platform for data acquisition and analysis in neurophysiology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke eCampagnola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of modern neurophysiology experiments requires specialized software to coordinate multiple acquisition devices and analyze the collected data. We have developed ACQ4, an open-source software platform for performing data acquisition and analysis in experimental neurophysiology. This software integrates the tasks of acquiring, managing, and analyzing experimental data. ACQ4 has been used primarily for standard patch-clamp electrophysiology, laser scanning photostimulation, multiphoton microscopy, intrinsic imaging, and calcium imaging. The system is highly modular, which facilitates the addition of new devices and functionality. The modules included with ACQ4 provide for rapid construction of acquisition protocols, live video display, and customizable analysis tools. Position-aware data collection allows automated construction of image mosaics and registration of images with 3-dimensional anatomical atlases. ACQ4 uses free and open-source tools including Python, NumPy/SciPy for numerical computation, PyQt for the user interface, and PyQtGraph for scientific graphics. Supported hardware includes cameras, patch clamp amplifiers, scanning mirrors, lasers, shutters, Pockels cells, motorized stages, and more. ACQ4 is available for download at http://www.acq4.org.

  17. Foot Drop: Looking Beyond Common Peroneal Nerve Palsy – A Neurophysiology Centre Experience

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yap, SM

    2016-04-01

    Foot drop is a complex symptom with a considerable range in aetiology, severity and prognosis. We aim to characterise the aetiologies of foot drop and assess the diagnostic contribution of neurophysiologic testing (NCS\\/EMG). Retrospective review of consecutive referrals of foot drop to the Neurophysiology Department in Cork University Hospital was performed over a two year period (January 2012 to December 2013). Of a total of 59 referrals, common peroneal nerve (CPN) palsy comprised only slightly more than half of cases; 3(5%) have central origin; 3(5%) have motor neuron disease. Six (10%) have diabetes; 7(12%) have cancer; 5(8%) were bilateral. NCS\\/EMG altered initial working diagnosis in 14 out of 52 (27%) cases whereby initial diagnosis was provided. However one-third of all cases revealed additional coexistent pathology in an anatomic location remote to that of the primary diagnosis. Foot drop with central and proximal localisations are important and under recognised. NCS\\/EMG is valuable and also reveals additional pathology which warrants investigation

  18. A portable platform to collect and review behavioral data simultaneously with neurophysiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianxiao Jiang; Siddiqui, Hasan; Ray, Shruti; Asman, Priscella; Ozturk, Musa; Ince, Nuri F

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a portable platform to collect and review behavioral data simultaneously with neurophysiological signals. The whole system is comprised of four parts: a sensor data acquisition interface, a socket server for real-time data streaming, a Simulink system for real-time processing and an offline data review and analysis toolbox. A low-cost microcontroller is used to acquire data from external sensors such as accelerometer and hand dynamometer. The micro-controller transfers the data either directly through USB or wirelessly through a bluetooth module to a data server written in C++ for MS Windows OS. The data server also interfaces with the digital glove and captures HD video from webcam. The acquired sensor data are streamed under User Datagram Protocol (UDP) to other applications such as Simulink/Matlab for real-time analysis and recording. Neurophysiological signals such as electroencephalography (EEG), electrocorticography (ECoG) and local field potential (LFP) recordings can be collected simultaneously in Simulink and fused with behavioral data. In addition, we developed a customized Matlab Graphical User Interface (GUI) software to review, annotate and analyze the data offline. The software provides a fast, user-friendly data visualization environment with synchronized video playback feature. The software is also capable of reviewing long-term neural recordings. Other featured functions such as fast preprocessing with multithreaded filters, annotation, montage selection, power-spectral density (PSD) estimate, time-frequency map and spatial spectral map are also implemented.

  19. Neurophysiological evidence for the influence of past experience on figure-ground perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Logan T; Allen, John J B; Schnyer, David M; Peterson, Mary A

    2010-02-10

    A fundamental aspect of perceptual organization entails segregating visual input into shaped figures presented against shapeless backgrounds; an outcome termed "figure-ground perception" or "shape assignment." The present study examined how early in processing past experience exerts an influence on shape assignment. Event-related potential (ERP) measures of brain activity were recorded while observers viewed silhouettes of novel objects that differed in whether or not a familiar shape was suggested on the outside-the groundside-of their bounding edges (experimental versus control silhouettes, respectively). Observers perceived both types of silhouettes as novel shapes and were unaware of the familiar shape suggested on the groundside of experimental silhouettes. Nevertheless, we expected that the familiar shape would be implicitly identified early in processing and would compete for figural status with the novel shape on the inside. Early (106-156 ms) ERPs were larger for experimental silhouettes than for control silhouettes lacking familiarity cues. The early ERP difference occurred during a time interval within which edge-segmentation-dependent response differences have been observed in previous neurophysiological investigations of figure-ground perception. These results provide the first neurophysiological evidence for an influence of past experience during the earliest stages of shape assignment.

  20. Research traditions and evolutionary explanations in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méthot, Pierre-Olivier

    2011-02-01

    In this article, I argue that distinguishing 'evolutionary' from 'Darwinian' medicine will help us assess the variety of roles that evolutionary explanations can play in a number of medical contexts. Because the boundaries of evolutionary and Darwinian medicine overlap to some extent, however, they are best described as distinct 'research traditions' rather than as competing paradigms. But while evolutionary medicine does not stand out as a new scientific field of its own, Darwinian medicine is united by a number of distinctive theoretical and methodological claims. For example, evolutionary medicine and Darwinian medicine can be distinguished with respect to the styles of evolutionary explanations they employ. While the former primarily involves 'forward looking' explanations, the latter depends mostly on 'backward looking' explanations. A forward looking explanation tries to predict the effects of ongoing evolutionary processes on human health and disease in contemporary environments (e.g., hospitals). In contrast, a backward looking explanation typically applies evolutionary principles from the vantage point of humans' distant biological past in order to assess present states of health and disease. Both approaches, however, are concerned with the prevention and control of human diseases. In conclusion, I raise some concerns about the claim that 'nothing in medicine makes sense except in the light of evolution'.

  1. Grounding explanations in evolving, diagnostic situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, Leila J.; Cook, Richard I.; Woods, David D.

    1994-01-01

    Certain fields of practice involve the management and control of complex dynamic systems. These include flight deck operations in commercial aviation, control of space systems, anesthetic management during surgery or chemical or nuclear process control. Fault diagnosis of these dynamic systems generally must occur with the monitored process on-line and in conjunction with maintaining system integrity.This research seeks to understand in more detail what it means for an intelligent system to function cooperatively, or as a 'team player' in complex, dynamic environments. The approach taken was to study human practitioners engaged in the management of a complex, dynamic process: anesthesiologists during neurosurgical operations. The investigation focused on understanding how team members cooperate in management and fault diagnosis and comparing this interaction to the situation with an Artificial Intelligence(AI) system that provides diagnoses and explanations. Of particular concern was to study the ways in which practitioners support one another in keeping aware of relevant information concerning the state of the monitored process and of the problem solving process.

  2. Consensus on the use of neurophysiological tests in the intensive care unit (ICU): electroencephalogram (EEG), evoked potentials (EP), and electroneuromyography (ENMG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guérit, J-M; Amantini, A; Amodio, P

    2009-01-01

    STUDY AIM: To provide a consensus of European leading authorities about the optimal use of clinical neurophysiological (CN) tests (electroencephalogram [EEG]; evoked potentials [EP]; electroneuromyography [ENMG]) in the intensive care unit (ICU) and, particularly, about the way to make these test......, it should play a major role in the individual assessment of ICU patients....

  3. Consensus on the use of neurophysiological tests in the intensive care unit (ICU): electroencephalogram (EEG), evoked potentials (EP), and electroneuromyography (ENMG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guørit, J.M.; Amantini, A.; Amodio, P.

    2009-01-01

    STUDY AIM: To provide a consensus of European leading authorities about the optimal use of clinical neurophysiological (CN) tests (electroencephalogram [EEG]; evoked potentials [EP]; electroneuromyography [ENMG]) in the intensive care unit (ICU) and, particularly, about the way to make these tests...

  4. Contralesional Corticomotor Neurophysiology in Hemiparetic Children With Perinatal Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewdie, Ephrem; Damji, Omar; Ciechanski, Patrick; Seeger, Trevor; Kirton, Adam

    2017-03-01

    Perinatal stroke causes most hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Ipsilateral connections from nonlesioned hemisphere to affected hand are common. The nonlesioned primary motor cortex (M1) determines function and is a potential therapeutic target but its neurophysiology is poorly understood. We aimed to characterize the neurophysiological properties of the nonlesioned M1 in children with perinatal stroke and their relationship to clinical function. Fifty-two participants with hemiparetic cerebral palsy and magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed perinatal stroke and 40 controls aged 8 to 18 years completed the same transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol. Single-pulse TMS to nonlesioned M1 determined rest and active motor thresholds (RMT/AMT), motor-evoked potential (MEP) latencies, and stimulus recruitment curves (SRC: 100%-150% RMT). Paired-pulse TMS evaluated short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). Ipsilateral (IP) participants (ipsilateral MEP ≥0.05 mV in ≥5/20 trials) were compared with contralateral MEP only, nonipsilateral (NI) participants. Assisting Hand and Melbourne assessments quantified clinical function. Twenty-five IP were compared with 13 NI (n = 38, median age 12 years, 66% male). IP had lower motor function. SRC to unaffected hand were comparable between IP and NI while IP had smaller ipsilateral SRC. Ipsilateral MEP latencies were prolonged (23.5 ± 1.8 vs 22.2 ± 1.5 ms contra, P < .001). Contralateral SICI was different between IP (-42%) and NI (-20%). Ipsilateral SICI was reduced (-20%). Contralateral ICF was comparable between groups (+43%) and ipsilaterally (+43%). Measures correlated between contralateral and ipsilateral sides. Neurophysiology of nonlesioned M1 and its relationship to motor function is measureable in children with perinatal stroke. Correlation of excitability and intracortical circuitry measures between contralateral and ipsilateral sides suggests common control mechanisms.

  5. Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring: Basic Principles and Recent Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Min; Kim, Seung Hyun; Seo, Dae-Won

    2013-01-01

    The recent developments of new devices and advances in anesthesiology have greatly improved the utility and accuracy of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM). Herein, we review the basic principles of the electrophysiological methods employed under IOM in the operating room. These include motor evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, electroencephalography, electromyography, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and visual evoked potentials. Most of these techniques have certain limitations and their utility is still being debated. In this review, we also discuss the optimal stimulation/recording method for each of these modalities during individual surgeries as well as the diverse criteria for alarm signs. PMID:24015028

  6. Neurophysiological findings among workers exposed to organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelaeinen, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Neurophysiological findings among patients with solvent poisoning and among groups with long-term occupational exposure to various solvents are reviewed. Hydrocarbons with six carbon atoms have been shown to cause peripheral neuropathy, which can be revealed with electroneurography and electromyography. Various mixtures of solvents and carbon disulfide have caused similar types of abnormalities. Abnormal electroencephalograms have been reported for patients with solvent poisoning and also connected to occupational exposure. Visual evoked potentials have rarely been applied to study of solvent effects, latency increases have been reported. Multiple lesions within the central and peripheral nervous system should arouse a thought of possible toxic etiology.

  7. Time, from psychology to neurophysiology: a historical view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debru, Claude

    2006-01-01

    Two aspects of psychology and physiology of time are dealt with in this paper: the way time perception was increasingly studied during the 19th century by scientists, including many physicists, and the way the temporal properties of the nervous system were discovered and explored by physiologists. The neurophysiological correlation between both aspects still remains to be explained. The relationship between time consciousness and consciousness mechanisms was often guessed by philosophers and looked for by scientists. It remains a major subject of investigation in neuroscience as well as a philosophical puzzle. To cite this article: C. Debru, C. R. Biologies 329 (2006).

  8. Relationships between the integrity and function of lumbar nerve roots as assessed by diffusion tensor imaging and neurophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, S.Y.; Strutton, P.H. [Imperial College London, The Nick Davey Laboratory, Division of Surgery, Human Performance Group, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Hellyer, P.J. [Imperial College London, Computational, Cognitive and Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory, Division of Brain Sciences, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College London, Department of Bioengineering, London (United Kingdom); Sharp, D.J. [Imperial College London, Computational, Cognitive and Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory, Division of Brain Sciences, London (United Kingdom); Newbould, R.D. [Imanova, Ltd, London (United Kingdom); Patel, M.C. [Charing Cross Hospital, Imaging Department, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-15

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has shown promise in the measurement of peripheral nerve integrity, although the optimal way to apply the technique for the study of lumbar spinal nerves is unclear. The aims of this study are to use an improved DTI acquisition to investigate lumbar nerve root integrity and correlate this with functional measures using neurophysiology. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent 3 T DTI of the L5/S1 area. Regions of interest were applied to L5 and S1 nerve roots, and DTI metrics (fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity) were derived. Neurophysiological measures were obtained from muscles innervated by L5/S1 nerves; these included the slope of motor-evoked potential input-output curves, F-wave latency, maximal motor response, and central and peripheral motor conduction times. DTI metrics were similar between the left and right sides and between vertebral levels. Conversely, significant differences in DTI measures were seen along the course of the nerves. Regression analyses revealed that DTI metrics of the L5 nerve correlated with neurophysiological measures from the muscle innervated by it. The current findings suggest that DTI has the potential to be used for assessing lumbar spinal nerve integrity and that parameters derived from DTI provide quantitative information which reflects their function. (orig.)

  9. Criteria for deciding what is the ’best’ scientific explanation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, J.H.M.; Mohammed, D.; Lewiński, M.

    2016-01-01

    In justifying their choice of the ‘best’ scientific explanation from a number of candidate explanations, scientists may employ specific theoretical virtues and other criteria for good scientific theories. This paper is aimed at providing an inventory of such criteria and at analyzing how they

  10. Prosody in parsing morphologically complex words: neurophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the neurophysiological correlates of lexical prosody in the comprehension of compound words, i.e., morphologically complex words. Here, it is investigated whether lexical prosody influences the decomposition of spoken compound words. In order to explore the neurophysiological correlates (event-related potentials, ERP) of a compound prosody, German native speakers had to judge the number agreement between numerals and nouns which did or did not agree in 50% of the cases. Importantly, the nouns carried either a compound or non-compound (single noun) prosody. The compound prosody led to increased reaction times (RTs) and reduced judgement accuracy. Critically, number violations for words with a compound prosody elicited an increased ERP negativity that was delayed by about 600 ms relative to a left-anterior negativity elicited by number violations for a single noun prosody. The ERP effect for the compound prosody preceded the according behavioural response by about 200 ms and the ERP peak latency effect correlated with the RT effect. These findings suggest that the ERP effect for the compound prosody could be functionally related to the accurate judgement performance for the compound prosody. The results suggest, more generally, that prosody plays a critical role in auditory compound comprehension and morphological processing.

  11. Early neurophysiological indices of second language morphosyntax learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Jeff; Shtyrov, Yury; Williams, John; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Humans show variable degrees of success in acquiring a second language (L2). In many cases, morphological and syntactic knowledge remain deficient, although some learners succeed in reaching nativelike levels, even if they begin acquiring their L2 relatively late. In this study, we use psycholinguistic, online language proficiency tests and a neurophysiological index of syntactic processing, the syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) to local agreement violations, to compare behavioural and neurophysiological markers of grammar processing between native speakers (NS) of English and non-native speakers (NNS). Variable grammar proficiency was measured by psycholinguistic tests. When NS heard ungrammatical word sequences lacking agreement between subject and verb (e.g. *we kicks), the MMN was enhanced compared with syntactically legal sentences (e.g. he kicks). More proficient NNS also showed this difference, but less proficient NNS did not. The main cortical sources of the MMN responses were localised in bilateral superior temporal areas, where, crucially, source strength of grammar-related neuronal activity correlated significantly with grammatical proficiency of individual L2 speakers as revealed by the psycholinguistic tests. As our results show similar, early MMN indices to morpho-syntactic agreement violations among both native speakers and non-native speakers with high grammar proficiency, they appear consistent with the use of similar brain mechanisms for at least certain aspects of L1 and L2 grammars. PMID:26752451

  12. Resting-State Neurophysiological Activity Patterns in Young People with ASD, ADHD, and ASD + ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Tye, Charlotte; Ashwood, Karen L.; Azadi, Bahar; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick F.; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2018-01-01

    Altered power of resting-state neurophysiological activity has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which commonly co-occur. We compared resting-state neurophysiological power in children with ASD, ADHD, co-occurring ASD + ADHD, and typically developing controls. Children with ASD…

  13. Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring for Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches to the Skull Base: A Technical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lober, Robert M.; Doan, Adam T.; Matsumoto, Craig I.; Kenning, Tyler J.; Evans, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during endoscopic, endonasal approaches to the skull base is both feasible and safe. Numerous reports have recently emerged from the literature evaluating the efficacy of different neuromonitoring tests during endonasal procedures, making them relatively well-studied. The authors report on a comprehensive, multimodality approach to monitoring the functional integrity of at risk nervous system structures, including the cerebral cortex, brainstem, cranial nerves, corticospinal tract, corticobulbar tract, and the thalamocortical somatosensory system during endonasal surgery of the skull base. The modalities employed include electroencephalography, somatosensory evoked potentials, free-running and electrically triggered electromyography, transcranial electric motor evoked potentials, and auditory evoked potentials. Methodological considerations as well as benefits and limitations are discussed. The authors argue that, while individual modalities have their limitations, multimodality neuromonitoring provides a real-time, comprehensive assessment of nervous system function and allows for safer, more aggressive management of skull base tumors via the endonasal route. PMID:27293965

  14. Reward Prediction Errors in Drug Addiction and Parkinson's Disease: from Neurophysiology to Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Isabel; Zeighami, Yashar; Dagher, Alain

    2017-06-01

    Surprises are important sources of learning. Cognitive scientists often refer to surprises as "reward prediction errors," a parameter that captures discrepancies between expectations and actual outcomes. Here, we integrate neurophysiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results addressing the processing of reward prediction errors and how they might be altered in drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. By increasing phasic dopamine responses, drugs might accentuate prediction error signals, causing increases in fMRI activity in mesolimbic areas in response to drugs. Chronic substance dependence, by contrast, has been linked with compromised dopaminergic function, which might be associated with blunted fMRI responses to pleasant non-drug stimuli in mesocorticolimbic areas. In Parkinson's disease, dopamine replacement therapies seem to induce impairments in learning from negative outcomes. The present review provides a holistic overview of reward prediction errors across different pathologies and might inform future clinical strategies targeting impulsive/compulsive disorders.

  15. Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring for Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches to the Skull Base: A Technical Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harminder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during endoscopic, endonasal approaches to the skull base is both feasible and safe. Numerous reports have recently emerged from the literature evaluating the efficacy of different neuromonitoring tests during endonasal procedures, making them relatively well-studied. The authors report on a comprehensive, multimodality approach to monitoring the functional integrity of at risk nervous system structures, including the cerebral cortex, brainstem, cranial nerves, corticospinal tract, corticobulbar tract, and the thalamocortical somatosensory system during endonasal surgery of the skull base. The modalities employed include electroencephalography, somatosensory evoked potentials, free-running and electrically triggered electromyography, transcranial electric motor evoked potentials, and auditory evoked potentials. Methodological considerations as well as benefits and limitations are discussed. The authors argue that, while individual modalities have their limitations, multimodality neuromonitoring provides a real-time, comprehensive assessment of nervous system function and allows for safer, more aggressive management of skull base tumors via the endonasal route.

  16. Keep your eyes on development - The behavioural and neurophysiological development of visual mechanisms underlying form processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlijn eVan Den Boomen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual form perception is essential for correct interpretation of, and interaction with, our environment. Form perception depends on visual acuity and processing of specific form characteristics, such as luminance contrast, spatial frequency, colour, orientation, depth and even motion information. As other cognitive processes, form perception matures with age. This paper aims at providing a concise overview of our current understanding of the typical development, from birth to adulthood, of form-characteristic processing, as measured both behaviourally and neurophysiologically. Two main conclusions can be drawn. First, the current literature conveys that for most reviewed characteristics a developmental pattern is apparent. These trajectories are discussed in relation to the organisation of the visual system. The second conclusion is that significant gaps in the literature exist for several age-ranges. To complete our understanding of the typical and, by consequence, atypical development of visual mechanisms underlying form processing, future research should uncover these missing segments.

  17. A Multimodal, SU-8 - Platinum - Polyimide Microelectrode Array for Chronic In Vivo Neurophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Márton

    Full Text Available Utilization of polymers as insulator and bulk materials of microelectrode arrays (MEAs makes the realization of flexible, biocompatible sensors possible, which are suitable for various neurophysiological experiments such as in vivo detection of local field potential changes on the surface of the neocortex or unit activities within the brain tissue. In this paper the microfabrication of a novel, all-flexible, polymer-based MEA is presented. The device consists of a three dimensional sensor configuration with an implantable depth electrode array and brain surface electrodes, allowing the recording of electrocorticographic (ECoG signals with laminar ones, simultaneously. In vivo recordings were performed in anesthetized rat brain to test the functionality of the device under both acute and chronic conditions. The ECoG electrodes recorded slow-wave thalamocortical oscillations, while the implanted component provided high quality depth recordings. The implants remained viable for detecting action potentials of individual neurons for at least 15 weeks.

  18. Behavioral and neurophysiological signatures of benzodiazepine-related driving impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradly T Stone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Impaired driving due to drug use is a growing problem, worldwide; estimates show that 18-23.5% of fatal accidents, and up to 34% of injury accidents may be caused by drivers under the influence of drugs (Drummer et al., 2003; NHTSA, 2010; Walsh et al., 2004. Furthermore, at any given time, up to 16% of drivers may be using drugs that can impair one’s driving abilities (NHTSA, 2009. Currently, drug recognition experts (law enforcement officers with specialized training to identify drugged driving, have the most difficult time with identifying drivers potentially impaired on central nervous system (CNS depressants (Smith, Hayes, Yolton, Rutledge, & Citek, 2002. The fact that the use of benzodiazepines, a type of CNS depressant, is also associated with the greatest likelihood of causing accidents (Dassanayake, Michie, Carter, & Jones, 2011, further emphasizes the need to improve research tools in this area which can facilitate the refinement of, or additions to, current assessments of impaired driving. Our laboratories collaborated to evaluate both the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of a benzodiazepine, alprazolam, in a driving simulation (miniSim™. This drive was combined with a neurocognitive assessment utilizing time synched neurophysiology (EEG, ECG. While the behavioral effects of benzodiazepines are well characterized (Rapoport et al., 2009, we hypothesized that, with the addition of real-time neurophysiology and the utilization of simulation and neurocognitive assessment, we could find objective assessments of drug impairment that could improve the detection capabilities of drug recognition experts. Our analyses revealed that 1 specific driving conditions were significantly more difficult for benzodiazepine impaired drivers and; 2 the neurocognitive tasks’ metrics were able to classify impaired vs. unimpaired with up to 80% accuracy based on lane position deviation and lane departures. While this work requires replication in

  19. Neurophysiological Endophenotypes, CNS Disinhibition, and Risk for Alcohol Dependence and Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernice Porjesz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological endophenotypes are more proximal to gene function than psychiatric diagnosis, providing a powerful strategy in searching for genes in psychiatric disorders. These intermediate phenotypes identify both affected and unaffected members of an affected family, including offspring at risk, providing a more direct connection with underlying biological vulnerability. The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA has employed heritable neurophysiological features (i.e., brain oscillations as endophenotypes, making it possible to identify susceptibility genes that may be difficult to detect with diagnosis alone. We found significant linkage and association between brain oscillations and genes involved with inhibitory neural networks (e.g., GABRA2, CHRM2, including frontal networks that are deficient in individuals with alcohol dependence, impulsivity, and related disinhibitory disorders. We reported significant linkage and linkage disequilibrium for the beta frequency of the EEG and GABRA2, a GABAA receptor gene on chromosome 4, which we found is also associated with diagnosis of alcohol dependence and related disorders. More recently, we found significant linkage and association with GABRA2 and interhemispheric theta coherence. We also reported significant linkage and linkage disequilibrium between the theta and delta event-related oscillations underlying P3 to target stimuli and GABRA2, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor gene on chromosome 7, which we found is also associated with diagnosis of alcohol dependence and related disorders. Thus, the identification of genes important for the expression of the endophenotypes (brain oscillations helps when identifying genes that increase the susceptibility for risk of alcohol dependence and related disorders. These findings underscore the utility of quantitative neurophysiological endophenotypes in the study of the genetics of complex disorders. We will present our recent genetic

  20. Reading the mind in the touch: Neurophysiological specificity in the communication of emotions by touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Louise P; Krahé, Charlotte; Blom, Nadia; Crucianelli, Laura; Moro, Valentina; Jenkinson, Paul M; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2017-05-29

    Touch is central to interpersonal interactions. Touch conveys specific emotions about the touch provider, but it is not clear whether this is a purely socially learned function or whether it has neurophysiological specificity. In two experiments with healthy participants (N = 76 and 61) and one neuropsychological single case study, we investigated whether a type of touch characterised by peripheral and central neurophysiological specificity, namely the C tactile (CT) system, can communicate specific emotions and mental states. We examined the specificity of emotions elicited by touch delivered at CT-optimal (3cm/s) and CT-suboptimal (18cm/s) velocities (Experiment 1) at different body sites which contain (forearm) vs. do not contain (palm of the hand) CT fibres (Experiment 2). Blindfolded participants were touched without any contextual cues, and were asked to identify the touch provider's emotion and intention. Overall, CT-optimal touch (slow, gentle touch on the forearm) was significantly more likely than other types of touch to convey arousal, lust or desire. Affiliative emotions such as love and related intentions such as social support were instead reliably elicited by gentle touch, irrespective of CT-optimality, suggesting that other top-down factors contribute to these aspects of tactile social communication. To explore the neural basis of this communication, we also tested this paradigm in a stroke patient with right perisylvian damage, including the posterior insular cortex, which is considered as the primary cortical target of CT afferents, but excluding temporal cortex involvement that has been linked to more affiliative aspects of CT-optimal touch. His performance suggested an impairment in 'reading' emotions based on CT-optimal touch. Taken together, our results suggest that the CT system can add specificity to emotional and social communication, particularly with regards to feelings of desire and arousal. On the basis of these findings, we speculate

  1. Bringing sequential feature explanations to life

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoena, Tshepiso

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available with no information about what caused the anomalies. A sequential feature explanation(SFE) of a detected data point is an ordered sequence of features which are presented to the analysts, one at a time until the information contained in the set of already presented...

  2. Explanation-based knowledge acquisition of electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieras, David E.

    1992-08-01

    This is the final report in a project that examined how knowledge of practical electronics could be acquired from materials similar to that appearing in electronics training textbooks, from both an artificial intelligence perspective and an experimental psychology perspective. Practical electronics training materials present a series of basic circuits accompanied by an explanation of how the circuit performs the desired function. More complex circuits are then explained in terms of these basic circuits. This material thus presents schema knowledge for individual circuit types in the form of explanations of circuit behavior. Learning from such material would thus consist of first instantiating any applicable schemas, and then constructing a new schema based on the circuit structure and behavior described in the explanation. If the basic structure of the material is an effective approach to learning, learning about a new circuit should be easier if the relevant schemas are available than not. This result was obtained for both an artificial intelligence system that used standard explanation-based learning mechanisms and with human learners in a laboratory setting, but the benefits of already having the relevant schemas were not large in these materials. The close examination of learning in this domain, and the structure of knowledge, should be useful to future cognitive analyses of training in technical domains.

  3. Separable explanations of neural network decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieger, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Deep Taylor Decomposition is a method used to explain neural network decisions. When applying this method to non-dominant classifications, the resulting explanation does not reflect important features for the chosen classification. We propose that this is caused by the dense layers and propose...

  4. Age and the Explanation of Crime, Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeten, Gary; Piquero, Alex R.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Age is one of the most robust correlates of criminal behavior. Yet, explanations for this relationship are varied and conflicting. Developmental theories point to a multitude of sociological, psychological, and biological changes that occur during adolescence and adulthood. One prominent criminological perspective outlined by Gottfredson and…

  5. Self-Explanation Training Improves Proof Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodds, Mark; Alcock, Lara; Inglis, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    In this article we report 3 experiments demonstrating that a simple booklet containing self-explanation training, designed to focus students' attention on logical relationships within a mathematical proof, can significantly improve their proof comprehension. Experiment 1 demonstrated that students who received the training generated higher quality…

  6. Dreaming and the brain: from phenomenology to neurophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Yuval; Tononi, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Dreams are a most remarkable experiment in psychology and neuroscience, conducted every night in every sleeping person. They show that our brain, disconnected from the environment, can generate by itself an entire world of conscious experiences. Content analysis and developmental studies have furthered our understanding of dream phenomenology. In parallel, brain lesion studies, functional imaging, and neurophysiology have advanced our knowledge of the neural basis of dreaming. It is now possible to start integrating these two strands of research in order to address some fundamental questions that dreams pose for cognitive neuroscience: how conscious experiences in sleep relate to underlying brain activity; why the dreamer is largely disconnected from the environment; and whether dreaming is more closely related to mental imagery or to perception. PMID:20079677

  7. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impacts of caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeana eBagwath Persad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted. This review focuses on the neurophysiological impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body.

  8. [A Matter of Nerves - Applied Neurophysiology of Female Sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Karoline

    2015-06-17

    Sexual problems are often attributed to psychological or physical deficits that are difficult to modify, or to a poor lover. In contrast, the neurophysiological interaction between body and brain can be understood as fundamental for the genital and emotional experience of sexuality. Neuropsychological discoveries and clinical observations show that elevated muscle tension, superficial breathing and reduced body movement, as employed by many individuals during sexual arousal, will limit the perception of arousal and the degree of sexual pleasure. In contrast, deep breathing and variations in movement and muscle tension support it. Through the use of self awareness exercises and physical learning steps, patients can integrate their sexuality and increases its resistance to psychological, medical and relational interferences.

  9. Anticipation of affect in dysthymia: behavioral and neurophysiological indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casement, Melynda D; Shestyuk, Avgusta Y; Best, Jennifer L; Casas, Brooks R; Glezer, Anna; Segundo, Marisol A; Deldin, Patricia J

    2008-02-01

    Anticipation for future affective events and prediction uncertainty were examined in healthy controls and individuals with dysthymia (DYS) using behavioral responses and the contingent negative variation (CNV) and post-imperative negative variation (PINV) event-related potential (ERP) components. Warning stimuli forecasted the valence of subsequently presented adjectives ("+", positive; "=", neutral; "-", negative), and participants indicated whether each adjective would describe them over the next two weeks. Controls expected fewer negative, and individuals with DYS expected fewer positive, adjectives to apply to them. CNV amplitudes were enhanced in controls prior to positive versus other adjectives. Response times and PINV amplitudes were greater following neutral compared to other adjectives, and PINV was larger overall in dysthymics compared to controls. In sum, healthy controls and individuals with DYS exhibit different behavioral and neurophysiological biases in anticipation for future affective events. These results are discussed in the context of cognitive theories of depression.

  10. Pixel detectors for use in retina neurophysiology studies

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, W; Chichilnisky, E J; Horn, M; Litke, A M; Mathieson, K; McEwan, F A; Melone, J; O'Shea, V; Rahman, M; Smith, K M

    2003-01-01

    One area of major inter-disciplinary co-operation is between the particle physics and bio-medical communities. The type of large detector arrays and fast electronics developed in laboratories like CERN are becoming used for a wide range of medical and biological experiments. In the present work fabrication technology developed for producing semiconductor radiation detectors has been applied to produce arrays which have been used in neuro-physiological experiments on retinal tissue. We have exploited UVIII, a low molecular weight resist, that has permitted large area electron beam lithography. This allows the resolution to go below that of conventional photolithography and hence the production of densely packed similar to 500 electrode arrays with feature sizes down to below 2 mum. The neural signals from significant areas of the retina may thus be captured.

  11. Teachers’ explanations of learners’ errors in standardised mathematics assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Shalem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increased use of standardised mathematics assessments at the classroom level, teachers are encouraged, and sometimes required, to use data from these assessments to inform their practice. As a consequence, teacher educators and researchers are starting to focus on the development of analytical tools that will help them determine how teachers interpret learners’ work, in particular learners’ errors in the context of standardised and other assessments. To detect variation and associations between and within the different aspects of teacher knowledge related to mathematical error analysis, we developed an instrument with six criteria based on aspects of teachers’ knowledge related to explaining and diagnosing learners’ errors. In this study we provide evidence of the usability of the criteria by coding 572 explanations given by groups of mathematics educators (teachers and district officials in a professional development context. The findings consist of observable trends and associations between the different criteria that describe the nature of teachers’ explanations of learners’ errors.

  12. Nursing Teaching Strategies by Encouraging Students’ Questioning, Argumentation and Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Neri de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing students need to develop competences in the field of explanation, argumentation and questioning as they are pivotal to foster a relationship with their patients and achieve a greater humanisation of care. The objective of this paper is to analyse the perception of 1st-year nursing students with regard to the humanisation of care provided to patients by encouraging them to discuss real-life episodes. The study is qualitative and content analysis used the students’ questions, explanations and argumentation as core discourses. Among other conclusions, results point towards the importance of promoting activities that encourage the different nursing students’ discourses and the ability to understand the humanisation and dehumanisation patterns arising from the real-life episodes used as case study.

  13. Revisiting primary neural leprosy: Clinical, serological, molecular, and neurophysiological aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Fernandes Dos Santos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy neuropathy is considered the most common peripheral neuropathy of infectious etiology worldwide, representing a public health problem. Clinical diagnosis of primary neural leprosy (PNL is challenging, since no skin lesions are found and the slit skin smear bacilloscopy is negative. However, there are still controversial concepts regarding the primary-neural versus pure-neural leprosy definition, which will be explored by using multiple clinical-laboratory analyses in this study.Seventy patients diagnosed with primary neural leprosy from 2014 to 2016 underwent clinical, laboratorial and neurophysiological evaluation. All patients presented an asymmetric neural impairment, with nerve thickening in 58.6%. Electroneuromyography showed a pattern of mononeuropathy in 51.4%. Positivity for ELISA anti-PGL1 was 52.9%, while the qPCR of slit skin smear was 78.6%. The qPCR of nerve biopsies was positive in 60.8%. Patients with multiple mononeuropathy patterns showed lower levels of anti-PGL-1 (p = 0.0006, and higher frequency of neural thickening (p = 0.0008 and sensory symptoms (p = 0.01 than those with mononeuropathy.PNL is not a synonym of pure neural leprosy, as this condition may include a generalized immune response and also a skin involvement, documented by molecular findings. Immunological, molecular, and neurophysiological tools must be implemented for diagnosing primary neural leprosy to achieve effective treatment and reduction of its resultant disabilities that still represent a public health problem in several developing nations. Finally, we propose a algorithm and recommendations for the diagnosis of primary neural leprosy based on the combination of the three clinical-laboratorial tools.

  14. Physiological and neurophysiological determinants of postcancer fatigue: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinsen Hetty

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postcancer fatigue is a frequently occurring, severe, and invalidating problem, impairing quality of life. Although it is possible to effectively treat postcancer fatigue with cognitive behaviour therapy, the nature of the underlying (neurophysiology of postcancer fatigue remains unclear. Physiological aspects of fatigue include peripheral fatigue, originating in muscle or the neuromuscular junction; central fatigue, originating in nerves, spinal cord, and brain; and physical deconditioning, resulting from a decreased cardiopulmonary function. Studies on physiological aspects of postcancer fatigue mainly concentrate on deconditioning. Peripheral and central fatigue and brain morphology and function have been studied for patients with fatigue in the context of chronic fatigue syndrome and neuromuscular diseases and show several characteristic differences with healthy controls. Methods/design Fifty seven severely fatigued and 21 non-fatigued cancer survivors will be recruited from the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. Participants should have completed treatment of a malignant, solid tumour minimal one year earlier and should have no evidence of disease recurrence. Severely fatigued patients are randomly assigned to either the intervention condition (cognitive behaviour therapy or the waiting list condition (start cognitive behaviour therapy after 6 months. All participants are assessed at baseline and the severely fatigued patients also after 6 months follow-up (at the end of cognitive behaviour therapy or waiting list. Primary outcome measures are fatigue severity, central and peripheral fatigue, brain morphology and function, and physical condition and activity. Discussion This study will be the first randomized controlled trial that characterizes (neurophysiological factors of fatigue in disease-free cancer survivors and evaluates to which extent these factors can be influenced by cognitive behaviour therapy

  15. Physiological and neurophysiological determinants of postcancer fatigue: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Postcancer fatigue is a frequently occurring, severe, and invalidating problem, impairing quality of life. Although it is possible to effectively treat postcancer fatigue with cognitive behaviour therapy, the nature of the underlying (neuro)physiology of postcancer fatigue remains unclear. Physiological aspects of fatigue include peripheral fatigue, originating in muscle or the neuromuscular junction; central fatigue, originating in nerves, spinal cord, and brain; and physical deconditioning, resulting from a decreased cardiopulmonary function. Studies on physiological aspects of postcancer fatigue mainly concentrate on deconditioning. Peripheral and central fatigue and brain morphology and function have been studied for patients with fatigue in the context of chronic fatigue syndrome and neuromuscular diseases and show several characteristic differences with healthy controls. Methods/design Fifty seven severely fatigued and 21 non-fatigued cancer survivors will be recruited from the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. Participants should have completed treatment of a malignant, solid tumour minimal one year earlier and should have no evidence of disease recurrence. Severely fatigued patients are randomly assigned to either the intervention condition (cognitive behaviour therapy) or the waiting list condition (start cognitive behaviour therapy after 6 months). All participants are assessed at baseline and the severely fatigued patients also after 6 months follow-up (at the end of cognitive behaviour therapy or waiting list). Primary outcome measures are fatigue severity, central and peripheral fatigue, brain morphology and function, and physical condition and activity. Discussion This study will be the first randomized controlled trial that characterizes (neuro)physiological factors of fatigue in disease-free cancer survivors and evaluates to which extent these factors can be influenced by cognitive behaviour therapy. The results of this

  16. Scaffolding Middle School Students' Construction of Scientific Explanations: Comparing a cognitive versus a metacognitive evaluation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of scaffolds as cognitive prompts and as metacognitive evaluation on seventh-grade students' growth of content knowledge and construction of scientific explanations in five inquiry-based biology activities. Students' scores on multiple-choice pretest and posttest and worksheets for five inquiry-based activities were analyzed. The results show that the students' content knowledge in all conditions significantly increased from the pretest to posttest. Incorporating cognitive prompts with the explanation scaffolds better facilitated knowledge integration and resulted in greater learning gains of content knowledge and better quality evidence and reasoning. The metacognitive evaluation instruction improved all explanation components, especially claims and reasoning. This metacognitive approach also significantly reduced students' over- or underestimation during peer-evaluation by refining their internal standards for the quality of scientific explanations. The ability to accurately evaluate the quality of explanations was strongly associated with better performance on explanation construction. The cognitive prompts and metacognitive evaluation instruction address different aspects of the challenges faced by the students, and show different effects on the enhancement of content knowledge and the quality of scientific explanations. Future directions and suggestions are provided for improving the design of the scaffolds to facilitate the construction of scientific explanations.

  17. Learning from instructional explanations: effects of prompts based on the active-constructive-interactive framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, Julian; Müller, Claudia; Roelle, Detlev; Berthold, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Although instructional explanations are commonly provided when learners are introduced to new content, they often fail because they are not integrated into effective learning activities. The recently introduced active-constructive-interactive framework posits an effectiveness hierarchy in which interactive learning activities are at the top; these are then followed by constructive and active learning activities, respectively. Against this background, we combined instructional explanations with different types of prompts that were designed to elicit these learning activities and tested the central predictions of the active-constructive-interactive framework. In Experiment 1, N = 83 students were randomly assigned to one of four combinations of instructional explanations and prompts. To test the active effective in eliciting interactive learning activities than engaging prompts. In Experiment 2, N = 40 students were randomly assigned to either (1) a reduced explanations and inference prompts or (2) a reduced explanations and inference prompts plus adapted remedial explanations and revision prompts condition. In support of the constructive < interactive learning hypothesis, the learners who received adapted remedial explanations and revision prompts as add-ons to reduced explanations and inference prompts acquired more conceptual knowledge.

  18. Cerebellar TMS in treatment of a patient with cerebellar ataxia: evidence from clinical, biomechanics and neurophysiological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Faranak; Wu, Yunfen; Manor, Brad; Anastasio, Elana M; Lough, Matthew; Novak, Vera; Greenstein, Patricia E; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-10-01

    We describe a patient with a probable diagnosis of idiopathic late-onset cerebellar atrophy who shows improvement of limb coordination, speech, and gait following 21 days of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied to scalp regions presumably corresponding to the cerebellum. This case study provides, for the first time, a quantitative assessment of gait improvement in response to TMS therapy in ataxia, as well as neurophysiological evidence in support of modification of cerebellar-cortical interaction that may underlie some of the improvements.

  19. An ancient explanation of presbyopia based on binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    Presbyopia, understood as the age-related loss of ability to clearly see near objects, was known to ancient Greeks. However, few references to it can be found in ancient manuscripts. A relevant discussion on presbyopia appears in a book called Symposiacs written by Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus around 100 A.C. In this work, Plutarch provided four explanations of presbyopia, associated with different theories of vision. One of the explanations is particularly interesting as it is based on a binocular theory of vision. In this theory, vision is produced when visual rays, emanating from the eyes, form visual cones that impinge on the objects to be seen. Visual rays coming from old people's eyes, it was supposed, are weaker than those from younger people's eyes; so the theory, to be logically coherent, implies that this effect is compensated by the increase in light intensity due to the overlapping, at a certain distance, of the visual cones coming from both eyes. Thus, it benefits the reader to move the reading text further away from the eyes in order to increase the fusion area of both visual cones. The historical hypothesis taking into consideration that the astronomer Hipparchus of Nicaea was the source of Plutarch's explanation of the theory is discussed. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Explanation for the Mystical Practice III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Květoslav Minařík

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Concentration on feet and legs as a whole, with a special focus on their flesh, has an effect on the development of the intellect and deepening of the sensory discernment, because right here, in the legs, in the flesh of the body, the basis of the inner life is situated. The same concentration with a special focus on their bones – and in particular to the bones of knees – eliminates the instability of the usual attention; it is used to stabilize the entire inner life. The current article is a continuation of Explanation for the Mystical Practice I. and Explanation for the Mystical Practice II., published in the previous editions of Spirituality Studies.

  1. Explanation and Learning in Procedural Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-18

    scenario, was prepared. The soundtrack of the video demonstration included brief explanations of some user actions that would be difficult or...impossible to detect from a visual presentation alone, such as the mouse button actions required to make a menu selection. The soundtrack included no...video and manual presentations. Our video was an almost purely visual presentation, with very limited information added in the soundtrack . Participants

  2. Differential Explanations for Energy Management in Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    ALZOUHRI ALYAFI, Amr; Pal, Monalisa; Ploix, Stephane; Reignier, Patrick; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In the field of building energy efficiency, researchers generally focus on building performance and how to enhance it. The objective of this work is to empower the building occupants by putting them in the loop of efficient energy use, supporting them to achieve their objectives by pointing out how far their actions are from an optimal set of actions. Different levels of explanation are investigated. Indicators measuring the distance to optimality are, firstly, propose...

  3. Automaticity: Componential, Causal, and Mechanistic Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    The review first discusses componential explanations of automaticity, which specify non/automaticity features (e.g., un/controlled, un/conscious, non/efficient, fast/slow) and their interrelations. Reframing these features as factors that influence processes (e.g., goals, attention, and time) broadens the range of factors that can be considered (e.g., adding stimulus intensity and representational quality). The evidence reviewed challenges the view of a perfect coherence among goals, attention, and consciousness, and supports the alternative view that (a) these and other factors influence the quality of representations in an additive way (e.g., little time can be compensated by extra attention or extra stimulus intensity) and that (b) a first threshold of this quality is required for unconscious processing and a second threshold for conscious processing. The review closes with a discussion of causal explanations of automaticity, which specify factors involved in automatization such as repetition and complexity, and a discussion of mechanistic explanations, which specify the low-level processes underlying automatization.

  4. Herniated lumbar disc surgery in triathlon athletes with intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Miller Reis Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring was performed in a patient by somatosensory evoked potential, motor evoked potential and free-running electromyography with intraoperative stimulation. It was verified that after decompression, there was an increase in the amplitude of motor evoked potential responses, showing an immediate improvement of the treated levels. Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring for surgical lumbar disc herniation in an athlete allowed a dynamic neurophysiological diagnosis, differentiation of the involvement of compression at the central or foraminal levels, and clinical awareness of the iatrogenic damage, thereby increasing safety.

  5. Data for the elaboration of the CIPROS checklist with items for a patient registry software system: Examples and explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Lindoerfer

    2017-10-01

    The data presented per checklist item provide the relevant textual information (examples and a first qualitative summary (explanation. The examples and explanations provide the background information on CIPROS. They elucidate how to implement the checklist items in other projects. The literature list and the selected texts serve as a reference for scientists and system developers.

  6. Neurorehabilitation in upper limb amputation: understanding how neurophysiological changes can affect functional rehabilitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis A Wheaton

    2017-01-01

    ... from a motor control perspective. This points to a potential opportunity to improve our understanding of amputation using neurophysiology and plasticity, and integrate this knowledge into the development of prosthetics technology in novel ways...

  7. Descartes' visit to the town library, or how Augustinian is Descartes' neurophysiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C U

    1998-08-01

    Rene Descartes was early accused of taking his central philosophical proposition from St Augustine. Did he also take his central neurophysiological concept from the same source? This is the question which this paper sets out to answer. It is concluded that the foundational neurophysiology propounded in L'Homme does indeed show strong and interesting resemblences to Augustine's largely Erasistratean version. Descartes, however, working within the new paradigm of seventeenth-century physical science, introduced a new principle: whereas Augustine's neurophysiology is pervaded throughout by a vital factor, the pneuma, Descartes' theory involved only inanimate material forces. It is concluded, further, that in spite of the interesting similarities between Augustinian and Cartesian neurophysiology there is no evidence for any direct plagiarism. It seems more likely that Augustine's influence was filtered through the Galenical physiologists of Descartes' own time and of the preceding century.

  8. Cough: neurophysiology, methods of research, pharmacological therapy and phonoaudiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cough is the more common respiratory symptom in children and adults. Objective: To present a revision on the neurophysiology and the methods for study of the consequence of the cough, as well as the pharmacotherapy and phonoaudiology therapy of the cough, based on the works published between 2005 and 2010 and indexed in the bases Medline, Lilacs and Library Cochrane under them to keywords "cough" or "anti-cough". Synthesis of the data: The consequence of the cough involves activation of receiving multiples becomes vacant in the aerial ways and of neural projections of the nucleus of the solitary treatment for other structures of the central nervous system. Experimental techniques allow studying the consequence of the cough to the cellular and molecular level to develop new anti-cough agents. It does not have evidences of that anti-cough exempt of medical lapsing they have superior effectiveness to the one of placebo for the relief of the cough. The phonoaudiology therapy can benefit patients with refractory chronic cough to the pharmacological treatment, over all when paradoxical movement of the vocal folds coexists. Final Comments: The boarding to multidiscipline has basic paper in the etiological diagnosis and treatment of the cough. The otolaryngologist must inform the patients on the risks of the anti-cough of free sales in order to prevent adverse poisonings and effect, especially in children.

  9. Generalization of the dynamic clamp concept in neurophysiology and behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Chamorro

    Full Text Available The idea of closed-loop interaction in in vitro and in vivo electrophysiology has been successfully implemented in the dynamic clamp concept strongly impacting the research of membrane and synaptic properties of neurons. In this paper we show that this concept can be easily generalized to build other kinds of closed-loop protocols beyond (or in addition to electrical stimulation and recording in neurophysiology and behavioral studies for neuroethology. In particular, we illustrate three different examples of goal-driven real-time closed-loop interactions with drug microinjectors, mechanical devices and video event driven stimulation. Modern activity-dependent stimulation protocols can be used to reveal dynamics (otherwise hidden under traditional stimulation techniques, achieve control of natural and pathological states, induce learning, bridge between disparate levels of analysis and for a further automation of experiments. We argue that closed-loop interaction calls for novel real time analysis, prediction and control tools and a new perspective for designing stimulus-response experiments, which can have a large impact in neuroscience research.

  10. Neurophysiology for Detection of High Risk for Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara N. Pantlin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex and often disabling disorder that is characterized by a wide range of social, emotional, and cognitive deficits. Increasing research suggests that the greatest social and cognitive therapeutic impact comes from early identification. The present study applied a well-established neurophysiological paradigm in the schizophrenia literature, mismatch negativity (MMN, to college students identified as high risk (HR for psychosis to investigate MMN as a potential biomarker for the onset of psychosis. The hypothesis was that HR would exhibit attenuated MMN amplitudes compared to controls, as has been established in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Participants (N=121 were separated into Group 1 (controls (n1=72 and Group 2 (HR (n2=49 based on the established cutoff score of the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire. Participants then completed a time based MMN paradigm during which brain activity was recorded with EEG. For all electrode locations, controls demonstrated significantly more negative amplitudes than HR (Cz: F(1,119=8.09, p=.005; Fz: F(1,119=5.74, p=.018; Pz: F(1,119=5.88, p=.017. Results suggested that MMN may assist in identifying those who appear high-functioning but may be at risk for later development of psychosis or cognitive and psychological difficulties associated with psychosis.

  11. Intermittent Divergent Squint in Prematurity and Its Neurophysiological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kalpana; Panwar, Praveen; Chaudhary, Kulbhushan Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent distance exotropia is a deviation characterized by an exophoria at near fixation and manifest exotropia at distance fixation. There is normal binocular fusional vergence and stereoacuity at near fixation, but the eyes tend to diverge in bright sunlight, tiredness, day dreaming and the patient may close one eye in such circumstances. Prematurity is associated with numerous eye pathology, besides retinopathy of prematurity, amblyopia, refractive errors, it is also associated with a higher risk esotropia and exotropia. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl (preterm and very low birth weight) with an intermittent deviation of both eyes since three years. On her detailed ocular examination diagnosis of divergence excess intermittent exotropia with normal accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio was made. Bilateral lateral rectus recession was done using hang back technique. Postoperatively, the eyes were aligned normally thereby achieving orthotropia. This article reviews various neurophysiological aspects of intermittent divergent squint delineating the etiopathogenesis, classification system, and management options in intermittent exotropia.

  12. Cognitive and neurophysiological markers of ADHD persistence and remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Celeste H M; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists in around two-thirds of individuals in adolescence and early adulthood. To examine the cognitive and neurophysiological processes underlying the persistence or remission of ADHD. Follow-up data were obtained from 110 young people with childhood ADHD and 169 controls on cognitive, electroencephalogram frequency, event-related potential (ERP) and actigraph movement measures after 6 years. ADHD persisters differed from remitters on preparation-vigilance measures (contingent negative variation, delta activity, reaction time variability and omission errors), IQ and actigraph count, but not on executive control measures of inhibition or working memory (nogo-P3 amplitudes, commission errors and digit span backwards). Preparation-vigilance measures were markers of remission, improving concurrently with ADHD symptoms, whereas executive control measures were not sensitive to ADHD persistence/remission. For IQ, the present and previous results combined suggest a role in moderating ADHD outcome. These findings fit with previously identified aetiological separation of the cognitive impairments in ADHD. The strongest candidates for the development of non-pharmacological interventions involving cognitive training and neurofeedback are the preparation-vigilance processes that were markers of ADHD remission. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  13. [Neurofeedback training in children with ADHD: behavioral and neurophysiological effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevensleben, Holger; Moll, Gunther H; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2010-11-01

    In a multicentre randomised controlled trial, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of neurofeedback (NF) training in children with ADHD and investigated the mechanisms underlying a successful training. We used an attention skills training, coupled with the training setting and demands made upon participants, as the control condition. At the behavioural level, NF was superior to the control group concerning core ADHD symptomatology as well as associated domains. For the primary outcome measure (improvement in the FBB-HKS total score), the effect size was .60. The same pattern of results was obtained at the 6-month follow-up. Thus, NF may be seen as a clinically effective module in the treatment of children with ADHD. At the neurophysiological level (EEG, ERPs), specific effects for the two NF protocols, theta/beta training, and training of slow cortical potentials were demonstrated. For example, for theta/beta training, a decrease of theta activity in the EEG was associated with a reduction of ADHD symptomatology. SCP training was accompanied inter alia by an increase in the contingent negative variation in the attention network test; thus, children were able to allocate more resources for preparation. EEG- and ERP-based predictors were also found. The present article reviewed the findings of the original papers related to the trial and outlines future research topics.

  14. [Individual alpha frequency EEG as neurophysiological endophenotype of affective predispositions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftanas, L I; Tumialis, A V

    2013-01-01

    Individual alpha frequency (IAF) of electroencephalogram (EEG) is regarded as a neurophysiological endophenotypic indicator of cognitive activity featuring individual propensity to efficient cognitive performance and creativity. Considering that cognitive coping style is intrinsic part of emotional regulation, defining medical aspects of individual health as well as risks of psychosomatic diseases, we intended to assess IAF contribution into mechanisms of individual emotional reactivity. As participants was healthy man subjects (n = 62). Three models of laboratory induced emotions were used: emotional perception (1); anxious apprehension (awaiting of inescapable aversive punishment) (2); experience of discrete emotions of anger and joy (3). It was revealed that high IAF individuals exhibit predisposition to prevalence of parasympathetic activity in the global circuit of autonomous regulation, proactive-like coping with inescapable threat, prevailing contribution of the positive emotional stance and better accessibility of recent positive memories. By contrast, low IAF subjects manifested predisposition to prevalence of sympathetic activity in the global circuit of autonomous regulation, maladaptive avoidance-like coping with inescapable threat, insufficiency positive emotional arousal mechanisms. It is suggested that IAF creates a "hardware" construct featuring individual emotional space and adaptability of coping styles to emotional challenges.

  15. Neurophysiological mechanisms involved in language learning in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Mestres-Missé, Anna; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth

    2009-12-27

    Little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in word learning during infancy and in second language acquisition and about the way these new words become stable representations that sustain language processing. In several studies we have adopted the human simulation perspective, studying the effects of brain-lesions and combining different neuroimaging techniques such as event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging in order to examine the language learning (LL) process. In the present article, we review this evidence focusing on how different brain signatures relate to (i) the extraction of words from speech, (ii) the discovery of their embedded grammatical structure, and (iii) how meaning derived from verbal contexts can inform us about the cognitive mechanisms underlying the learning process. We compile these findings and frame them into an integrative neurophysiological model that tries to delineate the major neural networks that might be involved in the initial stages of LL. Finally, we propose that LL simulations can help us to understand natural language processing and how the recovery from language disorders in infants and adults can be accomplished.

  16. Do Stretch Durations Affect Muscle Mechanical and Neurophysiological Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opplert, J; Genty, J-B; Babault, N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether stretching durations influence acute changes of mechanical and neurophysiological properties of plantar flexor muscles. Plantar flexors of 10 active males were stretched in passive conditions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Different durations of static stretching were tested in 5 randomly ordered experimental trials (1, 2, 3, 4 and 10×30-s). Fascicle stiffness index, evoked contractile properties and spinal excitability (Hmax/Mmax) were examined before (PRE), immediately after (POST0) and 5 min after (POST5) stretching. No stretch duration effect was recorded for any variable. Moreover, whatever the stretching duration, stiffness index, peak twitch torque and rate of force development were significantly lower at POST0 and POST5 as compared to PRE (Pstretch duration, no significant changes of Hmax/Mmax ratio were recorded. In conclusion, 30 s of static stretching to maximum tolerated discomfort is sufficient enough to alter mechanical properties of plantar flexor muscles, but 10×30 s does not significantly affect these properties further. Stretching does not impair spinal excitability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Excessive bodybuilding as pathology? A first neurophysiological classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Moritz Julian; Haeussinger, Florian Benedikt; Hautzinger, Martin; Fallgatter, Andreas Jochen; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2017-11-15

    Excessive bodybuilding as a pathological syndrome has been classified based on two different theories: bodybuilding as dependency or as muscle dysmorphic disorder (MDD). This study is a first attempt to find psychophysiological data supporting one of these classifications. Twenty-four participants (bodybuilders vs healthy controls) were presented with pictures of bodies, exercise equipment or general reward stimuli in a control or experimental condition, and were measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Higher activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) while watching bodies and training equipment in the experimental condition (muscular bodies and bodybuilding-typical equipment) would be an indicator for the addiction theory. Higher activation in motion-related areas would be an indicator for the MDD theory. We found no task-related differences between the groups in the DLPFC and OFC, but a significantly higher activation in bodybuilders in the primary somatosensory cortex (PSC) and left-hemispheric supplementary motor area (SMA) while watching body pictures (across conditions) as compared to the control group. These neurophysiological results could be interpreted as a first evidence for the MDD theory of excessive bodybuilding.

  18. Athletes in a Slump: Neurophysiological Evidence from Frontal Theta Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingu Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the neurophysiological differences in athletes who suffer from a slump and other athletes who do not. Eighteen high school student athletes participated in this experiment. A subjective questionnaire was conducted to identify athletes in a slump (i.e., the slump group and not in a slump (i.e., the no-slump group. EEG data was recorded at 4 regions (left prefrontal, right prefrontal, left frontal, and right frontal. A two-way (2 groups x 4 regions ANOVA was performed on the dependent variable (i.e., frontal theta power. The findings of this study demonstrated that participants in the no-slump group showed higher frontal theta activity than their counterparts in the slump group. From the findings of this study, it is suggested that mental fatigue may cause low frontal theta activity in athletes who experience a slump. The present study makes an important contribution to the current literature by being the first to report that EEG theta power over frontal regions can be used as a marker of athletes suffering from a slump.

  19. Linking Behavioral and Neurophysiological Indicators of Perceptual Tuning to Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswen eFava

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the neural mechanisms that underlie tuning to the native language(s in early infancy. Here we review language tuning through the lens of language experience and introduce a new manner in which to conceptualize the phenomenon of language tuning: the relative speed of tuning hypothesis. This hypothesis has as its goal a characterization of the unique time course of the tuning process, given the different components (e.g., phonology, prosody, syntax, semantics of one or more languages as they become available to infants. In this review, we first examine the established behavioral findings and integrate more recent neurophysiological data on neonatal development, which together demonstrate evidence of early language tuning given differential language exposure in utero. Next, we examine traditional accounts of sensitive and critical periods to determine how these constructs complement current data on the neural mechanisms underlying language tuning. We then synthesize the extant infant behavioral and imaging literatures on monolingual, bilingual, and sensory deprived tuning experience, thereby scrutinizing the effect of these three different language profiles on the specific timing, progression, and outcomes of language tuning. Finally, we discuss future directions researchers might pursue on this aspect of development, advocating our relative speed of tuning hypothesis as a useful framework for conceptualizing the complex process by which language experience shapes language sensitivity.

  20. Neurophysiological Constraints on the Eye-Mind Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Daniel Reichle

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Several current computational models of eye-movement control in reading posit a tight link between the eye and mind, with lexical processing directly triggering most decisions about when to start programming a saccade to move the eyes from one word to the next. One potential problem with this theoretical assumption, however, is that it may violate neurophysiological constraints imposed by the time required to encode visual information, complete some amount of lexical processing, and then program a saccade. In this article, we review what has been learned about these timing constraints from studies using ERP and MEG. On the basis of this review, it would appear that the temporal constraints are too severe to permit direct lexical control of eye movements without a significant amount of parafoveal processing (i.e., pre-processing of word n+1 from word n. This conclusion underscores the degree to which the perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes involved in reading must be highly coordinated to support skilled reading, a par excellence example of a task requiring visual-cognitive expertise.

  1. ACQ4: an open-source software platform for data acquisition and analysis in neurophysiology research

    OpenAIRE

    Campagnola, Luke; Kratz, Megan B.; Manis, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of modern neurophysiology experiments requires specialized software to coordinate multiple acquisition devices and analyze the collected data. We have developed ACQ4, an open-source software platform for performing data acquisition and analysis in experimental neurophysiology. This software integrates the tasks of acquiring, managing, and analyzing experimental data. ACQ4 has been used primarily for standard patch-clamp electrophysiology, laser scanning photostimulation, multi...

  2. The neurophysiological response to manual therapy and its analgesic implications: A narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew D. Vigotsky; Bruhns, Ryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Manual therapy has long been a component of physical rehabilitation programs, especially to treat those in pain. The mechanisms of manual therapy, however, are not fully understood, and it has been suggested that its pain modulatory effects are of neurophysiological origin, and may be mediated by the descending modulatory circuit. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the neurophysiological response of different types of manual therapy, in order to better understand the neurophy...

  3. THE EXPLANATION OF THE REASONS OF LONELINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrakhov Ayrat Fansafovich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To show the way from the low self estimation to self isolation and as a result to the loneliness of a person. Methodology: The article gives the theoretical explanation of the self isolation reasons. It is bases on the experiment conducted with the first year college students. Results: We come to the conclusion that loneliness is the cognitive state of a person, which originated from self isolation and low self estimation. Practical implications: The results may be used in the practical activity of teachers and psychologists with of schools and colleges.

  4. Heuristic explanation of journal bearing instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    A fluid-filled journal bearing is viewed as a powerful pump circulating fluid around the annular space between the journal and the bearing. A small whirling motion of the journal generates a wave of thickness variation progressing around the channel. The hypothesis that the fluid flow drives the whirl whenever the mean of the pumped fluid velocity is greater than the peripheral speed of the thickness variation wave is discussed and compared with other simple explanations of journal bearing instability. It is shown that for non-cavitation long bearings the hypothesis predicts instability onset correctly for unloaded bearings but gradually overpredicts the onset speed as the load is increased.

  5. A hadronic explanation of the lepton anomaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertsch, Philipp; Sarkar, Subir

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the positron fraction, observed by PAMELA, Fermi-LAT and most recently by AMS-02, has created a lot of interest, fuelled by speculations about an origin in dark matter annihilation in the Galactic halo. However, other channels, e.g. antiprotons or gamma-rays, now severely constrain da....... This mechanism is guaranteed if hadronic CRs are present and would also lead to observable signatures in other secondary channels like the boron-to-carbon or antiproton-to-proton ratios. If such features were borne out by upcoming AMS-02 data, this would rule out other explanations....

  6. The effects of system-justifying motives on endorsement of essentialist explanations for gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescoll, Victoria L; Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Newman, George E

    2013-12-01

    People have a fundamental motive to view their social system as just, fair, and good and will engage in a number of strategies to rationalize the status quo (Jost & Banaji, 1994). We propose that one way in which individuals may "justify the system" is through endorsement of essentialist explanations, which attribute group differences to deep, essential causes. We suggest that system-justifying motives lead to greater endorsement of essentialist explanations because those explanations portray group differences as immutable. Study 1 employed an established system threat manipulation. We found that activating system-justifying motives increases both male and female participants' endorsement of essentialist explanations for gender differences and that this effect is mediated by beliefs in immutability. In Study 2, we used a goal contagion manipulation and found that both male and female participants primed with a system-justifying goal are significantly more likely to agree with essentialist explanations for gender differences. Study 3 demonstrated that providing an opportunity to explicitly reject a system threat (an alternative means of satisfying the goal to defend the system) attenuates system threat effects on endorsement of essentialist explanations, further suggesting that this process is motivated. Finally, Studies 4a and 4b dissociated the type of cause (biological vs. social) from whether group differences are portrayed as mutable versus immutable and found that system threat increases endorsement of immutable explanations, independent of the type of cause. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Constructing a Scientific Explanation--A Narrative Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jennifer; Gilbert, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Studies analyzing explanations that have been constructed by science students have found that they were generally weak and lack necessary features. The goal of this study was to establish the competencies that one needs to construct a scientific explanation. Scientific explanations can be looked at in three ways, in terms of their function, form…

  8. Ecology and Neurophysiology of Sleep in Two Wild Sloth Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voirin, Bryson; Scriba, Madeleine F.; Martinez-Gonzalez, Dolores; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Wikelski, Martin; Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Interspecific variation in sleep measured in captivity correlates with various physiological and environmental factors, including estimates of predation risk in the wild. However, it remains unclear whether prior comparative studies have been confounded by the captive recording environment. Herein we examine the effect of predation pressure on sleep in sloths living in the wild. Design: Comparison of two closely related sloth species, one exposed to predation and one free from predation. Setting: Panamanian mainland rainforest (predators present) and island mangrove (predators absent). Participants: Mainland (Bradypus variegatus, five males and four females) and island (Bradypus pygmaeus, six males) sloths. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded using a miniature data logger. Although both species spent between 9 and 10 h per day sleeping, the mainland sloths showed a preference for sleeping at night, whereas island sloths showed no preference for sleeping during the day or night. Standardized EEG activity during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed lower low-frequency power, and increased spindle and higher frequency power in island sloths when compared to mainland sloths. Conclusions: In sloths sleeping in the wild, predation pressure influenced the timing of sleep, but not the amount of time spent asleep. The preference for sleeping at night in mainland sloths may be a strategy to avoid detection by nocturnal cats. The pronounced differences in the NREM sleep EEG spectrum remain unexplained, but might be related to genetic or environmental factors. Citation: Voirin B; Scriba MF; Martinez-Gonzalez D; Vyssotski AL; Wikelski M; Rattenborg NC. Ecology and neurophysiology of sleep in two wild sloth species. SLEEP 2014;37(4):753-761. PMID:24899764

  9. Neurophysiological responses to music and vibroacoustic stimuli in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström-Isacsson, Märith; Lagerkvist, Bengt; Holck, Ulla; Gold, Christian

    2014-06-01

    People with Rett syndrome (RTT) have severe communicative difficulties. They have as well an immature brainstem that implies dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Music plays an important role in their life, is often used as a motivating tool in a variety of situations and activities, and caregivers are often clear about people with RTTs favourites. The aim of this study was to investigate physiological and emotional responses related to six different musical stimuli in people with RTT. The study included 29 participants with RTT who were referred to the Swedish Rett Center for medical brainstem assessment during the period 2006-2007. 11 children with a typical developmental pattern were used as comparison. A repeated measures design was used, and physiological data were collected from a neurophysiological brainstem assessment. The continuous dependent variables measured were Cardiac Vagal Tone (CVT), Cardiac Sensitivity to Baroreflex (CSB), Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MAP) and the Coefficient of Variation of Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MAP-CV). These parameters were used to categorise brainstem responses as parasympathetic (calming) response, sympathetic (activating) response, arousal (alerting) response and unclear response. The results showed that all participants responded to the musical stimuli, but not always in the expected way. It was noticeable that both people with and without RTT responded with an arousal to all musical stimuli to begin with. Even though the initial expressions sometimes changed after some time due to poor control functions of their brainstem, the present results are consistent with the possibility that the RTT participants' normal responses to music are intact. These findings may explain why music is so important for individuals with RTT throughout life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurophysiological study of facial chorea in patients with Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Esteban; Cervera, Alvaro; Valls-Solé, Josep

    2003-07-01

    Choreic movements of patients with Huntington's disease (HD) may result from an abnormal control of sensory inputs. In order to further examine the pathophysiology of facial choreic movements (FCM), we carried out a neurophysiological study, including prepulse inhibition of the blink reflex (BR), in HD patients with and without FCM. The study was conducted in 20 genetically proven HD patients with Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) scores of FCM ranging between 0 and 3, and in 12 age-matched healthy volunteers who served as control subjects. We counted the number of spontaneous blinks, recorded the electromyographic activity underlying FCM, and analyzed latency, amplitude, and duration of the BR responses to electrical and auditory stimuli. Prepulse inhibition was studied by comparing the responses to test trials with those to control trials. In control trials BRs were obtained to either a single supraorbital nerve electrical stimulus (EBR) or to a 90dB auditory stimulus (ABR). In test trials, the same stimuli were preceded by the prepulse, which was either a weak acoustic tone or a weak electrical stimulus to the third finger, delivered 30-150 ms before. Spontaneous blinking rate was abnormally low in 3 patients, and abnormally high in 9 patients. Mean duration of the BR was longer in patients than in control subjects. In prepulse trials, the percentage inhibition of the BR was abnormally reduced in 15 patients to at least one sensory modality, and significantly correlated with the score of FCM. Our results suggest that the severity of FCM in patients with HD might be an expression of a disturbance in motor control partly related to an abnormal processing of sensory inputs. Such abnormality involves circuits used in prepulse inhibition of the BR.

  11. Individual differences in error tolerance in humans: Neurophysiological evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrao, Gonçalo; Mallorquí, Aida; Cucurell, David; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    When interacting in error-prone environments, humans display different tolerances to changing their decisions when faced with erroneous feedback information. Here, we investigated whether these individual differences in error tolerance (ET) were reflected in neurophysiological mechanisms indexing specific motivational states related to feedback monitoring. To explore differences in ET, we examined the performance of 80 participants in a probabilistic reversal-learning task. We then compared event-related brain responses (ERPs) of two extreme groups of participants (High ET and Low ET), which showed radical differences in their propensity to maintain newly learned rules after receiving spurious negative feedback. We observed that High ET participants showed reduced anticipatory activity prior to the presentation of incoming feedback, informing them of the correctness of their performance. This was evidenced by measuring the amplitude of the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN), an ERP component indexing attention and motivational engagement of incoming informative feedback. Postfeedback processing ERP components (the so-called Feedback-Related Negativity and the P300) also showed reduced amplitude in this group (High ET). The general decreased responsiveness of the High ET group to external feedback suggests a higher proneness to favor internal(rule)-based strategies, reducing attention to external cues and the consequent impact of negative evaluations on decision making. We believe that the present findings support the existence of specific cognitive and motivational processes underlying individual differences on error-tolerance among humans, contributing to the ongoing research focused on understanding the mental processes behind human fallibility in error-prone scenarios.

  12. Drawing on student knowledge of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Tara N; Momsen, Jennifer L; Montplaisir, Lisa M

    2017-06-01

    Drawings are an underutilized assessment format in Human Anatomy and Physiology (HA&P), despite their potential to reveal student content understanding and alternative conceptions. This study used student-generated drawings to explore student knowledge in a HA&P course. The drawing tasks in this study focused on chemical synapses between neurons, an abstract concept in HA&P. Using two preinstruction drawing tasks, students were asked to depict synaptic transmission and summation. In response to the first drawing task, 20% of students (n = 352) created accurate representations of neuron anatomy. The remaining students created drawings suggesting an inaccurate or incomplete understanding of synaptic transmission. Of the 208 inaccurate student-generated drawings, 21% depicted the neurons as touching. When asked to illustrate summation, only 10 students (roughly 4%) were able to produce an accurate drawing. Overall, students were more successful at drawing anatomy (synapse) than physiology (summation) before formal instruction. The common errors observed in student-generated drawings indicate students do not enter the classroom as blank slates. The error of "touching" neurons in a chemical synapse suggests that students may be using intuitive or experiential knowledge when reasoning about physiological concepts. These results 1) support the utility of drawing tasks as a tool to reveal student content knowledge about neuroanatomy and neurophysiology; and 2) suggest students enter the classroom with better knowledge of anatomy than physiology. Collectively, the findings from this study inform both practitioners and researchers about the prevalence and nature of student difficulties in HA&P, while also demonstrating the utility of drawing in revealing student knowledge. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. The Effect of L-Dopa/Carbidopa Intestinal Gel in Parkinson Disease Assessed Using Neurophysiologic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologna, Matteo; Latorre, Anna; Di Biasio, Francesca; Conte, Antonella; Belvisi, Daniele; Modugno, Nicola; Suppa, Antonio; Berardelli, Alfredo; Fabbrini, Giovanni

    By providing a stable and smooth L-dopa plasmatic level, L-dopa/carbidopa intestinal gel reproduces the physiological continuous dopaminergic receptor stimulation in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and it therefore represents a suitable tool to investigate the role of the altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of motor and sensory abnormalities in this condition. We studied 11 patients with advanced PD being treated with L-Dopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) and 11 age-matched healthy subjects. Bradykinesia was measured by kinematic recording of repetitive finger movements (finger tapping), whereas sensory abnormalities were evaluated using the somatosensory tactile discrimination threshold. All the patients were studied off and on medication, in 2 different experimental sessions. Parkinson disease patients were very slow and hypokinetic during finger tapping, with no progressive reduction in amplitude or speed being observed during movement repetition. Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values were higher in PD patients than in healthy subjects. The neurophysiologic assessment of the effects of LCIG in advanced PD patients demonstrates an improvement, although not normalization, of motor and sensory abnormalities. The study provides an objective evaluation of the effects of LCIG on motor and sensory abnormalities in PD. The results suggest that besides dopaminergic mechanisms motor and sensory abnormalities in PD reflect a varying combination of pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  14. Evaluation of Explanation Interfaces in Recommender Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cleger-Tamayo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Explaining interfaces become a useful tool in systems that have a lot of content to evaluate by users. The different interfaces represent a help for the undecided users or those who consider systems as boxed black smart. These systems present recommendations to users based on different learning models. In this paper, we present the different objectives of the explanation interfaces and some of the criteria that you can evaluate, as well as a proposal of metrics to obtain results in the experiments. Finally, we showed the main results of a study with real users and their interaction with e-commerce systems. Among the main results, highlight the positive impact in relation to the time of interaction with the applications and acceptance of the recommendations received.

  15. Bayesianism and inference to the best explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriano IRANZO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bayesianism and Inference to the best explanation (IBE are two different models of inference. Recently there has been some debate about the possibility of “bayesianizing” IBE. Firstly I explore several alternatives to include explanatory considerations in Bayes’s Theorem. Then I distinguish two different interpretations of prior probabilities: “IBE-Bayesianism” (IBE-Bay and “frequentist-Bayesianism” (Freq-Bay. After detailing the content of the latter, I propose a rule for assessing the priors. I also argue that Freq-Bay: (i endorses a role for explanatory value in the assessment of scientific hypotheses; (ii avoids a purely subjectivist reading of prior probabilities; and (iii fits better than IBE-Bayesianism with two basic facts about science, i.e., the prominent role played by empirical testing and the existence of many scientific theories in the past that failed to fulfil their promises and were subsequently abandoned.

  16. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querbes, Adrien; Vaesen, Krist; Houkes, Wybo

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  17. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  18. Assessing motor imagery in brain-computer interface training: Psychological and neurophysiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Anatoly; Liburkina, Sofya; Yakovlev, Lev; Perepelkina, Olga; Kaplan, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is considered to be a promising cognitive tool for improving motor skills as well as for rehabilitation therapy of movement disorders. It is believed that MI training efficiency could be improved by using the brain-computer interface (BCI) technology providing real-time feedback on person's mental attempts. While BCI is indeed a convenient and motivating tool for practicing MI, it is not clear whether it could be used for predicting or measuring potential positive impact of the training. In this study, we are trying to establish whether the proficiency in BCI control is associated with any of the neurophysiological or psychological correlates of motor imagery, as well as to determine possible interrelations among them. For that purpose, we studied motor imagery in a group of 19 healthy BCI-trained volunteers and performed a correlation analysis across various quantitative assessment metrics. We examined subjects' sensorimotor event-related EEG events, corticospinal excitability changes estimated with single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), BCI accuracy and self-assessment reports obtained with specially designed questionnaires and interview routine. Our results showed, expectedly, that BCI performance is dependent on the subject's capability to suppress EEG sensorimotor rhythms, which in turn is correlated with the idle state amplitude of those oscillations. Neither BCI accuracy nor the EEG features associated with MI were found to correlate with the level of corticospinal excitability increase during motor imagery, and with assessed imagery vividness. Finally, a significant correlation was found between the level of corticospinal excitability increase and kinesthetic vividness of imagery (KVIQ-20 questionnaire). Our results suggest that two distinct neurophysiological mechanisms might mediate possible effects of motor imagery: the non-specific cortical sensorimotor disinhibition and the focal corticospinal excitability increase

  19. Bernstein and the Explanation of Social Disparities in Education: A Realist Critique of the Socio-Linguistic Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Roy

    2006-01-01

    Can an explanation of the origins of social disparities in educational achievement be assisted by a critical examination of Bernstein's sociology? This central question is approached by a consideration of the status of Bernstein's socio-linguistic thesis. The focus is on the nature of the explanations provided. The paper asks: What is the…

  20. Analysis of 1014 consecutive operative cases to determine the utility of intraoperative neurophysiological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Namath Syed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) during neurosurgical procedures has become the standard of care at tertiary care medical centers. While prospective data regarding the clinical utility of IOM are conspicuously lacking, retrospective analyses continue to provide useful information regarding surgeon responses to reported waveform changes. Methods: Data regarding clinical presentation, operative course, IOM, and postoperative neurological examination were compiled from a database of 1014 cranial and spinal surgical cases at a tertiary care medical center from 2005 to 2011. IOM modalities utilized included somatosensory evoked potentials, transcranial motor evoked potentials, pedicle screw stimulation, and electromyography. Surgeon responses to changes in IOM waveforms were recorded. Results: Changes in IOM waveforms indicating potential injury were present in 87 of 1014 cases (8.6%). In 23 of the 87 cases (26.4%), the surgeon responded by repositioning the patient (n = 12), repositioning retractors (n = 1) or implanted instrumentation (n = 9), or by stopping surgery (n = 1). Loss of IOM waveforms predicted postoperative neurological deficit in 10 cases (11.5% of cases with IOM changes). Conclusions: In the largest IOM series to date, we report that the surgeon responded by appropriate interventions in over 25% of cases during which there were IOM indicators of potential harm to neural structures. Prospective studies remain to be undertaken to adequately evaluate the utility of IOM in changing surgeon behavior. Our data is in agreement with previous observations in indicating a trend that supports the continued use of IOM. PMID:26396602

  1. Neurophysiological Signals of Ignoring and Attending Are Separable and Related to Performance during Sustained Intersensory Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenartowicz, Agatha; Simpson, Gregory V.; Haber, Catherine M.; Cohen, Mark S.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to attend to an input selectively while ignoring distracting sensations is thought to depend on the coordination of two processes: enhancement of target signals and attenuation of distractor signals. This implies that attending and ignoring may be dissociable neural processes and that they make separable contributions to behavioral outcomes of attention. In this study, we tested these hypotheses in the context of sustained attention by measuring neurophysiological responses to attended and ignored stimuli in a noncued, continuous, audiovisual selective attention task. We compared these against responses during a passive control to quantify effects of attending and ignoring separately. In both sensory modalities, responses to ignored stimuli were attenuated relative to a passive control, whereas responses to attended stimuli were enhanced. The scalp topographies and brain activations of these modulatory effects were consistent with the sensory regions that process each modality. They also included parietal and prefrontal activations that suggest these effects arise from interactions between top–down and sensory cortices. Most importantly, we found that both attending and ignoring processes contributed to task accuracy and that these effects were not correlated—suggesting unique neural trajectories. This conclusion was supported by the novel observation that attending and ignoring differed in timing and in active cortical regions. The data provide direct evidence for the separable contributions of attending and ignoring to behavioral outcomes of attention control during sustained intersensory attention. PMID:24666167

  2. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline S. Leventon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and psychophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Five- to 8-year-olds, divided into younger and older groups, viewed emotional scenes as EEG, heart rate, and respiration was recorded, and participated in a memory task 24 hours later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. All measures indicated emotion responses in both groups, and in ERP measures the effects were stronger for older children. Emotion responses were more consistent across measures for negative than positive stimuli. Behavioral memory performance was strong but did not differ by emotion condition. Emotion influenced the ERP index of recognition memory in the older group only (enhanced recognition of negative scenes. The findings an increasing interaction of emotion and memory during the school years. Further, the findings impress the value of combining multiple methods to assess emotion and memory in development. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

  3. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Stevens, Jennifer S; Bauer, Patricia J

    2014-10-01

    In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and psychophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Five- to 8-year-olds, divided into younger and older groups, viewed emotional scenes as EEG, heart rate, and respiration was recorded, and participated in a memory task 24 hours later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. All measures indicated emotion responses in both groups, and in ERP measures the effects were stronger for older children. Emotion responses were more consistent across measures for negative than positive stimuli. Behavioral memory performance was strong but did not differ by emotion condition. Emotion influenced the ERP index of recognition memory in the older group only (enhanced recognition of negative scenes). The findings an increasing interaction of emotion and memory during the school years. Further, the findings impress the value of combining multiple methods to assess emotion and memory in development. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurophysiological monitoring of lumbosacral spinal roots during spinal surgery: continuous intraoperative electromyography (EMG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Pérez, S; Nevado-Estévez, R; Aguirre-Arribas, J; Pérez-Conde, M C

    2007-01-01

    Neurophysiological monitoring during spinal surgery reduces the associated neurological complications. Continuous EMG recording has developed an useful technique for spinal root monitoring Fifty four patients who underwent surgery for several lumbosacral spinal lesions (low and high degree spondylolisthesis, spinal stenosis, degenerated or herniated lumbar discs) were studied to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous EMG recording in monitoring spinal root function during surgery. Electrical root or screw stimulation was also performed in nine of them. To correlate surgical spinal root lesion with a precise EMG injury activity an animal study with 5 pigs was performed; lesion was produced by prolonged spinal root traction. In the porcine group EMG discharges lasting longer than one minute after cessation of root traction was noted in 74% of spinal root levels (neurotonic discharges or pseudo-rhythmic activity in 70% of the cases). Spinal root lesion was demonstrated through EMG three weeks after surgery. In the patient group pathological-significant EMG activity was not recorded in any case during monitoring. Mechanical or chemical root stimulation during surgery produced brief lasting EMG bursts of no pathological significance. Only a patient developed a mild acute L5-S1 radiculopathy after surgery (1 false negative) and post-operative deficit was not observed in the rest. Electrical stimulation of spinal roots and screws allowed to identify root level and prove the adequate placement of screws. Spontaneous and evoked EMG recordings are simple techniques that provide continuous information about lumbosacral spinal roots function throughout surgery.

  5. Neurophysiological evidence of an association between cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Lo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between cognitive control and affective processes, such as defensive reactivity, are intimately involved in healthy and unhealthy human development. However, cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes are often studied in isolation and rarely examined in early childhood. To address these gaps, we examined the relationships between multiple neurophysiological measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity in young children. Specifically, we assessed two event-related potentials thought to index cognitive control processes – the error-related negativity (ERN and error positivity (Pe – measured across two tasks, and two markers of defensive reactivity processes – startle reflex and resting parietal asymmetry – in a sample of 3- to 7-year old children. Results revealed that measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity were related such that evidence of poor cognitive control (smaller ERN was associated with high defensive reactivity (larger startle and greater right relative to left parietal activity. The strength of associations between the ERN and measures of defensive reactivity did not vary by age, providing evidence that poor cognitive control relates to greater defensive reactivity across early childhood years.

  6. The Relationship between Explanation and Patient Compliance in Hirudotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Seog; Sim, Ho Seup; Shin, Jun Ho; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong

    2017-09-01

    The use of leeches can effectively increase the salvage rate of flap congestion. However, the first reaction from patients and carers in using leeches in clinical fields is strong aversion. This can be due to the fact that development of our culture from agriculture to industrial society, coming across leeches became fairly rare. Also because of the biological traits that leeches carry; staying attached to a leg or other body parts of the host, sucking blood, and leaving wounds. This study was conducted through questionnaires, divided into many subgroups. We scaled the compliance of the two therapies, with or without leech. Maximum scale of 10 showing no rejective response to the therapy and minimum scale of 0 showing the greatest rejective response. Overall subjects' compliance was improved after explaining the benefits of hirudotherapy. Irrelevant to the explanation, there was no significant difference in general compliance between male and female. Young-aged group and medical personnel or people studying medicine showed higher compliance over older-aged group and the general public. In the terms of general social cognition, recognizing leech as a therapeutic material may not be welcomed at first, but provided with proper information and explanations, overall compliance of patients and carers can be improved and consequently result in superior outcomes in flap salvage.

  7. Unravelling the neurophysiological basis of aggression in a fish model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickmore Tamsin FA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggression is a near-universal behaviour with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. The neurophysiological basis of aggression is, however, poorly understood in all species and approaches adopted to study this complex behaviour have often been oversimplified. We applied targeted expression profiling on 40 genes, spanning eight neurological pathways and in four distinct regions of the brain, in combination with behavioural observations and pharmacological manipulations, to screen for regulatory pathways of aggression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio, an animal model in which social rank and aggressiveness tightly correlate. Results Substantial differences occurred in gene expression profiles between dominant and subordinate males associated with phenotypic differences in aggressiveness and, for the chosen gene set, they occurred mainly in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The patterns of differentially-expressed genes implied multifactorial control of aggression in zebrafish, including the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system, serotonin, somatostatin, dopamine, hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal, hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and histamine pathways, and the latter is a novel finding outside mammals. Pharmacological manipulations of various nodes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system and serotonin pathways supported their functional involvement. We also observed differences in expression profiles in the brains of dominant versus subordinate females that suggested sex-conserved control of aggression. For example, in the HNS pathway, the gene encoding arginine vasotocin (AVT, previously believed specific to male behaviours, was amongst those genes most associated with aggression, and AVT inhibited dominant female aggression, as in males. However, sex-specific differences in the expression profiles also occurred, including differences in aggression-associated tryptophan hydroxylases

  8. Developmental and neurophysiologic deficits in iron deficiency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Nishi; Rusia, Usha; Sikka, Meera; Sharma, Satendra; Shankar, Nilima

    2011-01-01

    Several studies in animals and humans have clearly demonstrated the effect of ID on development, cognition, behavior and neurophysiology. The effect of ID have been shown: on brain metabolism, neurotransmitter function, and myelination. Changes in brain iron content caused by early ID in animals are not reversible by iron therapy, inspite of correction of anemia and other tissue deficits and result in changes in behavior which continue into adulthood. ID has repercussions in the perinatal period, infancy and childhood. Some effects are irreversible while other defects may be corrected: timing of ID in a child may be critical. Children (6-23 months) with moderate to severe anemia (ID) or chronic anemia (>3 months) had lower mental and psychomotor development scores than the nonanemic, and except for some continued to have lower scores in spite of iron therapy for 3 months although anemia was corrected. The deficits persisted on re-evaluation at 5, 11-14, and at 19 years. Scholastic achievement is lower and ID children are twice more likely to have problems with mathematics. Ten year follow-up indicated special educational assistance was required for initially anemic children. ID affects WICS items of information, comprehension and verbal performance and full scale IQ. EEG power spectrum had a slower activity suggesting developmental lag compared to iron sufficient children. Treatment with iron improved IQ scores significantly; other studies found differential effects: improvement in cognition and mental scores in older but not in younger children. IQ levels are affected by ID: IQ at 4 years may be predicted by hemoglobin at 5 and 36 months. Abnormal Evoked Response Potentials (ERPs):ABRs and VEPs are seen in ID, which persist in children who were anemic in infancy on retesting at 4 years. Differences have been consistently found in ID infants and in older children. Iron supplementation may significantly reduce latencies of some ERPs. ID affects newborn temperament

  9. Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state:Six recommendations to avoid common pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie eBrouwer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimating cognitive or affective state from neurophysiological signals and designing applications that make use of this information requires expertise in many disciplines such as neurophysiology, machine learning, experimental psychology and human factors. This makes it difficult to perform research that is strong in all its aspects as well as to judge a study or application on its merits. On the occasion of the special topic ‘Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state’ we here summarize often occurring pitfalls and recommendations on how to avoid them, both for authors (researchers and readers. They relate to defining the state of interest, the neurophysiological processes that are expected to be involved in the state of interest, confounding factors, inadvertently ‘cheating’ with classification analyses, insight on what underlies successful state estimation, and finally, the added value of neurophysiological measures in the context of an application. We hope that this paper will support the community in producing high quality studies and well-validated, useful applications.

  10. Multivariate dynamical systems-based estimation of causal brain interactions in fMRI: Group-level validation using benchmark data, neurophysiological models and human connectome project data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryali, Srikanth; Chen, Tianwen; Supekar, Kaustubh; Tu, Tao; Kochalka, John; Cai, Weidong; Menon, Vinod

    2016-08-01

    Causal estimation methods are increasingly being used to investigate functional brain networks in fMRI, but there are continuing concerns about the validity of these methods. Multivariate dynamical systems (MDS) is a state-space method for estimating dynamic causal interactions in fMRI data. Here we validate MDS using benchmark simulations as well as simulations from a more realistic stochastic neurophysiological model. Finally, we applied MDS to investigate dynamic casual interactions in a fronto-cingulate-parietal control network using human connectome project (HCP) data acquired during performance of a working memory task. Crucially, since the ground truth in experimental data is unknown, we conducted novel stability analysis to determine robust causal interactions within this network. MDS accurately recovered dynamic causal interactions with an area under receiver operating characteristic (AUC) above 0.7 for benchmark datasets and AUC above 0.9 for datasets generated using the neurophysiological model. In experimental fMRI data, bootstrap procedures revealed a stable pattern of causal influences from the anterior insula to other nodes of the fronto-cingulate-parietal network. MDS is effective in estimating dynamic causal interactions in both the benchmark and neurophysiological model based datasets in terms of AUC, sensitivity and false positive rates. Our findings demonstrate that MDS can accurately estimate causal interactions in fMRI data. Neurophysiological models and stability analysis provide a general framework for validating computational methods designed to estimate causal interactions in fMRI. The right anterior insula functions as a causal hub during working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. How the nerves reached the muscle: Bernard Katz, Stephen W. Kuffler, and John C. Eccles-Certain implications of exile for the development of twentieth-century neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahnisch, Frank W

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the work by Bernard Katz (1911-2003), Stephen W. Kuffler (1913-1980), and John C. Eccles (1903-1997) on the nerve-muscle junction as a milestone in twentieth-century neurophysiology with wider scientific implications. The historical question is approached from two perspectives: (a) an investigation of twentieth-century solutions to a longer physiological dispute and (b) an examination of a new kind of laboratory and academic cooperation. From this vantage point, the work pursued in Sydney by Sir John Carew Eccles' team on the neuromuscular junction is particularly valuable, since it contributed a central functional element to modern physiological understanding regarding the function and structure of the human and animal nervous system. The reflex model of neuromuscular action had already been advanced by neuroanatomists such as Georg Prochaska (1749-1820) in Bohemia since the eighteenth century. It became a major component of neurophysiological theories during the nineteenth century, based on the law associated with the names of François Magendie (1783-1855) in France and Charles Bell (1774-1842) in Britain regarding the functional differences of the sensory and motor spinal nerves. Yet, it was not until the beginning of the twentieth century that both the histological and the neurophysiological understanding of the nerve-muscle connection became entirely understood and the chemical versus electrical transmission further elicited as the mechanisms of inhibition. John C. Eccles, Bernard Katz, and Stephen W. Kuffler helped to provide some of the missing links for modern neurophysiology. The current article explores several of their scientific contributions and investigates how the context of forced migration contributed to these interactions in contingently new ways.

  12. The influence of medical students' self-explanations on diagnostic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Martine; St-Onge, Christina; Setrakian, Jean; Lanthier, Luc; Bergeron, Linda; Bourget, Annick; Mamede, Silvia; Schmidt, Henk; Rikers, Remy

    2011-07-01

    Skill in clinical reasoning is a highly valued attribute of doctors, but instructional approaches to foster medical students' clinical reasoning skills remain scarce. Self-explanation is an instructional procedure, the positive effects of which on learning have been demonstrated in a variety of domains, but which remain largely unexplored in medical education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of self-explanation on students' learning of clinical reasoning during clerkships and to examine whether these effects are affected by topic familiarity. An experimental study with a training phase and an assessment phase was conducted with 36 Year 3 medical students, randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the training phase, students solved 12 clinical cases (four cases on a less familiar topic; four on a more familiar topic; four on filler topics), either generating self-explanations (n = 18) or not (n = 18). The self-explanations were generated after minimal instructions and no feedback was provided to students. One week later, in the assessment phase, students were requested to diagnose 12 different, more difficult cases, similarly distributed among the same more familiar topic, less familiar topic and filler topics, and their diagnostic performance was assessed. In the training phase the performance of the two groups did not differ. However, in the assessment phase 1 week later, a significant interaction was found between self-explanation and case topic familiarity (F(1,34) = 6.18, p explanation condition, compared with those in the control condition, demonstrated better diagnostic performance on subsequent clinical cases, but this effect emerged only for cases concerning the less familiar topic. The present study shows the beneficial influence of generating self-explanations when dealing with less familiar clinical contexts. Generating self-explanations without feedback resulted in better diagnostic performance than in the control

  13. Clinical and neurophysiological peculiarities in patients with ischemic supratentorial stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kuznietsov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work – optimization of diagnostic and prognostic arrangements in patients with ischemic supratentorial stroke in acute period by revealing of pathoneurophysiological peculiarities of realization of clinical pattern and stroke acute period outcome on the basis of clinical neurophysiological comparisons depending on the subtypes of stroke according to The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Classification. Material and methods: Clinical and computed electroencephalography investigations of 118 patients (mean age 67,9±0,8 in acute period of ischemic supratentorial stroke (firstly appeared was made. Depending on clinical subtype of the stroke that was detected during admission according to The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification (OCSP all patients were devided into 3 groups: 1st – 50 patients with total anterior circulation infarct (TACI-subtype, 2nd – 38 patients with partial anterior circulation infarct (PACI and 3rd – 30 patients with lacunar infarct (LACI. Clinical examination included Rankin scale graduation and NIHSS detection. Separately for intact and affected hemisphere value of absolute (mcv2 and relative (% spectrum rhythm activity (RSRA of δ- (0,5-4 Hertz, θ- (4-8 Hertz, α- (8-13 Hertz, β- (13-35 Hertz range, and θlo- (4-6 Hertz, θhi- (6-8 Hertz, αlo- (8-10 Hertz, αhi - (10-13 Hertz, βlo- (13-25 Hertz та βhi- (25-35 Hertz subranges were evaluated. Results: The level of RSRA in δ- and θ-range in affected hemisphere exceeded the same parameters in patients with stroke PACI-subtype and LACI-subtype in 2,3 and 3,0 times respectively (p<0,01. The same time RSRA in α-, β-ranges, αlo-, αhi-, βlo-subranges in comparison with PACI-subtype was lower in 2,4; 2,1; 2,5; 2,4 and 1,6 times respectively (p<0,01; in comparison with LACI-subtype – in 3,4; 1,7; 3,3; 1,5 and 1,9 times respectively (p<0,01. Spectral structure of intact hemisphere EEG-pattern in patients with TACI-subtype of ischemic

  14. Characterizing High School Students' Written Explanations in Biology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Deniz; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive research study was to examine high school students' written scientific explanations during biology laboratory investigations. Specifically, we characterized the types of epistemologies and forms of reasoning involved in students' scientific explanations and students' perceptions of scientific explanations. Sixteen students from a rural high school in the Southeastern United States were the participants of this research study. The data consisted of students' laboratory reports and individual interviews. The results indicated that students' explanations were primarily based on first-hand knowledge gained in the science laboratories and mostly representing procedural recounts. Most students did not give explanations based on a theory or a principle and did not use deductive reasoning in their explanations. The students had difficulties explaining phenomena that involved intricate cause-effect relationships. Students perceived scientific explanation as the final step of a scientific inquiry and as an account of what happened in the inquiry process, and held a constructivist-empiricist view of scientific explanations. Our results imply the need for more explicit guidance to help students construct better scientific explanations and explicit teaching of the explanatory genre with particular focus on theoretical and causal explanations.

  15. Students' self-explanations while solving unfamiliar cases: the role of biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Martine; Mamede, Sílvia; St-Onge, Christina; Rivard, Marc-Antoine; Setrakian, Jean; Lévesque, Annie; Lanthier, Luc; Schmidt, Henk G; Rikers, Remy M J P

    2013-11-01

    General guidelines for teaching clinical reasoning have received much attention, despite a paucity of instructional approaches with demonstrated effectiveness. As suggested in a recent experimental study, self-explanation while solving clinical cases may be an effective strategy to foster reasoning in clinical clerks dealing with less familiar cases. However, the mechanisms that mediate this benefit have not been specifically investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the types of knowledge used by students when solving familiar and less familiar clinical cases with self-explanation. In a previous study, 36 third-year medical students diagnosed familiar and less familiar clinical cases either by engaging in self-explanation or not. Based on an analysis of previously collected data, the present study compared the content of self-explanation protocols generated by seven randomly selected students while solving four familiar and four less familiar cases. In total, 56 verbal protocols (28 familiar and 28 less familiar) were segmented and coded using the following categories: paraphrases, biomedical inferences, clinical inferences, monitoring statements and errors. Students provided more self-explanation segments from less familiar cases (M = 275.29) than from familiar cases (M = 248.71, p = 0.046). They provided significantly more paraphrases (p = 0.001) and made more errors (p = 0.008). A significant interaction was found between familiarity and the type of inferences (biomedical versus clinical, p = 0.016). When self-explaining less familiar cases, students provided significantly more biomedical inferences than familiar cases. Lack of familiarity with a case seems to stimulate medical students to engage in more extensive thinking during self-explanation. Less familiar cases seem to activate students' biomedical knowledge, which in turn helps them to create new links between biomedical and clinical knowledge, and eventually construct a more coherent mental

  16. Multiple explanations in Darwinian evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Walter J

    2010-03-01

    Variational evolutionary theory as advocated by Darwin is not a single theory, but a bundle of related but independent theories, namely: (a) variational evolution; (b) gradualism rather than large leaps; (c) processes of phyletic evolution and of speciation; (d) causes for the formation of varying individuals in populations and for the action of selective agents; and (e) all organisms evolved from a common ancestor. The first four are nomological-deductive explanations and the fifth is historical-narrative. Therefore evolutionary theory must be divided into nomological and historical theories which are both testable against objective empirical observations. To be scientific, historical evolutionary theories must be based on well corroborated nomological theories, both evolutionary and functional. Nomological and general historical evolutionary theories are well tested and must be considered as strongly corroborated scientific theories. Opponents of evolutionary theory are concerned only with historical evolutionary theories, having little interest in nomological theory. Yet given a well corroborated nomological evolutionary theory, historical evolutionary theories follow automatically. If understood correctly, both forms of evolutionary theories stand on their own as corroborated scientific theories and should not be labeled as facts.

  17. The Selective Allure of Neuroscientific Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurich, Nicholas; Shniderman, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Some claim that recent advances in neuroscience will revolutionize the way we think about human nature and legal culpability. Empirical support for this proposition is mixed. Two highly-cited empirical studies found that irrelevant neuroscientific explanations and neuroimages were highly persuasive to laypersons. However, attempts to replicate these effects have largely been unsuccessful. Two separate experiments tested the hypothesis that neuroscience is susceptible to motivated reasoning, which refers to the tendency to selectively credit or discredit information in a manner that reinforces preexisting beliefs. Participants read a newspaper article about a cutting-edge neuroscience study. Consistent with the hypothesis, participants deemed the hypothetical study sound and the neuroscience persuasive when the outcome of the study was congruent with their prior beliefs, but gave the identical study and neuroscience negative evaluations when it frustrated their beliefs. Neuroscience, it appears, is subject to the same sort of cognitive dynamics as other types of scientific evidence. These findings qualify claims that neuroscience will play a qualitatively different role in the way in which it shapes people’s beliefs and informs issues of social policy. PMID:25207921

  18. Neurophysiological assessment in the diagnosis of botulism: usefulness of single-fiber EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, L; Aprile, I; Monaco, M L; Fenicia, L; Anniballi, F; Pauri, F; Tonali, P

    1999-10-01

    We report the clinical, serological, and neurophysiological findings in seven patients with foodborne botulism caused by ingestion of black olives in water. The clinical picture was characterized by mild symptoms with a long latency of onset and by involvement of cranial and upper limb muscles; only one patient, a child, developed respiratory failure. Spores of Clostridium botulinum were found in stools in some but not all cases. Conventional neurophysiological tests had low sensitivity; abnormal findings were present only in the patient with severe clinical involvement, in whom compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) appeared reduced. Repetitive nerve stimulation at a high rate showed pseudofacilitation and not true posttetanic facilitation, but single-fiber electromyography (SFEMG) showed abnormalities of neuromuscular transmission in every case. Neurophysiological evaluation, particularly SFEMG, is important because it allows rapid identification of abnormal neuromuscular transmission while bioassay studies are in progress. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Altered neurophysiologic response to intermittent theta burst stimulation in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Steve W; Gilbert, Donald L

    2012-07-01

    The motor system in Tourette syndrome has been found to be abnormal in previous fine-motor and neurophysiologic studies. This novel pilot study uses repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as a method to characterize the neurophysiology of the motor system in Tourette syndrome. We investigated the modulation of cortical excitability in adult Tourette syndrome patients by measuring motor-evoked potential amplitudes before and after applying intermittent theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation. Motor-evoked potential amplitude changes over 1 and 10 minutes after intermittent theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation were greater in 11 healthy controls than 10 adult patients with Tourette syndrome (P = 0.004). This altered neurophysiologic response to intermittent theta burst stimulation may contribute to the understanding of motor cortical mechanisms in Tourette syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A flavor-safe composite explanation of $R_K$

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, Adrian

    2017-05-04

    In these proceedings we discuss a flavor-safe explanation of the anomaly found in $R_K= {\\cal B}(B \\to K \\mu^+ \\mu^-)/{\\cal B}(B \\to K e^+ e^-)$ by LHCb, within the framework of composite Higgs models. We present a model featuring a non-negligible degree of compositeness for all three generations of right-handed leptons, which leads to a violation of lepton-flavor universality in neutral current interactions while other constraints from quark- and lepton-flavor physics are met. Moreoever, the particular embedding of the lepton sector considered in this setup provides a parametrically enhanded contribution to the Higgs mass that can weak considerably the need for ultra-light top partners.

  1. An Explanation of True Dreams: Aristotle and Jung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sanai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The naturalistic explanation of realized dream (or dreams that come true means that this phenomen will be explained regardless of supernatural agents. Aristotle in Parva naturalia and Jung in his works explained dream visionary. In this article by scrutiny on these thinkers’ theory, we will indicate the naturalistic approach to dream that is far- fetched for followers of metaphysics. In spite of this fact that Aristotle and Jung both belongs to different historical contexts, they have common aspects in terms of naturalistic method; in the universal or broad sense of word, but in terms of content both explain the true dream by the term “coincidence” or accidental conformity between objective events and psychological affairs. It also seems that the notion of Neutral monism in Jung is adaptive to Hylomorphism in Aristotle psychology, and this, provides a path for naturalistic approach to dream as one forms of consciousness.

  2. Neuropathy in the hemodialysis population: a review of neurophysiology referrals in a tertiary center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, John

    2012-01-01

    This was a retrospective observational study of neurophysiology referrals over 8 years from a tertiary referral center in Ireland. A total of 68 of the 73 referrals yielded one or more abnormalities. Thirty-nine (53%) patients had one or more mononeuropathies; iatrogenic mononeuropathies believed to be associated with arterio-venous fistula creation occurred in 15 patients. Polyneuropathy was identified in 43 patients (59%). Access to an experienced neurophysiology department offers valuable insight into dialysis-associated neuropathies, especially when associated with arterio-venous fistulae.

  3. Teacher Explanation of Physics Concepts: a Video Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelan, David

    2012-11-01

    Video recordings of Year 11 physics lessons were analyzed to identify key features of teacher explanations. Important features of the explanations used included teachers' ability to move between qualitative and quantitative modes of discussion, attention to what students require to succeed in high stakes examinations, thoughtful use of analogies, storytelling and references to the history of science, the use of educational technology, and the use of humor. Considerable scope remains for further research into teacher explanations in physics.

  4. In Search of the Best Explanation of Russian History

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natalia B. Selunskaia

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the methodological aspects of general models of historical explanation developed in contemporary Russian and foreign historiography and also interpretations of Russian history...

  5. Neurophysiological localisation of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow: Validation of diagnostic criteria developed by a taskforce of the Danish Society of clinical neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugdahl, K; Beniczky, S; Wanscher, B; Johnsen, B; Qerama, E; Ballegaard, M; Benedek, K; Juhl, A; Ööpik, M; Selmar, P; Sønderborg, J; Terney, D; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A

    2017-09-09

    This study validates consensus criteria for localisation of ulnar neuropathy at elbow (UNE) developed by a taskforce of the Danish Society of Clinical Neurophysiology and compares them to the existing criteria from the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM). The Danish criteria are based on combinations of conduction slowing in the segments of the elbow and forearm expressed in Z-scores, and difference between the segments in m/s. Examining fibres to several muscles and sensory fibres can increase the certainty of the localisation. Diagnostic accuracy for UNE was evaluated on 181 neurophysiological studies of the ulnar nerve from 171 peer-reviewed patients from a mixed patient-group. The diagnostic reference standard was the consensus diagnosis based on all available clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic information reached by a group of experienced Danish neurophysiologists. The Danish criteria had high specificity (98.4%) and positive predictive value (PPV) (95.2%) and fair sensitivity (76.9%). Compared to the AANEM criteria, the Danish criteria had higher specificity (pDanish consensus criteria for UNE are very specific and have high PPV. The Danish criteria for UNE are reliable and well suited for use in different centres as they are based on Z-scores. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A possible neurophysiological correlate of audiovisual binding and unbinding in speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Attigodu C; Berthommier, Frédéric; Vilain, Coriandre; Sato, Marc; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Audiovisual (AV) speech integration of auditory and visual streams generally ends up in a fusion into a single percept. One classical example is the McGurk effect in which incongruent auditory and visual speech signals may lead to a fused percept different from either visual or auditory inputs. In a previous set of experiments, we showed that if a McGurk stimulus is preceded by an incongruent AV context (composed of incongruent auditory and visual speech materials) the amount of McGurk fusion is largely decreased. We interpreted this result in the framework of a two-stage "binding and fusion" model of AV speech perception, with an early AV binding stage controlling the fusion/decision process and likely to produce "unbinding" with less fusion if the context is incoherent. In order to provide further electrophysiological evidence for this binding/unbinding stage, early auditory evoked N1/P2 responses were here compared during auditory, congruent and incongruent AV speech perception, according to either prior coherent or incoherent AV contexts. Following the coherent context, in line with previous electroencephalographic/magnetoencephalographic studies, visual information in the congruent AV condition was found to modify auditory evoked potentials, with a latency decrease of P2 responses compared to the auditory condition. Importantly, both P2 amplitude and latency in the congruent AV condition increased from the coherent to the incoherent context. Although potential contamination by visual responses from the visual cortex cannot be discarded, our results might provide a possible neurophysiological correlate of early binding/unbinding process applied on AV interactions.

  7. A Possible Neurophysiological Correlate of AudioVisual Binding and Unbinding in Speech Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attigodu Chandrashekara eGanesh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual speech integration of auditory and visual streams generally ends up in a fusion into a single percept. One classical example is the McGurk effect in which incongruent auditory and visual speech signals may lead to a fused percept different from either visual or auditory inputs. In a previous set of experiments, we showed that if a McGurk stimulus is preceded by an incongruent audiovisual context (composed of incongruent auditory and visual speech materials the amount of McGurk fusion is largely decreased. We interpreted this result in the framework of a two-stage binding and fusion model of audiovisual speech perception, with an early audiovisual binding stage controlling the fusion/decision process and likely to produce unbinding with less fusion if the context is incoherent. In order to provide further electrophysiological evidence for this binding/unbinding stage, early auditory evoked N1/P2 responses were here compared during auditory, congruent and incongruent audiovisual speech perception, according to either prior coherent or incoherent audiovisual contexts. Following the coherent context, in line with previous EEG/MEG studies, visual information in the congruent audiovisual condition was found to modify auditory evoked potentials, with a latency decrease of P2 responses compared to the auditory condition. Importantly, both P2 amplitude and latency in the congruent audiovisual condition increased from the coherent to the incoherent context. Although potential contamination by visual responses from the visual cortex cannot be discarded, our results might provide a possible neurophysiological correlate of early binding/unbinding process applied on audiovisual interactions.

  8. Principal components of hand kinematics and neurophysiological signals in motor cortex during reach to grasp movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollazadeh, Mohsen; Aggarwal, Vikram; Thakor, Nitish V; Schieber, Marc H

    2014-10-15

    A few kinematic synergies identified by principal component analysis (PCA) account for most of the variance in the coordinated joint rotations of the fingers and wrist used for a wide variety of hand movements. To examine the possibility that motor cortex might control the hand through such synergies, we collected simultaneous kinematic and neurophysiological data from monkeys performing a reach-to-grasp task. We used PCA, jPCA and isomap to extract kinematic synergies from 18 joint angles in the fingers and wrist and analyzed the relationships of both single-unit and multiunit spike recordings, as well as local field potentials (LFPs), to these synergies. For most spike recordings, the maximal absolute cross-correlations of firing rates were somewhat stronger with an individual joint angle than with any principal component (PC), any jPC or any isomap dimension. In decoding analyses, where spikes and LFP power in the 100- to 170-Hz band each provided better decoding than other LFP-based signals, the first PC was decoded as well as the best decoded joint angle. But the remaining PCs and jPCs were predicted with lower accuracy than individual joint angles. Although PCs, jPCs or isomap dimensions might provide a more parsimonious description of kinematics, our findings indicate that the kinematic synergies identified with these techniques are not represented in motor cortex more strongly than the original joint angles. We suggest that the motor cortex might act to sculpt the synergies generated by subcortical centers, superimposing an ability to individuate finger movements and adapt the hand to grasp a wide variety of objects. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Brief communication "Does the Eltanin asteroid tsunami provide an alternative explanation for the Australian megatsunami hypothesis?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dominey-Howes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Australian megatsunami hypothesis has been developed over two decades. It charts repeated inundation of the South East Australian coast during the Holocene by bolide impact megatsunamis. The most enigmatic evidence for these proposed events are high elevation cliff-top boulders. There is however an absence of known sources for these megatsunamis, and as such we question whether the researchers may have the correct mechanism but the wrong events. Given the low denudation rates of this passive, intraplate environment, we suggest that boulder emplacement may have been solely the result of the much older Eltanin asteroid tsunami about 2.5 Ma ago.

  10. Is appreciation of written education about pain neurophysiology related to changes in illness perceptions and health status in patients with fibromyalgia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, M. W.; van Wilgen, C. P.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the appreciation of written education about pain neurophysiology in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and its effects on illness perceptions and perceived health status. Methods: A booklet explaining pain neurophysiology was sent to participants with FM. Appreciation was

  11. Negotiating explanations: doctor-patient communication with patients with medically unexplained symptoms-a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boeft, Madelon; Huisman, Daniëlle; Morton, LaKrista; Lucassen, Peter; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Westerman, Marjan J; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; Burton, Christopher D

    2017-02-01

    Patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) seek explanations for their symptoms, but often find general practitioners (GPs) unable to deliver these. Different methods of explaining MUPS have been proposed. Little is known about how communication evolves around these explanations. To examine the dialogue between GPs and patients related to explanations in a community-based clinic for MUPS. We categorized dialogue types and dialogue outcomes. Patients were ≥18 years with inclusion criteria for moderate MUPS: ≥2 referrals to specialists, ≥1 functional syndrome/symptoms, ≥10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 and GP's judgement that symptoms were unexplained. We analysed transcripts of 112 audio-recorded consultations (39 patients and 5 GPs) from two studies on the Symptoms Clinic Intervention, a consultation intervention for MUPS in primary care. We used constant comparative analysis to code and classify dialogue types and outcomes. We extracted 115 explanation sequences. We identified four dialogue types, differing in the extent to which the GP or patient controlled the dialogue. We categorized eight outcomes of the sequences, ranging from acceptance to rejection by the patient. The most common outcome was holding (conversation suspended in an unresolved state), followed by acceptance. Few explanations were rejected by the patient. Co-created explanations by patient and GP were most likely to be accepted. We developed a classification of dialogue types and outcomes in relation to explanations offered by GPs for MUPS patients. While it requires further validation, it provides a framework, which can be used for teaching, evaluation of practice and research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Natural selection and the conditions for existence: representational vs. conditional teleology in biological explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, John O

    2005-01-01

    Human intentional action, including the design and use of artifacts, involves the prior mental representation of the goal (end) and the means to achieve that goal. This representation is part of the efficient cause of the action, and thus can be used to explain both the action and the achievement of the end. This is intentional teleological explanation. More generally, teleological explanation that depends on the real existence of a representation of the goal (and the means to achieve it) can be called representational teleological explanation. Such explanations in biology can involve both external representations (e.g., ideas in the mind of God) and internal representations (souls, vital powers, entelechies, developmental programs, etc.). However, another type of explanation of intentional action (or any other process) is possible. Given that an action achieving a result occurs, the action can be explained as fulfilling the necessary conditions (means) for that result (end), and, reciprocally, the result explained by the occurrence of those necessary conditions. This is conditional teleological explanation. For organisms, natural selection is often understood metaphorically as the designer, intentionally constructing them for certain ends. Unfortunately, this metaphor is often taken rather too literally, because it has been difficult to conceive of another way to relate natural selection to the process of evolution. I argue that combining a conditional teleological explanation of organisms and of evolution provides such an alternative. This conditional teleology can be grounded in existence or survival. Given that an organism exists, we can explain its existence by the occurrence of the necessary conditions for that existence. This principle of the 'conditions for existence' was introduced by Georges Cuvier in 1800, and provides a valid, conditional teleological method for explaining organismal structure and behavior. From an evolutionary perspective, the

  13. Maternal Behavior Predicts Infant Neurophysiological and Behavioral Attention Processes in the First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingler, Margaret M.; Perry, Nicole B.; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2017-01-01

    We apply a biopsychosocial conceptualization to attention development in the 1st year and examine the role of neurophysiological and social processes on the development of early attention processes. We tested whether maternal behavior measured during 2 mother-child interaction tasks when infants (N = 388) were 5 months predicted infant medial…

  14. Learning and production of movement sequences: Behavioral, neurophysiological, and modelling perspectives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhodes, Bradley J.; Bullock, Daniel; Verwey, Willem B.; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Page, Michael P.A.

    2004-01-01

    A wave of recent behavioral studies has generated a new wealth of parametric observations about serial order behavior. What was a trickle of neurophysiological studies has grown to a steady stream of probes of neural sites and mechanisms underlying sequential behavior. Moreover, simulation models of

  15. A Study of the Effectiveness of Sensory Integration Therapy on Neuro-Physiological Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Christopher; Reynolds, Kathleen Sheena

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sensory integration theory proposes that because there is plasticity within the central nervous system (the brain is moldable) and because the brain consists of systems that are hierarchically organised, it is possible to stimulate and improve neuro-physiological processing and integration and thereby increase learning capacity.…

  16. Pain processing in atypical Parkinsonisms and Parkinson disease: A comparative neurophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenali, Micol; Tassorelli, Cristina; De Icco, Roberto; Perrotta, Armando; Serrao, Mariano; Fresia, Mauro; Pacchetti, Claudio; Sandrini, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    Pain is a frequent non-motor feature in Parkinsonism but mechanistic data on the alteration of pain processing are insufficient to understand the possible causes and to define specifically-targeted treatments. we investigated spinal nociception through the neurophysiological measure of the threshold (TR) of nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) and its temporal summation threshold (TST) comparatively in 12 Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) subjects, 11 Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) patients, 15 Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects and 24 healthy controls (HC). We also investigated the modulatory effect of L-Dopa in these three parkinsonian groups. We found a significant reduction in the TR of NWR and in the TST of NWR in PSP, MSA and PD patients compared with HC. L-Dopa induced an increase in the TR of NWR in the PSP group while TST of NWR increased in both PSP and PD. Our neurophysiological findings identify a facilitation of nociceptive processing in PSP that is broadly similar to that observed in MSA and PD. Specific peculiarities have emerged for PSP. Our data advance the knowledge of the neurophysiology of nociception in the advanced phases of parkinsonian syndromes and on the role of dopaminergic pathways in the control on pain processing. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biomechanical correlates of symptomatic and asymptomatic neurophysiological impairment in high school football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedlove, Evan L; Robinson, Meghan; Talavage, Thomas M; Morigaki, Katherine E; Yoruk, Umit; O'Keefe, Kyle; King, Jeff; Leverenz, Larry J; Gilger, Jeffrey W; Nauman, Eric A

    2012-04-30

    Concussion is a growing public health issue in the United States, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is the chief long-term concern linked to repeated concussions. Recently, attention has shifted toward subconcussive blows and the role they may play in the development of CTE. We recruited a cohort of high school football players for two seasons of observation. Acceleration sensors were placed in the helmets, and all contact activity was monitored. Pre-season computer-based neuropsychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tests were also obtained in order to assess cognitive and neurophysiological health. In-season follow-up scans were then obtained both from individuals who had sustained a clinically-diagnosed concussion and those who had not. These changes were then related through stepwise regression to history of blows recorded throughout the football season up to the date of the scan. In addition to those subjects who had sustained a concussion, a substantial portion of our cohort who did not sustain concussions showed significant neurophysiological changes. Stepwise regression indicated significant relationships between the number of blows sustained by a subject and the ensuing neurophysiological change. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that the effects of repetitive blows to the head are cumulative and that repeated exposure to subconcussive blows is connected to pathologically altered neurophysiology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Monitoring Brain Activity of Geriatric Learners with Low-Cost Neurophysiological Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Hall, Enilda; Scott, JoAnne

    2017-01-01

    Cultural stereotypes rooted in both antiquated data and misinterpretation of data have long perpetuated the belief that older adults are unable to learn new concepts because they are doomed to lose brain cells at an alarming rate during their geriatric years. However, advances in neurophysiological technologies that allow researchers to observe…

  19. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Reflexive and Voluntary Saccades in Non-Human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kevin; Everling, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    A multitude of cognitive functions can easily be tested by a number of relatively simple saccadic eye movement tasks. This approach has been employed extensively with patient populations to investigate the functional deficits associated with psychiatric disorders. Neurophysiological studies in non-human primates performing the same tasks have…

  20. Risk and Resilience: Early Manipulation of Macaque Social Experience and Persistent Behavioral and Neurophysiological Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Hanna E.; Leckman, James F.; Coplan, Jeremy D.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    A literature review on macaque monkeys finds that peer rearing of young macaques and rearing of young macaques by mothers that are undergoing variable foraging conditions result in emotional and neurophysiological disturbance. Certain genotypes contribute to resilience to this disturbance. The findings have implications to child mental health and…

  1. Social Consumer Neuroscience: Neurophysiological Measures of Advertising Effectiveness in a Social Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pozharliev (Rumen); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem); R.P. Bagozzi (Richard)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe application of neurophysiological methods to study the effects of advertising on consumer purchase behavior has seen an enormous growth in recent years. However, little is known about the role social settings have on shaping the human brain during the processing of advertising

  2. Psychoacoustics and Neurophysiological Alterations after 30-36 Hours of Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Leines, Sergio; Gama-Moreno, Olga; Poblano, Adrián; Flores-Avalos, Blanca

    2017-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) may result in perceptual and cognitive alterations in healthy subjects. Our objective was to compare whether psychoacoustics and neurophysiological variables in healthy subjects were altered after SD of 30-36 h. We examined 22 subjects by means of several psychoacoustics tests, P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) recordings, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) before and after 30-36 h of SD. In the psychoacoustics tests, we found that after SD, difficulties were experienced by the left ear in the discrimination of words in noise and by the right ear in music discrimination. In the neurophysiological tests, we found delayed latencies of P300 and MMN wave; there was a delay of wave I in both ears, and wave V in the right ear in BAEP. We found significant correlations with positive direction between P300 latency and words in noise and music discrimination in the right ear. SD results in alterations of central auditory processing perception and delays of brain neurophysiological responses, with some correlations between the psychoacoustics and neurophysiological tests. These alterations may relate to other cognitive alterations that deserve more research in future studies. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Generative Mechanistic Explanation Building in Undergraduate Molecular and Cellular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Katelyn M.; Espindola, Melissa R.; Zaepfel, Samantha D.; Bolger, Molly S.

    2017-01-01

    When conducting scientific research, experts in molecular and cellular biology (MCB) use specific reasoning strategies to construct mechanistic explanations for the underlying causal features of molecular phenomena. We explored how undergraduate students applied this scientific practice in MCB. Drawing from studies of explanation building among…

  4. Vocabulary Explanations in CLIL Classrooms: A Conversation Analysis Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This article uses a conversation analysis methodology to examine how lexical Focus on Form is interactionally accomplished in teachers' vocabulary explanations in secondary Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) classrooms. Recent conversation-analytic work has focused on the interactional organisation of vocabulary explanations in…

  5. Explanation and teleology in Aristotle's Philosophy of Nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leunissen, Mariska Elisabeth Maria Philomena Johannes

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation explores Aristotle’s use of teleology as a principle of explanation, especially as it is used in the natural treatises. Its main purposes are, first, to determine the function, structure, and explanatory power of teleological explanations in four of Aristotle’s natural treatises,

  6. Exploring Dominant Types of Explanations Built by General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of our study was to explore the nature of the explanations generated by science and engineering majors with basic training in chemistry to account for the colligative properties of solutions. The work was motivated by our broader interest in the characterisation of the dominant types of explanations that science college students…

  7. "Ratio via Machina": Three Standards of Mechanistic Explanation in Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles, Natalie B.; Reed, Isaac Ariail

    2017-01-01

    Recently, sociologists have expended much effort in attempts to define social mechanisms. We intervene in these debates by proposing that sociologists in fact have a choice to make between three standards of what constitutes a good mechanistic explanation: substantial, formal, and metaphorical mechanistic explanation. All three standards are…

  8. The Human Function Compunction: Teleological Explanation in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for…

  9. The Limits of Materialism: Auspicious for Teleological Explanation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athearn, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    The idea that scientific explanation runs up against certain inherent limits beyond which the field is open for other kinds of explanation is based on flawed assumptions. Modern physical knowledge, as I read it, does contain at least one important implication for theology having to do with how "Creation" is understood, if indeed the term remains usable and suitable.

  10. Lags in Minority Achievement Defy Traditional Explanations. The Achievement Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This second in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist notes that standard explanations for why minority students trail behind non-Hispanic whites are not good enough, suggesting that no single explanation for the gap exists, but instead a multitude of factors are influential. Poverty, though not the single most important cause,…

  11. Teacher Explanation of Physics Concepts: A Video Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelan, David

    2013-01-01

    Video recordings of Year 11 physics lessons were analyzed to identify key features of teacher explanations. Important features of the explanations used included teachers' ability to move between qualitative and quantitative modes of discussion, attention to what students require to succeed in high stakes examinations, thoughtful use of…

  12. What can polysemy tell us about theories of explanation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Philosophical accounts of scientific explanation are broadly divided into ontic and epistemic views. This paper explores the idea that the lexical ambiguity of the verb to explain and its nominalisation supports an ontic conception of explanation (Salmon 1989; Craver 2007). I analyse one argument...

  13. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  14. [Scientific explanation as a language and its application to psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, W

    1985-06-01

    The concept of scientific explanation plays a crucial role in the methodological discussion within psychiatry. This article shows that since scientific explanation employs a language of its own, its syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic dimensions must therefore be analysed with the help of semiotics. The pragmatic dimension is given particular attention because, hitherto, it has been comparatively neglected in the methodological discussion within psychiatry. Furthermore, the concept of explanation is viewed as a problem sui generis and investigated, to begin with, independently of problems such as causality and teleology. By means of the problem of the ambiguity of inductive-statistical explanations, it is shown that scientific explanations which employ statistical laws without taking into consideration the pragmatic concept of the state of knowledge must necessarily come to incomplete and/or contradictory results. The state of knowledge (K) is defined as the set of propositions which are accepted as true by a person (x) at a given time (t). A more precise analysis shows that, within a given state of knowledge, an accepted proposition is generally seen as more or less probable where it can be assigned a value of credibility (B) which lies between 0 and 1. The force of an explanation, in the pragmatic-informative sense, thus consists in the fact that an explanation can increase the credibility value of an explanandum-event (E) through a presentation of particular circumstances (C) and of general laws (T) such that the following holds: BTUC(E) greater than B(E). Depending on the level of the absolute value of BTUC(E), a gradual differentiation is made with respect to the quality of pragmatic-informative explanations. The various types of explanation can be differentiated according to the type of arguments employed in the explanans of a pragmatic-informative explanation; the most important members of this family of explanations are the causal, functional, teleological

  15. Indirect assessment of an interpretation bias in humans: Neurophysiological and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita eSchick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Affective state can influence cognition leading to biased information processing, interpretation, attention, and memory. Such bias has been reported to be essential for the onset and maintenance of different psychopathologies, particularly affective disorders. However, empirical evidence has been very heterogeneous and little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive bias and its time-course. We therefore investigated the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli as indicators of biased information processing with an ambiguous cue-conditioning paradigm. In an acquisition phase, participants learned to discriminate two tones of different frequency, which acquired emotional and motivational value due to subsequent feedback (monetary gain or avoidance of monetary loss. In the test phase, three additional tones of intermediate frequencies were presented, whose interpretation as positive (approach of reward or negative (avoidance of punishment, indicated by a button press, was used as an indicator of the bias. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this paradigm while a 64-channel electroencephalogram was recorded. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing individual differences in depression and rumination. Overall, we found a small positive bias, which correlated negatively with reflective pondering, a type of rumination. As expected, reaction times were increased for intermediate tones. ERP amplitudes between 300 – 700 ms post-stimulus differed depending on the interpretation of the intermediate tones. A negative compared to a positive interpretation led to an amplitude increase over frontal electrodes. Our study provides evidence that in humans, as in animal research, the ambiguous cue-conditioning paradigm is a valid procedure for indirectly assessing ambiguous cue interpretation and a potential interpretation bias, which is sensitive to individual differences in affect-related traits.

  16. Psychosocial, Physical, and Neurophysiological Risk Factors for Chronic Neck Pain: A Prospective Inception Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Bahar; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Maluf, Katrina S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify modifiable risk factors for the development of first-onset chronic neck pain among an inception cohort of healthy individuals working in a high-risk occupation. Candidate risk factors identified from previous studies were categorized into psychosocial, physical, and neurophysiological domains, which were assessed concurrently in a baseline evaluation of 171 office workers within the first 3 months of hire. Participants completed monthly online surveys over the subsequent year to identify the presence of chronic interfering neck pain, defined as a Neck Disability Index score ≥5 points for 3 or more months. Data were analyzed using backward logistic regression to identify significant predictors within each domain, which were then entered into a multivariate regression model adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. Development of chronic interfering neck pain was predicted by depressed mood (odds ratio [OR] = 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-10.31, P = .03), cervical extensor endurance (OR = .92, 95% CI, .87-.97, P = .001), and diffuse noxious inhibitory control (OR = .90, 95% CI, .83-.98, P = .02) at baseline. These findings provide the first evidence that individuals with preexisting impairments in mood and descending pain modulation may be at greater risk for developing chronic neck pain when exposed to peripheral nociceptive stimuli such as that produced during muscle fatigue. Depressed mood, poor muscle endurance, and impaired endogenous pain inhibition are predisposing factors for the development of new-onset chronic neck pain of nonspecific origin in office workers. These findings may assist with primary prevention by allowing clinicians to screen for individuals at risk of developing chronic neck pain. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of nap neurophysiology: preliminary insights into sleep regulation in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Salome; Lassonde, Jonathan M; Pierpoint, Lauren A; Rusterholz, Thomas; Jenni, Oskar G; McClain, Ian J; Achermann, Peter; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2016-12-01

    Although all young children nap, the neurophysiological features and associated developmental trajectories of daytime sleep remain largely unknown. Longitudinal studies of napping physiology are fundamental to understanding sleep regulation during early childhood, a sensitive period in brain and behaviour development and a time when children transition from a biphasic to a monophasic sleep-wakefulness pattern. We investigated daytime sleep in eight healthy children with sleep electroencephalography (EEG) assessments at three longitudinal points: 2 years (2.5-3.0 years), 3 years (3.5-4.0 years) and 5 years (5.5-6.0 years). At each age, we measured nap EEG during three randomized conditions: after 4 h (morning nap), 7 h (afternoon nap) and 10 h (evening nap) duration of prior wakefulness. Developmental changes in sleep were most prevalent in the afternoon nap (e.g. decrease in sleep duration by 30 min from 2 to 3 years and by 20 min from 3 to 5 years). In contrast, nap sleep architecture (% of sleep stages) remained unchanged across age. Maturational changes in non-rapid eye movement sleep EEG power were pronounced in the slow wave activity (SWA, 0.75-4.5 Hz), theta (4.75-7.75 Hz) and sigma (10-15 Hz) frequency ranges. These findings indicate that the primary marker of sleep depth, SWA, is less apparent in daytime naps as children mature. Moreover, our fundamental data provide insight into associations between sleep regulation and functional modifications in the central nervous system during early childhood. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. An prediction and explanation of 'climatic swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    core-mantle system and their changes in the time have an important role and value for style and intensity of warming and cooling. References [1] Barkin Yu.V. (2002) An explanation of endogenous activity of planets and satellites and its cyclisity. Isvestia sekcii nauk o Zemle Rossiiskoi akademii ectestvennykh nauk. Vyp. 9, М., VINITI, pp. 45-97. In Russian. [2] Barkin Yu.V. (2004) Dynamics of the Earth shells and variations of paleoclimate. Proceedings of Milutin Milankovitch Anniversary Symposium "Paleoclimate and the Earth climate system" (Belgrade, Serbia, 30 August - 2 September, 2004). Belgrade, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Art, pp. 161-164. [3] Barkin Yu.V. (2007) Inversion of periodic and trend variations of climate in opposite hemispheres of the Earth and their mechanism. Proceedings of IUGG XXIV General Assembly, Perugia, Italy 2007: Earth: Our Changing Planet (Perugia, Italy, July 2-13, 2007) (P) - IAPSO, JPS001 "Interannual and Interdecadal Climate Variability", p. 1674. www. iugg2007perugia.it. [4] Barkin Yu.V. (2008) Secular polar drift of the core in present epoch: geodynamical and geophysical consequences and confirmations. General and regional problems of tectonics and geodynamics. Materials of XLI Tectonic Conference. V. 1. -M.:GEOS. p. 55-59. In Russian. [5] Barkin Yu.V. (2009) An explanation of secular variations of a gravity at stations Ny-Alesund, Medicine, Churchill and Syowa. Materials of the International Conference: «Yu.P. Bulashevich's fifth scientific readings. A deep structure. Geodynamics. A thermal field of the Earth. Interpretation of geophysical fields» (Ekaterinburg, 6 - 10 July, 2009). pp. 27-31. In Russian. [6] Barkin Yu.V. (2005) Oscillations of the Earth core, new oceanic tides and dynamical consequences. Materials of XI International Scientific Conference "Structure, geodynamics and mineral genetic processes in lithosphere" (September, 20-22 2005, Syktyvkar, Russia), Publisher of Geology Institute of Komi SC of Ural Section

  19. Theoretical vocabularies and styles of explanation of robot behaviours in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datteri Edoardo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available How do children describe and explain the behaviour of robotic systems? In this paper, some distinctions between different types of explanations, drawing from the philosophy of science literature, are proposed and exemplified by reference to an activity in which primary school children are asked to describe and explain the behaviour of a pre-programmed Braitenberg-like vehicle. The proposed distinctions are also discussed against other studies drawn from the related scientific literature. A qualitative study has provided insights to further refine the analysis described here, through the introduction of other sub-categories of explanation of robotic behaviours.

  20. The Diboson Excess: Experimental Situation and Classification of Explanations; A Les Houches Pre-Proceeding

    CERN Document Server

    Brehmer, Johann; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Carmona, Adrian; Chivukula, R.Sekhar; Delgado, Antonio; Goertz, Florian; Hewett, JoAnne L.; Katz, Andrey; Kopp, Joachim; Lane, Kenneth; Martin, Adam; Mohan, Kirtimaan; Morse, David M.; Nardecchia, Marco; No, Jose Miguel; Oliveira, Alexandra; Pollard, Chris; Quiros, Mariano; Rizzo, Thomas G.; Santiago, Jose; Sanz, Veronica; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Tattersall, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    We examine the `diboson' excess at $\\sim 2$ TeV seen by the LHC experiments in various channels. We provide a comparison of the excess significances as a function of the mass of the tentative resonance and give the signal cross sections needed to explain the excesses. We also present a survey of available theoretical explanations of the resonance, classified in three main approaches. Beyond that, we discuss methods to verify the anomaly, determining the major properties of the various surpluses and exploring how different models can be discriminated. Finally, we give a tabular summary of the numerous explanations, presenting their main phenomenological features.

  1. Characterization of neurophysiologic and neurocognitive biomarkers for use in genomic and clinical outcome studies of schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Light

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endophenotypes are quantitative, laboratory-based measures representing intermediate links in the pathways between genetic variation and the clinical expression of a disorder. Ideal endophenotypes exhibit deficits in patients, are stable over time and across shifts in psychopathology, and are suitable for repeat testing. Unfortunately, many leading candidate endophenotypes in schizophrenia have not been fully characterized simultaneously in large cohorts of patients and controls across these properties. The objectives of this study were to characterize the extent to which widely-used neurophysiological and neurocognitive endophenotypes are: 1 associated with schizophrenia, 2 stable over time, independent of state-related changes, and 3 free of potential practice/maturation or differential attrition effects in schizophrenia patients (SZ and nonpsychiatric comparison subjects (NCS. Stability of clinical and functional measures was also assessed. METHODS: Participants (SZ n = 341; NCS n = 205 completed a battery of neurophysiological (MMN, P3a, P50 and N100 indices, PPI, startle habituation, antisaccade, neurocognitive (WRAT-3 Reading, LNS-forward, LNS-reorder, WCST-64, CVLT-II. In addition, patients were rated on clinical symptom severity as well as functional capacity and status measures (GAF, UPSA, SOF. 223 subjects (SZ n = 163; NCS n = 58 returned for retesting after 1 year. RESULTS: Most neurophysiological and neurocognitive measures exhibited medium-to-large deficits in schizophrenia, moderate-to-substantial stability across the retest interval, and were independent of fluctuations in clinical status. Clinical symptoms and functional measures also exhibited substantial stability. A Longitudinal Endophenotype Ranking System (LERS was created to rank neurophysiological and neurocognitive biomarkers according to their effect sizes across endophenotype criteria. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of neurophysiological and

  2. A systematic review of cerebral microdialysis and outcomes in TBI: relationships to patient functional outcome, neurophysiologic measures, and tissue outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Thelin, Eric Peter; Helmy, Adel; Czosnyka, Marek; Hutchinson, Peter J A; Menon, David K

    2017-12-01

    To perform a systematic review on commonly measured cerebral microdialysis (CMD) analytes and their association to: (A) patient functional outcome, (B) neurophysiologic measures, and (C) tissue outcome; after moderate/severe TBI. The aim was to provide a foundation for next-generation CMD studies and build on existing pragmatic expert guidelines for CMD. We searched MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library (inception to October 2016). Strength of evidence was adjudicated using GRADE. (A) Functional Outcome: 55 articles were included, assessing outcome as mortality or Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at 3-6 months post-injury. Overall, there is GRADE C evidence to support an association between CMD glucose, glutamate, glycerol, lactate, and LPR to patient outcome at 3-6 months. (B) Neurophysiologic Measures: 59 articles were included. Overall, there currently exists GRADE C level of evidence supporting an association between elevated CMD measured mean LPR, glutamate and glycerol with elevated ICP and/or decreased CPP. In addition, there currently exists GRADE C evidence to support an association between elevated mean lactate:pyruvate ratio (LPR) and low PbtO 2 . Remaining CMD measures and physiologic outcomes displayed GRADE D or no evidence to support a relationship. (C) Tissue Outcome: four studies were included. Given the conflicting literature, the only conclusion that can be drawn is acute/subacute phase elevation of CMD measured LPR is associated with frontal lobe atrophy at 6 months. This systematic review replicates previously documented relationships between CMD and various outcome, which have driven clinical application of the technique. Evidence assessments do not address the application of CMD for exploring pathophysiology or titrating therapy in individual patients, and do not account for the modulatory effect of therapy on outcome, triggered at different CMD thresholds in individual centers. Our findings support clinical

  3. Photic stimulation during electroencephalography: Efficacy and safety in an unselected cohort of patients referred to UK neurophysiology departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kimberley; Sherratt, Michael; Kandler, Ros; Lawrence, Sarah; Pang, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To determine efficacy and safety of photic stimulation (PS) during electroencephalography (EEG) in a large group of adult and paediatric patients. A prospective multicentre National Service Evaluation was performed organised by the joint audit committee of the two UK professional organisations (Association of Neurophysiological Scientists and British Society for Clinical Neurophysiology). Questionnaires about every EEG performed in the two-month study period were completed contemporaneously by physiologists at the time of the recording-reporting. The occurrence during PS of photoparoxysmal responses (PPRs), seizures and psychogenic non-epileptic attacks was noted from the EEG trace and contemporary clinical observation backed up by the video that was synchronised with the EEG. 5383 patients investigated with EEG and PS, mostly for possible epilepsy, were included in the study. Seventy nine patients (1.5%) had a generalised PPR elicited by PS having had no generalised epileptiform discharges previously in the EEG. Thirty nine patients (0.7%) had seizures provoked by PS including two (0.04%) who had a generalised tonic clonic seizure (GTCS). Forty nine patients (0.9%) had non-epileptic attacks provoked by PS. Thus PS yielded potentially useful information (PPRs, seizures or non-epileptic attacks) in 167/5383 (3.1%) of patients. In a subset of 122/5383 (2.3%), PS provided the only useful information captured within the EEG. PS contributes to the diagnosis of epilepsy and non-epileptic attack disorder in 3.1% of patients. It is a safe technique which produces GTCSs in only 0.04% patients. We conclude that PS is a moderately useful activation technique in diagnostic EEG, where the potential benefits out-weigh the risks; this information may assist the informed consent process. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structurational divergence theory as explanation for troublesome outcomes in nursing communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotera, Anne M; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Mahon, Margaret M; Peterson, Emily B; Kim, Wonsun; Conway-Morana, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Structurational divergence (SD) theory captures negative communication cycles resulting from interpenetration of incompatible meaning structures. It is estimated that 12-15% of practicing nurses suffer from a problematic level of SD. With a sample of 713 nurses (57 departments) in a large hospital, this study tests a model positing SD as a root explanation of nursing job satisfaction and turnover. A number of variables long presumed to be explanations for job satisfaction and turnover were hypothesized as mediators between SD and those outcomes. Path analysis showed support for burnout, role conflict, bullying, and organizational identification as useful mediators, explaining 68% of the variance in job satisfaction, and 45% in intentions to leave. The study also explores relationships between SD and hospital quality indicators. SD is a concern because it powerfully explains a number of poor outcomes and provides an underlying explanation for a number of factors that predict job satisfaction and turnover.

  5. Changing How Students Process and Comprehend Texts with Computer-Based Self-Explanation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurby, Christopher A.; Magliano, Joseph P.; Dandotkar, Srikanth; Woehrle, James; Gilliam, Sara; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed whether and how self-explanation reading training, provided by iSTART (Interactive Strategy Training for Active Reading and Thinking), improves the effectiveness of comprehension processes. iSTART teaches students how to self-explain and which strategies will most effectively aid comprehension from moment-to-moment. We used…

  6. Adults' Explanations and Children's Understanding of Contagious Illnesses, Non-Contagious Illnesses, and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined (1) whether children notice different causes for contagious illnesses, non-contagious illnesses, and injuries and (2) what information adults provide to children and to what extent this information is related to children's causal awareness. Studies 1 and 2 explored preschool teachers' and mothers' explanations of…

  7. Learning by Generating vs. Receiving Instructional Explanations: Two Approaches to Enhance Attention Cueing in Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Bjorn B.; Tabbers, Huib K.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether learners construct more accurate mental representations from animations when instructional explanations are provided via narration than when learners attempt to infer functional relations from the animation through self-explaining. Also effects of attention guidance by means of cueing are investigated. Psychology…

  8. Experience and Explanation: Using Videogames to Prepare Students for Formal Instruction in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Dylan A.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Well-designed digital games can deliver powerful experiences that are difficult to provide through traditional instruction, while traditional instruction can deliver formal explanations that are not a natural fit for gameplay. Combined, they can accomplish more than either can alone. An experiment tested this claim using the topic of statistics,…

  9. Denomination, Religious Context, and Suicide : Neo-Durkheimian Multilevel Explanations Tested with Individual and Contextual Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, Frank van; Grotenhuis, Manfred te; Ultee, Wout

    2005-01-01

    In Suicide, Durkheim found that involvement in religious communities is inversely related to suicide risk. In this article, two explanations for this relationship are examined. One is that religious networks provide support. The other is that religious communities prohibit suicide. To examine these

  10. 26 CFR 1.402(f)-1 - Required explanation of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distributions; questions and answers. 1.402(f)-1 Section 1.402(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... answers. The following questions and answers concern the written explanation requirement imposed by... administrator post the section 402(f) notice as a means of providing it to distributees? Questions and Answers Q...

  11. Formative evaluation of a telemedicine model for delivering clinical neurophysiology services part I: utility, technical performance and service provider perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breen, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Formative evaluation is conducted in the early stages of system implementation to assess how it works in practice and to identify opportunities for improving technical and process performance. A formative evaluation of a teleneurophysiology service was conducted to examine its technical and sociological dimensions.

  12. Generating Explanations for Internet-based Business Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fischer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It is widely established debriefing in business games is important and influences the students' learning performance. Most games only support game statistics instead of explaining solution paths. We suggest the automatic generation of explanations for internet-mediated business games to improve the debriefing quality. As a proof of concept we developed a prototype of an internet-based auction game embedding an open simulation model and an automatic explanation component helping students and teachers to analyse the decision making process. This paper describes the usefulness of automated explanations and the underlying generic software architecture.

  13. Attitudinal Explanation on Virtual Shopping Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritzky Karina M.R. Brahmana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Virtual stores provide great efficiency in the retail value chain, and their existence has tremendously paved the way for electronic commerce. Understanding the intention of consumers to shop online in attitudinal perspective will provide important contribution to the area of e-commerce. This research proposes Task Technology Fit, Perceived Ease of Use (PEoU, and Perceived Usefulness (PU as the factors that drive consumers’ intention. The results from our survey study of 310 online consumers in Indonesia indicate that TTF affects PEoU and PU significantly. Our hierarchical model also reports that PEoU is the mediating effect on the relationship between TTF and Intention. The resulting model explains a large portion of the factors that lead a user’s behavioural intention to use a virtual shop. Keywords : Attitudinal, Task Technology Fit, Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, Retail, Virtual Shopping Intention

  14. Causal explanation, intentionality, and prediction: Evaluating the Criticism of "Deductivism"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2001-01-01

    In a number of influential contributions, Tony Lawson has attacked a view of science that he refers to as deductivism, and criticized economists for implicitly using it in their research. Lawson argues that deductivism is simply the covering-law model, also known as the causal model of scientific...... explanation (section 3). In the paper we refer to that model as that of causal explanation. Since this is the most generally accepted model of scientific explanation, this criticism has quite far-reaching implications. We argue that Lawson’s criticism of the causal model of scientific explanation is mistaken...... the question of whether the existence of free will excludes the possibility of prediction of behaviour by scientific or other methods. It is argued that, at least for an example, free will does not necessarily imply that the possibility of prediction of behaviour is ruled out. This section is, however, much...

  15. Science, Values, and Teleological Explanations of Human Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, George S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how science has traditionally eschewed telic explanations as scientific accounts of human behavior. Begins to describe how to incorporate teleology into psychology and related fields, given the telic nature of humans. (Author/ABL)

  16. Functional explanation and the problem of functional equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFrisco, James

    2017-10-01

    The legitimacy of functional explanations in biology is threatened by a problem first identified by Hempel: the problem of functional equivalence. In order for the prevalence of a trait to be explained by its function, the function would have to explain why that very trait is prevalent and not some other functionally equivalent trait. But functions alone cannot meet this explanatory demand. I argue that this is a problem not only for Nagelian deductive-nomological models but also for etiological models of functional explanation. I contrast these models with a dual model of adaptive explanation and design explanation. This dual model largely circumvents the problem of functional equivalence, but divests functions of much explanatory power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ontology-based Deep Learning for Human Behavior Prediction with Explanations in Health Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Nhathai; Dou, Dejing; Wang, Hao; Kil, David; Piniewski, Brigitte

    2017-04-01

    Human behavior modeling is a key component in application domains such as healthcare and social behavior research. In addition to accurate prediction, having the capacity to understand the roles of human behavior determinants and to provide explanations for the predicted behaviors is also important. Having this capacity increases trust in the systems and the likelihood that the systems actually will be adopted, thus driving engagement and loyalty. However, most prediction models do not provide explanations for the behaviors they predict. In this paper, we study the research problem, human behavior prediction with explanations, for healthcare intervention systems in health social networks. We propose an ontology-based deep learning model (ORBM+) for human behavior prediction over undirected and nodes-attributed graphs. We first propose a bottom-up algorithm to learn the user representation from health ontologies. Then the user representation is utilized to incorporate self-motivation, social influences, and environmental events together in a human behavior prediction model, which extends a well-known deep learning method, the Restricted Boltzmann Machine. ORBM+ not only predicts human behaviors accurately, but also, it generates explanations for each predicted behavior. Experiments conducted on both real and synthetic health social networks have shown the tremendous effectiveness of our approach compared with conventional methods.

  18. Exploring Dominant Types of Explanations Built by General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2010-12-01

    The central goal of our study was to explore the nature of the explanations generated by science and engineering majors with basic training in chemistry to account for the colligative properties of solutions. The work was motivated by our broader interest in the characterisation of the dominant types of explanations that science college students use to make sense of phenomena under conditions of limited time and limited explicit knowledge about a topic. Explanations were collected in written form using two different quizzes that students completed under time constraints at the end of a two-semester general chemistry course. Our study revealed that students' ability to generate causal/mechanical explanations depended on the nature of the task. In general, students were more inclined or able to generate mechanistic explanations to account for boiling-point elevation and freezing-point depression than to make sense of osmotic flow. The analysis of the types of causal explanations built by the study participants suggests that students may be biased towards some causal models or explanatory modes characterised as causal-additive and causal-static in our work. A large proportion of the students built non-causal teleological explanations to account for osmotic flow. None of the participants in our study used a dynamic model of matter as the basis for their explanations of any of the relevant phenomena; the idea of an underlying random process that is taking place at all times giving rise to emergent properties and behaviours was completely absent from their intuitive reasoning under conditions of limited time and knowledge.

  19. Adaptation and novelty: teleological explanations in evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, F J

    1999-01-01

    Knives, birds' wings, and mountain slopes are used for certain purposes: cutting, flying, and climbing. A bird's wings have in common with knives that they have been 'designed' for the purpose they serve, which purpose accounts for their existence, whereas mountain slopes have come about by geological processes independently of their uses for climbing. A bird's wings differ from a knife in that they have not been designed or produced by any conscious agent; rather, the wings, like the slopes, are outcomes of natural processes without any intentional causation. Evolutionary biologists use teleological language and teleological explanations. I propose that this use is appropriate, because teleological explanations are hypotheses that can be subject to empirical testing. The distinctiveness of teleological hypotheses is that they account for the existence of a feature in terms of the function it serves; for example, wings have evolved and persist because flying is beneficial to birds by increasing their chances of surviving and reproducing. Features of organisms that are explained with teleological hypotheses include structures, such as wings; processes, such as development from egg to adult; and behaviours, such as nest building. A proximate explanation of these features is the function they serve; an ultimate explanation that they all share is their contribution to the reproductive fitness of the organisms. I distinguish several kinds of teleological explanations, such as natural and artificial, as well as bounded and unbounded, some of which but not others apply to biological explanations.

  20. The Itchy scalp - scratching for an explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    saif, Ghada A. Bin; Ericson, Marna E.; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Scalp pruritus is a common complaint that is considered a diagnostically and therapeutically challenging situation. Scalp skin has a unique neural structure that contains densely innervated hair follicles and dermal vasculature. In spite of the recent advances in our understanding of itch pathophysiology, scalp itching has not been studied as yet. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the neurobiology of scalp and hair follicles as well as itch mediators and provide a putative mechanism for scalp itch with special emphasis on neuroanatomy and pathophysiology. PMID:22092575

  1. The discourse of causal explanations in school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Tammy Jayne Anne

    Researchers and educators working from a systemic functional linguistic perspective have provided a body of work on science discourse which offers an excellent starting point for examining the linguistic aspects of the development of causal discourse in school science, discourse which Derewianka (1995) claimed is critical to success in secondary school. No work has yet described the development of causal language by identifying the linguistic features present in oral discourse or by comparing the causal discourse of native and non-native (ESL) speakers of English. The current research responds to this gap by examining the oral discourse collected from ESL and non-ESL students at the primary and high school grades. Specifically, it asks the following questions: (1) How do the teachers and students in these four contexts develop causal explanations and their relevant taxonomies through classroom interactions? (2) What are the causal discourse features being used by the students in these four contexts to construct oral causal explanations? The findings of the social practice analysis showed that the teachers in the four contexts differed in their approaches to teaching, with the primary school mainstream teacher focusing largely on the hands-on practice , the primary school ESL teacher moving from practice to theory, the high school mainstream teacher moving from theory to practice, and the high school ESL teacher relying primarily on theory. The findings from the quantitative, small corpus approach suggest that the developmental path of cause which has been identified in the writing of experts shows up not only in written texts but also in the oral texts which learners construct. Moreover, this move appears when the discourse of high school ESL and non-ESL students is compared, suggesting a developmental progression in the acquisition of these features by these students. The findings also reveal that the knowledge constructed, as shown by the concept maps created

  2. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological effects of strengthening exercise for early dementia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerokhin, Vadim; Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Hogan, Michael J; Dunnam, Mina; Huber, Daniel; Osborne, Sandra; Shulan, Mollie

    2012-01-01

    Research demonstrates a positive effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in older adults. Unfortunately, aerobic exercise is often contraindicated for older adults due to cardiovascular and functional limitations. Low-intensity strengthening exercise may offer a practical alternative, but the neuropsychological benefits and potential neurophysiological mechanisms are less well understood. The current study evaluated the effects of a 10-week strengthening exercise intervention on cognitive functioning and EEG in a sample of 13 older adults with early dementia, and 9 normative controls. Results revealed beneficial effects of strengthening exercise on verbal memory coupled with frontal beta and delta power asymmetries and N200 amplitude asymmetry. Results point to increased cognitive efficiency following 10 weeks of strengthening exercise. The findings suggest it is feasible to conduct a strengthening intervention with early dementia patients, and to gather neuropsychological and neurophysiological data to evaluate outcomes. Strengthening exercise may serve as a useful alternative to aerobic exercise.

  3. Assessing fitness-for-duty and predicting performance with cognitive neurophysiological measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E.; Gevins, Alan

    2005-05-01

    Progress is described in developing a novel test of neurocognitive status for fitness-for-duty testing. The Sustained Attention & Memory (SAM) test combines neurophysiologic (EEG) measures of brain activation with performance measures during a psychometric test of sustained attention and working memory, and then gauges changes in neurocognitive status relative to an individual"s normative baseline. In studies of the effects of common psychoactive substances that can affect job performance, including sedating antihistamines, caffeine, alcohol, marijuana, and prescription medications, test sensitivity was greater for the combined neurophysiological and performance measures than for task performance measures by themselves. The neurocognitive effects of overnight sleep deprivation were quite evident, and such effects predicted subsequent performance impairment on a flight simulator task. Sensitivity to diurnal circadian variations was also demonstrated. With further refinement and independent validation, the SAM Test may prove useful for assessing readiness-to-perform in high-asset personnel working in demanding, high risk situations.

  4. Brainstem Monitoring in the Neurocritical Care Unit: A Rationale for Real-Time, Automated Neurophysiological Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James L; Bailes, Julian E; Hassan, Ahmed N; Sindelar, Brian; Patel, Vimal; Fino, John

    2017-02-01

    Patients with severe traumatic brain injury or large intracranial space-occupying lesions (spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, infarction, or tumor) commonly present to the neurocritical care unit with an altered mental status. Many experience progressive stupor and coma from mass effects and transtentorial brain herniation compromising the ascending arousal (reticular activating) system. Yet, little progress has been made in the practicality of bedside, noninvasive, real-time, automated, neurophysiological brainstem, or cerebral hemispheric monitoring. In this critical review, we discuss the ascending arousal system, brain herniation, and shortcomings of our current management including the neurological exam, intracranial pressure monitoring, and neuroimaging. We present a rationale for the development of nurse-friendly-continuous, automated, and alarmed-evoked potential monitoring, based upon the clinical and experimental literature, advances in the prognostication of cerebral anoxia, and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.

  5. Expectations affect psychological and neurophysiological benefits even after a single bout of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes, Hendrik; Leukel, Christian; Jo, Han-Gue; Seelig, Harald; Schmidt, Stefan; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2017-04-01

    The study investigated whether typical psychological, physiological, and neurophysiological changes from a single exercise are affected by one's beliefs and expectations. Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to four groups and saw different multimedia presentations suggesting that the subsequent exercise (moderate 30 min cycling) would result in more or less health benefits (induced expectations). Additionally, we assessed habitual expectations reflecting previous experience and beliefs regarding exercise benefits. Participants with more positive habitual expectations consistently demonstrated both greater psychological benefits (more enjoyment, mood increase, and anxiety reduction) and greater increase of alpha-2 power, assessed with electroencephalography. Manipulating participants' expectations also resulted in largely greater increases of alpha-2 power, but not in more psychological exercise benefits. On the physiological level, participants decreased their blood pressure after exercising, but this was independent of their expectations. These results indicate that habitual expectations in particular affect exercise-induced psychological and neurophysiological changes in a self-fulfilling manner.

  6. Neuroimaging and clinical neurophysiology in cluster headache and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Lars; Sandrini, Giorgio; Perrotta, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Clinical neurophysiology and neuroimaging are two non-invasive approaches used to investigate the pathophysiological basis of primary headaches, including cluster headache (CH) and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Modern neuroimaging has revolutionized our understanding of the path......Clinical neurophysiology and neuroimaging are two non-invasive approaches used to investigate the pathophysiological basis of primary headaches, including cluster headache (CH) and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Modern neuroimaging has revolutionized our understanding...... treatments Trigeminofacial reflexes, the nociceptive flexion reflex, and evoked potentials have been used in TACs to explore the functional state of brainstem and spinal structures involved in pain processing, contributing to our understanding of the pathophysiology of these primary headaches....

  7. A mechanical explanation for cytoskeletal rings and helices in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Steven S; Arkin, Adam P

    2007-09-15

    Several bacterial proteins have been shown to polymerize into coils or rings on cell membranes. These include the cytoskeletal proteins MreB, FtsZ, and MinD, which together with other cell components make up what is being called the bacterial cytoskeleton. We believe that these shapes arise, at least in part, from the interaction of the inherent mechanical properties of the protein polymers and the constraints imposed by the curved cell membrane. This hypothesis, presented as a simple mechanical model, was tested with numerical energy-minimization methods from which we found that there are five low-energy polymer morphologies on a rod-shaped membrane: rings, lines, helices, loops, and polar-targeted circles. Analytic theory was used to understand the possible structures and to create phase diagrams that show which parameter combinations lead to which structures. Inverting the results, it is possible to infer the effective mechanical bending parameters of protein polymers from fluorescence images of their shapes. This theory also provides a plausible explanation for the morphological changes exhibited by the Z ring in a sporulating Bacillus subtilis; is used to calculate the mechanical force exerted on a cell membrane by a polymer; and allows predictions of polymer shapes in mutant cells.

  8. Method and metaphysics in Clements's and Gleason's ecological explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Christopher

    2007-03-01

    To generate explanatory theory, ecologists must wrestle with how to represent the extremely many, diverse causes behind phenomena in their domain. Early twentieth-century plant ecologists Frederic E. Clements and Henry A. Gleason provide a textbook example of different approaches to explaining vegetation, with Clements allegedly committed, despite abundant exceptions, to a law of vegetation, and Gleason denying the law in favor of less organized phenomena. However, examining Clements's approach to explanation reveals him not to be expressing a law, and instead to be developing an explanatory structure without laws, capable of progressively integrating causal complexity. Moreover, Clements and Gleason largely agree on the causes of vegetation; but, since causal understanding here underdetermines representation, they differ on how to integrate recognized causes into general theory--that is, in their methodologies. Observers of the case may have mistakenly assumed that scientific representation across the disciplines typically aims at laws like Newton's, and that representations always reveal scientists' metaphysical commitments. Ironically, in the present case, this assumption seems to have been made even by observers who regard Clements as nai ve for his alleged commitment to an ecological law.

  9. Photosynthetic responses to altitude: an explanation based on optimality principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Prenticce, Iain Colin; Davis, Tyler; Keenan, Trevor; Wright, Ian; Peng, Changhui

    2017-04-01

    Increasing altitude is commonly accompanied by a declining ratio of leaf-internal to ambient CO2 partial pressures (ci:ca; hereafter, χ) and an increase in carboxylation capacity (Vcmax), while carbon assimilation (A) shows little to no change. Here we provide a consistent, quantitative explanation for these responses based on the 'least-cost hypothesis' for the regulation of χ and the 'co-ordination hypothesis' for the regulation of Vcmax. With leaf temperature held constant, our analysis predicts that the cost of maintaining water transport capacity increases with altitude (due to declining atmospheric pressure and increasing vapour pressure deficit, VPD) while the cost of maintaining carboxylation capacity decreases (due to the enhanced affinity of Rubisco for CO2 at low O2 partial pressures). Both effects favour investment in carboxylation capacity rather than water transport capacity. The response of A then reflects the competing effects of stronger CO2 limitation at low ci versus increased radiation penetration through a thinner atmosphere. These effects of atmospheric pressure are expected to be most strongly expressed in herbaceous plants that can maintain leaf temperatures in a narrow range. In leaves closely coupled to the atmosphere additional effects of declining temperature on photosynthesis are expected to modify but not obliterate those of pressure.

  10. Neurophysiological evidence of impaired self-monitoring in schizotypal personality disorder and its reversal by dopaminergic antagonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Rabella

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: These results indicate that SPD individuals show deficits in self-monitoring analogous to those in schizophrenia. These deficits can be evidenced by neurophysiological measures, suggest a dopaminergic imbalance, and can be reverted by dopaminergic antagonists.

  11. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological benefits from white noise in children with and without ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Baijot, Simon; Slama, Hichem; S?derlund, G?ran; Dan, Bernard; Deltenre, Paul; Colin, C?cile; Deconinck, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background Optimal stimulation theory and moderate brain arousal (MBA) model hypothesize that extra-task stimulation (e.g. white noise) could improve cognitive functions of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigate benefits of white noise on attention and inhibition in children with and without ADHD (7?12?years old), both at behavioral and at neurophysiological levels. Methods Thirty children with and without ADHD performed a visual cued Go/Nogo task in two...

  12. Physiological and neurophysiological determinants of postcancer fatigue: design of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Prinsen Hetty; Bleijenberg Gijs; Zwarts Machiel J; Hopman Maria T E; Heerschap Arend; van Laarhoven Hanneke W M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Postcancer fatigue is a frequently occurring, severe, and invalidating problem, impairing quality of life. Although it is possible to effectively treat postcancer fatigue with cognitive behaviour therapy, the nature of the underlying (neuro)physiology of postcancer fatigue remains unclear. Physiological aspects of fatigue include peripheral fatigue, originating in muscle or the neuromuscular junction; central fatigue, originating in nerves, spinal cord, and brain; and phys...

  13. Making Sense of Taste : Psychophysical, molecular biological and neurophysiological studies of umami taste processing in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Preet Bano

    2011-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate elicits a specific umami taste and increases palatability of food. In order to comprehensively study the mechanisms of the taste perception of glutamate, this work compiles results from several research fields namely, psychophysics, molecular biology and neurophysiology. At the perception level, the aim of the study was to explore individual variation in the perception of glutamate in the healthy population. At the cellular level, the question referred to the role of s...

  14. Neurophysiological Correlates of the Rubber Hand Illusion in Late Evoked and Alpha/Beta Band Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Isa S.; Kayser, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The rubber hand illusion (RHI) allows insights into how the brain resolves conflicting multisensory information regarding body position and ownership. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported a variety of neurophysiological correlates of illusory hand ownership, with conflicting results likely originating from differences in experimental parameters and control conditions. Here, we overcome these limitations by using a fully automated and precisely-timed visuo-tactile stimulation setup to r...

  15. Social Consumer Neuroscience: Neurophysiological Measures of Advertising Effectiveness in a Social Context

    OpenAIRE

    Pozharliev, Rumen; Verbeke, Willem; Bagozzi, Richard

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe application of neurophysiological methods to study the effects of advertising on consumer purchase behavior has seen an enormous growth in recent years. However, little is known about the role social settings have on shaping the human brain during the processing of advertising stimuli. To address this issue, we first review previous key findings of neuroscience research on advertising effectiveness. Next, we discuss traditional advertising research into the effects social cont...

  16. Development of nap neurophysiology: preliminary insights into sleep regulation in early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Kurth, Salome; Jonathan M. Lassonde; PIERPOINT, LAUREN A.; Rusterholz, Thomas; Jenni, Oskar G.; MCCLAIN, IAN J.; Achermann, Peter; LeBourgeois, Monique K.

    2016-01-01

    Although all young children nap, the neurophysiological features and associated developmental trajectories of daytime sleep remain largely unknown. Longitudinal studies of napping physiology are fundamental to understanding sleep regulation during early childhood, a sensitive period in brain and behaviour development and a time when children transition from a biphasic to a monophasic sleep–wakefulness pattern. We investigated daytime sleep in eight healthy children with sleep electroencephalo...

  17. Cannabinoids and Vanilloids in Schizophrenia: Neurophysiological Evidence and Directions for Basic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael N. Ruggiero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of our knowledge of the endocannabinoid system in schizophrenia comes from behavioral measures in rodents, like prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle and open-field locomotion, which are commonly used along with neurochemical approaches or drug challenge designs. Such methods continue to map fundamental mechanisms of sensorimotor gating, hyperlocomotion, social interaction, and underlying monoaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic disturbances. These strategies will require, however, a greater use of neurophysiological tools to better inform clinical research. In this sense, electrophysiology and viral vector-based circuit dissection, like optogenetics, can further elucidate how exogenous cannabinoids worsen (e.g., tetrahydrocannabinol, THC or ameliorate (e.g., cannabidiol, CBD schizophrenia symptoms, like hallucinations, delusions, and cognitive deficits. Also, recent studies point to a complex endocannabinoid-endovanilloid interplay, including the influence of anandamide (endogenous CB1 and TRPV1 agonist on cognitive variables, such as aversive memory extinction. In fact, growing interest has been devoted to TRPV1 receptors as promising therapeutic targets. Here, these issues are reviewed with an emphasis on the neurophysiological evidence. First, we contextualize imaging and electrographic findings in humans. Then, we present a comprehensive review on rodent electrophysiology. Finally, we discuss how basic research will benefit from further combining psychopharmacological and neurophysiological tools.

  18. Neurophysiological and subjective profile of marijuana with varying concentrations of cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, A B; Gevins, A; Coleman, M; ElSohly, M A; de Wit, H

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the contribution of different cannabinoids to the subjective, behavioral and neurophysiological effects of smoked marijuana. Healthy marijuana users (12 men, 11 women) participated in four sessions. They were randomly assigned to a low or a high delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol group (THC; 1.8% versus 3.6%). In the four sessions under blinded conditions subjects smoked marijuana cigarettes containing placebo (no active cannabinoids), or cigarettes containing THC with low or high levels of cannabichromene (CBC; 0.1% versus 0.5%) and low or high levels of cannabidiol (CBD; 0.2% versus 1.0%). Dependent measures included subjective reports, measures of cognitive task performance and neurophysiological measures [electroencephalographic (EEG) and event-related potential (ERP)]. Compared to placebo, active THC cigarettes produced expected effects on mood, behavior and brain activity. A decrease in performance, reduction in EEG power and attenuation of ERP components reflecting attentional processes were observed during tests of working memory and episodic memory. Most of these effects were not dose-dependent. Varying the concentrations of CBC and CBD did not change subjects' responses on any of the outcome measures. These findings are consistent with previous studies indicating that THC and its metabolites are the primary active constituents of marijuana. They also suggest that neurophysiological EEG and ERP measures are useful biomarkers of the effects of THC.

  19. Neurophysiological correlates of attention behavior in early infancy: Implications for emotion regulation during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicole B; Swingler, Margaret M; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-02-01

    Current theoretical conceptualizations of regulatory development suggest that attention processes and emotion regulation processes share common neurophysiological underpinnings and behavioral antecedents such that emotion regulation abilities may build on early attentional skills. To further elucidate this proposed relationship, we tested whether early neurophysiological processes measured during an attention task in infancy predicted in-task attention behavior and whether infants' attention behavior was subsequently associated with their ability to regulate emotion during early childhood (N=388). Results indicated that greater electroencephalogram (EEG) power change (from baseline to task) at medial frontal locations (F3 and F4) during an attention task at 10months of age was associated with concurrent observed behavioral attention. Specifically, greater change in EEG power at the right frontal location (F4) was associated with more attention and greater EEG power at the left frontal location (F3) was associated with less attention, indicating a potential right hemisphere specialization for attention processes already present during the first year of life. In addition, after controlling for 5-month attention behavior, increased behavioral attention at 10months was negatively associated with children's observed frustration to emotional challenge at 3years of age. Finally, the indirect effects from 10-month EEG power change at F3 and F4 to 3-year emotion regulation via infants' 10-month behavioral attention were significant, suggesting that infants' attention behavior is one mechanism through which early neurophysiological activity is related to emotion regulation abilities during childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurophysiological correlates of word processing deficits in isolated reading and isolated spelling disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Sarolta; Landerl, Karin; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Moll, Kristina

    2017-12-24

    In consistent orthographies, isolated reading disorders (iRD) and isolated spelling disorders (iSD) are nearly as common as combined reading-spelling disorders (cRSD). However, the exact nature of the underlying word processing deficits in isolated versus combined literacy deficits are not well understood yet. We applied a phonological lexical decision task (including words, pseudohomophones, legal and illegal pseudowords) during ERP recording to investigate the neurophysiological correlates of lexical and sublexical word-processing in children with iRD, iSD and cRSD compared to typically developing (TD) 9-year-olds. TD children showed enhanced early sensitivity (N170) for word material and for the violation of orthographic rules compared to the other groups. Lexical orthographic effects (higher LPC amplitude for words than for pseudohomophones) were the same in the TD and iRD groups, although processing took longer in children with iRD. In the iSD and cRSD groups, lexical orthographic effects were evident and stable over time only for correctly spelled words. Orthographic representations were intact in iRD children, but word processing took longer compared to TD. Children with spelling disorders had partly missing orthographic representations. Our study is the first to specify the underlying neurophysiology of word processing deficits associated with isolated literacy deficits. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Resting-State Neurophysiological Activity Patterns in Young People with ASD, ADHD, and ASD + ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Tye, Charlotte; Ashwood, Karen L.; Azadi, Bahar; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick F.; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2017-01-01

    Altered power of resting-state neurophysiological activity has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which commonly co-occur. We compared resting-state neurophysiological power in children with ASD, ADHD, co-occurring ASD + ADHD, and typically developing controls. Children with ASD (ASD/ASD + ADHD) showed reduced theta and alpha power compared to children without ASD (controls/ADHD). Children with ADHD (ADHD/ASD + ADHD) displa...

  2. Teaching resources. The Sherlock Holmes lab: investigations in neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Elizabeth M; Schwartz, Paul J

    2006-05-09

    This Teaching Resource describes a research project that can be used in an advanced undergraduate course in neurobiology that covers basic electrophysiology and synaptic transmission. A thought experiment is provided that can be used to assess student understanding of (i) the scientific method, (ii) the process whereby nerve stimulation leads to muscle contraction, and (iii) the use of pharmacological agents to analyze a physiological system.

  3. Potential explanations for control group benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer L; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J; Zuber, Jeffrey K; Kennedy, Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Estimating effectiveness of clinical interventions depends on detecting differences between the responses of intervention and control groups. The outcome, intervention, and moderating factors all may influence the between group change. The absence of a clinically or statistically meaningful difference may also result from control group improvement due to nonspecific factors such as participants' perception of attention, positive regard, expectations, desire to please, and therapeutic alliance with the care provider. We examined perceived benefit and sources of benefit for control caregivers who participated in the CONNECT randomized controlled trial of a dementia caregiving intervention. After the final scheduled data collection in CONNECT, control group participants were asked whether they believed they benefited from study participation. Those who reported benefit were asked to describe the benefit received. Data were analyzed qualitatively. Of 60 available control caregivers, 82% reported a perceived benefit from study participation in five areas: getting information about dementia and caregiving; having someone to talk to and feeling supported; receiving understanding and validation of feelings; knowledge that others were in similar situations; and perceived appreciation of own abilities. Control caregivers who reported benefit were less burdened and depressed and spent less time on duty at baseline than those who did not report benefit. From caregivers' responses, we have identified the assessment battery, both content and time spent in data collection, as a possible mechanism of action for benefit. Study limitations include the better baseline characteristics of the control caregivers who reported benefit, the sample size of benefit control caregivers, the possibility of perceptions of benefit being a function of social desirability, and the lack of a similar question about benefit being asked of intervention caregivers. These findings suggest that the

  4. Adaptive explanations for sensitive windows in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Tim W; Frankenhuis, Willem E

    2015-01-01

    Development in many organisms appears to show evidence of sensitive windows-periods or stages in ontogeny in which individual experience has a particularly strong influence on the phenotype (compared to other periods or stages). Despite great interest in sensitive windows from both fundamental and applied perspectives, the functional (adaptive) reasons why they have evolved are unclear. Here we outline a conceptual framework for understanding when natural selection should favour changes in plasticity across development. Our approach builds on previous theory on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, which relates individual and population differences in plasticity to two factors: the degree of uncertainty about the environmental conditions and the extent to which experiences during development ('cues') provide information about those conditions. We argue that systematic variation in these two factors often occurs within the lifetime of a single individual, which will select for developmental changes in plasticity. Of central importance is how informational properties of the environment interact with the life history of the organism. Phenotypes may be more or less sensitive to environmental cues at different points in development because of systematic changes in (i) the frequency of cues, (ii) the informativeness of cues, (iii) the fitness benefits of information and/or (iv) the constraints on plasticity. In relatively stable environments, a sensible null expectation is that plasticity will gradually decline with age as the developing individual gathers information. We review recent models on the evolution of developmental changes in plasticity and explain how they fit into our conceptual framework. Our aim is to encourage an adaptive perspective on sensitive windows in development.

  5. Neurophysiologic effects of spinal manipulation in patients with chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkowski Stevan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is growing evidence for the efficacy of SM to treat LBP, little is known on the mechanisms and physiologic effects of these treatments. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine whether SM alters the amplitude of the motor evoked potential (MEP or the short-latency stretch reflex of the erector spinae muscles, and whether these physiologic responses depend on whether SM causes an audible joint sound. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to elicit MEPs and electromechanical tapping to elicit short-latency stretch reflexes in 10 patients with chronic LBP and 10 asymptomatic controls. Neurophysiologic outcomes were measured before and after SM. Changes in MEP and stretch reflex amplitude were examined based on patient grouping (LBP vs. controls, and whether SM caused an audible joint sound. Results SM did not alter the erector spinae MEP amplitude in patients with LBP (0.80 ± 0.33 vs. 0.80 ± 0.30 μV or in asymptomatic controls (0.56 ± 0.09 vs. 0.57 ± 0.06 μV. Similarly, SM did not alter the erector spinae stretch reflex amplitude in patients with LBP (0.66 ± 0.12 vs. 0.66 ± 0.15 μV or in asymptomatic controls (0.60 ± 0.09 vs. 0.55 ± 0.08 μV. Interestingly, study participants exhibiting an audible response exhibited a 20% decrease in the stretch reflex (p Conclusions These findings suggest that a single SM treatment does not systematically alter corticospinal or stretch reflex excitability of the erector spinae muscles (when assessed ~ 10-minutes following SM; however, they do indicate that the stretch reflex is attenuated when SM causes an audible response. This finding provides insight into the mechanisms of SM, and suggests that SM that produces an audible response may mechanistically act to decrease the sensitivity of the muscle spindles and/or the various segmental sites of the Ia reflex pathway.

  6. Neurophysiological and behavioral responses to music therapy in vegetative and minimally conscious States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Julian; James, L; Palaniappan, R; Taborin, J; Fachner, J; Magee, W L

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of awareness for those with disorders of consciousness is a challenging undertaking, due to the complex presentation of the population. Debate surrounds whether behavioral assessments provide greatest accuracy in diagnosis compared to neuro-imaging methods, and despite developments in both, misdiagnosis rates remain high. Music therapy may be effective in the assessment and rehabilitation with this population due to effects of musical stimuli on arousal, attention, and emotion, irrespective of verbal or motor deficits. However, an evidence base is lacking as to which procedures are most effective. To address this, a neurophysiological and behavioral study was undertaken comparing electroencephalogram (EEG), heart rate variability, respiration, and behavioral responses of 20 healthy subjects with 21 individuals in vegetative or minimally conscious states (VS or MCS). Subjects were presented with live preferred music and improvised music entrained to respiration (procedures typically used in music therapy), recordings of disliked music, white noise, and silence. ANOVA tests indicated a range of significant responses (p ≤ 0.05) across healthy subjects corresponding to arousal and attention in response to preferred music including concurrent increases in respiration rate with globally enhanced EEG power spectra responses (p = 0.05-0.0001) across frequency bandwidths. Whilst physiological responses were heterogeneous across patient cohorts, significant post hoc EEG amplitude increases for stimuli associated with preferred music were found for frontal midline theta in six VS and four MCS subjects, and frontal alpha in three VS and four MCS subjects (p = 0.05-0.0001). Furthermore, behavioral data showed a significantly increased blink rate for preferred music (p = 0.029) within the VS cohort. Two VS cases are presented with concurrent changes (p ≤ 0.05) across measures indicative of discriminatory responses to both music therapy

  7. Understanding the Neurophysiology and Quantification of Brain Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Elizabeth; Sugrue, Leo; Wintermark, Max

    2017-04-01

    Newer neuroimaging technology has moved beyond pure anatomical imaging and ventured into functional and physiological imaging. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (PWI), which depicts hemodynamic conditions of the brain at the microvascular level, has an increasingly important role in clinical central nervous system applications. This review provides an overview of the established role of PWI in brain tumor and cerebrovascular imaging, as well as some emerging applications in neuroimaging. PWI allows better characterization of brain tumors, grading, and monitoring. In acute stroke imaging, PWI is utilized to distinguish penumbra from infarcted tissue. PWI is a promising tool in the assessment of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, although its clinical role is not yet defined.

  8. Global environmental change: local perceptions, understandings, and explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyhälä, Aili; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Lehvävirta, Hertta; Byg, Anja; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel; Salpeteur, Matthieu; Thornton, Thomas F

    2016-09-01

    Global environmental change (GEC) is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC- particularly in small-scale societies-and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management) based on individual perceptions. We carried out a systematic literature review that aims to provide an exhaustive state-of-the-art of the degree to and manner in which the study of local perceptions of change are being addressed in GEC research. We reviewed 126 articles found in peer-reviewed journals (between 1998 and 2014) that address local perceptions of GEC. We used three particular lenses of analysis that are known to influence local perceptions, namely (i) cognition, (ii) culture and knowledge, and (iii) possibilities for adaptation.We present our findings on the geographical distribution of the current research, the most common changes reported, perceived drivers and impacts of change, and local explanations and evaluations of change and impacts. Overall, we found the studies to be geographically biased, lacking methodological reporting, mostly theory based with little primary data, and lacking of indepth analysis of the psychological and ontological influences in perception and implications for adaptation. We provide recommendations for future GEC research and propose the development of a "meta-language" around adaptation, perception, and mediation to encourage a greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity around these phenomena across multiple scales, and improved codesign and facilitation of locally relevant adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  9. Global environmental change: local perceptions, understandings, and explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyhälä, Aili; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Lehvävirta, Hertta; Byg, Anja; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel; Salpeteur, Matthieu; Thornton, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Global environmental change (GEC) is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC— particularly in small-scale societies—and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management) based on individual perceptions. We carried out a systematic literature review that aims to provide an exhaustive state-of-the-art of the degree to and manner in which the study of local perceptions of change are being addressed in GEC research. We reviewed 126 articles found in peer-reviewed journals (between 1998 and 2014) that address local perceptions of GEC. We used three particular lenses of analysis that are known to influence local perceptions, namely (i) cognition, (ii) culture and knowledge, and (iii) possibilities for adaptation.We present our findings on the geographical distribution of the current research, the most common changes reported, perceived drivers and impacts of change, and local explanations and evaluations of change and impacts. Overall, we found the studies to be geographically biased, lacking methodological reporting, mostly theory based with little primary data, and lacking of indepth analysis of the psychological and ontological influences in perception and implications for adaptation. We provide recommendations for future GEC research and propose the development of a “meta-language” around adaptation, perception, and mediation to encourage a greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity around these phenomena across multiple scales, and improved codesign and facilitation of locally relevant adaptation and mitigation strategies. PMID:27695479

  10. A neurophysiological study into the foundations of tonal harmony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, Elika; Idsardi, William J

    2009-02-18

    Our findings provide magnetoencephalographic evidence that the mismatch-negativity response to two-note chords (dyads) is modulated by a combination of abstract cognitive differences and lower-level differences in the auditory signal. Participants were presented with series of simple-ratio sinusoidal dyads (perfect fourths and perfect fifths) in which the difference between the standard and deviant dyad exhibited an interval change, a shift in pitch space, or both. In addition, the standard-deviant pair of dyads either shared one note or both notes were changed. Only the condition that featured both abstract changes (interval change and pitch-space shift) and two novel notes showed a significantly larger magnetoencephalographic mismatch-negativity response than the other conditions in the right hemisphere. Implications for music and language processing are discussed.

  11. Explanations, mechanisms, and developmental models: Why the nativist account of early perceptual learning is not a proper mechanistic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenović Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last several decades a number of studies on perceptual learning in early infancy have suggested that even infants seem to be sensitive to the way objects move and interact in the world. In order to explain the early emergence of infants’ sensitivity to causal patterns in the world some psychologists have proposed that core knowledge of objects and causal relations is innate (Leslie & Keeble 1987, Carey & Spelke, 1994; Keil, 1995; Spelke et al., 1994. The goal of this paper is to examine the nativist developmental model by investigating the criteria that a mechanistic model needs to fulfill if it is to be explanatory. Craver (2006 put forth a number of such criteria and developed a few very useful distinctions between explanation sketches and proper mechanistic explanations. By applying these criteria to the nativist developmental model I aim to show, firstly, that nativists only partially characterize the phenomenon at stake without giving us the details of when and under which conditions perception and attention in early infancy take place. Secondly, nativist start off with a description of the phenomena to be explained (even if it is only a partial description but import into it a particular theory of perception that requires further empirical evidence and further defense on its own. Furthermore, I argue that innate knowledge is a good candidate for a filler term (a term that is used to name the still unknown processes and parts of the mechanism and is likely to become redundant. Recent extensive research on early intermodal perception indicates that the mechanism enabling the perception of regularities and causal patterns in early infancy is grounded in our neurophysiology. However, this mechanism is fairly basic and does not involve highly sophisticated cognitive structures or innate core knowledge. I conclude with a remark that a closer examination of the mechanisms involved in early perceptual learning indicates that the nativism

  12. Direct behavioral and neurophysiological evidence for retronasal olfaction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R Rebello

    Full Text Available The neuroscience of flavor perception is hence becoming increasingly important to understand food flavor perception that guides food selection, ingestion and appreciation. We recently provided evidence that rats can use the retronasal mode of olfaction, an essential element of human flavor perception. We showed that in rats, like humans, odors can acquire a taste. We and others also defined how the input of the olfactory bulb (OB -not functionally imageable in humans- codes retronasal smell in anesthetized rat. The powerful awake transgenic mouse, however, would be a valuable additional model in the study of flavor neuroscience. We used a go/no-go behavioral task to test the mouse's ability to detect and discriminate the retronasal odor amyl acetate. In this paradigm a tasteless aqueous odor solution was licked by water-restricted head-fixed mice from a lick spout. Orthonasal contamination was avoided. The retronasal odor was successfully discriminated by mice against pure distilled water in a concentration-dependent manner. Bulbectomy removed the mice's ability to discriminate the retronasal odor but not tastants. The OB showed robust optical calcium responses to retronasal odorants in these awake mice. These results suggest that mice, like rats, are capable of smelling retronasally. This direct neuro-behavioral evidence establishes the mouse as a useful additional animal model for flavor research.

  13. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 7: Guidelines for EEG Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, William O; Olga, Selioutski; Ochoa, Juan G; Munger Clary, Heidi; Cheek, Janna; Drislane, Frank; Tsuchida, Tammy N

    2016-08-01

    This EEG Guideline incorporates the practice of structuring a report of results obtained during routine adult electroencephalography. It is intended to reflect one of the current practices in reporting an EEG and serves as a revision of the previous guideline entitled "Writing an EEG Report." The goal of this guideline is not only to convey clinically relevant information, but also to improve interrater reliability for clinical and research use by standardizing the format of EEG reports. With this in mind, there is expanded documentation of the patient history to include more relevant clinical information that can affect the EEG recording and interpretation. Recommendations for the technical conditions of the recording are also enhanced to include post hoc review parameters and type of EEG recording. Sleep feature documentation is also expanded upon. More descriptive terms are included for background features and interictal discharges that are concordant with efforts to standardize terminology. In the clinical correlation section, examples of common clinical scenarios are now provided that encourages uniformity in reporting. Including digital samples of abnormal waveforms is now readily available with current EEG recording systems and may be beneficial in augmenting reports when controversial waveforms or important features are encountered.

  14. Neurophysiological evidence that perceptions of fluency produce mere exposure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leynes, P Andrew; Addante, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    Recent exposure to people or objects increases liking ratings, the "mere exposure effect" (Zajonc in American Psychologist, 35, 117-123, 1968), and an increase in processing fluency has been identified as a potential mechanism for producing this effect. This fluency hypothesis was directly tested by altering the trial-by-trial image clarity (i.e., fluency) while Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded. In Experiment 1, clarity was altered across two trial blocks that each had homogenous trial-by-trial clarity, whereas clarity varied randomly across trials in Experiment 2. Blocking or randomizing image clarity across trials was expected to produce different levels of relative fluency and alter mere exposure effects. The mere exposure effect (i.e., old products liked more than new products) was observed when stimulus clarity remained constant across trials, and clear image ERPs were more positive than blurry image ERPs. Importantly, these patterns were reversed when clarity varied randomly across test trials, such that participants liked clear images more than blurry (i.e., no mere exposure effect) and clear image ERPs were more negative than blurry image ERPs. The findings provide direct experimental support from both behavioral and electrophysiological measures that, in some contexts, mere exposure is the product of top-down interpretations of fluency.

  15. SEP Montage Variability Comparison during Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Christine; Lolis, Athena Maria; Beric, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative monitoring is performed to provide real-time assessment of the neural structures that can be at risk during spinal surgery. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) are the most commonly used modality for intraoperative monitoring. SEP stability can be affected by many factors during the surgery. This study is a prospective review of SEP recordings obtained during intraoperative monitoring of instrumented spinal surgeries that were performed for chronic underlying neurologic and neuromuscular conditions, such as scoliosis, myelopathy, and spinal stenosis. We analyzed multiple montages at the baseline, and then followed their development throughout the procedure. Our intention was to examine the stability of the SEP recordings throughout the surgical procedure on multiple montages of cortical SEP recordings, with the goal of identifying the appropriate combination of the least number of montages that gives the highest yield of monitorable surgeries. Our study shows that it is necessary to have multiple montages for SEP recordings, as it reduces the number of non-monitorable cases, improves IOM reliability, and therefore could reduce false positives warnings to the surgeons. Out of all the typical montages available for use, our study has shown that the recording montage Cz-C4/Cz-C3 (Cz-Cc) is the most reliable and stable throughout the procedure and should be the preferred montage followed throughout the surgery.

  16. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 7: Guidelines for EEG Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, William O; Selioutski, Olga; Ochoa, Juan G; Clary, Heidi Munger; Cheek, Janna; Drislane, Frank W; Tsuchida, Tammy N

    2016-01-01

    This EEG Guideline incorporates the practice of structuring a report of results obtained during routine adult electroencephalography. It is intended to reflect one of the current practices in reporting an EEG and serves as a revision of the previous guideline entitled "Writing an EEG Report." The goal of this guideline is not only to convey clinically relevant information, but also to improve interrater reliability for clinical and research use by standardizing the format of EEG reports. With this in mind, there is expanded documentation of the patient history to include more relevant clinical information that can affect the EEG recording and interpretation. Recommendations for the technical conditions of the recording are also enhanced to include post hoc review parameters and type of EEG recording. Sleep feature documentation is also expanded upon. More descriptive terms are included for background features and interictal discharges that are concordant with efforts to standardize terminology. In the clinical correlation section, examples of common clinical scenarios are now provided that encourages uniformity in reporting. Including digital samples of abnormal waveforms is now readily available with current EEG recording systems and may be beneficial in augmenting reports when controversial waveforms or important features are encountered.

  17. Neurophysiological characterization of subacute stroke patients: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lamola

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Various degrees of neural reorganization may occur in affected and unaffected hemispheres in the early phase after stroke and several months later. Recent literature suggests to apply a stratification based on lesion location and to consider patients with cortico-subcortical and subcortical strokes separately: different lesion location may also influence therapeutic response. In this study we used a longitudinal approach to perform TMS assessment (Motor Evoked Potentials, MEP, and Silent Period, SP and clinical evaluations (Barthel Index, Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper limb motor function and Wolf Motor Function Test in 10 cortical-subcortical and 10 subcortical ischemic stroke patients. Evaluations were performed in a window between 10 and 45 days (t0 and at 3 months after the acute event (t1. Our main finding is that 3 months after the acute event patients affected by subcortical stroke presented a reduction in contralateral SP duration in the unaffected hemisphere; this trend is related to clinical improvement of upper limb motor function. In conclusion, SP proved to be a valid parameter to characterize cortical reorganization patterns in stroke survivors and provided useful information about motor recovery within three months in subcortical patients.

  18. Different neurophysiological mechanisms underlying word and rule extraction from speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth De Diego Balaguer

    Full Text Available The initial process of identifying words from spoken language and the detection of more subtle regularities underlying their structure are mandatory processes for language acquisition. Little is known about the cognitive mechanisms that allow us to extract these two types of information and their specific time-course of acquisition following initial contact with a new language. We report time-related electrophysiological changes that occurred while participants learned an artificial language. These changes strongly correlated with the discovery of the structural rules embedded in the words. These changes were clearly different from those related to word learning and occurred during the first minutes of exposition. There is a functional distinction in the nature of the electrophysiological signals during acquisition: an increase in negativity (N400 in the central electrodes is related to word-learning and development of a frontal positivity (P2 is related to rule-learning. In addition, the results of an online implicit and a post-learning test indicate that, once the rules of the language have been acquired, new words following the rule are processed as words of the language. By contrast, new words violating the rule induce syntax-related electrophysiological responses when inserted online in the stream (an early frontal negativity followed by a late posterior positivity and clear lexical effects when presented in isolation (N400 modulation. The present study provides direct evidence suggesting that the mechanisms to extract words and structural dependencies from continuous speech are functionally segregated. When these mechanisms are engaged, the electrophysiological marker associated with rule-learning appears very quickly, during the earliest phases of exposition to a new language.

  19. Making context explicit for explanation and incremental knowledge acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezillon, P. [Univ. Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Intelligent systems may be improved by making context explicit in problem solving. This is a lesson drawn from a study of the reasons why a number of knowledge-based systems (KBSs) failed. We discuss the interest to make context explicit in explanation generation and incremental knowledge acquisition, two important aspects of intelligent systems that aim to cooperate with users. We show how context can be used to better explain and incrementally acquire knowledge. The advantages of using context in explanation and incremental knowledge acquisition are discussed through SEPIT, an expert system for supporting diagnosis and explanation through simulation of power plants. We point out how the limitations of such systems may be overcome by making context explicit.

  20. Towards to An Explanation for Conceptual Change: A Mechanistic Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari

    2014-07-01

    Conceptual change is one of the most studied fields in science education and psychology of learning. However, there are still some foundational issues in conceptual change research on which no clear consensus has emerged. Firstly, there is no agreement on what changes in belief and concept systems constitute conceptual change and what changes do not. Secondly, there is no consensus on what the specific mechanisms of conceptual change are. Thirdly, there is no common explanatory framework of how to explain conceptual change. In this paper a sketch for explanations of conceptual change is outlined. According to this account, the explanation for conceptual change requires (1) a description for the information processing task and (2) a sufficiently accurate and detailed description of the cognitive mechanisms responsible for the task. The scope and limits of this type of explanation are discussed.

  1. The geomagnetic field - An explanation for the microturbulence in coaxial gun plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. W.; Ahluwalia, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The complexity introduced by the geomagnetic field in several regions of a coaxial gun plasma device is described. It is shown that the annihilation of the swept-up geomagnetic flux, trapped within the highly compressed turbulent plasma, provides an explanation for varied performance and experimental results. The results indicate that the device should be aligned along the direction of the local geomagnetic field or enclosed in a mu-metal shield.

  2. Explanation and teleology in Aristotle's Philosophy of Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Leunissen, Mariska Elisabeth Maria Philomena Johannes

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation explores Aristotle’s use of teleology as a principle of explanation, especially as it is used in the natural treatises. Its main purposes are, first, to determine the function, structure, and explanatory power of teleological explanations in four of Aristotle’s natural treatises, that is, in Physica (book II), De Anima, De Partibus Animalium (including the practice in books II-IV), and De Caelo (book II). Its second purpose is to confront these findings about Aristotle’s pra...

  3. Supporting students' construction of scientific explanation through curricular scaffolds and teacher instructional practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Katherine Lynch

    An essential goal of classroom science is to help all students become scientifically literate to encourage greater public understanding in a science infused world. This type of literacy requires that students participate in scientific inquiry practices such as construction of arguments or scientific explanations in which they justify their claims with appropriate evidence and reasoning. Although scientific explanations are an important learning goal, this complex inquiry practice is frequently omitted from k-12 science classrooms and students have difficulty creating them. I investigated how two different curricular scaffolds (context-specific vs. generic), teacher instructional practices, and the interaction between these two types of support influence student learning of scientific explanations. This study focuses on an eight-week middle school chemistry curriculum, How can I make new stuff from old stuff?, which was enacted by six teachers with 578 students during the 2004-2005 school year. Overall, students' written scientific explanations improved during the unit in which they were provided with multiple forms of teacher and curricular support. A growth curve model of student learning showed that there was a significant difference in the effect of the two curricular scaffolds towards the end of the unit and on the posttest. The context-specific scaffolds resulted in greater student learning of how to write scientific explanations, but only for three of the six teachers. The case studies created from the videotapes of classroom enactments revealed that teachers varied in which instructional practices they engaged in and the quality of those practices. Analyses suggested that the curricular scaffolds and teacher instructional practices were synergistic in that the supports interacted and the effect of the written curricular scaffolds depended on the teacher's enactment of the curriculum. The context-specific curricular scaffolds were more successful in

  4. The neurophysiology of language processing shapes the evolution of grammar: evidence from case marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Balthasar; Witzlack-Makarevich, Alena; Choudhary, Kamal K; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Do principles of language processing in the brain affect the way grammar evolves over time or is language change just a matter of socio-historical contingency? While the balance of evidence has been ambiguous and controversial, we identify here a neurophysiological constraint on the processing of language that has a systematic effect on the evolution of how noun phrases are marked by case (i.e. by such contrasts as between the English base form she and the object form her). In neurophysiological experiments across diverse languages we found that during processing, participants initially interpret the first base-form noun phrase they hear (e.g. she…) as an agent (which would fit a continuation like … greeted him), even when the sentence later requires the interpretation of a patient role (as in … was greeted). We show that this processing principle is also operative in Hindi, a language where initial base-form noun phrases most commonly denote patients because many agents receive a special case marker ("ergative") and are often left out in discourse. This finding suggests that the principle is species-wide and independent of the structural affordances of specific languages. As such, the principle favors the development and maintenance of case-marking systems that equate base-form cases with agents rather than with patients. We confirm this evolutionary bias by statistical analyses of phylogenetic signals in over 600 languages worldwide, controlling for confounding effects from language contact. Our findings suggest that at least one core property of grammar systematically adapts in its evolution to the neurophysiological conditions of the brain, independently of socio-historical factors. This opens up new avenues for understanding how specific properties of grammar have developed in tight interaction with the biological evolution of our species.

  5. The neurophysiology of language processing shapes the evolution of grammar: evidence from case marking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balthasar Bickel

    Full Text Available Do principles of language processing in the brain affect the way grammar evolves over time or is language change just a matter of socio-historical contingency? While the balance of evidence has been ambiguous and controversial, we identify here a neurophysiological constraint on the processing of language that has a systematic effect on the evolution of how noun phrases are marked by case (i.e. by such contrasts as between the English base form she and the object form her. In neurophysiological experiments across diverse languages we found that during processing, participants initially interpret the first base-form noun phrase they hear (e.g. she… as an agent (which would fit a continuation like … greeted him, even when the sentence later requires the interpretation of a patient role (as in … was greeted. We show that this processing principle is also operative in Hindi, a language where initial base-form noun phrases most commonly denote patients because many agents receive a special case marker ("ergative" and are often left out in discourse. This finding suggests that the principle is species-wide and independent of the structural affordances of specific languages. As such, the principle favors the development and maintenance of case-marking systems that equate base-form cases with agents rather than with patients. We confirm this evolutionary bias by statistical analyses of phylogenetic signals in over 600 languages worldwide, controlling for confounding effects from language contact. Our findings suggest that at least one core property of grammar systematically adapts in its evolution to the neurophysiological conditions of the brain, independently of socio-historical factors. This opens up new avenues for understanding how specific properties of grammar have developed in tight interaction with the biological evolution of our species.

  6. Current and novel insights into the neurophysiology of migraine and its implications for therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerman, Simon; Romero-Reyes, Marcela; Holland, Philip R

    2017-04-01

    Migraine headache and its associated symptoms have plagued humans for two millennia. It is manifest throughout the world, and affects more than 1/6 of the global population. It is the most common brain disorder, and is characterized by moderate to severe unilateral headache that is accompanied by vomiting, nausea, photophobia, phonophobia, and other hypersensitive symptoms of the senses. While there is still a clear lack of understanding of its neurophysiology, it is beginning to be understood, and it seems to suggest migraine is a disorder of brain sensory processing, characterized by a generalized neuronal hyperexcitability. The complex symptomatology of migraine indicates that multiple neuronal systems are involved, including brainstem and diencephalic systems, which function abnormally, resulting in premonitory symptoms, ultimately evolving to affect the dural trigeminovascular system, and the pain phase of migraine. The migraineur also seems to be particularly sensitive to fluctuations in homeostasis, such as sleep, feeding and stress, reflecting the abnormality of functioning in these brainstem and diencephalic systems. Implications for therapeutic development have grown out of our understanding of migraine neurophysiology, leading to major drug classes, such as triptans, calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists, and 5-HT1F receptor agonists, as well as neuromodulatory approaches, with the promise of more to come. The present review will discuss the current understanding of the neurophysiology of migraine, particularly migraine headache, and novel insights into the complex neural networks responsible for associated neurological symptoms, and how interaction of these networks with migraine pain pathways has implications for the development of novel therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancing Learning from Different Visualizations by Self-Explanation Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lijia; Atkinson, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the two experiments was to investigate the potential effects of different types of visualizations and self-explanation prompts on learning human cardiovascular system in a multimedia environment. In Experiments 1 and 2, 70 and 44 college students were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in a 2 × 2 factorial design with…

  8. Children's Ability to Learn Evolutionary Explanations for Biological Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtulman, Andrew; Neal, Cara; Lindquist, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Evolution by natural selection is often relegated to the high school curriculum on the assumption that younger students cannot grasp its complexity. We sought to test that assumption by teaching children ages 4-12 (n = 96) a selection-based explanation for biological adaptation and comparing their success to that of adults…

  9. Another explanation for the cause of heterosis phenomenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The explanation for heterosis phenomenon is based on ideas: (i) every trait of an organism depends on many genes. (ii) Inbreeding depression and heterosis are related to individual genetic diversity. To assess individual genetic diversity of an organism, I suggest the term number of genetic properties. Assessing ...

  10. Another explanation for the cause of heterosis phenomenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The explanation for heterosis phenomenon is based on ideas: (i) every trait of an organism depends on many genes. (ii) Inbreeding depression and heterosis are related to individual genetic diversity. To assess individual genetic diversity ofan organism, I suggest the term number of genetic properties. Assessing the ...

  11. The relevance of Ghanaian Akan proverbs to explanations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To address this gap, this paper: identifies some Ghanaian Akan proverbs and categorizes them into major themes; draws-out explanations from these proverbs and demonstrate their explanatory power for some key human resource (HR) principles and corporate values such as team work, training and development, ...

  12. Using Google Earth to Teach Plate Tectonics and Science Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Lisa M.; Plautz, Mike; Almquist, Heather; Crews, Jeff; Estrada, Jen

    2012-01-01

    "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" emphasizes that the practice of science is inherently a model-building activity focused on constructing explanations using evidence and reasoning (NRC 2012). Because building and refining is an iterative process, middle school students may view this practice…

  13. The Forecast Combination Puzzle: A Simple Theoretical Explanation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Claeskens (Gerda); J. Magnus (Jan); A. Vasnev (Andrey); W. Wang (Wendun)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ is papers offers a theoretical explanation for the stylized fact that forecast combinations with estimated optimal weights often perform poorly in applications. The properties of the forecast combination are typically derived under the assumption that the weights are

  14. The forecast combination puzzle : A simple theoretical explanation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claeskens, Gerda; Magnus, Jan R.; Vasnev, Andrey L.; Wang, Wendun

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a theoretical explanation for the stylized fact that forecast combinations with estimated optimal weights often perform poorly in applications. The properties of the forecast combination are typically derived under the assumption that the weights are fixed, while in practice they

  15. Why have socio-economic explanations between favoured over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    explanations trump cultural ones in the South African HIV aetiological literature? In this article, we explore how three factors (a belief in monogamy as a universal norm, HIV's emergence in a time of the construction of non-racialism, and a simplified understanding of HIV epidemiology) have intersected to produce this bias ...

  16. Explanations of Freud's Psychoanalysis Theories on the Lives and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines some of the various explanations of Freud's theories on a selected number of Western Artist and their works. It highlights the impact of his findings on the authenticity of the concept as regards, dreams, the Oedipus complex and imagery. Its objective is to prove that a number of Western European artist ...

  17. Social class, psychosocial factors and disease : from deception towards explanation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchor, Adelita Vijaynti

    1994-01-01

    This thesis deals with the question of the extent to which socioeconomic status (sas) is related to disease. The main focus is the explanation of this relation, applying a muitifactor approach aimed at the integration of socioeconomic, psychosocial factors and health-related behavior. ... Zie:

  18. Cognitive processes in history: learners' explanation of the causes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite enormous growth in the study of learners' cognitive processes, relatively little is known about how learners reason about social phenomena and issues involved in disciplines, such as history. Yet, according to scholars the process could hardly be more important, and it demands redress and scientific explanation.

  19. A skin-picking disorder case report: a psychopathological explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 44-year-old woman, without known previous psychiatric history, hospitalized after a significant hemorrhage caused by self-inflicted deep facial dermal lesions (with muscle exposition. Psychopathological possible explanations of this case, as in similar reviewed ones, are related to frustration, aggression, and impulsivity.

  20. A Self-Categorization Explanation for Opinion Consensus Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinguang; Reid, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The public expression of opinions (and related communicative activities) hinges upon the perception of opinion consensus. Current explanations for opinion consensus perceptions typically focus on egocentric and other biases, rather than functional cognitions. Using self-categorization theory we showed that opinion consensus perceptions flow from…

  1. Some Problems in the Explanation of Interest Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1947-01-01

    textabstractThe article discusses the problems in the explanation of interest rates. Econometric analysis has to start from a theoretical scheme of the subject, its object indicates the determinants or data of the rates of interest and the functional relationship between these rates and their

  2. 19 CFR 191.133 - Explanation of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Explanation of terms. 191.133 Section 191.133 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... or aircraft, changes the type of the vessel or aircraft, substantially prolongs the life of the...

  3. The Importance of Qualitative Research for Causal Explanation in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of causation has long been controversial in qualitative research, and many qualitative researchers have rejected causal explanation as incompatible with an interpretivist or constructivist approach. This rejection conflates causation with the positivist "theory" of causation, and ignores an alternative understanding of causation,…

  4. Effects of deep brain stimulation on balance and gait in patients with Parkinson's disease: A systematic neurophysiological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collomb-Clerc, A; Welter, M-L

    2015-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) provides an efficient treatment for the alleviation of motor signs in patients with Parkinson's disease. The effects of DBS on gait and balance disorders are less successful and may even lead to an aggravation of freezing of gait and imbalance. The identification of a substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr)-mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) network in the control of locomotion and postural control and of its dysfunction/lesion in PD patients with gait and balance disorders led to suggestion that DBS should be targeting the SNr and the pedunculopontine nucleus (part of the MLR) for PD patients with these disabling axial motor signs. However, the clinical results to date have been disappointing. In this review, we discuss the effects of DBS of these basal ganglia and brainstem structures on the neurophysiological parameters of gait and balance control in PD patients. Overall, the data suggest that both STN and GPi-DBS improve gait parameters and quiet standing postural control in PD patients, but have no effect or may even aggravate dynamic postural control, in particular with STN-DBS. Conversely, DBS of the SNr and PPN has no effect on gait parameters but improves anticipatory postural adjustments and gait postural control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Analyzing the auditory scene: neurophysiologic evidence of a dissociation between detection of regularity and detection of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannese, Alessia; Herrmann, Christoph S; Sussman, Elyse

    2015-05-01

    Detecting regularity and change in the environment is crucial for survival, as it enables making predictions about the world and informing goal-directed behavior. In the auditory modality, the detection of regularity involves segregating incoming sounds into distinct perceptual objects (stream segregation). The detection of change from this within-stream regularity is associated with the mismatch negativity, a component of auditory event-related brain potentials (ERPs). A central unanswered question is how the detection of regularity and the detection of change are interrelated, and whether attention affects the former, the latter, or both. Here we show that the detection of regularity and the detection of change can be empirically dissociated, and that attention modulates the detection of change without precluding the detection of regularity, and the perceptual organization of the auditory background into distinct streams. By applying frequency spectra analysis on the EEG of subjects engaged in a selective listening task, we found distinct peaks of ERP synchronization, corresponding to the rhythm of the frequency streams, independently of whether the stream was attended or ignored. Our results provide direct neurophysiological evidence of regularity detection in the auditory background, and show that it can occur independently of change detection and in the absence of attention.

  6. Neurophysiological mechanisms in acceptance and commitment therapy in opioid-addicted patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Rachel F; Potter, Jennifer S; Robin, Donald A

    2016-04-30

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been effectively utilized to treat both chronic pain and substance use disorder independently. Given these results and the vital need to treat the comorbidity of the two disorders, a pilot ACT treatment was implemented in individuals with comorbid chronic pain and opioid addiction. This pilot study supported using neurophysiology to characterize treatment effects and revealed that, following ACT, participants with this comorbidity exhibited reductions in brain activation due to painful stimulus and in connectivity at rest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Listening to Mozart enhances spatial-temporal reasoning: towards a neurophysiological basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, F H; Shaw, G L; Ky, K N

    1995-02-06

    Motivated by predictions of a structured neuronal model of the cortex, we performed a behavioral experiment which showed that listening to a Mozart piano sonata produced significant short-term enhancement of spatial-temporal reasoning in college students. Here we present results from an experiment which replicates these findings, and shows that (i) 'repetitive' music does not enhance reasoning; (ii) a taped short story does not enhance reasoning; and (iii) short-term memory is not enhanced. We propose experiments designed to explore the neurophysiological bases of this causal enhancement of spatial-temporal reasoning by music, and begin to search for quantitative measures of further higher cognitive effects of music.

  8. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological approaches to study of variants of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveyeva E. Yu.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present review carries out analysis of empirical studies concerning neuropsychological and neurophysiological mechanisms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. The current data, regarding malfunctions of brain systems at various levels of aetiopathogenesis (genetic, neurotrasmitting, functioning of separate brain structure, are discussed. The article regards the character of deficit in various components of psychic activity in people with ADHD, namely, executive functions and temporary storage (working memory, activating and neurodynamic components of activity, separate operational characteristics, and motivational impairments of patients with ADHD. The possibility of disclosing some clinical variants of the ADHD syndrome, differing in mechanisms, is also discussed in the article.

  9. Pharmacokinetics & Neurophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S.; Salpekar, Jay A.

    2009-01-01

    Medications administered in clinical practice obtain their therapeutic effect only to the extent that the drug is present in the appropriate concentration at the desired site. To achieve this goal, the prescribing clinician must be aware of how a drug may interact with the physiology of the patient. Pharmacokinetics is the study of this process…

  10. Explanation, argumentation and dialogic interactions in science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Orlando G.

    2016-12-01

    As a responsive article to Miranda Rocksén's paper "The many roles of `explanation' in science education: a case study", this paper aims to emphasize the importance of the two central themes of her paper: dialogic approaches in science education and the role of explanations in science classrooms. I start discussing the concepts of dialogue and dialogism in science classrooms contexts. Dialogism is discussed as the basic tenet from which Rocksén developed her research design and methods. In turn, dialogues in science classrooms may be considered as a particular type of discourse that allows the students' culture, mostly based on everyday knowledge, and the science school culture, related to scientific knowledge and language to be interwoven. I argue that in school, science teachers are always committed to the resolution of differences according to a scientific position for the knowledge to be constructed. Thus, the institution of schooling constrains the ways in which dialogue can be conducted in the classrooms, as the scientific perspective will be always, beforehand, the reference for the conclusions to be reached. The second theme developed here, in dialogue with Rocksén, is about explanations in science classrooms. Based on Jean Paul Bronckart (Atividade de linguagem, textos e discursos: por um interacionismo sócio-discursivo, Educ, São Paulo, 1999), the differences and relationship between explanation and argumentation as communicative acts are re-discussed as well its practical consequences to science teaching. Finally, some epistemological questions are raised about the status of scientific explanations in relation to non-scientific ones.

  11. Hand Matters: Left-Hand Gestures Enhance Metaphor Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that speech-accompanying gestures influence cognitive processes, but it is not clear whether the gestural benefit is specific to the gesturing hand. Two experiments tested the “(right/left) hand-specificity” hypothesis for self-oriented functions of gestures: gestures with a particular hand enhance cognitive processes involving the hemisphere contralateral to the gesturing hand. Specifically, we tested whether left-hand gestures enhance metaphor explanation, which involves right-hemispheric processing. In Experiment 1, right-handers explained metaphorical phrases (e.g., “to spill the beans,” beans represent pieces of information). Participants kept the one hand (right, left) still while they were allowed to spontaneously gesture (or not) with their other free hand (left, right). Metaphor explanations were better when participants chose to gesture when their left hand was free than when they did not. An analogous effect of gesturing was not found when their right hand was free. In Experiment 2, different right-handers performed the same metaphor explanation task but, unlike Experiment 1, they were encouraged to gesture with their left or right hand or to not gesture at all. Metaphor explanations were better when participants gestured with their left hand than when they did not gesture, but the right hand gesture condition did not significantly differ from the no-gesture condition. Furthermore, we measured participants’ mouth asymmetry during additional verbal tasks to determine individual differences in the degree of right-hemispheric involvement in speech production. The left-over-right-side mouth dominance, indicating stronger right-hemispheric involvement, positively correlated with the left-over-right-hand gestural benefit on metaphor explanation. These converging findings supported the “hand-specificity” hypothesis. PMID:28080121

  12. Of sacraments, sacramentals and anthropology: is anthropological explanation sacramental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraindas, Harish

    2017-12-01

    This paper suggests that what is usually called a cultural misunderstanding of biomedical disease categories may be construed as a biomedical and anthropological misunderstanding of cultural categories. This is premised on the fact that anthropology often functions as an intimate double and handmaiden of biomedicine, in so far as it refuses to countenance the possibility of theurgic aetiologies in the realm of what is called 'mental illness'. Such a refusal displaces native explanations of divine or demonic agency to human agency. This is best elucidated by examining the unexamined religious beliefs of Anglo-European anthropology, which appears to be the terra firma of its emic explanatory categories. The paper attempts to demonstrate this by proposing that while native explanations are akin to the sacraments, anthropological explanations are akin to sacramentals (holy water, the cross, the scapular, verbal blessings). While the sacraments, like divine agency, operate ex opere operato, the sacramentals are dependent on the disposition of the recipient and on the good offices of the church, as they operate ex opere operantis ecclesiae (from the work of the working church), as well as ex opere operantis (from the work of the working one). If the sacraments are efficacious as it is work done by Christ alone, and akin to work done by the possessing agent, sacramentals are efficacious as they are also dependent on human agency. In other words, anthropological explanations are, at best, 'sacramental' as they replace emic theurgic explanations by etic ones, where human agency in the form of the priest, the institution of the church, and the lay person who is the recipient of divine dispensation, also have a role to play; or, as is often the case, the only role to play.

  13. Explanations given by people with epilepsy for using emergency medical services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, Leone; Virdi, Cheryl; Noble, Adam; Morgan, Myfanwy

    2012-12-01

    Half of the people with epilepsy (PWE) in the UK experience seizures and 13-18% attend emergency medical services (EMS) annually. The majority of attendances are regarded as clinically unjustified. This study describes PWE explanations for using EMS. A nested qualitative study, part of a larger study based in three South London hospitals, was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed thematically. A seizure alone was not the main explanation for attending EMS; knowledge, experience, and confidence of those nearby on what to do and seizure context were important. Additionally, fears of sudden death held by the PWE and others were reported. From the patients' perspective, use of EMS is regarded as appropriate when they are away from home or someone nearby lacks knowledge of seizure management. Hospitals could provide regular group sessions on seizure management for PWE and their significant others, in which fears are discussed and evaluated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modes of risk explanation in telephone consultations between nurses and parents for a genetic condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zayts, Olga; Sarangi, Srikant

    2013-01-01

    consultations in Hong Kong between genetic nurses and parents whose infants have been diagnosed with a mild hereditary disorder, G6PD deficiency, commonly known as favism. Using discourse analytic methods, we focus on 50 audio-recorded telephone consultations. First, we show the distribution of different types...... as warrants for advice-giving and providing reassurance. We then examine how the genetic nurses interactionally orient themselves to the parents’ existing knowledge regarding G6PD deficiency while delivering these risk explanations. The differences in explanation trajectories are linked to the presence...... or absence of prior knowledge of the condition on the part of the parents; and these differences are displayed at the interactional rather than at the substantive level, that is parents with prior knowledge of the condition occupy a different participant status in eliciting and responding to the risk...

  15. Early and parallel processing of pragmatic and semantic information in speech acts: neurophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Natalia; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2013-01-01

    Although language is a tool for communication, most research in the neuroscience of language has focused on studying words and sentences, while little is known about the brain mechanisms of speech acts, or communicative functions, for which words and sentences are used as tools. Here the neural processing of two types of speech acts, Naming and Requesting, was addressed using the time-resolved event-related potential (ERP) technique. The brain responses for Naming and Request diverged as early as ~120 ms after the onset of the critical words, at the same time as, or even before, the earliest brain manifestations of semantic word properties could be detected. Request-evoked potentials were generally larger in amplitude than those for Naming. The use of identical words in closely matched settings for both speech acts rules out explanation of the difference in terms of phonological, lexical, semantic properties, or word expectancy. The cortical sources underlying the ERP enhancement for Requests were found in the fronto-central cortex, consistent with the activation of action knowledge, as well as in the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), possibly reflecting additional implications of speech acts for social interaction and theory of mind. These results provide the first evidence for surprisingly early access to pragmatic and social interactive knowledge, which possibly occurs in parallel with other types of linguistic processing, and thus supports the near-simultaneous access to different subtypes of psycholinguistic information.

  16. Early and parallel processing of pragmatic and semantic information in speech acts: neurophysiological evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eEgorova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although language is a tool for communication, most research in the neuroscience of language has focused on studying words and sentences, while little is known about the brain mechanisms of speech acts, or communicative functions, for which words and sentences are used as tools. Here the neural processing of two types of speech acts, Naming and Requesting, was addressed using the time-resolved event-related potential (ERP technique. The brain responses for Naming and Request diverged as early as ~120 ms after the onset of the critical words, at the same time as, or even before, the earliest brain manifestations of semantic word properties could be detected. Request-evoked potentials were generally larger in amplitude than those for Naming. The use of identical words in closely matched settings for both speech acts rules out explanation of the difference in terms of phonological, lexical, semantic properties or word expectancy. The cortical sources underlying the ERP enhancement for Requests were found in the fronto-central cortex, consistent with the activation of action knowledge, as well as in right temporo-parietal junction, possibly reflecting additional implications of speech acts for social interaction and theory of mind. These results provide the first evidence for surprisingly early access to pragmatic and social interactive knowledge, which possibly occurs in parallel with other types of linguistic processing, and thus supports the near-simultaneous access to different subtypes of psycholinguistic information.

  17. Resting-State Neurophysiological Activity Patterns in Young People with ASD, ADHD, and ASD + ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Tye, Charlotte; Ashwood, Karen L; Azadi, Bahar; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick F; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2018-01-01

    Altered power of resting-state neurophysiological activity has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which commonly co-occur. We compared resting-state neurophysiological power in children with ASD, ADHD, co-occurring ASD + ADHD, and typically developing controls. Children with ASD (ASD/ASD + ADHD) showed reduced theta and alpha power compared to children without ASD (controls/ADHD). Children with ADHD (ADHD/ASD + ADHD) displayed decreased delta power compared to children without ADHD (ASD/controls). Children with ASD + ADHD largely presented as an additive co-occurrence with deficits of both disorders, although reduced theta compared to ADHD-only and reduced delta compared to controls suggested some unique markers. Identifying specific neurophysiological profiles in ASD and ADHD may assist in characterising more homogeneous subgroups to inform treatment approaches and aetiological investigations.

  18. Neurophysiology in preschool improves behavioral prediction of reading ability throughout primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Urs; Bucher, Kerstin; Brem, Silvia; Benz, Rosmarie; Kranz, Felicitas; Schulz, Enrico; van der Mark, Sanne; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Brandeis, Daniel

    2009-08-15

    More struggling readers could profit from additional help at the beginning of reading acquisition if dyslexia prediction were more successful. Currently, prediction is based only on behavioral assessment of early phonological processing deficits associated with dyslexia, but it might be improved by adding brain-based measures. In a 5-year longitudinal study of children with (n = 21) and without (n = 23) familial risk for dyslexia, we tested whether neurophysiological measures of automatic phoneme and tone deviance processing obtained in kindergarten would improve prediction of reading over behavioral measures alone. Together, neurophysiological and behavioral measures obtained in kindergarten significantly predicted reading in school. Particularly the late mismatch negativity measure that indicated hemispheric lateralization of automatic phoneme processing improved prediction of reading ability over behavioral measures. It was also the only significant predictor for long-term reading success in fifth grade. Importantly, this result also held for the subgroup of children at familial risk. The results demonstrate that brain-based measures of processing deficits associated with dyslexia improve prediction of reading and thus may be further evaluated to complement clinical practice of dyslexia prediction, especially in targeted populations, such as children with a familial risk.

  19. [Medical, educational and neurophysiological prerequisites to the formation of the motivation to exercises in students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramtsov, P I; Sedova, A S; Berezina, N O; Viatleva, O A

    2015-01-01

    A characteristic feature of the life activity of modern children and adolescents is the couch potato, mostly "sedentary" lifestyle. Biomedical and psychosocial significance of motor activity (MA) stipulates the necessity of the substantiation of scientific and methodological approaches to the formation of the motivation to exercises and sports in children. The purpose of the study was in the scientific substantiation and the delivery of medical, pedagogical and neurophysiological prerequisites for the formation of the motivation to increase MA in students in current conditions of their life activity. There were examined 189 students from 2-5th and 9th classes, out of them 65 students were observed in the dynamics of the school year; 585 students from the 1st-11th classes participated in the survey. Results of the study allowed to reveal the relation of students to the lessons of physical training, to evaluate the impact of a new educational program on the functional possibilities of the body of children from the special medical group "A" and to reveal the neurophysiological features of adolescents with different needs in motion.

  20. Neurophysiological Correlates of the Rubber Hand Illusion in Late Evoked and Alpha/Beta Band Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Isa S; Kayser, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The rubber hand illusion (RHI) allows insights into how the brain resolves conflicting multisensory information regarding body position and ownership. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported a variety of neurophysiological correlates of illusory hand ownership, with conflicting results likely originating from differences in experimental parameters and control conditions. Here, we overcome these limitations by using a fully automated and precisely-timed visuo-tactile stimulation setup to record evoked responses and oscillatory responses in participants who felt the RHI. Importantly, we relied on a combination of experimental conditions to rule out confounds of attention, body-stimulus position and stimulus duration and on the combination of two control conditions to identify neurophysiological correlates of illusory hand ownership. In two separate experiments we observed a consistent illusion-related attenuation of ERPs around 330 ms over frontocentral electrodes, as well as decreases of frontal alpha and beta power during the illusion that could not be attributed to changes in attention, body-stimulus position or stimulus duration. Our results reveal neural correlates of illusory hand ownership in late and likely higher-order rather than early sensory processes, and support a role of premotor and possibly intraparietal areas in mediating illusory body ownership.

  1. Neurophysiological Correlates of the Rubber Hand Illusion in Late Evoked and Alpha/Beta Band Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa S. Rao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rubber hand illusion (RHI allows insights into how the brain resolves conflicting multisensory information regarding body position and ownership. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported a variety of neurophysiological correlates of illusory hand ownership, with conflicting results likely originating from differences in experimental parameters and control conditions. Here, we overcome these limitations by using a fully automated and precisely-timed visuo-tactile stimulation setup to record evoked responses and oscillatory responses in participants who felt the RHI. Importantly, we relied on a combination of experimental conditions to rule out confounds of attention, body-stimulus position and stimulus duration and on the combination of two control conditions to identify neurophysiological correlates of illusory hand ownership. In two separate experiments we observed a consistent illusion-related attenuation of ERPs around 330 ms over frontocentral electrodes, as well as decreases of frontal alpha and beta power during the illusion that could not be attributed to changes in attention, body-stimulus position or stimulus duration. Our results reveal neural correlates of illusory hand ownership in late and likely higher-order rather than early sensory processes, and support a role of premotor and possibly intraparietal areas in mediating illusory body ownership.

  2. Existential neuroscience: neurophysiological correlates of proximal defenses against death-related thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Eva; Kronbichler, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A great deal of evidence suggests that reminders of mortality increase ingroup support and worldview defense, presumably in order to deal with the potential for anxiety that roots in the knowledge that death is inevitable. Interestingly, these effects are obtained solely when thoughts of death are not in the focus of consciousness. When conscious, death-related thoughts are usually defended against using proximal defenses, which entail distraction or suppression. The present study aimed at demonstrating neurophysiological correlates of proximal defenses. We focused on the late positive potential (LPP), which is thought to reflect an increased allocation of attention toward, and processing of, motivationally relevant stimuli. Our prediction was that the LPP should be increased for death-related relative to death-unrelated, but equally unpleasant stimulus words. In Experiment 1, this prediction was confirmed. This finding was replicated in Experiment 2, which used a target word detection task. In Experiment 2, both death-related and pleasant words elicited an enhanced LPP, presumably because during the less demanding task, people might have distracted themselves from the mortality reminders by focusing on pleasant words. To summarize, we were able to identify a plausible neurophysiological marker of proximal defenses in the form of an increased LPP to death-related words. PMID:22267519

  3. A structured-inquiry approach to teaching neurophysiology using computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Computer simulation is a valuable tool for teaching the fundamentals of neurophysiology in undergraduate laboratories where time and equipment limitations restrict the amount of course content that can be delivered through hands-on interaction. However, students often find such exercises to be tedious and unstimulating. In an effort to engage students in the use of computational modeling while developing a deeper understanding of neurophysiology, an attempt was made to use an educational neurosimulation environment as the basis for a novel, inquiry-based research project. During the semester, students in the class wrote a research proposal, used the Neurodynamix II simulator to generate a large data set, analyzed their modeling results statistically, and presented their findings at the Midbrains Neuroscience Consortium undergraduate poster session. Learning was assessed in the form of a series of short term papers and two 10-min in-class writing responses to the open-ended question, "How do ion channels influence neuronal firing?", which they completed on weeks 6 and 15 of the semester. Students' answers to this question showed a deeper understanding of neuronal excitability after the project; their term papers revealed evidence of critical thinking about computational modeling and neuronal excitability. Suggestions for the adaptation of this structured-inquiry approach into shorter term lab experiences are discussed.

  4. Neurophysiological correlates of depressive symptoms in young adults: A quantitative EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Poh Foong; Kan, Donica Pei Xin; Croarkin, Paul; Phang, Cheng Kar; Doruk, Deniz

    2017-10-21

    There is an unmet need for practical and reliable biomarkers for mood disorders in young adults. Identifying the brain activity associated with the early signs of depressive disorders could have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. In this study we sought to investigate the EEG characteristics in young adults with newly identified depressive symptoms. Based on the initial screening, a total of 100 participants (n = 50 euthymic, n = 50 depressive) underwent 32-channel EEG acquisition. Simple logistic regression and C-statistic were used to explore if EEG power could be used to discriminate between the groups. The strongest EEG predictors of mood using multivariate logistic regression models. Simple logistic regression analysis with subsequent C-statistics revealed that only high-alpha and beta power originating from the left central cortex (C3) have a reliable discriminative value (ROC curve >0.7 (70%)) for differentiating the depressive group from the euthymic group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the single most significant predictor of group (depressive vs. euthymic) is the high-alpha power over C3 (p = 0.03). The present findings suggest that EEG is a useful tool in the identification of neurophysiological correlates of depressive symptoms in young adults with no previous psychiatric history. Our results could guide future studies investigating the early neurophysiological changes and surrogate outcomes in depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Delayed postoperative C5 root palsy and the use of neurophysiologic monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Steven; Felbaum, Daniel; Aghdam, Nima; Sandhu, Faheem

    2015-12-01

    Although advances have been made in surgical technique and intraoperative monitoring, the rate of postoperative C5 palsy remains the same. We attempt to define characteristics which may predict risk of developing postoperative C5 palsy. Retrospective chart review identified 644 patients undergoing cervical procedures. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion was performed in 456, anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) in 78, posterior laminectomy and fusion (PLF) in 106, and posterior open-door laminoplasty in 4 patients. All patients had neurophysiologic monitoring [somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEP), spontaneous electromyogram (EMG), and/or motor-evoked potential (MEP)]. Postoperative C5 root palsy occurred in 5 (2 with ACCF and 3 with PLF) cases (1.4%). In all cases, there were no changes in intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. C5 palsy did not occur before postoperative day 2. Patients undergoing cervical decompression remain at risk for C5 root palsy despite use of monitoring. Given that all patients experienced delayed onset of C5 palsy, MEP, SSEP, and EMG may not be sensitive enough to assess the risk of developing C5 palsy.

  6. Effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields: critical evaluation of behavioral and neurophysiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2011-05-01

    For the last two decades, a large number of studies have investigated the effects of mobile phone radiation on the human brain and cognition using behavioral or neurophysiological measurements. This review evaluated previous findings with respect to study design and data analysis. Provocation studies found no evidence of subjective symptoms attributed to mobile phone radiation, suggesting psychological reasons for inducing such symptoms in hypersensitive people. Behavioral studies previously reported improved cognitive performance under exposure, but it was likely to have occurred by chance due to multiple comparisons. Recent behavioral studies and replication studies with more conservative statistics found no significant effects compared with original studies. Neurophysiological studies found no significant effects on cochlear and brainstem auditory processing, but only inconsistent results on spontaneous and evoked brain electrical activity. The inconsistent findings suggest possible false positives due to multiple comparisons and thus replication is needed. Other approaches such as brain hemodynamic response measurements are promising but the findings are few and not yet conclusive. Rigorous study design and data analysis considering multiple comparisons and effect size are required to reduce controversy in this important field of research. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Transsulcal approach supported by navigation-guided neurophysiological monitoring for resection of paracentral cavernomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Miller, Dorothea; Schulte, Dirk Michael; Benes, Ludwig; Rosenow, Felix; Bertalanffy, Helmut; Sure, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate tools that can improve surgical precision and minimize surgical trauma for removal of cavernomas in the paracentral area. Moreover, the surgical strategies for the treatment of symptomatic epilepsy in cavernoma patients are discussed. Between June 2000 and July 2007, 17 patients suffering from paracentral cavernoma underwent surgery via a transsulcal approach with the aid of neuronavigation, functional mapping and neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring. To optimize outcome for procedures in the paracentral area, the hemosiderin-stained tissue was removed entirely except for a small proportion on the side of precentral gyrus. All cavernomas and their adjacent sulci could be precisely located with the aid of ultrasonography-assisted neuronavigation. By combining preoperative fMRI and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, including SEP, MEP and cortical mapping, the motor cortex could be defined in all cases. Thus damage to the primary motor area could be avoided during resection of cavernomas. All the lesions located in the paracentral area were removed completely via transsulcal microsurgical approach without neurological deficits. No significant seizures were induced during surgery. The successful excision of these lesions was effected by the following four key factors: (1) the precise location of the lesion supported by intraoperative neuronavigation; (2) the preservation of the eloquent area with the aid of functional mapping; (3) a minimally invasive transsulcal microsurgical approach; and (4) the entire removal of cavernoma and hemosiderin-stained tissue.

  8. The impact of moderate sleep loss on neurophysiologic signals during working-memory task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E; McEvoy, Linda K; Gevins, Alan

    2002-11-01

    This study examined how sleep loss affects neurophysiologic signals related to attention and working memory. Subjective sleepiness, resting-state electroencephalogram, and behavior and electroencephalogram during performance of working-memory tasks were recorded in a within-subject, repeated-measures design. Data collection occurred in a computerized laboratory setting. Sixteen healthy adults (mean age, 26 years; 8 female) Data from alert daytime baseline tests were compared with data from tests during a late-night, extended-wakefulness session that spanned up to 21 hours of sleep deprivation. Alertness measured both subjectively and electrophysiologically decreased monotonically with increasing sleep deprivation. A lack of alertness-related changes in electroencephalographic measures of the overall mental effort exerted during task execution indicated that participants attempted to maintain high levels of performance throughout the late-night tests. Despite such continued effort, responses became slower, more variable, and more error prone within 1 hour after participants' normal time of sleep onset. This behavior failure was accompanied by significant degradation of event-related brain potentials related to the transient focusing of attention. Moderate sleep loss compromises the function of neural circuits critical to subsecond attention allocation during working-memory tasks, even when an effort is made to maintain wakefulness and performance. Multivariate analyses indicate that combinations of working-memory-related behavior and neurophysiologic measures can be sensitive enough to permit reliable detection of such effects of sleep loss in individuals. Similar methods might prove useful for assessment of functional alertness in patients with sleep disorders.

  9. An explanation for the universal 3.5 power-law observed in currency markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Johnson

    Full Text Available We present a mathematical theory to explain a recent empirical finding in the Physics literature (Zhao et al., 2013 in which the distributions of waiting-times between discrete events were found to exhibit power-law tails with an apparent universal exponent: α∼3.5. This new theory provides the first ever qualitative and quantitative explanation of Zhao et al.’s surprising finding. It also provides a mechanistic description of the origin of the observed universality, assigning its cause to the emergence of dynamical feedback processes between evolving clusters of like-minded agents. Keywords: Complex systems, Econophysics, Collective, Power law

  10. A removable silicone elastomer seal reduces granulation tissue growth and maintains the sterility of recording chambers for primate neurophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, Kevin M.; Gothard, Katalin M.

    2008-01-01

    The maintenance of the sterility of craniotomies for serial acute neurophysiological recordings is exacting and time consuming yet is vital to the health of valuable experimental animals. We have developed a method to seal the craniotomy with surgical grade silicone elastomer (Silastic®) in a hermetically sealed chamber. Under these conditions the tissues in the craniotomy and the inside surface of the chamber remain unpopulated by bacteria. The silicone elastomer sealant retarded the growth of granulation tissue on the dura and reduced the procedures required to maintain ideal conditions for neurophysiological recordings. PMID:18241928

  11. A Critical Analysis of the Established Explanations about the Nature of Ecotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmiye Erdoğan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study questions the prevailing explanations about the nature of ecotourism. The major aims of the study are (a to point out that the widespread notions and theoretical attributions about the character of ecotourism should be reconsidered and (b to express the need for critical questioning and design in qualitative and quantitative academic studies in social, management, administrative and tourism sciences. The article explains, first, the basic rationale for legitimizing, market building, supporting, sustaining and expanding the capitalist market, including ecotourism practices, and connects the concept of environment with economy, and inclusion of tourism and ecotourism in sustainable development. Then, it discusses the nature of dominant explanations of ecotourism. The study concludes that widespread explanations of the nature, structure, activity and outcome of ecotourism rarely match the nature of daily ecotourism practices. Instead, they generally create, employ and sustain functional myths about industrial practices, relations, causes, effects and outcomes of ecotourism. They provide strategically prescriptive and normative ethics and principles that are mostly unattainable. They consciously or inadvertently ignore the fact that the notion of ecotourism is deeply embedded in the logics of ideological normalisation of corporate activities, commodity circulation, technological end-product distribution and use, and global governance of the economic, political and cultural market conditions.

  12. Exploring new possibilities for case-based explanation of artificial neural network ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael; Ekelund, Ulf; Edenbrandt, Lars; Björk, Jonas; Forberg, Jakob Lundager; Ohlsson, Mattias

    2009-01-01

    Artificial neural network (ANN) ensembles have long suffered from a lack of interpretability. This has severely limited the practical usability of ANNs in settings where an erroneous decision can be disastrous. Several attempts have been made to alleviate this problem. Many of them are based on decomposing the decision boundary of the ANN into a set of rules. We explore and compare a set of new methods for this explanation process on two artificial data sets (Monks 1 and 3), and one acute coronary syndrome data set consisting of 861 electrocardiograms (ECG) collected retrospectively at the emergency department at Lund University Hospital. The algorithms managed to extract good explanations in more than 84% of the cases. More to the point, the best method provided 99% and 91% good explanations in Monks data 1 and 3 respectively. Also there was a significant overlap between the algorithms. Furthermore, when explaining a given ECG, the overlap between this method and one of the physicians was the same as the one between the two physicians in this study. Still the physicians were significantly, p-valueclinical decision support systems.

  13. IS Outsourcing "Behind the Curtain" - Beyond Rational to Institutional Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Pries-Heje, Jan

    explanation; but then with a more careful analysis focusing on institutional factors, other explanations "behind the curtain" were re-vealed, such as management consultants with a "best practice" agenda, people promoting out-sourcing thereby being promoted themselves, and a believe in outsourcing as a "silver......Outsourcing is now a feasible mean for Information Systems (IS) cost savings, but do how-ever increase the complexity substantially when many organizations are involved. We set out to study IS outsourcing with many interorganizational partners in a large Scandinavian high-tech organization SCANDI......, trying to answer the question: Why does SCANDI engage in very complex outsourcing arrangements? To answer this question we observed numerous meetings and collected data from interviews in four parts of SCANDI. After transcribing and analyzing our data we found at first just the rational cost saving...

  14. Dynamical 3-Space: Alternative Explanation of the "Dark Matter Ring"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available NASA has claimed the discovery of a “Ring of Dark Matter” in the galaxy cluster CL 0024 +17, see Jee M.J. et al. arXiv:0705.2171, based upon gravitational lensing data. Here we show that the lensing can be given an alternative explanation that does not involve “dark matter”. This explanation comes from the new dynamics of 3-space. This dynamics involves two constant G and alpha — the fine structure constant. This dynamics has explained the bore hole anomaly, spiral galaxy flat rotation speeds, the masses of black holes in spherical galaxies, gravitational light bending and lensing, all without invoking “dark matter”, and also the supernova redshift data without the need for “dark energy”.

  15. Testing the Transivity Explanation of the Allais Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses a two-dimensional version of a standard common consequence experiment to test the intransitivity explanation of Allais-paradox-type violations of expected utility theory. We compare the common consequence effect of two choice problems differing only with respect to whether...... intransitivity as an explanation of the Allais Paradox. The question whether violations of expected utility are mainly due to intransitivity or to violation of independence is important since it is exactly on this issue the main new decision theories differ...... alternatives are statistically correlated or independent. We framed the experiment so that intransitive preferences could explain violating behavior when alternatives are independent, but not when they are correlated. We found the same pattern of violation in the two cases. This is evidence against...

  16. Coleridge: a computer tool for assisting musical reflection and self-explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cook

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1980s, there has been a movement away from knowledge supplied by the teacher and towards talking, reflecting and explaining as ways to learn. An example of this change in focus is provided by the self-explanation work of Chi et al (1994 who describe an approach to talking science rather than hearing science. According to Chi and coworkers, generating explanations to oneself (self-explanations facilitates the integration of new information into existing knowledge. Reflecting about one's own learning is the same as thinking about learning or metacognition. Metacognition can be defined as the understanding of knowledge, an understanding that can be reflected in either effective use or overt description of the knowledge in question (Brown, 1987. This definition of metacognition requires of a learner both internalized thinking about learning (that is, reflection, and externalized communication, through language or action, that indicates an understanding of knowledge (that is, a self-explanation. In the work described in this paper the overall pedagogical goal is to encourage creative reflection in learners. Creative reflection is defined as the ability of a learner to imagine musical opportunities in novel situations, and then to make accurate predictions (verbally about these opportunities. To succeed at creative reflection there should be a correspondence between what a learner predicts will happen and what actually happens. An example would be a learner first writing a musical phrase using musical notation, then predicting verbally how that phrase will sound, playing the phrase back on a piano, and finally evaluating if the prediction was accurate or not. Very little work has been done on how computers can be used to support talking, reflecting and explaining in the creative subject-area of musical composition. The rest of this paper addresses this issue.

  17. Students' explanations in complex learning of disciplinary programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Camilo

    Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) has been denominated as the third pillar of science and as a set of important skills to solve the problems of a global society. Along with the theoretical and the experimental approaches, computation offers a third alternative to solve complex problems that require processing large amounts of data, or representing complex phenomena that are not easy to experiment with. Despite the relevance of CSE, current professionals and scientists are not well prepared to take advantage of this set of tools and methods. Computation is usually taught in an isolated way from engineering disciplines, and therefore, engineers do not know how to exploit CSE affordances. This dissertation intends to introduce computational tools and methods contextualized within the Materials Science and Engineering curriculum. Considering that learning how to program is a complex task, the dissertation explores effective pedagogical practices that can support student disciplinary and computational learning. Two case studies will be evaluated to identify the characteristics of effective worked examples in the context of CSE. Specifically, this dissertation explores students explanations of these worked examples in two engineering courses with different levels of transparency: a programming course in materials science and engineering glass box and a thermodynamics course involving computational representations black box. Results from this study suggest that students benefit in different ways from writing in-code comments. These benefits include but are not limited to: connecting xv individual lines of code to the overall problem, getting familiar with the syntax, learning effective algorithm design strategies, and connecting computation with their discipline. Students in the glass box context generate higher quality explanations than students in the black box context. These explanations are related to students prior experiences. Specifically, students with

  18. The Gravity Equation in International Trade: an Explanation

    OpenAIRE

    Chaney, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The gravity equation in international trade states bilateral exports are proportional to economic size, and inversely proportional to geographic distance. While the role of size is well understood, that of distance remains mysterious. I offer an explanation for the role of distance: If (i) the distribution of firm sizes is Pareto, (ii) the average squared distance of a firm’s exports is an increasing power function of its size, and (iii) a parameter restriction holds, then the distance elasti...

  19. Rabies: a possible explanation for the vampire legend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Alonso, J

    1998-09-01

    In the 18th century, belief in vampires--allegedly dead persons who left their graves and killed people and animals--raised great concern in the Balkans and an extensive debate in Europe. This historic phenomenon still awaits a comprehensive explanation. This article proposes that rabies may have played a key role in the development of the vampire legend, given the coincident time of the phenomena and the striking similarities between them.

  20. Fissidens grandifrons: a possible explanation for the rarity of sporophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pursell Ronald A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Perigonia are described for the first time in Fissidens grandifrons Brid. A possible explanation for the rarity of sporophytes in this species, the result of perigonial and perichaetial plants separated in different mats, is presented. Sexual reproduction in F. grandifrons is compared with that of F. perdecurrens Besch. and F. ventricosus Lesq. The peristome of F. perdecurrens is described for the first time.

  1. Mismatch response to polysyllabic nonwords: a neurophysiological signature of language learning capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna G Barry

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to repeat polysyllabic nonwords such as "blonterstaping" has frequently been shown to correlate with language learning ability but it is not clear why such a correlation should exist. Three alternative explanations have been offered, stated in terms of differences in: (a perceptual ability; (b efficiency of phonological loop functioning; (c pre-existing vocabulary knowledge and/or articulatory skills. In the present study, we used event-related potentials to assess the contributions from these three factors to explaining individual variation in nonword repetition ability.59 adults who were subdivided according to whether they were good or poor nonword-repeaters participated. Electrophysiologically measured mismatch responses were recorded to changes in consonants as participants passively listened to a repeating four syllable CV-string. The consonant change could occur in one of four positions along the CV-string and we predicted that: (a if nonword repetition depended purely on auditory discrimination ability, then reduced mismatch responses to all four consonant changes would be observed in the poor nonword-repeaters, (b if it depended on encoding or decay of information in a capacity-limited phonological store, then a position specific decrease in mismatch response would be observed, (c if neither cognitive capacity was involved, then the two groups of participants would provide equivalent mismatch responses. Consistent with our second hypothesis, a position specific difference located on the third syllable was observed in the late discriminative negativity (LDN window (230-630 ms post-syllable onset.Our data thus confirm that people who are poorer at nonword repetition are less efficient in early processing of polysyllabic speech materials, but this impairment is not attributable to deficits in low level auditory discrimination. We conclude by discussing the significance of the observed relationship between LDN amplitude and

  2. Mismatch response to polysyllabic nonwords: a neurophysiological signature of language learning capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Johanna G; Hardiman, Mervyn J; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2009-07-17

    The ability to repeat polysyllabic nonwords such as "blonterstaping" has frequently been shown to correlate with language learning ability but it is not clear why such a correlation should exist. Three alternative explanations have been offered, stated in terms of differences in: (a) perceptual ability; (b) efficiency of phonological loop functioning; (c) pre-existing vocabulary knowledge and/or articulatory skills. In the present study, we used event-related potentials to assess the contributions from these three factors to explaining individual variation in nonword repetition ability. 59 adults who were subdivided according to whether they were good or poor nonword-repeaters participated. Electrophysiologically measured mismatch responses were recorded to changes in consonants as participants passively listened to a repeating four syllable CV-string. The consonant change could occur in one of four positions along the CV-string and we predicted that: (a) if nonword repetition depended purely on auditory discrimination ability, then reduced mismatch responses to all four consonant changes would be observed in the poor nonword-repeaters, (b) if it depended on encoding or decay of information in a capacity-limited phonological store, then a position specific decrease in mismatch response would be observed, (c) if neither cognitive capacity was involved, then the two groups of participants would provide equivalent mismatch responses. Consistent with our second hypothesis, a position specific difference located on the third syllable was observed in the late discriminative negativity (LDN) window (230-630 ms post-syllable onset). Our data thus confirm that people who are poorer at nonword repetition are less efficient in early processing of polysyllabic speech materials, but this impairment is not attributable to deficits in low level auditory discrimination. We conclude by discussing the significance of the observed relationship between LDN amplitude and nonword

  3. Changes in University Students' Explanation Models of DC Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi; Mäntylä, Terhi

    2017-04-01

    One well-known learning obstacle is that students rarely use the concepts in the way that scientists use them. Rather, students mix up closely related concepts and are inclined towards matter-based conceptualisations. Furthermore, some researchers have argued that certain difficulties are rooted in the student's limited repertoire of causal schemes. These two aspects are conveniently represented in the recent proposal of the systemic view of concept learning. We applied this framework in our analyses of university students' explanations of DC circuits and their use of concepts such as voltage, current and resistance. Our data consist of transcribed group interviews, which we analysed with content analysis. The results of our analysis are represented with directed graphs. Our results show that students had a rather refined ontological knowledge of the concepts. However, students relied on rather simple explanation models, but few students were able to modify their explanations during the interview. Based on the analysis, we identified three processes of change: model switch, model refinement and model elaboration. This emphasises the importance of relevant relational knowledge at a later stage of learning. This demonstrates how concept individuation and learning of relational structures occurs (and in which order) and sets forth interesting research questions for future research.

  4. Superfluous neuroscience information makes explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Duque, Diego; Evans, Jessica; Christian, Colton; Hodges, Sara D

    2015-05-01

    Does the presence of irrelevant neuroscience information make explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing? Do fMRI pictures further increase that allure? To help answer these questions, 385 college students in four experiments read brief descriptions of psychological phenomena, each one accompanied by an explanation of varying quality (good vs. circular) and followed by superfluous information of various types. Ancillary measures assessed participants' analytical thinking, beliefs on dualism and free will, and admiration for different sciences. In Experiment 1, superfluous neuroscience information increased the judged quality of the argument for both good and bad explanations, whereas accompanying fMRI pictures had no impact above and beyond the neuroscience text, suggesting a bias that is conceptual rather than pictorial. Superfluous neuroscience information was more alluring than social science information (Experiment 2) and more alluring than information from prestigious "hard sciences" (Experiments 3 and 4). Analytical thinking did not protect against the neuroscience bias, nor did a belief in dualism or free will. We conclude that the "allure of neuroscience" bias is conceptual, specific to neuroscience, and not easily accounted for by the prestige of the discipline. It may stem from the lay belief that the brain is the best explanans for mental phenomena.

  5. Kinematic and neurophysiological consequences of an assisted-force-feedback brain-machine interface training: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eSilvoni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a proof-of-principle prototypical demonstration we describe a new type of brain-machine interface (BMI paradigm for upper limb motor training. The proposed technique allows a fast contingent and proportionally modulated stimulation of afferent proprioceptive and motor output neural pathways using operant learning.Continuous and immediate assisted-feedback of force proportional to rolandic rhythm oscillations during actual movements was employed and illustrated with a single case experiment. One hemiplegic patient was trained for two weeks coupling somatosensory brain oscillations with force field control during a robot mediated centre-out motor task whose execution approaches movements of everyday life. The robot facilitated actual movements adding a modulated force directed to the target, thus providing a non-delayed proprioceptive feedback. Neuro-electric, kinematic and motor-behavioural measures were recorded in pre- and post-assessments without force assistance. Patient’s healthy arm was used as control since neither a placebo control was possible nor other control conditions. We observed a generalized and significant kinematic improvement in the affected arm and a spatial accuracy improvement in both arms, together with an increase and focalization of the somatosensory rhythm changes used to provide assisted-force-feedback. The interpretation of the neurophysiological and kinematic evidences reported here is strictly related to the repetition of the motor-task and the presence of the assisted-force-feedback. Results are described as systematic observations only, without firm conclusions about the effectiveness of the methodology. In this prototypical view, the design of appropriate control conditions is discussed. This study presents a novel operant-learning-based BMI-application for motor training coupling brain oscillations and force feedback during an actual movement.

  6. Kinematic and neurophysiological consequences of an assisted-force-feedback brain-machine interface training: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvoni, Stefano; Cavinato, Marianna; Volpato, Chiara; Cisotto, Giulia; Genna, Clara; Agostini, Michela; Turolla, Andrea; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Piccione, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    In a proof-of-principle prototypical demonstration we describe a new type of brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm for upper limb motor-training. The proposed technique allows a fast contingent and proportionally modulated stimulation of afferent proprioceptive and motor output neural pathways using operant learning. Continuous and immediate assisted-feedback of force proportional to rolandic rhythm oscillations during actual movements was employed and illustrated with a single case experiment. One hemiplegic patient was trained for 2 weeks coupling somatosensory brain oscillations with force-field control during a robot-mediated center-out motor-task whose execution approaches movements of everyday life. The robot facilitated actual movements adding a modulated force directed to the target, thus providing a non-delayed proprioceptive feedback. Neuro-electric, kinematic, and motor-behavioral measures were recorded in pre- and post-assessments without force assistance. Patient's healthy arm was used as control since neither a placebo control was possible nor other control conditions. We observed a generalized and significant kinematic improvement in the affected arm and a spatial accuracy improvement in both arms, together with an increase and focalization of the somatosensory rhythm changes used to provide assisted-force-feedback. The interpretation of the neurophysiological and kinematic evidences reported here is strictly related to the repetition of the motor-task and the presence of the assisted-force-feedback. Results are described as systematic observations only, without firm conclusions about the effectiveness of the methodology. In this prototypical view, the design of appropriate control conditions is discussed. This study presents a novel operant-learning-based BMI-application for motor-training coupling brain oscillations and force feedback during an actual movement.

  7. Investigating Assessment Bias for Constructed Response Explanation Tasks: Implications for Evaluating Performance Expectations for Scientific Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federer, Meghan Rector

    Assessment is a key element in the process of science education teaching and research. Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment is a major challenge for science education reforms. Prior research has documented several limitations of instrument types on the measurement of students' scientific knowledge (Liu et al., 2011; Messick, 1995; Popham, 2010). Furthermore, a large body of work has been devoted to reducing assessment biases that distort inferences about students' science understanding, particularly in multiple-choice [MC] instruments. Despite the above documented biases, much has yet to be determined for constructed response [CR] assessments in biology and their use for evaluating students' conceptual understanding of scientific practices (such as explanation). Understanding differences in science achievement provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Using the integrative framework put forth by the National Research Council (2012), this dissertation aimed to explore whether assessment biases occur for assessment practices intended to measure students' conceptual understanding and proficiency in scientific practices. Using a large corpus of undergraduate biology students' explanations, three studies were conducted to examine whether known biases of MC instruments were also apparent in a CR instrument designed to assess students' explanatory practice and understanding of evolutionary change (ACORNS: Assessment of COntextual Reasoning about Natural Selection). The first study investigated the challenge of interpreting and scoring lexically ambiguous language in CR answers. The incorporation of 'multivalent' terms into scientific discourse practices often results in statements or explanations that are difficult to interpret and can produce faulty inferences about student knowledge. The results of this study indicate that many undergraduate biology majors

  8. Self-Explanation and Reading Strategy Training (SERT) Improves Low-Knowledge Students' Science Course Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Danielle S.

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates the generalization of previous laboratory results showing the benefits of Self-Explanation Reading Training (SERT) to college students' course exam performance. The participants were 265 students enrolled in an Introductory Biology course, 59 of whom were provided with SERT. The results showed that SERT benefited students…

  9. A Critical Test of Self-Enhancement, Exposure, and Self-Categorization Explanations for First- and Third-Person Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Scott A.; Byrne, Sahara; Brundidge, Jennifer S.; Shoham, Mirit D.; Marlow, Mikaela L.

    2007-01-01

    The third-person perception is the tendency for people to believe that others are more influenced by media content than themselves (W. P. Davison, 1983). The current study provides a critical test of self-enhancement, exposure, and self-categorization explanations for first- (i.e., self more influenced than others) and third-person perceptions.…

  10. The crossroads of anxiety: distinct neurophysiological maps for different symptomatic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerez M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Montserrat Gerez,1–3 Enrique Suárez,2,3 Carlos Serrano,2,3 Lauro Castanedo,2 Armando Tello1,3 1Departamento de Neurofisiología Clínica, Hospital Español de México, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Departamento de Psiquiatría, Hospital Español de México, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Unidad de Postgrado, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico Background: Despite the devastating impact of anxiety disorders (ADs worldwide, long-lasting debates on causes and remedies have not solved the clinician’s puzzle: who should be treated and how? Psychiatric classifications conceptualize ADs as distinct entities, with strong support from neuroscience fields. Yet, comorbidity and pharmacological response suggest a single “serotonin dysfunction” dimension. Whether AD is one or several disorders goes beyond academic quarrels, and the distinction has therapeutic relevance. Addressing the underlying dysfunctions should improve treatment response. By its own nature, neurophysiology can be the best tool to address dysfunctional processes.Purpose: To search for neurophysiological dysfunctions and differences among panic disorder (PD, agoraphobia-social-specific phobia, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD and generalized anxiety disorder.Methods: A sample population of 192 unmedicated patients and 30 aged-matched controls partook in this study. Hypothesis-related neurophysiological variables were combined into ten independent factors: 1 dysrhythmic patterns, 2 delta, 3 theta, 4 alpha, 5 beta (whole-head absolute power z-scores, 6 event-related potential (ERP combined latency, 7 ERP combined amplitude (z-scores, 8 magnitude, 9 site, and 10 site of hyperactive networks. Combining single variables into representative factors was necessary because, as in all real-life phenomena, the complexity of interactive processes cannot be addressed through single variables and the multiplicity of potentially implicated variables would demand an extremely large

  11. Influence of neurophysiological hippotherapy on the transference of the centre of gravity among children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćków, Anna; Małachowska-Sobieska, Monika; Demczuk-Włodarczyk, Ewa; Sidorowska, Marta; Szklarska, Alicja; Lipowicz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present the influence of neurophysiological hippotherapy on the transference of the centre of gravity (COG) among children with cerebral palsy (CP). The study involved 19 children aged 4-13 years suffering from CP who demonstrated an asymmetric (A/P) model of compensation. Body balance was studied with the Cosmogamma Balance Platform. An examination on this platform was performed before and after a session of neurophysiological hippotherapy. In order to compare the correlations and differences between the examinations, the results were analysed using Student's T-test for dependent samples at p ≤ 0.05 as the level of statistical significance and descriptive statistics were calculated. The mean value of the body's centre of gravity in the frontal plane (COG X) was 18.33 (mm) during the first examination, changing by 21.84 (mm) after neurophysiological hippotherapy towards deloading of the antigravity lower limb (p ≤ 0.0001). The other stabilographic parameters increased; however, only the change in average speed of antero - posterior COG oscillation was statistically significant (p = 0.0354). 1. One session of neurophysiological hippotherapy induced statistically significant changes in the position of the centre of gravity in the body in the frontal plane and the average speed of COG oscillation in the sagittal plane among CP children demonstrating an asymmetric model of compensation (A/P).

  12. Postural control in children with Cerebral Palsy during reaching : assessment of two therapies based on neurophysiological principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, Jolanda Catharina van der

    2005-01-01

    Dysfunctional postural control is one of the key problems in children with CP. Knowledge on the neurophysiological organisation and development of postural adjustments in children with CP is lacking. The aim of this thesis is therefore to increase our insight in postural problems of children with CR

  13. Post-Season Neurophysiological Deficits Assessed by ImPACT and fMRI in Athletes Competing in American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Eric A; Breedlove, Katherine M; Breedlove, Evan L; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E; Leverenz, Larry J

    2015-01-01

    Neurocognitive assessment, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and head impact monitoring were used to evaluate neurological changes in high school football players throughout competitive seasons. A substantial number of asymptomatic athletes exhibited neurophysiological changes that persisted post-season, with abnormal measures significantly more common in athletes receiving 50 or more hits per week during the season.

  14. [Anaesthetic management of excision of a cervical intraspinal tumor with intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring in a pregnant woman at 29 weeks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Domínguez, R; González-González, G; Rubio-Romero, R; Federero-Martínez, F; Jiménez, I

    2016-05-01

    The intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring is a technique used to test and monitor nervous function. This technique has become essential in some neurosurgery interventions, since it avoids neurological injuries during surgery and reduces morbidity. The experience of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring is limited in some clinical cases due to the low incidence of pregnant women undergoing a surgical procedure. A case is presented of a 29-weeks pregnant woman suffering from a cervical intraspinal tumour with intense pain, which required surgery. The collaboration of a multidisciplinary team composed of anaesthesiologists, neurosurgeons, neurophysiologists and obstetricians, the continuous monitoring of the foetus, the intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, and maintaining the neurophysiological and utero-placental variables were crucial for the proper development of the surgery. According to our experience and the limited publications in the literature, no damaging effects of this technique were detected at maternal-foetal level. On the contrary, it brings important benefits during the surgery and for the final result. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Neural network classification of clinical neurophysiological data for acute care monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgro, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of neurophysiological monitoring of the 'acute care' patient is to allow the accurate recognition of changing or deteriorating neurological function as close to the moment of occurrence as possible, thus permitting immediate intervention. Results confirm that: (1) neural networks are able to accurately identify electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns and evoked potential (EP) wave components, and measuring EP waveform latencies and amplitudes; (2) neural networks are able to accurately detect EP and EEG recordings that have been contaminated by noise; (3) the best performance was obtained consistently with the back propagation network for EP and the HONN for EEG's; (4) neural network performed consistently better than other methods evaluated; and (5) neural network EEG and EP analyses are readily performed on multichannel data.

  16. [Clinical, neurophysiological and psychological characteristics of neurosis in patients with panic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuter, N V

    2008-01-01

    Forty-eight patients with panic disorders (PD), aged 31,5 years, 17 men, 31 women, were studied. The results were analyzed in comparison to a control group which comprised 16 healthy people, 6 men, 10 women, mean age 29,5 years. A traditional clinical approach, including somatic, neurologic and psychiatric examination, was used in the study. Also, a neurophysiological study using compression and spectral analyses, EEG, cognitive evoked potentials, skin evoked potentials, was conducted. A psychological examination included assessment of personality traits (Cattell's test), MMPI personality profile, mechanisms of psychological defense, the "Life style index" and Sondy test. A decrease of - and -rhythms was found that implied the reduction of activation processes. The psychological data mirror as common signs characteristic of all PD, as well as psychological features characteristic of neurotic disorders. The results obtained confirm the heterogeneity of PD in nosological aspect that demands using differential approach to the problems of their diagnostics and treatment.

  17. Fabrication of nanoelectrodes for neurophysiology: cathodic electrophoretic paint insulation and focused ion beam milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yi; Chen, Jie; Guo, Xiaoli; Cantrell, Donald; Ruoff, Rodney; Troy, John

    2005-09-01

    The fabrication and characterization of tungsten nanoelectrodes insulated with cathodic electrophoretic paint is described together with their application within the field of neurophysiology. The tip of a 127 mum diameter tungsten wire was etched down to less than 100 nm and then insulated with cathodic electrophoretic paint. Focused ion beam (FIB) polishing was employed to remove the insulation at the electrode's apex, leaving a nanoscale sized conductive tip of 100-1000 nm. The nanoelectrodes were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their electrochemical properties characterized by steady state linear sweep voltammetry. Electrode impedance at 1 kHz was measured too. The ability of a 700 nm tipped electrode to record well-isolated action potentials extracellularly from single visual neurons in vivo was demonstrated. Such electrodes have the potential to open new populations of neurons to study.

  18. Music enhances spatial-temporal reasoning: towards a neurophysiological basis using EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G L; Bodner, M

    1999-10-01

    Motivated by predictions from the structured trion model of the cortex, based on Mountcastle's columnar organizational principle, behavioral experiments have demonstrated a causal short-term enhancement of spatial-temporal reasoning in college students following listening to a Mozart Sonata (K.448) but not in control conditions. An EEG coherence study reported presence of right frontal and left temporoparietal activity induced by listening to the Mozart Sonata, which carried over into the spatial-temporal tasks in three of the seven subjects. In this paper, we present further predictions from the trion model and discuss how the new SYMMETRIC analysis method can be used in EEG recordings to help determine the neurophysiological basis of specific music enhancing spatial-temporal reasoning. We conclude with potential clinical applications of major significance.

  19. Neurophysiological handover from MMN to P3a in first-episode and recurrent major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Dunhong; Wu, Xingqu; Fu, Qinghai; Xu, Fan; Wang, Huan; Ye, Ming; Ma, Wentao; Yang, Laiqi; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-03-15

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a components are sequential and co-occur. MMN represents the pre-attentive index of deviance detection and P3a represents the attention orienting response. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by impaired pre-attentive information processing. To assess whether impaired pre-attentive information processing can lead to an impairment of subsequent orienting process as the neurophysiological transmission spreads from MMN to P3a in MDD. MMN/P3a was obtained during a two-tone auditory paradigm with 8% duration deviants in 45 first-episode major depression subjects (F-MD), 40 recurrent major depression subjects (R-MD), and 46 healthy controls (HC). Compared with HC, F-MD and R-MD had lower MMN amplitudes and no differences were found between F-MD and R-MD. Notably, R-MD had lower P3a amplitudes and longer P3a latencies compared to HC, while F-MD had no differences. Interestingly, no correlations were found between the severity of depression and the deficits of MMN amplitude. The deficits of P3a amplitude, however, were negatively correlated with the severity of depression in F-MD and R-MD. Furthermore, the P3a amplitude deficits were positively correlated with the number of episodes in R-MD. Patients were on antidepressant medication. The recurrence of depressive episodes can lead to impaired pre-attentive information processing, causing an impairment of subsequent orienting process as the neurophysiological transmission from MMN to P3a. It further suggests that the impaired processing indexed by MMN amplitude may be a stable trait biomarker for the appearance of depression, while P3a amplitude can be used a potential biomarker for recurrence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting Mental Imagery-Based BCI Performance from Personality, Cognitive Profile and Neurophysiological Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Jeunet

    Full Text Available Mental-Imagery based Brain-Computer Interfaces (MI-BCIs allow their users to send commands to a computer using their brain-activity alone (typically measured by ElectroEncephaloGraphy-EEG, which is processed while they perform specific mental tasks. While very promising, MI-BCIs remain barely used outside laboratories because of the difficulty encountered by users to control them. Indeed, although some users obtain good control performances after training, a substantial proportion remains unable to reliably control an MI-BCI. This huge variability in user-performance led the community to look for predictors of MI-BCI control ability. However, these predictors were only explored for motor-imagery based BCIs, and mostly for a single training session per subject. In this study, 18 participants were instructed to learn to control an EEG-based MI-BCI by performing 3 MI-tasks, 2 of which were non-motor tasks, across 6 training sessions, on 6 different days. Relationships between the participants' BCI control performances and their personality, cognitive profile and neurophysiological markers were explored. While no relevant relationships with neurophysiological markers were found, strong correlations between MI-BCI performances and mental-rotation scores (reflecting spatial abilities were revealed. Also, a predictive model of MI-BCI performance based on psychometric questionnaire scores was proposed. A leave-one-subject-out cross validation process revealed the stability and reliability of this model: it enabled to predict participants' performance with a mean error of less than 3 points. This study determined how users' profiles impact their MI-BCI control ability and thus clears the way for designing novel MI-BCI training protocols, adapted to the profile of each user.

  1. Predicting Mental Imagery-Based BCI Performance from Personality, Cognitive Profile and Neurophysiological Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeunet, Camille; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Subramanian, Sriram; Hachet, Martin; Lotte, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Mental-Imagery based Brain-Computer Interfaces (MI-BCIs) allow their users to send commands to a computer using their brain-activity alone (typically measured by ElectroEncephaloGraphy-EEG), which is processed while they perform specific mental tasks. While very promising, MI-BCIs remain barely used outside laboratories because of the difficulty encountered by users to control them. Indeed, although some users obtain good control performances after training, a substantial proportion remains unable to reliably control an MI-BCI. This huge variability in user-performance led the community to look for predictors of MI-BCI control ability. However, these predictors were only explored for motor-imagery based BCIs, and mostly for a single training session per subject. In this study, 18 participants were instructed to learn to control an EEG-based MI-BCI by performing 3 MI-tasks, 2 of which were non-motor tasks, across 6 training sessions, on 6 different days. Relationships between the participants' BCI control performances and their personality, cognitive profile and neurophysiological markers were explored. While no relevant relationships with neurophysiological markers were found, strong correlations between MI-BCI performances and mental-rotation scores (reflecting spatial abilities) were revealed. Also, a predictive model of MI-BCI performance based on psychometric questionnaire scores was proposed. A leave-one-subject-out cross validation process revealed the stability and reliability of this model: it enabled to predict participants' performance with a mean error of less than 3 points. This study determined how users' profiles impact their MI-BCI control ability and thus clears the way for designing novel MI-BCI training protocols, adapted to the profile of each user.

  2. Neurophysiological assessment of Alzheimer's disease individuals by a single electroencephalographic marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizio, Roberta; Del Percio, Claudio; Marzano, Nicola; Soricelli, Andrea; Yener, Görsev G; Başar, Erol; Mundi, Ciro; De Rosa, Salvatore; Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Ferri, Raffaele; Arnaldi, Dario; Nobili, Flavio Mariano; Cordone, Susanna; Lopez, Susanna; Carducci, Filippo; Santi, Giulia; Gesualdo, Loreto; Rossini, Paolo M; Cavedo, Enrica; Mauri, Margherita; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Babiloni, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Here we presented a single electroencephalographic (EEG) marker for a neurophysiological assessment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients already diagnosed by current guidelines. The ability of the EEG marker to classify 127 AD individuals and 121 matched cognitively intact normal elderly (Nold) individuals was tested. Furthermore, its relationship to AD patients' cognitive status and structural brain integrity was examined. Low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) freeware estimated cortical sources of resting state eyes-closed EEG rhythms. The EEG marker was defined as the ratio between the activity of parieto-occipital cortical sources of delta (2-4 Hz) and low-frequency alpha (8-10.5 Hz) rhythms. Results showed 77.2% of sensitivity in the recognition of the AD individuals; 65% of specificity in the recognition of the Nold individuals; and 0.75 of area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve. Compared to the AD subgroup with the EEG maker within one standard deviation of the Nold mean (EEG-), the AD subgroup with EEG+ showed lower global cognitive status, as revealed by Mini-Mental State Evaluation score, and more abnormal values of white-matter and cerebrospinal fluid normalized volumes, as revealed by structural magnetic resonance imaging. We posit that cognitive and functional status being equal, AD patients with EEG+ should receive special clinical attention due to a neurophysiological "frailty". EEG+ label can be also used in clinical trials (i) to form homogeneous groups of AD patients diagnosed by current guidelines and (ii) as end-point to evaluate intervention effects.

  3. Cross-Level Effects Between Neurophysiology and Communication During Team Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jamie C; Martin, Melanie J; Dunbar, Terri A; Stevens, Ronald H; Galloway, Trysha L; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Likens, Aaron D

    2016-02-01

    We investigated cross-level effects, which are concurrent changes across neural and cognitive-behavioral levels of analysis as teams interact, between neurophysiology and team communication variables under variations in team training. When people work together as a team, they develop neural, cognitive, and behavioral patterns that they would not develop individually. It is currently unknown whether these patterns are associated with each other in the form of cross-level effects. Team-level neurophysiology and latent semantic analysis communication data were collected from submarine teams in a training simulation. We analyzed whether (a) both neural and communication variables change together in response to changes in training segments (briefing, scenario, or debriefing), (b) neural and communication variables mutually discriminate teams of different experience levels, and (c) peak cross-correlations between neural and communication variables identify how the levels are linked. Changes in training segment led to changes in both neural and communication variables, neural and communication variables mutually discriminated between teams of different experience levels, and peak cross-correlations indicated that changes in communication precede changes in neural patterns in more experienced teams. Cross-level effects suggest that teamwork is not reducible to a fundamental level of analysis and that training effects are spread out across neural and cognitive-behavioral levels of analysis. Cross-level effects are important to consider for theories of team performance and practical aspects of team training. Cross-level effects suggest that measurements could be taken at one level (e.g., neural) to assess team experience (or skill) on another level (e.g., cognitive-behavioral). © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  4. Body schema plasticity after stroke: Subjective and neurophysiological correlates of the rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Roberto; Borrego, Adrián; Palomo, Priscila; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Noé, Enrique; I Badia, Sergi Bermúdez; Baños, Rosa

    2017-02-01

    Stroke can lead to motor impairments that can affect the body structure and restraint mobility. We hypothesize that brain lesions and their motor sequelae can distort the body schema, a sensorimotor map of body parts and elements in the peripersonal space through which human beings embody the reachable space and ready the body for forthcoming movements. Two main constructs have been identified in the embodiment mechanism: body-ownership, the sense that the body that one inhabits is his/her own, and agency, the sense that one can move and control his/her body. To test this, the present study simultaneously investigated different embodiment subcomponents (body-ownership, localization, and agency) and different neurophysiological measures (galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and surface electromyographic activity), and the interaction between them, in clinically-controlled hemiparetic individuals with stroke and in healthy subjects after the rubber hand illusion. Individuals with stroke reported significantly stronger body-ownership and agency and reduced increase of galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and muscular activity in the stimulated hand. We suggest that differences in embodiment could have been motivated by increased plasticity of the body schema and pathological predominance of the visual input over proprioception. We also suggest that differences in neurophysiological responses could have been promoted by a suppression of the reflex activity of the sympathetic nervous system and by the involvement of the premotor cortex in the reconfiguration of the body schema. These results could evidence a body schema plasticity promoted by the brain lesion and a main role of the premotor cortex in this mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurophysiological capacity in a working memory task differentiates dependent from nondependent heavy drinkers and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Michael J; Lile, Joshua A; Fillmore, Mark T; Porrino, Linda J

    2017-06-01

    Determining the neurobehavioral profiles that differentiate heavy drinkers who are and are not alcohol dependent will inform treatment efforts. Working memory is linked to substance use disorders and can serve as a representation of the demand placed on the neurophysiology associated with cognitive control. Behavior and brain activity (via fMRI) were recorded during an N-Back working memory task in controls (CTRL), nondependent heavy drinkers (A-ND) and dependent heavy drinkers (A-D). Typical and novel step-wise analyses examined profiles of working memory load and increasing task demand, respectively. Performance was significantly decreased in A-D during high working memory load (2-Back), compared to CTRL and A-ND. Analysis of brain activity during high load (0-Back vs. 2- Back) showed greater responses in the dorsal lateral and medial prefrontal cortices of A-D than CTRL, suggesting increased but failed compensation. The step-wise analysis revealed that the transition to Low Demand (0-Back to 1-Back) was associated with robust increases and decreases in cognitive control and default-mode brain regions, respectively, in A-D and A-ND but not CTRL. The transition to High Demand (1-Back to 2-Back) resulted in additional engagement of these networks in A-ND and CTRL, but not A-D. Heavy drinkers engaged working memory neural networks at lower demand than controls. As demand increased, nondependent heavy drinkers maintained control performance but relied on additional neurophysiological resources, and dependent heavy drinkers did not display further resource engagement and had poorer performance. These results support targeting these brain areas for treatment interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional MRI, DTI and neurophysiology in horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Sven; Wetzel, Stephan G. [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Radiology, Department of Neuroradiology, Basel (Switzerland); Luetschg, Juerg [University Children' s Hospital (UKBB), Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-05-15

    Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is an autosomal recessive disease due to a mutation in the ROBO3 gene. This rare disease is of particular interest because the absence, or at least reduction, of crossing of the ascending lemniscal and descending corticospinal tracts in the medulla predicts abnormal ipsilateral sensory and motor systems. We evaluated the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the first time in this disease and compared it to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography and neurophysiological findings in the same patient with genetically confirmed ROBO3 mutation. As expected, motor fMRI, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and motor evoked potentials (MEP) were dominantly ipsilateral to the stimulation side. DTI tractography revealed ipsilateral ascending and descending connectivity in the brainstem yet normal interhemispheric connections in the corpus callosum. Auditory fMRI revealed bilateral auditory activation to monaural left-sided auditory stimulation. No significant cortical activation was observed after monaural right-sided stimulation, a hearing defect having been excluded. Prosaccades fMRI showed no activations in the eye-movement network. Motor fMRI confirmed the established findings of DTI and neurophysiology in the same patient. In suspected HGPPS, any technique appears appropriate for further investigation. Auditory fMRI suggests that a monaural auditory system with bilateral auditory activations might be a physiological advantage as compared to a binaural yet only unilateral auditory system, in analogy to anisometropic amblyopia. Moving-head fMRI studies in the future might show whether the compensatory head movements instead of normal eye movements activate the eye-movement network. (orig.)

  7. Python Executable Script for Estimating Two Effective Parameters to Individualize Brain-Computer Interfaces: Individual Alpha Frequency and Neurophysiological Predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Valerdi, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) aims to establish communication between the human brain and a computing system so as to enable the interaction between an individual and his environment without using the brain output pathways. Individuals control a BCI system by modulating their brain signals through mental tasks (e.g., motor imagery or mental calculation) or sensory stimulation (e.g., auditory, visual, or tactile). As users modulate their brain signals at different frequencies and at different levels, the appropriate characterization of those signals is necessary. The modulation of brain signals through mental tasks is furthermore a skill that requires training. Unfortunately, not all the users acquire such skill. A practical solution to this problem is to assess the user probability of controlling a BCI system. Another possible solution is to set the bandwidth of the brain oscillations, which is highly sensitive to the users' age, sex and anatomy. With this in mind, NeuroIndex, a Python executable script, estimates a neurophysiological prediction index and the individual alpha frequency (IAF) of the user in question. These two parameters are useful to characterize the user EEG signals, and decide how to go through the complex process of adapting the human brain and the computing system on the basis of previously proposed methods. NeuroIndeX is not only the implementation of those methods, but it also complements the methods each other and provides an alternative way to obtain the prediction parameter. However, an important limitation of this application is its dependency on the IAF value, and some results should be interpreted with caution. The script along with some electroencephalographic datasets are available on a GitHub repository in order to corroborate the functionality and usability of this application.

  8. Evaluation of the workload and drowsiness during car driving by using high resolution EEG activity and neurophysiologic indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, A; Borghini, G; Aricò, P; Borgia, F; Graziani, I; Colosimo, A; Kong, W; Vecchiato, G; Babiloni, F

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation and/or a high workload situation can adversely affect driving performance, decreasing a driver's capacity to respond effectively in dangerous situations. In this context, to provide useful feedback and alert signals in real time to the drivers physiological and brain activities have been increasingly investigated in literature. In this study, we analyze the increase of cerebral workload and the insurgence of drowsiness during car driving in a simulated environment by using high resolution electroencephalographic techniques (EEG) as well as neurophysiologic variables such as heart rate (HR) and eye blinks rate (EBR). The simulated drive tasks were modulated with five levels of increasing difficulty. A workload index was then generated by using the EEG signals and the related HR and EBR signals. Results suggest that the derived workload index is sensitive to the mental efforts of the driver during the different drive tasks performed. Such workload index was based on the estimation the variation of EEG power spectra in the theta band over prefrontal cortical areas and the variation of the EEG power spectra over the parietal cortical areas in alpha band. In addition, results suggested as HR increases during the execution of the difficult driving tasks while instead it decreases at the insurgence of the drowsiness. Finally, the results obtained showed as the EBR variable increases of its values when the insurgence of drowsiness in the driver occurs. The proposed workload index could be then used in a near future to assess on-line the mental state of the driver during a drive task.

  9. Neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of beneficial effects of prenatal omega-3 fatty acid intake on memory function at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Olivier; Burden, Matthew J; Muckle, Gina; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Nelson, Charles A; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2011-05-01

    The beneficial effects of prenatal and early postnatal intakes of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on cognitive development during infancy are well recognized. However, few studies have examined the extent to which these benefits continue to be evident in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine the relation of n-3 PUFAs and seafood-contaminant intake with memory function in school-age children from a fish-eating community. In a prospective, longitudinal study in Arctic Quebec, we assessed Inuit children (n = 154; mean age: 11.3 y) by using a continuous visual recognition task to measure 2 event-related potential components related to recognition memory processing: the FN400 and the late positive component (LPC). Children were also examined by using 2 well-established neurobehavioral assessments of memory: the Digit span forward from Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, 4th edition, and the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version. Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that children with higher cord plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an important n-3 PUFA, had a shorter FN400 latency and a larger LPC amplitude; and higher plasma DHA concentrations at the time of testing were associated with increased FN400 amplitude. Cord DHA-related effects were observed regardless of seafood-contaminant amounts. Multiple regression analyses also showed positive associations between cord DHA concentrations and performance on neurobehavioral assessments of memory. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of long-term beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA intake in utero on memory function in school-age children.

  10. Probing the Behavioral and Neurophysiological Effects of Acute Smoking Abstinence on Drug and Nondrug Reinforcement During a Cognitive Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlienz, Nicolas J; Hawk, Larry W

    2017-06-01

    Smoking abstinence is theorized to increase smoking reinforcement and decrease nondrug reinforcement. A separate literature demonstrates the detrimental effects of abstinence on cognition. The present study integrates these two areas by examining the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and smoking abstinence on behavior and a neurophysiological index of response monitoring (ie, error-related negativity [ERN]) during a cognitive task. After a screening visit, adult smokers attended two laboratory visits, once while smoking and once while abstinent. Participants completed a flanker task under cigarette-, money-, and no-reinforcement conditions. The initial 15 participants had an easier reaction time (RT) requirement; to ensure sufficient error rates for ERN computation, a harder RT deadline was employed for the remaining 21 participants. Smoking abstinence reduced speeded accuracy and ERN amplitude only among participants tested with the harder RT deadline. Cigarette and money reinforcement each increased speeded accuracy and ERN amplitude compared to no reinforcement. The effect of cigarette reinforcement tended to be greater during abstinence for speeded accuracy but not the ERN. The effect of money reinforcement was unaffected by abstinence. The impact of smoking abstinence on reinforcement may depend on task demands. However, the effects of cigarette and money reinforcement generalize well from operant paradigms to cognitive tasks, fostering integration between the two literatures. Results provided modest evidence of abstinence-induced increases in smoking reinforcement; the absence of abstinence-induced reductions in nondrug reinforcement is consistent with recent work in suggesting that such effects are limited to a subset of sensory reinforcers. This study draws attention to the need for greater integration of reinforcement and cognition to better understand the mechanisms that contribute to smoking relapse. Results emphasize thoughtful

  11. The Relationship Between Engagement and Neurophysiological Measures of Attention in Motion-Controlled Video Games: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiker, Amber M; Miller, Matthew; Brewer, Lauren; Nelson, Monica; Siow, Maria; Lohse, Keith

    2016-04-21

    Video games and virtual environments continue to be the subject of research in health sciences for their capacity to augment practice through user engagement. Creating game mechanics that increase user engagement may have indirect benefits on learning (ie, engaged learners are likely to practice more) and may also have direct benefits on learning (ie, for a fixed amount of practice, engaged learners show superior retention of information or skills). To manipulate engagement through the aesthetic features of a motion-controlled video game and measure engagement's influence on learning. A group of 40 right-handed participants played the game under two different conditions (game condition or sterile condition). The mechanics of the game and the amount of practice were constant. During practice, event-related potentials (ERPs) to task-irrelevant probe tones were recorded during practice as an index of participants' attentional reserve. Participants returned for retention and transfer testing one week later. Although both groups improved in the task, there was no difference in the amount of learning between the game and sterile groups, countering previous research. A new finding was a statistically significant relationship between self-reported engagement and the amplitude of the early-P3a (eP3a) component of the ERP waveform, such that participants who reported higher levels of engagement showed a smaller eP3a (beta=-.08, P=.02). This finding provides physiological data showing that engagement elicits increased information processing (reducing attentional reserve), which yields new insight into engagement and its underlying neurophysiological properties. Future studies may objectively index engagement by quantifying ERPs (specifically the eP3a) to task-irrelevant probes.

  12. Aligning Books and Movies: Towards Story-like Visual Explanations by Watching Movies and Reading Books

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yukun; Kiros, Ryan; Zemel, Richard; Salakhutdinov, Ruslan; Urtasun, Raquel; Torralba, Antonio; Fidler, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Books are a rich source of both fine-grained information, how a character, an object or a scene looks like, as well as high-level semantics, what someone is thinking, feeling and how these states evolve through a story. This paper aims to align books to their movie releases in order to provide rich descriptive explanations for visual content that go semantically far beyond the captions available in the current datasets. To align movies and books we propose a neural sentence embedding that is ...

  13. CONSORT 2010 Explanation and Elaboration: Updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moher, David; Hopewell, Sally; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2010-01-01

    to write or appraise trial reports. A CONSORT explanation and elaboration article was published in 2001 alongside the 2001 version of the CONSORT statement. After an expert meeting in January 2007, the CONSORT statement has been further revised and is published as the CONSORT 2010 Statement. This update...... of the CONSORT statement-has also been extensively revised. It presents the meaning and rationale for each new and updated checklist item providing examples of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies. Several examples of flow diagrams are included. The CONSORT 2010 Statement...

  14. CONSORT 2010 Explanation and Elaboration: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials (Chinese version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moher, David; Hopewell, Sally; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2010-01-01

    to write or appraise trial reports. A CONSORT explanation and elaboration article was published in 2001 alongside the 2001 version of the CONSORT statement. After an expert meeting in January 2007, the CONSORT statement has been further revised and is published as the CONSORT 2010 Statement. This update...... of the CONSORT statement-has also been extensively revised. It presents the meaning and rationale for each new and updated checklist item providing examples of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies. Several examples of flow diagrams are included. The CONSORT 2010 Statement...

  15. After shock? Towards a social identity explanation of the Milgram 'obedience' studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicher, Stephen; Haslam, S Alexander

    2011-03-01

    Russell's forensic archival investigations reveal the great lengths that Milgram went to in order to construct an experiment that would 'shock the world'. However, in achieving this goal it is also apparent that the drama of the 'basic' obedience paradigm draws attention away both from variation in obedience and from the task of explaining that variation. Building on points that Russell and others have made concerning the competing 'pulls' that are at play in the Milgram paradigm, this paper outlines the potential for a social identity perspective on obedience to provide such an explanation. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Metabolic scaling in animals: methods, empirical results, and theoretical explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Craig R; Kearney, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Life on earth spans a size range of around 21 orders of magnitude across species and can span a range of more than 6 orders of magnitude within species of animal. The effect of size on physiology is, therefore, enormous and is typically expressed by how physiological phenomena scale with mass(b). When b ≠ 1 a trait does not vary in direct proportion to mass and is said to scale allometrically. The study of allometric scaling goes back to at least the time of Galileo Galilei, and published scaling relationships are now available for hundreds of traits. Here, the methods of scaling analysis are reviewed, using examples for a range of traits with an emphasis on those related to metabolism in animals. Where necessary, new relationships have been generated from published data using modern phylogenetically informed techniques. During recent decades one of the most controversial scaling relationships has been that between metabolic rate and body mass and a number of explanations have been proposed for the scaling of this trait. Examples of these mechanistic explanations for metabolic scaling are reviewed, and suggestions made for comparing between them. Finally, the conceptual links between metabolic scaling and ecological patterns are examined, emphasizing the distinction between (1) the hypothesis that size- and temperature-dependent variation among species and individuals in metabolic rate influences ecological processes at levels of organization from individuals to the biosphere and (2) mechanistic explanations for metabolic rate that may explain the size- and temperature-dependence of this trait. © 2014 American Physiological Society.

  17. Exploring how animations of sodium chloride dissolution affect students' explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Resa M.

    2005-11-01

    In an attempt to improve the learning of molecular structures and dynamics, animations of microchemistry processes have been developed to supplement instruction. Since many studies (Kelly, Phelps and Sanger, 2004; Sanger, Phelps and Feinhold, 2000; Wu, Krajcik, and Soloway, 2001; Burke, Greenbowe and Windschitl, 1998; and Williamson and Abraham, 1995) have suggested that students who receive instruction including computer animations or visualizations of chemical processes at the molecular level are better able to answer conceptual questions about particulate phenomena, publishers have supplemented their textbooks with compact discs or websites containing molecular animations. In this study, eighteen college students enrolled in general chemistry participated in three research sessions. First, they were individually shown two popular textbook animations of salt dissolution after each performed an activity of the same event. Second, after one week the same subjects were asked to interpret a precipitation reaction at the molecular level. Third, a debriefing session and semi-structured interview were held. An analysis of the data from the first session showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations, and many were able to connect how the microscopic process of dissolution related to the macroscopic disappearance of the salt. Although students' drawn explanations displayed many features seen in the salt dissolution animations, their verbal explanations sometimes indicated that they drew these features without full comprehension of their meaning. In a study of the transfer of learning, it was found that most students did not see a relation between the sodium chloride solution made when dissolving the salt and the sodium chloride solution used in a precipitation reaction.

  18. Reasoning and Explanation in EL and in Expressive Description Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Anni-Yasmin

    Description Logics (DLs) are the formalism underlying the standard web ontology language OWL 2. DLs have formal semantics which are the basis for powerful reasoning services. In this paper, we introduce the basic notions of DLs and the techniques that realize subsumption - the fundamental reasoning service of DL systems. We discuss two reasoning methods for this service: the tableau method for expressive DLs such as ALC and the completion method for the light-weight DL EL. We also present methods for generating explanations for computed subsumption relationships in these two DLs.

  19. Coding Scheme for Assessment of Students’ Explanations and Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Gojkošek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the process of analyzing students’ explanations and predictions for interaction between brightness enhancement film and beam of white light, a need for objective and reliable assessment instrumentarose. Consequently, we developed a codingscheme that was mostly inspired by the rubrics for self-assessment of scientific abilities. In the paper we present the grading categories that were integrated in the coding scheme, and descriptions of criteria used for evaluation of students work. We report the results of reliability analysis of new assessment tool and present some examples of its application.

  20. Causation at Different Levels: Tracking the Commitments of Mechanistic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter; Kertész, Gergely

    2011-01-01

    This paper tracks the commitments of mechanistic explanations focusing on the relation between activities at different levels. It is pointed out that the mechanistic approach is inherently committed to identifying causal connections at higher levels with causal connections at lower levels......, whereas, in a recent paper, Craver and Bechtel argue that the mechanistic approach is able to make downward causation intelligible. The paper concludes that the mechanistic approach imbued with identity statements is no better candidate for anchoring higher levels to lower ones while maintaining...

  1. [Protocol for neurophysiological studies of the pelvic floor to appraise anorectal dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Guerrico, Ion; Royo, Inmaculada; Andreu, Montserrat; Roquer-González, Jaume; Munteis, Elvira

    2016-03-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently develop anorectal dysfunction. The neuromuscular structures of the pelvic floor and the mechanisms of voluntary control over defecation can be compromised by the patchy lesions of MS or secondary to the patient's disability. The involvement of multiple factors limits understanding of the pathophysiology of anorectal dysfunction in MS. Specific neurophysiological tests assess the functionality of the elements of the central and peripheral nervous system involved in anorectal dysfunction. To propose a diagnostic protocol of standardised neurophysiological studies of the pelvic floor in order to characterise the pathophysiology of anorectal dysfunction in patients with MS. The following studies were conducted on 16 patients with defined MS and who met criteria for constipation or faecal incontinence: external anal sphincter electromyography (EAS-EMG), somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) of the internal pudendal nerve, recording of ano-sacral reflexes and pudendal nerve neurography. The clinical and neurophysiological characteristics were heterogeneous. Nine patients presented constipation; two had isolated faecal incontinence; and five, a combination of both. Abolition or delay in the latency of the SSEP was the most frequent finding (n = 12), followed by the detection of paradoxical contraction (n = 11) and deficient recruitment (n = 8) in the EAS-EMG. The correct interpretation of each available neurophysiological test and the correlation of the findings as a whole enable us to understand the pathophysiology of anorectal dysfunction. The implementation of a protocol for neuro-physiological studies of the pelvic floor makes it possible to adjust the diagnosis by identifying the central or peripheral nervous lesion determining anorectal dysfunction in patients with MS.

  2. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and intensive occupational therapy on motor neuron excitability in poststroke hemiparetic patients: a neurophysiological investigation using F-wave parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takahiro; Kakuda, Wataru; Yamada, Naoki; Shimizu, Masato; Abo, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The combination protocol of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (RTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) improves motor function of the paretic upper limb in poststroke patients. However, the effect of RTMS/OT on motor neuron excitability remains to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 15-day application of RTMS/OT on motor neuron excitability in such patients using neurophysiological studies including F-wave parameter measurements. Ten poststroke patients with spastic upper limb hemiparesis were studied (mean age: 57.4 ± 8.1 years, ± SD). Patients were hospitalized for 15 days to receive RTMS/OT. One session of 40-min low-frequency RTMS and two sessions of 120-min intensive OT were provided daily. Neurophysiological studies including F-wave parameters measurements were performed on the days of admission/discharge. Motor function and spasticity of the affected upper limb were evaluated on the same time points. RTMS/OT significantly improved motor function of the affected upper limb. RTMS/OT decreased the modified Ashworth scale (MAS) in the affected upper limb (p < 0.05), but did not change F-wave frequency in either upper limb. However, both F-mean/M ratio and F-max/M ratio significantly decreased in the affected upper limb (all p < 0.05). The 15-day protocol of LF-RTMS/OT produced significant reduction of motor neuron excitability. RTMS/OT can potentially produce significant reduction in upper limb spasticity in the affected upper limb, although this finding should be confirmed in a larger number of patients.

  3. Misconceptions about optics: An effect of misleading explanations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favale, Fabrizio; Bondani, Maria

    2014-07-01

    During our activities of physics dissemination with High School students especially concerning optics, we are used to distribute a questionnaire about colors and image formation by mirrors and lenses. The answers to some questions clearly show misconceptions and naïve ideas about colors, ray tracing, image formation in reflection and refraction. These misconceptions are widespread and do not depend on the gender, the level, and the age of the students: they seem to depend on some wrong ideas and explanatory models that are not changed by the curricular studies at school. In fact, the same errors are present in groups of students before and after taking optics courses at High School. On the other hand we have also found some misleading explanations of the phenomena both in textbooks and websites. Most of the time, errors occur in the explanatory drawings accompanying the text, which are based on some hybrid description of the optical processes: sometimes the description of the path of the ray light is confused with the image reconstruction by the lenses. We think that to partially avoid some errors it is important to use a teaching path centered on the actual path of the rays and not on what eyes see (the vision). Here we present the results of data collected from more than 200 students and some considerations about figures and explanations found in textbooks.

  4. The expertise reversal effect: cognitive load and motivational explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Günter Daniel; Buchwald, Florian

    2011-03-01

    The expertise reversal effect occurs when a learner's expertise moderates design principles such as the redundancy principle (i.e., redundant information should be excluded rather than included) derived from the cognitive load theory. Although this effect is supported by numerous experiments, indicating an overall large effect size, a variety of explanations have been proposed. The present experiment tested a cognitive load and a motivational explanation with 104 students, who reported a lack of experience in the presented instructional contents. They spent about 30 min with the instructional material to learn fundamental concepts about the gradient descent (a mathematical optimization algorithm), and with a retention and transfer test used as dependent measures. Each learner was randomly assigned to one cell of a 2 (either novices or experts introduced to through the instructional design presented previously) × 2 (either with or without additional text explaining the animations) between-subjects factorial design. The expertise reversal effect concerning the redundancy principle was replicated. Novices receiving additional text scored higher on retention and transfer than did novices without additional text, while this result was reversed for experts. Results suggest that this effect can be explained by the learner's cognitive load differences rather than overall motivation differences. Furthermore, a partial overlap was found between the motivational subdimension, "probability of success," and a cognitive load measure. On the practical side, instructional designers should consider the learner's level of expertise and their cognitive load when applying design principles. Further implications for adaptive learning environments are discussed.

  5. Children balance theories and evidence in exploration, explanation, and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; van Schijndel, Tessa J P; Friel, Daniel; Schulz, Laura

    2012-06-01

    We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children, mean: 62 months). Center and Mass Theory children who observed identical evidence explored the block differently depending on their beliefs. When the block was balanced at its geometric center (belief-violating to a Mass Theorist, but belief-consistent to a Center Theorist), Mass Theory children explored the block more, and Center Theory children showed the standard novelty preference; when the block was balanced at the center of mass, the pattern of results reversed. The No Theory children showed a novelty preference regardless of evidence. In Experiments 2 and 3, we follow-up on these findings, showing that both Mass and Center Theorists selectively and differentially appeal to auxiliary variables (e.g., a magnet) to explain evidence only when their beliefs are violated. We also show that children use the data to revise their predictions in the absence of the explanatory auxiliary variable but not in its presence. Taken together, these results suggest that children's learning is at once conservative and flexible; children integrate evidence, prior beliefs, and competing causal hypotheses in their exploration, explanation, and learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Depression as a disease of modernity: explanations for increasing prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Brandon H

    2012-11-01

    There has been much speculation about modern environments causing an epidemic of depression. This review aims to (1) determine whether depression rates have increased and (2) review evidence for possible explanations. While available data indicate rising prevalence and an increased lifetime risk for younger cohorts, strong conclusions cannot be drawn due to conflicting results and methodological flaws. There are numerous potential explanations for changing rates of depression. Cross-cultural studies can be useful for identifying likely culprits. General and specific characteristics of modernization correlate with higher risk. A positive correlation between a country's GDP per capita, as a quantitative measure of modernization, and lifetime risk of a mood disorder trended toward significance (p=0.06). Mental and physical well-being are intimately related. The growing burden of chronic diseases, which arise from an evolutionary mismatch between past human environments and modern-day living, may be central to rising rates of depression. Declining social capital and greater inequality and loneliness are candidate mediators of a depressiogenic social milieu. Modern populations are increasingly overfed, malnourished, sedentary, sunlight-deficient, sleep-deprived, and socially-isolated. These changes in lifestyle each contribute to poor physical health and affect the incidence and treatment of depression. The review ends with a call for future research and policy interventions to address this public health crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurophysiological and functional assessment of patients with difficult-to-control asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Freitas Canuto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the inadequate response to inhaled corticosteroids, patients with difficult-to-control asthma (DCA are submitted to oral corticosteroids or use of omalizumab. Although it is necessary to treat these patients, a significant relationship between steroid usage and both peripheral and respiratory weakness muscle, results in implications, such as loss of quality of life and compromised lung function. Nonetheless, it is not known whether these patients suffer neurophysiological changes due to drug effect. Objective: To investigate the neurophysiological and functional characteristics of patients with DCA in order to gain a better understanding of the condition. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving three groups of patients: DCA-C (use of oral corticosteroids, DCA-O (use of omalizumab and CG (healthy controls matched for age. The assessment involved the six-minute walk test, sit-to-stand test, static balance on a pressure platform, patellar and Achilles reflexes and quadriceps strength in the dominant leg. Results: The results revealed no statistically significant differences between the control group and DCA groups in relation to neurophysiological aspects. However, the DCA groups exhibited a significant reduction in functional capacity [decreased muscle strength (p < 0.05, shorter distance covered on walk test (p < 0.05 and lesser number of repetitions on sit-to-stand test (p < 0.05] in comparison to the control group. Conclusion: Individuals with DCA exhibited a reduction in functional capacity. The DCA-C group also demonstrated a reduction in muscle strength when compared with control group, likely caused by the continual use of corticosteroids. However, no neurophysiological alterations were found in the studied population. Resumo: Introdução: Devido à inadequada resposta aos corticóides inalatórios, os pacientes com asma de difícil controlo (ADC são submetidos a corticóides orais ou uso de

  8. Preschool Children's Explanations of Plant Growth and Rain Formation: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidou, Vasilia; Hatzinikita, Vassilia

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the different types and characteristics of preschool children's explanations of plant growth and rain formation. The children's explanations were categorized as naturalistic, non-naturalistic, or synthetic, i.e., explanations containing both naturalistic and non-naturalistic parts. In regards to plant growth the children…

  9. Self-Explanation Prompts on Problem-Solving Performance in an Interactive Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyungbin; Kumalasari, Christiana D.; Howland, Jane L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of self-explanation prompts on problem-solving performance. In total, 47 students were recruited and trained to debug web-program code in an online learning environment. Students in an open self-explanation group were asked to explain the problem cases to themselves, whereas a complete other-explanation group was…

  10. Preschool Children's Explanations of Plant Growth and Rain Formation: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidou, Vasilia; Hatzinikita, Vassilia

    2006-09-01

    This paper explores the different types and characteristics of preschool children's explanations of plant growth and rain formation. The children's explanations were categorized as naturalistic, non-naturalistic, or synthetic, i.e., explanations containing both naturalistic and non-naturalistic parts. In regards to plant growth the children tended to rely on synthetic or on naturalistic explanations, which involved direct and indirect agents (such as water, a person, fertilizers, roots) enabling the plant to grow. Non-naturalistic explanations of plant growth, or the non-naturalistic parts of synthetic explanations, were mainly animistic (anthropomorphic). In the case of rain formation the children most frequently used non-naturalistic explanations, which were mainly teleological or metaphysical. The naturalistic explanations recorded on rain formation, as well as the naturalistic parts of synthetic explanations tended to have a non-agentive character, i.e., children considered rainwater as preexisting in containers such as the clouds. Overall, the explanations recorded about plant growth tended to be more complex than the ones for rain formation. It is suggested that science activities designed for preschool children should take into account the types and characteristics of their explanations in order to select which phenomena are appropriate for this age group, and aim at fostering the children's ability at formulating naturalistic explanations.

  11. The Effect of Different Textual Narrations on Students' Explanations at the Submicroscopic Level in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different textual versions (macroscopic (control), submicroscopic, and guided imagery) of the explanation of a chemical phenomenon on students' submicroscopic explanation of a related phenomenon was examined. The sample included 152 pre-service science teachers. The three textual versions of the explanation were distributed randomly…

  12. An unexpected new explanation of seasonality in suicide attempts: Grey's Anatomy broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Perri, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Seasonality is one of the oldest and most elucidation-resistant issues in suicide epidemiological research. Despite winter depression (also known as Seasonal Affective Disorder, SAD) is known and treated since many years, worldwide cross-sectional data from 28 countries show a lower frequency of suicide attempts around the equinoxes and a higher frequency in spring (both in Northern and Southern Hemisphere). This peak is not compatible with the SAD explanation. However, in recent years epidemiological research has yielded new results, which provide new perspectives on the matter. In fact, the discovery of a new pathology called Post-Series Depression (PSD) could provide an explanation of the suicide attempts pattern. The aim of this study is to analyse weekly data in order to compare them with the TV series broadcasting. Since medical observations in our sample are distributed over many years, in order to compare them as best as we can with the television programming, Grey's Anatomy series was chosen. This me...

  13. Mysterious eclipses in the light curve of KIC8462852: a possible explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neslušan, L.; Budaj, J.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Apart from thousands of "regular" exoplanet candidates, Kepler satellite has discovered a small number of stars exhibiting peculiar eclipse-like events. They are most probably caused by disintegrating bodies transiting in front of the star. However, the nature of the bodies and obscuration events, such as those observed in KIC 8462852, remain mysterious. A swarm of comets or artificial alien mega-structures have been proposed as an explanation for the latter object. Aims: We explore the possibility that such eclipses are caused by the dust clouds associated with massive parent bodies orbiting the host star. Methods: We assumed a massive object and a simple model of the dust cloud surrounding the object. Then, we used the numerical integration to simulate the evolution of the cloud, its parent body, and resulting light-curves as they orbit and transit the star. Results: We found that it is possible to reproduce the basic features in the light-curve of KIC 8462852 with only four objects enshrouded in dust clouds. The fact that they are all on similar orbits and that such models require only a handful of free parameters provides additional support for this hypothesis. Conclusions: This model provides an alternative to the comet scenario. With such physical models at hand, at present, there is no need to invoke alien mega-structures for an explanation of these light-curves.

  14. Witchcraft beliefs and witch hunts: an interdisciplinary explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Niek

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary environment of small foraging bands but became overstimulated by the consequences of the Agricultural Revolution, leading to witch paranoia. State formation, civilization, and economic development abated the fear of witches and replaced it in part with more collectivist forms of social paranoia. However, demographic-economic crises could rekindle fear of witches-resulting, for example, in the witch craze of early modern Europe. The Industrial Revolution broke the Malthusian shackles, but modern economic growth requires agricultural development as a starting point. In sub-Saharan Africa, witch paranoia has resurged because the conditions for agricultural development are lacking, leading to fighting for opportunities and an erosion of intergenerational reciprocity.

  15. Mechanical and chemical explanations in Du Clos' chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckowiak, Rémi

    2011-03-01

    Samuel Cottereau Du Clos (1598-1685) appears as the first French chemist to combine in chemistry (for him, the science of substances, the physics of qualities) demonstrations using the laws of motion with demonstrations using the qualities of chemical principles. In this way, he brought to bear two different and complementary orders of explanation. According to Du Clos, the mechanical considerations represent a first approach, a stage towards the knowledge of "the truth of things" (la vérité des choses) in natural philosophy. He set out his chemistry at the Académie royale des sciences de Paris, especially through his criticism of Boyle's Certain Physiological Essays in 1668-1669.

  16. A quantitative examination of explanations for reasons for internet nonuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsper, Ellen J; Reisdorf, Bianca C

    2013-02-01

    This article investigates patterns of reasons for digital disengagement of British adults. It adds a psychological dimension to research that is mostly sociological in nature in trying to separate out explanations for disengaging from the Internet by choice or by forced exclusion. The analysis of a nationally representative survey shows differences between the number of reasons and the most important reasons among different sociodemographic groups, but also among individuals with different psychological profiles. The findings suggest that ex- and nonusers do not have one simple reason for nonuse, but a multifaceted range of reasons, which often represent disadvantages at several levels. The range of often mentioned reasons, moreover, shows that motivations for disengagement cannot be measured by means of the most important reason, but that all reasons have to be taken into account and looked at concertedly.

  17. Patients' explanations for depression: a factor analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Rick; James, Darren; Hughes, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Previous questionnaire studies have attempted to explore the factor structure of lay beliefs about the causes of depression. These studies have tended to either fail to sample the full range of possible causal explanations or extract too many factors, thereby producing complex solutions. The main objective of the present study was to obtain a more complete and robust factor structure of lay theories of depression while more adequately sampling from the full range of hypothesized causes of depression. A second objective of the study was to explore the relationship between respondents' explanations for depression and their perceptions of the helpfulness of different treatments received. A 77-item questionnaire comprising possible reasons for 'why a person might get depressed' was mailed out to members of a large self-help organization. Also included was a short questionnaire inviting respondents to note treatments received and their perceptions of the helpfulness of these treatments. Data from the 77-item questionnaire were subjected to a principal components analysis. The reasons rated as most important causes of depression related to recent bereavement, imbalance in brain chemistry and having suffered sexual assault/abuse. The data were best described by a two-factor solution, with the first factor clearly representing stress and the second factor depressogenic beliefs, the latter corresponding to a cognitive-behavioural formulation of depression aetiology. The two scales thus derived did not, however, correspond substantially with rated helpfulness for different treatments received. The factor structure obtained was in contrast to more complex models from previous studies, comprising two factors. It is likely to be more robust and meaningful. It accords with previous research on lay theories of depression, which highlight 'stress' as a key cause for depression. Possible limitations in the study are discussed, and it is suggested that using the questionnaire with

  18. Photoactivation provides a mechanistic explanation for pan-assay interference behaviour of 2-aminopyrroles in lipoxygenase inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Hao; Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos; Rohr-Udilova, Nataliya; Dömling, Alexander; Dekker, Frank J

    2017-01-01

    Human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (h-15-LOX-1) is a promising drug target in inflammation and cancer. In this study substitution-oriented screening (SOS) has been used to identify compounds with a 2-aminopyrrole scaffold as inhibitors for h-15-LOX-1. The observed structure activity relationships (SAR) proved

  19. Photoactivation provides a mechanistic explanation for pan-assay interference behaviour of 2-aminopyrroles in lipoxygenase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos; Rohr-Udilova, Nataliya; Dömling, Alexander; Dekker, Frank J

    2017-10-20

    Human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (h-15-LOX-1) is a promising drug target in inflammation and cancer. In this study substitution-oriented screening (SOS) has been used to identify compounds with a 2-aminopyrrole scaffold as inhibitors for h-15-LOX-1. The observed structure activity relationships (SAR) proved to be relatively flat. IC50's for the most potent inhibitor of the series did not surpass 6.3 μM and the enzyme kinetics demonstrated uncompetitive inhibition. Based on this, we hypothesized that the investigated 2-aminopyrroles are pan assay interference compounds (PAINS) with photoactivation via a radical mechanism. Our results demonstrated clear photoactivation of h-15-LOX-1 inhibition under UV and visible light. In addition, the investigated 2-aminopyrroles decreased viability of cultured human hepatocarcinoma cells HCC-1.2 in a dose-dependent manner with LD50 ranging from 0.55 ± 0.15 μM (21B10) to 2.75 ± 0.91 μM (22). Taken together, this indicates that photoactivation can play an important role in the biological activity of compounds with a 2-amino-pyrrole scaffold as investigated here. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Bothered by abstractness or engaged by cohesion? Experts' explanations enhance novices' deep-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachner, Andreas; Nückles, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Experts' explanations have been shown to better enhance novices' transfer as compared with advanced students' explanations. Based on research on expertise and text comprehension, we investigated whether the abstractness or the cohesion of experts' and intermediates' explanations accounted for novices' learning. In Study 1, we showed that the superior cohesion of experts' explanations accounted for most of novices' transfer, whereas the degree of abstractness did not impact novices' transfer performance. In Study 2, we investigated novices' processing while learning with experts' and intermediates' explanations. We found that novices studying experts' explanations actively self-regulated their processing of the explanations, as they showed mainly deep-processing activities, whereas novices learning with intermediates' explanations were mainly engaged in shallow-processing activities by paraphrasing the explanations. Thus, we concluded that subject-matter expertise is a crucial prerequisite for instructors. Despite the abstract character of experts' explanations, their subject-matter expertise enables them to generate highly cohesive explanations that serve as a valuable scaffold for students' construction of flexible knowledge by engaging them in deep-level processing. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Asymmetric activation of the anterior cerebral cortex in recipients of IRECA: Preliminary evidence for the energetic effects of an intention-based biofield treatment modality on human neurophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, C.; Vernon, D.; Hald, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiologic studies of mindfulness link the health benefits of meditation to activation of the left-anterior cerebral cortex. The similarity and functional importance of intention and attentional stance in meditative and biofield therapeutic practices suggest that modulation of recipient

  2. Neurophysiological evidence of impaired self-monitoring in schizotypal personality disorder and its reversal by dopaminergic antagonism.

    OpenAIRE

    Rabella, Mireia; Grasa, Eva; Corripio, Iluminada; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; Antonijoan, Rosa Mª.; Münte, Thomas F.; Pérez, Víctor; Riba, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder characterized by odd or bizarre behavior, strange speech, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, and social anhedonia. Schizophrenia proper has been associated with anomalies in dopaminergic neurotransmission and deficits in neurophysiological markers of self-monitoring, such as low amplitude in cognitive event-related brain potentials (ERPs) like the error-related negativity (ERN), and the erro...

  3. Neurophysiological measures of sensory registration, stimulus discrimination, and selection in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissling, Anthony J; Light, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Cortical Neurophysiological event related potentials (ERPs) are multidimensional measures of information processing that are well suited to efficiently parse automatic and controlled components of cognition that span the range of deficits exhibited in schizophrenia patients. Components following a stimulus reflect the sequence of neural processes triggered by the stimulus, beginning with early automatic sensory processes and proceeding through controlled decision and response related processes. Previous studies employing ERP paradigms have reported deficits of information processing in schizophrenia across automatic through attention dependent processes including sensory registration (N1), automatic change detection (MMN), the orienting or covert shift of attention towards novel or infrequent stimuli (P3a), and attentional allocation following successful target detection processes (P3b). These automatic and attention dependent information components are beginning to be recognized as valid targets for intervention in the context of novel treatment development for schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we describe three extensively studied ERP components (N1, mismatch negativity, P300) that are consistently deficient in schizophrenia patients and may serve as genetic endophenotypes and as quantitative biological markers of response outcome.

  4. Microvascular decompression for glossopharyngeal neuralgia using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring: Technical case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Takatani, Tsunenori; Park, Hun-Soo; Kotani, Yukiko; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Gurung, Pritam; Park, Young-Soo; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GN) is a rare functional disorder representing around 1% of cases of trigeminal neuralgia. Lancinating throat and ear pain while swallowing are the typical manifestations, and are initially treated using anticonvulsants such as carbamazepine. Medically refractory GN is treated surgically. Microvascular decompression (MVD) is reportedly effective against GN, superseding rhizotomy and tractotomy. Methods: We encountered three patients with medically refractory GN who underwent MVD using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). The offending vessels were the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries, which were confirmed intraoperatively via a transcondylar fossa approach to be affecting the root exit zones of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. As IONM, facial motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and brainstem auditory-evoked potentials were monitored during microsurgery in all three patients. Pharyngeal and vagal MEPs were added for two patients to avoid postoperative dysphagia. Results: GN disappeared immediately after surgery with complete preservation of hearing acuity and facial nerve function. Transient mild swallowing disturbance was observed in 1 patient without pharyngeal or vagal MEPs, whereas the remaining two patients with pharyngeal and vagal MEPs demonstrated no postoperative dysphagia. Conclusion: Although control of severe pain is expected in surgical intervention for GN, lower cranial nerves are easily damaged because of their fragility, even in MVD. IONM including pharyngeal and vagal MEPs appears very useful for avoiding postoperative sequelae during MVD for GN. PMID:26862458

  5. On the investigation of the neurophysiological correlates of knowledge worker mental fatigue using the EEG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okogbaa, O G; Shell, R L; Filipusic, D

    1994-12-01

    Technological trends and advances in automation have underscored the importance of task performance of certain jobs requiring mental functions such as information processing and decision analyses. Most experts agree that such work environments produce increased mental activities, with profound implications for mental fatigue and stress. Consequently, productivity measurement and improvement for white collar or 'knowledge worker' occupations remains a major challenge and concern. This investigation defines an experimental approach that examines the neurophysiological correlates of white collar worker mental fatigue using the EEG signal. A 6 h laboratory experiment was conducted to simulate work output. The methods of assessing fatigue employed were mental tests and physiological measurements. The experiment involved reading of standardized texts, finding solutions to arithmetic-logical problems and a combination of both task types. Two primary performance measures were obtained, work output and brain waves. Fast Fourier transform and correlation analyses are used to quantify the relationship between certain brain waves and mental fatigue. This research is a major step towards the development of a model that explores the relationship between mental fatigue and factors associated with output performance, optimal recuperation periods and related variables. Such a model would be useful in human reliability prediction based on task parameters and worker profiles.

  6. Cognitive aspects of nociception and pain: bridging neurophysiology with cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrain, V; Mancini, F; Sambo, C F; Torta, D M; Ronga, I; Valentini, E

    2012-10-01

    The event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by nociceptive stimuli are largely influenced by vigilance, emotion, alertness, and attention. Studies that specifically investigated the effects of cognition on nociceptive ERPs support the idea that most of these ERP components can be regarded as the neurophysiological indexes of the processes underlying detection and orientation of attention toward the eliciting stimulus. Such detection is determined both by the salience of the stimulus that makes it pop out from the environmental context (bottom-up capture of attention) and by its relevance according to the subject's goals and motivation (top-down attentional control). The fact that nociceptive ERPs are largely influenced by information from other sensory modalities such as vision and proprioception, as well as from motor preparation, suggests that these ERPs reflect a cortical system involved in the detection of potentially meaningful stimuli for the body, with the purpose to respond adequately to potential threats. In such a theoretical framework, pain is seen as an epiphenomenon of warning processes, encoded in multimodal and multiframe representations of the body, well suited to guide defensive actions. The findings here reviewed highlight that the ERPs elicited by selective activation of nociceptors may reflect an attentional gain apt to bridge a coherent perception of salient sensory events with action selection processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurophysiological tools to investigate consumer's gender differences during the observation of TV commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Cherubino, Patrizia; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Latuszynska, Anna; Latuszynska, Malgorzata; Nermend, Kesra; Graziani, Ilenia; Leucci, Maria Rita; Trettel, Arianna; Babiloni, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender.

  8. Rhythm in joint action: psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms for real-time interpersonal coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter E; Novembre, Giacomo; Hove, Michael J

    2014-12-19

    Human interaction often requires simultaneous precision and flexibility in the coordination of rhythmic behaviour between individuals engaged in joint activity, for example, playing a musical duet or dancing with a partner. This review article addresses the psychological processes and brain mechanisms that enable such rhythmic interpersonal coordination. First, an overview is given of research on the cognitive-motor processes that enable individuals to represent joint action goals and to anticipate, attend and adapt to other's actions in real time. Second, the neurophysiological mechanisms that underpin rhythmic interpersonal coordination are sought in studies of sensorimotor and cognitive processes that play a role in the representation and integration of self- and other-related actions within and between individuals' brains. Finally, relationships between social-psychological factors and rhythmic interpersonal coordination are considered from two perspectives, one concerning how social-cognitive tendencies (e.g. empathy) affect coordination, and the other concerning how coordination affects interpersonal affiliation, trust and prosocial behaviour. Our review highlights musical ensemble performance as an ecologically valid yet readily controlled domain for investigating rhythm in joint action. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurophysiological Tools to Investigate Consumer's Gender Differences during the Observation of TV Commercials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Graziani, Ilenia; Trettel, Arianna

    2014-01-01

    Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender. PMID:25147579

  10. Psychophysical and neurophysiological responses to acupuncture stimulation to incorporated rubber hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Youngbyoung; Lee, In-Seon; Jung, Won-Mo; Park, Kyungmo; Park, Hi-Joon; Wallraven, Christian

    2015-03-30

    From a neuroscientific perspective, the sensations induced by acupuncture are not only the product of the bottom-up modulation of simple needling at somatosensory receptors, but also of the reciprocal interaction of top-down modulation from the brain. The present study investigated whether acupuncture stimulation to incorporated body parts produces brain responses that are similar to the responses observed following acupuncture stimulation to the real hand. The present study included 17 participants who watched a rubber hand being synchronously stroked with their unseen left hand to induce incorporation of the rubber hand into their body. After the experimental modification of body ownership, acupuncture needle stimulation was applied to the LI4 acupoint on the incorporated rubber hand while brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). When the rubber hand was fully incorporated with the real body, acupuncture stimulation to the rubber hand resulted in the experience of the DeQi sensation as well as brain activations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), insula, secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), and medial temporal (MT) visual area. The insular activation was associated with the DeQi sensation from the rubber hand. The psychophysical and neurophysiological responses associated with acupuncture stimulation to the incorporated rubber hand were influenced by an enhanced bodily awareness of the hand, which was likely due to top-down modulation from the interoceptive system in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Resting-State Neurophysiological Abnormalities in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S. Badura-Brack

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a debilitating psychiatric condition that is common in veterans returning from combat operations. While the symptoms of PTSD have been extensively characterized, the neural mechanisms that underlie PTSD are only vaguely understood. In this study, we examined the neurophysiology of PTSD using magnetoencephalography (MEG in a sample of veterans with and without PTSD. Our primary hypothesis was that veterans with PTSD would exhibit aberrant activity across multiple brain networks, especially those involving medial temporal and frontal regions. To this end, we examined a total of 51 USA combat veterans with a battery of clinical interviews and tests. Thirty-one of the combat veterans met diagnostic criteria for PTSD and the remaining 20 did not have PTSD. All participants then underwent high-density MEG during an eyes-closed resting-state task, and the resulting data were analyzed using a Bayesian image reconstruction method. Our results indicated that veterans with PTSD had significantly stronger neural activity in prefrontal, sensorimotor and temporal areas compared to those without PTSD. Veterans with PTSD also exhibited significantly stronger activity in the bilateral amygdalae, parahippocampal and hippocampal regions. Conversely, healthy veterans had stronger neural activity in the bilateral occipital cortices relative to veterans with PTSD. In conclusion, these data suggest that veterans with PTSD exhibit aberrant neural activation in multiple cortical areas, as well as medial temporal structures implicated in affective processing.

  12. Neurophysiology of robot-mediated training and therapy: A perspective for future use in clinical populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan L Turner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of functional movements following injury to the central nervous system (CNS is multifaceted and is accompanied by processes occurring in the injured and non-injured hemispheres of the brain or above/below a spinal cord lesion. The changes in the CNS are the consequence of functional and structural processes collectively termed neuroplasticity and these may occur spontaneously and/or be induced by movement practice. The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying such brain plasticity may take different forms in different types of injury, for example stroke vs. spinal cord injury (SCI. Recovery of movement can be enhanced by intensive, repetitive, variable and rewarding motor practice. To this end, robots that enable or facilitate repetitive movements have been developed to assist recovery and rehabilitation. Here, we suggest some elements of robot-mediated training such as assistance, perturbation and unloading may have the potential to enhance neuroplasticity. Together the elemental components for developing integrated robot-mediated training protocols may form part of a neurorehabilitation framework alongside those methods already employed by therapists. Robots could thus open up a wider choice of options for delivering movement rehabilitation grounded on the principles underpinning neuroplasticity in the human CNS.

  13. Functional Polymorphisms in Dopaminergic Genes Modulate Neurobehavioral and Neurophysiological Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Sebastian C.; Müller, Thomas; Valomon, Amandine; Seebauer, Britta; Berger, Wolfgang; Landolt, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs cognitive performance and reliably alters brain activation in wakefulness and sleep. Nevertheless, the molecular regulators of prolonged wakefulness remain poorly understood. Evidence from genetic, behavioral, pharmacologic and imaging studies suggest that dopaminergic signaling contributes to the behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) consequences of sleep loss, although direct human evidence thereof is missing. We tested whether dopamine neurotransmission regulate sustained attention and evolution of EEG power during prolonged wakefulness. Here, we studied the effects of functional genetic variation in the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) genes, on psychomotor performance and standardized waking EEG oscillations during 40 hours of wakefulness in 64 to 82 healthy volunteers. Sleep deprivation consistently enhanced sleepiness, lapses of attention and the theta-to-alpha power ratio (TAR) in the waking EEG. Importantly, DAT1 and DRD2 genotypes distinctly modulated sleep loss-induced changes in subjective sleepiness, PVT lapses and TAR, according to inverted U-shaped relationships. Together, the data suggest that genetically determined differences in DAT1 and DRD2 expression modulate functional consequences of sleep deprivation, supporting the hypothesis that striato-thalamo-cortical dopaminergic pathways modulate the neurobehavioral and neurophysiological consequences of sleep loss in humans. PMID:28393838

  14. Neurophysiological Tools to Investigate Consumer’s Gender Differences during the Observation of TV Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Vecchiato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers’ reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG, galvanic skin response (GSR, and heart rate (HR in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer’s gender.

  15. Slow cortical potential neurofeedback in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: is there neurophysiological evidence for specific effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehnert, Mirko; Brandeis, Daniel; Straub, Marc; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Drechsler, Renate

    2008-10-01

    This study compared changes in quantitative EEG (QEEG) and CNV (contingent negative variation) of children suffering from ADHD treated by SCP (slow cortical potential) neurofeedback (NF) with the effects of group therapy (GT) to separate specific from non-specific neurophysiological effects of NF. Twenty-six children (age: 11.1 +/- 1.15 years) diagnosed as having ADHD were assigned to NF (N = 14) or GT (N = 12) training groups. QEEG measures at rest, CNV and behavioral ratings were acquired before and after the trainings and statistically analyzed. For children with ADHD-combined type in the NF group, treatment effects indicated a tendency toward improvement of selected QEEG markers. We could not find the expected improvement of CNV, but CNV reduction was less pronounced in good NF performers. QEEG changes were associated with some behavioral scales. Analyses of subgroups suggested specific influences of SCP training on brain functions. To conclude, SCP neurofeedback improves only selected attentional brain functions as measurable with QEEG at rest or CNV mapping. Effects of neurofeedback including the advantage of NF over GT seem mediated by both specific and non-specific factors.

  16. The clinical and neurophysiological characteristics of the deja vu phenomenon in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Vlasov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the clinical and neurophysiological characteristics of the deja vu phenomenon in epilepsy. Patients and methods. The manifestations of the dВjЕ vu phenomenon were compared in 154 examinees in two groups: 1 139 healthy individuals and 2 25 patients with epilepsy (mean age 25.17±9.19 years; women, 63.2% The characteristics of the phenomenon were determined, by questioning the examinees; 12—16-hour ambulatory electroencephalogram (EEG monitoring was made. Results. The deja vu phenomenon occurred with cryptogenic and symptomatic focal epilepsy with equal frequency; however, the phenomenon was also seen in the idiopathic generalized form of the latter and could be concurrent virtually with any types of seizures and observed as an individual seizure and in the structure of a partial and secondarily generalized seizure. In epileptic patients, the main clinical characteristics of the deja vu vu phenomenon are its frequency, fear before its onset, and emotional coloring. The most important criterion is a change in the characteristics of deja vu vu: prolongation, more frequencies, and the emergence of negative emotions. On EEG, the phenomenon was characterized by the onset of polyspike activity in the right temporal leads and, in some cases, ended with slow-wave, theta-delta activity in the right hemisphere.

  17. The P3a wave: A reliable neurophysiological measure of Parkinson's disease duration and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Vivanco, Rodolfo; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth; Schilmann, Astrid; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Ulises; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2015-11-01

    The P3a is an event-related potential (ERP) associated with involuntary attention and dopaminergic function. As P3a is reduced at initial stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), our objective was to assess P3a as a possible marker of PD duration and severity. Fifty-five patients were analyzed, 28 of which were at Hoehn and Yahr severity stage 1; 14 at stage 2; and 13 at stage 3. Seventeen patients were free of antiparkinsonian medication. PD duration was defined as the number of years between the onset of motor symptoms and the date of this study. Twenty-four healthy subjects were included as controls. An involuntary attention paradigm was administered while a digital EEG was obtained. The P3a amplitude was significantly lower in all PD groups compared to the control group (F(3,75)=5.10, p=0.003), especially for stages 2 (p=0.017) and 3 (p=0.008). A regression analysis showed that the disease duration predicted inversely the P3a (Fz channel amplitude: Coefficient=-0.148, p=0.006; Frontocentral amplitude: Coefficient=-0.125, p=0.003) after controlling for demographic and clinical variables, medication, general cognitive state, and depression. This is the first study reporting P3a sensibility to PD duration and severity. This ERP could represent a reliable biomarker of the disease progression. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Movement to Regulate Emotion: Neurophysiological Findings and Their Application in Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation is a person's active attempt to manage their emotional state by enhancing or decreasing specific feelings. Peripheral theories of emotion argue that the origins of emotions stem from bodily responses. This notion has been reformulated in neurophysiological terms by Damasio, who claimed that emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with conscious feelings. This proposition implies that through deliberate control of motor behavior and its consequent proprioception and interoception, one could regulate his emotions and affect his feelings. This concept is used in dance/movement (psycho)therapy where, by guiding to move in a certain way, the therapist helps the client to evoke, process, and regulate specific emotions. Exploration and practice of new and unfamiliar motor patterns can help the client to experience new unaccustomed feelings. The idea that certain motor qualities enhance specific emotions is utilized by the therapist also when she mirrors the client's movements or motor qualities in order to feel what the client feels, and empathize with them. Because of the mirror neurons, feeling what the client feels is enabled also through observation and imagination of their movements and posture. This principle can be used by verbal therapists as well, who should be aware of its bi-directionality: clients seeing the therapist's motor behavior are unconsciously affected by the therapist's bodily expressions. Additional implications for psychotherapy, of findings regarding mirror neurons activation, are discussed.

  19. Behavioral and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying motor skill learning in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Shailesh; McGrath, Robert; Zahedi, Nazaneen; Luchmee, Dustin

    2018-01-01

    Given the presence of execution deficits after stroke, it is difficult to determine if patients with stroke have deficits in motor skill learning with the paretic arm. Here, we controlled for execution deficits while testing practice effects of the paretic arm on motor skill learning, long-term retention, and corticospinal excitability. Ten patients with unilateral stroke and ten age-matched controls practiced a kinematic arm skill for two days and returned for retention testing one-day and one-month post-practice. Motor skill learning was quantified as a change in speed-accuracy tradeoff from baseline to retention tests. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to generate an input-output curve of the ipsilesional motor cortex (M1), and measure transcallosal inhibition from contralesional to ipsilesional M1. While the control group had greater overall accuracy than the stroke group, both groups showed comparable immediate and long-term improvements with practice. Skill improvements were accompanied by greater excitability of the ipsilesional corticospinal system and reduced transcallosal inhibition from contralesional to ipsilesional M1. When execution deficits are accounted for, patients with stroke demonstrate relatively intact motor skill learning with the paretic arm. Paretic arm learning is accompanied by modulations in corticospinal and transcallosal mechanisms. Functional recovery after stroke relies on ability for skill learning and the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-traumatic brachial plexopathies, clinical, radiological and neurophysiological findings from a tertiary centre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullins, G M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the clinical characteristics, aetiology, neuro-physiological characteristics, imaging findings and other investigations in a cohort of patients with non-traumatic brachial plexopathy (BP). METHODS: A 3-year retrospective study of patients with non-traumatic BP identified by electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS). Clinical information was retrieved from patients\\' medical charts. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were identified. Causes of BP included neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) (48%), neoplastic (16%), radiation (8%), post infectious (12%), obstetric (4%), rucksack injury (4%), thoracic outlet syndrome (4%) and iatrogenic (4%). Patients with NA presented acutely in 50%. The onset was subacute in all others. Outcome was better for patients with NA. All patients with neoplastic disease had a previous history of cancer. MRI was abnormal in 3\\/16 patients (18.8%). PET scanning diagnosed metastatic plexopathy in two cases. CONCLUSIONS: NA was the most common cause of BP in our cohort and was associated with a more favourable outcome. The authors note potentially discriminating clinical characteristics in our population that aid in the assessment of patients with brachial plexopathies. We advise NCS and EMG be performed in all patients with suspected plexopathy. Imaging studies are useful in selected patients.