WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing language minority

  1. Minority Language Protection in Italy. Linguistic minorities and the Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, Aline

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the Italian case of minority language protection in the media. After providing a general introduction to the development of the protection of minority languages in Europe in general and of minority language broadcast media in Italy in particular, the article focuses on the

  2. Minority Language Protection in Italy. Linguistic minorities and the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Sierp, Aline

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the Italian case of minority language protection in the media. After providing a general introduction to the development of the protection of minority languages in Europe in general and of minority language broadcast media in Italy in particular, the article focuses on the role that mass media can play in the preservation or weakening of minority languages. By comparing different measures of protection adopted by national and regional authorities in Italy, the article ...

  3. Minority Language Teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2001-01-01

    Original title: Onderwijs in alochtone levende talen. At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, an exploratory study was carried out of minority Language teaching for primary school pupils. This exploratory study in seven municipalities not only shows the way in

  4. Language Minority Students and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonis, Eleanor Wall

    1989-01-01

    In developing appropriate reading instruction for language minority children, the following factors should be considered: the developmental nature of literacy, the connection between speech and print, the conventions of the writing system, the importance of comprehension, the role of native language and literacy, and the transferability of skills.…

  5. Educating Language Minority Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Rosalie Pedalino, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The articles in this volume are divided into the three panels from the conference, after introductory presentations. First is the introduction by the editor, Rosalie Pedalino Porter, followed by the article which provided the seed that germinated into the other papers of the conference, "Rethinking Bilingual Education" (Charles L. Glenn). The…

  6. [Minor Uralic languages...] / Väino Klaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaus, Väino, 1949-

    1998-01-01

    Arvustus: Minor Uralic languages and their contacts / University of Tartu ; editor A. Künnap. Tartu : University of Tartu, 1993 ; Minor Uralic languages: structure and development : [artikleid ja materjale / edited and preface by Ago Künnap]. Tartu : [Tartu University Press] ; Groningen : University of Groningen, 1994

  7. Language and language-in-education planning in multilingual India : a linguistic minority perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groff, C.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores India’s linguistic diversity from a language policy perspective, emphasizing policies relevant to linguistic minorities. The Kumaun region of Utterakhand provides a local, minority-language perspective on national-level language planning. A look at the complexity of counting

  8. European minority languages: endangered or revived?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, D.; de Graaf, T.; Ostler, N.; Salverda, R.

    2008-01-01

    A diagnosis is offered of language learning factors that contribute to the revival of European minority languages. In this paper four frameworks will be discussed. [1] The theory of Reversing Language Shift (Fishman 1991, 2001). The "family-home-neighborhoodcommunity-nexus" is the central stage for

  9. European minority languages: endangered or revived?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, D.

    2007-01-01

    A diagnosis is offered of language learning factors that contribute to the revival of European minority languages. In this paper four frameworks will be discussed. The theory of Reversing Language Shift (Fishman 1991, 2001). The "family-home-neighborhoodcommunity-nexus” is the central stage for

  10. Language Policy and Minority Language Education in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The politics of language is a very sensitive issue in Nigeria as language can hardly be detached from the apron strings of the people's senses of identity and loyalty. This paper examines the concept of language policy and planning in Nigeria and its implication for education in the minority languages, with emphasis on the ...

  11. Content and Language Integrated Learning and the inclusion of immigrant minority language students: A research review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    This article addresses the inclusion of immigrant minority language students in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) bilingual education programmes. It reviews results of research on (1) the reasons, beliefs and attitudes underlying immigrant minority language parents' and students' choice for CLIL programmes; (2) these students' proficiency in the languages of instruction and their academic achievement; and (3) the effects of first language typology on their second and third language proficiency. The author explores conditions and reasons for the effectiveness of CLIL pedagogy, as well as the comparative suitability of CLIL programmes for immigrant minority language students. The review shows that CLIL programmes provide a means to acquire important linguistic, economic and symbolic capital in order to effect upward social mobility. Findings demonstrate that immigrant minority language students enrolled in CLIL programmes are able to develop equal or superior levels of proficiency in both languages of instruction compared to majority language students; with previous development of first language literacy positively impacting academic language development. CLIL programmes are found to offer immigrant minority language students educational opportunities and effective pedagogical support which existing mainstream monolingual and minority bilingual education programmes may not always be able to provide. In light of these findings, the author discusses shortcomings in current educational policy. The article concludes with recommendations for further research.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. MINORITY LANGUAGES IN ESTONIAN SEGREGATIVE LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Küün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project in Estonia was to determine what languages are spoken by students from the 2nd to the 5th year of basic school at their homes in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. At the same time, this problem was also studied in other segregated regions of Estonia: Kohtla-Järve and Maardu. According to the database of the population census from the year 2000 (Estonian Statistics Executive Office's census 2000, there are representatives of 142 ethnic groups living in Estonia, speaking a total of 109 native languages. At the same time, the database doesn’t state which languages are spoken at homes. The material presented in this article belongs to the research topic “Home Language of Basic School Students in Tallinn” from years 2007–2008, specifically financed and ordered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant No. ETF 7065 in the framework of an international study called “Multilingual Project”. It was determined what language is dominating in everyday use, what are the factors for choosing the language for communication, what are the preferred languages and language skills. This study reflects the actual trends of the language situation in these cities.

  13. (Parenting Curriculum for Language Minority Parents. Lao Language.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Grace D.

    This guide for minority language parents whose primary language is Lao presents parenting information to supplement a course in English as a Second Language. It focuses on topics parents must deal with in meeting the needs of their children. Vocabulary and practice drills are presented for activities in the following areas: (1) education and…

  14. Minority language dubbing for children

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Eithne

    2000-01-01

    This thesis is an exercise in descriptive translation studies (DTS) which sets out to investigate the much neglected area of screen translation for children. The corpus selected for investigation is a collection of six original television programmes from the German Janoschs Traumstunde animation series and the corresponding Irish dubbed versions. The aim of this research is to investigate the relative influence of the various constraints imposed on the target texts by a) the major/minority la...

  15. Bilingual Education for Majority and Minority Language Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Merrill

    1981-01-01

    The fact that early immersion in a second language has led to bilingualism and academic success among majority language children has been used as an argument against mother tongue instruction for minority language children. However, for minority language children, immersion in a second language has often led to language loss and academic failure.…

  16. Language choice in a minority school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, M. S.

    1985-12-01

    This article arises from fieldwork in a school of the German minority in South Jutland, Denmark. The minority exists as a result of frontier changes between Germany and Denmark, most recently in 1920. A referendum held in that year as a result of the Treaty of Versailles left a cultural and linguistic minority which, by today, has its own school system, politial party and cultural rights. The research was carried out using qualitative, ethnographic methods and the article focuses on one aspect, namely the issue of language use by bilingual pupils in one of the minority's schools. Pupils' choice of Danish or German in different situations within and outside schools was analyzed through the use of language diaries, informal interviews, and participant observation. The diary entries are analyzed and commented on in the light of interviews and observations. Pupils' awareness of their language use is not static but becomes dynamic as a consequence of being involved in research. The implications of this for educational policy are considered in the context of current developments in language education in British schools.

  17. The Role of Heritage Language in Social Interactions and Relationships: Reflections from a Language Minority Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Grace

    2000-01-01

    A study examining the role of heritage language (HL) competence in social relationships among second-generation language minorities surveyed 114 Korean Americans. HL speakers had a strong ethnic identity and a greater understanding and knowledge of cultural values, ethics, and manners than HL nonspeakers. HL competence also provided professional…

  18. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  19. Audience and the Use of Minority Languages on Twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Cornips, Leonie

    On Twitter, many users tweet in more than one language. In this study, we examine the use of two Dutch minority languages. Users can engage with different audiences and by analyzing different types of tweets, we find that characteristics of the audience influence whether a minority language is used.

  20. Normative Language Policy and Minority Language Rights: Rethinking the Case of Regional Languages in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Leigh

    2017-01-01

    Building on the emerging notion of "normative language policy", this article seeks to contribute to the further development of an integrated framework for researching the ethics of language policy and planning. Using the case of minority language rights in France as an example, it demonstrates the benefit of combining context-sensitive…

  1. Minority Language Standardisation and the Role of Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Developing a standard for a minority language is not a neutral process; this has consequences for the status of the language and how the language users relate to the new standard. A potential inherent problem with standardisation is whether the language users themselves will accept and identify with the standard. When standardising minority…

  2. Digital Divide: Low German and other Minority Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Wiggers

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the online presence of Low German, a minority language spoken in northern Germany, as well as several other European regional and minority languages. In particular, this article presents the results of two experiments, one involving Wikipedia and one involving Twitter, that assess whether and to which extent minority languages are used on these websites. The article argues that minority and regional languages are not only underrepresented online due to a combination of historical, linguistic, sociological, and demographic reasons, but that the overall architecture of the World Wide Web and its most visited websites is such that smaller languages do not stand a chance to gain a meaningful online presence.

  3. Content and Language Integrated Learning and the Inclusion of Immigrant Minority Language Students: A Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the inclusion of immigrant minority language students in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) bilingual education programmes. It reviews results of research on (1) the reasons, beliefs and attitudes underlying immigrant minority language parents' and students' choice for CLIL programmes; (2) these students'…

  4. Language Policy and Illiteracy in Ethnic Minority Communities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minglang

    2000-01-01

    Examines statistics on minority illiteracy from the 1990 Chinese national census across age groups in relation to China's changing language policy among three types of minority communities: those with writing systems of historically broad usage; those with historically limited usage; and those without functional writing systems. (Author/VWL)

  5. Minority Language Researchers and Their Role in Policy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Durk

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the role of researchers in the development of language policies for European minority languages. This question is placed in the context of a long-standing debate in sociology to which several authors have contributed; among them are Max Weber, Howard Becker and Alvin Gouldner. This article also briefly refers to the European…

  6. Minority Languages and Performative Genres: The Case of Irish Language Stand-Up Comedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Mairead

    2011-01-01

    This article will examine the potential for language change from the bottom-up given the new domains in which minority languages are present as a result of the process of language mobility. Drawing on a theoretical notion of sociolinguistic scales, this article aims to discuss how the position of the Irish language has been reconfigured. From this…

  7. Impact of language barriers on access to healthcare for official language minority Francophones in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moissac, Danielle; Bowen, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    While there is strong international evidence that language barriers present obstacles to healthcare access, quality and safety, little research has been conducted on the experience of official language minorities in Canada. This multiple method research used on-line and paper-based surveys, combined with semi-structured individual interviews to explore the experience with access to care of Francophone minorities living in four Canadian provinces. The majority of Francophones surveyed reported limited access to French language services and described an environment where low importance is given to addressing language barriers within the health system. Even when services are available, the lack of services in French sometimes results in avoidance of care. Results confirm that many Francophones face similar barriers to care as other language minorities in Canada. Strategies to improve access for official language minorities are discussed.

  8. One-Parent-One-Language (OPOL) Families: Is the Majority Language-Speaking Parent Instrumental in the Minority Language Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Elizabeth; Eisenchlas, Susana A.; Schalley, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the strategies majority language-speaking parents use to support the development of the minority language in families who follow the pattern of exposure known as one-parent-one-language (OPOL). In this particular pattern of raising a child bilingually, each parent speaks only their own native language to their…

  9. Disadvantaged Language Minority Students and Their Teachers: A National Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Jennifer F.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Educational outcomes for language minority (LM) children are of great concern across the nation because these students have lower grades, are rated by their teachers as having lower skills, perform worse on standardized tests, and are more likely to drop out than are non-LM students. Given this context of underperformance, there is a…

  10. Literacy, Access, and Libraries among the Language Minority Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Rebecca, Ed.

    Papers on linguistic minorities and library use include: (1) "Why Consider the Library and Books?" (Stephen Krashen); (2) "Supporting Spanish Language Literacy: Latino Children and School and Community Libraries" (Sandra Pucci); (3) "'I Did Not Know You Could Get Such Things There!': Secondary ESL Students' Understanding, Use and Beliefs…

  11. Making Sense of Science in Language Minority Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebery, Ann S.; And Others

    In the Cheche Konnen project, secondary school language minority students plan and carry out investigations into phenomena in the natural world as scientists would ("cheche konnen" is Haitian Creole for "search for knowledge"). Students pose questions, plan and implement research to explore them, build and revise theories,…

  12. Mother tongue education in the official minority languages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is it a question of the purpose for the encouragement and support by official policy of mother tongue education in the official minority languages? Is it a question of cost-benefit analysis? Is this not a violation of linguistic human rights in education, particularly the right to mother tongue education? This article seeks to address ...

  13. Open source software and minority languages: a priceless opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Mas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Open source software is a form of software that gives its users freedom. With the advent of the Internet, open source software has consolidated as a technically viable, financially sustainable alternative to proprietary software. Languages such as Breton, Galician, Gaelic and Catalan have seen very little development in the world of proprietary software because of the limitations imposed. In contrast, in the world of open source software these languages have been developed with notable success. Open source projects of the importance of the Mozilla browser, the GNOME environment and the GNU/Linux system have complete or partial translations in all these languages. Open source software presents an unprecedented opportunity for the development of minority languages, such as Catalan, in new technologies thanks to the freedom that they guarantee us.

  14. Promoting a Minority Language to Majority Language Speakers: Television Advertising about the Maori Language Targeting Non-Maori New Zealanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia

    2010-01-01

    It has been claimed that the success of minority language policy initiatives may only be achievable if at least some degree of 'tolerability' of these initiatives is secured among majority language speakers. There has, however, been little consideration in the language planning literature of what practical approaches might be used to influence the…

  15. Exploring Bilinguals' Social Use of Language inside and out of the Minority Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Enlli Mon; Roberts, Dylan Bryn

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines bilingual children's use of language inside and out of the minority language classroom. A total of 145 children between 8 and 11 years of age, attending 16 bilingual Welsh-English primary schools in North Wales, responded to questionnaires (supplemented by classroom observations) requesting information about their language…

  16. Issues of Identity in Minority Language Media Production in Colombia and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe-Jongbloed, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses how different media production teams negotiate the use of their minority languages in their practice. After a brief discussion of the concepts of language and description of a linguistic minority, a short review of similar research in the area of Minority Language Media is presented. Within this area, radio producers from…

  17. A Qualitative Methodology for Minority Language Media Production Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Uribe-Jongbloed PhD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a methodological construction for research on small groups of minority media producers, especially those who are involved in multilingual settings. The set of qualitative tools are explained and their advantages and disadvantages explored, based on the literature on the subject. Then, the debate is contrasted with the practical experience of its application with minority language producers, indigenous and ethnic radio broadcasters in Colombia and audiovisual producers in Wales. The reflection upon the results leads to a final discussion that brings the adjustments required to increase the advantages and diminish the disadvantages of the proposed combined three-step methodology of an interview to the double (ITTD, a day of participant observation, and a final lengthier semi-structured interview.

  18. Specific language impairment in language-minority children from low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M J; Cruz-Santos, Anabela; Puglisi, Marina L

    2014-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that specific language impairment (SLI) might be secondary to general cognitive processing limitations in the domain of executive functioning. Previous research has focused almost exclusively on monolingual children with SLI and offers little evidence-based guidance on executive functioning in bilingual children with SLI. Studying bilinguals with SLI is important, especially in the light of increasing evidence that bilingualism can bring advantages in certain domains of executive functioning. To determine whether executive functioning represents an area of difficulty for bilingual language-minority children with SLI and, if so, which specific executive processes are affected. This cross-cultural research was conducted with bilingual children from Luxembourg and monolingual children from Portugal who all had Portuguese as their first language. The data from 81 eight-year-olds from the following three groups were analysed: (1) 15 Portuguese-Luxembourgish bilinguals from Luxembourg with an SLI diagnosis; (2) 33 typically developing Portuguese-Luxembourgish bilinguals from Luxembourg; and (3) 33 typically developing Portuguese-speaking monolinguals from Portugal. Groups were matched on first language, ethnicity, chronological age and socioeconomic status, and they did not differ in nonverbal intelligence. Children completed a battery of tests tapping: expressive and receptive vocabulary, syntactic comprehension, verbal and visuospatial working memory, selective attention and interference suppression. The bilingual SLI group performed equally well compared with their typically developing peers on measures of visuospatial working memory, but had lower scores than both control groups on tasks of verbal working memory. On measures of selective attention and interference suppression, typically developing children who were bilingual outperformed their monolingual counterparts. For selective attention, performance of the bilingual SLI group did not

  19. Education without a Shared Language: Dynamics of Inclusion and Exclusion in Norwegian Introductory Classes for Newly Arrived Minority Language Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, Line Torbjørnsen

    2017-01-01

    Based upon fieldwork in two upper secondary schools in Norway, this article offers an analysis of inclusion and exclusion processes for newly arrived minority language students. Minority language students are defined by policy as students who have a different mother tongue than the Norwegian and Sami languages, and students who are newly arrived…

  20. The language barrier?: context, identity, and support for political goals in minority ethnolinguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Andrew G; Manstead, Antony S R; Spears, Russell; Bowen, Dafydd

    2011-12-01

    In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that not having a potentially group-defining attribute (e.g., in-group language) can affect social identification and support for group goals (e.g., national autonomy). Focusing on the Welsh minority in the UK, Study 1 provided evidence that Welsh language fluency predicted Welsh identification and support for national autonomy, and that identification accounted for the language-autonomy association. Study 2 extended this by (1) examining British and English as well as Welsh identification; and (2) quasi-manipulating the surrounding context (Welsh speaking vs. non-Welsh speaking). As predicted, low Welsh language fluency predicted stronger British and English identification, but only where language was criterial (Welsh-speaking regions). British identification, in turn, predicted lower support for national autonomy. Implications and prospects for future research are discussed. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Multilingual Interaction and Minority Languages: Proficiency and Language Practices in Education and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Durk

    2015-01-01

    In this plenary speech I examine multilingual interaction in a number of European regions in which minority languages are being revitalized. Education is a crucial variable, but the wider society is equally significant. The context of revitalization is no longer bilingual but increasingly multilingual. I draw on the results of a long-running…

  2. The Official National Language and Language Attitudes of Three Ethnic Minority Groups in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minglang

    1999-01-01

    Uses an attitude/motivation battery and matched-guise procedure to examine Kazak, Uygur, and Yi subject's ratings of Putonghua (PTH) and Chinese ethnic minority nationality (EMN) languages and 12 variables in PTH learning. Shows among other things that integrative orientation of Beijing people are the best predictors of EMN's instrumental…

  3. Language Contact and Language Conflict in Autochthonous Language Minority Settings in the EU: A Preliminary Round-Up of Guiding Principles and Research Desiderata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquennes, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    This contribution deals with language contact and language conflict in autochthonous language minority settings in the European Union. It rounds up a number of concepts that guide macro-socio-linguistic and macrocontact-linguistic research on language minorities. The description of these concepts results in a list of research desiderata.

  4. Linguistic Minorities and the Multilingual Turn: Constructing Language Ownership through Affect in Cultural Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    The "multilingual turn" brings questions of language ownership to the forefront of debates about linguistic minority governance. Acadian minority cultural producers construct language ownership using multiple languages and targeting multilingual publics, but use ideologies of monolingualism to situate Acadian authenticity in place and…

  5. How Can Language Minority Parents Help Their Children Become Bilingual in Familial Context? A Case Study of a Language Minority Mother and Her Daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxia

    1999-01-01

    Case study of second language acquisition presents a Chinese mother's observations of her daughter over a 5-month period following immigration to Hawaii. Language minority parents' positive attitudes toward both first and second languages and cultures, and supportive interactions with their children at home are important to the children's…

  6. The Borderlands of Educational Inclusion. Analyses of inclusion and exclusion processes for minority language students

    OpenAIRE

    Hilt, Line

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is based on three studies that provide qualitative analyses of systemic inclusion and exclusion processes for the group labelled minority language students in Norwegian educational policy. The theoretical framework is systems-theory, as understood by Niklas Luhmann. Overall, the dissertation focuses on the systemic conditions for inclusion, especially the excluding side effects of expectations, requirements and categorisations that at the outset are regarded a...

  7. Transitions from hospital to community care: the role of patient-provider language concordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Nosaiba; Admi, Hanna; Shadmi, Efrat

    2014-01-01

    Cultural and language discordance between patients and providers constitutes a significant challenge to provision of quality healthcare. This study aims to evaluate minority patients' discharge from hospital to community care, specifically examining the relationship between patient-provider language concordance and the quality of transitional care. This was a multi-method prospective study of care transitions of 92 patients: native Hebrew, Russian or Arabic speakers, with a pre-discharge questionnaire and structured observations examining discharge preparation from a large Israeli teaching hospital. Two weeks post-discharge patients were surveyed by phone, on the transition from hospital to community care (the Care Transition Measure (CTM-15, 0-100 scale)) and on the primary-care post-discharge visit. Overall, ratings on the CTM indicated fair quality of the transition process (scores of 51.8 to 58.8). Patient-provider language concordance was present in 49% of minority patients' discharge briefings. Language concordance was associated with higher CTM scores among minority groups (64.1 in language-concordant versus 49.8 in non-language-concordant discharges, P <0.001). Other aspects significantly associated with CTM scores: extent of discharge explanations (P <0.05), quality of discharge briefing (P <0.001), and post-discharge explanations by the primary care physician (P <0.01). Language-concordant care, coupled with extensive discharge briefings and post-discharge explanations for ongoing care, are important contributors to the quality of care transitions of ethnic minority patients.

  8. Minority Language Speakers as Migrants: Some Preliminary Observations on the Sudanese Community in Melbourne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, Simon; Hajek, John

    2013-01-01

    The language problems faced by migrants may be more complex when they come from a minority language group in their homeland. The new arrivals may find that there are few, or even no, speakers of their language in the community to which they have moved. Then decisions have to be made as to whether to attempt to maintain the native language and also…

  9. Providing Language Instructor with Artificial Intelligence Assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pietroszek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—This paper presents the preliminary results ofdeveloping HAL for CALL, an artificial intelligenceassistant for language instructor. The assistant consists of achatbot, an avatar (a three-dimensional visualization of thechatbot, a voice (text-to-speech engine interface andinterfaces to external sources of language knowledge. Sometechniques used in adapting freely available chatbot for theneed of a language learning system are presented.Integration of HAL with Second Life virtual world isproposed. We will discuss technical challenges and possiblefuture work directions.

  10. Defying Expectations: Vocabulary Growth Trajectories of High Performing Language Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jin Kyoung; Lawrence, Joshua Fahey; Snow, Catherine E.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated general vocabulary and academic vocabulary growth trajectories of adolescent language minority students using an individual growth modeling approach. Our analytical sample included 3161 sixth- to eighth-grade students from an urban school district in California. The language minority students in our sample were classified as…

  11. Classifying Language-Minority Students: A Closer Look at Individual Student Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhremtchouk, Irina S.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an exploratory case study of site-level classification practices for language-minority students. The study examines individual classification data of 439 language-minority student cases from one California urban school district and two of its schools. The review process involved a thorough examination of data integrity,…

  12. The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: A "Magnum Opus" or an Incomplete "Modus Vivendi?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldat-Jaffe, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates to what extent the European Union (EU) has the means to protect minority and regional languages in the EU, looking at the ways three different bodies of the EU, the European Parliament (EP), the Council of Europe (CoE) and the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) differ in handling language…

  13. Generating motivation in minor language education: A case of Hungarian in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Okamoto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I describe the landscape of Hungarian language in Japan and analyse problems that occur. I describe my teaching experience at a Japanese university and suggest an effective manner of teaching a minor language, in terms of both goal setting and methodology. Specifically, I present a potentially effective pedagogy to instruct minor languages, which I have adopted in my bilingual booklets projects. Bilateral activities between language learners and target language speakers are utilized in this project, which ultimately promote language learning motivation.

  14. The Simple View of Reading in Bilingual Language-Minority Children Acquiring a Highly Transparent Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola; Tobia, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated which components within the simple view of reading model better predicted reading comprehension in a sample of bilingual language-minority children exposed to Italian, a highly transparent language, as a second language. The sample included 260 typically developing bilingual children who were attending either the first…

  15. Ghana language-in-education policy: The survival of two South Guan minority dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansah, Mercy Akrofi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the survival of two South-Guan minority dialects, Leteh and Efutu, in the context of the Ghana language-in-education policy. The study is done from the perspective of the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Linguistic Rights (1996. In every multilingual state, the formulation of policies concerning language use has always presented challenges. The government has to decide which of the languages need to be promoted and for what purposes. In Ghana, since the introduction of formal education, English has indubitably been the language of education, trade, law, media, government and administration. However, there has always been a debate surrounding the language-in-education policy, especially at the basic level of education. The argument has always been whether English should be emphasised or Ghanaian languages. For purposes of formal education, the government of Ghana has promoted nine languages known as government-sponsored languages. These are languages which have literary tradition and can be used as media of instruction in schools. This decision was to the detriment of some Ghanaian languages; languages which are often described as minority languages, and which are not government-sponsored. The paper argues that, if language and culture are intertwined, and the culture of a people must be preserved, then language policymakers need to consider the linguistic rights of speakers of the so-called minority languages. Data for the study were sourced from language surveys and observation.

  16. Ecological English Language Learning Among Ethnic Minority Youth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noah E. Borrero; Christine J. Yeh

    2010-01-01

    To empirically investigate language learning in relational and cultural settings, the authors developed and administered the Ecological Language Learning and Academic Success scale to an ethnically...

  17. Multilingual education for European minority languages: The Basque Country and Friesland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Durk; Cenoz, Jasone

    2011-12-01

    Over the last three decades, regional minority languages in Europe have regained increased recognition and support. Their revitalisation is partly due to their being taught in schools. Multilingualism has special characteristics for speakers of minority languages and it poses unique challenges for learning minority languages. This article looks at the cases of Basque and Frisian, comparing and contrasting their similarities and differences. The educational system in the Basque Autonomous Community underwent an important transformation, starting in 1979 from a situation where less than 5 per cent of all teachers were capable of teaching through Basque. Today this figure has changed to more than 80 per cent. An innovative approach was chosen for teaching the minority language, Basque, alongside the dominant language, Spanish, and the international language, English. The outcome is a substantial increase in the proficiency in the minority language among the younger age groups. The decline of the minority language has thus been successfully reversed and one of the major challenges now is to uphold a sustainable educational system. By contrast, the Frisian language has fared less well in the Netherlands, where developments over the last 30 years have been much slower and the results more modest. Here policy-making for education and for language is caught in a continuous debate between a weak provincial level and a powerful central state level. Overall, multilingualism as a resource for individuals is valued for "bigger" languages such as English, French and German, but not for a "small" language such as Frisian. Nevertheless, a few trilingual experiments have been carried out in some schools in Friesland in teaching Frisian, Dutch and English. These experiments may also be instructive for other cases of minority languages of a "moderate strength". In the cases of both Basque and Frisian multilingualism is generally perceived as an important resource.

  18. Providing Mainstream Parser Generators with Modular Language Definition Support

    OpenAIRE

    Karol, Sven; Zschaler, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    The composition and reuse of existing textual languages is a frequently re-occurring problem. One possibility of composing textual languages lies on the level of parser specifications which are mainly based on context-free grammars and regular expressions. Unfortunately most mainstream parser generators provide proprietary specification languages and usually do not provide strong abstractions for reuse. New forms of parser generators do support modular language development, but they can often...

  19. Motivational Diversity among Adult Minority Language Learners: Are Current Theoretical Constructs Adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Colin J.; Harris, John

    2016-01-01

    The sociolinguistic context of Irish, a minority language which is also the first official language of the Republic of Ireland, presents a multitude of issues for consideration in relation to Irish language teaching and learning. This article reports a small-scale (n?=?12) exploratory qualitative study of the range of motivations to be observed…

  20. Language barriers: use of regular medical doctors by Canada's official language minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwakongnwi, Emmanuel; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Musto, Richard; King-Shier, Kathryn M; Quan, Hude

    2012-12-01

    To assess use of regular medical doctors (RMDs), as well as awareness and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services, by official language minorities (OLMs) in Canada. Analysis of data from the 2006 postcensal survey on the vitality of OLMs. Canada. In total, 7691 English speakers in Quebec and 12 376 French speakers outside Quebec, grouped into those who experienced language barriers and those with no language barriers. Health services utilization (HSU) by the presence of language barriers; HSU measures included having an RMD, use of an RMD's services, and awareness of and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services. Multivariable models examined the associations between HSU and language barriers. After adjusting for age and sex, English speakers residing in Quebec with limited proficiency in French were less likely to have RMDs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.87) and to use the services of their RMDs (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.86), but were more likely to be aware of the existence of (AOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.93) and to use (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.11) telephone health lines or telehealth services. This pattern of having and using RMDs and telehealth services was not observed for French speakers residing outside of Quebec. Overall we found variation in HSU among the language barrier populations, with lower use observed in Quebec. Age older than 45 years, male sex, being married or in common-law relationships, and higher income were associated with having RMDs for OLMs.

  1. International Universities and Implications of Internationalisation for Minority Languages: Views from University Students in Catalonia and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Peter; Gallego Balsà, Lídia

    2014-01-01

    European higher education institutions are in general highly committed to internationalisation, seeing it as providing ways into the global education market, as an indicator of academic excellence, and for generating income. In multilingual settings, minority languages are not always given adequate consideration in this process and may be a source…

  2. Multilingual Online Resources for Minority Languages of a Campus Community

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohamad, Nur Asmaa’ Adila; Hassan, Tg Fatin Najihah Tg; Muda, Tg Norhuda Tg; Aziz, Normaziah A; Ishraf, Ahmad Hasanul

    2011-01-01

    ... community. The choice of language is based on a survey amongst IIUM international students about the status of their mother language’s resources and usages in the digital world. As a starting ...

  3. Transitions from hospital to community care: the role of patient–provider language concordance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cultural and language discordance between patients and providers constitutes a significant challenge to provision of quality healthcare. This study aims to evaluate minority patients’ discharge from hospital to community care, specifically examining the relationship between patient–provider language concordance and the quality of transitional care. Methods This was a multi-method prospective study of care transitions of 92 patients: native Hebrew, Russian or Arabic speakers, with a pre-discharge questionnaire and structured observations examining discharge preparation from a large Israeli teaching hospital. Two weeks post-discharge patients were surveyed by phone, on the transition from hospital to community care (the Care Transition Measure (CTM-15, 0–100 scale)) and on the primary-care post-discharge visit. Results Overall, ratings on the CTM indicated fair quality of the transition process (scores of 51.8 to 58.8). Patient–provider language concordance was present in 49% of minority patients’ discharge briefings. Language concordance was associated with higher CTM scores among minority groups (64.1 in language-concordant versus 49.8 in non-language-concordant discharges, P <0.001). Other aspects significantly associated with CTM scores: extent of discharge explanations (P <0.05), quality of discharge briefing (P <0.001), and post-discharge explanations by the primary care physician (P <0.01). Conclusion Language-concordant care, coupled with extensive discharge briefings and post-discharge explanations for ongoing care, are important contributors to the quality of care transitions of ethnic minority patients. PMID:25075273

  4. The Role of Academic-Language Features for Reading Comprehension of Language-Minority Students and Students from Low-SES Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppt, Birgit; Haag, Nicole; Böhme, Katrin; Stanat, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Academic language is frequently assumed to be especially challenging for students from families of low socioeconomic status (SES) and even more so for language-minority students. Due to their often especially disadvantaged position regarding socioeconomic background and exposure to the language of instruction, language minority students are…

  5. Home Language and Educational Attainments of Ethnic Minorities in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yanbi

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses effects of home language usage on minority student educational attainment in western China. Using survey data, the author finds that non-Chinese-speaking minority students are at a disadvantage in the transition to senior secondary schools. However, their transition to junior secondary schools is even more complicated. Rural…

  6. Racism and Linguicism: Engaging Language Minority Pre-Service Teachers in Counter-Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyesun

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how language minority pre-service teachers engaged in the discussion of racism and linguicism through counter-storytelling informed by Critical Race Theory (CRT). Counter-stories can act as a medium through which minority students can unpack the power relations embedded in academic learning. This study also explores ways in…

  7. Development and transfer of vocabulary knowledge in Spanish-speaking language minority preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J; Kleuver, Cherie G; Farver, Joann M

    2016-09-01

    In this study we evaluated the predictive validity of conceptual scoring. Two independent samples of Spanish-speaking language minority preschoolers (Sample 1: N = 96, mean age = 54·51 months, 54·3% male; Sample 2: N = 116, mean age = 60·70 months, 56·0% male) completed measures of receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages at two time points approximately 9-12 months apart. We examined whether unique L1 and L2 vocabulary at time 1 predicted later L2 and L1 vocabulary, respectively. Results indicated that unique L1 vocabulary did not predict later L2 vocabulary after controlling for initial L2 vocabulary. An identical pattern of results emerged for L1 vocabulary outcomes. We also examined whether children acquired translational equivalents for words known in one language but not the other. Results indicated that children acquired translational equivalents, providing partial support for the transfer of vocabulary knowledge across languages.

  8. Language, culture and emotions: exploring ethnic minority patients' emotional expressions in primary healthcare consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maesschalck, Stéphanie; Deveugele, Myriam; Willems, Sara

    2011-09-01

    This study explores ethnic minority patients' expression of emotional cues and concerns in primary healthcare, and examines relationships with patient, provider and consultation attributes. 191 video-recorded consultations were analyzed using the VR-CoDES. Patients were interviewed before the consultation. Generalized Estimating Equations models (GEE) were used to test for associations. Psychosocial versus bio-medically oriented encounters contained significantly more cues (p≤0.05). Patients with poor versus good language proficiency expressed significantly less cues (p≤0.001). No significant correlations were found with patients' cultural values, patients' or physicians' gender or the presence of an interpreter. Female patients express more concerns (p≤0.05), female physicians have a higher number of concerns expressed by patients (p≤0.02). This study shows that independent of physician and diagnosis, patients' language proficiency has a more important impact on the number of cues expressed by the patient than cultural difference. Medical schools and Continuing Medical Education should focus on training programs for recognizing and handling linguistic barriers between physicians and patients. Patient education programs should encourage patients who experience language barriers to open up to physicians. In situations where language is a barrier, physicians and patients should be encouraged to use interpreters to enhance the expression of emotions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prekindergarten Teachers' Views about the Education of Language Minority Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Amie Mitchel

    1997-01-01

    Preschool teachers from Texas school districts with high and low Hispanic populations completed surveys examining their knowledge and beliefs about early childhood bilingualism and developmentally appropriate practice. Positive beliefs about the use of native language to develop emergent cognitive-academic language proficiency through active…

  10. The role of majority and minority language input in the early development of a bilingual vocabulary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Kuiken, F.; Jorna, R.J.; Klinkenberg, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study investigated the role of home language and outside home exposure in the development of Dutch and Frisian vocabulary by young bilinguals. Frisian is a minority language spoken in the north of the Netherlands. In three successive test rounds, 91 preschoolers were tested

  11. Relations between Early Reading and Writing Skills among Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Farrington, Amber L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature on the development of reading skills of Spanish-speaking language minority children, little research has focused on the development of writing skills in this population. This study evaluated whether children's Spanish early reading skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness, oral language)…

  12. Minority Languages in the Linguistic Landscape of Tourism: The Case of Catalan in Mallorca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyèl-Olmedo, Antonio; Juan-Garau, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between language and tourism is still an incipient area of enquiry. Within it, the study of the linguistic landscape (LL) of holiday destinations affords useful information on the role that minority languages play in the tourist-host interplay, which has received scant attention. Based on a 736-picture corpus, the paper addresses…

  13. The Effect of Community Linguistic Isolation on Language-Minority Student Achievement in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Timothy Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Research on language-minority student outcomes has revealed sizeable and persistent achievement gaps. The reasons for these gaps are often closely linked with other factors related to underperformance, including generational status, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Using sociocultural second-language acquisition theories and community…

  14. Against the Undertow: Language-Minority Education Policy and Politics in the "Age of Accountability"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Terrence G.; Wright, Wayne E.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews historical and contemporary policies, ideologies, and educational prescriptions for language-minority students. It notes language and literacy policies historically have been used as instruments of social control and that racism and linguistic intolerance have often been closely linked with antecedents in the colonial and…

  15. The Writing of Language Minority Students: A Literature Review on Its Relation to Oral Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Dolores; De La Paz, Susan; Piantedosi, Kelly Worland; Peercy, Megan Madigan

    2017-01-01

    We reviewed literature on the school-related writing of students in English-dominant settings whose native languages were other than English to identify 2 kinds of difference: (a) among language minority (LM) students differing in oral English proficiency and (b) between LM and native English-speaking students. Sixteen studies met selection…

  16. Providing Rapid Feedback in Generated Modular Language Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, L.C.L.; De Jonge, M.; Nilsson-Nyman, E.; Visser, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a pre-print of: Providing Rapid Feedback in Generated Modular Language Environments. Adding Error Recovery to Scannerless Generalized-LR Parsing. In: Gary T. Leavens, editor, Proceedings of the 24th ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Object-Oriented Programing, Systems, Languages, and

  17. Strategies Used by Prehospital Providers to Overcome Language Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Ramsey C; Hodkinson, Peter W; Meehan-Coussee, Kelly; Cooperstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Language barriers are commonly encountered in the prehospital setting but there is a paucity of research on how prehospital providers address language discordance. We sought to identify the communication strategies, and the limitations of those strategies, used by emergency medical services (EMS) providers when confronted with language barriers in a variety of linguistic and cultural contexts. EMS providers were queried regarding communication strategies to overcome language barriers as part of an international, multi-site, sequential explanatory, qualitative-predominant, mixed methods study of prehospital language barriers. A survey of EMS telecommunicators was administered at dispatch centers in New Mexico (United States) and Western Cape (South Africa). Semi-structured qualitative interviews of EMS field providers were conducted at agencies who respond to calls from participating dispatch centers. Survey data included quantitative data on demographics and communication strategies used to overcome language barriers as well as qualitative free-text responses on the limitations of strategies. Interviews elicited narratives of encounters with language-discordant patients and the strategies used to communicate. Data from the surveys and interviews were integrated at the point of analysis. 125 telecommunicators (overall response rate of 84.5%) and a purposive sample of 27 field providers participated in the study. The characteristics of participants varied between countries and between agencies, consistent with variations in participating agencies' hiring and training practices. Telecommunicators identified 3rd-party telephonic interpreter services as the single most effective strategy when available, but also described time delays and frustration with interpreter communications that leads them to preferentially try other strategies. In the field, all providers reported using similar strategies, relying heavily on bystanders, multilingual coworkers, and non

  18. Language, Person, and Place: Echoes of Religion in Minority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay suggests that we can find traces of “religious” themes in the work of authors of minority literature who operate on the margins and at the creative intersections between the living and the dead, between home and diaspora, and between singular and multiple realms of meaning. Journal for the Study of Religion Vol.

  19. Languages, Minorities and Education in Spain: The Case of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Ferran

    2000-01-01

    Examines Catalan's remarkable revival in Catalonia (Spain) in the past 20 years. Discusses the 1978 referendum designating "autonomous communities," their languages having co-official status with Spanish; increases in Catalan usage in many sectors and among the young; Catalan usage in education; and challenges related to bilingual…

  20. Integrating Language, Literacy, and Academic Development: Alternatives to Traditional English as a Second Language and Remedial English for Language Minority Students in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, George C.; Kibler, Amanda K.

    2015-01-01

    This article argues for the importance of integrating a focus on language, literacy, and academic development for United States-educated language minority (US-LM) students, sometimes called "Generation 1.5." It describes four initiatives at community colleges in California that aim to do so. US-LM students have completed some K-12…

  1. WRITERS IN BETWEEN LANGUAGES: MINORITY LITERATURES IN THE GLOBAL SCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Iglesias

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Writers in Between Languages reúne las ponencias presentadas en el simposio internacional del mismo nombre organizado por el Centro de Estudios Vascos de la Universidad de Nevada. Mari Jose Olaziregi, editora del volumen, ha debido enfrentarse a la difícil tarea de dar unidad a un libro que nace fragmentado, un libro donde la unidad debe buscarse en un discurso base capaz de hilvanar los diferentes artículos. Dividido en dos grandes bloques, el de los escritores y el de los académicos, el libro se pregunta por la significación que todavía hoy tiene el hecho de escribir en vasco...

  2. Linguistic Simplification of Mathematics Items: Effects for Language Minority Students in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Nicole; Heppt, Birgit; Roppelt, Alexander; Stanat, Petra

    2015-01-01

    In large-scale assessment studies, language minority students typically obtain lower test scores in mathematics than native speakers. Although this performance difference was related to the linguistic complexity of test items in some studies, other studies did not find linguistically demanding math items to be disproportionally more difficult for…

  3. Language-Minority Learners in Special Education: Rates and Predictors of Identification for Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Jennifer F.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort, this study was designed to investigate proportional representation, identification rates, and predictors of language-minority (LM) learners in special education using a nationally representative sample of kindergarten, first graders, and third graders. The findings…

  4. Enacting Critical Literacy: The Case of a Language Minority Preservice Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyesun

    2014-01-01

    This narrative study of an Asian female prospective teacher describes a language minority student's ways of enacting critical literacy in a teacher preparation program in the United States. It discusses how she exerted her agency despite her perceived marginalization as a non-native English speaker. The findings demonstrate how she resisted…

  5. Academic Performance of Language-Minority Students and All-Day Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mido

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study…

  6. Included as Excluded and Excluded as Included: Minority Language Pupils in Norwegian Inclusion Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, Line Torbjørnsen

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of four Norwegian policy documents on inclusion of minority language pupils. The main concepts of this policy will be reconstructed and re-described, applying Niklas Luhmann's systems theory at different levels of the analysis. Luhmann's theory about society as a conglomerate of self-referential social systems…

  7. Development and Transfer of Vocabulary Knowledge in Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kleuver, Cherie G.; Farver, Joann M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the predictive validity of conceptual scoring. Two independent samples of Spanish-speaking language minority preschoolers (Sample 1: N = 96, mean age = 54.51 months, 54.3% male; Sample 2: N = 116, mean age = 60·70 months, 56.0% male) completed measures of receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary in their first…

  8. Literacy Development among Language Minority Background and Dyslexic Children in Finnish Orthography Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiö, Riitta; Siekkinen, Martti; Holopainen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the development of reading and writing from first to second grade in transparent orthography (Finnish) among three groups: language minority children (n = 49), Finnish children at risk of reading difficulties (n = 347), and Finnish speaking children (n = 1747). Findings indicated that reading and writing skills in the language…

  9. The protection of minority language: wheter a tool for their protection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Ahmad Khan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Language in its most developed forms is a priceless creation of man. It has always been a matter of slow evolution and no language can claim to have been born perfect or complete. Its evolution has marked its progress and in the evolution of human civilization languages have grown, decayed and even died, though not without leaving their impress behind in their offshoots. Language is the key to all intellectual and a great part of spiritual life. A common language makes possible free and familiar intercourse between two human beings and creates a bond between them. More than this each language, with its choice of words, its turn of phrase, its every idiom and peculiarity, is a sort of philosophy, which expresses the past history, the character, the psychological identity of those accustomed to use it. It is an instrument which, molded by the future. It is difficult for a foreigner to adopt the language of a people without in some way also adopting their habit of mind, and a child sucks in a sense of nationality within the very rhymes that it learns in the nursery. Language disappears by the destruction of the habits of their speakers, as well as by genocide, forced assimilation and assimilatory education, demographic submersion, and bombardment by electronic media, which may be called cultural nerve gas. The loss of language is part of the more general loss being suffered by the world, the loss of diversity in all things. In this background, the purpose of this paper is to assess the nature and extent of minority language rights, that are protected in human rights international treaties, measures that aims to protect speakers of minority languages from discrimination and to analyze the effectiveness of procedural and substantive measures adopted both at the national and international level.

  10. Minority students in the science classroom: Issues of language, class, race, culture and pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Aldrin Edward

    A considerable proportion of the educationally at-risk students in the K-12 public education system is composed of minority students, either in terms of cultural background, linguistic background, and frequently, both. In particular, satisfactory levels of achievement in science are not being attained by these students. The concerns of this study center on examining and understanding the reasons underlying this situation, with a view to suggesting how these problems of underachievement in science might be addressed. Previous and ongoing educational research concerning these issues suggest that such underachievement may be due to current pedagogical practices which seem to actively discourage these students from achieving any significant measure of academic, educational or professional success. The purpose of this study is thus to explore the beliefs and pedagogical practices of science teachers as they relate to minority students, especially those minority students for whom English is not a first language and who have limited English proficiency (LEP). In the course of this study, the terminology 'minority students' will refer to and be inclusive of cultural and/or language minorities, i.e. those students who differ from the mainstream white American student in terms of cultural background and a native language other than English. Culturally derived usages of non-standard forms of English (e.g. Black English Vernacular) also will be subsumed within this definition of cultural and language minority students. Particular attention will be given to emergent issues relating to current pedagogical practices, also to the science teacher beliefs and epistemological rationales underlying such practices. In exploring these beliefs and pedagogical practices, the study also will seek to delineate and to understand the various problems which are being encountered in the teaching of science to minority students. As the result of exploring the beliefs and pedagogical practices of

  11. Issues in bilingualism and heritage language maintenance: perspectives of minority-language mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty

    2013-02-01

    The author investigated the language practices of 10 bilingual, Chinese/English-speaking, immigrant mothers with their children with autism spectrum disorders. The aim was to understand (a) the nature of the language practices, (b) their constraints, and (c) their impact. The author employed in-depth phenomenological interviews with thematic and narrative analyses to yield themes. Interviewees reported that they adopted language practices perceived to be advantageous to intervention access and wellness. They valued Chinese language but did not pursue its use if it was believed to hinder the children's overall development of English acquisition. All of the mothers believed that bilingualism made learning more challenging. Many believed that it caused confusion or exacerbated disabilities. These deficit views of bilingualism were commonly reinforced by professionals. All of the mothers were motivated to help their children learn English but had no assistance to do so. Practices were sustainable only when they were aligned with families' preferred communication patterns. There is an urgent need for practitioners to be better informed about issues related to intergenerational language practices in minority-language families. Language use between parents and children is a complex matter that is unique to each family. Parents need to be supported to make language use decisions that are self-enhancing and congruent with their families' needs.

  12. Interpreting the Early Language Trajectories of Children from Low SES and Language Minority Homes: Implications for Closing Achievement Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika

    2012-01-01

    On average, children from low SES homes and children from homes in which a language other than English is spoken have different language development trajectories than children from middle class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Children from low SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic strengths, but many reach school age with lower levels of English language skill than middle class, monolingual children. Because early differences in English oral language skill have consequences for academic achievement, low levels of English language skill constitute a deficit for children about to enter school in the U.S. Declaring all developmental trajectories to be equally valid would not change the robust relation between English oral language skills and academic achievement and would not help children with poor English skills to be successful in school. Remedies aimed at supporting the development of the English skills required for academic success need not and should not entail devaluing or diminishing children’s other language skills. PMID:22329382

  13. Is Sauce for the Goose Sauce for the Gander? Some Comparative Reflections on Minority Language Planning in North and South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Clinton D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Compares efforts to support minority languages in the developed, industrialized countries of the north and the developing countries of the southern hemisphere. The article examines whether comparable principles are being applied to minority language planning, and if not, what the underlying reasons for the differences are. (33 references)…

  14. Minority Language Issues in Chinese Higher Education: Policy Reforms and Practice among the Korean and Mongol Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weiyan; Jacob, W. James; Ye, Huiyuan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Korean and Mongol minorities in the People's Republic of China in terms of their native language preservation and educational experiences at the higher education level, and to investigate differences and similarities between Korean and Mongol minorities' language issues. Content area experts on Chinese…

  15. National Language Planning and Language Shifts in Malaysian Minority Communities : Speaking in Many Tongues

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Controversies and problems with regard to language policy and language education still exist in Malaysia. Despite the attempts of language policy makers to promote multilingualism, the implementation has been marred by political and religious affiliations. Malaysia is a melting pot of many different cultures and ethnicities, the three largest being Malay, Chinese and Indian. Therefore, an analysis of the language variation in this polyglot nation will help in understanding the variety of lang...

  16. Opportunities provided in language textbooks to develop learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is a report on a study that investigated the opportunities provided in language textbooks to develop learners\\' full potential. Howard Gardner\\'s theory of multiple intelligences, which is used as a theoretical framework, claims that learners have different combinations of intelligences and that the various ...

  17. English as a Foreign Language in Bilingual Language-minority Children, Children with Dyslexia and Monolingual Typical Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola; Canducci, Elisa; Gravagna, Giulia; Palladino, Paola

    2017-05-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating literacy skills in English as a foreign language in three different groups of children: monolinguals with dyslexia (n = 19), typically developing bilinguals (language-minority) (n = 19) and a control group of monolinguals (Italian) (n = 76). Bilinguals were not expected to fail in English measures, and their gap with monolinguals would be expected to be limited to the instructional language, owing to underexposure. All participants were enrolled in Italian primary schools (fourth and fifth grades). A non-verbal reasoning task and Italian and English literacy tasks were administered. The Italian battery included word and non-word reading (speed and accuracy), word and non-word writing, and reading comprehension; the English battery included similar tasks, except for the non-word writing. Bilingual children performed similarly to typical readers in English tasks, whereas in Italian tasks, their performance was similar to that of typical readers in reading speed but not in reading accuracy and writing. Children with dyslexia underperformed compared with typically developing children in all English and Italian tasks, except for reading comprehension in Italian. Profile analysis and correlational analyses were further discussed. These results suggest that English as a foreign language might represent a challenge for students with dyslexia but a strength for bilingual language-minority children. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The development of English grammar and reading comprehension by majority and minority language children in a bilingual primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja K. Steinlen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Both for the first language (L1 and for all additional languages (L2 or L3, grammatical knowledge plays a vital role in understanding texts (e.g., Grabe, 2005. However, little is known about the development and interaction of grammar and reading comprehension in beginning foreign language learning, especially with respect to children with a minority language background. This longitudinal study, therefore, examined minority and majority language children’s English grammar and reading comprehension skills. The children attended a German-English partial immersion primary school and were tested at the end of Grades 3 and 4. As expected, we found grammar to affect reading comprehension but also reverse effects. Most importantly, the results did not reveal any differences between the two language groups, irrespective of the test. Therefore, immersion primary school programs seem to be suitable for minority language children, and these children do not automatically represent an at-risk group for foreign language learning.

  19. Executive function of Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers: Structure and relations with early literacy skills and behavioral outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Lerner, Matthew D; Goodrich, J Marc; Farrington, Amber L; Allan, Darcey M

    2016-04-01

    Young children's executive function (EF) is increasingly recognized as an important construct associated with development in cognitive and socioemotional domains. To date, however, few studies have examined EF in populations of language-minority children. In this study, 241 Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers who ranged in age from 38 to 69 months (M=54.23 months, SD=6.17) completed three tasks designed to measure inhibitory control (IC) and four tasks designed to measure working memory (WM). Children completed assessments of their vocabulary skills, early literacy skills, and behavioral self-regulation in both English and Spanish, and their classroom teachers completed three behavior rating measures. Children were classified as more proficient in English or Spanish based on their scores on the vocabulary measures, and all IC and WM measures were administered in the children's more proficient language. Results of confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-factor model of EF for both groups of children as well as strong measurement and structural invariance across groups. Children's EF was substantially related to the language, early literacy, and behavioral self-regulation measures as well as teacher ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. For children with more proficient English, EF was associated with skills in both English and Spanish; however, for children with more proficient Spanish, EF was associated primarily with skills in Spanish. These results provide evidence of strong correspondence for EF measured in Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers and monolingual preschoolers, and they identify a potential key factor that can enhance understanding of development in this population of children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. LANGUAGE POLICIES AND MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION IN MINORITY SCHOOLS IN OTTOMAN EMPIRE: OUTCOMES AND FUTURE INSIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah DOLGUNSOZ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Language is the spirit of nations; the cement of the culture mosaic. Its education has a critical role especially for multi-national societies and states. According to Human Rights, every individual has the right to develop, teach and learn his native language in any setting. But this democratic right is required to be regularized with a healthy, efficient and long term multilingual education policy. As one of the most powerful multi-ethnic empires of history, Ottoman Empire embraced numerous cultures and several unique languages. As a policy, the Empire followed a relatively flexible and irregular language policy which fostered national homogeneity and unity in time. On the other hand, the Empire always kept the gap between Anatolian Turkish language by employing Ottoman language as official language. The imbalanced policies of multilingual education and Porte’s distance to Anatolian Turkish contributed a lot to the disintegration of the Empire. This study focuses on why Ottoman language policies adversely affected the unity of the multilingual Empire, scrutinizes the insufficient multilingual education models among Muslim society with its outcomes and discusses how multilingual education in minority schools contributed the disintegration process.

  1. Cov Hauv Kev Kawm Ntawv Rau Cov Niamtxiv Haiv Neeg Tsawg. Yog Npaj Los Rau Haiv Neeg Hmoob (Parenting Curriculum for Language Minority Parents. Hmong Language).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Grace D.

    This guide for minority language parents whose primary language is Hmong presents parenting information to supplement a course in English as a Second Language. It focuses on topics parents must deal with in meeting the needs of their children. Vocabulary and practice drills are presented for activities in the following areas: (1) education and…

  2. Included as excluded and excluded as included: minority language pupils in Norwegian inclusion policy

    OpenAIRE

    Hilt, Line

    2014-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of four Norwegian policy documents on inclusion of minority language pupils. The main concepts of this policy will be reconstructed and re-described, applying Niklas Luhmann's systems theory at different levels of the analysis. Luhmann's theory about society as a conglomerate of self-referential social systems investigates how these systems construct meaning and what consequences these constructions have for inclusion and exclusion processes. This article will ...

  3. Foreign Unaccompanied Minors in the Republic of Croatia: the Issue of Language Learning and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Župarić-Iljić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern mixed migration flows include children separated from their parents and unaccompanied minors, who are among the most vulnerable groups of migrants. From 2006 to July 2014, a total of 3255 foreign unaccompanied minors were registered in Croatia, of whom about 400 were asylum seekers, mainly citizens of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Somalia. It is obvious that they stay shortly in the institutions entitled for their care and arbitrarily leave them within just a few weeks from the day of arrival. Policies and measures aimed at the welfare and protection of foreign unaccompanied minors include state mechanisms in the domains of establishing the identity and age of a minor, appointment of a guardian, ensuring accommodation and freedom of movement, legal and financial support, health and social care, language learning, education and ensuring their reunification with family. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of policies and measures related to language learning and the education of foreign unaccompanied minors, which is one of the basic prerequisites of their inclusion in society. Based on research conducted by the interview method among the relevant actors involved in the system of their protection and care, some of the most important challenges, primarily in the field of educational, but also of the broader integration of foreign unaccompanied minors have been analysed. Preliminary results suggest that their brief stay in Croatia and early drop-out of the system prevents the implementation of the national care program guaranteed by the legal framework, which partly makes it impossible for the state to systematically and effectively plan and implement further activities in the education of children of foreigners. Lack of inter-agency and intra-agency coordination within the government sector leads in this area to institutional problems and inconsistency in the implementation of the existing national regulations and European standards.

  4. Separability of Lexical and Morphological Knowledge: Evidence from Language Minority Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna Shahar-Yames

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lexical and morphological knowledge of school-aged children are correlated with each other, and are often difficult to distinguish. One reason for this might be that many tasks currently used to assess morphological knowledge require children to inflect or derive real words in the language, thus recruiting their vocabulary knowledge. The current study investigated the possible separability of lexical and morphological knowledge using two complementary approaches. First, we examined the correlations between vocabulary and four morphological tasks tapping different aspects of morphological processing and awareness, and using either real-word or pseudo-word stimuli. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that different morphological tasks recruit lexical knowledge to various degrees. Second, we compared the Hebrew vocabulary and morphological knowledge of 5th grade language minority speaking children to that of their native speaking peers. This comparison allows us to ask whether reduced exposure to the societal language might differentially influence vocabulary and morphological knowledge. The results demonstrate that indeed different morphological tasks rely on lexical knowledge to varying degrees. In addition, language minority students had significantly lower performance in vocabulary and in morphological tasks that recruited vocabulary knowledge to a greater extent. In contrast, both groups performed similarly in abstract morphological tasks with a lower vocabulary load. These results demonstrate that lexical and morphological knowledge may rely on partially separable learning mechanisms, and highlight the importance of distinguishing between these two linguistic components.

  5. A short history of the Catalan campaign to win the .cat Internet domain, with implications for other minority languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gerrand

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available On 15 September 2005 ICANN approved the first top-level Internet domain to be devoted to a particular human language and culture: .cat. This paper describes the history of the Catalan campaign to win the .cat domain against political opposition from the former conservative Spanish government and the reluctance of some decision-makers within ICANN circles. While .cat creates a precedent for greater use on the Internet of 'minority languages', there are significant hurdles for other candidates for language-based top-level domains. The paper discusses the concomitant factors needed to support the greater use of any minority language on the Internet.

  6. Urban Minority Students, Language, and Reading. ERIC/CUE Urban Diversity Series, Number 51; CAL/ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, Number 55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clifford A.

    The great majority of poor readers in urban schools are members of an ethnic minority, a low social class, and a poor family. The simple recognition of these factors, however, is of no help in characterizing the specific sources of language norms among urban minority students or in determining the ways these distinctive norms interfere with…

  7. Language, Parents' Involvement, and Social Justice: The Fight for Maintaining Minority Home Language: A Chinese-Language Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxiang

    2009-01-01

    English-only policies and the expiration of the "Bilingual Education Act," which is now replaced by "No Child Left Behind," make it clear that English is the official language of schools in the United States with the emphasis moved from the goal of maintaining students' home languages while learning English to a focus of ignoring minority…

  8. Providing a Sounding Board for Second Language Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E. Julia

    2013-01-01

    English as a second language (ESL) writing teachers face distinct challenges as they try to help students write in the language that is appropriate and natural to the native-English-speaking audience. It is disheartening when the writings of even advanced-level second language students often contain many awkward sentences and non-English-like…

  9. Providing Architectural Languages and Tools Interoperability through Model Transformation Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malavolta, I.; Muccini, H.; Pelliccione, P.; Tamburri, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Many architectural languages have been proposed in the last 15 years, each one with the chief aim of becoming the ideal language for specifying software architectures. What is evident nowadays, instead, is that architectural languages are defined by stakeholder concerns. Capturing all such concerns

  10. Quality of language intervention provided to primary-grade students with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancone, Tricia L; Farquharson, Kelly; Justice, Laura M; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Logan, Jessica A R

    2014-01-01

    This study had two aims: (a) to describe the quality of language intervention provided by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to children with language impairment in the primary grades with respect to the quality of emotional support, instructional support, and proactive management during SLP-child interactions, and (b) to determine if key characteristics of the SLPs are predictors of variance in intervention quality. Participants were 174 children nested within 40 SLPs' caseloads from various districts in two Midwestern states involved in a larger study of speech-language therapy practices in the public schools. A total of 208 videotaped language intervention sessions were coded for emotional support, instructional support, and proactive management using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008). The quality of language intervention varied widely and was generally mid-range to high with respect to emotional support and proactive management, and low to mid-range in terms of instructional support. The quality of interactions varied and a large percentage of the observed variance in quality was attributed to SLPs. Time pressure was a strong predictor of the quality of emotional support, instructional support, and proactive management, and job satisfaction was a significant predictor of instructional support and proactive management. This descriptive information about school-based language intervention highlights the impact of the individual SLP in terms of the quality of the interactions taking place and the potential need to ease job pressures and promote job satisfaction. Readers will be able to: (1) identify and define three aspects of SLP-child interaction quality during intervention as framed in this study using the CLASS observation tool (Pianta, La Paro, et al., 2008); (2) discuss the relevance of those three aspects of quality to children with LI; and (3) identify SLP-level factors that significantly predict

  11. Growth in Reading-Related Skills of Language Minority Learners and Their Classmates: More Evidence for Early Identification and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Vukovic, Rose K.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated growth in reading-related skills between Grade 1 and 4 for language minority (LM) learners and their native English-speaking classmates from similarly low socioeconomic backgrounds (N = 166). Growth trajectories were compared by language background and by Grade 4 reading difficulties, with the goal of informing…

  12. Inhibitory Control of Spanish-Speaking Language-Minority Preschool Children: Measurement and Association With Language, Literacy, and Math Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Darcey M; Goodrich, J Marc; Farrington, Amber L; Phillips, Beth M

    Children's self-regulation, including components of executive function such as inhibitory control, is related concurrently and longitudinally with elementary school children's reading and math abilities. Although several recent studies have examined links between preschool children's self-regulation or executive function and their academic skill development, few included large numbers of Spanish-speaking language-minority children. Among the fastest growing segments of the U.S. school-age population, many of these children are at significant risk of academic difficulties. We examined the relations between inhibitory control and academic skills in a sample containing a large number of Spanish-speaking preschoolers. Overall, the children demonstrated substantial academic risk based on preschool-entry vocabulary scores in the below-average range. Children completed assessments of language, literacy, and math skills in English and Spanish, when appropriate, at the start and end of their preschool year, along with a measure of inhibitory control, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which was administered at the start of the preschool year in the child's dominant conversational language. Scores on this last measure were lower for children for whom it was administered in Spanish. For both English and Spanish outcomes, those scores were significantly and uniquely associated with higher scores on measures of phonological awareness and math skills but not vocabulary or print knowledge skills.

  13. Identifying Differences in Early Literacy Skills Across Subgroups of Language-Minority Children: A Latent Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Goodrich, J Marc; Farver, JoAnn M

    2017-12-18

    Despite acknowledgment that language-minority children come from a wide variety of home language backgrounds and have a wide range of proficiency in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages, it is unknown whether differences across language-minority children in relative and absolute levels of proficiency in L1 and L2 predict subsequent development of literacy-related skills. The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of language-minority children and evaluate whether differences in level and rate of growth of early literacy skills differed across subgroups. Five-hundred and twenty-six children completed measures of Spanish and English language and early literacy skills at the beginning, middle, and end of the preschool year. Latent growth models indicated that children's early literacy skills were increasing over the course of the preschool year. Latent profile analysis indicated that language-minority children could be classified into nine distinct groups, each with unique patterns of absolute and relative levels of proficiency in L1 and L2. Results of three-step mixture models indicated that profiles were closely associated with level of early literacy skills at the beginning of the preschool year. Initial level of early literacy skills was positively associated with growth in code-related skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness) and inversely associated with growth in language skills. These findings suggest that language-minority children are a diverse group with regard to their L1 and L2 proficiencies and that growth in early literacy skills is most associated with level of proficiency in the same language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Academic achievement and course taking among language minority youth in U.S. schools: Effects of ESL placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra

    2010-03-01

    The 1974 Lau decision requires that U.S. public schools ensure a meaningful education for students learning English. English as a Second Language (ESL) placement is an institutional response to the linguistic needs of these students; however, its academic implications remain largely unexplored. Using nationally representative data from the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS), the effects of ESL placement on college preparatory course enrollment and academic achievement of language minority students are estimated, first with fixed effects regression models and then with multi-level propensity score matching techniques. While numerous school and individual level factors beyond language proficiency predict ESL placement, a significant negative estimated effect of ESL placement on science enrollment and cumulative GPA is consistently found. Perhaps more important, however, no positive effects of ESL placement on the achievement of language minority youth are found when accounting for English proficiency and other potential covariates.

  15. Academic achievement and course taking among language minority youth in U.S. schools: Effects of ESL placement

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; MULLER, CHANDRA

    2010-01-01

    The 1974 Lau decision requires that U.S. public schools ensure a meaningful education for students learning English. English as a Second Language (ESL) placement is an institutional response to the linguistic needs of these students; however, its academic implications remain largely unexplored. Using nationally representative data from the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS), the effects of ESL placement on college preparatory course enrollment and academic achievement of language minority s...

  16. Minority Language Learning in the Administration: Data from the Basque Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone; Perales, Josu

    1997-01-01

    Provides data on the acquisition of Basque in the Basque Autonomous Community (Spain). Reports recent data and results of research studies on bilingual education and the use of Basque, and then focuses on one of the language plans developed by the Basque Government: the "Basquisation" of civil servants. Analyzes results of this plan and…

  17. Language and Language-in-Education Planning in Multilingual India: A Minoritized Language Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    This article explores India's linguistic diversity from a language policy perspective, emphasizing policies relevant to linguistic minorities. The Kumaun region of Utterakhand provides a local, minority-language perspective on national-level language planning. A look at the complexity of counting India's languages reveals language planning…

  18. The language of "sexual minorities" and the politics of identity: a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchesky, Rosalind P

    2009-05-01

    In any highly contested political domain, language can be a potent force for change or an obstacle to understanding and coalition building across difference. This is surely the case in the global debates over sexuality and gender, where even those terms themselves have aroused heated conflicts. In this spirit, we want to challenge the uncritical use of the term "sexual minorities", based on a number of historical and conceptual problems with which that term - like the larger thicket of identities and identity politics it signifies - is encumbered. These include: ignoring history, legitimating dubious normativity, fixing biological categories, and recreating exclusions. With this struggle, we seem caught in a modernist dilemma between two desires: to name and honour difference by signifying identities and to avoid exclusivity and hierarchy by reclaiming universals. The insistence of diverse groups on naming themselves and achieving recognition of their distinctness and variety will go on as long as aspirations for democracy exist, because that is the nature and necessity of emancipatory politics. At the same time, our language needs to reflect the fluidity and complexity of sexuality and gender expressions in everyday life and their intricate interweaving with other conditions such as class, race, ethnicity, time and place.

  19. Nitrous oxide provides safe and effective analgesia for minor paediatric procedures--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rie S; Bayat, Allan; Steen, Nick Phaff; Jacobsson, Marie-Laure Bouchy

    2013-06-01

    Pain and distress during minor hospital-related procedures is a familiar problem in many children. Inadequate relief of children's procedural pain and distress not only affects the experience of the children and their parents, but also adversely impacts procedural success. We aimed to review the safety and efficacy of nitrous oxide during brief, but painful paediatric procedures and to compare nitrous oxide with some of the commonly used pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for relieving anxiety and mild to moderate pain in Denmark. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed) and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews with the MeSH term nitrous oxide combined with midazolam, surgical procedures minor, analgesia or conscious sedation. The references in the articles acquired that were not found in the MEDLINE search were further investigated. Only articles written in English and published after 1980 were included to ensure optimal data collection. Nitrous oxide is an effective sedative/analgesic for mildly to moderately painful paediatric procedures. Furthermore, it is safely administrated, particularly for short procedures (Nitrous oxide is a safe and effective method to achieve analgesia and sedation during minor, but painful procedures. It can be safely administered by a dedicated staff member. This helpful method is still underused in Denmark, and we believe that it could be an alternative or the first choice of treatment in emergency and paediatric departments.

  20. Language support for linguistic minority chronic hepatitis B/C patients: an exploratory study of availability and clinicians’ perceptions of language barriers in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Falla (Abby); I.K. Veldhuizen (Irene); R.A. Ahmad (Riris); M. Levi (Miriam); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Language support for linguistic minorities can improve patient safety, clinical outcomes and the quality of health care. Most chronic hepatitis B/C infections in Europe are detected among people born in endemic countries mostly in Africa, Asia and Central/Eastern Europe,

  1. Manual sobre la Educacion en California para Padres de Idiomas Minoritarios = A Handbook on California Education for Language Minority Parents--Spanish/English Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bilingual Education Office.

    This bilingual handbook, presented in both Spanish and English, is designed to assist parents of language minority students who are residing in California. The book is part of the technical assistance effort of the State Department of Education to clarify the operations of the California schools to language minority parents so they can better…

  2. Components and context: exploring sources of reading difficulties for language minority learners and native English speakers in urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J; Vukovic, Rose K

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the cognitive and ecological domains within the componential model of reading, this longitudinal study explores heterogeneity in the sources of reading difficulties for language minority learners and native English speakers in urban schools. Students (N = 150) were followed from first through third grade and assessed annually on standardized English language and reading measures. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relative contributions of code-related and linguistic comprehension skills in first and second grade to third grade reading comprehension. Linguistic comprehension and the interaction between linguistic comprehension and code-related skills each explained substantial variation in reading comprehension. Among students with low reading comprehension, more than 80% demonstrated weaknesses in linguistic comprehension alone, whereas approximately 15% demonstrated weaknesses in both linguistic comprehension and code-related skills. Results were remarkably similar for the language minority learners and native English speakers, suggesting the importance of their shared socioeconomic backgrounds and schooling contexts.

  3. Nitrous oxide provides safe and effective analgesia for minor paediatric procedures - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rie S; Bayat, Allan; Steen, Nick Phaff

    2013-01-01

    Pain and distress during minor hospital-related procedures is a familiar problem in many children. Inadequate relief of children's procedural pain and distress not only affects the experience of the children and their parents, but also adversely impacts procedural success. We aimed to review the ...... the safety and efficacy of nitrous oxide during brief, but painful paediatric procedures and to compare nitrous oxide with some of the commonly used pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for relieving anxiety and mild to moderate pain in Denmark....

  4. The Inclusion of Ethnic Minority Patients and the Role of Language in Telehealth Trials for Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Talia; Hunt, Daniel; Ward, Danielle; Rooshenas, Leila; Edwards, Louisa

    2016-09-26

    /58) included language proficiency as a participant-screening criterion. Language proficiency was operationalized using nonstandardized measures (eg, having sufficient "verbal fluency"), with only three studies providing reasons for excluding patients on language grounds. There was considerable variability across studies in the inclusion of ethnic minority patients in RCTs, with higher participation rates in countries with legislation to mandate their inclusion (eg, United States) than in those without such legislation (eg, United Kingdom). Less than 25% of the RCTs recruited a sizeable proportion of ethnic minorities, which raises concerns about external validity. The lack of objective measures or common procedures for assessing language proficiency across trials implies that language-related eligibility decisions are often based on trial recruiters' impressionistic judgments, which could be subject to bias. The variability and inconsistent reporting on ethnicity and other socioeconomic factors in descriptions of research participants could be more specifically emphasized in trial reporting guidelines to promote best practice. PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews: CRD42015024899; http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42015024899 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6kQmI2bdF).

  5. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States–Mexico border region

    OpenAIRE

    Jose L. Burgos; Yee, Daniel; Csordas, Thomas; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana C.; Luis A. Segovia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Olivares-Nevarez, Jose A.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons). By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity.Activities and outcomes: This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program...

  6. Contribution of new technologies in future teachers’ multilingual education in communities with a minority language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagore IPIÑA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Future teachers’ multilingual education and digital literacy present a challenge for our institutions. Mobility between different countries and the development of the Information and Communication Technologies have set up new educational needs to deal with. Moreover, if the aim is to promote additive multilingualism in bilingual settings with a minority language, the challenge is even bigger due to the fact that a good planning is required. And this is the work that we are developing in the Faculty of Humanities and Education in the University of Mondragon. We are experimenting with a multilingual and digital plan in Infant and Primary Education Degrees.

  7. The Role of Theory and Policy in the Educational Treatment of Language Minority Students: Competitive Structures in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom T. Stritikus

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available For teachers, theories play a central role in guiding the intellectual work that they have chosen to perform. Teachers are guided by both theories which they use to interpret, analyze and take action in their professional worlds. At any given time, teachers may be faced with multiple and competing theoretical perspectives which attempt to influence their classroom practice. In this article, we examine the theoretical and policy-based positions currently competing to shape the nature of educational practice for language minority students. We highlight the salient theoretical differences between additive and subtractive conceptions for the education of language minority students and their policy- and practice-based implications. Then, we examine select findings from one district’s implementation of Proposition 227, and consider how teachers react when competing theories attempt to shape their classroom practice. Specifically, we consider: How might teachers’ theories be complemented or contrasted by the underlying theoretical position of Proposition 227? How do teachers’ theories about their students mediate the manner in which they react and respond to the policy shift away from native language instruction? We conclude by considering what implications additive and subtractive competitive structures have for the future of policy and practice for language minority students in the United States.

  8. Giao-Trinh Huan-Luyen Phu-Huynk Goc Ngon-Ngu Thieu-So: Ban Viet-Ngu (Parenting Curriculum for Language Minority Parents: Vietnamese Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Grace D.

    This guide for minority language parents whose primary language is Vietnamese presents parenting information to supplement a course in English as a Second Language. It focuses on topics parents must deal with in meeting the needs of their children. Vocabulary and practice drills are presented for activities in the following areas: (1) education…

  9. Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Effects on Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary: Testing Language-Minority Children with an Immigrant Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Method: Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary…

  10. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States–Mexico border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jose L.; Yee, Daniel; Csordas, Thomas; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana C.; Segovia, Luis A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Olivares-Nevarez, Jose A.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons). By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. Activities and outcomes This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP), a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US–Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. Discussion The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US–Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students’ desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings. PMID:26088189

  11. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States–Mexico border region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Burgos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons. By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. Activities and outcomes: This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP, a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US–Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. Discussion: The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US–Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students’ desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings.

  12. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jose L; Yee, Daniel; Csordas, Thomas; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana C; Segovia, Luis A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Olivares-Nevarez, Jose A; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-01-01

    The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons). By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP), a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US-Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US-Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students' desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings.

  13. Cultural diversity in the Dublin maternity services: the experiences of maternity service providers when caring for ethnic minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Suzi M; O'Keeffe, Frances M; Clarke, Anna T; Staines, Anthony

    2008-06-01

    Ireland has seen an expansion of new migrant communities over the past decade and the country has struggled to cope with this new multi-culturalism, especially within the health services. The maternity services in particular have seen an increase in deliveries from ethnic minority women. Little research has been done exploring this issue with maternity service providers. Using a grounded theory approach, this study sought to explore the experiences, understanding and perspectives of maternity service providers when working with ethnic minority women in the Dublin maternity services during 2002 and 2003. Four themes emerged from the study: Communication difficulties, knowledge and use of services, cultural differences and 'Them and Us'. These encompassed a variety of issues including inadequacy of interpretation services, childcare issues, coping with labour, identification as different and racism. Ethnic minority women are expected to adapt to the system rather than the maternity services being responsive or adapting to the new multi-cultural population. These issues were relevant a decade ago internationally and are still pertinent today for not only Irish services but also for other European countries. There is an opportunity to improve the services for all women by learning from the experience of Dublin maternity service providers.

  14. The Harmonic Minor Scale Provides an Optimum Way of Reducing Average Melodic Interval Size, Consistent with Sad Affect Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huron

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Small pitch movement is known to characterize sadness in speech prosody. Small melodic interval sizes have also been observed in nominally sad music—at least in the case of Western music. Starting with melodies in the major mode, a study is reported which examines the effect of different scale modifications on the average interval size. Compared with all other possible scale modifications, lowering the third and sixth scale tones from the major scale is shown to provide an optimum or near optimum way of reducing the average melodic interval size for a large diverse sample of major-mode melodies. The results are consistent with the view that Western melodic organization and the major-minor polarity are co-adapted, and that the structure of the minor mode contributes to the evoking, expressing or representation of sadness for listeners enculturated to the major scale.

  15. Using interactive theatre to help fertility providers better understand sexual and gender minority patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasoff, Lesley A; Epstein, Rachel; Green, Datejie C; Anderson, Scott; Ross, Lori E

    2014-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of interactive theatre as a knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) method to educate assisted human reproduction (AHR) service providers about lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and queer (LGBTQ) patients. We transformed data from the 'Creating Our Families' study, a qualitative, community-based study of LGBTQ peoples' experiences accessing AHR services, into a script for an interactive theatre workshop for AHR service providers. Based on forum theatre principles, our workshop included five scenes illustrating LGBTQ people interacting with service providers, followed by audience interventions to these scenes. Before and after the workshop, service providers completed surveys to assess their knowledge and comfort concerning LGBTQ patients, as well as the modality of the interactive theatre workshop as a KTE strategy. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to determine changes in preworkshop and postworkshop knowledge and comfort scores. Thirty AHR service providers attended the workshop. Twenty-three service providers (76.7%) fully completed the preworkshop and postworkshop evaluation forms. Service providers' knowledge scores significantly improved after the workshop, while their comfort scores minimally decreased. Most agreed that the interactive workshop was an effective KTE method. In comparison with traditional forms of KTE, interactive theatre may be particularly effective in engaging service providers and addressing their attitudes towards marginalised patient populations. Although the evaluation results of our interactive workshop were mostly positive, the long-term impact of the workshop is unknown. Long-term evaluations are needed to determine the effectiveness of arts-based KTE efforts. Other considerations for developing effective arts-based KTE strategies include adequate funding, institutional support, attention to power dynamics and thoughtful collaboration with forum theatre experts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  16. Enhancing literacy practices in science classrooms through a professional development program for Canadian minority-language teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Léonard P.; Gueye, Ndeye R.

    2016-05-01

    Literacy in the Science Classroom Project was a three-year professional development (PD) program supporting minority-language secondary teachers' use of effective language-based instructional strategies for teaching science. Our primary objective was to determine how teacher beliefs and practices changed over time and how these were enacted in different classrooms. We also wanted to identify the challenges and enablers to implementing these literacy strategies and practices at the classroom, school, and district levels. Data collection involved both qualitative and quantitative methodologies: student questionnaires; interviews with teachers, principals, and mentor; and focus groups with students. The findings suggest that the program had an impact on beliefs and practices commensurate with the workshop participation of individual teachers. These language-enhanced teacher practices also had a positive impact on the use of talking, reading and writing by students in the science classroom. Finally, continuing PD support may be needed in certain jurisdictions for strengthening minority-language programs given the high teacher mobility in content-area classrooms evident in this study.

  17. A language that forgot itself (Essay on the curious non-existence of German as a recognized minority language in today’s Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kamusella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A language that forgot itself  (Essay on the curious non-existence of German as a recognized minority language in today’s Poland This essay draws on my almost three decades worth of research on the multiethnic and multilingual history of Upper Silesia during the last two centuries, when various ethnolinguistic nationalisms have radically altered the ethnic, political, demographic and linguistic shape of the region. I focus on the German minority that was recognized in Poland in the early 1990s. This recognition was extended to the German language. However, though in official statistics there are hundreds of schools with German, and bilingual signage amply dots the Upper Silesian landscape, neither in the region nor elsewhere in Poland is there a single, however small, locality where German would be the language of everyday communication. With this essay I attempt to explicate this irony of official recognition on the one hand, and the tacitly enforced non-existence on the ground, on the other hand.

  18. "English Only": The Attack on Minority Language Speakers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fund for Free Expression: A Committee of Human Rights Watch, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the "English-Only" movement is to make English the official national language. The Constitution of the United States does not mention the English language, and therefore the country has no official language. The legacy of the nation's founders is one of linguistic tolerance. The increase in immigrants from Asia and Latin…

  19. Ethnic Minority Students from South Asia in Hong Kong: Language Ideologies and Discursive Identity Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue Michelle; Mak, Barley; Qu, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how ethnic minority students in Hong Kong secondary schools discursively construct their identities in relation to culture, heritage, and social discourse. It finds that the ethnic minority students negotiate their identities within multiple positioning from parents, school, and the broader social discourse on minority…

  20. Analysing Language Education Policy for China's Minority Groups in Its Entirety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Anwei; Sunuodula, Mamtimyn

    2009-01-01

    Two main bodies of literature are identifiable in minority education policy studies in China. Many adopt a descriptive approach to examining policy documents and general outcomes in their historical contexts while others focus on evaluating preferential policies made to address inequality issues in minority education. In most discussions,…

  1. The relation between exposure to sophisticated and complex language and early-adolescent English-only and language minority learners' vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, Perla B; Lesaux, Nonie K

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between teachers' (N = 22) use of sophisticated and complex language in urban middle-school classrooms and their students' (mean age at pretest = 11.51 years; N = 782; 568 language minority and 247 English only) vocabulary knowledge. Using videotaped classroom observations, teachers' speech was transcribed and coded for their total amount of talk, vocabulary usage, and syntactic complexity. Students' vocabulary skills were assessed at the beginning and end of the school year. Results showed variation in students' vocabulary skills and teachers' language use. Hierarchical linear modeling techniques revealed that after controlling for classroom and school composition and students' beginning-of-the-year scores, students' end-of-the-year vocabulary skills were positively related to teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary and complex syntax, but not teachers' total amount of talk. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Bilingual Children as Policy Agents: Language Policy and Education Policy in Minority Language Medium Early Childhood Education and Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergroth, Mari; Palviainen, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    The current study examines bilingual children as language policy agents in the interplay between official language policy and education policy at three Swedish-medium preschools in Finland. For this purpose we monitored nine Finnish-Swedish bilingual children aged 3 to 5 years for 18 months. The preschools were located in three different parts of…

  3. Can Schools Save Indigenous Languages? Policy and Practice on Four Continents: Palgrave Studies in Minority Languages and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume offers a close look at four cases of indigenous language revitalization: Maori in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Sami in Scandinavia, Hnahno in Mexico and Quechua and other indigenous languages in Latin America. Essays by experts from each case are in turn discussed in international perspective by four counterpart experts. This book is divided…

  4. Make Time to Talk: Language Building Tips for Center-Based Child Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute for Literacy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Everyone knows that it's important to talk every day with each child, using the kind of talk that builds language and thinking skills. The phrase MAKE TIME TO TALK is to help child care providers remember things they can do when talking to children to help them learn new vocabulary and how to use language to express their ideas and needs, and that…

  5. FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING AND EDUCATION IN MINORITY CIRCUMSTANCES. PROBLEMS AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Batyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some form of bi- and multilingualism means the natural lingual condition for more than the half of the population of the Earth. It is a substantial linguistic aim of the Transcarpathian Hungarian community that beside preservation of their mother tongue(the Hungarian, acquire the state language (the Ukrainian languageand the basis of at least one world language. But this aim is hindered by a lot of things in Transcarpathia. The goal of the study is to shed light on these problems and to find possible solutions based on two researches. The first research, which was carried out in the Tanscarpathian Hungarian schools, was to reveal the conditions and problems of foreign language education. The research threw light on numerous problems that approve the low level of foreign language knowledge of the Transcarpathian Hungarian youth. Attitudes and stereotypes influence the success of foreign language acquisition. For this reason in the second part of the study I would like to show, what kind of stereotypes and attitudes can be discovered in the parents (who are lay linguistically and language pedagogicallyconcerning foreign languages, and within this especially concerning the English language. It appears from the interviews,that nor the attitudes of the state towards foreign languages that was inherited from the soviet system, neither the impassiveness of the parents improves the positive attitudes in the Transcarpathian Hungarian students towards foreign languages, and nor the state,neither the parents approve the motivation of foreign language acquisition.

  6. "I just think that doctors need to ask more questions": Sexual minority and majority adolescents' experiences talking about sexuality with healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzzell, Lindsay; Fedesco, Heather N; Alexander, Stewart C; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Shields, Cleveland G

    2016-09-01

    To examine adolescent and young adults' experiences of sexuality communication with physicians, and gain advice for improving interactions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with questions focusing on: puberty, romantic attractions, sexual orientation, dating, sexual behavior, clinical environment, and role of parents. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis with both open and axial coding. Five themes emerged from interviews: 1) need for increased quantity of sexual communication, 2) issues of confidentiality/privacy, 3) comfort (physician discomfort, physical space), 4) inclusivity (language use, gender-fluid patients, office environment), 5) need for increased quality of sexual communication. Sexual minority and majority adolescents and young adults indicate sexuality discussions with physicians are infrequent and need improvement. They indicate language use and clinical physical environment are important places where physicians can show inclusiveness and increase comfort. Physicians should make an effort to include sexual communication at every visit. They should consider using indirect questions to assess sexual topics, provide other outlets for sexual health information, and ask parents to leave the exam room to improve confidentiality. Clinic staff should participate in Safe Zone trainings, and practices can promote inclusion with signs that indicate safe and accepting environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Minimal and Short-Lived Effects of Minority Language Exposure on the Executive Functions of Frisian-Dutch Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Evelyn; Hoekstra, Eric; Versloot, Arjen; Blom, Elma

    2017-01-01

    Various studies have shown that bilingual children need a certain degree of proficiency in both languages before their bilingual experiences enhance their executive functioning (EF). In the current study, we investigated if degree of bilingualism in Frisian-Dutch children influenced EF and if this effect was sustained over a 3-year period. To this end, longitudinal data were analyzed from 120 Frisian-Dutch bilingual children who were 5- or 6-years-old at the first time of testing. EF was measured with two attention and two working memory tasks. Degree of bilingualism was defined as language balance based on receptive vocabulary and expressive morphology scores in both languages. In a context with a minority and a majority language, such as the Frisian-Dutch context, chances for becoming proficient in both languages are best for children who speak the minority language at home. Therefore, in a subsequent analysis, we examined whether minority language exposure predicted language balance and whether there was a relationship between minority language exposure and EF, mediated by language balance. The results showed that intensity of exposure to Frisian at home, mediated by language balance, had an impact on one of the attention tasks only. It predicted performance on this task at time 1, but not at time 2 and 3. This partially confirms previous evidence that the cognitive effects of bilingualism are moderated by degree of bilingualism and furthermore reveals that substantial minority language exposure at home indirectly affects bilingual children's cognitive development, namely through mediation with degree of bilingualism. However, the findings also demonstrate that the effect of bilingualism on EF is limited and unstable.

  8. The Minimal and Short-Lived Effects of Minority Language Exposure on the Executive Functions of Frisian-Dutch Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Evelyn; Hoekstra, Eric; Versloot, Arjen; Blom, Elma

    2017-01-01

    Various studies have shown that bilingual children need a certain degree of proficiency in both languages before their bilingual experiences enhance their executive functioning (EF). In the current study, we investigated if degree of bilingualism in Frisian-Dutch children influenced EF and if this effect was sustained over a 3-year period. To this end, longitudinal data were analyzed from 120 Frisian-Dutch bilingual children who were 5- or 6-years-old at the first time of testing. EF was measured with two attention and two working memory tasks. Degree of bilingualism was defined as language balance based on receptive vocabulary and expressive morphology scores in both languages. In a context with a minority and a majority language, such as the Frisian-Dutch context, chances for becoming proficient in both languages are best for children who speak the minority language at home. Therefore, in a subsequent analysis, we examined whether minority language exposure predicted language balance and whether there was a relationship between minority language exposure and EF, mediated by language balance. The results showed that intensity of exposure to Frisian at home, mediated by language balance, had an impact on one of the attention tasks only. It predicted performance on this task at time 1, but not at time 2 and 3. This partially confirms previous evidence that the cognitive effects of bilingualism are moderated by degree of bilingualism and furthermore reveals that substantial minority language exposure at home indirectly affects bilingual children’s cognitive development, namely through mediation with degree of bilingualism. However, the findings also demonstrate that the effect of bilingualism on EF is limited and unstable. PMID:28900405

  9. ‘We don’t talk Gypsy here’: Minority language policies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    New William S.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Roma constitute an ideal case of educational injustice meeting linguistic difference, racism, social marginalization, and poverty. This paper asks whether human-rights or capabilities approaches are best suited to address issues related to the language education of Roma students in Europe. These children are disadvantaged by not growing up with the standard dialect of whatever language is preferred by the mainstream population, and by the low status of the Romani language, and non-standard dialect of the standard language they usually speak. We examine language education for Roma students in Croatia, the Czech Republic, and Bulgaria, describing similarities and differences across contexts. We explain weak and strong version of language rights arguments, and the ways these principles are expressed, and not expressed in education policies. Sen’s capabilities approach can be employed to generate contextualized visions of education reform that speak directly to disadvantages suffered by Roma children.

  10. Foreign Unaccompanied Minors in the Republic of Croatia: the Issue of Language Learning and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Drago Župarić-Iljić; Dubravka Mlinarić

    2015-01-01

    Modern mixed migration flows include children separated from their parents and unaccompanied minors, who are among the most vulnerable groups of migrants. From 2006 to July 2014, a total of 3255 foreign unaccompanied minors were registered in Croatia, of whom about 400 were asylum seekers, mainly citizens of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Somalia. It is obvious that they stay shortly in the institutions entitled for their care and arbitrarily leave them within just a few weeks from the day of arri...

  11. Association of mandated language access programming and quality of care provided by mental health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Sean R; Snowden, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between language access programming and quality of psychiatric care received by persons with limited English proficiency (LEP). In 1999, the California Department of Mental Health required county Medicaid agencies to implement a "threshold language access policy" to meet the state's Title VI obligations. This policy required Medi-Cal agencies to provide language access programming, including access to interpreters and translated written material, to speakers of languages other than English if the language was spoken by at least 3,000, or 5%, of the county's Medicaid population. Using a longitudinal study design with a nonequivalent control group, this study examined the quality of care provided to Spanish speakers with LEP and a severe mental illness before and after implementation of mandatory language access programming. Quality was measured by receipt of at least two follow-up medication visits within 90 days or three visits within 180 days of an initial medication visit over a period of 38 quarter-years. On average, only 40% of Spanish-speaking clients received at least three medication follow-up visits within 180 days. In multivariate analyses, language access programming was not associated with receipt of at least two medication follow-up visits within 90 days or at least three visits within 180 days. This study found no evidence that language access programming led to increased rates of follow-up medication visits for clients with LEP.

  12. Language Image in National Minority Language Television Idents. TG4 (Teilifís na Gaeilge, Ireland and Whakaata Māori (Māori Television, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Lysaght

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Born of community and political action, Teilifis na Gaeilge (TG4 began in 1996, and Whakaata Māori/ Māori Television Service (MTS in 2004. Despite obvious differences between the two broadcasting environments, both stations attempt to reclaim a national (but minority language (Ó Ruairc 1996; Moring 2007 and compete with other broadcasters (Horrocks and Perry 2004 to attract an audience (Smith and Abel 2008 by an appeal to identity (Cormack 2000; 2007; Delap 2007. This paper investigates idents from TG4 and MTS. What image or brand have the language and culture in these mini-advertisements? Thornley’s (2004 discussion of “transculturation” is useful in examining the often inventive approach taken to elements of the dominant culture. Indeed, the motto ‘Súil eile’ [another perspective] is the criterion for many TG4 projects, and there is a clear awareness of multiple audiences in the MTS logline, ‘mā mātou, mā rātou, mā koutou, mā tātou’ [just for us, for them, for all of you, for all of us]. In the symbiotic relationship between a minority station and other larger stations in terms of the depiction/creation of local and national identity, language is used as another marketing tool. TG4 and MTS idents respond to and celebrate current sociolinguistic changes (Romaine 2006; Ó Tuathaigh 2008, making them visible.

  13. Language support for linguistic minority chronic hepatitis B/C patients: an exploratory study of availability and clinicians' perceptions of language barriers in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falla, Abby M; Veldhuijzen, Irene K; Ahmad, Amena A; Levi, Miriam; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2017-02-20

    Language support for linguistic minorities can improve patient safety, clinical outcomes and the quality of health care. Most chronic hepatitis B/C infections in Europe are detected among people born in endemic countries mostly in Africa, Asia and Central/Eastern Europe, groups that may experience language barriers when accessing health care services in their host countries. We investigated availability of interpreters and translated materials for linguistic minority hepatitis B/C patients. We also investigated clinicians' agreement that language barriers are explanations of three scenarios: the low screening uptake of hepatitis B/C screening, the lack of screening in primary care, and why cases do not reach specialist care. An online survey was developed, translated and sent to experts in five health care services involved in screening or treating viral hepatitis in six European countries: Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK). The five areas of health care were: general practice/family medicine, antenatal care, health care for asylum seekers, sexual health and specialist secondary care. We measured availability using a three-point ordinal scale ('very common', 'variable or not routine' and 'rarely or never'). We measured agreement using a five-point Likert scale. We received 238 responses (23% response rate, N = 1026) from representatives in each health care field in each country. Interpreters are common in the UK, the Netherlands and Spain but variable or rare in Germany, Hungary and Italy. Translated materials are rarely/never available in Hungary, Italy and Spain but commonly or variably available in the Netherlands, Germany and the UK. Differing levels of agreement that language barriers explain the three scenarios are seen across the countries. Professionals in countries with most infrequent availability (Hungary and Italy) disagree strongest that language barriers are explanations. Our findings show pronounced

  14. Healthcare and Social Services Providers Who Serve Sexual and Gender Minorities in a U.S.-Mexico Border City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, Oralia; Alvarez, Carlos R; Peralta-Torres, David

    2018-01-15

    Sexual and gender minorities, including lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals, experience barriers to healthcare as a result of stigma, discrimination, and poor cultural competence by healthcare and social services providers (HCSSP). The purpose of the study is to increase access to care and services for the LGBTQ community in a U.S.-Mexico border city by identifying LGBTQ-friendly HCSSP. A survey, developed based on concerns voiced in a predominantly Hispanic LGBTQ community, was administered to HCSSP and used to create a referral list, "The Purple Pages of El Paso" (PPoEP). Overall, 77 HCSSP have responded and 43 are included in the most recent version of the PPoEP. This model for developing a referral list of providers can be adapted in areas where LGBTQ communities face similar barriers to care and services. To be effective in reducing barriers to care, PPoEP must be updatable and sustainable.

  15. Challenging Minority Language Isolation: Translanguaging in a Trilingual School in the Basque Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonet, Oihana; Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2017-01-01

    Learning two or more languages at school is quite common all over Europe, but languages are often isolated from each other. This pedagogical practice is in contrast to the way multilingual speakers use their whole linguistic repertoire when communicating in social contexts. These multilingual solitudes are challenged when translanguaging…

  16. Integrating Technology into Minority Language Preservation and Teaching Efforts: An Inside Job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights a pilot study that attempts to implement technology in an appropriate manner and to surmount problems faced by out-group language researchers by training an in-group member, in this case a speaker of Navajo, in the methodology and technology necessary for recording and preserving her heritage language. Discusses the role of computer and…

  17. Public Views of Minority Languages as Communication or Symbol: The Case of Gaelic in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Lindsay; O'Hanlon, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Two social roles for language have been distinguished by Edwards--the communicative and the symbolic. Using data from a survey of public attitudes to Gaelic in Scotland, the article investigates the extent to which people's view of language may be characterised as relating to these roles. Respondents were grouped, using statistical cluster…

  18. The Politics of Language Policies: Hungarian Linguistic Minorities in Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.

    2015-01-01

    The paper will adopt the position that language is an intrinsic and largely non‑negotiable part of individual culture and identity. The recognition of one’s own language receives more and more support in international political and institutional frameworks. The promotion of linguistic diversity is

  19. Community health center provider and staff's Spanish language ability and cultural awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Arshiya A; Benitez, Amanda; Locklin, Cara A; Campbell, Amanda; Schaefer, Cynthia T; Heuer, Loretta J; Lee, Sang Mee; Solomon, Marla C; Quinn, Michael T; Burnet, Deborah L; Chin, Marshall H

    2014-05-01

    Many community health center providers and staff care for Latinos with diabetes, but their Spanish language ability and awareness of Latino culture are unknown. We surveyed 512 Midwestern health center providers and staff who managed Latino patients with diabetes. Few respondents had high Spanish language (13%) or cultural awareness scores (22%). Of respondents who self-reported 76-100% of their patients were Latino, 48% had moderate/low Spanish language and 49% had moderate/low cultural competency scores. Among these respondents, 3% lacked access to interpreters and 27% had neither received cultural competency training nor had access to training. Among all respondents, Spanish skills and Latino cultural awareness were low. Respondents who saw a significant number of Latinos had good access to interpretation services but not cultural competency training. Improved Spanish-language skills and increased access to cultural competency training and Latino cultural knowledge are needed to provide linguistically and culturally tailored care to Latino patients.

  20. Community Health Center Provider and Staff’s Spanish Language Ability and Cultural Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Arshiya A.; Benitez, Amanda; Locklin, Cara A.; Campbell, Amanda; Schaefer, Cynthia T.; Heuer, Loretta J.; Mee Lee, Sang; Solomon, Marla C.; Quinn, Michael T.; Burnet, Deborah L.; Chin, Marshall H.

    2014-01-01

    Many community health center providers and staff care for Latinos with diabetes, but their Spanish language ability and awareness of Latino culture are unknown. We surveyed 512 Midwestern health center providers and staff who managed Latino patients with diabetes. Few respondents had high Spanish language (13%) or cultural awareness scores (22%). Of respondents who self-reported 76–100% of their patients were Latino, 48% had moderate/low Spanish language and 49% had moderate/low cultural competency scores. Among these respondents, 3% lacked access to interpreters and 27% had neither received cultural competency training nor had access to training. Among all respondents, Spanish skills and Latino cultural awareness were low. Respondents who saw a significant number of Latinos had good access to interpretation services but not cultural competency training. Improved Spanish-language skills and increased access to cultural competency training and Latino cultural knowledge are needed to provide linguistically and culturally tailored care to Latino patients. PMID:24858866

  1. Utilization of Services Provided by Village-Based Ethnic Minority Midwives in Vietnam: Lessons From Implementation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Duong Thi Thuy; Mirzoev, Tolib; Nguyen, Canh Chuong; Bui, Ha Thi Thu

    Global progress in reducing maternal mortality requires improving access to maternal and child health services for the most vulnerable groups. This article reports results of implementation research that aimed to increase the acceptability of village-based ethnic minority midwives (EMMs) by local communities in Vietnam through implementing an integrated interventions package. The study was carried out in 2 provinces in Vietnam, Dien Bien and Kon Tum. A quasi-experimental survey with pretest/posttest design was adopted, which included 6 months of intervention implementation. The interventions package included introductory "launch" meetings, monthly review meetings at community health centers, and 5-day refresher training for EMMs. A mixed-methods approach was used involving both quantitative and qualitative data. A structured questionnaire was used in the pre- and posttest surveys, complemented by in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with EMMs, relatives of pregnant women, community representatives, and health managers. Introductions of EMMs to their local communities by local authorities and supervision of performance of EMMs contributed to significant increases in utilization of services provided by EMMs, from 58.6% to 87.7%. Key facilitators included information on how to contact EMMs, awareness of services provided by EMMs, and trust in services provided by EMMs. The main barriers to utilization of EMM services, which may affect sustainability of the EMM scheme, were low self-esteem of EMMs and small allowances to EMMs, which also affected the recognition of EMMs in the community. Providing continuous support and integration of EMMs within frontline service provision and ensuring adequate local budget for monthly allowances are the key factors that should allow sustainability of the EMM scheme and continued improvement of access to maternal and child health care among poor ethnic minority people living in mountainous areas in Vietnam.

  2. Advanced Course Enrollment and Performance in Washington State: Comparing Spanish-Speaking Students with Other Language Minority Students and English-Only Speakers. REL 2017-220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Havala; Bisht, Biraj; Motamedi, Jason Greenberg

    2017-01-01

    Students who take advanced courses in high school are more likely to enroll and persist in college. This report describes patterns in advanced coursetaking among three groups of students in Washington state: Spanish-speaking students, other language minority students whose primary or home language is not Spanish, and English-only speakers. This…

  3. Signalling L2 Centrality, Maintaining L1 Dominance: Teacher Language Choice in an Ethnic Minority Primary Classroom in the Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta-Segi, Angela Rose

    2011-01-01

    Although the Lao People's Democratic Republic has speakers of up to 230 different languages belonging to four ethnolinguistic families, the Lao Government's policy as stated in its Education Law is that Lao is the official language of education at all levels. This creates a challenging situation for teachers in ethnic minority villages throughout…

  4. Buprenorphine with bupivacaine for intraoral nerve blocks to provide postoperative analgesia in outpatients after minor oral surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Mancy; Rastogi, Sanjay; Kumar, Ashish

    2009-12-01

    The demonstration that opioid receptors exist in the peripheral nervous system offers the possibility of providing postoperative analgesia in the ambulatory surgical patient. Over the previous decade, many investigators have studied this approach and have compared the efficacy of various opioids added to the local anesthetic near the brachial plexus; and it appears from several of these studies that buprenorphine provides the longest duration of analgesia, the most important parameter of postoperative analgesia in outpatients. One of these studies indicated that the agonist-antagonist, buprenorphine, added to bupivacaine provided a longer period of postoperative analgesia than the traditional opiates, but none of the studies was performed in patients undergoing minor oral surgery to check the efficacy of buprenorphine to provide postoperative analgesia in dental patients. The present study was undertaken to ascertain the efficacy of buprenorphine in providing prolonged postoperative analgesia when added to 0.5% bupivacaine with epinephrine 1:200,000. Fifty healthy, consenting adult patients scheduled for upper extremity surgery were enrolled in the study. Patients were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 equal groups based on the agents used for the blocks. Patients in group I received 40 mL of a local anesthetic alone, and those in group II received the same local anesthetic plus buprenorphine 0.3 mg. The study was kept double-blind by having one dentist prepare the solutions, a second dentist perform the blocks, and a third dentist monitor the anesthesia and analgesia thereafter, up to and including the time of the first request for an analgesic medication. The data were reported as means +/- standard errors of the mean, and differences between groups were determined using t test. A P value less than .01 was considered statistically significant. The mean duration of postoperative pain relief after injection of the local anesthetic alone was 8.34 +/- 0.11 hours compared

  5. Linguistic and Cognitive Effects of Bilingualism with Regional Minority Languages: A Study of Sardinian–Italian Adult Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffa, Maria; Obregon, Mateo; Sorace, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the effects of bilingualism in Sardinian as a regional minority language on the linguistic competence in Italian as the dominant language and on non-linguistic cognitive abilities. Sardinian/Italian adult speakers and monolingual Italian speakers living in the same geographical area of Sardinia were compared in two kinds of tasks: (a) verbal and non-verbal cognitive tasks targeting working memory and attentional control and (b) tasks of linguistic abilities in Italian focused on the comprehension of sentences differing in grammatical complexity. Although no difference was found between bilinguals and monolinguals in the cognitive control of attention, bilinguals performed better on working memory tasks. Bilinguals with lower formal education were found to be faster at comprehension of one type of complex sentence (center embedded object relative clauses). In contrast, bilinguals and monolinguals with higher education showed comparable slower processing of complex sentences. These results show that the effects of bilingualism are modulated by type of language experience and education background: positive effects of active bilingualism on the dominant language are visible in bilinguals with lower education, whereas the effects of higher literacy in Italian obliterate those of active bilingualism in bilinguals and monolinguals with higher education. PMID:29163288

  6. Linguistic and Cognitive Effects of Bilingualism with Regional Minority Languages: A Study of Sardinian–Italian Adult Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Garraffa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effects of bilingualism in Sardinian as a regional minority language on the linguistic competence in Italian as the dominant language and on non-linguistic cognitive abilities. Sardinian/Italian adult speakers and monolingual Italian speakers living in the same geographical area of Sardinia were compared in two kinds of tasks: (a verbal and non-verbal cognitive tasks targeting working memory and attentional control and (b tasks of linguistic abilities in Italian focused on the comprehension of sentences differing in grammatical complexity. Although no difference was found between bilinguals and monolinguals in the cognitive control of attention, bilinguals performed better on working memory tasks. Bilinguals with lower formal education were found to be faster at comprehension of one type of complex sentence (center embedded object relative clauses. In contrast, bilinguals and monolinguals with higher education showed comparable slower processing of complex sentences. These results show that the effects of bilingualism are modulated by type of language experience and education background: positive effects of active bilingualism on the dominant language are visible in bilinguals with lower education, whereas the effects of higher literacy in Italian obliterate those of active bilingualism in bilinguals and monolinguals with higher education.

  7. Linguistic and Cognitive Effects of Bilingualism with Regional Minority Languages: A Study of Sardinian-Italian Adult Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffa, Maria; Obregon, Mateo; Sorace, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the effects of bilingualism in Sardinian as a regional minority language on the linguistic competence in Italian as the dominant language and on non-linguistic cognitive abilities. Sardinian/Italian adult speakers and monolingual Italian speakers living in the same geographical area of Sardinia were compared in two kinds of tasks: (a) verbal and non-verbal cognitive tasks targeting working memory and attentional control and (b) tasks of linguistic abilities in Italian focused on the comprehension of sentences differing in grammatical complexity. Although no difference was found between bilinguals and monolinguals in the cognitive control of attention, bilinguals performed better on working memory tasks. Bilinguals with lower formal education were found to be faster at comprehension of one type of complex sentence (center embedded object relative clauses). In contrast, bilinguals and monolinguals with higher education showed comparable slower processing of complex sentences. These results show that the effects of bilingualism are modulated by type of language experience and education background: positive effects of active bilingualism on the dominant language are visible in bilinguals with lower education, whereas the effects of higher literacy in Italian obliterate those of active bilingualism in bilinguals and monolinguals with higher education.

  8. Developmental trajectories of preschool early literacy skills: a comparison of language-minority and monolingual-English children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Farver, Joann M; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Eppe, Stefanie

    2013-10-01

    This study utilized latent growth-curve analyses to determine if the early literacy skills of children who were Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) followed a similar quantitative growth profile over a preschool year as that of a group of children from a comparable socioeconomic (SES) background but who were not LM. Participants, who ranged in age from 37 to 60 months (M = 50.73; SD = 5.04), included 540 Spanish-speaking LM and 408 non-LM children (47% girls) who were enrolled in 30 Head Start classrooms. Scores on a measure of oral language and measures of code-related skills (i.e., phonological awareness, print knowledge) were lower for LM children than for non-LM children. LM children experienced significantly faster growth in oral language skills than did non-LM children. Growth for print knowledge and blending was similar for LM and non-LM children, whereas LM children experienced slightly less growth than non-LM children on elision. The inclusion of child (i.e., initial language scores, age, nonverbal cognitive ability) and family (i.e., maternal/paternal education, 2-parent household, father employment) variables eliminated initial differences between LM and non-LM children on the code-related variables, and the effect was due primarily to children's initial oral language skills. These results indicate that the early risk for reading-related problems experienced by Spanish-speaking LM children is due both to low SES and to their LM status, and they highlight the critical need for the development, evaluation, and deployment of early instructional programs for LM children with limited English oral language proficiency.

  9. Uneven Profiles: Language Minority Learners' Word Reading, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed average word reading skills and below average comprehension skills, influenced by low oral language skills. Structural equation modeling confirmed that ...

  10. Interactive Whole Language E-Story for Early Literacy Development in Ethnic Minority Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadung, Muneeroh; Suksakulchai, Surachai; Kaewprapan, Wacheerapan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using an interactive e-story for early literacy instruction on word recognition, story comprehension and story application. The study was conducted in two classrooms in the southern border provinces of Thailand with ethnic minority children at the kindergarten level. The samples consisted of 60 children who…

  11. Young people of minority ethnic origin in England and early parenthood: views from young parents and service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, G M A; Mathers, N; Marsh, P; Kirkham, M; Owen, J M; Serrant-Green, L

    2006-08-01

    The paper explores the phenomenon of early parenthood in minority ethnic communities in England. The data were collected using focus group interviews, in-depth semi-structured interviews and a telephone survey. The sample consisted of 139 participants (41 service providers, 10 grandmothers, 88 young parents). The findings map out the complexity and diversity of experience of early parenthood amongst young people of minority ethnic origin, not least the multiple attachments many experience in relation to their social groups, religious affiliations and the traditional patterns of parenting within their immediate and extended family. Both the young parents and professionals in this study constructed early parenthood in more positive terms than is currently portrayed in the contemporary policy. The findings are analysed and discussed in relation to ethnic identity, social inclusion and exclusion. We explore participants' attempts to counter negative 'deficit' models of early parenthood with reference to perspectives on youth, parenthood and contemporary strategic policy. In conclusion, we suggest an unambiguous focus on the reduction of pregnancy is not a credible message when teenage pregnancy is a social norm for a particular ethnic or cultural group. For young parents of Muslim faith in particular, teenage parenting within marriage is not necessarily considered a 'problem' or seen as a distinctive event. Most participants did not view early parenthood as a barrier to re-establishing career and educational aspirations. A wide diversity of experience amongst young parents is evidenced in the communities studied; this needs to be reflected more comprehensively both in UK policy and in support services.

  12. Impacts of a Literacy-Focused Preschool Curriculum on the Early Literacy Skills of Language-Minority Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J; Farver, Jo Ann M

    Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) children are at an elevated risk of struggling academically and display signs of that risk during early childhood. Therefore, high-quality research is needed to identify instructional techniques that promote the school readiness of Spanish-speaking LM children. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that utilized an experimental curriculum and two professional development models for the development of English and Spanish early literacy skills among LM children. We also evaluated whether LM children's proficiency in one language moderated the effect of the intervention on early literacy skills in the other language, as well as whether the intervention was differentially effective for LM and monolingual English-speaking children. Five hundred twenty-six Spanish-speaking LM children and 447 monolingual English-speaking children enrolled in 26 preschool centers in Los Angeles, CA participated in this study. Results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving LM children's code-related but not language-related English early literacy skills. There were no effects of the intervention on children's Spanish early literacy skills. Proficiency in Spanish did not moderate the effect of the intervention for any English early literacy outcomes; however, proficiency in English significantly moderated the effect of the intervention for Spanish oral language skills, such that the effect of the intervention was stronger for children with higher proficiency in English than it was for children with lower proficiency in English. In general, there were not differential effects of the intervention for LM and monolingual children. Taken together, these findings indicate that high-quality, evidence-based instruction can improve the early literacy skills of LM children and that the same instructional techniques are effective for enhancing the early literacy skills of LM and monolingual

  13. (Parenting Curriculum for Language Minority Parents: Bilingual Guide English-Khmer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Grace D.

    This bilingual guide for Khmer-speaking parents presents parenting information to supplement a course in English as a Second Language. It focuses on topics parents must deal with in meeting the needs of their children. Vocabulary and practice drills are presented for activities in the following areas: (1) education and dealing with the school…

  14. Assimilation or Pluralism? Changing Policies for Minority Languages Education in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolicz, Jerzy J.; Secombe, Margaret J.

    2003-01-01

    Traces the effects on Australian language policy of a changing sociolinguistic situation--increasing multilingualism--and a weakening of a monolingual ideology. Analyzes the country' s emergence from an assimilationist past to its embracement of a more multicultural approach with special reference to young Cambodian-Australian's educational…

  15. Uneven Profiles: Language Minority Learners' Word Reading, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed…

  16. Bicultural Orientation and Chinese Language Learning among South Asian Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Gao, Fang; Wang, Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the value of monocultural acculturation orientation to the host culture (assimilation) and bicultural acculturation orientation (integration) for language learning is critical in guiding educational policy and practices for immigrant students. This study aimed to enhance our understanding on the relationship between acculturation…

  17. Methodological Approaches and Principles of Foreign Language Teachers’ Training to Provide Schoolchildren with Ethnic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botakoz A. Zhekibaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents description of the main methodological approaches and principles of foreign language teachers’ training to provide schoolchildren with ethic education, including: person-centered, ethno-cultural, didactic, ethno-pedagogical, system, pragmatic approaches and principles of cultural conformity, dialectical unity of universal and national-ethnic, dialogue and cultural interaction. This analysis of methodological approaches and principles allowed us to define the content of foreign language teachers’ training to provide schoolchildren with ethic education, including combination of ethnic education knowledge, skills, its essence and features and to identify the forms, methods and means of teaching, enabling to train the foreign language teachers this branch of activity in the shortest time

  18. Physicians' and nurses' experiences of the influence of race and ethnicity on the quality of healthcare provided to minority patients, and on their own professional careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Patrik; Jones, Deborah E; Watkins, Crystal C; Haisfield-Wolfe, Mary Ellen; Gaston-Johansson, Fannie

    2011-07-01

    This qualitative content analysis examines data from African-American and Hispanic physician and nurse focus groups conducted by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Participants discussed the influence of race and ethnicity regarding perspectives on healthcare provided to ethnic minority patients, and on the professional careers of ethnic minority physicians and nurses. A majority of responses related to Racism and Prejudice, which affected ethnic minority patients and health-care providers at three levels (health-care system to patient, provider to patient, and provider to provider). Racism and Prejudice interfered with promotions, obtaining hospital privileges, and advancement in careers. Communication and Culture was important among patients who preferred racially concordant care providers. Role Modeling was found to be important as participants entered and matured in their professional careers. Findings provide compelling evidence that racism and prejudice are shared experiences between ethnic minority physicians and nurses throughout their careers. One concerning finding was that perceived prejudice materialized at the onset of medical and nursing education and remained a predominant theme throughout the professionals' careers. Research should be directed towards providing equity in care and on the careers of ethnic minority health-care professionals.

  19. Predictors and Consequences of Negative Patient-Provider Interactions Among a Sample of African American Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chien-Ching; Matthews, Alicia K; Aranda, Frances; Patel, Chirag; Patel, Maharshi

    2015-06-01

    Using Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization, we examined the associations between negative experience in a health care setting and subsequent reductions in health care utilization among African American sexual minority women (SMW). The data were collected as part of a larger study exploring health and health care experiences of a volunteer sample of African American SMW (n=226). We examined predisposing, enabling, and need factors as predictors of a negative experience and changes in health care utilization. More than one-third of the sample reported a negative health care experience in the past 5-years. One fourth of those reporting a negative experience attributed it to discrimination including race/ethnicity (70.4%), gender (58.2%), and sexual orientation (46.2%). (The categories were not mutually exclusive). Reduction in health care utilization (i.e., didn't see a doctor next time when they were ill) following the negative experience was common (34%). Predisposing (younger age), enabling (lack of insurance, part-time employment, and no regular provider), and need factors (living with a chronic illness) predicted experiencing a negative event. In multivariate analysis, health care factors (quality of health care, negative experience due to discrimination) and patient factors (passive coping response) were factors associated with reduced health care utilization. Problems in the patient-provider relationship were a significant factor in decreasing healthcare use among SMW. Anderson's model helped to inform our understanding of who might be at risk of experiencing a negative experience but not subsequent changes in health care utilization. Modifiable variables related to the health care environment and patient coping responses predicted changes in health care use.

  20. 29 CFR 37.35 - What are a recipient's responsibilities to provide services and information in languages other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and information in languages other than English? 37.35 Section 37.35 Labor Office of the Secretary of... Communication § 37.35 What are a recipient's responsibilities to provide services and information in languages... services or information in a language other than English in order to be effectively informed about, or able...

  1. Language facilitates event memory in early childhood: Child comprehension, adult-provided linguistic support and delayed recall at 16 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F; Phung, Janice N; Milojevich, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    Adult-provided supportive language facilitates memory for the past in preverbal and verbal children. Work conducted with 18-month-olds indicates that children benefit from supportive adult language when tested after a 4-week delay but not when tested immediately after sequence demonstration; moreover, findings reveal that supportive language provided only at test may be more facilitative of recall after a delay relative to supportive language provided only at encoding. In the present study, we examined whether child language comprehension abilities moderated the extent to which preverbal children benefitted from supportive language provided at encoding and test. The findings indicated that child language comprehension and supportive language provided at encoding were unassociated with performance at baseline or immediate imitation; however, the moderating effect of child language comprehension on adult-provided supportive language at encoding and test was observed after a 1-week delay. Correlations revealed continuous associations between general comprehension scores and recall performance after the 1-week delay on sequences presented in the most supportive condition at encoding. Taken together, the presented findings reveal that the complex interplay between language and cognition is established in early childhood, with foundational relations emerging before children are capable of verbally reporting on the past.

  2. Reading Comprehension Level and Development in Native and Language Minority Adolescent Low Achievers: Roles of Linguistic and Metacognitive Knowledge and Fluency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Trapman; Dr. A.J.S. van Gelderen; J. Hulstijn; Dr E.J. van Schooten

    2016-01-01

    In a longitudinal design, we measured 50 low-achieving adolescents’ reading comprehension development from Grades 7 to 9. There were 24 native Dutch and 26 language minority students. In addition, we assessed the roles of (a) linguistic knowledge, (b) metacognitive knowledge, and (c) reading fluency

  3. Absence of National Culture in Foreign Language Teaching and Intercultural Communication Competence Training of College Students in China Frontier Minority Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jinan

    2015-01-01

    The absence of Chinese culture in foreign language teaching has a strong impact on the exchange between different cultures, and is also an obstacle to intercultural communication competence training. In general, English teaching level in China frontier minority areas is far behind that in developed areas, and shows its own teaching and cultural…

  4. Reading Comprehension Level and Development in Native and Language Minority Adolescent Low Achievers: Roles of Linguistic and Metacognitive Knowledge and Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapman, Mirjam; van Gelderen, Amos; van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In a longitudinal design, we measured 50 low-achieving adolescents' reading comprehension development from Grades 7 to 9. There were 24 native Dutch and 26 language minority students. In addition, we assessed the roles of (a) linguistic knowledge, (b) metacognitive knowledge, and (c) reading fluency in predicting both the level and growth of…

  5. A framework to identify the costs of providing language interpretation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchfield, Bonnie B; Gazelle, G Scott; Khaliif, Mursal; Arocha, Izabel S; Hacker, Karen

    2011-05-01

    The availability of language services for patients with limited English proficiency has become a standard of care in the United States. Finding the resources to pay for language programs is challenging for providers, payers, and policymakers. There is no federal payment policy and states are developing policies using different methodologies for determining costs and reimbursement rates. This paper establishes a conceptual framework that identifies program costs, can be used across health care entities, and can be understood by administrators, researchers, and policymakers to guide research and analysis and establish a common ground for informed strategic discussion of payment and reimbursement policy. Using case study methods, a framework was established to identify costs and included determining the perspective of the cost analysis as well as distinguishing between the financial accounting costs (direct, indirect, and overhead costs) and the economic opportunity and subsequent utilization costs.

  6. Providing high-quality care for limited English proficient patients: the importance of language concordance and interpreter use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Sorkin, Dara H; Phillips, Russell S; Greenfield, Sheldon; Massagli, Michael P; Clarridge, Brian; Kaplan, Sherrie H

    2007-11-01

    Provider-patient language discordance is related to worse quality care for limited English proficient (LEP) patients who speak Spanish. However, little is known about language barriers among LEP Asian-American patients. We examined the effects of language discordance on the degree of health education and the quality of interpersonal care that patients received, and examined its effect on patient satisfaction. We also evaluated how the presence/absence of a clinic interpreter affected these outcomes. Cross-sectional survey, response rate 74%. A total of 2,746 Chinese and Vietnamese patients receiving care at 11 health centers in 8 cities. Provider-patient language concordance, health education received, quality of interpersonal care, patient ratings of providers, and the presence/absence of a clinic interpreter. Regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounding. Patients with language-discordant providers reported receiving less health education (beta = 0.17, p interpreter. Patients with language-discordant providers also reported worse interpersonal care (beta = 0.28, p interpreter did not mitigate these effects and in fact exacerbated disparities in patients' perceptions of their providers. Language barriers are associated with less health education, worse interpersonal care, and lower patient satisfaction. Having access to a clinic interpreter can facilitate the transmission of health education. However, in terms of patients' ratings of their providers and the quality of interpersonal care, having an interpreter present does not serve as a substitute for language concordance between patient and provider.

  7. Predicting ethnic minority children's vocabulary from socioeconomic status, maternal language and home reading input: different pathways for host and ethnic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevoo, Mariëlle J L; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; Emmen, Rosanneke A G; Yeniad, Nihal; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Linting, Mariëlle

    2014-09-01

    When bilingual children enter formal reading education, host language proficiency becomes increasingly important. This study investigated the relation between socioeconomic status (SES), maternal language use, reading input, and vocabulary in a sample of 111 six-year-old children of first- and second-generation Turkish immigrant parents in the Netherlands. Mothers reported on their language use with the child, frequency of reading by both parents, and availability of children's books in the ethnic and the host language. Children's Dutch and Turkish vocabulary were tested during a home visit. SES was related to maternal language use and to host language reading input. Reading input mediated the relation between SES and host language vocabulary and between maternal language use and host language vocabulary, whereas only maternal language use was related to ethnic language vocabulary. During transition to formal reading education, one should be aware that children from low-SES families receive less host language reading input.

  8. Visual and Computational Modelling of Minority Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertas Damaševičius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the Minority Game and focuses on analysis and computational modelling of several variants (variable payoff, coalition-based and ternary voting of Minority Game using UAREI (User-Action-Rule-Entities-Interface model. UAREI is a model for formal specification of software gamification, and the UAREI visual modelling language is a language used for graphical representation of game mechanics. The URAEI model also provides the embedded executable modelling framework to evaluate how the rules of the game will work for the players in practice. We demonstrate flexibility of UAREI model for modelling different variants of Minority Game rules for game design.

  9. Detecting Genetic Isolation in Human Populations: A Study of European Language Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capocasa, Marco; Battaggia, Cinzia; Anagnostou, Paolo; Montinaro, Francesco; Boschi, Ilaria; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Coia, Valentina; Crivellaro, Federica; Bisol, Giovanni Destro

    2013-01-01

    The identification of isolation signatures is fundamental to better understand the genetic structure of human populations and to test the relations between cultural factors and genetic variation. However, with current approaches, it is not possible to distinguish between the consequences of long-term isolation and the effects of reduced sample size, selection and differential gene flow. To overcome these limitations, we have integrated the analysis of classical genetic diversity measures with a Bayesian method to estimate gene flow and have carried out simulations based on the coalescent. Combining these approaches, we first tested whether the relatively short history of cultural and geographical isolation of four “linguistic islands” of the Eastern Alps (Lessinia, Sauris, Sappada and Timau) had left detectable signatures in their genetic structure. We then compared our findings to previous studies of European population isolates. Finally, we explored the importance of demographic and cultural factors in shaping genetic diversity among the groups under study. A combination of small initial effective size and continued genetic isolation from surrounding populations seems to provide a coherent explanation for the diversity observed among Sauris, Sappada and Timau, which was found to be substantially greater than in other groups of European isolated populations. Simulations of micro-evolutionary scenarios indicate that ethnicity might have been important in increasing genetic diversity among these culturally related and spatially close populations. PMID:23418562

  10. Inclusion of Ethnic Minorities in Telehealth Trials for Type 2 Diabetes: Protocol for a Systematic Review Examining Prevalence and Language Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Louisa; Rooshenas, Leila; Isaacs, Talia

    2016-03-11

    Type 2 diabetes is common, on the rise, and disproportionately affects ethnic minority groups. Telehealth interventions may mitigate diabetes-related complications, but might under-recruit or even exclude ethnic minorities, in part because of English language requirements. The under-representation of minority patients in trials could threaten the generalizability of the findings, whereby the patients who might stand to benefit most from such interventions are not being included in their evaluation. The aims of this systematic review are twofold: (1) to assess the reporting and prevalence of ethnic minorities in published telehealth trials for type 2 diabetes, including identifying trial features associated with successful patient recruitment; and (2) to determine the proportion of such trials that report English language proficiency as an inclusion/exclusion criterion, including how and why they do so. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adults with type 2 diabetes in Western, English-speaking countries that included telehealth interventions targeting diabetes as a primary condition, and those that did not specifically recruit minority groups will be included. Search strategies were devised for indexed and keyword terms capturing type 2 diabetes, telehealth/health technology, and RCTs in English language publications from 2000 to July 2015 in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, and CENTRAL. Reference lists of included studies will also be searched. Two reviewers will independently screen abstracts and full-text articles against inclusion criteria, mediated by a third reviewer if consensus cannot be reached. Data extracted from included studies will be checked by a second reviewer and will be summarized using narrative synthesis. This research is in progress, with findings expected by Spring 2016. This review will address research reporting and recruitment practices of ethnic minorities in telehealth RCTs for type 2 diabetes. Prevalence estimates will elucidate

  11. Dyslexia in a second language?-a dynamic test of reading acquisition may provide a fair answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbro, Carsten; Daugaard, Hanne Trebbien; Gellert, Anna S

    2012-10-01

    Dyslexia is hard to diagnose in a second language. Poor performance on a test of reading may be caused by poor language proficiency in the second language or by limited schooling rather than by poor reading ability per se. This confound was supported in a study of 88 adult second language learners and 65 native language speakers. The incidence of dyslexia in the second language learners varied widely depending on the measure of reading. In order to reduce language and schooling confounds, a dynamic test of acquisition of basic decoding ability was developed. In the dynamic test, participants are taught three novel letters and to synthesise the letter sounds into new words. Results from the study indicated that the dynamic test provided results in accordance with the current IDA definition of dyslexia, while significantly reducing the influence second language vocabulary and amount of schooling. With the dynamic measure, the same cut-off point between dyslexic and non-dyslexic performance appeared valid in both native language speakers and second language learners.

  12. Minority Languages of the Russian Federation: Perspectives for a Ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages. Mercator Working Papers = Las lenguas minoritarias de la Federacion Rusa Perspectivas para una ratificacion de la Carta Europea de las Lenguas Regionales y Minoritarias. Mercator Documentos de trabajo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieytez, Eduardo J. Ruiz

    This paper describes the linguistic plurality of the Russian Federation, assessing the impact that the hypothetical ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages could have on it. Four sections focus on the following: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Part 1--The Linguistic Plurality of the Russian Federation":…

  13. Improving health care quality for racial/ethnic minorities: a systematic review of the best evidence regarding provider and organization interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarth Carole

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite awareness of inequities in health care quality, little is known about strategies that could improve the quality of healthcare for ethnic minority populations. We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis to synthesize the findings of controlled studies evaluating interventions targeted at health care providers to improve health care quality or reduce disparities in care for racial/ethnic minorities. Methods We performed electronic and hand searches from 1980 through June 2003 to identify randomized controlled trials or concurrent controlled trials. Reviewers abstracted data from studies to determine study characteristics, results, and quality. We graded the strength of the evidence as excellent, good, fair or poor using predetermined criteria. The main outcome measures were evidence of effectiveness and cost of strategies to improve health care quality or reduce disparities in care for racial/ethnic minorities. Results Twenty-seven studies met criteria for review. Almost all (n = 26 took place in the primary care setting, and most (n = 19 focused on improving provision of preventive services. Only two studies were designed specifically to meet the needs of racial/ethnic minority patients. All 10 studies that used a provider reminder system for provision of standardized services (mostly preventive reported favorable outcomes. The following quality improvement strategies demonstrated favorable results but were used in a small number of studies: bypassing the physician to offer preventive services directly to patients (2 of 2 studies favorable, provider education alone (2 of 2 studies favorable, use of a structured questionnaire to assess adolescent health behaviors (1 of 1 study favorable, and use of remote simultaneous translation (1 of 1 study favorable. Interventions employing more than one main strategy were used in 9 studies with inconsistent results. There were limited data on the costs of these

  14. Influence of Native Language Vocabulary and Topic Knowledge on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning in Health Care Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Foresee Drumhiller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults attending short, language for specific purpose courses may have expertise not utilized in general foreign language courses. The present study investigates two factors that may influence the acquisition of medical Spanish vocabulary in such persons: native English vocabulary size and topic knowledge. Forty-four health care workers attended 12 hr of medical Spanish instruction. Prior to instruction, the Nelson–Denny Vocabulary Test, a Medical Spanish vocabulary test, and an English Medical Terminology Test (an indicator of topic knowledge were administered. The Medical Spanish Vocabulary Test was readministered at posttest. Individually, both English medical terminology knowledge and English vocabulary size were significant predictors of medical Spanish vocabulary acquisition, but English medical terminology knowledge explained most of the variance in medical Spanish vocabulary acquisition. The results are discussed in terms of the impact of expert memory organization on the ability to learn new labels in a second language. A curricular shift toward content-centered vocabulary in language for specific purpose courses may be advantageous for some groups of foreign language learners.

  15. The Development of English Grammar and Reading Comprehension by Majority and Minority Language Children in a Bilingual Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlen, Anja K.

    2017-01-01

    Both for the first language (L1) and for all additional languages (L2 or L3), grammatical knowledge plays a vital role in understanding texts (e.g., Grabe, 2005). However, little is known about the development and interaction of grammar and reading comprehension in beginning foreign language learning, especially with respect to children with a…

  16. Language Use in the Context of Double Minority: The Case of Japanese-Catalan/Spanish Families in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Makiko

    2017-01-01

    This study explores language use in Japanese-Catalan/Spanish families in Catalonia with a special attention to Japanese. In a community such as Catalonia wherein two languages of different status are in conflict within its own territory, the ability of families to maintain a socially "weaker" language and transmit yet another language…

  17. Providing a parent-implemented language intervention to a young male with fragile X syndrome: brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Ashley; Ma, Monica; McDuffie, Andrea; Machalicek, Wendy; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2015-02-01

    Although fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability, there are no published intervention studies focused on improving communication and language outcomes for affected children. The current study utilized a collaborative coaching approach incorporating strategies from speech-language pathology and applied behavior analysis to examine the efficacy of a naturalistic parent-implemented language intervention for a young boy with FXS. The mother was taught the language and behavioral support strategies and submitted weekly video recordings of a caregiving routine. Written feedback was provided. Results indicated moderate increases in maternal use of targeted language support strategies and variable performance in maternal use of behavior support strategies. Child use of appropriate requests increased while challenging behaviors decreased. This collaborative approach model should be used to guide future larger scale replications and develop new intervention models.

  18. Providing Graduated Corrective Feedback in an Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Haiyang

    2017-01-01

    Corrective feedback (CF), a response to linguistic errors made by second language (L2) learners, has received extensive scholarly attention in second language acquisition. While much of the previous research in the field has focused on whether CF facilitates or impedes L2 development, few studies have examined the efficacy of gradually modifying…

  19. Imitating Podcasts by Providing Audio Content to Support and Enhance Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simon; Toland, Sean H.

    2015-01-01

    The provision of supplemental educational and instructional content in podcast form is becoming increasingly widespread in first language education. However, amongst second language students in Japan the lack of literature illustrates podcast use has been limited. Imitating podcasts, educational and instructional materials in audio form were…

  20. Low income parents' reports of communication problems with health care providers: effects of language and insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Kenney, Genevieve

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how parental reports of communication problems with health providers vary over a wider range of characteristics of low income children than considered in previous studies. Data were drawn from the 1999 and 2002 National Survey of America's Families. Communication problems, insurance type, socioeconomic characteristics, health factors, and provider type were examined. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate techniques. Bivariate analysis identified that the parents of 24.4% of low income children and 36.4% of publicly covered low income children with a Spanish interview reported poor communication with health providers. Coefficients from regression analysis suggest that, controlling for covariates, foreign-born parents with a Spanish interview were 11.8 percentage points (pcommunication problems than U.S.-born parents with an English interview. Among low income publicly covered children with a Spanish interview, regression analysis suggests that parents of children who used clinics or hospital outpatient departments as their usual source of care were 9.5 percentage points (pcommunication problems compared with those whose usual source of care was a doctor's or HMO office. Implementing policies to improve communication barriers for low income children, particularly those with foreign-born parents whose native language is not English, may be necessary to reduce health disparities relative to higher income children across a variety of health domains including utilization, satisfaction, and outcomes. Focusing attention on the availability of professional translation services in clinics or hospital outpatient departments may be a cost-effective strategy for reducing communication problems for publicly insured children.

  1. THE POLISH BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT FOR LANGUAGE SERVICE PROVIDERS IN VIEW OF THE PORTER’S FIVE FORCES MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    After the Polish accession to the European Union in 2004, language services have considerably grown in importance. Intensive contacts with foreign companies and institutions coupled with information technology developments have increased the role of English as a linguistic medium of international cooperation. The overall aim of this paper is to examine the Polish business environment for Language Service Providers (LSPs) offering specialized English courses and translation services (EN-PL and...

  2. AUSTRALIA AND CATALONIA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE PROTECTION OF MINORITY LANGUAGES FROM A LEGAL STANDPOINT. EDUCATION IN THE MOTHER TONGUE. IS THE LANGUAGE A FACTOR OF INTEGRATION OR A BARRIER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Vacca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a comparative study of the education system in minority languages between Catalonia and Australia from a legal standpoint. Catalonia has a complex legislation: National Constitution, Statute of Autonomy, Regional Laws, a strong legal framework, a language always alive as a political instrument to get the power. Australia has not a legal framework in this area and has a confused planning system. In Europe, the Council of Europe has been in charge of the protection of human rights. Australia signed and ratified some International Conventions which are not a strong legal basis to claim an education system in aborigines’ languages. The Catalan Law on Linguistic Normalization n. 7 of 1983, replaced by the Law on Linguistic Policy n. 1 of 1998, has, among the other purposes, also that to stimulate the use of Catalan as language of education in all levels of teaching. The school has a fundamental importance for the transmission of the culture of minorities. If the educational systems didn’t have any regime of teaching in the mother tongue all policies are not efficient.

  3. An Exploration of Specialist Palliative Care Nurses’ Experiences of Providing Care to Hospice Inpatients from Minority Ethnic Groups—Implication for Religious and Spiritual Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Henry

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research study was to gain an understanding of nurses’ experiences of providing care to patients from minority ethnic groups within the specialist palliative care inpatient unit of an Irish hospice. Five nurses working in a hospice inpatient unit with experience in providing care to patients from minority ethnic groups were interviewed using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Analysis of the data resulted in the emergence of two distinct constructs, “encountering a landscape of diversity” and “negotiating this landscape”, each one comprising three themes. Findings relating to religion and supporting patients’ religious needs were dominant in four of the six emergent themes—death and dying, acceptance, feeling their way, and being resourceful. The findings presented in this paper highlight the personal and professional challenges facing nurses when providing care in the context of religious diversity. In addition, participants’ descriptions of their endeavours to negotiate the challenges in the context of these differences are identified. By applying these findings in practice, healthcare professionals hold the potential to positively impact the quality-of-life of patients, their families, and their experiences of hospice care in Ireland.

  4. A Methodology, a Language, and a Tool to Provide Information Security Assurance Arguments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Joon

    2002-01-01

    .... To design a system that can be trusted or assess security properties in a system, the related assurance arguments need to be developed and described effectively in a well-organized format by means of a sound language...

  5. Predicting Ethnic Minority Children's Vocabulary from Socioeconomic Status, Maternal Language and Home Reading Input: Different Pathways for Host and Ethnic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevoo, Mariëlle J. L.; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; Emmen, Rosanneke A. G.; Yeniad, Nihal; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus; Linting, Mariëlle

    2014-01-01

    When bilingual children enter formal reading education, host language proficiency becomes increasingly important. This study investigated the relation between socioeconomic status (SES), maternal language use, reading input, and vocabulary in a sample of 111 six-year-old children of first- and second-generation Turkish immigrant parents in the…

  6. Developmental trends in auditory processing can provide early predictions of language acquisition in young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Tardif, Twila; Mai, Xiaoqin; Xu, Lin; Li, Mingyan; Kaciroti, Niko; Kileny, Paul R; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy

    2013-03-01

    Auditory processing capabilities at the subcortical level have been hypothesized to impact an individual's development of both language and reading abilities. The present study examined whether auditory processing capabilities relate to language development in healthy 9-month-old infants. Participants were 71 infants (31 boys and 40 girls) with both Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and language assessments. At 6 weeks and/or 9 months of age, the infants underwent ABR testing using both a standard hearing screening protocol with 30 dB clicks and a second protocol using click pairs separated by 8, 16, and 64-ms intervals presented at 80 dB. We evaluated the effects of interval duration on ABR latency and amplitude elicited by the second click. At 9 months, language development was assessed via parent report on the Chinese Communicative Development Inventory - Putonghua version (CCDI-P). Wave V latency z-scores of the 64-ms condition at 6 weeks showed strong direct relationships with Wave V latency in the same condition at 9 months. More importantly, shorter Wave V latencies at 9 months showed strong relationships with the CCDI-P composite consisting of phrases understood, gestures, and words produced. Likewise, infants who had greater decreases in Wave V latencies from 6 weeks to 9 months had higher CCDI-P composite scores. Females had higher language development scores and shorter Wave V latencies at both ages than males. Interestingly, when the ABR Wave V latencies at both ages were taken into account, the direct effects of gender on language disappeared. In conclusion, these results support the importance of low-level auditory processing capabilities for early language acquisition in a population of typically developing young infants. Moreover, the auditory brainstem response in this paradigm shows promise as an electrophysiological marker to predict individual differences in language development in young children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Language (In)competency, Communication Strategies, and the Development of an International Academic Teacher Identity: Becoming an Audible Minority

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllum, Kirstie

    2017-01-01

    Despite universities' enthusiasm for internationalization, international academic mobility requires considerable institutional and cultural adjustment in terms of teaching and supervision styles, research expectations, and departmental relationships. Although language competency underpins these practices, research on international academics has…

  8. Language support for linguistic minority chronic hepatitis B/C patients: an exploratory study of availability and clinicians’ perceptions of language barriers in six European countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Falla, Abby M; Veldhuijzen, Irene K; Ahmad, Amena A; Levi, Miriam; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    .... Most chronic hepatitis B/C infections in Europe are detected among people born in endemic countries mostly in Africa, Asia and Central/Eastern Europe, groups that may experience language barriers...

  9. Who has the worst attitudes toward sexual minorities? Comparison of transphobia and homophobia levels in gender dysphoric individuals, the general population and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A D; Castellini, G; Ristori, J; Casale, H; Giovanardi, G; Carone, N; Fanni, E; Mosconi, M; Ciocca, G; Jannini, E A; Ricca, V; Lingiardi, V; Maggi, M

    2017-03-01

    To date, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, little is known about health care providers' (HCP) attitudes toward sexual minorities. The aim of the present study is to compare attitudes toward homosexual and transgender individuals between gender dysphoric individuals (GDs), general population controls (C) and HCP. A total of 310 subjects were considered, including 122 GDs (63 transwomen and 59 transmen), 53 heterosexual HCP (26 males and 27 females) and 135 C. Participants completed the Modern Homophobia Scale (MHS) and the Attitudes Toward Transgendered Individuals Scale (ATTI) in order to assess attitudes toward gay men and lesbian women and toward transgender individuals, respectively. In addition, GDs completed the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire (GIDYQ-AA) and ATTI to measure, respectively, gender dysphoria levels and internalized transphobia. Religious attitudes were evaluated by means of the Religious Fundamentalism Scale (RFS), and Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12) was used to measure perceived discrimination. (1) Men showed significantly higher levels of homophobia and transphobia when compared to women (p homophobia and transphobia (both p < 0.001). Our results underline the need to promote awareness and acceptance of the sexual minorities, who are more at risk of discriminatory attitudes, which are strongly dependent on religious precepts and dogma.

  10. Researching the acceptability of using Skype to provide Speech and Language Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Rebecca Alison; Woll, Bencie; Clarke, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In the current economic climate, whilst the demand for health services, including Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) continues to rise, there is pressure to reduce health service budgets, Tele-technology—the use of tele-communication technology to link patient and clinician remotely—could potentially provide a solution to meeting the demand for SLT with reduced resources. However, only a few SLT services in the United Kingdom (UK) have reported on using tele-technology to provide their service (Howell, Tripoliti and Pring, 2009; Styles, 2008; McCullough, 2001; Katsavarus, 2001). In 2002 the American Speech and Hearing Association (ASHA) surveyed its members on their experience and views of using tele-technology and specifically video-conferencing to provide an SLT service. The analysis of the responses identified five areas of concern—lack of professional guidelines, limited evidence of clinical efficacy, disruption and problems managing the technology, change in the interaction and loss of rapport as well as anticipated, additional costs to provide the service. The study reported here set up an SLT service using the desktop videoconferencing system, Skype, in an independent SLT practice based in the UK. Data were collected to evaluate the acceptability of the clinical sessions, the technology, the quality of interaction and costs of an SLT service using Skype. Eleven participants aged between 7 and 14 years with varying therapy needs took part. Each received a mix of face-to-face (F2F) and Skype SLT over the ten session trial period. Data were collected for every session using a report card; adults supporting the children were asked for their views using a questionnaire at the beginning and end of the trial; the child participants were interviewed after the trial period was over; one F2F and one Skype session was video recorded for each participant; work activity was recorded along with identifiable costs of F2F and Skype SLT sessions. A total of 110 session

  11. ELLIPS: providing web-based language learning for Higher Education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corda, A.; Jager, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the overall considerations and pedagogical approach which were at the basis of the development of an innovative web-based CALL application, Ellips (Electronic Language Learning Interactive Practising System). It describes the program’s most salient features, illustrating in

  12. Developmental links of very early phonological and language skills to second grade reading outcomes: strong to accuracy but only minor to fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puolakanaho, Anne; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Eklund, Kenneth; Leppänen, Paavo H T; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Tolvanen, Asko; Torppa, Minna; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined second grade reading accuracy and fluency and their associations via letter knowledge to phonological and language predictors assessed at 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 years in children in the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia. Structural equation modeling showed that a developmentally highly stable factor (early phonological and language processing [EPLP]) behind key dyslexia predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, short-term memory, rapid naming, vocabulary, and pseudoword repetition) could already be identified at 3.5 years. EPLP was significantly associated with reading and spelling accuracy and by age with letter knowledge. However, EPLP had only a minor link with reading fluency, which was additionally explained by early letter knowledge. The results show that reading accuracy is well predicted by early phonological and language skills. Variation in fluent reading skills is not well explained by early skills, suggesting factors other than phonological core skills. Future research is suggested to explore the factors behind the development of fast and accurate decoding skills.

  13. Importance of quality aspects of GP care among ethnic minorities: role of cultural attitudes, language and healthcare system of reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamkaddem, M.; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.; Devillé, W.L.; Foets, M.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This study examines the mechanisms responsible for ethnic differences in perceived quality of care in the Netherlands. The specific role of cultural attitudes, language proficiency, and the health system in the country of origin was examined, taking socio-demographic characteristics into

  14. Importance of quality aspects of GP care among ethnic minorities: role of cultural attitudes, language and healthcare system of reference.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamkaddem, M.; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.; Devillé, W.L.; Foets, M.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This study examines the mechanisms responsible for ethnic differences in perceived quality of care in the Netherlands. The specific role of cultural attitudes, language proficiency, and the health system in the country of origin was examined, taking socio-demographic characteristics into

  15. Minority language, ethnicity and the state in two African situations : the Nkoya and the Kalanga of Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Fardon, R.; Furniss, G.

    1994-01-01

    The chapters in this collection record a workshop held at the School of Oriental and African Studies, in April 1991, on African languages, development and the State. The book is divided into an introductory chapter, by Richard Fardon and Graham Furniss, and three parts. Part 1, West Africa, contains

  16. New graduates’ perceptions of preparedness to provide speech-language therapy services in general and dysphagia services in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shajila Singh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upon graduation, newly qualified speech-language therapists are expected to provide services independently. This study describes new graduates’ perceptions of their preparedness to provide services across the scope of the profession and explores associations between perceptions of dysphagia theory and clinical learning curricula with preparedness for adult and paediatric dysphagia service delivery.Methods: New graduates of six South African universities were recruited to participate in a survey by completing an electronic questionnaire exploring their perceptions of the dysphagia curricula and their preparedness to practise across the scope of the profession of speechlanguage therapy. Results: Eighty graduates participated in the study yielding a response rate of 63.49%. Participants perceived themselves to be well prepared in some areas (e.g. child language: 100%; articulation and phonology: 97.26%, but less prepared in other areas (e.g. adult dysphagia: 50.70%; paediatric dysarthria: 46.58%; paediatric dysphagia: 38.36% and most unprepared to provide services requiring sign language (23.61% and African languages (20.55%. There was a significant relationship between perceptions of adequate theory and clinical learning opportunities with assessment and management of dysphagia and perceptions of preparedness to provide dysphagia services. Conclusion: There is a need for review of existing curricula and consideration of developing a standard speech-language therapy curriculum across universities, particularly in service provision to a multilingual population, and in both the theory and clinical learning of the assessment and management of adult and paediatric dysphagia, to better equip graduates for practice.

  17. New graduates’ perceptions of preparedness to provide speech-language therapy services in general and dysphagia services in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shajila Singh

    2015-06-01

    Methods: New graduates of six South African universities were recruited to participate in a survey by completing an electronic questionnaire exploring their perceptions of the dysphagia curricula and their preparedness to practise across the scope of the profession of speechlanguage therapy. Results: Eighty graduates participated in the study yielding a response rate of 63.49%. Participants perceived themselves to be well prepared in some areas (e.g. child language: 100%; articulation and phonology: 97.26%, but less prepared in other areas (e.g. adult dysphagia: 50.70%; paediatric dysarthria: 46.58%; paediatric dysphagia: 38.36% and most unprepared to provide services requiring sign language (23.61% and African languages (20.55%. There was a significant relationship between perceptions of adequate theory and clinical learning opportunities with assessment and management of dysphagia and perceptions of preparedness to provide dysphagia services. Conclusion: There is a need for review of existing curricula and consideration of developing a standard speech-language therapy curriculum across universities, particularly in service provision to a multilingual population, and in both the theory and clinical learning of the assessment and management of adult and paediatric dysphagia, to better equip graduates for practice.

  18. A Qualitative study of language barriers between South African health care providers and cross-border migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Adams, Jo; Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2017-01-31

    Communication with health care providers represents an essential part of access to health care for the over 230 million cross-border migrants around the world. In this article, we explore the complexity of health communication from the perspective of cross-border migrants seeking antenatal care in Cape Town, South Africa in order to highlight the importance of high quality medical interpretation. As part of a broader study of migrant maternal and infant nutrition, we conducted a secondary data analysis of semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 23) with Congolese (n = 7), Somali (n = 8) and Zimbabwean (n = 8) women living in Cape Town, as well as nine focus group discussions (including men: n = 3 and women: n = 6) were conducted with migrant Somalis, Congolese, and Zimbabweans (N = 48). We first used content analysis to gather all data related to language and communication. We then analysed this data thematically. Zimbabwean participants described how the inability to speak the local South African language (IsiXhosa) gave rise to labelling and stereotyping by healthcare staff. Congolese and Somali participants described medical procedures, including tubal ligation, which were performed without consent. Partners often tried to play the role of interpreter, which resulted in loss of income and non-professional medical interpretation. Participants' highlighted fears over unwanted procedures or being unable to access care. Challenges of communication without a common language (and without professional medical interpretation), rather than outright denial of care by healthcare professionals, mediated these encounters. Although there are several factors impeding cross-border migrants' access to health care, effective communication is a prerequisite for quality care. Free-to-patient professional medical interpretation would not only benefit migrant populations but would benefit the broader community where language and health literacy are

  19. Dyslexia in a Second Language?--A Dynamic Test of Reading Acquisition May Provide a Fair Answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbro, Carsten; Daugaard, Hanne Trebbien; Gellert, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslexia is hard to diagnose in a second language. Poor performance on a test of reading may be caused by poor language proficiency in the second language or by limited schooling rather than by poor reading ability per se. This confound was supported in a study of 88 adult second language learners and 65 native language speakers. The incidence of…

  20. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  1. The effects of language bias and cultural bias estimated using the method of correlated vectors on a large database of IQ comparisons between native Dutch and ethnic minority immigrants from non-Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.; Willigers, D.; Dragt, J.; van der Flier, H.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural factors and language bias are often used to explain the large differences in mean intelligence test scores between ethnic groups, for instance majority Dutch compared to ethnic minorities. A competing explanation comes from Spearman's hypothesis, which states that these group differences in

  2. Trilingual Education for Ethnic Minorities: Toward Empowerment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenzhou

    2010-01-01

    Trilingual education (encompassing ethnic minority languages, Chinese, and English) for minority students gains popular support from local ethnic communities to redress educational inequality issues affecting majority and minority groups in China. This paper explores the uses of these three languages on two university campuses, representative of…

  3. Provider-Initiated HIV Testing for Migrants in Spain: A Qualitative Study with Health Care Workers and Foreign-Born Sexual Minorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Navaza

    Full Text Available Provider-initiated HIV testing (PITC is increasingly adopted in Europe. The success of the approach at identifying new HIV cases relies on its effectiveness at testing individuals most at risk. However, its suitability to reach populations facing overlapping vulnerabilities is under researched. This qualitative study examined HIV testing experiences and perceptions amongst Latin-American migrant men who have sex with men and transgender females in Spain, as well as health professionals' experiences offering HIV tests to migrants in Barcelona and Madrid.We conducted 32 in-depth interviews and 8 discussion groups with 38 Latin-American migrants and 21 health professionals. We imported verbatim transcripts and detailed field work notes into the qualitative software package Nvivo-10 and applied to all data a coding framework to examine systematically different HIV testing dimensions and modalities. The dimensions analysed were based on the World Health Organization "5 Cs" principles: Consent, Counselling, Connection to treatment, Correctness of results and Confidentiality.Health professionals reported that PITC was conceptually acceptable for them, although their perceived inability to adequately communicate HIV+ results and resulting bottle necks in the flow of care were recurrent concerns. Endorsement and adherence to the principles underpinning the rights-based response to HIV varied widely across health settings. The offer of an HIV test during routine consultations was generally appreciated by users as a way of avoiding the embarrassment of asking for it. Several participants deemed compulsory testing as acceptable on public health grounds. In spite of--and sometimes because of--partial endorsement of rights-based approaches, PITC was acceptable in a population with high levels of internalised stigma.PITC is a promising approach to reach sexual minority migrants who hold high levels of internalised stigma but explicit extra efforts are needed

  4. Provider-Initiated HIV Testing for Migrants in Spain: A Qualitative Study with Health Care Workers and Foreign-Born Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaza, Barbara; Abarca, Bruno; Bisoffi, Federico; Pool, Robert; Roura, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Provider-initiated HIV testing (PITC) is increasingly adopted in Europe. The success of the approach at identifying new HIV cases relies on its effectiveness at testing individuals most at risk. However, its suitability to reach populations facing overlapping vulnerabilities is under researched. This qualitative study examined HIV testing experiences and perceptions amongst Latin-American migrant men who have sex with men and transgender females in Spain, as well as health professionals' experiences offering HIV tests to migrants in Barcelona and Madrid. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews and 8 discussion groups with 38 Latin-American migrants and 21 health professionals. We imported verbatim transcripts and detailed field work notes into the qualitative software package Nvivo-10 and applied to all data a coding framework to examine systematically different HIV testing dimensions and modalities. The dimensions analysed were based on the World Health Organization "5 Cs" principles: Consent, Counselling, Connection to treatment, Correctness of results and Confidentiality. Health professionals reported that PITC was conceptually acceptable for them, although their perceived inability to adequately communicate HIV+ results and resulting bottle necks in the flow of care were recurrent concerns. Endorsement and adherence to the principles underpinning the rights-based response to HIV varied widely across health settings. The offer of an HIV test during routine consultations was generally appreciated by users as a way of avoiding the embarrassment of asking for it. Several participants deemed compulsory testing as acceptable on public health grounds. In spite of--and sometimes because of--partial endorsement of rights-based approaches, PITC was acceptable in a population with high levels of internalised stigma. PITC is a promising approach to reach sexual minority migrants who hold high levels of internalised stigma but explicit extra efforts are needed to safeguard the

  5. Importance of quality aspects of GP care among ethnic minorities: role of cultural attitudes, language and healthcare system of reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkaddem, Majda; Spreeuwenberg, Peter M; Devillé, Walter L; Foets, Marleen M; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2012-02-01

    This study examines the mechanisms responsible for ethnic differences in perceived quality of care in The Netherlands. The specific role of cultural attitudes, language proficiency, and the health system in the country of origin was examined, taking socio-demographic characteristics into account. Interview data of 1339 respondents of Moroccan, Turkish, Surinamese and Antillean origin were combined with interview data of Dutch respondents (n = 405) and of Western immigrants (n = 102) in The Netherlands and of a random sample of Dutch privately or publicly insured persons (n = 9675). Data collection took place within the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2, 2001). Items from the QUality Of care Through the patient's Eyes (QUOTE) questionnaire were used to measure expectations, as well as items from the QUOTE-Mi (adapted version for migrant groups). Items on normative orientations were used to measure cultural attitudes. In contrast to our hypothesis, respondents with more egalitarian/modern attitudes attached less importance to quality aspects related to access and quality. Tests on the role of the health system of reference were generally conclusive, showing that respondents accustomed to (parts of) another system have different expectations regarding several aspects of general practitioner healthcare quality, e.g. access to specialist care. Besides socio-demographic characteristics, culture influences patients' expectations regarding general practitioner care quality. However, the role of culture can be more clearly ascribed to the characteristics of the health system which is held as the reference than to the general attitudes on normative orientations.

  6. Speaking one more language in early life has only minor effects on cognition in Taiwanese with low education level: the Taishan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Chien; Liu, Yen-Ying; Yip, Ping-Keung; Meguro, Mitsue; Meguro, Kenichi

    2017-07-01

    Increasing evidence shows that bilingualism or multilingualism may have beneficial effects on preventing dementia. We performed a cross-sectional, community-based study in Taiwan. Some elders (older than 70 years) in Taiwan can speak Japanese because of the formal Japanese education they received before World War II, when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. After the war, Mandarin Chinese was adopted as the official language of Taiwan. We assessed whether constantly using three languages had an effect on dementia prevalence and cognitive function. We defined multilingualism as the ability to fluently speak Taiwanese (T), Japanese (J), and Mandarin Chinese (C) in daily life. We evaluated the Mini-Mental State Examination and AD8 questionnaire results of 514 community-dwelling people older than 70 years in Taishan, Taiwan. Seventy-three of the subjects (14.2%) were multilingual (T, J, C) and 441 (85.8%) were bilingual (T, C). No difference was noted in dementia prevalence between multilingual (6.8%) and bilingual (7.4%) populations, but multilinguals were older than bilinguals (mean age: 79.9 vs 77.3 years). Multilinguals had higher Mini-Mental State Examination scores than bilinguals (mean: 24.6 vs. 22.7). However, after the subjects were stratified into low and high education level groups, the Mini-Mental State Examination difference was found to be significant in only the low education level group. Dementia prevalence did not significantly differ between the multilingual (T, J, C) and bilingual (T, C) groups. However, given that the average age of the multilingual group was approximately 2 years older than that of the bilingual group, there may have been minor effects in the multilingual group. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  7. Atypical birdsong and artificial languages provide insights into how communication systems are shaped by learning, use, and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, Olga

    2017-02-01

    In this article, I argue that a comparative approach focusing on the cognitive capacities and behavioral mechanisms that underlie vocal learning in songbirds and humans can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary origins of language. The experimental approaches I discuss use abnormal song and atypical linguistic input to study the processes of individual learning, social interaction, and cultural transmission. Atypical input places increased learning and communicative pressure on learners, so exploring how they respond to this type of input provides a particularly clear picture of the biases and constraints at work during learning and use. Furthermore, simulating the cultural transmission of these unnatural communication systems in the laboratory informs us about how learning and social biases influence the structure of communication systems in the long run. Findings based on these methods suggest fundamental similarities in the basic social-cognitive mechanisms underlying vocal learning in birds and humans, and continuing research promises insights into the uniquely human mechanisms and into how human cognition and social behavior interact, and ultimately impact on the evolution of language.

  8. SPEECH ACT IN ADVERTISING LANGUAGE OF 3 PROVIDER MOBILE PHONE PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartini Syukri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is an analysis of selected commercial advertisement on product consumed relates to the 3 provider of mobile phone in Indonesian context. Consumers are generally believed to be active and skeptical users of information. Then, the speech act can contribute how successfulness the advertisers in persuading them. There are three kinds of act; they are locutionary act, illocutionary act and perlocutionary act. A perlocutionary act, the act that is produced as a consequences or effect of uttering a specific locution, what is brought about or achieved by saying something, in this case, the effects may be predictable by the conventional status of most illocutions, but may be force of their speech act. Using the qualitative method of research, the writers try to analyze the kinds of illocutionary forces and perlocutionary acts that occur in the advertisement through socio-pragmatic analysis. The result shows that the illocutionary acts commonly equal to the persuasive and informative as well as the advertisement goal, then the perlocutionary effects will be related to the hearers themselves.

  9. Assessment of the contents related to screening on Portuguese language websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ferreira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the quality of the contents related to screening in a sample of websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer in the Portuguese language. The first 200 results of each cancer-specific Google search were considered. The accuracy of the screening contents was defined in accordance with the state of the art, and its readability was assessed. Most websites mentioned mammography as a method for breast cancer screening (80%, although only 28% referred to it as the only recommended method. Almost all websites mentioned PSA evaluation as a possible screening test, but correct information regarding its effectiveness was given in less than 10%. For both breast and prostate cancer screening contents, the potential for overdiagnosis and false positive results was seldom addressed, and the median readability index was approximately 70. There is ample margin for improving the quality of websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer in Portuguese.

  10. Turn off or Tune In? What Advice Can SLTs, Educational Psychologists and Teachers Provide about Uses of New Media and Children with Language Impairments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2014-01-01

    New media are commonplace in children's lives. Speech and language therapists (SLTs), educational psychologists and teachers are sometimes called upon by caregivers to provide advice on whether or how children and young people with language impairments should be encouraged to use these media. This article aims to illuminate some of the key…

  11. Massive sequencing of Ulmus minor's transcriptome provides new molecular tools for a genus under the constant threat of Dutch elm disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro ePerdiguero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Elms, especially Ulmus minor and Ulmus americana, are carrying out a hard battle against Dutch elm disease (DED. This vascular wilt disease, caused by Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi, appeared in the twentieth century and killed millions of elms across North America and Europe. Elm breeding and conservation programmes have identified a reduced number of DED tolerant genotypes. In this study, three U. minor genotypes with contrasted levels of tolerance to DED were exposed to several biotic and abiotic stresses in order to (i obtain a de novo assembled transcriptome of U. minor using 454 pyrosequencing, (ii perform a functional annotation of the assembled transcriptome, (iii identify genes potentially involved in the molecular response to environmental stress, and (iv develop gene-based markers to support breeding programmes. A total of 58,429 putative unigenes were identified after assembly and filtering of the transcriptome. 32,152 of these unigenes showed homology with proteins identified in the genome from the most common plant model species. Well-known family proteins and transcription factors involved in abiotic, biotic or both stresses were identified after functional annotation. A total of 30,693 polymorphisms were identified in 7,125 isotigs, a large number of them corresponding to SNPs (27,359. In a subset randomly selected for validation, 87 % of the SNPs were confirmed. The material generated may be valuable for future Ulmus gene expression, population genomics and association genetics studies, especially taking into account the scarce molecular information available for this genus and the great impact that DED has on elm populations.

  12. Taking the struggle elsewhere. Minority representation in the European Parliament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    This paper explored and discussed the struggle for recognition by representatives of linguistic minorities in the European Parliament from the early 1970s and up to the recognition of select minority languages as co-national languages in 2005......This paper explored and discussed the struggle for recognition by representatives of linguistic minorities in the European Parliament from the early 1970s and up to the recognition of select minority languages as co-national languages in 2005...

  13. The role of non-dental health professionals in providing access to dental care for low-income and minority patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Leonard A

    2009-07-01

    The disadvantaged suffer disproportionately from dental problems. These persons are more likely to have untreated oral health problems and associated pain, and also are more likely to forego dental treatment even when in pain. There has been increased emphasis on the potential role of physicians in alleviating oral health disparities, especially among children. In addition, many adults lacking access to traditional dental services seek care and consultation from hospital emergency departments, physicians, and pharmacists. The delivery of oral health care services by non-dental health professionals may assume increasing importance as the population continues to age and becomes more diverse. This is because, in general, the elderly and ethnic and racial minorities face significant economic barriers to accessing private dental services.

  14. Language-Independent and Language-Specific Aspects of Early Literacy: An Evaluation of the Common Underlying Proficiency Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    According to the common underlying proficiency model (Cummins, 1981), as children acquire academic knowledge and skills in their first language, they also acquire language-independent information about those skills that can be applied when learning a second language. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the common underlying proficiency model for the early literacy skills of Spanish-speaking language-minority children using confirmatory factor analysis. Eight hundred fifty-eight Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers (mean age = 60.83 months, 50.2% female) participated in this study. Results indicated that bifactor models that consisted of language-independent as well as language-specific early literacy factors provided the best fits to the data for children's phonological awareness and print knowledge skills. Correlated factors models that only included skills specific to Spanish and English provided the best fits to the data for children's oral language skills. Children's language-independent early literacy skills were significantly related across constructs and to language-specific aspects of early literacy. Language-specific aspects of early literacy skills were significantly related within but not across languages. These findings suggest that language-minority preschoolers have a common underlying proficiency for code-related skills but not language-related skills that may allow them to transfer knowledge across languages.

  15. Foreign Language Training in U.S. Undergraduate IB Programs: Are We Providing Students What They Need to Be Successful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jim

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of U.S. business schools now offer an undergraduate degree in international business (IB), for which training in a foreign language is a requirement. However, there appears to be considerable variance in the minimum requirements for foreign language training across U.S. business schools, including the provision of…

  16. Feasibility of Spanish-language acquisition for acute medical care providers: novel curriculum for emergency medicine residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall, Kristi H; Panchal, Ashish R; Chuffe, Eliud; Stoneking, Lisa R

    2016-01-01

    Language and cultural barriers are detriments to quality health care. In acute medical settings, these barriers are more pronounced, which can lead to poor patient outcomes. We implemented a longitudinal Spanish-language immersion curriculum for emergency medicine (EM) resident physicians. This curriculum includes language and cultural instruction, and is integrated into the weekly EM didactic conference, longitudinal over the entire 3-year residency program. Language proficiency was assessed at baseline and annually on the Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) scale, via an oral exam conducted by the same trained examiner each time. The objective of the curriculum was improvement of resident language skills to ILR level 1+ by year 3. Significance was evaluated through repeated-measures analysis of variance. The curriculum was launched in July 2010 and followed through June 2012 (n=16). After 1 year, 38% had improved over one ILR level, with 50% achieving ILR 1+ or above. After year 2, 100% had improved over one level, with 90% achieving the objective level of ILR 1+. Mean ILR improved significantly from baseline, year 1, and year 2 (F=55, df =1; Planguage skills in EM residents. The curriculum improved EM-resident language proficiency above the goal in just 2 years. Further studies will focus on the effect of language acquisition on patient care in acute settings.

  17. Considerations for Providing Test Translation Accommodations to English Language Learners on Common Core Standards-Based Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-14-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkan, Sultan; Oliveri, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we review translation, adaptation policies, and practices in providing test accommodation for English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. We collected documents and conducted interviews with officials in the 12 states that provide translation accommodations to ELLs on content assessments. We then summarized challenges…

  18. Provider-Initiated HIV Testing for Migrants in Spain : A Qualitative Study with Health Care Workers and Foreign-Born Sexual Minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navaza, B.; Abarca, H.; Bisoffi, F.; Pool, R.; Roura, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Provider-initiated HIV testing (PITC) is increasingly adopted in Europe. The success of the approach at identifying new HIV cases relies on its effectiveness at testing individuals most at risk. However, its suitability to reach populations facing overlapping vulnerabilities is under

  19. Social Media and Language Processing: How Facebook and Twitter Provide the Best Frequency Estimates for Studying Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdagdelen, Amaç; Marelli, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Corpus-based word frequencies are one of the most important predictors in language processing tasks. Frequencies based on conversational corpora (such as movie subtitles) are shown to better capture the variance in lexical decision tasks compared to traditional corpora. In this study, we show that frequencies computed from social media are…

  20. Providing English Foreign Language Teachers with Content Knowledge to Facilitate Decoding and Spelling Acquisition: A Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study adds to the small existing literature on orthographic-related teacher knowledge in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context. The study examined the impact of a course on English orthography on predominantly non-native-speaking EFL preservice and inservice teachers' orthographic content knowledge, and the extent…

  1. An Analysis of English Language Learning Instruction Provided in Teacher Education and Inservice Training Programs for General and Special Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, Lidia E.

    2013-01-01

    It is essential that English language learners (ELLs) are able to effectively receive an education. Recent national data indicates that the achievement gap between English and non-English learners in school is approximately a two grade-level difference (NCES, 2012). The increase of students who are learning English and who have a disability is a…

  2. Issues Arising in Psychological Consultations to Help Parents Talk to Minor and Young Adult Children about their Cancer Genetic Test Result: a Guide to Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patenaude, Andrea Farkas; Schneider, Katherine A

    2017-04-01

    The defining difference between genetic and traditional medicine is that genetic findings have implications not just for the patient, but also for their relatives. Discussion of a test result between parent and child is both a transformative and a translational moment in the life of a family. Parents report wanting help in talking to their children. The challenge for genetic counselors and other providers is to be able to recognize which issues are at the core of parental distress and be able to offer recommendations to empower and support parents. The complexity of potential genetic findings, including variants of uncertain significance (VUS) and incidental findings have vastly increased, requiring considerable explanation and leaving less time for discussion of emotional issues. While the nature of the testing (single gene to multigene panel and genomic testing) is dramatically changing, the nature of parent concerns remains remarkably constant. Families differ in many respects, so no "recipe" suffices to answer parents' questions about how this important task should be approached in each family. Successful consultation to parents requires true counseling, matching parents' fears and questions with information, exploration and advice specific to their concerns, their circumstances and strengths.

  3. Testing of a Model with Latino Patients That Explains the Links Among Patient-Perceived Provider Cultural Sensitivity, Language Preference, and Patient Treatment Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jessica D Jones; Wall, Whitney; Tucker, Carolyn M

    2016-03-01

    Disparities in treatment adherence based on race and ethnicity are well documented but poorly understood. Specifically, the causes of treatment nonadherence among Latino patients living in the USA are complex and include cultural and language barriers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether patients' perceptions in patient-provider interactions (i.e., trust in provider, patient satisfaction, and patient sense of interpersonal control in patient-provider interactions) mediate any found association between patient-perceived provider cultural sensitivity (PCS) and treatment adherence among English-preferred Latino (EPL) and Spanish-preferred Latino (SPL) patients. Data from 194 EPL patients and 361 SPL patients were obtained using questionnaires. A series of language-specific structural equation models were conducted to test the relationship between patient-perceived PCS and patient treatment adherence and the examined mediators of this relationship among the Latino patients. No significant direct effects of patient-perceived PCS on general treatment adherence were found. However, as hypothesized, several significant indirect effects emerged. Preferred language appeared to have moderating effects on the relationships between patient-perceived PCS and general treatment adherence. These results suggest that interventions to promote treatment adherence among Latino patients should likely include provider training to foster patient-defined PCS, trust in provider, and patient satisfaction with care. Furthermore, this training needs to be customized to be suitable for providing care to Latino patients who prefer speaking Spanish and Latino patients who prefer speaking English.

  4. High-speed assembly language (80386/80387) programming for laser spectra scan control and data acquisition providing improved resolution water vapor spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An assembly language program using the Intel 80386 CPU and 80387 math co-processor chips was written to increase the speed of data gathering and processing, and provide control of a scanning CW ring dye laser system. This laser system is used in high resolution (better than 0.001 cm-1) water vapor spectroscopy experiments. Laser beam power is sensed at the input and output of white cells and the output of a Fabry-Perot. The assembly language subroutine is called from Basic, acquires the data and performs various calculations at rates greater than 150 faster than could be performed by the higher level language. The width of output control pulses generated in assembly language are 3 to 4 microsecs as compared to 2 to 3.7 millisecs for those generated in Basic (about 500 to 1000 times faster). Included are a block diagram and brief description of the spectroscopy experiment, a flow diagram of the Basic and assembly language programs, listing of the programs, scope photographs of the computer generated 5-volt pulses used for control and timing analysis, and representative water spectrum curves obtained using these programs.

  5. [Diagnostics and initial estimation of refugee minors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukale, T; Hertel, C; Möhler, E; Joas, J; Müller, M; Banaschewski, T; Schepker, R; Kölch, M G; Fegert, J M; Plener, P L

    2017-01-01

    The number of underage refugees arriving in Germany has rapidly increased since 2015. Many of these children and adolescents have been and still are, exposed to a large number of stressful circumstances. The group of those helping refugee minors is heterogeneous with both volunteers and professional workers from the fields of child welfare and healthcare services. Easily applicable instruments to assess both burdens and resources are needed in order to plan appropriate interventions. This paper focuses on instruments for assessing the circumstances of refugee minors and includes pilot data of an online-based screening instrument to assess burdens and resources (providing online resource and trauma assessment for refugees, PORTA). Field application was tested by the staff of a clearing and preclearing institution with 33 cases and good practical feasibility was reported. Applying a simple to use screening instrument for refugee minors and their helpers, which is available in several languages creates the possibility of a shared definition of problems and solutions and is beneficial to helpers (e.g. volunteers, youth welfare services and medical doctors) as well as refugee minors.

  6. Manual sobre la Educacion en California para Padres de Idiomas Minoritarios (A Handbook on California Education for Language Minority Parents). Revised Edition. Spanish/English Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Bilingual Bicultural Education.

    The handbook, an update of the 1986 handbook, is designed for Spanish-speaking parents of California public school students, and answers commonly-asked questions about the state public education system and its services, particularly those of interest to this population. Information is presented in both Spanish-and English-language sections, in a…

  7. Social Media and Language Processing: How Facebook and Twitter Provide the Best Frequency Estimates for Studying Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdağdelen, Amaç; Marelli, Marco

    2017-05-01

    Corpus-based word frequencies are one of the most important predictors in language processing tasks. Frequencies based on conversational corpora (such as movie subtitles) are shown to better capture the variance in lexical decision tasks compared to traditional corpora. In this study, we show that frequencies computed from social media are currently the best frequency-based estimators of lexical decision reaction times (up to 3.6% increase in explained variance). The results are robust (observed for Twitter- and Facebook-based frequencies on American English and British English datasets) and are still substantial when we control for corpus size. © 2016 The Authors. Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Cognitive Science Society.

  8. Host language, integration language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José dos Reis Grosso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of language research within the Council of Europe and in a context of a stronger multilingual and multicultural Europe, we are witnessing the emergence of terms that are imposed by the frequency of their usage or that (recreate and set re-interpreted concepts according to new social and educational situations. Such is the case of the host language, a concept which is object of analysis in this paper. The relevance of the issue is preceded by other issues related to concepts like native language, second language and foreign language, already comprised in Applied Linguistics and the Teaching of Modern Languages. Nowadays, the indispensability of studying these concepts is fundamental to the pedagogic practice as well as to the language syllabus and its planning. This idea is totally supported by the proposal of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching Assessment (CEFR", which provides the appropriate guidelines at the discourse level.

  9. Rights to Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    language and power issues. Drawn from all parts of the world, the contributors are active in a range of scientific and professional areas including bilingual education; sociolinguistics; the sociology of education, law and language; economics and language; linguistics; sign language; racism; communication......; discourse analysis; language policy; minority issues; and language pedagogy. The book situates issues of minorities and bilingual education in broader perspectives of human rights, power and the ecology of language. It aims at a distillation of themes that are central to an understanding of language rights......This work brings together cutting-edge scholarship in language, education and society from all parts of the world. Celebrating the 60th birthday of Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, it is inspired by her work in minority, indigenous and immigrant education; multilingualism; linguistic human rights; and global...

  10. Providing English foreign language teachers with content knowledge to facilitate decoding and spelling acquisition: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina

    2016-04-01

    This quasi-experimental study adds to the small existing literature on orthographic-related teacher knowledge in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context. The study examined the impact of a course on English orthography on predominantly non-native-speaking EFL preservice and inservice teachers' orthographic content knowledge, and the extent to which these teachers retained orthographic-related content knowledge four months after participating in a semester course on the topic. In addition, the study examined the relationship between participants' acquired orthographic-related content knowledge and EFL spelling. Both groups of teachers that studied in the course improved on overall orthographic-related content knowledge, both immediately following the course and longitudinally. Preservice and inservice participants showed similar levels of orthographic knowledge prior to course participation and both showed significant improvements compared to controls following course participation. Participants also retained knowledge four months after course completion. Overall, the inservice teachers scored higher on orthographic-related knowledge, possibly as a result of the immediate application of their newly acquired knowledge. An unexpected finding was a lack of interaction between acquired orthographic-related content knowledge and pseudo word spelling scores. Possible methodological limitations, such as number of participants as well as the length and scope of the course, may explain this outcome. This paper also discusses practical implications of this study for EFL decoding and spelling instruction.

  11. Providing health messages to Hispanics/Latinos: understanding the importance of language, trust in health information sources, and media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayman, Marla L; Manganello, Jennifer A; Viswanath, K; Hesse, Bradford W; Arora, Neeraj K

    2010-01-01

    Health communication is critical to promoting healthy lifestyles and preventing unhealthy behaviors. However, populations may differ in terms of their trust in and use of health information sources, including mass media, the Internet, and interpersonal channels. We used the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to test the hypothesis that Hispanics who are less comfortable speaking English would differ from Hispanics who are comfortable speaking English with respect to trust in health information sources and media use. Hispanics/Latinos comprised 9% of the 2005 HINTS sample (n = 496). Respondents not born in the United States regardless of race/ethnicity and all Hispanics were asked, "How comfortable do you feel speaking English?" Responses of "completely," "very," or "native speaker" were combined into "comfortable speaking English": all other responses were categorized as "less comfortable speaking English." Those comfortable speaking English reported higher trust for health information from newspapers (p speaking English. They also reported more media exposure: daily hours listening to the radio and watching television (both p speaking English reported much higher levels of Internet use (54% versus 14%, p speaking English may be difficult to reach, not only because of language barriers and lower trust in media, but also because they report relatively little use of various media channels. These findings have important implications for health communications toward non-native speakers of English in general and Hispanics in particular.

  12. Teaching minority children hygiene: investigating hygiene education in kindergartens and homes of ethnic minority children in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20 homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account

  13. Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding What are the possible causes of minor rectal bleeding? Hemorrhoids Anal fissures Proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) Polyps Colon or anal cancer Rectal ulcers Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding Minor rectal ...

  14. Negotiating candidacy: ethnic minority seniors' access to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    The 'Barriers to Access to Care for Ethnic Minority Seniors ' (BACEMS) study in Vancouver, British Columbia, found that immigrant families torn between changing values and the economic realities that accompany immigration cannot always provide optimal care for their elders. Ethnic minority seniors further identified language barriers, immigration status, and limited awareness of the roles of the health authority and of specific service providers as barriers to health care. The configuration and delivery of health services, and health-care providers' limited knowledge of the seniors' needs and confounded these problems. To explore the barriers to access, the BACEMS study relied primarily on focus group data collected from ethnic minority seniors and their families and from health and multicultural service providers. The applicability of the recently developed model of 'candidacy', which emphasises the dynamic, multi-dimensional and contingent character of health-care access to ethnic minority seniors, was assessed. The candidacy framework increased sensitivity to ethnic minority seniors' issues and enabled organisation of the data into manageable conceptual units, which facilitated translation into recommendations for action, and revealed gaps that pose questions for future research. It has the potential to make Canadian research on the topic more co-ordinated.

  15. MINORITY UNDERGRADUATE NURSING STUDENT SUCCESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Denise K; DeCrane, Susan K; Edwards, Nancy; Foli, Karen J; Tennant, Kathleen F

    2016-01-01

    Minority providers are more likely to practice in underserved areas with minority populations. Currently the representation of minorities in healthcare professions is less than that of the United States population. More research is needed to examine specific variables associated with educational success of minority students. The purpose of this study is to examine, and increase the understanding of, current factors that influence success among ethnic and minority nursing students. The revised Minority Student Nurse Questionnaire (MSNQ) was utilized for this study with a sample of 31 students from 2 entry-level nursing programs in the Midwest. Minority students were slightly older than traditional college students and consisted of African-American Black, Native (American) Indian, Asian, Hispanic/Latino, and Hawaiian. Students reported multiple factors that influenced their higher education experience. Academic services and cultural organizations were available, free, but were used by less than half of the students. Several sources of financial assistance are important, including scholarships, federal subsidized and unsubsidized loans, and grants. Students most strongly disagreed with the statement that 'the number of minorities in this program is representative of the number of minorities overall.' Students felt that several services were supportive and helpful strategies for success. Although progress has been made to improve success of minority students, numbers continue to lag between demographic population overall.

  16. CULTURAL TRAITS AS DEFINING ELEMENTS OF MINORITY GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. Ruiz Vieytez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Integration policies are intended to have the dual aim of providing immigrants with the means to function in the society where they live and develop their potential, while preserving their cultural and ethnic identity, and familiarising the non-immigrant population with the rights of immigrants, their culture, traditions and needs. Integration also appears in documents specifically directed at the protection of traditional national minorities. This paper looks to identify the main cultural traits that define minorities in the institutional language and that are relevant for these integration policies. Language and religion emerge as a widely recognised identity factors in this respect. Other possible cultural identity factors gather around the idea of ethnicity, being more difficult to determine.

  17. Nurse practitioner perceptions of barriers and facilitators in providing health care for deaf American Sign Language users: A qualitative socio-ecological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Kathy M; Nemeth, Lynne; Newman, Susan D; Jenkins, Carolyn M; Jones, Elaine G

    2017-06-01

    Nurse practitioners (NPs), as well as all healthcare clinicians, have a legal and ethical responsibility to provide health care for deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users equal to that of other patients, including effective communication, autonomy, and confidentiality. However, very little is known about the feasibility to provide equitable health care. The purpose of this study was to examine NP perceptions of barriers and facilitators in providing health care for deaf ASL users. Semistructured interviews in a qualitative design using a socio-ecological model (SEM). Barriers were identified at all levels of the SEM. NPs preferred interpreters to facilitate the visit, but were unaware of their role in assuring effective communication is achieved. A professional sign language interpreter was considered a last resort when all other means of communication failed. Gesturing, note-writing, lip-reading, and use of a familial interpreter were all considered facilitators. Interventions are needed at all levels of the SEM. Resources are needed to provide awareness of deaf communication issues and legal requirements for caring for deaf signers for practicing and student NPs. Protocols need to be developed and present in all healthcare facilities for hiring interpreters as well as quick access to contact information for these interpreters. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. Reflexões sobre práticas de letramento em contexto escolar de língua minoritária Reflections on literacy practices developed in minority language school context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Pereira Fritzen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se neste artigo refletir sobre as práticas de letramento em alemão, introduzidas em uma escola rural a partir da implementação de mudanças nas políticas linguísticas municipais, e sua interface com as práticas de letramento locais em uma comunidade bilíngue de imigração alemã. Os dados da pesquisa, gerados a partir de um estudo de cunho etnográfico e analisados à luz dos Novos Estudos do Letramento e do bi/ multilinguismo de grupos de minorias linguísticas, sugerem que as professoras pertencentes ao grupo étnico-linguístico local esforçam-se por reconhecer a língua de herança das crianças e da comunidade, embora sofram pressão do currículo escolar, assentado, prioritariamente, no monolinguismo em português. Dentro de um cenário sociolinguístico complexo, as professoras necessitam tomar decisões pedagógicas sobre que práticas de letramento e em que língua valorizar na escola.We aim, in this article, to reflect on literacy practices in German language introduced in a rural school from the implementation of changes in the municipal language policies, and their interface with local literacy practices within a bilingual community of German immigration. The research data, which came from an ethnographic study and was analyzed under the light of the New Literacy Studies and of the bi/multilingualism of minority language groups, suggest that the teachers belonging to the local ethnic-linguistic group try to recognize the inherited language of both the children and the community, although they suffer the pressure of the school curriculum, based, mainly, in the Portuguese monolingualism. Within a complex sociolinguistic scenario, teachers should take pedagogic decisions over the literacy practices and language they should value at school.

  19. Negotiating candidacy: ethnic minority seniors’ access to care

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOEHN, SHARON

    2013-01-01

    The ‘Barriers to Access to Care for Ethnic Minority Seniors ’ (BACEMS) study in Vancouver, British Columbia, found that immigrant families torn between changing values and the economic realities that accompany immigration cannot always provide optimal care for their elders. Ethnic minority seniors further identified language barriers, immigration status, and limited awareness of the roles of the health authority and of specific service providers as barriers to health care. The configuration and delivery of health services, and health-care providers’ limited knowledge of the seniors’ needs and confounded these problems. To explore the barriers to access, the BACEMS study relied primarily on focus group data collected from ethnic minority seniors and their families and from health and multicultural service providers. The applicability of the recently developed model of ‘candidacy’, which emphasises the dynamic, multi-dimensional and contingent character of health-care access to ethnic minority seniors, was assessed. The candidacy framework increased sensitivity to ethnic minority seniors’ issues and enabled organisation of the data into manageable conceptual units, which facilitated translation into recommendations for action, and revealed gaps that pose questions for future research. It has the potential to make Canadian research on the topic more co-ordinated. PMID:23814327

  20. Vygotskian Approaches to Second Language Research provides an introduction to the Vygotskianperspective (also called "Socio-cultural Theory"- SCT on second language (SL Vygotskian Approaches to Second Language Research provides an introduction to the Vygotskianperspective (also called "Socio-cultural Theory"- SCT on second language (SL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Gil

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available studies by presenting some studies which adopted this point of view to carry out different types of second language related research. The main tenet of Vygotskian Theory (Vygotsky, 1978, 1986 is that human cognition is socially developed and constructed; thus, this approach offers the possibility of bringing together the cognitive and social domains, traditionally separated in human sciences. The book can be divided into two parts: a theoretical Chapter 1, and nine chapters that report on empirical studies carried out within the Vygotskian perspective studies by presenting some studies which adopted this point of view to carry out different types of second language related research. The main tenet of Vygotskian Theory (Vygotsky, 1978, 1986 is that human cognition is socially developed and constructed; thus, this approach offers the possibility of bringing together the cognitive and social domains, traditionally separated in human sciences. The book can be divided into two parts: a theoretical Chapter 1, and nine chapters that report on empirical studies carried out within the Vygotskian perspective

  1. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  2. Accessing medication information by ethnic minorities : barriers and possible solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Evelyn; Raynor, Theo; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This review discusses two main questions: how suitable is current consumer medication information for minority ethnic groups, and what are effective strategies to overcome existing barriers. The focus is on minority groups whose first language is not the language of the healthcare system.

  3. Bussing of Ethnic Minority Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This article concerns the rights and duties of ethnic minority children in education in Denmark. More specifically, it discusses the policy of compulsory bussing of ethnic minority children based on language screenings that was legalized by the Danish Parliament in 2005. The policy concerns...... the meeting between citizens with an ethnic minority background and the Danish state, represented by welfare institutions, in this case public elementary schools, and changes the character of this meeting for the individuals involved. In the article, I concentrate on two rights at stake in this meeting......, namely the right to free choice of school and the right – or duty? – to obtain more-equal opportunities in education. The policy creates a dilemma between these two rights and furthermore between a right and a duty to obtain better education results. The article discusses whether the bussing policy may...

  4. Local language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Taal lokaal. Children of immigrants living in the Netherlands have for years had the opportunity to receive lessons in their mother tongue at primary school. Since 1998 this has been referred to as minority language teaching (OALT in Dutch), and has been the responsibility

  5. Sexual minorities seeking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tracey L; Emanuel, Kristen; Bradford, Judith

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the mental health needs of lesbian and bisexual (sexual minority) women is an integral part of designing and providing appropriate mental health services and treatment for them. In an effort to understand the mental health needs of sexual minority women who seek community treatment, a chart review was conducted of the 223 lesbian and bisexual women who presented for services between July 1, 1997 and December 31, 2000 at Fenway Community Health in Boston, MA. Data are based on clients' self-reports and clinician assessments of clients' presenting problem, relevant developmental history, prior mental health and substance abuse treatment, current reports of emotional/psychological symptoms, and areas of impaired functioning. Although substance abuse and suicidal ideation were commonly reported problems, other concerns were more frequently reported. High percentages of lesbians and bisexual women reported relationship concerns and lack of adequate social networks; rates of depression and anxiety based on clinicians' assessments were also high. Overall, lesbians and bisexual women did not differ in the issues they brought to treatment or level or types of impairment. Compared with previous community survey samples, however, study participants appeared to be healthier than general, non-clinical samples of self-identified lesbians, possibly reflecting the special characteristics of sexual minority women who seek treatment in specialized community sites such as the Fenway. Although patients who come to these sites may not represent the more general population of sexual minority women, community health centers known to serve lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals may be fruitful access points for studying the mental health status and treatment needs of sexual minority women.

  6. Case in Language Comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, Markus; Lamers, Monique

    2012-01-01

    Research on human language comprehension has been heavily influenced by properties of the English language. Since case plays only a minor role in English, its role for language comprehension has only recently become a topic for extensive research on psycholinguistics. In the psycholinguistic

  7. Minority engineering scholarships, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science: Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri S...

  8. Speaking like a "Good American": National Identity and the Legacy of German-Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: As a case study in minority language restriction, the German example provides a useful historical counterpoint to more recent debates regarding the place of non-English languages in American schools. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study and Research Design: This historical analysis examines the role of education…

  9. Khmer as a Heritage Language in the United States: Historical Sketch, Current Realities, and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wayne E.

    2010-01-01

    Cambodian Americans are a fairly recent language minority group in the United States; most families arrived in the United States as refugees during the 1980s. Over the past 30 years, there has been great concern in the community regarding the maintenance loss of their native Khmer language. This article provides an historical and contemporary…

  10. Language and Culture in Health Literacy for People Living with HIV: Perspectives of Health Care Providers and Professional Care Team Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitshokile Dintle Mogobe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low health literacy has been linked to inadequate engagement in care and may serve as a contributor to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this paper was to examine the perspectives of health care providers and professional care team members regarding health literacy in HIV disease. A secondary data analysis was conducted from a qualitative study aimed at understanding factors that help an HIV positive person to manage their HIV disease. Data were collected from sites in Botswana, the US, and Puerto Rico. In the parent study, data were collected through focus group discussions with 135 people living with HIV, 32 HIV health care providers (HCPs, and 39 HIV professional care team members (PCTMs. SPSS was used to analyze quantitative data while ATLAS.ti was used to analyze qualitative data. The findings from analyses of the perspectives of HCPs/PCTMs suggested that linguistic and cultural factors were important themes in the exchange of HIV information between health care providers and PLHIV. These themes included ineffective communication, health seeking behavior, cultural facilitators, and complementary and alternative/traditional healing methods. Thus, this study suggests that language and culture have a major role in health literacy for PLHIV.

  11. Language and Culture in Health Literacy for People Living with HIV: Perspectives of Health Care Providers and Professional Care Team Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Shaibu, Sheila; Matshediso, Ellah; Sabone, Motshedisi; Ntsayagae, Esther; Nicholas, Patrice K; Portillo, Carmen J; Corless, Inge B; Rose, Carol Dawson; Johnson, Mallory O; Webel, Allison; Cuca, Yvette; Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Solís Báez, Solymar S; Nokes, Kathleen; Reyes, Darcel; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Reid, Paula; Sanzero Eller, Lucille; Lindgren, Teri; Holzemer, William L; Wantland, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Low health literacy has been linked to inadequate engagement in care and may serve as a contributor to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this paper was to examine the perspectives of health care providers and professional care team members regarding health literacy in HIV disease. A secondary data analysis was conducted from a qualitative study aimed at understanding factors that help an HIV positive person to manage their HIV disease. Data were collected from sites in Botswana, the US, and Puerto Rico. In the parent study, data were collected through focus group discussions with 135 people living with HIV, 32 HIV health care providers (HCPs), and 39 HIV professional care team members (PCTMs). SPSS was used to analyze quantitative data while ATLAS.ti was used to analyze qualitative data. The findings from analyses of the perspectives of HCPs/PCTMs suggested that linguistic and cultural factors were important themes in the exchange of HIV information between health care providers and PLHIV. These themes included ineffective communication, health seeking behavior, cultural facilitators, and complementary and alternative/traditional healing methods. Thus, this study suggests that language and culture have a major role in health literacy for PLHIV.

  12. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    2007-01-01

    Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Fifth Edition, is the official reference for the field of the IAU, which serves as the internationally recognised authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them. The accelerating rate of the discovery of minor planets has not only made a new edition of this established compendium necessary but has also significantly altered its scope: this thoroughly revised edition concentrates on the approximately 10,000 minor planets that carry a name. It provides authoritative information about the basis for all names of minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, this collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions. The fifth edition serves as the primary reference, with plans for complementary booklets with newl...

  13. Family Language Policy and School Language Choice: Pathways to Bilingualism and Multilingualism in a Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a survey with 170 school-age children growing up with two or more languages in the Canadian province of Ontario where English is the majority language, French is a minority language, and numerous other minority languages may be spoken by immigrant or Indigenous residents. Within this context the study focuses on minority…

  14. Linguistic and Cultural Backing for Immigrant and Minority-Group Children of Pre-School Age. Findings of the Committee on Linguistic Minorities among Children of Pre-School Age. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Swedish Board of Education, Stockholm.

    A summary of the findings and recommendations of the Swedish Government's Committee on Linguistic Minorities among Children of Preschool Age is provided in this report. The first six chapters supply background material. Chapter 1 describes the target group and its estimated size, and suggests new definitions for use in native language backing…

  15. China's Minorities without Written Scripts: The Case of Education Access among the Dongxiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayi; Postiglione, Gerard A.

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese state sees language as an essential determinant in ethnic minority schooling. The use of minority language as a medium of instruction is viewed as a way to increase attendance rates and strengthen socialization into a national ideology. However, the policies differ for those ethnic minorities with or without a commonly used written…

  16. Spatial Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  17. Parity for Minorities in the Media. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on H.R. 1155. A Bill to Amend the Communications Act of 1934 to Provide for Greater Participation of Minorities in Telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This transcript of a hearing on minority participation in telecommunications includes the text of the bill, H.R. 155; a summary of the bill from the Congressional Record; and testimony and statements from both individuals and representatives of several organizations. Testimony was presented by: (1) Karen English, Chicago, Illinois; (2) Janice…

  18. Learning Schoolscapes in a Minority Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biró Enikő

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In my paper, I present a qualitative approach to the linguistic landscape of Hungarian schools in Sepsiszentgyörgy/Sfântu Gheorghe, Romania. These landscapes are called schoolscapes as they represent the material environment where texts and images “constitute, reproduce and transform language ideologies” (Brown 2012: 282. These manifestations reveal a lot about language learning and teaching in a formal educational environment. Beyond the simple representations of languages in education, we may trace more or less hidden curriculum details of foreign- and second-language teaching (English/German, Romanian in a Hungarian-Romanian dominant bilingual setting. My aim is to describe the visual manifestations of the differences and similarities between the languages taught to minority children and the mutual efforts of teachers and students to meet the basic challenges of learning and teaching these languages.

  19. Twitter and the Welsh Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rhys James; Cunliffe, Daniel; Honeycutt, Zoe R.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of new domains, such as the Internet, can prove challenging for minority languages. Welsh is a minority, regional language and is considered "vulnerable" by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The Welsh-speaking community appears to have responded positively to the Internet and the…

  20. 75 FR 78225 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Minority-Owned Business Participation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Minority Business Development Agency Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Minority-Owned Business Participation, Opportunities and Barriers to Global Commerce AGENCY: Minority Business... global commerce. The survey will provide valuable information on the markets minority businesses are...

  1. Reliability and Validity of Kurdish Language Version of Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II among Kurdish Healthcare Providers Kurdish Version of HPLP-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Aram Salih Mohammed Amin; Sadeghi, Roya; Tol, Azar; Yaseri, Mahdi

    2016-12-01

    Unhealthy lifestyles pose significant threat to public health. This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of a Kurdish version of the HPLP-II instrument among Kurdish healthcare providers, whose society and culture differ from that of North America and Spain, where the instrument was developed. The instrument was translated into Kurdish, back translated, and pilot tested to ascertain cultural sensitivity. It was then evaluated using a convenience sample of 460 healthcare providers in the Kurdistan region, northern Iraq using a principal components factor analysis. The order of factors was entirely identical to those isolated previously during the psychometric assessment of the English language version. The majority of our study participants were male (55%). In addition, 39.2% of participants were nurses. In addition, 42% of participants had less than five years of working experience. Furthermore, 82.1% of our study population held a high school diploma. The mean (SE) of Physical Activities dimension was low (15.3 ± 4.8) compared to Spiritual Growth dimension (24.5 ± 4.4). Moreover, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the overall HPLP-II questionnaire was 0.870; however, the nutrition dimension was low (0.622) compared to Physical Activities dimension (0.792). Furthermore, the correlation between items ranged from 0.099 to 0.611. The Kurdish version of the HPLP-II demonstrated initial reliability and validity. It is a precious tool to evaluate and assess lifestyle and lifestyle interventions built to improve the health of Kurds.

  2. The interpreter as co-interviewer: the role of the interpreter during interviews in cross-language health research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmond, Jeanine; Woudstra, Anke; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Interviews with ethnic minority patients provide a rich source of data to understand their perspectives of disease and its management. Language barriers are, however, often a problem so interpreters need to be used. We explored the impact of the interpreter on cross-language interviews between

  3. Mental health considerations for speech-language services with bilingual Spanish-English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Isaura; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2009-08-01

    Understanding communicatively impaired minority individuals may involve going beyond strictly linguistic and communicative domains. In particular, considering the psychoemotional aspects impacting these clients may be extremely helpful for treating them and enhancing their response to therapy. This article provides an overview of issues on minority bilingual individuals that are relevant to professionals in mental health and speech-language pathology. We use Hispanics, the fastest growing minority in the United States, for illustration. The material discussed in this article highlights some of the benefits of collaborative communication between mental health professionals and speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Such communication would enhance SLPs' understanding of the interesting interconnections among emotions, culture, and language in immigrant and minority persons with valuable applications to therapeutic services with these individuals.

  4. Ethnic Minority Problems in the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preserving their culture (resources), tradition, religion or languages. (Thornberry 1980:257). Thus in ... Koreans in Japan, the Chinese in Malaysia and the residual European and. Asian minorities in Eastern and .... the traditional predominance of the three major ethnic groups); the somewhat centrist revenue sharing policy ...

  5. Patterns Of Language Use And Language Choice Among The Cuban Community In Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Yakushkina, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The multiculturalism of a modern society involves constant interrelations of minority and dominant linguistic communities, which are reflected in language. Within this context patterns of language use and choice, language attitudes and language and identity connection have received special attention from a sociolinguistic perspective to better understand the outcomes of such language contact The aim of the present study is to analyze patterns of language use, language choice, and language ...

  6. Dictionary of minor planet names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    1997-01-01

    Until recently, minor planet name citations were scattered in the astronomical literature, and the origin of many names remained obscure In 1988 the IAU Commission 20 established a study group to elucidate the meanings of asteroid names Later on the author continued in collecting and indexing all new relevant data This book contains the names, and their meanings, of all - as yet 5252 - named minor planets It informs about the discoverers as well as the circumstances of the discovery of all 7041 minor planets that were numbered up to June 1996 In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, the collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colourful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions This third, revised and enlarged edition comprises about 40% more information than was provided with the first one of 1992

  7. Constitutionalising Language: A Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the constitutional accommodation of minority languages through a process of dialogue between the President of a Constitutional Council and a constitutional expert. The main goal is to reproduce a possible dialogue in a constituent process in order to accommodate the different...... existing languages in a new born state. The discussion began remarking upon the enormous significance of language in political, identity and constitutional terms. It follows comparing different constitutional systems in the world and the status of minority languages in Argentina, Bolivia, Croatia, Serbia......, South Africa, the states parties of the Nordic Language Convention and the United States. While most of the paper is a detailed analysis of US constitutional decisions, the treatment of the other countries seems to be highly relevant to the constitutional accommodation of languages in the new state...

  8. Culture, language, and patient safety: Making the link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2006-10-01

    It has been well recognized internationally that hospitals are not as safe as they should be. In order to redress this situation, health care services around the world have turned their attention to strategically implementing robust patient safety and quality care programmes to identify circumstances that put patients at risk of harm and then acting to prevent or control those risks. Despite the progress that has been made in improving hospital safety in recent years, there is emerging evidence that patients of minority cultural and language backgrounds are disproportionately at risk of experiencing preventable adverse events while in hospital compared with mainstream patient groups. One reason for this is that patient safety programmes have tended to underestimate and understate the critical relationship that exists between culture, language, and the safety and quality of care of patients from minority racial, ethno-cultural, and language backgrounds. This article suggests that the failure to recognize the critical link between culture and language (of both the providers and recipients of health care) and patient safety stands as a 'resident pathogen' within the health care system that, if not addressed, unacceptably exposes patients from minority ethno-cultural and language backgrounds to preventable adverse events in hospital contexts. It is further suggested that in order to ensure that minority as well as majority patient interests in receiving safe and quality care are properly protected, the culture-language-patient-safety link needs to be formally recognized and the vulnerabilities of patients from minority cultural and language backgrounds explicitly identified and actively addressed in patient safety systems and processes.

  9. Supporting People with Aphasia to "Settle into a New Way to Be": Speech and Language Therapists' Views on Providing Psychosocial Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Sarah; Simpson, Alan; Moss, Becky; Ahmed, Nafiso; Hilari, Katerina

    2018-01-01

    Background: People with aphasia are at risk of becoming depressed and isolated. Online surveys have found that the majority of speech and language therapists (SLTs) lack confidence in addressing the psychological needs of people with aphasia. Aims: To explore how SLTs conceptualize the scope of their role; barriers and facilitators to SLTs…

  10. Language Planning and Media in Minority Language and Plurilingual Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of media and their associated platforms is creating radical changes in the way we interact with the world. Social media in particular have increased the manner of communication between people, with on-demand access to content any time, anywhere. With virtual communities being established online through a growing range of…

  11. ARABIC LANGUAGE HANDBOOK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BATESON, MARY CATHERINE

    EACH VOLUME IN THE CENTER FOR APPLIED LINGUISTICS LANGUAGE HANDBOOK SERIES, WHICH ENCOMPASSES THE MAJOR MODERN LANGUAGES OF ASIA AND AFRICA, IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE AN OUTLINE OF THE SALIENT FEATURES OF A PARTICULAR LANGUAGE AND A SUMMARY OF THE LANGUAGE SITUATION AND LANGUAGE PROBLEMS OF THE COUNTRY OR AREA IN WHICH IT IS SPOKEN. THE ARABIC…

  12. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    The quantity of numbered minor planets has now well exceeded a quarter million. The new sixth edition of the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, which is the IAU’s official reference work for the field, now covers more than 17,000 named minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names provides authoritative information on the basis of the rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to artists, from scientists to Nobel laureates, from historical or political figures to ordinary women and men, from mountains to buildings, as well as a variety of compound terms and curiosities. This sixth edition of the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names has grown by more than 7,000 entries compared to the fifth edition and by more than 2,000 compared to the fifth edition, including its two addenda published in 2006 and 2009. In addition, there are many  corrections, revisions and updates to the entries published in earlier editions....

  13. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    in the cultural, educational, religious and social sectors which have of course are exercised in a limited territory; however, do not threaten the state's sovereignty in the same way as independent political decisions could do. How far minority rights have the same dimensions, will be another issue. Minorities...... will use the German and Danish minorities in the Danish-German border region as a model. The minorities came into being in 1920, when a referendum in the region drew a border that left Danish-minded people in the South and German-minded people in the North of the region. Because of the long tradition...

  14. LA LENGUA EXTRANJERA EN LA ESCUELA PEQUENA (FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN THE SMALL SCHOOL), A REPORT OF AN EXPERIMENTAL WESTERN STATES SMALL SCHOOLS PROJECT STUDY DESIGNED TO PROVIDE FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS IN THE SMALL ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANDERSON, MERLIN

    A 1965-66 CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT AT THE FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADE LEVELS WAS CONDUCTED IN SELECTED SMALL SCHOOLS IN SOUTHERN NEVADA TO DETERMINE IF SUCCESSFUL BEGINNING INSTRUCTION IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE (SPANISH) CAN BE ACHIEVED BY NON-SPECIALIST TEACHERS WITH THE USE OF AUDIO-LINGUAL-VISUAL MATERIALS. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS USED WERE "LA FAMILIA…

  15. 7 CFR 1400.101 - Minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor children. 1400.101 Section 1400.101 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.101 Minor children. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payments received by a child under 18 years of age as of April 1...

  16. Guia para Evaluar y Ubicar a Estudiantes de Idiomas Minoritarios. Para Padres/sobre Padres (A Guide to Assessing and Placing Language Minority Students. For Parents/about Parents).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This guide helps parents understand how schools assess their child's English language ability and suggests ways for them to help schools place their children in the most useful language program. All districts must decide which students to test, and then how to test them. Some schools attempt to find out the English skills of all students, and…

  17. FIESTA; Minority Television Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Wes; And Others

    The suggestions for planning, running, and evaluating minority television programing presented in this handbook are based on the experience and example of the FIESTA project (Tucson, Arizona). After initiating the reader into the topic of minority programing, the document disucsses the following topics: broadcast research, origins of the FIESTA…

  18. Minorities and Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegay, Francis A.

    Various aspects of the relationship between minorities and malnutrition are discussed in this brief paper. Malnutrition, one of the byproducts of low economic status, is creating a crisis-proportion health problem affecting minority citizens. Malnutrition seriously affects children, older people in poverty, and chronically unemployed or…

  19. Minority Leadership Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Harry, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Potential sources of resistance to minority managers include issues of perceived competence, leader-follower fit, and supervision of same-race subordinates. Awareness of these issues can guide the preprofessional preparation of minority managers and training and support once they enter the workplace. (SK)

  20. Breton: The Breton Language in Education in France. Regional Dossiers Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ar Mogn, Olier, Comp.; Stuijt, Mark, Comp.

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of the European Union--Brittany. Details are provided about the features of the educational system, recent educational policies, divisions of responsibilities, main actors, legal…

  1. The behaviours of non-Maori New Zealanders towards the Maori language

    OpenAIRE

    De Bres, Julia

    2009-01-01

    When majority language speakers are referred to in minority language planning, it is generally in relation to their ‘attitudes’. It is not just the attitudes of majority language speakers that impact on minority languages, however, but also their behaviours. Accordingly, ‘planning for tolerability’ ([author’s name] 2008a) targets both the attitudes and behaviours of majority language speakers towards minority languages. This article addresses the little-considered question of what behaviours ...

  2. Race in Conflict with Heritage: "Black" Heritage Language Speaker of Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Neriko Musha; Kumagai, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    "Heritage language speaker" is a relatively new term to denote minority language speakers who grew up in a household where the language was used or those who have a family, ancestral, or racial connection to the minority language. In research on heritage language speakers, overlap between these 2 definitions is often assumed--that is,…

  3. Resourcing speech-language pathologists to work with multilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2014-06-01

    Speech-language pathologists play important roles in supporting people to be competent communicators in the languages of their communities. However, with over 7000 languages spoken throughout the world and the majority of the global population being multilingual, there is often a mismatch between the languages spoken by children and families and their speech-language pathologists. This paper provides insights into service provision for multilingual children within an English-dominant country by viewing Australia's multilingual population as a microcosm of ethnolinguistic minorities. Recent population studies of Australian pre-school children show that their most common languages other than English are: Arabic, Cantonese, Vietnamese, Italian, Mandarin, Spanish, and Greek. Although 20.2% of services by Speech Pathology Australia members are offered in languages other than English, there is a mismatch between the language of the services and the languages of children within similar geographical communities. Australian speech-language pathologists typically use informal or English-based assessments and intervention tools with multilingual children. Thus, there is a need for accessible culturally and linguistically appropriate resources for working with multilingual children. Recent international collaborations have resulted in practical strategies to support speech-language pathologists during assessment, intervention, and collaboration with families, communities, and other professionals. The International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech was assembled to prepare a position paper to address issues faced by speech-language pathologists when working with multilingual populations. The Multilingual Children's Speech website ( http://www.csu.edu.au/research/multilingual-speech ) addresses one of the aims of the position paper by providing free resources and information for speech-language pathologists about more than 45 languages. These international

  4. BINARY MINOR PLANETS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  5. Minority Veteran Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  6. Minority Veteran Report 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  7. Minorities in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims, and deba......Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims......, and debates on diversity have entered public discourse and politics. In 2005–2007, Iran was rocked by the most widespread ethnic unrest experienced in that country since the revolution. The same period was also marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This interdisciplinary book takes a long-overdue step...

  8. Minority Schools in the South Tyrol and in the Austrian Burgenland: A Comparison of Two Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    Presents findings from an empirical study comparing the status of the German minority in the Italian South Tyrol and the Croatian minority in the Austrian Burgenland. The article analyzes observations of actual language use in schools and compares school authorities, curricula, and employment opportunities of the two minorities. (SED)

  9. Language and Identities: The Exceptional Normality of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Kinder

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Language issues loom large in current debates on Italian identity/identities, indigenous minorities in Italy and, of course, immigration. While the context of language debates in early 21st century Italy presents new realities and challenges, the fundamental issues are the same as those originally defined by the first European language planner, Dante, and reworked by successive theorists. The debates turn on exclusions and inclusions, on levels of multiple identities, on understandings of otherness. It is no accident that language is at once as a provocation for debates on identity and a metaphor of those debates, for the tensions that run through the debates lie at the heart of language itself. All cultures have a narrative that explains diversity among languages and cultures, either as the result of a mistake or as divine punishment. The Biblical accounts of Creation, Babel and Pentecost provide the framework for European understandings of language diversity. These accounts capture the paradoxical nature of human language, which characterizes us a species and is a tool for building unity between persons and groups, but is, by its nature, always and inevitably an expression of diversity, in time and space. These contradictions are being played out in current language debates as emigration, return migration, internal migration and immigration elicit new constructions of ‘Italianness’, the literary canon and the social weight of the different varieties of language present on Italian soil and in Italian communities abroad.

  10. SEBACEOUS CYSTS MINOR SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi; Sri Maliawan; Ketut Siki Kawiyana

    2013-01-01

    Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although ...

  11. Resilience in Minorities

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnestad, Arve; Larsen, Anne-Mari; Nguluka, Stella

    2010-01-01

    In this study we compare the situation of two minorities, the San people of Botswana and the Travellers in Norway. We want to explore how their way of life, their culture, travelling then want to show how knowledge of resilience and protective factors can be important for the survival and development of minority cultures in general and for the life and education of children in particular. 7044 Trondheim

  12. Unsupervised ensemble minority clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzàlez Pellicer, Edgar; Turmo Borras, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Cluster analysis lies at the core of most unsupervised learning tasks. However, the majority of clustering algorithms depend on the all-in assumption, in which all objects belong to some cluster, and perform poorly on minority clustering tasks, in which a small fraction of signal data stands against a majority of noise. The approaches proposed so far for minority clustering are supervised: they require the number and distribution of the foreground and background clusters. In supervised learni...

  13. Minority engineering scholarships renewal, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science : Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri ...

  14. Minority Representation, Empowerment, and Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banducci, S.A.; Donovan, Todd; Karp, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    According to the minority empowerment thesis, minority representation strengthens representational links, fosters more positive attitudes toward government, and encourages political participation. We examine this theory from a cross-national perspective, making use of surveys that sampled minorities

  15. The acquisition of the Latvian language as the Second language at preschool age in theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingēra Tomme-Jukēvica

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Latvia there are no substantial studies on bilingual preschool children’s Latvian language as the second language. The article provides an overview of the 20th–21st century linguistic theories in the context of child second language acquisition as well as raises awareness about their influence on and use in the learning of preschoolers whose second language is Latvian, carrying out content analysis of the Minority Preschool Education Program (with instruction in Russian, the Latvian Language Program of X preschool education establishment, teaching resources (teaching aid kits, didactic handouts as well as the Latvian language as the second language study content. The conclusion is drawn that the theory of communicative competence and the systemic functional grammar theory prevail as well as the basic principles of the behavioral theory can be discerned. In the teaching resources and learning process it is advisable to more often incorporate the same language material repetition in different situations and new combinations. Consideration must be given to more positive and negative transfer (interference emphasis. To prevent children’s errors it is advisable to provide and incorporate special exercises in the teaching resources as well as methodological recommendations for the Latvian language teachers.

  16. Language acquisition is language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition contend that child language matches the input, with nonadult forms being simply less articulated versions of the forms produced by adults. This paper reports several studies that provide support for the theory of Universal grammar, and resist explanation on experience-based accounts. Two studies investigate English-speaking children's productions, and a third examines the interpretation of sentences by Japanese speaking children. When considered against the input children are exposed to, the findings of these and other studies are consistent with the continuity hypothesis, which supposes that child language can differ from the language spoken by adults only in ways that adult languages can differ from each other.

  17. Has Whole Language Failed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Examines why the whole-language approach to literacy development has failed, presenting several definitions of whole language, discussing some of the research on whole language and whether it works, and providing information about the impact of whole language in California (which suggests that California's reading-performance problems are not…

  18. Spies in the minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, You-Yang; Xu, Chen; Gu, Guo-Qing; Hui, Pak Ming

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of the existence of another type of agents, called spies, in the minority game (MG). Unlike the normal agents in the MG, the spies do not carry any strategy. Instead, they decide their action by scouting some normal agents and take the minority action of the spied group. For a few spies and when there is useful information in the normal agents’ actions, the spies can avoid the crowd effect of the normal agents and win more readily. When information becomes less useful and when more spies are present, the spies’ crowd effect hurts the success rate of the spies themselves, and the normal agents could have a higher success rate than the spies. More spies actually assist more normal agents to win, as the spies also provide more winning quotas. This leads to a nonmonotonic behavior in the total success rate of the population as a function of the fraction of spies.

  19. Disproportionate Minority Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Rebecca L; Cyperski, Melissa A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-04-01

    The overrepresentation of racial/ethnic minorities within the criminal justice system relative to their population percentage, a phenomenon termed disproportionate minority contact, has been examined within general adult and adolescent offender populations; yet few studies have tested whether this phenomenon extends to juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs). In addition, few studies have examined whether offender race/ethnicity influences registration and notification requirements, which JSOs are subject to in some U.S. states. The present study assessed for disproportionate minority contact among general delinquent offenders and JSOs, meaning it aimed to test whether the criminal justice system treats those accused of sexual and non-sexual offenses differently by racial/ethnic group. Furthermore, racial/ethnic group differences in risk, legal classification, and sexual offending were examined for JSOs. Results indicated disproportionate minority contact was present among juveniles with non-sexual offenses and JSOs in Alabama. In addition, offense category and risk scores differed between African American and European American JSOs. Finally, registration classifications were predicted by offending characteristics, but not race/ethnicity. Implications and future directions regarding disproportionate minority contact among JSOs and social and legal policy affecting JSOs are discussed.

  20. South Korea: Language Policy and Planning in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Jung

    2012-01-01

    This monograph discusses South Korea's language situation in a language policy and planning context. This monograph consists of four parts. Part 1 presents a genetic, typological and sociolinguistic description of South Korea's national language, and an overview of minority languages, including English as well as other languages, recently…

  1. Do Experiences with Medicare Managed Care Vary According to the Proportion of Same-Race/Ethnicity/Language Individuals Enrolled in One's Contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca Anhang; Haviland, Amelia M; Hambarsoomian, Katrin; Dembosky, Jacob W; Gaillot, Sarah; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Williams, Malcolm V; Elliott, Marc N

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether care experiences and immunization for racial/ethnic/language minority Medicare beneficiaries vary with the proportion of same-group beneficiaries in Medicare Advantage (MA) contracts. Data Sources/Study Setting Exactly 492,495 Medicare beneficiaries responding to the 2008–2009 MA Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) Survey. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Mixed-effect regression models predicted eight CAHPS patient experience measures from self-reported race/ethnicity/language preference at individual and contract levels, beneficiary-level case-mix adjustors, along with contract and geographic random effects. Principal Findings As a contract's proportion of a given minority group increased, overall and non-Hispanic, white patient experiences were poorer on average; for the minority group in question, however, high-minority plans may score as well as low-minority plans. Spanish-preferring Hispanic beneficiaries also experience smaller disparities relative to non-Hispanic whites in plans with higher Spanish-preferring proportions. Conclusions The tendency for high-minority contracts to provide less positive patient experiences for others in the contract, but similar or even more positive patient experiences for concentrated minority group beneficiaries, may reflect cultural competency, particularly language services, that partially or fully counterbalance the poorer overall quality of these contracts. For some beneficiaries, experiences may be just as positive in some high-minority plans with low overall scores as in plans with higher overall scores. PMID:25752334

  2. The Courage To Care: Addressing Sexual Minority Issues on Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenritter, Nan

    1998-01-01

    Sexual minority students face issues similar to those of ethnic and racial minority students. This article provides a framework for assessing the community college's inclusion of sexual minority students: lesbians, gays, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The first section of the article assesses community colleges in terms of sexual…

  3. White Like Me: Experiences in Writing for Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Frank

    This speech, a product of the workshop on "Media: Minorities and Sex Stereotyping", is said to be intended to provide a vivid picture of how to write about minorities for minority youth from a "white" point of view. The author attributes his success in writing to the conviction that race is no factor in the dimensions of human joys and despairs,…

  4. Children's Expressive Language Skills and Their Impact on the Relation between First-and Second-Language Phonological Awareness Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, JoAnn M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the cross-language relations between the phonological awareness (PA) skills of preschool children learning more than one language are dependent upon their first-and second-language oral language skills. Four hundred sixty-six Spanish-speaking language minority children participated in this study.…

  5. The French-Farsi Simultaneous Early Bilingualism in an Iranian Child--Study on the Regularity of the Presence of the Minority Language in the First Lexical Productions of a Bilingual Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Sahar; Rahmatian, Rouhollah; Safa, Parivash; Letafati, Roya

    2017-01-01

    In a simultaneous bilingual education, there are many factors that can affect its success, primarily the age of the child and socio-cognitive elements. This phenomenon can be initially studied in the first lexical productions of either language in a child. The present study focuses on the early lexical developments of a child, who lives in the…

  6. SEBACEOUS CYSTS MINOR SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although then be inflamed. Lining of the cysts wall is composed of fibrous tissue and usually coated epithelial cells or endothelial. Cysts formed by dilated glands and closed channels, glands, blood vessels, lymph channels or layers of the epidermis. Contents of the cysts wall consists of the results is serum, lymph, sweat sebum, epithelial cells, the stratum corneum, and hair. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  7. Manx Gaelic: The Manx Gaelic Language in Education in the Isle of Man. Regional Dossiers Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Fiona, Comp.; Teare, Robert, Comp.

    2016-01-01

    This regional dossier aims at providing a concise description of and basic statistics on minority language education in a specific region of Europe--the Isle of Man. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as well as quantitative…

  8. Galician: The Galician Language in Education in Spain, 2nd Edition. Regional Dossiers Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Xosé-Henrique, Comp.; Expósito-Loureiro, Andrea, Comp.

    2016-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide a concise, description and basic statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as well as quantitative aspects, such as the…

  9. Language Maintenance or Language Fetishisation? A Response to Michael Clyne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Homes, Helen

    1997-01-01

    A response to an article on multiculturalism and the status of community languages in Australia argues that efforts to maintain any minority language within immigrant communities should be tempered by critical assessment of what is to be achieved, for whom, and why. The original article's author responds. (MSE)

  10. Language policy, translation and language development in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Translation also occurs from the national languages into English, but this involves mainly literary texts with historical and cultural significance. English literature produced by Zimbabwean writers also displays this kind of translation. Translation between indigenous languages is minimal, as is the involvement of minority ...

  11. Addressing Health Care Disparities Among Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Oranuba, Ebele; Werts, Niya; Edwards, Lorece V

    2017-03-01

    There is evidence of health disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual populations. Although the focus of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health research has been human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men, there are health disparities among sexual minority women. Using the minority stress framework, these disparities may in part be caused by individual prejudice, social stigma, and discrimination. To ensure equitable health for all, there is urgent need for targeted culturally sensitive health promotion, cultural sensitivity training for health care providers, and intervention-focused research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Attributions to sexual minority women's academic success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleaf, Kathy J

    2014-01-01

    Narratives from 33 sexual minority women were examined to discover what factors contributed to their ability to acquire academic success, and what, if any, attributions are evident in some sexual minority women's experiences that provide the ability to persist and graduate. Coping strategies the participants used to gain the resiliency and persistence necessary to acquire academic success are discussed. Intrinsic themes were work ethic values, altruism, and self-efficacy. Extrinsic themes were mentors, family, and friends. Sexual minority women identified the complexity of intrinsic and extrinsic attributions that were used to successfully complete a four-year undergraduate degree in the United States.

  13. Sex Trafficking of Minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jessica L; Kaplan, Dana M; Barron, Christine E

    2017-04-01

    Sex trafficking is an increasingly recognized global health crisis affecting every country and region in the world. Domestic minor sex trafficking is a subset of commercial sexual exploitation of children, defined as engagement of minors (US borders. These involved youth are at risk for serious immediate and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Continued efforts are needed to improve preventive efforts, identification, screening, appropriate interventions, and subsequent resource provision for victimized and high-risk youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Educational Equality among China's Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Julia; Hong, Xiao

    1989-01-01

    Examines China's efforts toward educating its 55 minority groups. Discusses minority educational policies, facilities expansion, and continued low enrollment and low educational attainment in minority areas. Contains 18 references and statistics on schools, minority population percentages by province, enrollment by year, literacy rates, and…

  15. Sign Language Interpreters' Training

    OpenAIRE

    Andriakopoulou, Eirini; Bouras, Christos; Giannaka, Eri

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, the evolution of technology and the increasing use of computers gave the opportunity for developing new methods of education of deaf individuals and sign language interpreters. The e-learning environments that have been developed for the education of sign language provide web-based courses, designed to effectively teach to anyone the Sign Language. Recognizing the difficulties and barriers of sign language training as well as the importance of sign language interpreters for the comm...

  16. Proveer igualdad de oportunidades educativas para los estudiantes con conocimientos limitados del idioma ingles (Providing Equality of Educational Opportunity for Students with Limited Knowledge of the English Language).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    This brochure, entirely in Spanish, provides information on federal policy concerning equal educational opportunity for limited-English-proficient (LEP) individuals. It first summarizes the provisions of Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and the subsequent major Civil Rights Office directives concerning that legislation. It then outlines…

  17. Becoming (ethnic minority) teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Norredam, Marie; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    . The article addresses how school as social site constituted by discursive, material and social arrangements shapes a normative linear process of becoming at school, that is, becoming a responsible, healthy, Danish citizen. Consequently, dissonance between embodied being and expected normality affects...... the emotional well-being of ethnic minority students, whose transnational practices are constrained within a national practice architecture....

  18. Minor burns - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If this is not possible, put a cool, clean wet cloth on the burn, or soak the burn in a cool water bath for 5 minutes. ... After the burn is cooled, make sure it is a minor burn. If it is deeper, ... You may put a thin layer of ointment, such as petroleum ...

  19. Survival Strategies of the Javanese Language in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    ., Subiyantoro

    2014-01-01

    The Javanese language, one of non territorial languages used by minority Javanese migrants in New Caledonia, today is categorized as an endangered language. French domination and lack of language transmission have marginalized this language. This research aims to describe the situation of Javanese language and to examine the strategies the Javanese speakers perform to maintain their language by using qualitative method. The data, in forms of linguistic units, were collected through interviews...

  20. Generalizability Theory and the Fair and Valid Assessment of Linguistic Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Li, Min

    2013-01-01

    We discuss generalizability (G) theory and the fair and valid assessment of linguistic minorities, especially emergent bilinguals. G theory allows examination of the relationship between score variation and language variation (e.g., variation of proficiency across languages, language modes, and social contexts). Studies examining score variation…

  1. Minority Game With Peer Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, H. F.; Chow, F. K.; Ho, K. H.

    2003-01-01

    To study the interplay between global market choice and local peer pressure, we construct a minority-game-like econophysical model. In this so-called networked minority game model, every selfish player uses both the historical minority choice of the population and the historical choice of one's neighbors in an unbiased manner to make decision. Results of numerical simulation show that the level of cooperation in the networked minority game differs remarkably from the original minority game as...

  2. The Sindhis of Singapore – Language Maintenance or Language Shift?

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Khemlani David

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the choice of languages in the home, work and religious domains of a minority ethnic community (Sindhis) in Singapore. It presents sociolinguistic observations based on a qualitative study of 8 Sindhi families consisting of 28 Singaporean Sindhis. The study found that a mixed discourse appears to be the new language option of community members who have to accommodate to the linguistic preferences of both young and old members of the community. The varieties of language o...

  3. Biliteracy across Scripts: Implications for Language Development in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Page

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many minority language communities in Southeast Asia use the segment-based Latin alphabet. In order to provide ease of literacy acquisition, national governments may encourage or require the use of the partially segmental, partially syllable-oriented Brahmi-based national syllabet in minority literacy development. Evidence from research on biliteracy in other languages and scripts suggests that alphabetic reading skills provide a strong foundation for learning to read a syllabet once a threshold of linguistic competency has been reached. Use of the mother tongue for early literacy also supports successful learning through strong home-school relationships. This study suggests that secondary orthographies based on national or dominant scripts for school-based literacy may not support and possibly even inhibit literacy acquisition due to motivational sociolinguistic factors. Research to confirm these findings specifically in the Southeast Asian context is still needed.

  4. Linguistic Justice and Endangered Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salverda Reinier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution will engage with Van Parijs’s approach to linguistic justice and his working principles for the reduction of unfairness in the language domain (in particular, the need for intervention and his territorial principle, reflecting on a range of cases of multilingual practice and linguistic coexistence – respectively, in the multilingual capital of the world which is London today; in Fryslân, the minority language area in northern Netherlands; and in Europe, through its European Charter of Regional Minority Languages.

  5. Bilinguals' Existing Languages Benefit Vocabulary Learning in a Third Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2017-03-01

    Learning a new language involves substantial vocabulary acquisition. Learners can accelerate this process by relying on words with native-language overlap, such as cognates. For bilingual third language learners, it is necessary to determine how their two existing languages interact during novel language learning. A scaffolding account predicts transfer from either language for individual words, whereas an accumulation account predicts cumulative transfer from both languages. To compare these accounts, twenty English-German bilingual adults were taught an artificial language containing 48 novel written words that varied orthogonally in English and German wordlikeness (neighborhood size and orthotactic probability). Wordlikeness in each language improved word production accuracy, and similarity to one language provided the same benefit as dual-language overlap. In addition, participants' memory for novel words was affected by the statistical distributions of letters in the novel language. Results indicate that bilinguals utilize both languages during third language acquisition, supporting a scaffolding learning model.

  6. Knowing One's Community through Language Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    French-language schools in minority settings are set apart from other schools by their twofold mission: the educational success of students and the building of their Francophone identity. As a result, there are few French-language school boards or schools that do not underline the importance of the French-language culture in their mission. The…

  7. Multilingual Practices and Language Scaling in Behavioural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The report discusses the implications on this approach to language on minority language speakers, more especially in the context of HIV/AIDS, a pandemic which affects all the population regardless of language. The report lastly makes recommendations for a more inclusive approach in behavioural change communication ...

  8. Community-Specific Strategies of Intergenerational Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These were examined to determine their influence in facilitating parents to transfer language to their descendants. The main goal was to explain how minority Ndamba language speakers in Tanzania have managed to maintain their language over time regardless of formidable influence engendered by Swahili. To answer ...

  9. Integrating inquiry science and language development for English language learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Trish; Pinal, America; Latzke, Marcia; Canaday, Dana

    2002-10-01

    The traditional approach to the education of language minority students separates English language development from content instruction because it is assumed that English language proficiency is a prerequisite for subject matter learning. The authors of this article take the alternate view that the integration of inquiry science and language acquisition enhances learning in both domains. The report describes a conceptual framework for science-language integration and the development of a five-level rubric to assess teachers' understanding of curricular integration. The science-language integration rubric describes the growth of teacher expertise as a continuum from a view of science and language as discreet unrelated domains to the recognition of the superordinate processes that create a synergistic relationship between inquiry science and language development. Examples from teacher interviews are used to illustrate teacher thinking at each level.

  10. International Legislation Specific to the Minor Immigrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Pusca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Inside the vast array characterizing the phenomenon of migration, in this paper we chose to focus our analysis on a unique and extremely delicate category: the minor immigrants. The main objective is to highlight the heterogeneity of juvenile migratory phenomenon, achieving a prospective of analyses which focuses not only on international law aimed at protecting minors but also on the flaws of European systems which ignore too often the importance of the superior interests of the child. Mainly the Convention on the Rights of the Child, signed in New York in 1959, provides a generalized protection of minor figure and it represents the legal basis for all rules directed towards children and thus to minor immigrants.

  11. Students, language, and physics: Discourse in the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Susan Marie

    Women and minorities do not enter science professions at rates consistent with their populations (Rosser, 2000). A variety of theoretical frameworks and associated interventions have been cited in the literature; yet, the gender and racial gaps remain. Theoretical frameworks and the associated interventions to promote the success of women and minorities in the sciences have primarily been one dimensional: they address issues of Self (associated with experiential and psychoanalytical framings) or Language (categorical and deconstructive framings) (Grumet & Stone, 2000). Furthermore, research in science education with few exceptions (Hanson, 2004), has failed to address race and gender through an intersectional analysis. This study investigates the inclusion and exclusion of girls and minorities in the sciences by examining the connections between Self and Language in physics group work conversations. Critical Discourse Analysis was used to explore the connections between Self and Language. Eight students in two groups were the focus of the study. Transcription of conversations and coding of transcripts with students' subject positions, genres, and registers provided evidence of the reflexivity of Self and Language. Furthermore, the study demonstrated how group discourse and power imbalances within groups serve to simultaneously facilitate and constrain learning opportunities and learning itself.

  12. Promoting Mental Health in Unaccompanied Refugee Minors: Recommendations for Primary Support Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama El-Awad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, the number of refugees around the world increased to about 22.5 million. The mental health of refugees, especially of unaccompanied minors (70% between the ages of 16 and 18 years who have been exposed to traumatic events (e.g., war, is generally impaired with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Several studies revealed (1 a huge variation among the prevalence rates of these mental problems, and (2 that post-migration stressors (e.g., language barriers, cultural differences might be at least as detrimental to mental health as the traumatic events in pre- and peri-flight. As psychotherapy is a limited resource that should be reserved for severe cases and as language trainings are often publicly offered for refugees, we recommend focusing on intercultural competence, emotion regulation, and goal setting and goal striving in primary support programs: Intercultural competence fosters adaptation by giving knowledge about cultural differences in values and norms. Emotion regulation regarding empathy, positive reappraisal, and cultural differences in emotion expression fosters both adaptation and mental health. Finally, supporting unaccompanied refugee minors in their goal setting and goal striving is necessary, as they carry many unrealistic wishes and unattainable goals, which can be threatening to their mental health. Building on these three psychological processes, we provide recommendations for primary support programs for unaccompanied refugee minors that are aged 16 to 18 years.

  13. [The concept mapping of representations of the future of health services in French in linguistic minority].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Louise

    2013-06-06

    In the context of institutional incompleteness affecting the official minority language communities, we examine how the Francophones in a minority context see the future of health services offered in French. The study is based on a participatory methodology: the concept mapping will serve to identify the conceptual universe of a given problem. From a master statement such as: "When I think about the future of health services in French, I think of ...", participants are invited to make as many statements as come to mind. These statements are then categorized individually and treated collectively through a multivariate analysis. The main themes emerging from the mapping exercise indicate the issues and challenges raised by the participants, namely the geographical context, specific needs, language rights, education and training, human resources, bilingualism and translation, the minority experience, active offer, the role of governmental bodies, community mobilization, collaboration and networking. The participatory approach that concept mapping allows is interesting in more than one way: its flexibility provides a space for both individual and collective reflection; it allows identification and structuring of the crucial dimensions of an issue; and the research outcomes are useful both to researchers and participants in guiding action and achieving goals. Social actors can therefore benefit from a collective dynamic to reflect on the foundations for the development and organization of health services in French.

  14. A culturally competent education program to increase understanding about medicines among ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Kassem, Dumoue; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously suggested that the risk of medicine-related problems-i.e., negative clinical outcomes, adverse drug reactions or adverse drug events resulting from the use (or lack of use) of medicines, and human error including that caused by healthcare personnel-is higher among specific ethnic minority groups compared to the majority population. The focus of this study was on reducing medicine-related problems among Arabic-speaking ethnic minorities living in Denmark. The aim was twofold: (1) to explore the perceptions, barriers and needs of Arabic-speaking ethnic minorities regarding medicine use, and (2) to use an education program to enhance the knowledge and competencies of the ethnic minorities about the appropriate use of medicines. Healthcare in Denmark is a tax-financed public service that provides free access to hospitals and general practitioners. In contrast to the USA or the UK, serving ethnically diverse populations is still a relatively new phenomenon for the Danish healthcare system. Ethnic minorities with a non-Western background comprised a total of 6.9 % of the Danish population. Data were collected through qualitative research. Four focus group interviews were conducted before and four after the education program. Thirty Arabic-speaking participants were recruited from language and job centers in Copenhagen. Participants received teaching sessions in Arabic on appropriate medicine use. The education program was evaluated by two methods: a written quiz for knowledge evaluation and focus group interviews for process evaluation. It took place during the first semenester of 2012. Results The majority of the participants were dissatisfied with the knowledge about medicines inherited from their parents. They also expressed their frustrations due to communication problems with Danish doctors. According to the impressions and quiz results of participants, the program was relevant, rich in information and effective. The program helped bridge the

  15. Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Agwagune | Ugot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congo phylum and is spoken in Biase local government area of Cross River State, Nigeria. The language has been classified as a minority language because of its paucity in development and demography. The paper examines the phenomenon of ...

  16. The Effectiveness of Minority Teachers on Minority Student Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jose P.

    This paper examines the shortage of minority teachers and explores the high priority that exists among parents, teachers, and the business community to work toward a diversified teaching force, focusing on the U.S. Hispanic population and investigating whether minority teachers in the classroom can result in minority student success in school. The…

  17. Words and Deeds: Presidential Discussion of Minority Health, Public Policies, and Minority Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillion, Daniel Q

    2017-10-01

    What are the different rhetorical approaches presidents used to address minority health inequality? More importantly, how have the efforts of presidents impacted minorities' perceptions of health? I offer a historical perspective that describes the three major periods of presidential engagement in discussions of minority health since the 1960s. I couple this historical overview with an empirical assessment that introduces a novel and extensive dataset of every presidential discussion of minority health spanning five decades (1960-2016). This study finds that, since the early 1990s, presidents have transported their discussion of minority health beyond the confines of Washington, DC, traveling to speak to local communities throughout the nation that have a disproportionate number of blacks and Latinos. Moreover, a presidential discussion of minority health leads to greater salience on this issue and thus increases public health awareness. This work suggests that presidential messaging on minority health provides a framework for minority groups to understand and discuss the health disparities that may plague their communities. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  18. Surgical treatment for epilepsy involving language cortices: a combined process of electrical cortical stimulation mapping and intra-operative continuous language assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Guojun; Yu, Tao; Ni, Duanyu; Cai, Lixin; Qiao, Liang; Du, Wei; Li, Yongjie

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the surgical treatment of epilepsy by maximising seizure control while protecting language function. A combined process of extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation (ECS) mapping, direct ECS and intra-operative continuous language assessment was performed during complicated operative cases. Of the 24 epilepsy patients, nine had a complex relationship between the seizure onset zone and the language cortices. The combined process was used in these nine patients. In the other 15 patients, surgical resection was completed based on extra-operative ECS results alone. Evaluations were performed before and after surgery to assess language function and seizure control. The intra-operative continuous language assessment provided important information at the time of the resection. Seven extra-operative ECS positive language sites were resected without obvious language deficits in two patients. Resection was interrupted by language disturbances in an area where no extra-operative ECS positive site was identified in one patient. In three other patients, functional boundary was undefined in extra-operative ECS result, epileptogenic cortices were maximally resected during the continuous language assessment. In terms of seizure control, 18 of 24 (75%) patients reached Engel's class I, including all nine patients who underwent intra-operative continuous language assessment. One patient had minor surgery-related language deficits three months after resection. Intra-operative continuous language assessment proved to be complementary to extra-operative ECS mappings. The combination of ECS mappings and intra-operative continuous language assessment can maximise the resection of epileptogenic cortices and preserve language function in difficult cases involving the language cortex. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Linguistic Interpretation for Language Union – Language Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Balalykina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the problem of determination of the essence of language union and language family in modern linguistics, which is considered important, because these terms are often used as absolute synonyms. The research is relevant due to the need to distinguish the features of languages that are inherited during their functioning within either language union or language family when these languages are compared. The research has been carried out in order to present the historical background of the problem and to justify the need for differentiation of language facts that allow relating languages to particular language union or language family. In order to fulfill the goal of this work, descriptive, comparative, and historical methods have been used. A range of examples has been provided to prove that some languages, mainly Slavonic and Baltic languages, form a language family rather than a language union, because a whole number of features in their systems are the heritage of their common Indo-European past. Firstly, it is necessary to take into account changes having either common or different nature in the system of particular languages; secondly, one must have a precise idea of what features in the phonetic and morphological systems of compared languages allow to relate them to language union or language family; thirdly, it must be determined whether the changes in compared languages are regular or of any other type. On the basis of the obtained results, the following conclusions have been drawn: language union and language family are two different types of relations between modern languages; they allow identifying both degree of similarity of these languages and causes of differences between them. It is most important that one should distinguish and describe the specific features of two basic groups of languages forming language family or language union. The results obtained during the analysis are very important for linguistics

  20. Sociocultural issues in african american and Hispanic minorities seeking care for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Jaquez-Gutierrez, Marisela C; Madhoo, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    To review the sociocultural factors that may affect the diagnosis and management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in African American and Hispanic minorities seen in the primary care setting in the United States. Searches on MEDLINE and PubMed were conducted in April and September 2012 on ADHD and its related problems and disabilities. A general search was conducted using the terms (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder OR attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder OR ADHD OR AD/HD) AND (ethnicity OR cultural OR culture). Issues of particular relevance to racial and ethnic minorities utilizing health care services were researched using the string (black OR African OR Hispanic OR Latino OR minority OR racial) combined with terms relating to access, insurance, comorbidity, high-risk behavior, treatment compliance, and nonpharmacologic modalities. Searches were limited to English-language citations, and no date parameters were used. References identified as pertinent to this review were selected for citation. Information revealing contrasts between minorities and the US non-Hispanic white population was organized in distinct categories, such as access to medical care and insurance, cultural attitudes, and the effects of stigmatization. The authors also provide perspectives for the primary care physician from their own clinical experience. Rates of diagnosis of in the United States are higher for non-Hispanic whites than for minorities, yet true prevalence is probably similar across racial-ethnic groups. When the stigma of mental illness is added to the challenges faced by racial/ethnic minorities or immigrant status, patients may be especially sensitive. Underuse of clinical services may reflect economic limitations on access to care, cultural attitudes toward mental illness, and the effects of real or perceived prejudice and stigmatization. Primary care clinicians in the United States should seek to become more aware of cultural factors that could

  1. Ethnic Swedish parents' experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence in Swedish paediatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. World Yearbook of Education 1981. Education of Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megarry, Jacquetta, Ed.; And Others

    The problems of students who are disadvantaged by differences in culture and language are examined in 22 essays. The first section presents concepts, issues, and trends in research and practice. Part Two offers a range of national policies on minority group education in the Soviet Union, Canada, China, Africa, and the United Kingdom. Essays in the…

  3. Lifelong Learning for Social Inclusion of Ethnic Minorities in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruatona, Tonic

    2015-01-01

    In spite of its overall economic success, most citizens living in the remote areas of Botswana face poverty and are unemployed. The article argues that minority communities in remote areas are excluded because education programs use unfamiliar languages and de-contextualized curricula, there is no national qualifications framework to sufficiently…

  4. Practices of Citizenship Rights among Minority Students at Chinese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenzhou

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how Chinese minority students participate and defend citizenship rights on a university campus against the backdrop of ongoing social changes. Three rights are focused on: freedom of religion, freedom of association, and freedom to use an ethnic language. The data were collected at three universities. Research methods involved…

  5. The Gift of Two Languages: A Spanish Immersion Program Brings Government Hill Elementary Back from the Brink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Judy

    2002-01-01

    An Anchorage (Alaska) elementary school serving low-income minority groups revitalized itself by starting a dual-language (Spanish/English) immersion program. Pull-out programs were coordinated using instructional and tutoring teams, quality professional development was provided, bilingualism was fostered for all students, and parent participation…

  6. 28 CFR 55.12 - Language used for written material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... written form. Some languages, for example, Japanese, have more than one written form. A jurisdiction... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Language used for written material. 55.12... OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Determining the Exact Language § 55.12...

  7. The present and the future of Breton language in France

    OpenAIRE

    Наталья Федоровна Михеева; Ольга Андреевна Илларионова

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with the situation of the regional or minority languages and with the Breton language as an example. The work reveals the situation and status of the Breton language in modern society, as well as specific examples of the use of linguistic units in the language.

  8. The present and the future of Breton language in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Федоровна Михеева

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the situation of the regional or minority languages and with the Breton language as an example. The work reveals the situation and status of the Breton language in modern society, as well as specific examples of the use of linguistic units in the language.

  9. A Stronger Reason for the Right to Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Is the right to sign language only the right to a minority language? Holding a capability (not a disability) approach, and building on the psycholinguistic literature on sign language acquisition, I make the point that this right is of a stronger nature, since only sign languages can guarantee that each deaf child will properly develop the…

  10. Prerequisites of Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, Marta

    The prerequisites of language acquisition are cognitive and pragmatic. The child's conceptual development and social needs direct his attention to particular linguistic forms. These provide an efficient selection device enabling the child to match his language learning task with his abilities. The second language learner who is cognitively and…

  11. We Can Recruit Minorities Into The Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, S.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the dismal numbers, efforts to recruit minorities into the geosciences are improving, thanks in part to NSF's "Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences" (OEDG) initiative. At Wesleyan University, a small liberal arts college in Connecticut, we have significantly increased our recruitment of minority students. Twenty percent (four students) of the class of 2013 are African American. Most of the recruitment is done on an individual basis and working in conjunction with the "Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement" and courting minority students in introductory classes. The Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement is aware of our interest in increasing diversity and that we are able to hire minority students during the academic year and through the summer with OEDG funds. When she identifies minority students who might be interested in the geosciences, she refers them to faculty in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Department. Our faculty can provide employment, mentoring and a variety of geo-related experiences. Courting students in introductory courses can include inviting them to lunch or other activity, and attending sports, theater or dance events in which they are participating. Not all efforts result in new majors. Courses in ancillary sciences may be stumbling blocks and higher grades in less demanding courses have lured some students into other majors. Nevertheless, we now have a large enough cohort of minority students so that minority students from other majors visit their friends in our labs. A critical mass? Even a student, who chooses another major, may continue an interest in geoscience and through outreach efforts and discussions with younger family members, may provide a bridge that becomes a conduit for future students.

  12. The left minor fissure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J H

    1986-11-01

    A left minor fissure (LMF) has been described anatomically as being present in 8%-18% of left lungs. Analogous to the right minor fissure (RMF), the LMF separates the anterior segment of the left upper lobe from the lingula. Two thousand consecutive normal radiographic examinations of the adult chest (posteroanterior, left lateral views with the subjects in the erect position) were reviewed prospectively. A definite LMF was identified in 32 of the subjects (1.6%). The fissure was dome-shaped (convex superior) on at least one projection in 26 (81%) of 32 subjects. The position of the LMF was usually more cephalad than that of the RMF (25 of 31 subjects, or 81%). The lateral end of the LMF was usually superior to the medial end (25 of 32; 78%) and rarely inferior to the medial end (three of 32; 9%). The LMF infrequently was horizontal (four of 32; 12%). In a number of additional patients whose control chest radiographs showed no evidence of an LMF, subsequent radiographs revealed an LMF outlined by active pulmonary or pleural disease.

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Minority Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, R.

    2005-02-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players—Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang—have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the `physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the `stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG

  14. Language Policy and Language Ideologies in Szekler Land (Rumania): A Promotion of Bilingualism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Zsuzsanna Eva

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the problems related to the teaching of the state language, Rumanian, in the context of the Hungarian minority population in Szekler Land, Rumania, and the language ideologies connected to Rumanian on the basis of empirical research. On the one hand, it is argued that at present the methodology of state language teaching in…

  15. Minority Recruitment and Retention for Universities: Bilingual Special Education Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment and retention of minority faculty in bilingual special education is a perilous task. Research has shown that minority faculty/teachers are able to provide emotional support, mentor students, serve as role models, create a positive climate, provide diverse views, increase collaboration among faculty and teachers, and work with…

  16. Languages and Employability

    OpenAIRE

    DE SOUSA LOBO BORGES DE ARAUJO LUISA; DINIS MOTA DA COSTA PATRICIA; FLISI SARA; SOTO CALVO ELENA

    2015-01-01

    This report reviews evidence regarding the foreign language competences of European citizens and presents new findings about the relationship between foreign language skills and the likelihood of being in employment. In view of providing research evidence that can inform European Union (EU) policy initiatives, it reviews studies that frame knowledge of languages as a form of human capital, presents descriptive statistics about language knowledge and investigates whether this knowledge is rela...

  17. Measuring young children's language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, I; Schaerlaekens, A

    2000-01-01

    This article deals with the new challenges put on language diagnosis, and the growing need for good diagnostic instruments for young children. Particularly for Dutch, the original English Reynell Developmental Language Scales were adapted not only to the Dutch idiom, but some general ameliorations and changes in the original scales resulted in a new instrument named the RTOS. The new instrument was standardized on a large population, and psychometrically evaluated. In communicating the experiences with such a language/cultural/psychometric adaptation, we hope that other language-minority groups will be encouraged to undertake similar adaptations.

  18. Sustainable development and the many faces of minority: A study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How far has Affirmative Action gone in providing the needed solution to minority problems? How can Minority Rights be achieved through dialogue or violent confrontation?. These plays portray many faces of minority. The paper will, also, critically appraise the various approaches to minority problems as contained in the ...

  19. Own education institutions as an option for minority groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Steyn

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the introductory part deals with Christian guidelines regarding the rights of minority groups. In the ensuing part the provision of education according to the unique educational needs of minority groups is discussed within the context of the presented guidelines. It is indicated that own education is internationally accepted as one of the major rights of minority groups. Within the international context, for example in the treaties of Unesco and in the educational provision of several countries, it is accepted that minority groups also prefer their own education institutions in order to effectively provide in their unique educational needs. In this article the more general requirements, regarding the characteristics of the education institution needed to meet the unique educational needs of a particular minority group are also identified. The impending problems in South Africa regarding own education schools for minorities are discussed briefly. In order to find possible solutions the situation in the Netherlands regarding "bijzondere scholen” to provide in the unique educational needs of particular interest groups and particularly religious groups is analysed. The conclusion arrived at is that the mentioned situation does not oppose Christian guidelines if minorities need each other to influence educational change, that the acknowledgement of the educational rights of minority groups promotes national unity, that the educational rights of minorities should imply freedom of establishment, denomination and institution and that the educational rights of minorities are fully realised if their education is financially supported by government on an equal basis to that of the majority.

  20. A Theoretical Study on English Teaching in Chinese Ethnic Minority Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Huang

    2013-01-01

    From an investigation about the factors influencing the trilingual education in Chinese ethnic minority regions, the author find out that the minority students are incompetent in English learning. Inappropriate teaching strategies, learning materials as well as language policy hinder the development of teaching and learning progress in those…

  1. Combining Identity and Integration: Comparative Analysis of Schools for Two Minority Groups in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyk, Volodymyr

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses school systems for two of Ukraine's minorities, the Hungarians and the Crimean Tatars with the aim of assessing their success in promoting ethnocultural identity and social integration of the minority youth. I demonstrate that the exclusive instruction in Hungarian ensures the reproduction of group language knowledge and…

  2. Croatian Language Maintenance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Petrović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the topic of language maintenance has received considerable attention from linguists around the world, there are still many aspects of this language-contact phenomenon that could be examined further. This paper aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge by exploring the state of Croatian as a heritage language in Canada. The aim of the paper is two-fold. The first is to describe the demographic characteristics of the Croatian community by investigating the number of people of Croatian descent and the number of Croatian speakers in Canada. The second, and more specific, aim of the paper is to provide an account of the state of Croatian as a minority language and examine the extent of language maintenance in the community. To accomplish the first objective, Canadian census data (1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011 was analyzed, with special focus on linguistic census data (number and age of Croatian speakers in Canada, mother tongue of people of Croatian descent, language most used at home, etc.. To accomplish the second objective, census data was supplemented with data from a questionnaire-based survey completed by members of the Croatian community in Toronto. The survey was completed by 220 participants; 110 first-generation Croatian Canadians and 110 second-generation Croatian Canadians. Two versions of the questionnaire were designed, one for first-generation participants and the other for second-generation participants. The great majority of items in the two versions were identical; each version contained questions about demographic characteristics, language use in everyday life, and self-perceived language proficiency in English and Croatian. The majority of questions were of a closed type (multiple-choice questions and rating scales, but there were also some open-ended questions, so as to give participants the opportunity to express their viewpoint or comment on certain issues. Questions were written in both Croatian and English

  3. Sexual Minority Disparities in Substance Use Willingness Among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Mereish, Ethan H; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Hayes, Kerri; Jackson, Kristina M

    2017-08-04

    Disparities in substance use have been observed in sexual minority youth, but less is known about willingness to use substances, an important precursor to actual use. The goal of this study was to examine willingness to use cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among sexual minority youth compared to their non-sexual minority counterparts using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data. The present study drew on two waves (Times 1 and 2; 6 months apart) of data collected during high school as part of a prospective study of substance use initiation and progression in Rhode Island. At Time 1, participants (N = 443) ranged in age from 15 to 20 years (M age = 16.7 years, 26.6% sexual minority, 59.5% female, 72.0% White). Participants self-reported their sexual identity and attraction, lifetime use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana, and cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use willingness (i.e., if offered by a best friend or group of friends). In cross-sectional multivariate regression models, sexual minority youth were more likely to report willingness to use cigarettes (p sexual minority counterparts. Longitudinal multivariate regression models revealed that sexual minorities were only significantly more likely to report cigarette willingness at Time 2 compared to their non-sexual minority counterparts (p sexual minority status. Sexual minority youth reported more willingness than non-sexual minority youth to use substances offered by peers; however, longitudinal analyses revealed that peers appear to play a role only in willingness to smoke cigarettes for these youth, and thus peer influence may be a contributing factor in explaining tobacco-related disparities among sexual minority youth. Given that stigma and peer groups may a particular risk factor for tobacco among sexual minority youth, our findings highlight the importance of prevention programs such as social marketing approaches that correct social norms, reduce stigma, and provide refusal-skills training to

  4. Toric ideals and diagonal 2-minors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Katsampekis (Anargyros)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractLet $G$ be a simple graph on the vertex set ${1,\\ldots,n}$. An algebraic object attached to $G$ is the ideal $P_G$ generated by diagonal 2-minors of an $n \\times n$ matrix of variables. In this paper we first provide some general results concerning the ideal $P_G$. It is also proved that

  5. Downsizing without Discriminating against Minorities and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Barbara S.; Wolfe, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Two waves of personnel layoffs at Stanford University (California) provide two case studies in how to address and protect the interests, concerns, and perceptions of minority and women staff members in a climate that mandates streamlined work modes. Guidelines for other institutions are suggested. (MSE)

  6. Primary mental health care information and services for St. John's visible minority immigrants: gaps and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitmanova, Sylvia; Gustafson, Diana L

    2009-10-01

    This article draws on an environmental scan and interviews with visible minority immigrants in a small urban Atlantic community to report on gaps and opportunities for improving access to information about primary mental health care services and barriers to utilization of these services. Information about services was limited and did not specifically address the complex health-related concerns of immigrants with diverse religious and cultural backgrounds. Accessing information about mental health care services was challenging for some visible minority immigrants because of physical and financial constraints and limited computer and language literacy. The major barriers to the utilization of primary mental health care services were lack of information, language and literacy issues, a mistrust of primary mental health care services, the stigma associated with mental illness, long wait times, lack of finances, and religious and cultural differences and insensitivity. A list of nine recommendations, which may be of interest to mental health decision-makers and service providers in small urban centers with limited ethno-cultural diversity, is provided.

  7. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  8. Language Management Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of existing literature on the topic of language management tools – the means by which language is managed – in multilingual organisations. By drawing on a combination of sociolinguistics and international business and management studies, a new taxonomy of language...... management tools is proposed, differentiating between three categories of tools. Firstly, corporate policies are the deliberate control of issues pertaining to language and communication developed at the managerial level of a firm. Secondly, corporate measures are the planned activities the firm’s leadership...... may deploy in order to address the language needs of the organisation. Finally, front-line practices refer to the use of informal, emergent language management tools available to staff members. The language management tools taxonomy provides a framework for operationalising the management of language...

  9. Language Management and Language Problems in Belarus: Education and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, Markus; Sloboda, Marian

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Belarus, the most russified of the post-Soviet countries. It summarizes language policy and legislation, and deals in more detail with language management and selected language problems in Belarusian education. It also contributes to the work on language planning by applying…

  10. Health concerns of sexual minority adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanna D; Melchiono, Maurice W

    2006-08-01

    The goal of this article is to provide an overview of up-to-date health information about sexual minority female youth so that healthcare practitioners can better serve their healthcare needs. Sexual minority adolescent girls may follow diverse sexual developmental trajectories. Many in this population are quite healthy, but some may be disproportionately vulnerable to health risks, perhaps because of the stigma associated with minority sexuality in society. If sexually active, girls in this population often have sex with boys as well as girls and confront risks attendant with sex with both genders. They may demonstrate fluidity in their sexual identity as they move through adolescence. Data suggest that sexual minority adolescent girls are more likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, or use illicit drugs compared with girls who are heterosexual. They may be more likely to be victims of violence or victimization or to be depressed or suicidal. Sexual minority adolescent girls may be quite resilient, but they face a range of possible adverse health risks. Healthcare practitioners should keep their health issues in mind so they can offer healthcare and counseling that is sensitive, comprehensive, and appropriate.

  11. Tidal Tales of Minor Mergers: Star Formation in the Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierman, Karen; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline; Scowen, Paul; Groppi, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, equal mass galaxy mergers are relatively rare compared to minor mergers (mass ratio tails in minor mergers can range over orders of magnitude on both local and global scales, and include several star forming regions with higher than normal SFE. From the tidal debris environments in our study, this variance appears to stem from the formation conditions of the debris. New results from the first survey of molecular hydrogen in minor merger tidal debris will be presented. Current surveys of the 2.12 micron line of molecular hydrogen, CO(1-0), and HI for 15 minor mergers, are providing a larger sample of environments to study the threshold for star formation that can inform star formation models, particularly at low densities.

  12. Problems of minority fuel-oil dealers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalt, Joseph P.; Lee, Henry

    1980-01-01

    Claims that minority fuel oil dealers are hampered by severe impediments in the competition for contracts for oil, loan funds from banks, and assistance from the Federal government are explored. Possible remedial actions are recommended. The study focused on the metropolitan areas of Boston, Providence, and New York City. Following the introductory section, the evolving role of minority oil retailers in the Northeast market is reviewed in the second section. The third section examines the specific problems confronting minority dealers, including obtaining start-up capital and finding sources of supply. The fourth section addresses the problems associated with serving the inner-city markets. The fifth section introduces specific recommendations to meet the problems outlined.

  13. Measuring Sexual and Gender Minority Populations in Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M.; Bowen, Deborah J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) are underrepresented and information about SGMs is difficult to locate in national health surveillance data, and this limits identification and resolution of SGM health disparities. It is also not known how measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity in health surveillance compare with best practice recommendations. This article reviews and summarizes the publicly available, English language, large-scale, rigorously sampled, national, international, and regional data sources that include sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and compares measures with best practice guidelines. Methods: A systematic review was undertaken of national, international, state, and regional health surveillance data sources. Data sources that measured sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and met seven inclusion criteria were included. Results: Forty-three publicly accessible national, international, and regional data sources included measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity and health. For each data source, sampling design, sample characteristics, study years, survey questions, contact persons, and data access links are provided. Few data sources met best practice recommendations for SGM measurement: 14% measured all three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, behavior, attraction) as recommended by the Sexual Minority Assessment Research Team. No data sources measured transgender-inclusive gender identity according to the Gender Identity in U.S. Surveillance-recommended two-step method of measuring sex assigned at birth and current gender identity. Conclusions: This article provides a much needed detailed summary of extant health surveillance data sources that can be used to inform research about health risks and disparities among SGM populations. Future recommendations are for more rigorous measurement and oversampling to

  14. Measuring Sexual and Gender Minority Populations in Health Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joanne G; Jabson, Jennifer M; Bowen, Deborah J

    2017-04-01

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) are underrepresented and information about SGMs is difficult to locate in national health surveillance data, and this limits identification and resolution of SGM health disparities. It is also not known how measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity in health surveillance compare with best practice recommendations. This article reviews and summarizes the publicly available, English language, large-scale, rigorously sampled, national, international, and regional data sources that include sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and compares measures with best practice guidelines. A systematic review was undertaken of national, international, state, and regional health surveillance data sources. Data sources that measured sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and met seven inclusion criteria were included. Forty-three publicly accessible national, international, and regional data sources included measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity and health. For each data source, sampling design, sample characteristics, study years, survey questions, contact persons, and data access links are provided. Few data sources met best practice recommendations for SGM measurement: 14% measured all three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, behavior, attraction) as recommended by the Sexual Minority Assessment Research Team. No data sources measured transgender-inclusive gender identity according to the Gender Identity in U.S. Surveillance-recommended two-step method of measuring sex assigned at birth and current gender identity. This article provides a much needed detailed summary of extant health surveillance data sources that can be used to inform research about health risks and disparities among SGM populations. Future recommendations are for more rigorous measurement and oversampling to advance what is known about SGM health disparities

  15. Psycholinguistics: A Second Language Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Evelyn Marcussen

    Perspectives of the field of psycholinguistics and second language research are examined to provide a broader understanding of language learning and language behavior. Psycholinguistics, which uses the approaches of psychology and linguistics is defined as the search for an understanding of how humans comprehend and produce language. Based on the…

  16. Teaching language arts to English language learners

    CERN Document Server

    Vásquez, Anete; Smith, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    This thoroughly revised and updated edition of Teaching Language Arts to English Language Learners provides readers with the comprehensive understanding of both the challenges that face ELLs and ways in which educators might address them in the language arts classroom. The authors offer proven techniques that teachers can readily use to teach reading, writing, grammar, and vocabulary as well as speaking, listening, and viewing skills. A complete section is also devoted to ways teachers can integrate all five strands of the language arts curriculum into a comprehensive unit of study w

  17. MINOR INNOVATIVE ENTERPRISES AND METHODS OF THEIR FINANCING IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Komissarov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minor enterprises do not have resources sufficient for investment. Present experience of venture financing and attraction of funds from finance markets is poor in Russia. Main minor entrepreneurship financing sources are state allocations in the form of subsidies, subventionsand donations. This support promotes economics diversification and increases jobs. The state becomes client of innovations and provides for business environment favorable for minor entrepreneurship and for subsequent diffusion of innovations. One of most efficient innovationactivity stimulation methods (applied to minor enterprises as well is provision for tax privileges, favorable state bank credits and preferences to innovation activity supporting commercial banks.

  18. Alcohol-Related Problems among Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tonda

    2012-01-01

    In this article I describe the historical context for research on sexual minority women’s drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; I summarize gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexual minority women’s drinking over the past several decades; and I review recent literature to highlight progress in the field—with a particular focus on my own research related to risk and protective factors for heavy drinking and drinking-related problems among sexual minority women. I conclude with a discussion of barriers to treatment for sexual minority women and recommendations for substance abuse treatment providers. PMID:22470226

  19. 28 CFR 55.13 - Language used for oral assistance and publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Language used for oral assistance and... THE PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Determining the Exact Language § 55.13 Language used for oral assistance and publicity. (a) Languages with more than one dialect...

  20. Programming Language Pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Programming Language Pragmatics is the most comprehensive programming language textbook available today. Taking the perspective that language design and language implementation are tightly interconnected, and that neither can be fully understood in isolation, this critically acclaimed and bestselling book has been thoroughly updated to cover the most recent developments in programming language design. With a new chapter on run-time program management and expanded coverage of concurrency, this new edition provides both students and professionals alike with a solid understanding of the most impo

  1. Just How Safe Is Australia's Multilingual Language Policy? A Response to Michael Clyne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    Response to an article on multiculturalism and status of community languages in Australia finds three areas in which the author's optimism appears not to be justified: argument that placing economic value on languages automatically works in favor of linguistic minorities; assumption that minority languages all have similar economic value; and…

  2. [The health situation and health care needs of unaccompanied minor refugees - an approximation based on qualitative and quantitative studies from Bielefeld, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, Jacob; Tempes, Jana; Ricksgers, Hannah; Marquardt, Louisa; Prüfer-Krämer, Luise; Krämer, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Unaccompanied minor refugees are children or adolescents below the age of 18 years who are not accompanied by their parents. International studies show that unaccompanied minor refugees represent a special risk group. Currently, empirical study results about the health status of unaccompanied minor refugees barely exist for Germany. Therefore, the goal of this article is an assessment of the health status and health care of unaccompanied minor refugees in Bielefeld, Germany. For this purpose, two qualitative studies and one quantitative study from Bielefeld are used.Results demonstrate that the health care of unaccompanied minor refugees underlies certain peculiarities that indicate major medical needs: Firstly, the need for psychological/psychiatric care and secondly the need for health care regarding infectious diseases. Further challenges in the health care needs of this population group result from its specific situation, and comprise legal conditions, as well as language and cultural competencies on behalf of the health care providers and the unaccompanied minor refugees themselves.

  3. Falling Prey to the Dominant Culture? Demystifying Symbolic Violence against Ethnic Minority Students in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Peshal

    2017-01-01

    Nepal's multicultural society is hierarchical and divided along the lines of caste, ethnicity and language and its school system, including curriculum and pedagogy, is influenced greatly by the dominant language and culture. In this context, this article analyses the difficulties and struggle ethnic minority children experience as they move…

  4. Minor's healthcare: who decides? | Osime | Port Harcourt Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Google search was made to identify legal opinions on the subject of informed consent for medical treatment and minors. Findings from the search were analysed against the background of current practices of healthcare providers. Results: Virtually all legal authorities are in agreement that minors can indeed give ...

  5. Minority Parents' Perspectives on Racial Socialization and School Readiness in the Early Childhood Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ashaunta T; Jackson, Aurora; Jones, Loretta; Kennedy, David P; Wells, Kenneth; Chung, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    To describe how minority parents help their young children navigate issues of race and racism and discuss implications this racial socialization may have for school readiness. Sixteen focus groups were conducted among 114 African American, English language-primary Latino, Spanish language-primary Latino, and Korean language-primary Korean parents of children ages 0 to 4 years old. Transcripts were coded for major themes and subsequently compared across the 4 language-ethnicity groups. Parents also shared demographic and parenting data by survey, from which group-specific proportions provide context for identified themes. In this sample, nearly half of surveyed parents had already talked to their young child about unfair treatment due to race. The proportion of such conversations ranged from one-fifth of Korean parents to two-thirds of Spanish language-primary parents. In focus groups, Korean parents reported fewer experiences with racism than African American and Latino parents. Within each language-ethnicity group, fewer fathers than mothers reported addressing race issues with their young children. All focus groups endorsed messages of cultural pride, preparation for bias, and a strong focus on the individual. The majority of parents viewed racial socialization as an important part of school readiness. Racial socialization was believed to be salient for school readiness, primarily practiced by mothers, and focused at the individual level. The smaller role of fathers and systems-based approaches represent opportunities for intervention. These results may inform the development of culturally tailored parenting interventions designed to decrease the race-based achievement gap and associated health disparities. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A developmentally informed adaptation of minority stress for sexual minority adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Gibbs, Jeremy J

    2017-02-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (lesbian, gay, bisexual) experience disparities in behavioral health outcomes compared to their heterosexual peers, generally attributed to minority stress. Although evidence of the applicability of the minority stress model among adolescents exists, it is based on a primarily adult literature. Developmental and generational differences demand further examination of minority stress to confirm its applicability. Forty-eight life history interviews with sexual minority adolescents in California (age 14-19; M = 19.27 SD = 1.38; 39.6% cismale, 35.4% cisfemale, 25% other gender) were completed, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis in QSR NVivo. Following a consensus model, all transcripts were double coded. Results suggest that minority stress is appropriate for use with adolescents; however, further emphasis should be placed on social context, coping resources, and developmental processes regarding identity development. A conceptual model is provided, as are implications for research and practice. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethnic minority dropout in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from

  8. Multiculturalism and legal autonomy for cultural minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Does multiculturalism imply that certain cultural minorities – nomos groups, whose cultural conceptions extend in important ways into views about the law – should have forms of legal autonomy that go beyond normal multicultural accommodations such as exemptions and special protection? In other words: should we allow «minority jurisdictions» for multicultural reasons and give certain minorities powers of legislation and adjudication on certain issues? The paper sketches how one might arrive at such a conclusion given some standard multicultural reasoning, and then proceeds by examining eight key rejoinders to such a proposal. None of these rejoinders provide by themselves knockdown arguments against extending multicultural rights to forms of legal autonomy, but together they do provide a basis for some skepticism about the cogency and desirability of at least more ambitious forms of legal autonomy for cultural minorities within a liberal framework.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i2.1798

  9. Minority game with peer pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, H. F.; Chow, F. K.; Ho, K. H.

    2004-02-01

    To study the interplay between global market choice and local peer pressure, we construct a minority-game-like econophysical model. In this so-called networked minority game model, every selfish player uses both the historical minority choice of the population and the historical choice of one's neighbors in an unbiased manner to make decision. Results of numerical simulation show that the level of cooperation in the networked minority game differs remarkably from the original minority game as well as the prediction of the crowd-anticrowd theory. We argue that the deviation from the crowd-anticrowd theory is due to the negligence of the effect of a four point correlation function in the effective Hamiltonian of the system.

  10. How language production shapes language form and comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2013-01-01

    Language production processes can provide insight into how language comprehension works and language typology—why languages tend to have certain characteristics more often than others. Drawing on work in memory retrieval, motor planning, and serial order in action planning, the Production-Distribution-Comprehension (PDC) account links work in the fields of language production, typology, and comprehension: 1) faced with substantial computational burdens of planning and producing utterances, ...

  11. Cross-cultural care encounters in paediatric care: minority ethnic parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar Gashasb; Jirwe, Maria; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2017-03-01

    Because of worldwide migration, the healthcare staff in general as well as in paedi"atric care specifically is challenged increasingly by people from various ethnic backgrounds. The challenge is related to providing culturally competent care and effectively communicating with people from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds who have different health beliefs, practices, values and languages. This also applies to the Swedish society and to Swedish paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to describe the expectations and experiences of cross-cultural care encounters among minority ethnic parents in Swedish paediatric care. A qualitative design was used in the study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews between October 2011 and March 2012. The sample consisted of 12 parents of minority ethnic backgrounds who had their child in a ward at a children's hospital in the Stockholm County Council. The interviews were analysed using manifest content analysis. The Regional Ethical Review Committee approved the study (Ref: Nr: 2011/927-31/5). The analysis of the interviews led to three categories: fundamentals in nursing, cultural sensitivity and understanding, and influencing conditions. Generic knowledge and skills of nurses outweighed the need for the nurses to have culture-specific knowledge of their patients or relatives in cross-cultural care encounters. Language skills and the availability of bilingual nurses in a multi-ethnic society can facilitate communication and increase parents' satisfaction in cross-cultural care encounters. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. The New Arrival Minority: Perceptions of Their First-Year Tertiary Programming Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Barbara J.

    "New arrivals" - immigrant and international students who leave their home countries and study abroad - are a minority subgroup in their learning environments, coping with their border crossings into new cultures and languages. Many of these students enroll in tertiary computing programs in which the culture has been found to be alienating for women, another minority subgroup. This article reports the results of semistructured interviews that examined how new-arrival tertiary students studying 1st-year programming perceived their computing learning environments. The study was conducted at three tertiary institutions in Wellington, New Zealand. It was found that the majority of students perceived their learning milieus positively and that maturity and experience were positive mitigating factors on the culture of the computing learning environment. However, for the few younger students who did not enjoy the same personalization and had difficulties with the English language and culture, there are implications for the faculty and administrative staff members of institutions interested in providing positive learning experiences for new arrivals.

  13. Attitutes of Parents in the Porabje Region towards the Slovene language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Munda Hirnök

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data acquired within the research project Attitudes of parents in the Porabje region towards the Slovene language, bi- and multi-lingualism, despite relatively favourable institutional regulation of minority language following the change of political system in Hungary after 1990, sociolinguistic variables (perception of mother tongue, self-evaluation of language command, communication for assessing trends of dropping and preservation of the Porabje dialect/Slovene language are worsening as compared to results of the past research studies. However, it is necessary to mention that respondents’ attitudes towards Slovene language are positive, the majority seeing language as an advantage in terms of professional success, as a factor of ethnic affiliation and as the language of one’s neighbour. Parents consider command of Slovene language important for their children. Respondents’ answers to the open question why parents don’t communicate with their children in the Porabje dialect/Slovene language at home provide a convincing description of the reasons having brought about the present situation when the Porabje dialect is considered endangered. That is why with the revitalization of the Porabje dialect/Slovene language special attention will have to be dedicated to respondents – parents, among who there are only 38.8% that have a good or medium command of the Porabje dialect, and only 20,9% with good command of literary Slovene, although the majority of the respondents (64% declared themselves as Hungarians, and only a quarter (25,4% for Slovenians and Hungarians, and 7,5% for Slovenians. A change in the attitude towards minority languages on the part of Slovene community members can in future be due to the planned measures of the Hungarian government (modification of the high schools enrollment decree. According to the document from 2020 on only those secondary school students will be admitted to the first degree or

  14. Sweet Talking: Food, Language, and Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Guy

    2010-01-01

    At a time of diminishing resources, the sum of apparently minor personal decisions about food can have immense impact. These individual choices are heavily influenced by language, as those with vested interests seek to persuade individuals to act in certain ways. This makes the language of food politics a fitting area for an expanding applied…

  15. Jews in the Netherlands and their languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, A.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cultural contacts between majority and minority groups involve many different aspects, one of which is language. Jews have been living in the Netherlands since around the beginning of the sixteenth century. In the two centuries that followed, their language repertoire was very rich, consisting of at

  16. The Language of Instruction in Chinese Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Dayle

    1978-01-01

    The author summarizes some of the spoken language policies of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China of Taiwan, including some statistics on dialect speakers in the population, methods for promoting Mandarin in the schools, and attitudes toward the maintenance of minority languages. (SJL)

  17. Quelles aides les formations hybrides en langues proposent-elles à l'apprenant pour favoriser son autonomie ? What kind of assistance do blended language learning courses provide to learners in order to foster their autonomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Nissen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available L'apprenant qui suit une formation hybride en langues travaille partiellement à distance, ce qui lui demande une certaine autonomie. La question alors est de savoir si ces formations soutiennent l'apprenant dans le développement de son autonomie et si oui, comment. Les réponses des concepteurs de huit formations hybrides à un questionnaire auto-administré montrent que les nécessaires développement et soutien de l'autonomie sont toujours respectés ; ainsi, ces huit formations proposent des aides pour favoriser l'autonomie dans les domaines technique, méthodologique, social et, bien sûr, langagier. Développer ces autonomies semble donc être devenu un standard dans le cadre des formations observées. En revanche, les autonomies de type psycho-affectif, informationnel, cognitif et métacognitif ne sont pas prises en considération dans toutes les formations.When taking a blended learning course, a learner works partially at a distance, which requires some autonomy. The aim of this study is to find out whether blended learning courses sustain the development of learner autonomy and if they do so, how they do it. The statements that 8 course designers made in a questionnaire show that their courses always help the learners to become or to be autonomous. All 8 courses provide assistance (advice, information and activities in order to foster technical, methodological, social and, of course, language autonomy. Consequently, sustaining these four types of autonomy seems to have become a standard in blended learning courses. But, on the contrary, assistance for other types of autonomy is not systematically provided: only several of these courses help the learners to develop psycho affective, informational, cognitive and metacognive autonomy.

  18. Minority ethnic elders in care homes: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold, Freda; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M; Roberts, Julia D

    2005-03-01

    Health and social care services are required to provide quality service provision to meet all older people's needs, including any needs specific to minority ethnic groups. The heterogeneity of the population, however, highlights the need to offer a range of services that reflect people's language, cultural and religious differences. This paper reviews the literature concerned with minority ethnic elders in care homes. Systematic searches were conducted using the following online databases: Web of Science, Pub Med, Sociological Abstracts, Social Sciences Index, AMED, British Nursing Index, Medline, PsycInfo and CINAHL. Independent reviewers undertook a structured assessment of each piece of literature. Data extraction and analysis were in accordance with established methods. The literature has been classified into two key areas. First, issues arising from international literature, including factors relating to access, equality and workforce issues, care satisfaction and placement decision-making. The second area focuses on the issues emerging from the UK literature. Issues of particular concern include barriers to care provision for minority ethnic older people, loss of independence and the recognition of cultural needs. The review indicates how problems remain in ensuring the delivery of best-quality long-term care to ethnic elders in care homes. The review also highlights the absence of studies focusing on the perception of care from residents' perspectives and their involvement in making placement and care decisions.

  19. Variation in Subjective Aging by Sexual Minority Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne; Barbee, Harry

    2017-06-01

    The past few decades have seen increased scholarly attention to gay and lesbian individuals' aging experiences; however, few studies examine differences in subjective aging by sexual minority status. We identify four perspectives on the association between sexual minority status and subjective aging-double jeopardy, crisis competence, gender interactive, and limited salience perspectives. We examine each perspective's predictions using data from the first wave of Midlife in the United States (1995-1996; MIDUS). Ordinary least square regression models reveal strongest support for the limited salience perspective, suggesting that sexual minority status has weaker effects on subjective aging than do other social factors, such as age, health, and gender. However, some results provide support for the gender interactive perspective, positing that the effect of sexual minority status on subjective aging varies by gender. Our study provides an organizational framework of theoretical perspectives that can guide further examinations of variation in aging experiences by sexual minority status.

  20. School of Roman Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai V. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of Romance languages (Italian, Portuguese and Latin named after professor T.Z. Cherdantseva was created November 26, 2002. The main task of the department is a professionally-oriented teaching of Italian and Portuguese (both as first and a second language for all faculties of MGIMO-University in all majors and minors on both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Special attention is paid to teaching courses on socio-political, economic and legal translation. Teaching begins with a zero level, and by the end of training a student reaches a level of high proficiency. In accordance with the agreements with ICA (Portugal a lecturer from the Institute Camöes (Portugal João Mendonça conducts classes on spoken language, listening and abstracting. He also lectures on the history and culture of Portugal and co-authored (with G. Petrova a textbook "Portuguese for Beginners".

  1. Sextortion of Minors: Characteristics and Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Walsh, Wendy; Treitman, Leah

    2018-01-01

    Sextortion (threats to expose sexual images to coerce victims to provide additional pictures, sex, or other favors) has been identified as an emerging online threat to youth, but research is scarce. We describe sextortion incidents from a large sample of victims (n = 1,385) and examine whether incidents occurring to minors (n = 572) are more or less serious than those experienced by young adults (n = 813). We ran advertising campaigns on Facebook to recruit victims of sextortion, ages 18-25, for an online survey. We use cross tabulations and logistic regression to analyze incidents that began when 18- and 19-year-old respondents were minors (ages 17 and younger) and compare them with incidents that began at ages 18-25 years. Most minor victims were female (91%) and aged 16 or 17 when incidents started (75%). Almost 60% of respondents who were minors when sextortion occurred knew perpetrators in person, often as romantic partners. Most knowingly provided images to perpetrators (75%), but also felt pressured to do so (67%). About one-third were threatened with physical assaults and menaced for >6 months. Half did not disclose incidents, and few reported to police or websites. Perpetrators against minors (vs. adults) were more likely to pressure victims into producing initial sexual images, demand additional images, threaten victims for >6 months, and urge victims to harm themselves. Sextortion incidents were serious victimizations, and often co-occurred with teen dating violence. We describe resources so that practitioners can help victims find support and legal advice and remove posted images. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Spanish language and culture initiative for a doctor of pharmacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTyle, W Kent; Kennedy, Gala; Vance, Michael A; Hancock, Bruce

    2011-02-10

    To implement a Spanish language and culture initiative in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum that would improve students' Spanish language skills and cultural competence so that graduates could provide competent pharmaceutical care to Spanish-speaking patients. Five elective courses were created and introduced to the curriculum including 2 medical Spanish courses; a medical Spanish service-learning course; a 2-week Spanish language and cultural immersion trip to Mexico; and an advanced practice pharmacy experience (APPE) at a medical care clinic serving a high percentage of Spanish-speaking patients. Advisors placed increased emphasis on encouraging pharmacy students to complete a major or minor in Spanish. Enrollment in the Spanish language courses and the cultural immersion trip has been strong. Twenty-three students have completed the APPE at a Spanish-speaking clinic. Eleven percent of 2010 Butler University pharmacy graduates completed a major or minor in Spanish compared to approximately 1% in 2004 when the initiative began. A Spanish language and culture initiative started in 2004 has resulted in increased Spanish language and cultural competence among pharmacy students and recent graduates.

  3. Language Matters in Counselling Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Billy

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a personal view of some issues around therapeutic conversations involving difference and minority experience. Language, discourse and mother-tongue are explored from different theoretical standpoints and considered alongside concepts of difference, otherness and the unvoiced. Intercultural counselling offers a framework for…

  4. [Mental health problems in ethnic minority groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Justyna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the specificity of mental health issues as experienced by ethnic minority groups' representatives. A substantial body of evidence clearly indicates the differences in incidence of psychosis, affective disorders and suicidal tendencies in members of minority groups compared to the rest of the population. Relevant statistical data will be presented and examined from both a biological and socio-cultural point of view. Hoffman's Social Deafferentation Hypothesis will be introduced as a possible explanation of high incidence of psychotic disorders in immigrants. Subsequently, socio-cultural factors will receive attention. Acculturation and identity issues will be taken into account with regards to the data suggesting that these are second generation immigrants that suffer from mental health disorders most. The fact of being discriminated against and being exposed to negative social messages regarding one's group of reference will also be taken into consideration. Moreover, ethnic minorities will be compared on this dimension with other groups discriminated against, such as women and sexual minorities.

  5. Everyday Language Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwazume, Michiaki; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Itho, Noriko; Takahashi, Yusuke; Fujishiro, Hiroko; Sugeno, Michio

    The aim of this study is to provide all people, from small children to aged persons, with a computational environment for everyday language communication. In order to achieve this, we propose a framework for a language-based operating system. In this paper, we explain our approach to dealing with the meaning of language, the architecture of the language operating system and its components. In particular, we describe the notion of language protocol and its resource representation (i.e., semiotic base), compared to the other protocols and their resource representations. We argue that by processing meaning of language rather than processing information, we attempt to provide a more human-like computer system and an intelligent computational environment to all people.

  6. Can majority support save an endangered language? A case study of language attitudes in Guernsey

    OpenAIRE

    Sallabank, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Many studies of minority language revitalisation focus on the attitudes and perceptions of minorities, but not on those of majority group members. This paper discusses the implications of these issues, and presents research into majority andf minority attitudes towards the endangered indigenous vernacular of Guernsey, Channel Islands. The research used a multi-method approach (questionnaire and interview) to obtain attitudinal data from a representative sample of the population that included ...

  7. The language of mathematics: investigating the ways language counts for children's mathematical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rose K; Lesaux, Nonie K

    2013-06-01

    This longitudinal study examined how language ability relates to mathematical development in a linguistically and ethnically diverse sample of children from 6 to 9 years of age. Study participants were 75 native English speakers and 92 language minority learners followed from first to fourth grades. Autoregression in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework was used to evaluate the relation between children's language ability and gains in different domains of mathematical cognition (i.e., arithmetic, data analysis/probability, algebra, and geometry). The results showed that language ability predicts gains in data analysis/probability and geometry, but not in arithmetic or algebra, after controlling for visual-spatial working memory, reading ability, and sex. The effect of language on gains in mathematical cognition did not differ between language minority learners and native English speakers. These findings suggest that language influences how children make meaning of mathematics but is not involved in complex arithmetical procedures whether presented with Arabic symbols as in arithmetic or with abstract symbols as in algebraic reasoning. The findings further indicate that early language experiences are important for later mathematical development regardless of language background, denoting the need for intensive and targeted language opportunities for language minority and native English learners to develop mathematical concepts and representations. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Academic Language in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Phoebe

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on defining academic language in physical education and provides a step-by-step approach designed to help preservice and inservice teachers understand and incorporated academic language into their lesson planning. It provides examples of discipline-specific vocabulary, language functions, syntax, and discourse, aiming to…

  9. Multilingualism and the language curriculum in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we question the role of second additional language (that is, an optional, non-official language) teaching, with special reference to French at school level in South Africa. Over and above the fact that some additional languages reflect minority cultures and communities (Greek, Serbian, Hebrew, etc.), we consider ...

  10. Topic Centred Subject/Language Learning Materials and Their Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, Marta

    Social bilinguals (second language learners in a linguistic minority) and cultural bilinguals (foreign language learners) often learn side by side in the same classroom, making syllabus planning and choice of teaching methodology difficult. Adopting a bilingual approach and exploring the semantic and discourse aspects of language can overcome the…

  11. COMMON LANGUAGE VERSUS SPECIALIZED LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Coancă

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the presentation of the common language and the specialized one. We also highlighted the relations and the differences between them. The specialized language is a vector of specialized knowledge, but sometimes it contains units from the common language. The common language is unmarked and it is based on the daily non-specialized exchange. The specialized languages are different from the common languages, regarding their usage and the information they convey. The communic...

  12. Minority Health and Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among other minorities. 3 Self-reported rates of DUI are highest among mixed race and Native Americans ... 4 Hispanics are overrepresented among drunk drivers and DUI-related fatalities. 5 Between 2001 and 2005, alcohol ...

  13. NAFTA Minor Use Joint Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and Health Canada Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) worked together to develop a registration process that will permit a regulatory decision of pesticide uses for the minor use grower communities in both countries simultaneously.

  14. Recruiting Minority Women, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    The number of special resources for recruiting minority women is, although still limited, slowly increasing. The document lists studies and handbooks, directories, registries and placement agencies, national organizations and women's groups, publications and directories of other media. (MJM)

  15. Campus Climates for Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Susan R.

    2005-01-01

    Sexual minorities encounter unique challenges due to their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression that often prevents them from achieving their full academic potential or participating fully in the campus community. (Contains 3 tables and 2 notes.)

  16. Minority stressors, rumination, and psychological distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Liam; Rimes, Katharine A; Rahman, Qazi

    2017-11-07

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals report higher levels of depression and anxiety than heterosexual people. Genetic factors may be a 'common cause' of sexual minority status and psychological distress. Alternatively, these may be correlated because of non-genetic environmental factors (e.g. minority stressors). This study investigated minority stressors and distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status. This design provides a test of the role of non-shared environmental factors while minimizing differences due to genetics. Thirty-eight twin pairs in which one was heterosexual and the other was LGB completed a survey. Differences between twin pairs in minority stressors, rumination, psychological distress, and gender non-conformity were examined. Associations between these variables were also tested. Although there were no significant group differences for distress, LGB twins had higher rumination, a vulnerability factor for distress, than heterosexual co-twins. LGB twins also had higher scores than heterosexual co-twins on expectations of rejection, active concealment, self-stigma, prejudice events, childhood gender non-conformity, and lower scores on sexual orientation disclosure. Differences between twin pairs in rumination were positively associated with differences in acceptance concerns and self-stigma. Finally, self-stigma was positively associated with rumination in the full sample of heterosexual co-twins and microaggressions were positively associated with rumination when looking at exclusively heterosexual co-twins. These results support environmental factors as a causal explanation for disparities in rumination between LGB and heterosexual individuals. These factors likely include minority stressors. Rumination may also be associated with minority stressors in heterosexual MZ co-twins of LGB individuals.

  17. Translation of interviews from a source language to a target language: examining issues in cross-cultural health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna

    2015-05-01

    To illuminate translation practice in cross-language interview in health care research and its impact on the construction of the data. Globalisation and changing patterns of migration have created changes to the world's demography; this has presented challenges for overarching social domains, specifically, in the health sector. Providing ethno-cultural health services is a timely and central facet in an ever-increasingly diverse world. Nursing and other health sectors employ cross-language research to provide knowledge and understanding of the needs of minority groups, which underpins cultural-sensitive care services. However, when cultural and linguistic differences exist, they pose unique complexities for cross-cultural health care research; particularly in qualitative research where narrative data are central for communication as most participants prefer to tell their story in their native language. Consequently, translation is often unavoidable in order to make a respondent's narrative vivid and comprehensible, yet, there is no consensus about how researchers should address this vital issue. An integrative literature review. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies published before January 2014, and hand searched reference lists of studies were selected. This review of cross-language health care studies highlighted three major themes, which identify factors often reported to affect the translation and production of data in cross-language research: (1) translation style; (2) translators; and (3) trustworthiness of the data. A plan detailing the translation process and analysis of health care data must be determined from the study outset to ensure credibility is maintained. A transparent and systematic approach in reporting the translation process not only enhances the integrity of the findings but also provides overall rigour and auditability. It is important that minority groups have a voice in health care research which, if accurately

  18. Language Anxiety in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雪

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the language anxiety in English learning from the following two aspects: the definition of anxiety and the effects of language anxiety. Meanwhile, it provides some pedagogical implications to college English teachers and learners.

  19. Language Anxiety in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雪

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the language anxiety in English learning from the following two aspects: the definitionof anxiety and the effects of language anxiety. Meanwhile, it provides some pedagogical implications to college English teachers andlearners.

  20. Details on Exclusive Use Data Protection for Minor Use Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides information about issues related to exclusive use data protection for minor use registrations, including extension of the exclusive use period and establishing a new exclusive use period.

  1. 78 FR 72527 - Minority Enterprise Development Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... doors of opportunity are cracked a little wider for a few, but whether our economic system provides a... minority enterprises, renew our commitment to helping them grow, and look with pride toward the promise of...

  2. Mourning in a Minority Language: Assia Djebar's Algerian White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerous books and articles have dealt with the violence of the 1990s civil war in Algeria. Sociological and historical studies, as well as news reports and literary works have sought to contain the violence by describing and explaining it and, in some way, give meaning to what seemed to be, at times, meaningless and ...

  3. In the Name of Language: School-Based Language Revitalization, Strategic Solidarities, and State Power in the French Basque Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Kai A.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the mobilization dynamics of a school-based minority language revitalization initiative in the French Basque Country, known as the Ikastola Movement. Bringing the study of language revitalization into dialogue with social movement theory, I discuss how the solidarity of Basque language activists was influenced by state-level…

  4. Legal Pathways to the Recognition of Sign Languages: A Comparison of the Catalan and Spanish Sign Language Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quer, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Despite being minority languages like many others, sign languages have traditionally remained absent from the agendas of policy makers and language planning and policies. In the past two decades, though, this situation has started to change at different paces and to different degrees in several countries. In this article, the author describes the…

  5. A model of the mechanisms of language extinction and revitalization strategies to save endangered languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Chrisantha; Valijärvi, Riitta-Liisa; Goldstein, Richard A

    2010-02-01

    Why and how have languages died out? We have devised a mathematical model to help us understand how languages go extinct. We use the model to ask whether language extinction can be prevented in the future and why it may have occurred in the past. A growing number of mathematical models of language dynamics have been developed to study the conditions for language coexistence and death, yet their phenomenological approach compromises their ability to influence language revitalization policy. In contrast, here we model the mechanisms underlying language competition and look at how these mechanisms are influenced by specific language revitalization interventions, namely, private interventions to raise the status of the language and thus promote language learning at home, public interventions to increase the use of the minority language, and explicit teaching of the minority language in schools. Our model reveals that it is possible to preserve a minority language but that continued long-term interventions will likely be necessary. We identify the parameters that determine which interventions work best under certain linguistic and societal circumstances. In this way the efficacy of interventions of various types can be identified and predicted. Although there are qualitative arguments for these parameter values (e.g., the responsiveness of children to learning a language as a function of the proportion of conversations heard in that language, the relative importance of conversations heard in the family and elsewhere, and the amplification of spoken to heard conversations of the high-status language because of the media), extensive quantitative data are lacking in this field. We propose a way to measure these parameters, allowing our model, as well as others models in the field, to be validated.

  6. Scientific inquiry as social and linguistic practice: Language socialization pathways in a ninth-grade physics class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Sarah Katherine

    English Language Learners (ELLs) in K-12 schools in the United States. have lower standardized test scores and lower high school graduation rates than their native-English speaking peers. Similar performance gaps exist for Latino/a students when compared to White non-Latino/a students, even if they are not identified as English learners and were schooled in the United States. Language minority students are also underrepresented in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields. Equity in access to STEM degrees and professions is a social justice issue with economic implications. STEM careers provide economic security for individuals and growth in STEM industries is important for the United States economy. As the demographics in the United States change to include more workers from language minority backgrounds, it has become even more imperative to ensure equitable access to STEM careers. Traditional approaches to studying equity for K-12 language minority students in the sciences focus on narrowly defined pedagogical methods aimed at improving the performance of language learners on science assessments. However, language socialization research using ethnographic methods suggests that students' classroom-based social positioning shapes their learning and their affiliation or disaffiliation with particular disciplines. Thus, this dissertation explores science expertise as a discursively constructed stance not as a set of acquired facts. In this dissertation research, I use ethnography and classroom discourse analysis to study peer group interactions and explore how language minority students either achieve or do not achieve science expert status in their physics lab groups. In order to trace the language socialization pathways of three Spanish-English bilingual Latina students, it was also necessary to document community-level norms related to academic success. The findings in this dissertation center on these two phenomena: classroom

  7. Language Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Lana; Maylath, J. Bruce; Adams, Anthony; Couzijn, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Language Awareness: A History and Implementations offers teachers of mother tongue and foreign languages a view of the beginnings and the ramifications of the language-teaching movement called Language Awareness. The philosophy held in common among the teachers in this international movement is

  8. Base Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, A.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the role of contrastive linguistics and transformational generative grammar in studying transfer and interference in language learning. The base language is not necessarily the mother tongue. It is the language known by the learner which most closely resembles the new language being learned. (AMH)

  9. MODERN STATE LANGUAGE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga B. Akimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to denote the necessity of strengthening of the Russian language position as one of the strategic humanitarian priorities of the Russian Federation.Methods. The methods involve the analysis and generalisation of the documents’ content in the last two years, concerning problems of the Russian language and the Russian literature.Results. Since the beginning of the 21st century, Russia takes active and comprehensive measures to support the Russian language and its spread around the world. At the same time, the Russian Government has approved a number of relevant documents, established the Council on the Russian language under the Government of the Russian Federation, as well as established the Council on the Russian language under the President of the Russian Federation. The large-scale package of measures aimed at promotion of the Russian language as an official language and as a language of international communication, as well as at supporting the Russian language abroad, has been implemented in the framework of the three federal target Russian language programs. However, the analysis of implementation of the mentioned above programs, as well as received social effects and current practice does not provide relevant solutions for the major problems and does not always correspond to the rapidly changing realities.Practical significance. The perspective directions of the state language policy in the field of the Russian language and literature are specified and formulated: the analysis of the programs and projects aimed at the development, distribution and support of the Russian language; providing coordination of actions of executive authorities in the presented study; improvement of the Russian language studying quality in schools in accordance with features of the general education in the national republics; professional level improvement of teachers of the Russian language; preservation of national languages of

  10. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia...... anomalies may provide important clues to understanding schizophrenia spectrum disorders from a neurodevelopmental perspective. Minor physical anomalies appear to signal stressors relevant to schizophrenia spectrum development, especially in those at genetic risk for schizophrenia.......OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...

  11. Exploring EFL Learners’ Experience of Foreign Language Proficiency Maintenance: A Phenomenological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Ostovar-Namaghi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Having developed foreign language proficiency, a large number of EFL learners experience some degrees of foreign language loss later in life since English has no social function in many EFL contexts including Iran. However, there are some language learners who actively maintain and develop their proficiency long after they leave language education programs. This study aims at uncovering techniques applied by this minority group in maintaining their foreign language proficiency. Participants who were willing to share their experience of proficiency maintenance were selected through purposive and snowball sampling and verbalizations of their experience were then analyzed in line with phenomenology research design. Abstraction and thematic analysis of the participants’ experiences revealed that they actively create conditions that are conducive to proficiency maintenance such as reviewing previously learned materials, watching target language movies and actively manipulating subtitles, reading for pleasure, attending discussion groups, and using internet to communicate in the target language. While proficiency loss and attrition is the norm in EFL contexts, maintenance is an exception; hence, the findings of this study have clear and immediate implications for both foreign language teachers and learners since they provide them with down-to-earth, data-driven techniques of proficiency maintenance.

  12. English Words and Phrases in Croatian: A Small-Scale Study of Language Awareness and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Perić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on language attitudes towards English words and phrases in the Croatian language. In order to prevent loanwords, linguistic purism has arisen as a theory about what languages should be like. The tradition of linguistic purism in Croatia has been shaped by various socio-historical factors. English may be viewed as a language of opportunity, or as a threat to the survival of other, usually minority and endangered, languages. In order to provide an insight into the use of English words and phrases in the Croatian context, a questionnaire about language attitudes and awareness was conducted on 534 participants. The aim of the questionnaire was to determine participants’ language attitudes and familiarity with English words and phrases. The results show that although people in Croatia generally like English, many of them are not familiar with English words, especially older participants and those with little or no knowledge of the English language. Moreover, the results indicate that the younger generation is more inclined towards English than the older generation; however, they are not as familiar with Croatian equivalents as they claim.

  13. Minority workers or minority human beings? A European dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Phillipson, Robert

    1996-07-01

    "European" identities may be politonymic, toponymic, ethnomyic or linguonymic (Bromley 1984). Each dimension may affect whether migrant minorities are treated as "European", and influence their schooling, integration and rights. Treatment and terminology vary in different states and periods of migration. However, the position for immigrated minorities is that they are still largely seen as workers rather than human beings with equal rights. Lack of success in schools is blamed on the migrants themselves rather than the educational system. This construction of migrants as being deficient is parallel to educational practice which falls within a UN definition of linguistic genocide, and contributes to mis-education. If current efforts in international bodies to codify educational linguistic human rights were to lead to greater support for minorities, this could assist in a redefinition of national identities and a reduction of racism and conflict.

  14. The language of communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The language of communication. Speaking to a person in their own language provides an opportu nity to place that person at their ease, an essential requirement in medicine, and makes retrieving information from that person easier. An article in this edition discusses the conversion of an English uterovaginal pelvic organ ...

  15. Languages of Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.; Gorham, M.; Lunde, I.; Paulsen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Digital Russia provides a comprehensive analysis of the ways in which new media technologies have shaped language and communication in contemporary Russia. It traces the development of the Russian-language internet, explores the evolution of web-based communication practices, showing how they have

  16. LANGUAGE LEARNING--READINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY.

    SELECTED ARTICLES ON SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND REPORTS OF RESEARCH ON LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING, PUBLISHED FROM 1960 TO 1966, ARE PROVIDED IN THIS PACKET. INCLUDED ARE--(1) "UNDER-ACHIEVEMENT IN FL LEARNING" BY PAUL PIMSLEUR, DONALD M. SUNDLAND, AND RUTH D. MCINTYRE, (2) "THE PREDICTION OF SUCCESS IN INTENSIVE FL TRAINING" BY JOHN B.…

  17. Teaching English as an Additional Language In The Global Classroom: A Transnational Study In The United States and United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail McEachron

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global research has shown the persistence of inequality with regard to accessing curriculum with a view to obtaining suitable work and making useful contributions to society. The intersection of race, gender, language and low socio-economic levels creates situations which often marginalize ethnic minorities in school settings (Freire, 1968; Nieto & Turner, 2012. The graduation rates in the United States for Native American, African American and Hispanic students are lower than the graduation rates of Whites and Asian Americans. In addition, Bangladeshis and African Caribbeans currently living in the UK are under-represented in higher education, particularly young men in those communities. The research questions that guide this inquiry are: (1 According to databases, how does the academic performance of language minority groups compare to the academic performance of non-linguistic minority groups at the elementary and secondary levels of education? (2 According to language support teachers and university students, what are the strengths and weaknesses of the instructional practices for language minorities who are learning English in the United Kingdom (UK (Bristol and the United States (US (Henrico? Participants were: five UK teachers, four UK university students, five US teachers, four US university students. Data collection supervised by lead researchers included interviews, focus groups, classroom observation, and performance documents. Data analysis utilized a mixed-methods approach. Overall, linguistic minority groups performed lower than their English proficient peers. Culturally, UK teachers provided a greater emphasis on religious instruction, whereas US teachers addressed patriotic topics more frequently. Teachers in the United States and the United Kingdom were culturally supportive with slight variation in the encouraged use of the students’ heritage languages.

  18. Language Intervention for Hispanic Children with Language-Learning Disabilities: Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerer, Sharon Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (1996) estimated that 10% of the United States population has a disorder of speech, language, or hearing, with proportional distribution among members of racially and ethnically diverse groups. Individuals of Hispanic origin are the fastest-growing minority group in the country. Current national…

  19. Minors' request for confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, S

    2014-07-01

    Dentists must be cognisant of what the law requires and how they are expected to respond. When the law does not address an issue, the dentist would need to weigh the circumstances and consequences and do what he/she thinks is ethically appropriate and acceptable. The need to maintain confidentiality of any information given to us in our professional capacity is paramount. Patient autonomy and their absolute right to confidentiality must be ensured in almost all but the most exceptional circumstances. Patients have the ethical and legal right to expect a health professional to keep confidential the information provided during the course of their care. Disclosure of patient information is only permitted with the patient's consent or if there is an overwhelming public interest in disclosure as prescribed by the law.

  20. Professional Language in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The use of 3-5 languages where professional language is one of them is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. The Aim of the Study. To identify and analyze professional language on the pedagogical discourse in language education. Materials and Methods. The search for…

  1. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  2. STEm Minority Graduate Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, Kaen E

    2012-09-20

    the EAA has assisted college graduates in their quest to attain advanced degrees in STEM by providing fellowships. The EAA continued this effort by recruiting and providing fellowships to students who aspired to continue their education at the graduate level. The fellowships provided funding for tuition, fees, books, technology, and stipends to assist with room, board, and living expenses during the academic year and salary, transportation, and living expenses to those students who secured internships with the Department of Energy. Additionally the EAA designed and implemented needed support systems to ensure successful completion of the Masters degree programs, including but not limited to membership in professional associations, attendance at industry and academic conferences, and professional development workshops, and tutorial assistance if needed. This program assisted over 80 students directly and society-at-large by helping to educate and develop future physicists, engineers, biostatisticians, and researchers who will have the necessary skillsets to fill the increasing numbers of positions that require such expertise.

  3. Absenting the Absence(s) in the Education of Poor Minority Ethnic Students: A Critical Realist Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Areti

    2017-01-01

    Absences, in terms of lacks, are identified by researchers as explaining factors of failure in inclusive education, for example, the absence of minority ethnic students' native language from instruction. However, there is a lack of a clear framework against which to discuss issues of absence in the education of poor minority ethnic students. In…

  4. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  5. Syntactic Language Extension via an Algebra of Languages and Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus

    2010-01-01

    We propose an algebra of languages and transformations as a means for extending languages syntactically. The algebra provides a layer of high-level abstractions built on top of languages (captured by context-free grammars) and transformations (captured by constructive catamorphisms). The algebra ...

  6. A Qualitative Assessment of a Foreign Language Whole Language Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, David

    2003-01-01

    Provides insights on how to assess a whole language foreign language class (WLFLC) and to field test qualitative research methods for a WLFLC. The Hebrew language class was assessed through analysis of semistructured interviews with four students, students' reflective mid-term papers and final class evaluations, and teacher journal notes. (VWL)

  7. Regionality – Language – Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pásztor-Kicsi Mária

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has a strong influence on our daily communication and language use. Its continuous growing makes us face the world characterized by networks of connections that span multi-continental distances. The metaphor of global village seems to be not merely a futuristic theory, but pure reality. People can communicate worldwide with each other, reach all kinds of information to get up-to-date, as long as they respect the basic demand of globalization, which means the use of a common language (i.e. English. But this tendency hides a serious issue if we try to observe globalization from the aspect of local and regional cultures and languages, especially those in minority position. The study deals with the language use of the Hungarian minority in Vojvodina, with special focus on Netspeak and the regional features of language forms used on the Internet. It also analyses the attitudes of a group of students towards the influence of the Internet on speech and language. This part of the survey is based on questionnaires.

  8. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness.

  9. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6,680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status—sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the effects of transitions on happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past five years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness. PMID:27102605

  10. The Willink Minority Commission and minority rights in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In its place, it recommended that a “Bill of Rights” patterned along the European Convention on Human Rights be incorporated into the independence constitution as a way of guaranteeing minority rights through national integration. Consequently, copious provisions to protect some basic human rights and fundamental ...

  11. Ethnic Identification and School Language of Russian-Speaking Students in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Raija P.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Rannut, Ülle

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic identification is closely tied to language. Society's appreciation of one's first language and the opportunity to use it may help strengthen ethnic identification. This research examined the relationship between ethnic identifications and school language and investigated other factors that potentially impact language-minority students'…

  12. Beliefs about Learning English as a Second Language among Native Groups in Rural Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Hariharan N.; Veloo, Arsaythamby; Lu, Ho Fui

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies differences between the three ethnic groups, namely, Kadazans/Dusuns, Bajaus, and other minority ethnic groups on the beliefs about learning English as a second language based on the five variables, that is, language aptitude, language learning difficulty, language learning and communicating strategies, nature of language…

  13. Separating the Minor Actinides Through Advances in Selective Coordination Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Carter, Jennifer C.

    2012-08-22

    This report describes work conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 under the auspices of the Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Separation, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy. Researchers at PNNL and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are investigating a simplified solvent extraction system for providing a single-step process to separate the minor actinide elements from acidic high-level liquid waste (HLW), including separating the minor actinides from the lanthanide fission products.

  14. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  15. The Cerclu project: language certification in Italian language centres

    OpenAIRE

    Gotti, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays language centres are expected to provide high quality services not only in teaching foreign languages, but also in testing proficiency levels. This article describes the CERCLU project, which aims at certifying Italian language centres. Such certification is based on the Threshold and Vantage Levels established by the Council of Europe. Stress is laid on the evaluation of the ability to use the language communicatively. Much use is made of computerized systems in the preparation, adm...

  16. Krio Language Manual. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Freetown (Sierra Leone).

    Instructional materials for Krio, the creole spoken in Sierra Leone, are designed for Peace Corps volunteer language instruction and intended for the use of both students and instructors. Fifty-six units provide practice in language skills, particularly oral, geared to the daily language needs of volunteers. Lessons are designed for audio-lingual…

  17. Assessment in Intercultural Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, Angela

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides background to considering how to assess intercultural language learning. It describes why traditional views of assessment are not sufficient. Essentially, assessing intercultural language learning requires assessment of both students' performance of communication in the target language and how they understand and explain the…

  18. Circassian Language Maintenance in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannut, Ulle

    2009-01-01

    The central goal of this research is to explore the language policy aspects in Jordan by focusing on the Circassian language maintenance issues and to provide measures for language revitalisation in the current demographic, linguistic and political situation. Research is based on multiple sources of information, but primarily on the empirical data…

  19. LANGUAGE TRAVEL SUPPLY: LANGUAGE TOURISM PRODUCT COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Iglesias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review of literature up to date reflects great scholarly interest in the impacts of study abroad (SA sojourns on foreign language learners’ communicative competence. This paper provides an overview on gains in sociolinguistic and pragmatic competences drawing upon research carried out in this field, which in broad terms supports the belief that both types of competences are effectively developed in SA stays. This article also offers a detailed account of the main constituents of the language tourism product -the travel component and the language learning component- with a special focus on the educational input and the language learning complements included in the latter. Thus, a fundamental part of the language tourism market system will be depicted from a supply perspective. Following an exploratory approach, a literature review was conducted in order to identify existing and missing knowledge in the field of language travel supply, and key aspects were pinpointed and classified. The taxonomy and underpinning concepts resulting from the categorisation of those key features may be considered the starting point for future investigations on SA programmes. The model offered in this exploratory study aims at constituting the underlying conceptual framework for subsequent research on the role of different SA programme design characteristics within the language tourism experience.

  20. Improving the General Language Skills of Second-Language Learners in Kindergarten: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogde, Kristin; Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Lervåg, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Second-language learners display poorer general language skills in the language used at school than their monolingual peers, which is a concern because general language skills (vocabulary, grammar, language expression, and comprehension) provide the foundation for later academic success. In a randomized controlled trial, we examined the efficacy…

  1. 38 CFR 1.464 - Minor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minor patients. 1.464....464 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor. As used in §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this part the term... law not requiring parental consent to treatment. If a minor patient acting alone has the legal...

  2. Minority dental faculty development: responsibility and challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkford, Jeanne C; Valachovic, Richard W; Weaver, Richard G; West, Joseph F

    2010-12-01

    Over at least the last twenty years, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) has given attention and priority to increasing the number of underrepresented minority (URM) dental school applicants, enrollees, and faculty members and to meeting the challenges of achieving diversity in the oral health workforce of the future as racial and ethnic minorities continue to grow and are expected to comprise more than 50 percent of the U.S. population by the middle of the twenty-first century. Dental schools have the responsibility of preparing dentists to provide oral health care for the nation's population. This includes creating a workforce of adequate size and racial/ethnic composition. As part of ADEA's priorities to improve the recruitment, retention, and development of URMs in the dental profession, with funding from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, ADEA launched the Minority Dental Faculty Development Program in 2004. The intent of the program is to foster academic partnerships, mentoring, and institutional commitment and leadership designed to increase the number of URM individuals interested in and prepared for careers in academic dentistry.

  3. Recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults through community sites for focus group discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Northridge, Mary E.; Shedlin, Michele; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Estrada, Ivette; De La Cruz, Leydis; Peralta, Rogelina; Birdsall, Stacia; Metcalf, Sara S.; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Kunzel, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the pa...

  4. Recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults through community sites for focus group discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Northridge, Mary E.; Michele Shedlin; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Ivette Estrada; Leydis De La Cruz; Rogelina Peralta; Stacia Birdsall; Metcalf, Sara S.; Bibhas Chakraborty; Carol Kunzel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities ...

  5. Commuting by bike in Belgium, the costs of minor accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertsens, Joris; de Geus, Bas; Vandenbulcke, Grégory; Degraeuwe, Bart; Broekx, Steven; De Nocker, Leo; Liekens, Inge; Mayeres, Inge; Meeusen, Romain; Thomas, Isabelle; Torfs, Rudi; Willems, Hanny; Int Panis, Luc

    2010-11-01

    Minor bicycle accidents are defined as "bicycle accidents not involving death or heavily injured persons, implying that possible hospital visits last less than 24 hours". Statistics about these accidents and related injuries are very poor, because they are mostly not reported to police, hospitals or insurance companies. Yet, they form a major share of all bicycle accidents. Official registrations underestimate the number of minor accidents and do not provide cost data, nor the distance cycled. Therefore related policies are hampered by a lack of accurate data. This paper provides more insight into the importance of minor bicycle accidents and reports the frequency, risk and resulting costs of minor bicycle accidents. Direct costs, including the damage to bike and clothes as well as medical costs and indirect costs such as productivity loss and leisure time lost are calculated. We also estimate intangible costs of pain and psychological suffering and costs for other parties involved in the accident. Data were collected during the SHAPES project using several electronic surveys. The weekly prospective registration that lasted a year, covered 1187 persons that cycled 1,474,978 km. 219 minor bicycle accidents were reported. Resulting in a frequency of 148 minor bicycle accidents per million kilometres. We analyzed the economic costs related to 118 minor bicycle accidents in detail. The average total cost of these accidents is estimated at 841 euro (95% CI: 579-1205) per accident or 0.125 euro per kilometre cycled. Overall, productivity loss is the most important component accounting for 48% of the total cost. Intangible costs, which in past research were mostly neglected, are an important burden related to minor bicycle accidents (27% of the total cost). Even among minor accidents there are important differences in the total cost depending on the severity of the injury. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Commuting by bike in Belgium, the costs of minor accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Aertsens, Joris

    2010-01-01

    Minor bicycle accidents are defined as "bicycle accidents not involving death or heavily injured persons, implying that possible hospital visits last less than 24 hours". Statistics about these accidents and related injuries are very poor, because they are mostly not reported to police, hospitals or insurance companies. Yet, they form a major share of all bicycle accidents. Official registrations underestimate the number of minor accidents and do not provide cost data, nor the distance cycled...

  7. Commuting by bike in Belgium, the costs of minor accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Aertsens, Joris; de Geus, Bas; Vandenbulcke, Gregory; Degraeuwe, Bart; Broekx, Steven; DE NOCKER, Leo; Liekens, Inge; Mayeres, Inge; Meeusen, Romain; Thomas, Isabelle; Torfs, Rudi; Willems, Hanny; Int Panis, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Minor bicycle accidents are defined as "bicycle accidents not involving death or heavily injured persons, implying that possible hospital visits last less than 24 hours". Statistics about these accidents and related injuries are very poor, because they are mostly not reported to police, hospitals or insurance companies. Yet, they form a major share of all bicycle accidents. Official registrations underestimate the number of minor accidents and do not provide cost data, nor the distance cycled...

  8. Cultural influences for college student language brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskirch, Robert S; Kim, Su Yeong; Zamboanga, Byron L; Schwartz, Seth J; Bersamin, Melina; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2011-01-01

    Children from immigrant families often translate communication for parents, a process known as language brokering (LB). LB begins in childhood, but may continue through emerging adulthood, even when individuals are in college. We surveyed 1,222 university students with two immigrant parents and compared non-language brokers, infrequent language brokers, and frequent language brokers on a variety of ethnic, cultural, and identity measures. Significant differences emerged for cultural heritage value orientation, ethnic identity, and dimensions of acculturation with frequent language brokers scoring highest, infrequent language brokers scoring in the middle, and non-language brokers scoring the lowest on these measures. There were no significant differences on acculturative stress among these three groups. These results suggest that LB experiences may contribute to the development of psychological assets for ethnic minority, emerging adults from immigrant families.

  9. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  10. Minority Student Progress Report, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Porfirio R.; Luan, Jing

    This report offers a consolidated systemwide analysis of key issues and recommendations for improvement of minority recruitment and retention at Arizona State Universities and an evaluation of progress toward achieving Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR) approved recruitment and graduation goals. A description of ABOR system goals notes three goals:…

  11. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100213.htm Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 2 Go to slide 2 out of ...

  12. A grounded theory for unaccompanied foreign minors in Italy: the case study of Egyptian minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Bianchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests to share a research first emerging categories according to methodological universe of the "Grounded Theory" based on a mental construction/orientation process. The main target is to investigate in the educational relationship between an unaccompanied minor (MSNA and his educator, and so has also to consider the progressive changes in the learning of the language and the corresponding humanization of the same, so well the continued definition and shared construction of the intercultural practice. At this stage of doctoral research, some categories are emerging that are particularly pertinent to the Egyptian participants in the study. The egyptians are the main nationality present in italian system of host. The theory which is emergeting will be a scratch theory and has not a validation target of preconceived hypothesis.

  13. Bridging Classroom Language Ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Grenfell, Michael James

    2012-01-01

    PUBLISHED Paper #5: Bridging Classroom Language Ethnography, New Literacy Studies and Bourdieu?s Social Philosophy: Principles and Practice The purpose of this paper is to analyze and synthesize the various ways that classroom language ethnography, NLS, and Bourdieu?s social philosophy, were integrated. The goal of the analysis and synthesis is to provide a fresh perspective and fruitful insights on literacy in all its manifestations that provides the foundations for a more robust...

  14. Endangered Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Ken; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)

  15. Language Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulay, Heidi; And Others

    In this course text on second language acquisition, the latest research of Halle and Chomsky, Lenneberg, Hatch, Larsen-Freeman, Dulay and Burt, and Krashen is presented. The text covers such topics as the effects of environment, age, and personality on second language acquisition; the role of the first language; and error analysis. Enough has been…

  16. A Whole-School Approach to Promoting Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Languages teachers are all aware of the significant advantages and benefits learning a language provides, and believe in the importance of second language acquisition. However, why is it that languages teachers need to justify learning a second language and work hard to encourage more students to see the importance of learning a language and to…

  17. The Need for More Prehospital Research on Language Barriers: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Ramsey C

    2015-12-01

    Despite evidence from other healthcare settings that language barriers negatively impact patient outcomes, the literature on language barriers in emergency medical services (EMS) has not been previously summarized. The objective of this study is to systematically review existing studies of the impact of language barriers on prehospital emergency care and identify opportunities for future research. A systematic review with narrative synthesis of publications with populations specific to the prehospital setting and outcome measures specific to language barriers was conducted. A four-prong search strategy of academic databases (PubMed, Academic Search Complete, and Clinical Key) through March 2015, web-based search for gray literature, search of citation lists, and review of key conference proceedings using pre-defined eligibility criteria was used. Language-related outcomes were categorized and reported as community-specific outcomes, EMS provider-specific outcomes, patient-specific outcomes, or health system-specific outcomes. Twenty-two studies met eligibility criteria for review. Ten publications (45%) focused on community-specific outcomes. Language barriers are perceived as a barrier by minority language speaking communities to activating EMS. Eleven publications (50%) reported outcomes specific to EMS providers, with six of these studies focused on EMS dispatch. EMS dispatchers describe less accurate and delayed dispatch of resources when confronted with language discordant callers, as well as limitations in the ability to provide medical direction to callers. There is a paucity of research on EMS treatment and transport decisions, and no studies provided patient-specific or health system-specific outcomes. Key research gaps include identifying the mechanisms by which language barriers impact care, the effect of language barriers on EMS utilization and clinically significant outcomes, and the cost implications of addressing language barriers. The existing

  18. An Efficient Universal Trajectory Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, George E.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Butler, Ricky W.

    2017-01-01

    The Efficient Universal Trajectory Language (EUTL) is a language for specifying and representing trajectories for Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts such as Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO). In these concepts, the communication of a trajectory between an aircraft and ground automation is fundamental. Historically, this trajectory exchange has not been done, leading to trajectory definitions that have been centered around particular application domains and, therefore, are not well suited for TBO applications. The EUTL trajectory language has been defined in the Prototype Verification System (PVS) formal specification language, which provides an operational semantics for the EUTL language. The hope is that EUTL will provide a foundation for mathematically verified algorithms that manipulate trajectories. Additionally, the EUTL language provides well-defined methods to unambiguously determine position and velocity information between the reported trajectory points. In this paper, we present the EUTL trajectory language in mathematical detail.

  19. [Institutionalized and Individual Crisis Intervention Between Youth Welfare and Adolescent Psychiatry, Specified for Unaccompanied Minor Refugees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepker, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Institutionalized and Individual Crisis Intervention Between Youth Welfare and Adolescent Psychiatry, Specified for Unaccompanied Minor Refugees Minor refugees put a challenge to the intercultural openness, including an abdication from diagnostic schemes. They need creativity, modification of treatment manuals and the therapist's ability to engage himself as a person. They need another notion of abstinence and the ability to cooperate with interpreters of language and culture. In cooperation with youth welfare institutions for unaccompanied minor refugees, principles that have been developed for institutional cooperation and individual crisis intervention plans have been modified: high threshold inpatient admission, multi-step-approach and reliability of cooperation.

  20. Multiplayer quantum Minority game with decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flitney, Adrian P.

    2005-05-01

    A quantum version of the Minority game for an arbitrary number of agents is studied. When the number of agents is odd, quantizing the game produces no advantage to the players, however, for an even number of agents new Nash equilibria appear that have no classical analogue. The new Nash equilibria provide far preferable expected payoffs to the players compared to the equivalent classical game. The effect on the Nash equilibrium payoff of reducing the degree of entanglement, or of introducing decoherence into the model, is indicated.