Learmonth, Yvonne C; Adamson, Brynn C; Balto, Julia M; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Molina-Guzman, Isabel; Finlayson, Marcia; Riskin, Barry J; Motl, Robert W
There is growing recognition of the benefits and safety of exercise and its importance in the comprehensive care of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet uptake is low. We explored the needs and wants of patients with MS regarding exercise promotion through healthcare providers. Participants were adults with MS who had mild-or-moderate disability and a range of exercise levels. All participants lived in the Midwest of the United States. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. Two themes emerged, namely interactions between patients and healthcare providers and needs and wants of patients. Analysis of participant accounts illustrate that current exercise promotion by healthcare providers does not meet patient needs and wants. The identified needs and wants of persons with MS involved (i) information and knowledge on the benefits of exercise and exercise prescription, (ii) materials to allow home and community exercise and (iii) tools for initiating and maintaining exercise behaviour. Patients with MS frequently interact with healthcare providers and are generally unsatisfied with exercise promotion during interactions. Healthcare providers can address the low uptake of exercise among persons with MS by acting upon the identified unmet needs involving materials, knowledge and behaviour change strategies for exercise. © 2016 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Acharya, Amit; Shimpi, Neel; Mahnke, Andrea; Mathias, Richard; Ye, Zhan
The authors conducted this study to identify the most relevant patient dental information in a medical-dental integrated electronic health record (iEHR) necessary for medical care providers to inform holistic treatment. The authors collected input from a diverse sample of 65 participants from a large, regional health system representing 13 medical specialties and administrative units. The authors collected feedback from participants through 11 focus group sessions. Two independent reviewers analyzed focus group transcripts to identify major and minor themes. The authors identified 336 of 385 annotations that most medical care providers coded as relevant. Annotations strongly supporting relevancy to clinical practice aligned with 18 major thematic categories, with the top 6 categories being communication, appointments, system design, medications, treatment plan, and dental alerts. Study participants identified dental data of highest relevance to medical care providers and recommended implementation of user-friendly access to dental data in iEHRs as crucial to holistic care delivery. Identification of the patients' dental information most relevant to medical care providers will inform strategies for improving the integration of that information into the medical-dental iEHR. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina P M; Cammer, Allison; Morgan, Debra; Stewart, Norma; Kosteniuk, Julie
Rural and remote settings pose particular healthcare and service delivery challenges. Providing appropriate care and support for individuals with dementia and their families living in these communities is especially difficult, and can only be accomplished when the needs of care providers and the context and complexity of care provision are understood. This paper describes formal and informal caregivers' perceptions of the challenges and needs in providing care and support for individuals with dementia living in rural and remote areas of Saskatchewan, Canada. A mixed-methods exploratory approach was used to examine caregivers' needs. This research was a component of a broader process evaluation designed to inform the initial and ongoing development of a community-based participatory research program in rural dementia care, which included the development of the Rural and Remote Memory Clinic (RRMC). Four approaches were used for data collection and analyses: (1) thematic analysis of consultation meetings with rural healthcare providers: documented discussions from consultation meetings that occurred in 2003-2004 with rural physicians and healthcare providers regarding plans for a new RRMC were analysed thematically; (2) telephone and mail questionnaires: consultation meeting participants completed a subsequent telephone or mail questionnaire (2003-2004) that was analysed descriptively; (3) thematic analysis of referral letters to the Rural and Remote Memory Clinic: physician referral letters over a five-year period (2003-2008) were analysed descriptively and thematically; and (4) examination of family caregiver satisfaction: four specific baseline questionnaire questions completed by family caregivers (2007-2010) were analysed descriptively and thematically. Both physician and non-physician healthcare providers identified increased facilities and care programs as needs. Physicians were much more likely than other providers to report available support services for
O'Brien, Casey L; Moore, Gaye; Rolley, John X; Ski, Chantal F; Thompson, David R; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Gonzales, Graeme; Hsueh, Ya-Seng Arthur; Castle, David
Health care provider experiences of the carer have been researched, but little is written about how these can inform development of support programs. This study aimed to (1) explore health care provider perceptions of stroke carer roles and support needs and (2) examine carer needs across the stroke care trajectory to assist with development of an Optimal Health Program (OHP) to support carers. This study is part of a staged program of research that will evaluate and refine the OHP. Four dual-moderated semi-structured focus groups of stroke health care providers across acute, subacute, and community rehabilitation services were conducted. Facilitators used a semi-structured focus group schedule to guide discussion. Sessions were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic and content analysis. Three key themes emerged: transition, information, and impact of stroke. A number of subthemes highlighted the distinct roles of health care providers and carers. Specific elements of the OHP were identified as having the potential to advance support for carers across the stroke care trajectory. Findings support the integration of an OHP for carers within existing stroke care services in Australian public hospital and community settings. This study suggests how health care provider experiences could inform a self-management OHP to assist carers in navigating stroke services and to address their health-related concerns.
Klein, Gudrun E; Guethlin, Corina
Among cancer care providers (CCPs), lack of knowledge constitutes an important barrier to the discussion of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use with patients. This study assessed CCPs' needs and preferences regarding CAM information and training (I&T). An online survey was completed by 209 general practitioners, 437 medical specialists, 159 oncology nurses and medical assistants, and 244 psychologists and social workers engaged in cancer care. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify subgroups of individuals with distinct preference patterns regarding I&T content. CCPs prefer CAM I&T to be provided as lectures, information platforms on the internet, workshops, and e-mail newsletters. Concerning subject matters, many CCPs considered CAM therapy options for the treatment of a variety of cancer disease- and therapy-related symptoms to be very important (75%-72% of the sample); the same applies to an "overview of different CAM therapies" (74%). LCA identified 5 latent classes (LCs) of CCPs. All of them attached considerable importance to "medical indication," "potential side effects," and "tips for usage." LCs differed, however, in terms of overall importance ratings, the perceived importance of "patients' reasons" for using specific CAM therapies, "case examples," and "scientific evidence." Notably, the 5 LCs were clearly present in all 4 occupational groups. CAM I&T should provide CCPs with an overview of different CAM therapies and show how CAM might help in treating symptoms cancer patients frequently demonstrate (eg, fatigue). Moreover, I&T programs should be flexible and take into account that individual information needs vary even within the same occupational group. © The Author(s) 2016.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...
Goodall, Ken; Ward, Paul; Newman, Lareen
print media from Australia and their home countries, family and acquaintances, government departments or service providers. Many expressed a preference for receiving information as printed material or directly from another person. Governments or primary healthcare organisations planning to make health information solely available via ICT should be aware that doing so may lead to an increase in 'information exclusion' and the formation of functional knowledge deficits for older migrants. At the moment at least, our participants do not perceive any functional knowledge deficits as they engage multiple sources to access the information they need for everyday life. We recommend that governments and healthcare organisations evaluate the appropriateness of using ICT to directly provide information to older migrants and consider non-digital means or the engagement of 'information brokers' when communicating with groups identified as low or non-users of ICT.
In 1998, the Oregon Department of Transportation undertook the Social Services Provider Survey as part of an investigation of the transportation needs of mobility impaired individuals in Oregon. This survey was designed to gain information about the ...
Halkett, G K B; Kristjanson, L J; Lobb, E; O'Driscoll, C; Taylor, M; Spry, N
Previous research has reported that patients require specific information relating to radiotherapy; however, these studies fail to describe patients' specific information needs over time. The aims of this study were to determine the specific information needs of breast cancer patients who are receiving radiotherapy and identify when patients prefer to receive specific information. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 early breast cancer patients and 14 health professionals. Seventeen patients were interviewed after treatment completion, and 17 patients were interviewed on at least two occasions during their radiotherapy. Grounded theory and the constant comparative method were used to analyse the data. Three main categories emerged from the data: 'repertoire of information', 'amount of information relating specifically to radiotherapy' and'tailoring information to match patients' radiotherapy journeys'. Patients' information needs were identified, and key messages and strategies to inform patients were described. This paper identifies breast cancer patient's specific information needs during radiotherapy and shows that patients' information needs are highest during their first appointment with their radiation oncologist and at the time of their planning appointment. The findings presented will enable health professionals to develop and refine their approaches to patient education in radiotherapy.
Moini, Joy S.; Zellman, Gail L.; Gates, Susan M.
The Department of Defense (DoD) is committed to meeting the need for child care among military families. DoD supports the largest employer-sponsored system of high-quality child care in the country. Through accredited child development centers (CDCs), family child care (FCC) homes, youth centers, and other after-school programs, DoD currently…
Goossens, Joline; Delbaere, Ilse; Van Lancker, Aurélie; Beeckman, Dimitri; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Hecke, Ann
Cancer treatment can impair fertility. The aim of this review was to investigate (1) fertility information needs, receipt and provision, (2) fertility information preferences, and (3) factors associated with receiving/providing fertility information. Cancer patients' and professional caregivers' perspectives were considered. Mixed-methods systematic review. Six electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, CRD, Embase) were systematically screened to retrieve articles published between January 2001 and March 2012. Reference lists and conference abstracts were checked for additional publications. The principles outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention were applied. Publications were included if they explored fertility-related information/communication in cancer patients/survivors of reproductive age or professional caregivers. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme for Qualitative Studies and the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies were used to assess the methodological quality. A standardised form based on the Cochrane guidelines for systematic reviews was used to extract the data. Two independent reviewers performed all methodological steps. Of the 1872 papers found, 27 were included in this review. The majority (66-100%) of the cancer patients wanted information about the impact of cancer therapy on fertility. The need and importance were higher in younger and childless patients, and in patients having childbearing plans. The number of patients receiving this information ranged from 0% to 85%. Several factors were associated with the lack of information receipt, including female gender and age 35 years or older. Patients preferred information via an individual consultation. In the diagnostic phase patients needed information about the impact of the treatment on fertility and preservation options. At the end or after the treatment, information needs shifted towards long term effects. Professional caregivers
Bothma, Theo; Bergenholtz, Henning
that “information need changing over time” is a very complex concept and only understandable if we distinguish between changes in the world, situation/context, user, types of information need and interpretation of data. Clarity of writing is essential in scientific writing and authors using the concept “information......For the past twenty years phrases such as “stable information needs”, “unstable information needs” or “information needs changing over time” are found in many contributions to information science. At first view these concepts seem to be easy and clearly understandable. However, after some...... considerations different questions arise: For which types of information need do we see that these needs are changing over time – for all types, or only for certain types? How do information needs relate to changes in the world, or to changes in the human understanding of the world? We will show...
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone
to empower women making an informed consent. Information on Down syndrome is often confined and limitations of screenings tests rarely mentioned. Understanding is better achieved by presenting the risk estimate as a numerical probability compared to a verbal explanation. Rates are better understood than......Prenatal care has gradually moved away from paternalism, to a state where patient autonomy and information is vital. It is known from other health care settings that the way information is presented affects understanding.The objective is to summarize current knowledge on aspects of informing...... pregnant women about prenatal examinations. Women's knowledge, decisional conflict, satisfaction and anxiety will be explored as compared with different ways and different groups of health professionals providing information. To what extent information empowers informed decision making will be explored...
Full Text Available Abstract The need to cope with the expected impacts of climate change on socio-ecological systems calls for a closer dialogue between climate scientists and the community of climate information users. We describe an interactive process designed to bridge this gap by establishing a two-way communication, based on mutual learning. We analyse the need of climate information for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts on the coastal zone of the Northern Adriatic Sea, which is considered to be particularly vulnerable to several climate-related phenomena, e.g. heavy rainfall events, pluvial flood, and sea level rise, causing potentially high damage to coastal ecosystems and urban areas (e.g. acqua alta in the Venice Lagoon. A participatory process was designed engaging representatives from both the scientific and local stakeholders communities, and facilitated by a boundary organization, embodied by the Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change. End-users of climate information (e.g. decision makers belonging to public institutions were selected among representatives of those public institutions having a specific mandate for Integrated Coastal Zone Management, and engaged to identify their needs. During the early stages of the interaction process, several priorities were identified, including: (1 data to support land-use planning, (2 data with greater resolution and longer time series, (3 data on climate impacts and risks, (4 precipitation patterns to improve irrigation, (5 sea level rise and tides, (6 climate variations and extreme events, (7 seasonal trend for tidal waves, and (8 hydraulic risk. Three climate products were developed to address these needs: (1 short-term projections of sea level rise; (2 seasonal predictions of extreme rainfall events; (3 long-term regional projections of climate extremes (including heat waves, dry spells and heavy rainfall events. Additionally, two risk products were developed: 4 sea level rise
Full Text Available Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor. The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the
Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane
Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the presence of the
Carli Buttenschoen, Daniela; Stephan, Jarad; Watanabe, Sharon; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl
The ESAS is a clinical symptom assessment tool developed for patients receiving palliative care for pain and symptom control. Recent studies have indicated that patients have difficulty understanding terminology and correct use of the ESAS, and that they appreciate the presence of a health care provider (HCP) to assist with ESAS completion. As appropriate assessment translates into effective treatment, it is important that HCPs have a good understanding of the tool. The purpose of this study was to assess HCPs' use, knowledge, and training needs of the ESAS. One hundred ninety-three HCPs in palliative care and chronic pain, who used the ESAS, were invited to participate in a survey. The response rate was 43 % (n = 83), with 62 % nurses, 26 % physicians, and 12 % other specialties. Most participants were palliative care specialists (79 %). The majority (77 %) had a good understanding of the ESAS terms. Knowledge problems included distinguishing tiredness and drowsiness (25 %), interpreting shortness of breath as a combination of subjective and objective symptoms (19 %), not indicating current symptom level (14 %), and reverse scoring of well-being (13 %) and appetite (9 %). Reported challenges were misinterpretation of some ESAS terms, assessing patients with impaired communication, and lack of time and reliability of caregiver assessments. Participants offered suggestions regarding how their knowledge and use of the ESAS could be improved. Suggestions for improving ESAS administration and training were to include term definitions and examples of how to ask about terms that might be challenging for patients. Furthermore, initial and ongoing training sessions might help to clarify issues with the tool.
Alzougool, Basil; Chang, Shanton; Gray, Kathleen
There has been little research that provides a comprehensive account of the nature and aspects of information needs of informal carers. The authors have previously developed and validated a framework that accounts for major underlying states of information need. This paper aims to apply this framework to explore whether there are common demographic and socioeconomic characteristics that affect the information needs states of carers. A questionnaire about the information needs states was completed by 198 carers above 18 years old. We use statistical methods to look for similarities and differences in respondents' information needs states, in terms of the demographic and socioeconomic variables. At least one information needs state varies among carers, in terms of seven demographic and socioeconomic variables: the age of the patient(s) that they are caring for; the condition(s) of the patient(s) that they are caring for; the number of patients that they are caring for; their length of time as a carer; their gender; the country that they live in; and the population of the area that they live in. The findings demonstrate the utility of the information needs state framework. We outline some practical implications of the framework.
Groß, Anne; Doerr, Joerg (Ed.)
This report captures elicitation guidelines that were used to investigate infor-mation needs regarding requirements specifications. The guidelines include questionnaires that were used in an eye tracking study, a retrospective evaluation in a software engineering course as well as an evaluation conducted within a tutorial.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify the information needs of children undergoing tonsillectomy with reference to content of information, method of delivery, information providers and timing of information provision. BACKGROUND: Tonsillectomy can be anxiety provoking for children and preoperative preparation programmes are long recognised to reduce anxiety. However, few have been designed from the perspectives of children and to date little is known about how best to prepare children in terms of what to tell them, how to convey information to them, who can best provide information and what is the best timing for information provision. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive study. METHOD: Data were collected from nine children (aged 6-9) using interviews supported by a write and draw technique. Data were coded and categorised into themes reflecting content, method, providers and timing of information. RESULTS: Children openly communicated their information needs especially on what to tell them to expect when facing a tonsillectomy. Their principal concerns were about operation procedures, experiencing \\'soreness\\' and discomfort postoperatively and parental presence. Mothers were viewed as best situated to provide them with information. Children were uncertain about what method of information and timing would be most helpful to them. CONCLUSION: Preoperative educational interventions need to take account of children\\'s information needs so that they are prepared for surgery in ways that are meaningful and relevant to them. Future research is needed in this area. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Practical steps towards informing children about having a tonsillectomy include asking them what they need to know and addressing their queries accordingly. Child-centred information leaflets using a question and answer format could also be helpful to children.
Dorner, Daniel G; Calvert, Philip J
If you want to provide an information service that truly fulfils your users' needs, this book is essential reading. The book supports practitioners in developing an information needs analysis strategy and offers the necessary professional skills and techniques to do so.
DeRosa, C.T.; Choudhury, H.; Schoeny, R.S.
Risk assessment can be thought of as a conceptual approach to bridge the gap between the available data and the ultimate goal of characterizing the risk or hazard associated with a particular environmental problem. To lend consistency to and to promote quality in the process, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity, Germ Cell Mutagenicity and Exposure Assessment, and Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures. The guidelines provide a framework for organizing the information, evaluating data, and for carrying out the risk assessment in a scientifically plausible manner. In the absence of sufficient scientific information or when abundant data are available, the guidelines provide alternative methodologies that can be employed in the risk assessment. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.
Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.
Street, Roger B.; Bley, Dagmar; Manez, Maria
Understanding Climate Service Science: Balancing Users' Needs with Providers' Capabilities The overall strategic objective of the Joint Programming Initiative (JPI)-Climate is to contribute to highly coordinated knowledge development by not only improving the scientific expertise on climate change risks and adaptation options, but also by connecting that knowledge with decision making. Understanding the nature and scope of those providing climate services and the services being provided and understanding userś needs and requirements is critical to realisation of this strategic objective. The main aim of the JPI-Climate Working Group 2 "Researching and advancing Climate Service Development" is to coordinate knowledge development and transfer to improve the climate (change) services to society and within Europe. In order to avoid duplication of efforts and picking on differences in the quality and nature of information being provided from country to country there is a need for a certain degree of consistency of approaches and quality assurance. The JPI-Climate will bring interaction between the emerging national and European climate services initiatives. Climate services produce strongly science-based client-oriented information. They should be built on a good understanding of the stakeholder needs, and provide easy access to up-to-date information and expertise regarding specific policy or research questions. It is evident from experience that such services need (and are perceived) to be salient, credible and legitimate from the perspective of the intended users and providers of those services, and within the supportive research community. Achieving this aim and developing and delivering the required services necessitates the engagement of the spectrum of users and providers, as well as researchers from the physical, natural, engineering, economics and social sciences - the science underpinning climate services. The JPI-Climate, Module 2 Fast Track Activities (FTAs
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provider information. 890.910 Section 890.910 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS..., and FEHB Benefit Payments § 890.910 Provider information. The hospital provider information used to...
Sorensen, Lena; Gavier, Maria; Hellesø, Ragnhild
The ability to access and understand health information is becoming more critical to managing one's own health and illness. Informatics tools are increasingly the central resources for responding to these needs. But just as information is culturally bound, so are the tools used to access it; both are bounded by the contexts in which they are situated. Latinas face more barriers in accessing needed information due to cultural, linguistic and health access inequities in the US. Although breast cancer rates for Latinas are lower than for non-Latina white women, they are more likely to have a more advanced stage at diagnosis and poorer quality of survivorship. Few studies have explored Latina breast cancer survivors' information needs & strategies. This community-based study focused on Mexican American women with breast cancer and explored their health information experiences, needs, and strategies; it examined their perceptions of how their relationships with providers influenced how information was accessed and utilized. Managing information was not an individual responsibility for any of these women. All of these women had access and used the Internet either directly or through their support networks. All emphasized the importance of having a select support network of people (information partners) for receiving, searching, and interpreting all health information about their illness. If information partners are strategies preferred by Latinas, then we must refocus our assessment of e-health literacy competencies on networks rather than individuals.
King, T.; Walker, R. J.; Merka, J.; Narock, T. W.
A Virtual Observatory serves a very diverse community that consists of data providers, information specialists, project administrators, agencies, researchers, educators, students, and the public. Each group has different needs and expectations. Meeting all the needs and expectations is an extreme challenge and in many ways is not feasible. However, by laying down a foundation of standards and well defined services will enable us to create group oriented portals based on a common set of core technologies which will help us progress toward meeting these requirements. The core technologies include metadata standards, query languages, services, management procedures, interfaces, and value-added functions. Each of these technologies must integrate with one or more of the other technologies. Therefore, a holistic view of the system is necessary. We explore the technologies and functions of NASA's Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO) to illustrate the core technologies which enable serving diverse groups and discuss where the VMO is today and what to expect tomorrow.
Bennett, D.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)
The hazardous waste cleanup program under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund) is delegated to the ten Regions of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and has, to date, identified more than 33,000 sites for consideration. The size and complexity of the program places great demands on those who would provide information to achieve national consistency in application of risk assessment while meeting site-specific needs for risk management and risk communication.
Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Lee, R.; Trumble, D.
This report presents the findings of a study to identify the types of information and analysis that are needed for advanced materials. The project was sponsored by the US Bureau of Mines (BOM). It includes a conceptual description of information needs for advanced materials and the development and implementation of a questionnaire on the same subject. This report identifies twelve fundamental differences between advanced and traditional materials and discusses the implications of these differences for data and analysis needs. Advanced and traditional materials differ significantly in terms of physical and chemical properties. Advanced material properties can be customized more easily. The production of advanced materials may differ from traditional materials in terms of inputs, the importance of by-products, the importance of different processing steps (especially fabrication), and scale economies. The potential for change in advanced materials characteristics and markets is greater and is derived from the marriage of radically different materials and processes. In addition to the conceptual study, a questionnaire was developed and implemented to assess the opinions of people who are likely users of BOM information on advanced materials. The results of the questionnaire, which was sent to about 1000 people, generally confirm the propositions set forth in the conceptual part of the study. The results also provide data on the categories of advanced materials and the types of information that are of greatest interest to potential users. 32 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.
Busalacchi, A. J.
The Earth System will experience real climate change over the next 50 years, exceeding the scope of natural climate variability. A paramount question facing society is how to adapt to this certainty of climate variability and change. In response, OSTP and NOAA are considering how comprehensive climate services would best inform decisions about adaptation. Similarly, NASA is considering the optimal configuration of the next generation of Earth, environmental, and climate observations to be deployed over the coming 10-20 years. Moreover, much of the added-value information for specific climate-related decisions will be provided by private, academic and non-governmental organizations. In this context, over the past several years the University of Maryland has established the CIRUN (Climate Information: Responding to User Needs) initiative to identify the nature of national needs for climate information and services from a decision support perspective. To date, CIRUN has brought together decisionmakers in a number of sectors to help understand their perspectives on climate with the goal of improving the usefulness of climate information, observations and prediction products to specific user communities. CIRUN began with a major workshop in October 2007 that convened 430 participants in agriculture, parks and recreation, terrestrial ecosystems, insurance/investment, energy, national security, state/local/municipal, water, human health, commerce and manufacturing, transportation, and coastal/marine sectors. Plenary speakers such as Norman Augustine, R. James Woolsey, James Mahoney, and former Senator Joseph Tydings, breakout panel sessions, and participants provided input based on the following: - How would you characterize the exposure or vulnerability to climate variability or change impacting your organization? - Does climate variability and/or change currently factor into your organization's objectives or operations? - Are any of your existing plans being affected by
The need for increased attention to the roles fulfilled by retirees and their new social status necessitated the study of their information needs. This study investigated the information needs of retirees using a survey design. Five objectives were set for the study and questionnaire was used to elicit information from respondents ...
Al Awar, Zeina; Kuziemsky, Craig
Informal caregivers are playing an increasing role in community based care delivery. Research is needed that looks at the educational needs of informal caregivers as a precursor to HIT design to support community care delivery. A challenge is informal caregivers have very diverse educational needs. Personas are an approach to describe user characteristics as part of systems design and this approach could be used to understand and categorize the various educational needs of informal caregivers. This paper addresses this research need and provides a method for persona development and the identification of educational needs for informal caregivers.
Vladimir N. Shvedenko
Full Text Available The paper deals with creation of integrated information system architecture capable of supporting management decisions using behavioral features. The paper considers the architecture of information decision support system for production system management. The behavioral feature is given to an information system, and it ensures extraction, processing of information, management decision-making with both automated and automatic modes of decision-making subsystem being permitted. Practical implementation of information system with behavior is based on service-oriented architecture: there is a set of independent services in the information system that provides data of its subsystems or data processing by separate application under the chosen variant of the problematic situation settlement. For creation of integrated information system with behavior we propose architecture including the following subsystems: data bus, subsystem for interaction with the integrated applications based on metadata, business process management subsystem, subsystem for the current state analysis of the enterprise and management decision-making, behavior training subsystem. For each problematic situation a separate logical layer service is created in Unified Service Bus handling problematic situations. This architecture reduces system information complexity due to the fact that with a constant amount of system elements the number of links decreases, since each layer provides communication center of responsibility for the resource with the services of corresponding applications. If a similar problematic situation occurs, its resolution is automatically removed from problem situation metamodel repository and business process metamodel of its settlement. In the business process performance commands are generated to the corresponding centers of responsibility to settle a problematic situation.
The paper concludes that although PCG/Ts and general practices have made substantial progress, there is a long way to go before information providers generate high-quality information to support the needs of PCTs.
The number of public health degrees and programmes is growing rapidly. This means that a diverse and multidisciplinary group of students are in need of expert library services to navigate the complicated world of public health information. To better understand the information needs of public health students, a group that has not previously been studied in the information needs literature. An online survey. Of the 153 students, 38 responded (25% response rate). Their responses indicated a strong need for more tailored library instruction sessions at the point of need as opposed to general stand-alone sessions offered at the beginning of a term. It was also found that many students were unaware of public health specific resources available that could greatly aid them in their information needs. Suggestions were made on how to improve the library subject guide, specifically in the areas of more instructions related to locating hard to find resources (e.g. statistics, grey literature), and direct linking to resources (e.g. databases and relevant articles). The information needs of public health students are diverse and complex. It is imperative that the library has a solid understanding of their needs and is able to offer them targeted and relevant library services. © 2014 The author. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Journal.
This study examines the information needs and information seeking behaviour of agricultural scientists of the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) Umudike, Umuahia with a view to assisting information managers of the institute's library to provide for these needs more efficiently than had been the practice.
Hu, Amanda; Sibert, Thomas; Zhao, Wei; Zarro, Vincent
To determine the otolaryngology needs in a free clinic providing care to medically indigent patients, as perceived by the patients and health care providers. Cross-sectional survey. A survey was administered to patients and health care providers of a free clinic from September 2014 through January 2015 in an urban, inner-city location. One hundred and thirty-seven patients (35.8% male, age 50.8 ± 13.0 years) completed the survey. Mean household income was $29,838 ± $10,425; 32.1% spoke English; 54.7% were employed; 10.2% had health insurance; and 37.2% had seen a primary care provider outside of the free clinic. The top three otolaryngology symptoms among patients were sleep apnea/snoring (39.4%), heartburn/reflux (30.7%), and dizziness (29.9%). Eleven health care providers (45% male, age 50.5 ± 15.3 years, 63.6% physician, 36% nurse) completed the survey. Providers perceived the following otolaryngology complaints as the most prevalent, in descending order: cough, nasal congestion, reflux/heartburn, sore throat, and ear infection/otalgia. Providers felt that sleep apnea and hearing loss were the less common otolaryngology complaints, whereas surveyed patients indicated these symptoms with high frequency. The most requested diagnostic tool among patients and providers was chest X-rays. There are unmet otolaryngology needs in a free clinic. Medically indigent patients have significant barriers to accessing health care. Patient and provider perceptions of top otolaryngology complaints differed, but both identified access to chest X-rays as a major unmet need. Knowledge of patient perceptions may help providers elicit the breadth of otolaryngology complaints. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1321-1326, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Higgins, Paul [American Meteorological Society, Washington, DC (United States)
Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making (Final Report) This Department of Energy workshop award (grant #DE-SC0008480) provided primary support for the American Meteorological Society’s study on climate information needs for financial decision making. The goal of this study was to help advance societal decision making by examining the implications of climate variability and change on near-term financial investments. We explored four key topics: 1) the conditions and criteria that influence returns on investment of major financial decisions, 2) the climate sensitivity of financial decisions, 3) climate information needs of financial decision makers, and 4) potential new mechanisms to promote collaboration between scientists and financial decision makers. Better understanding of these four topics will help scientists provide the most useful information and enable financial decision makers to use scientific information most effectively. As a result, this study will enable leaders in business and government to make well-informed choices that help maximize long-term economic success and social wellbeing in the United States The outcomes of the study include a workshop, which brought together leaders from the scientific and financial decision making communities, a publication of the study report, and a public briefing of the results to the policy community. In addition, we will present the results to the scientific community at the AMS Annual Meeting in February, 2014. The study results were covered well by the media including Bloomberg News and E&E News. Upon request, we also briefed the Office of Science Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) on the outcomes. We presented the results to the policy community through a public briefing in December on Capitol Hill. The full report is publicly available at www.ametsoc.org/cin. Summary of Key Findings The United States invests roughly $1.5 trillion U.S. dollars (USD) in
To identify the informational needs of individuals living with advanced cancer, offer guidance to reliable and timely informational resources, and suggest ways in which communication among patients, family members, and health care providers can be optimized. Published articles and research studies. Information and communication needs are problematic and common for people living with advanced cancer as they are frequently unable to find useful information. Health care professionals may lack effective communication skills that are suited to meet these patients' needs. Nursing practice can be significantly strengthened by an awareness of the information needs of this population, and the skills to communicate more effectively with people living with advanced cancer and their families.
Gloeckner, M R; Starling, J R
Forty patients with a permanent colostomy, ileostomy, or ileal conduit were interviewed. Besides changes in sexual performance postoperatively, the authors specifically attempted to determine answers to other sexual variables such as attractiveness, appliance problems, and partner reactions. The extent of information provided to patients on sexuality prior to the permanent ostomy was also examined. There was a significant but predictable incidence of male impotence and female dyspareunia after surgery. Despite innumerable sexual variables, other than performance, which these patients faced postoperatively, 42 per cent received no information regarding sexuality at the time of ostomy surgery. most patients (97.5 per cent) stated that sexuality, including variables other than performance, should be discussed primarily by the surgeon prior to permanent ostomy surgery. The enterostomal therapist has an important role in the total patient adjustment in the long-term postoperative period.
Stimson, G V
In this study of advertisements appearing in medical periodicals and by direct mail advertising to general practitioners, Dr. Stimson, a sociologist, concludes that from what is intended to provide therapeutic information hardly any therapeutic information is provided. He reminds the reader of the safeguards which surround all drug advertising by law and by the code of practice of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry but these safeguards do not appear to control real or potential sins of omission. Frequently in these advertisements the literature relating to the drug is quoted but Dr. Stimson found that it was difficult to trace all the papers quoted in different types of medical library. (Some references quoted were to unpublished papers but surely the blame should be shared in this situation?) Dr. Stimson also gives a vivid and fascinating glimpse of what he calls the 'images and stereotypes' of the patients who, it is claimed, would benefit from the drug being advertised. Certainly most general practitioners must be aware that when they prescribe that image is displaced by an individual but the portrait gallery is indeed depressing. However, to balance these advertisements drug companies issue data sheets which must be more informative than advertisements and conform to regulations in their format. Unfortunately data sheets are only issued every 15 months whereas the 'average general practitioner is potentially exposed to 1,300 advertisements every month'. In other words, the data sheet and not the advertisement should be the guideline but it arrives too infrequently to offset the lack of therapeutic information contained in advertisements. PMID:870694
perpetrators may also be victims of trauma (e.g., childhood abuse, witnessing violence , etc.). Other important points to consider: 89 • He felt I was...Jun 2012 2012 Intimate Partner Violence : What Health Care Providers Need to Know (Webinar) April A. Gerlock Ph.D., ARNP Research Associate, HSRD...NW Center of Excellence VA Puget Sound Health Care System Carole Warshaw, M.D. Director National Center on Domestic Violence , Trauma & Mental
It is thus important for the government to improve access to extension services, and equip them with necessary skills and adequate information resources. Further, the public and extension services, researchers, educators, information services and other agricultural actors should conduct regular studies on information needs ...
information seeking behaviour as they engage in their scholarly activities, the internet, the academic library, colleagues and other influences. Problem of the Study. The purpose of this study is to examine MBA students' information needs, seeking behaviour and their use of information to sustain their process of inquest and ...
Chatterley, Trish; Storie, Dale; Chambers, Thane; Buckingham, Jeanette; Shiri, Ali; Dorgan, Marlene
Healthcare practitioners in Alberta and across Canada have varying levels of access to information resources depending on their institutional and professional affiliations, yet access to current health information is critical for all. To determine what information resources and services are provided by Albertan and Canadian professional health associations to their members. Representatives of professional colleges and associations were interviewed regarding information resources and services offered to members and perceptions of their members' information needs. National-level associations are more likely to provide resources than provincial ones. There is a clear distinction between colleges and associations in terms of information offered: colleges provide regulatory information, while associations are responsible for provision of clinical information resources. Only half of the associations interviewed provide members with access to licensed databases, with cost being a major barrier. There is considerable variation in the number of electronic resources and the levels of information support provided by professional health associations in Alberta and Canada. Access and usage vary among the health professions. National licensing of resources or creation of a portal linking to freely available alternatives are potential options for increasing access and awareness. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.
Pursuant to Article R V 1.38 of the Staff Regulations, members of the personnel are reminded that they are required to inform the Organization in writing, within 30 calendar days, of any change in their family situation (marriage, partnership, birth of a child, etc.) and of the amount of any financial benefit of a similar nature to those provided for in the Staff Regulations (e.g. family allowance, child allowance, infant allowance, non-resident allowance or international indemnity) to which they or a member of their family may be entitled from a source other than CERN. The procedures to be followed are available in the Admin e-guide: https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/en/procedure/change-family-situation Members of the personnel are also reminded that any false declaration or failure to make a declaration with a view to deceiving others or achieving a gain resulting in a loss of funds or reputation for CERN constitutes fraud and may lead to disciplinary action in accordance with Article S ...
Boucher, Nathan A; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Johnson, Kimberly S
Describe social goods and services for which hospices assist patients and families and the resources hospices use to do so. Basic social supports and services not routinely covered by insurers may be needed by terminally ill patients and their families. Little is known about hospices' provision of such social supports and services. A 2014-2015 cross-sectional survey of hospices nationwide. Participating hospices had been in operation for at least 3 years and were located in any of the 50 states or District of Columbia. Hospices were surveyed about availability and sources of internal funds and referral to obtain basic social supports for patients. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis, and categorization were used to describe hospice practices. Measures included frequency and nature of goods and services provision in the prior year; and extent to which hospices used internal funds or community referral for goods and services. Over 80% (n = 203) reported internal funds covered services not reimbursed by insurers; 78% used funds in last year. Hospices used internal funds for food (81.7%), shelter (57.8%), utility bills (73.5%), and funeral costs (50%). Hospices referred patients/families to community organizations to obtain a similar range of services, including transportation, clothing, linens/towels, furniture/appliances, home repairs, and caregiver support. Hospices are using internal resources and accessing community resources to provide patients with basic social needs not routinely covered by insurance.
This study ascertained the information needs of orphaned and vulnerable children (OVC) and their caregivers and the information disseminating strategies used by key stakeholders in managing the OVC situation in Namibia. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used, in the form of interviews focus group ...
Gillespie, Jacqueline; Kacikanis, Anna; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Gallinger, Steven; Ruthig, Elke
A marked knowledge gap exists concerning the information needs of hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgical oncology patients. We investigated the comprehensive information needs of this patient population, including the type and amount of information desired, as well as the preferred method of receiving information. A questionnaire was administered to patients being treated surgically for cancers of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, or bile ducts at Toronto General Hospital, part of the University Health Network, in Toronto, Canada. The questionnaire examined patients' information needs across six domains of information: medical, practical, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual. Among 36 respondents, the importance of information and amount of information desired differed significantly by domain (both p information in the medical and physical domains as most important, though they also desired specific items of information from the emotional, practical, and social domains. Patients' overwhelming preference was to receive information via a one-on-one consultation with a healthcare provider. It is important for healthcare providers working with HPB surgical oncology patients to be comprehensive when providing information related to patients' cancer diagnosis, prognosis, associated symptoms, and side effects of treatment. Certain emotional, practical, and social issues (e.g., fears of cancer recurrence, drug coverage options, relationship changes) should be addressed as well. Face-to-face interactions should be the primary mode of delivering information to patients. Our findings are being used to guide the training of healthcare providers and the development of educational resources specific to HPB surgical oncology patients.
This paper focuses on the need of every researcher to be informed on advances in his field. It reviews the means available for keeping abreast of developments in a specific area of scientific inquiry. In the author's view, articles in reference journals on a specific specialty are the best source of information. However, the interval between the writing and publication of a scientific paper is sometimes long, which poses a considerable impediment to the use of the traditional media as a means of keeping up. He also examines the limitations of information in biomedical research and reviews the characteristics of this research in Latin America. Finally, he makes a number of recommendations for improving scientific communications and making the most of the services of national and international information dissemination systems.
Full Text Available Abstract: In this paper, the importance of CTI for the innovation management of companies will be discussed, including the barriers, the core structure of the CTI unit and a proper search process from top management to concrete research outputs. To begin with, we need to define the environment where the innovation activities are being conducted. In the second part, we put CTI in the organizational framework of the companies, and in the third part we discuss the importance of information needs focused on innovative companies.
Hu, Amanda; Sardesai, Maya G.; Meyer, Tanya K.
Objective Otolaryngic disorders are very common in primary care, comprising 20–50% of presenting complaints to a primary care provider. There is limited otolaryngology training in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education for primary care. Continuing medical education may be the next opportunity to train our primary care providers (PCPs). The objective of this study was to assess the otolaryngology knowledge of a group of PCPs attending an otolaryngology update course. Methods PCPs enrolled in an otolaryngology update course completed a web-based anonymous survey on demographics and a pre-course knowledge test. This test was composed of 12 multiple choice questions with five options each. At the end of the course, they were asked to evaluate the usefulness of the course for their clinical practice. Results Thirty seven (74%) PCPs completed the survey. Mean knowledge test score out of a maximum score of 12 was 4.0±1.7 (33.3±14.0%). Sorted by area of specialty, the mean scores out of a maximum score of 12 were: family medicine 4.6±2.1 (38.3±17.3%), pediatric medicine 4.2±0.8 (35.0±7.0%), other (e.g., dentistry, emergency medicine) 4.2±2.0 (34.6±17.0%), and adult medicine 3.9±2.1 (32.3±17.5%). Ninety one percent of respondents would attend the course again. Conclusion There is a low level of otolaryngology knowledge among PCPs attending an otolaryngology update course. There is a need for otolaryngology education among PCPs. PMID:22754276
Falk, Ann-Charlotte; von Wendt, Lennart; Klang, Birgitta
When a child is hospitalized due to an illness or injury, the entire family may experience stress and/or anxiety. According to parents who have been in such a situation, providing adequate information is one of the most valuable ways to help the family deal with such feelings. Most mild head injuries suffered by children do not require hospitalisation and in such cases, their families should be provided with appropriate information in connection with their visit to the emergency ward. In the present study, family informational needs are characterized. The families of 57 children who had suffered a mild head injury at 0-15 years of age answered one open-ended question. The analysis was carried out using content analysis. This analysis revealed two types of needs, i.e., a need for information concerning the head injury itself and how to provide care, as well as a need for reassurance and support in sharing and coping with the emotional burden. Despite differences in the severity of the child's head injury and requirement for hospitalisation, all the families expressed the same informational needs but also the need for emotional support. In connection with the treatment of children with head injuries, health-care personnel should provide the parents both with information concerning the injury and its treatment and with emotional support.
Gazmararian, Julie A; Dalmida, Safiya George; Merino, Yesenia; Blake, Sarah; Thompson, Winifred; Gaydos, Laura
Identifying the educational and resource needs of new mothers is of paramount importance in developing programs to improve maternal and child health outcomes. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the educational needs of new mothers and identify opportunities to enhance healthcare providers' current educational efforts. A two-part methodology was utilized to qualitatively explore the topic of parenting information needs for new mothers in Georgia. Data collection included information from 11 focus groups with 92 first-time, new mothers and 20 interviews with healthcare providers who serve new mothers. Discussions with both new mothers and providers clearly indicated that new mothers face a significant informational deficit, especially regarding very basic, daily infant care information and health literacy challenges. Educational materials already exist; however, mothers report difficulty accessing and understanding this information. For this reason, both the mothers and the providers stressed a focus on developing programs or interventions that allow in-person education and/or alternative modalities to access information, as opposed to development of new written materials solely. Information from the focus group and interviews provided important insight regarding what improvements need to be made to help new mothers and their families during the early stages of parenthood. By improving the education of new mothers and their families, it is proposed that maternal and infant health status could be improved.
Smart, Kathryn A.; Parker, Randy Spreen; Lampert, Joan; Sulo, Suela
School nurses provide an important role in the continuity of health care especially for adolescents who are at high risk for significant health concerns. The purpose of this study was to assess adolescents' health information needs and identify their preferences for accessing health information. Using an inductive qualitative research design, 11…
Fenton, S H; Gongora-Ferraez, M J; Joost, E
To evaluate the health information technology (HIT) workforce knowledge and skills needed by HIT employers. Statewide face-to-face and online focus groups of identified HIT employer groups in Austin, Brownsville, College Station, Dallas, El Paso, Houston, Lubbock, San Antonio, and webinars for rural health and nursing informatics. HIT employers reported needing an HIT workforce with diverse knowledge and skills ranging from basic to advanced, while covering information technology, privacy and security, clinical practice, needs assessment, contract negotiation, and many other areas. Consistent themes were that employees needed to be able to learn on the job and must possess the ability to think critically and problem solve. Many employers wanted persons with technical skills, yet also the knowledge and understanding of healthcare operations. The HIT employer focus groups provided valuable insight into employee skills needed in this fast-growing field. Additionally, this information will be utilized to develop a statewide HIT workforce needs assessment survey.
Toms, Elaine G.
Discussion of information architecture focuses on a model of information interaction that bridges the gap between human and computer and between information behavior and information retrieval. Illustrates how the process of information interaction is affected by the user, the system, and the content. (Contains 93 references.) (LRW)
Key policy drivers worldwide include optimizing patients' roles in managing their care; focusing services around patients' needs and preferences; and providing information to support patients' contributions and choices. The term information need penetrates many policy documents. Information need is espoused as the foundation from which to develop patient-centred or patient-led services. Yet there is no clear definition as to what the term means or how patients' information needs inform and shape information provision and patient care. The assimilation of complex theories originating from information science has much to offer considerations of patient information need within the context of health care. Health-related research often focuses on the content of information patients prefer, not why they need information. This paper extends and applies knowledge of information behaviour to considerations of information need in health, exposing a working definition for patient information need that reiterates the importance of considering the patient's goals and understanding the patient's context/situation. A patient information need is defined as 'recognition that their knowledge is inadequate to satisfy a goal, within the context/situation that they find themselves at a specific point in the time'. This typifies the key concepts of national/international health policy, the centrality and importance of the patient. The proposed definition of patient information need provides a conceptual framework to guide health-care practitioners on what to consider and why when meeting the information needs of patients in practice. This creates a solid foundation from which to inform future research. © 2010 The Author. Health Expectations © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Elwood L. Shafer
The major emphases of selected Symposium papers are underscored, and some personal thoughts are presented on how childrens' understanding of natural environments will eventually affect the quality of this Nation's environment. Special emphasis is given to research needs for insuring the establishment, protection, and management of natural environments for...
Pursuant to Article R V 1.38 of the Staff Regulations, members of the personnel are reminded that they are required to inform the Organization in writing, within 30 calendar days, of any change in their family situation (marriage, partnership, birth of a child, etc.) and of the amount of any financial benefit of a similar nature to those stipulated in the Staff Regulations (e.g. family allowance, child allowance, infant allowance, non-resident allowance or international indemnity) to which they or a member of their family may be entitled from a source other than CERN. The procedures to be followed are available in the admin e-guide: https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/en/procedure/change-family-situation Members of the personnel are also reminded that any false declaration or failure to make a declaration with a view to deceiving others or achieving a gain resulting in a loss of funds or reputation for CERN constitutes fraud and may lead to disciplinary action in accordance with Article S VI 2.01 of ...
Pursuant to Article R V 1.38 of the Staff Regulations, members of the personnel are reminded that they are required to inform the Organization in writing, within 30 calendar days, of any change in their family situation (marriage, partnership, birth of a child, etc.) and of the amount of any financial benefit of a similar nature to those stipulated in the Staff Regulations (e.g. family allowance, child allowance, infant allowance, non-resident allowance or international indemnity) to which they or a member of their family may be entitled from a source other than CERN. The procedures to be followed are available in the Admin e-guide: https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/en/procedure/change-family-situation Members of the personnel are also reminded that any false declaration or failure to make a declaration with a view to deceiving others or achieving a gain resulting in a loss of funds or reputation for CERN constitutes fraud and may lead to disciplinary action in accordance with Article S VI 2.01 of ...
...). The DoD Chief Information Officer (CIO) provides the leadership to meet the Net-Centric vision and ultimately deliver the critical enabling capabilities required by the National Defense Strategy...
Full Text Available The ongoing ageing of societies entails the need to intensify research aimed at solving problems of seniors. Housing is one of the most acute problems of the elderly. However, solving this issue is by no means an easy task as the population of seniors is highly heterogeneous. The great diversity means that the housing offer for this group should also be wide and comprehensive. Independent living forms, adjusted to the needs of the elderly, are among many potential dwelling options. The aim of this paper is to explain the meaning of gerontechnology as part of the silver economy concept. The issue is of special importance in the light of the ongoing demographic changes. The basic method applied is case study – the author presents the model example of an apartment for seniors in Warsaw, Poland, where many gerontechnological solutions have been applied.
Adler, Geri; Pritchett, Lonique R; Kauth, Michael R
Historically, mental health clinicians at Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) have not had the same access to continuing education (CE) as providers at VA medical centers. Mental health clinicians at CBOCs desire an opportunity for VA-sponsored CE, especially on topics and issues pertinent to rural mental healthcare. Since November 2011, VA CBOC mental health providers in 11 states have been offered a monthly live Web conferencing CE program. This article describes the program's development, implementation, and evaluation. Eleven CE programs have been offered to 397 unique participants. Participants have provided positive feedback about the topics and their impact on job performance. Most negative feedback has been related to technical and logistical problems with the Web conferencing platform. Although providers asked for reportable CE units for licensure, many did not complete the post-test, which is required to receive credit for completing the course. The Web conferencing format has been well received by participants. Despite technical issues, results show that the participants were satisfied with the content of the trainings and could apply the materials to their job. Although CE units were available, not all participants applied for credit. Efforts to improve technical support and the rate of post-test completion are discussed. Rural mental health providers often have limited access to training opportunities. The VA CBOC Mental Health Rounds, using an interactive Web conferencing platform, has been a successful modality for delivering CE to rural clinicians in the United States.
Forrester, Joseph D; Vakkalanka, J Priyanka; Holstege, Christopher P; Mead, Paul S
Lyme disease is a multisystem tickborne illness caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is the most common vectorborne disease in the United States. Prognosis after initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy is typically good if treated early. Wilderness providers caring for patients who live in or travel to high-incidence Lyme disease areas should be aware of the basic biology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of Lyme disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Gratification Theory Provides a Useful Framework for Understanding the Information Seeking Behaviours and Needs of Distinct Populations. A review of: Chatman, E. A. (1991. Life in a small world: Applicability of gratification theory to information‐seeking behavior. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42(6, 438‐449.
practical dimensions of life” (p. 445; information relevant to lower working class individuals is that which “solve[s] problematic situations” (p. 441. Study participants’ social conversations revolved around events that reinforced their mental models. Respondents relied on themselves and distrusted those outside their social circles.6. Use of the Mass Media. Mass media is perceived as a vehicle for passing time, escape, and entertainment, as well as a reflection of lived realities for the population. Respondents indicated that they watched television to pass time, and, secondarily, for practical purposes (e.g., learning how to be safe.Conclusion – Gratification theory provides a useful framework for library and information professionals to identify how populations define information problems and reliable sources, and their information seeking behaviours and motivations. Chatman’s analysis indicates that the everyday problems faced by the lower working class are not, and will not be, met by traditional sources that information professionals assume to be of value for the population. Based on these research results, Chatman calls on information professionals to critically evaluate and broaden their understanding of how problems are defined and addressed by the specific populations they seek to serve – to consider the relationships between the pressing realities of their service populations and everyday information that addresses those realities. This understanding will enable information professionals to determine if, how, and by what means, they should develop and package information to meet the needs of their service populations and communities.
Badalamente, R.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); DeLand, S.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whiteson, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Anzelon, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
The Safeguards Information Management System initiative is a program of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation aimed at supporting the International Atomic Energy Agency`s (IAEA) efforts to strengthen safeguards through the enhancement of information management capabilities. The DOE hopes to provide the IAEA with the ability to correlate and analyze data from existing and new sources of information, including publicly available information, information on imports and exports, design information, environmental monitoring data, and non-safeguards information. The first step in this effort is to identify and define IAEA requirements. In support of this, we have created a users` requirements document based on interviews with IAEA staff that describes the information management needs of the end user projected by the IAEA, including needs for storage, retrieval, analysis, communication, and visualization of data. Also included are characteristics of the end user and attributes of the current environment. This paper describes our efforts to obtain the required information. We discuss how to accurately represent user needs and involve users for an international organization with a multi-cultural user population. We describe our approach, our experience in setting up and conducting the interviews and brainstorming sessions, and a brief discussion of what we learned.
Perry, S. C.
that rainfall intensity at their homes might be less than the intensity up in the mountains where the debris flows would start. Nor did they know that debris flows travel too quickly to be outrun. These and many other examples indicate need for social and natural scientists to increase awareness of what to expect when the disaster strikes. This information must be solidly understood before the event occurs - while a disaster is unfolding there are no teachable moments. Case studies indicate that even those who come into a disaster well educated about the phenomenon can struggle to apply what they know when the real situation is at hand. In addition, psychological studies confirm diminished ability to comprehend information at times of stress.
Fabricio Sobrosa Affeldt
Full Text Available Devising an information architecture system that enables an organization to centralize information regarding its operational, managerial and strategic performance is one of the challenges currently facing information technology. The present study aimed to analyze an information architecture system developed using Business Intelligence (BI technology. The analysis was performed based on a questionnaire enquiring as to whether the information needs of executives were met during the process. A theoretical framework was applied consisting of information architecture and BI technology, using a case study methodology. Results indicated that the transaction processing systems studied did not meet the information needs of company executives. Information architecture using data warehousing, online analytical processing (OLAP tools and data mining may provide a more agile means of meeting these needs. However, some items must be included and others modified, in addition to improving the culture of information use by company executives.
Grobe, M. [Alberta Geological Survey, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Earth Systems Section
The mission of the Alberta Geological Survey (AGS) is to provide, data, information, knowledge, and advice about the geology of Alberta needed by government, industry, and the public for earth-resource stewardship and sustainable development in Alberta. This presentation discussed the provision of geoscience information for geoexchange technology implementation in Alberta. Surficial and bedrock geology influences the selection, installation cost and performance of geoexchange systems. The AGS is currently examining the feasibility of transforming geological maps to geothermal property maps for geoexchange design purposes and decision making by policy makers and industry. Shallow or ground-source geothermal energy in Alberta and the role of geoscience information were presented. The role of the AGS and its activities were outlined. The presentation also identified a project approach to two studies, notably a geoscience needs and utilities assessment as well as a pilot study in the Edmonton area. Data compilation and maps of the pilot study were presented. Last, the presentation discussed drilling, sampling and thermal testing in an area of thick drift over bedrock. It was determined that quality geoscience information is an important factor for site assessment and proper geoexchange design and decision making. The sharing data and experience for better decision making was found to be an important benefit. tabs., figs.
Watts, Tessa; Merrell, Joy; Murphy, Fiona; Williams, Angela
For women from minority ethnic groups to make informed decisions about their health, and particularly about whether to participate in breast cancer screening programmes, access to a range of appropriately designed high quality, culturally-specific and sensitive health information is needed. Through a critical review of the literature, this paper aims to determine the breast health and breast cancer screening information needs of women from minority ethnic groups and to discuss the implications of cultural difference for nurses in relation to the development and dissemination of health information. A critical review of the research literature published in English between 1996 and 2002 was conducted. Electronic and the relevant Cochrane Collaboration databases were searched using a range of search terms to retrieve literature specifically relevant to the aims of the review. The use of personal contacts and posting a request for information on the mailing list at email@example.com facilitated the retrieval of grey literature. All references retrieved were entered on a bibliographic database. The title and abstract of each was examined to assess it for inclusion in the review. There was little published information about specific breast cancer screening information needs from the perspective of women from minority ethnic groups. In comparison with the indigenous population, the information needs of people from minority ethnic groups differ in relation to their cultural beliefs and values and the effects of these on health care practices. Inadequate knowledge about breast health and breast cancer screening may be a consequence of the provision of insufficient or culturally inappropriate information. There is a dearth of research highlighting breast health and breast cancer screening information needs of women from minority ethnic groups. In providing information, their needs appear to have been an 'add on'. Health care professionals' lack of
Considering the spiritual needs of patients is an important aspect of holistic patient care. However, many nurses lack knowledge and awareness of the subject, and spirituality is not strongly featured as a key part of holistic care in core nursing textbooks. The author argues that guidance given by nursing textbooks needs to be more applicable to practice.
significance of democratic variables to such information needs. The participatory research approach was adopted using the social meeting groups in Ndokwa area. The findings showed that the women's information needs were nutritional information, agricultural information, economic information, literacy information, health ...
Wong, Li Ping; Sam, I-Ching
Providing health information during disease outbreaks is a fundamental component of outbreak control strategies. This study aimed to explore sources of influenza A(H1N1)-related information, specific information needs and preferences of the lay public during the peak of the outbreak. A cross-sectional, population-based, computer-assisted telephone interview of 1,050 respondents was conducted in Malaysia between July 11 and September 12, 2009. Newspaper, television and family were three main sources of information about A(H1N1). There were substantial ethnic differences; the Malays were significantly more likely to identify television as main source, while newspapers and family were identified as the main sources by the Chinese and Indians, respectively. Overall, the two main information needs identified were prevention and treatment. The Malays expressed lesser need for overall information than other ethnic groups. The three most preferred sources of information were television, newspapers and healthcare providers. There were significant positive correlations between amount of information received with knowledge (r = 0.149), perceived susceptibility to infection (r = 0.177), and other behavioral responses. Health information dissemination should be dedicated to meeting the information needs of diverse sociodemographic and ethnic groups. The findings highlight the importance of providing information that increases awareness and behavioral changes in disease prevention yet reduce fear.
Full Text Available For families that are not capable to obtain necessary supplies to meet their needs, State’s social policy guidelines determine support for improving the quality of life for these families. However, it is concluded, that neither the state nor municipality’ provided support for families with children with special needs, does not meet the needs of families, because state social policy is not focused on the assessment of the family needs, as well as often families do not receive the support due to lack of necessary information and disinterest by social service workers, which in turn reflects the problems in social policy delivery mechanisms. The most necessary support that families need is concerned with lodging and financial security, lack of assistants/care at home, as well as – emotional support.
Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Moghbeli, Fatemeh; Aliabadi, Ali
Advanced technology has increased the use of telemedicine and Information Technology (IT) in treating or rehabilitating diseases. An increased use of technology increases the importance of the ethical issues involved. The need for keeping patients' information confidential and secure, controlling a number of therapists' inefficiency as well as raising the quality of healthcare services necessitates adequate heed to ethical issues in telemedicine provision. The goal of this review is gathering all articles that are published through 5 years until now (2012-2017) for detecting ethical issues for providing telemedicine services and Information technology. The reason of this time is improvement of telemedicine and technology through these years. This article is important for clinical practice and also to world, because of knowing ethical issues in telemedicine and technology are always important factors for physician and health providers. the required data in this research were derived from published electronic sources and credible academic articles published in such databases as PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct. The following key words were searched for in separation and combination: tele-health, telemedicine, ethical issues in telemedicine. A total of 503 articles were found. After excluding the duplicates (n= 93), the titles and abstracts of 410 articles were skimmed according to the inclusion criteria. Finally, 64 articles remained. They were reviewed in full text and 36 articles were excluded. At the end, 28 articles were chosen which met our eligibility criteria and were included in this study. Ethics has been of a great significance in IT and telemedicine especially the Internet since there are more chances provided for accessing information. It is, however, accompanied by a threat to patients' personal information. Therefore, suggestions are made to investigate ethics in technology, to offer standards and guidelines to therapists. Due to the advancement in
Warren, Emily; Footman, Katharine; Tinelli, Michela; McKee, Martin; Knai, Cécile
To evaluate commonly used cancer websites' information provision, we developed and applied an Information Comprehensiveness Tool to breast and prostate cancer websites. We first collated questions from a systematic literature review on patient information needs. We then classified the questions in terms of spectrum of care, theme, and nature of question. "Breast cancer" and "prostate cancer" were typed into Google, and websites listed on the first page of results were selected. Two researchers, blind to each others' scores, assessed the same websites using the coding system. Each question was scored on a 3-point scale as not (0%), partially (50%) and fully (100%) answered by two researchers. Average scores were calculated across all questions. Inter-rater reliability was assessed. We identified 79 general, 5 breast, and 5 prostate cancer questions. Inter-rater reliability was good, with an intraclass coefficient of 0.756 (95% CIs 0.729-0.781). 17 questions were not answered thoroughly by any website. Questions about "future planning", "monitoring", and "decision-making" were discussed least. Biomedical questions scored highest. More comprehensive information needs to be provided on breast and prostate cancer websites. This ICT can improve cancer information online and enable patients to engage more actively regarding their information needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The study investigated the information needs of rural dwellers and how information can be disseminated to five rural communities in Sagbama Local government Area of Bayelsa state. It discussed the concept of information need, information dissemination and rural communities. It also discusses the different information ...
Duberman, Josh; Zeller, Martin
Provides an introduction to fulfilling the information needs of technology transfer. Highlights include a definition of technology transfer; government and university involvement; industry's role; publishers; an annotated list of information sources and contacts; technology assessment, including patent searching, competitive intelligence, and…
Gregory D. Hayward
Most humans are reluctant to make decisions without thorough knowledge of the consequences of those decisions. Therefore, a desire for further research is almost universal in any complex management arena. The value of further study is determined, in part, by the cost in time and resources to obtain new information and the cost of making incorrect decisions without the...
Simonov, P V
Experimental results and literature data point to the leading role of four brain structures in the genesis of emotional states and in the organization of goal directed behaviour. Owing to the functioning of the frontal parts of the neocortex behaviour is oriented to signals with a high probability of their reinforcement, and owing to the hypothalamus--to satisfaction of the dominant need. Unlike the neocortex the hippocampus is necessary for reactions to signals of lowly probable events, which is typical of emotionally exicted brain. The amygdala complx participates in creation of a balance, a dynamic co-existence between completing needs (motivations) and corresponding emotions. As a result, behaviour becomes more plastic and adequate to the given situation.
Brewster, Liz; Sen, Barbara
Information prescriptions (IPs) are part of a Department of Health (DH) initiative to improve patient care. IPs aim to meet health information needs by providing personalised, high quality patient information about conditions and treatment. This paper identifies current online IP provision and evaluates a sample of IP websites against the original DH aims of IP provision; British Medical Association usability criteria; and information seeking vignettes. Five UK and one international IP website were randomly selected as a sample. Two checklists designed to appraise the websites were used to review each IP provider. Two patient information seeking vignettes were developed to enable the websites to be assessed from a patient-centred perspective. Information prescriptions currently vary in content, accessibility and quality. National IP websites score more highly than local IP websites, which are often weak on content for specific conditions and poorly designed but strong on signposting to local services. Guidelines for IP provision need to be improved to ensure higher quality, more easily accessible information is available. A synthesis of expertise included in national and local websites would improve usability for patients. IP websites should conform to standards of web design and accessibility. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.
Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Shirpak, Khosro Refaie; Chinichian, Maryam
Sexual health is increasingly understood as an integral part of health. In Canada, education for sexual health is delivered predominantly in middle and secondary school. What of adults who immigrate to Canada from countries where sex education is not delivered to youth? This paper explores the needs and experiences of one such group of Canadian immigrants: those from Iran. Ten married male and 10 married female immigrants from Iran living in a mid-sized Canadian city were recruited using snowball sampling and participated in qualitative interviews. The sample varied in age, education level, duration of marriage, and stay in Canada. Participants addressed three themes: experiences accessing information and health services, necessary content of information, and preferred ways of providing sexual health information and services. Key barriers to accessing and using sexual health services, experienced by all interviewees, regardless of the length of time they were in Canada, included language, cultural misunderstandings, embarrassment, long waits, and limited time that physicians spent with patients. Examples were provided of misunderstandings and inappropriate or even offensive questions or suggestions made by health practitioners who were unfamiliar with patients' cultural norms related to sexuality. Participants believed their needs and questions were different from their Canadian counterparts and wanted a confidential, linguistically and culturally friendly source of information such as a website in the Farsi language. More attention needs to be paid to developing public health and medical services related to sexual health that take account of the cultural diversities represented in the Canadian population.
... LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Procedures Governing Decisions About Meetings § 1703.206 Providing information to the public. Individuals or organizations interested in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Providing information to the public. 1703.206...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Providing information to the public. 1206.8 Section 1206.8 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES OPEN MEETINGS Procedures § 1206.8 Providing information to the public. Information available to the...
4 46 1 Sharepoint 81 2 82 3 47 2 30 7 Strategic Narrative 53 4 82 3 20 4 41 3 Combined Information Data Network Exchange (CIDNE...Microsoft Office Suite, SharePoint , the commander’s communication strategy, and strategic narrative and rated these tools and products as the most...strategy, and SharePoint were rated the highest on QC preparedness. Microsoft Office Suite, the commander’s communication strategy, SharePoint , and
Spath, M; Buttlar, L
The majority of nurses surveyed used the library on a regular but limited basis to obtain information needed in caring for or making decisions about their patients. A minority indicated that the libraries in their own institutions totally met their information needs. In fact, only 4% depended on the library to stay abreast of new information and developments in the field. Many of the nurses had their own journal subscriptions, which could account in part for the limited use of libraries and the popularity of the professional journal as the key information source. This finding correlates with the research of Binger and Huntsman, who found that 95% of staff development educators relied on professional journal literature to keep up with current information in the field, and only 45% regularly monitored indexing-and-abstracting services. The present study also revealed that nurses seek information from colleagues more than from any other source, supporting the findings of Corcoran-Perry and Graves. Further research is necessary to clarify why nurses use libraries on a limited basis. It appears, as Bunyan and Lutz contend, that a more aggressive approach to marketing the library to nurses is needed. Further research should include an assessment of how the library can meet the information needs of nurses for both research and patient care. Options to be considered include offering library orientation sessions for new staff nurses, providing current-awareness services by circulating photocopied table-of-contents pages, sending out reviews of new monographs, inviting nurses to submit search requests on a topic, scheduling seminars and workshops that teach CD-ROM and online search strategies, and providing information about electronic databases covering topics related to nursing. Information on databases may be particularly important in light of the present study's finding that databases available in CD-ROM format are consulted very little. Nursing education programs should
Kamali, Sudabeh; Ahmadian, Leila; Khajouei, Reza; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz
Pregnant women should be provided with relevant and useful information to manage this specific period of their lives. Assessing information needs of this group is a prerequisite for providing this information. The aim of this study was to assess the information needs of pregnant women during their pregnancy and childbirth. This descriptive study was conducted on the pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics and obstetricians/gynaecologists' offices in Kerman, Iran, in 2015. Data were collected using a self-administered, valid and reliable questionnaire. A total of 400 women participated in the study. Most pregnant women needed information about care of the foetus (n = 344, 86%), physical and psychological complications after delivery (n = 333, 83%), development and growth of the foetus (n = 330, 82.5%), pregnancy nutrition (n = 327, 82%) and special tests during pregnancy (n = 326, 81.5%). They mostly (n = 195, 49%) looked for information when they were suffering from a disease or pregnancy complications. As pregnant women need extensive information to be able to take care of themselves and their babies, their information needs should be identified and taken into consideration when planning educational programmes for this group of women. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.
Of the respondents 88.3% source their information needs from the social groups which visit the home while only 11.8% source their information needs from newspapers. The study also reveals that information obtained by the juveniles usually enlightens them but is not specific enough to meet their needs. Innovation No.
Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M; Narahari, M G
(n = 142; 35.5%). The most common poisoning agents were medicines (n = 124; 31.0%). The service provided was graded as "Excellent" for the majority of queries (n = 360; 86%; P < 0.001), followed by "Very Good" (n = 50; 12%) and "Good" (n = 9; 2%). The poison information center provided requested services in a skillful, efficient and evidence-based manner to meet the needs of the requestor. The enquiries and information provided is documented in a clear and systematic manner.
Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Johnsen, Anna Thit
To validate five items (CPWQ-inf) regarding satisfaction with information provided to cancer patients from health care staff, assess the prevalence of dissatisfaction with this information, and identify factors predicting dissatisfaction.......To validate five items (CPWQ-inf) regarding satisfaction with information provided to cancer patients from health care staff, assess the prevalence of dissatisfaction with this information, and identify factors predicting dissatisfaction....
Matsuyama, Robin K; Kuhn, Laura A; Molisani, Anthony; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen C
Cancer patients' information needs about disease, diagnostic tests, treatments, physical care, and psychosocial resources during treatment are examined. Information needs of newly diagnosed, Stages II-IV cancer patients receiving treatment (N=138) were studied over nine months. Information needs were assessed using The Toronto Informational Needs Questionnaire (TINQ). There are five subscales for the TINQ: disease, diagnostic tests, treatment, physical and psychosocial. Health literacy and amount of information wanted were also measured. A repeated measures, univariate two-level model for longitudinal data was analyzed. Separate models for each subscale were constructed and covariates were examined simultaneously for associations with information needs. Models were estimated using FIML. Although significant reduction of needs was observed over time, total information needs remained high throughout. Gender (women), age (younger), race (African American), education (lesser), and marital status (married) were significantly associated with higher information needs over time. Cancer type and stage were not significantly associated. Cancer patients' information needs decrease yet remain high over time. Patients' information needs are highest near diagnosis and change throughout the course of their treatment. As patients obtain and understand information, they will continue to need information in new areas relevant to their care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Unmet need is a phenomenon that must be seriously handled by the relevant institutions. High proportion of unmet need can occur due to some factors, such as fear of side effect of contraception, lack of understanding of various contraception means as well as unaffordable charge of birth control services. This phenomenon would affect the decrease in contraception use prevalence and the increase of probability of giving a birth to unexpected children. The proportion of unmet need can be reduced by direct intervention to eligible couples that is classified as unmet need. The purpose of this study are (1 to find out internal and external factors that motivate unmet need eligible couples willing to use contraception means after the intervention done, and (2 to identify the implementation of socialization and intervention model for unmet need eligible couples. Socialization and intervention activities are conducted in five regencies (Badung, Gianyar, Karangasem, Buleleng, and Jembrana. In each regency two sub-districts are chosen, and from each sub-district two villages are selected for implementing the activities. The results show that there are 16 variables of internal factors motivating unmet need eligible couples to use contraception means after the socialization take place. This variables relate to the availability of and satisfaction to service program information, and ability to serve in explaining the program. The main external factor relates to the free charge of program services, including cost of contraception means and the installment. Implementation of socialization and intervention is conducted in 8 steps, starting from registering unmet need eligible couples to the evaluation stage. Recommendation from this study includes periodical registration of unmet need eligible couples, commitment establishment of related institutions and providers in handling unmet need, and continuous unmet need handling program.
Baraka, Jitihada; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Baynes, Colin
Provider perspectives have been overlooked in efforts to address the challenges of unmet need for family planning (FP). This qualitative study was undertaken in Tanzania, using 22 key informant interviews and 4 focus group discussions. The research documents perceptions of healthcare managers and providers in a rural district on the barriers to meeting latent demand for contraception. Social-ecological theory is used to interpret the findings, illustrating how service capability is determined by the social, structural and organizational environment. Providers' efforts to address unmet need for FP services are constrained by unstable reproductive preferences, low educational attainment, and misconceptions about contraceptive side effects. Societal and organizational factors--such as gender dynamics, economic conditions, religious and cultural norms, and supply chain bottlenecks, respectively--also contribute to an adverse environment for meeting needs for care. Challenges that healthcare providers face interact and produce an effect which hinders efforts to address unmet need. Interventions to address this are not sufficient unless the supply of services is combined with systems strengthening and social engagement strategies in a way that reflects the multi-layered, social institutional problems.
Degner, L F; Kristjanson, L J; Bowman, D; Sloan, J A; Carriere, K C; O'Neil, J; Bilodeau, B; Watson, P; Mueller, B
To determine the degree of involvement women with breast cancer wanted in medical decision making, extent to which they believed they had achieved their preferred level of involvement, and types of information they judged to be most important. Cross-sectional survey at 2 tertiary oncology referral clinics and 2 community hospital oncology clinics in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Consecutive sample of 1012 women with a confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer who were scheduled for a visit at 1 of 4 hospital oncology clinics. The following measures were used: (1) Preferences about various levels of participation in treatment decision making; (2) the extent to which subjects believed they had achieved their preferred levels of involvement in decision making; and (3) priority needs for information and how these needs differed by selected sociodemographic, disease, and treatment variables. A total of 22% of women wanted to select their own cancer treatment, 44% wanted to select their treatment collaboratively with their physicians, and 34% wanted to delegate this responsibility to their physicians. Only 42% of women believed they had achieved their preferred level of control in decision making. The 2 most highly ranked types of information were related to knowing about chances of cure and spread of disease. Women younger than 50 years rated information about physical and sexual attractiveness as more important than did older women (Pwomen older than 70 years rated information about self-care as more important than did younger women (P=.002); and women who had a positive family history of breast cancer rated information about family risk as more important than did other women (P=.03). The substantial discrepancy between women's preferred and attained levels of involvement in treatment decision making suggests that systematic approaches to assess and respond to women's desired level of participation in treatment decision making need to be evaluated. Priorities for information
The findings show that there are differences in the extent to which students of the Open University of Tanzania (OUT) and those of Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) use sources of information in the library. The OUT students rely mainly on the use of print books and journals as opposed to electronic information ...
Almodóvar, Raquel; Gratacós, Jordi; Zarco, Pedro
1. To describe the information provided to, or inquired about, by patients with axial spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis. 2. To analyze improvements. Analysis of the discourse of focus groups (with patients, some of them from patient associations, and rheumatologists). The discussion included the identification of elements that shape the reality being studied, describing the relationship among them and summarizing the results by: 1)thematic segmentation; 2)categorization according to situations, relationships, opinions, feelings or others; 3)coding of the various categories, and 4)interpretation of results. Representativeness was ensured by using a typological framework. Rheumatologists are the main source of information. Patient associations have a fundamental role and are well-regarded. Internet is used with caution due to its limited reliability. Patients are interested in: disease characteristics and treatments, the course and prognosis, and social, administrative and other kinds of support. More information is needed (objective and constructive, avoiding a catastrophic tone); it should be provided progressively, adjusted to patients features and needs. There are areas for improvement including: the standardization and updating of contents (based on scientific evidence), the optimization of informative materials (written, electronic), and other resources such as nursing and primary care. Rheumatologists are the main and most reliable source of information for patients with spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis. Patient associations have an important role and are well-regarded. Changes in the content, format and sources of information are required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.
It is the third opinion we will maintain in this paper by discussing the information needs in the information .... For example, in a digital library such as the ACM .... municative information need, to help him/her to understand the text in L2. The complexity of this reception problem may also differ. In an uninflected lan- guage it ...
Case, Donald O
The 4th edition of this popular and well-cited text is now co-authored, and includes significant changes from earlier texts. Presenting a comprehensive review of over a century of research on information behavior (IB), this book is intended for students in information studies and disciplines interested in research on information activities. The initial two chapters introduce IB as a multi-disciplinary topic, the 3rd provides a brief history of research on information seeking. Chapter four discusses what is meant by the terms 'information' and 'knowledge.' Chapter five discusses 'information needs,' and how they are addressed. The 6th chapter identifies many related concepts. Twelve models of information behavior (expanded from earlier editions) are illustrated in chapter seven. Chapter eight reviews various paradigms and theories informing IB research. Chapter nine examines research methods invoked in IB studies and a discussion of qualitative and mixed approaches. The 10th chapter gives examples of IB studie...
Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The research attempts to provide an insight into the information world of the Slovenian countryside. It presents the first results of an exploratory study of information needs, information seeking habits and types of information sources.Methodology/approach: Brenda Dervin's Sense-Making Methodology was used as the theoretical basis for this research. 25 open structured interviews with inhabitants of a local community were conducted based on purposive sampling. Interview recordings were transcribed, summarised and analysed using the qualitative content analysis approach.Results: The analysis results in recognizing the types of gaps in the context of an individual, economic activities and in the context of a local community. Gap categories are described with regard to questions or problems and the ways of solving them. There are 20 categories describing gaps in the context of an individual, 17 categories which present economic activities – and 6 categories which pertain to a local community. Findings about information needs and the ways of seeking information stress the key role of information sources in farming and prevalence of interpersonal exchange of information and experts' opinion in the context of individual problem solving.Research limitation: The generalisation of results is not possible due to the sample size.Originality/practical implications: The findings contribute to understanding of information needs and ways of information seeking in the Slovenian countryside.
Stewart, D E; Wong, F; Cheung, A M; Dancey, J; Meana, M; Cameron, J I; McAndrews, M P; Bunston, T; Murphy, J; Rosen, B
Studies show that women with cancer want more information about and participation in all aspects of their healthcare including decision-making. However, most studies have been done on women with breast cancer, which often runs a lengthy course and has strong patient-advocacy groups. Little is known about the preferences of women with ovarian cancer, the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women, which often has a more rapidly fatal course. This study of women with ovarian cancer investigates what information is most vital for women with ovarian cancer, their preferred role in decision-making, and the influence of sociodemographic, disease-related, and psychological factors. Questionnaires were completed by 105 women with ovarian cancer in two Canadian university hospital oncology clinics. Their mean age was 55.8 +/- 14. 9 years. Most were married, well-educated, and considered their health status to be excellent or good, even though over 60% had metastatic disease. Over 80% of these women wanted detailed information about ovarian cancer during the diagnosis, treatment, and posttreatment stages of their disease. In particular, they wanted information pertaining to the disease, treatment, and self-care issues. Approximately 60% of women preferred to share decision-making with their doctors at every stage of the illness. Psychological variables and disease severity were found to influence information needs and decisional preferences. In general, the more psychologically distressed the women, the more information they wanted about coping strategies and the more serious the illness, the more shared decision-making was desired. These results present a challenge to health care providers in more adequately meeting the individual information needs of women with ovarian cancer and involving them to the extent that they wish in the decision-making process. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
University Library, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria. Abstract ... Keywords: Information needs; Lecturers; Business Administration; University, ... Introduction. According to. Afolabi. (2003), information is that external response which modifies an individual's knowledge state. At different times, new.
Litzkendorf, Svenja; Pauer, Frédéric; Zeidler, Jan; Göbel, Jens; Storf, Holger; Graf von der Schulenburg, J-Matthias
A central information portal on rare diseases (ZIPSE) has been conceptualized and implemented that allows patients, relatives and health care professionals to access quality-assured information. For this purpose, quality criteria have been developed specifically for rare diseases. At the same time, the information basis should take into account the specific needs of those interested. The needs of patients and relatives regarding online-based information are analyzed. Based on this, we examined to what extent the information basis, which is available according to the ZIPSE quality criteria, can cover these needs. If necessary, measures have to be developed to ensure quality- as well as needs-oriented information management. Qualitative interviews with patients and relatives were conducted, which were then evaluated using content analysis. Subsequently, a quantitative evaluation of the information on rare diseases in the portal was made. The research addresses how many websites do not fulfil the quality criteria, from which group of provider these websites originate and which criteria are not fulfilled. This is followed by a comparison of the quantitative and qualitative results. When looking for information on the Internet, the websites of self-help groups represent a significant source. These are perceived as very trustworthy and in the later course of the disease, offer detailed information on important information areas. Information websites from self-help groups, however, often do not meet quality requirements. Therefore, a transparent representation is made regarding the quality of the ZIPSE information pages. Pages that are not quality-assured can be actively requested, but will be clearly identified.
It was found that the respondents major information needs has to do with information for formal course of study and practices, information for patient care, and information for research purposes. It was also found that the respondents appreciate the use and relevance of internet, textbooks/monographs and learned journals ...
Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer
This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…
Rutland, J D; Smith, A M
To explore the information needs of the 'frontline' public health workforce, whether needs are being met and barriers to meeting needs. A qualitative research study using in-depth semi-structured interviews. A qualitative study, comprising eight semi-structured interviews, was conducted with one representative of each of eight categories of frontline public health professional (children's centre manager, community development worker, community midwife, district nurse, health visitor, community pharmacist, practice nurse and school nurse) to determine their public health role, information needs and barriers to meeting needs. Interviews were tape-recorded and data were analysed to identify themes for each category and common themes. Respondents expressed similar needs, some of which could be met by a dedicated library and knowledge service, given adequate funding, and some of which need input from management. The library could supply: news bulletins and up-to-date information, especially local information; targeted local websites and databases; training in literature-searching skills, basic information technology (IT) skills and critical appraisal; course and work support, with access to local library facilities; a literature search support service; signposting, with a named library contact; and access to information for patients. Management input is required to remedy basic structural barriers, including: lack of IT equipment and training; lack of time to access information; lack of funding for courses and professional development; and lack of communication of information from higher levels. Some information needs can be met by improvements and widening of access to library services, which may need increased funding. However, some barriers to meeting information needs require action elsewhere in the public health management structure. Changes need to be made in communication of public health strategy, and engagement needs to be improved between higher managerial
Mustafa A. Alssageer
Full Text Available Objective: To examine the opinions of Libyan doctors regarding the quality of drug information provided by pharmaceutical company representatives (PCRs during detailing visits. Method: An anonymous survey was conducted among 1,000 doctors from selected institutes in Tripoli, Benghazi and Sebha. Doctors were asked questions regarding the quality of information provided during drug-detailing visits. Results: A questionnaire return rate of 61% (608 returned questionnaires out of 1,000 was achieved. The majority (n=463, 76% of surveyed participants graded the quality of information provided as average. Approximately, 40% of respondents indicated that contraindications, precautions, interactions and adverse effects of products promoted by PCRs were never or rarely mentioned during promotional visits, and 65% of respondents indicated that an alternative drug to the promoted product was never or rarely mentioned by the representatives. More than 50% of respondents (n=310, 51% reported that PCRs were not always able to answer all questions about their products. Only seven respondents (1% believed that PCRs never exaggerated the uniqueness, efficacy or safety of their product. The majority of respondents (n=342, 56% indicated that verbal information was not always consistent with written information provided. Seven per cent of respondents (n=43 admitted that they did not know whether or not the verbal information provided by PCRs was consistent with written information. Conclusion: Doctors believe that the provision of drug information by PCRs in Libya is incomplete and often exaggerated. Pharmaceutical companies should ensure that their representatives are trained to a standard to provide reliable information regarding the products they promote.
Wei, Chunlan; Nengliang, Yao; Yan, Wang; Qiong, Fang; Yuan, Changrong
To explore the differing perspectives of patients and providers and their assessment of supportive care needs in breast cancer patients receiving oral chemotherapy. The patient-provider concordance in patients' needs assessment is critical to the effective management of cancer. Self-administered oral chemotherapy greatly shifts responsibilities for side-effect monitoring, symptom management and dose adjustments from the provider to the patient. Home-based care plans will be central to the effective management of these patients. A descriptive qualitative design was used. A purposive sample of nine breast cancer patients, four oncologists and four oncology nurses were recruited in Shanghai, China. Semi-structured and in-depth interviews were conducted to collect data. A qualitative content analysis aimed at finding manifest and latent meanings of data was applied to analyse the information. Four themes of needs emerged from the interviews with patients and providers: information/knowledge, communication, social support and symptom management, but patients and providers only agreed on the assessment of symptom and side-effects management needs. Patients want more positive encouraging information from providers, but providers think patients need more information of efficacy and safety. Patients appreciate support from other peer patients with similar experiences, but providers think the support from families and friends are readily available to them. Patients discussed their spiritual needs, while oncologists see the need to improve patient adherence to medication. Breast cancer patients differed from their providers in assessment of healthcare needs. Further investigation of the relationships between patient-provider discordance and patient outcomes may guide interventions to improve care for cancer patients receiving oral chemotherapy. Oncology nurses should develop a holistic home-based care plan by exploring and integrating the discordance of needs assessment of
Maggio, Lauren A; Cate, Olle Ten; Moorhead, Laura L; van Stiphout, Feikje; Kramer, Bianca M R; Ter Braak, Edith; Posley, Keith; Irby, David; O'Brien, Bridget C
Physicians have many information needs that arise at the point of care yet go unmet for a variety of reasons, including uncertainty about which information resources to select. In this study, we aimed to identify the various types of physician information needs and how these needs relate to physicians' use of the database PubMed and the evidence summary tool UpToDate. We conducted semi-structured interviews with physicians (Stanford University, United States; n = 13; and University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands; n = 9), eliciting participants' descriptions of their information needs and related use of PubMed and/or UpToDate. Using thematic analysis, we identified six information needs: refreshing, confirming, logistics, teaching, idea generating and personal learning. Participants from both institutions similarly described their information needs and selection of resources. The identification of these six information needs and their relation to PubMed and UpToDate expands upon previously identified physician information needs and may be useful to medical educators designing evidence-based practice training for physicians.
are currently three cassava projects implemented. Information Needs of Cassava Farmers in Delta ... study assessed the information needs of cassava farmers in Oshimili North Local Government Area of Delta. State. Specifically, the study ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research through the IITA in Nigeria.
This study examined information needs and seeking behaviour of Tanzanian forestry researchers in the growing global electronic environment. A questionnaire based survey was conducted in three forestry research institutions. The findings indicated a wide range of information needs among forestry researchers in the ...
constraints to meeting their information needs include little attention given to retirees' information needs (69.6%), finance (63.8%), ... More attention should be given to these using the relevant channels. Public libraries are encouraged to ... 75 years and this span may depend on which age a profession decides, for example,.
Full Text Available If single refugees do not belong to any groups of vulnerable persons, the support for their integration in municipality of lasts 12 months. After this period, people begin an independent life in Lithuanian society. However, not all single refugees manage successfully to do this. The aim of the research is to reveal the need for continuity of the integration measures provided for single refugees in municipalities. The qualitative research was made using semi-structured interviewing. The participants of the study are five social workers, who work in non-governmental organizations and mentoring refugee integration processes in the municipalities. The study results suggest that support period for integration in the municipality is too short. The needs of single foreigners are the least satisfied when learning Lithuanian language, trying to establish themselves in the labour market, gaining professional skills or acquiring qualification, and renting a place to live in. In these contexts, single refugees face discrimination, bullying, language barrier, ignorance and lack of information, experience financial difficulties or even social exclusion. During integration, single refugees have the least difficulties with the healthcare system. Such process and not satisfied psycho-emotional needs encourage the emigration of single refugees. In order to successfully integrate people into Lithuanian society it is necessary to individualize the program, taking into account the particular experiences, abilities, needs of individuals as well as educating professionals of public services.
Ølholm, Anne Mette; Kidholm, Kristian; Birk-Olsen, Mette
in the literature related to clinical, economic and political/strategic aspects. Legal, social, and ethical aspects were seldom considered most important. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital decision makers are able to describe their information needs when deciding on HT investments. The different types of information were...... not of equal importance to hospital decision makers, however, and full agreement between EUnetHTA's Core Model and the hospital decision-makers' informational needs was not observed. They also need information on political and strategic aspects not covered by the Core Model....
Bergenholtz, Henning; Bothma, Theo
In the current debate about the status of lexicography there are at least three quite different opinions: 1. Lexicography does not have and does not need any kind of own theory but can use all relevant linguistic theories; 2. Lexicography needs a theory special for the lexicographical praxis......, but this discipline is still a part of linguistics; 3. Lexicography is a genuine part of information science and can use theories and learn from practice in the information society, but it also needs special theories for lexicography. It is the last standpoint we will follow in this paper discussing the information...... needs in the information society partly using the function theory of lexicography. The paper will briefly address issues regarding information overload and information stress showing how commercial systems try to address this by means of relevance ranking based on system relevance....
Hummels, H.G.J.A.; Timmer, D.
In this contribution we will briefly discuss the shareholders' need for social, ethical and environmental information and the efforts of corporations to address this need. Looking at three cases, we will raise some doubt with regard to the adequacy of corporate SEE reporting to meet the needs of
... also examined. The results of the study indicated a significant need for information concerning fundamental issues such as housing, health and education. Finally, a few suggestions are made as to ways to improve the information availability and general information literacy of Oribi Village. Innovation No.29 2004: 13-23 ...
Dillon, Thomas W.; Kruck, S. E.
As the need for new hires with accounting and information technology knowledge increases, a new major in accounting information systems (AIS) has emerged. This new AIS degree is a hybrid of accounting concepts and common business subjects combined with key information technology issues. Employers were presented with 56 core content areas found in…
Vigeant-Langlois, Laurence N.; Hansman, R. John
Pilot current use of icing information, pilot encounters and strategies for dealing with in-flight aircraft structural icing situations, and desired attributes of new icing information systems were investigated through a survey of pilots of several operational categories. The survey identified important information elements and fiequently used information paths for obtaining icing-related information. Free- response questions solicited descriptions of significant , icing encounters, and probed key icing-related decision and information criteria. Results indicated the information needs for the horizontal and vertical location of icing conditions and the identification of icing-free zones.
Burritt, Roger L; Christ, Katherine L
A conceptual discussion is provided about the need to add monetary data to water accounting initiatives and how best to achieve this if companies are to become aware of the water crisis and to take actions to improve water management. Analysis of current water accounting initiatives reveals the monetary business case for companies to improve water management is rarely considered, there being a focus on physical information about water use. Three possibilities emerge for mainstreaming the integration of monetization into water accounting: add-on to existing water accounting frameworks and tools, develop new tools which include physical and monetary information from the start, and develop environmental management accounting (EMA) into a water-specific application and set of tools. The paper appraises these three alternatives and concludes that development of EMA would be the best way forward. Suggestions for further research include the need to examine the use of a transdisciplinary method to address the complexities of water accounting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bergenholtz, Henning; Pedersen, Heidi Agerbo
research into lexicographical functions) with a particular interest in linguistic uncertainties and the lack of knowledge and skills in relation to one or several languages. In this article, we suggest a classification of information needs in which a tripartition has been made according to the different......In some situations, you need information in order to solve a problem that has occurred. In information science, user needs are often described through very specific examples rather than through a classification of situation types in which information needs occur. Furthermore, information science...... often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow’s classification of needs (1954), instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but has developed a more abstract classification of types of information needs, though (until more recent...
Findik, Ummu Yildiz
This descriptive study aimed to evaluate the information needs of breast cancer patients who have undergone surgery, and the level to which those information needs are met in the west of Turkey. It was conducted in 55 women who had undergone surgical intervention between March 2013 and March 2014 in a university hospital in the west of Turkey. A personal information form and the Patient Information Needs Scale were used to gather data. Descriptive statistics, the Chi-square test, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to analyze the data. It was found that the information need of the patients (3.9 +/- 0.6) was near the "very important" level, and that this need was "somewhat met" (2.4 +/- 0.9). When the information needs of the patients and the level to which those needs were fulfilled were compared, the level of fulfillment was statistically significantly lower (p information relating to medication was the most needed, and the information needs pertaining to this subscale were met to a greater degree (p information needs, primarily the medication-related information needs, of the patients were high, but that the level of meeting these needs was low. It should be considered important for patients who have undergone breast cancer surgery to be kept informed and provided with information regarding their medication.
Fahim, Christine; O'Sullivan, Tracey L; Lane, Dan
An earlier descriptive study exploring the various supports available to Canadian health and social service providers who deployed to the 2010 earthquake disaster in Haiti, indicated that when systems are compromised, professionals are at physical, emotional and mental risk during overseas deployment. While these risks are generally well-identified, there is little literature that explores the effectiveness of the supports in place to mitigate this risk. This study provides evidence to inform policy development regarding future disaster relief, and the effectiveness of supports available to responders assisting with international disaster response. This study follows Strauss and Corbin's 1990 structured approach to grounded theory to develop a framework for effective disaster support systems. N=21 interviews with Canadian health and social service providers, who deployed to Haiti in response to the 2010 earthquake, were conducted and analyzed. Resulting data were transcribed, coded and analysed for emergent themes. Three themes were identified in the data and were used to develop the evolving theory. The interview data indicate that the experiences of responders are determined based on an interaction between the individual's 'lens' or personal expectations, as well as the supports that an organization is able to provide. Therefore, organizations should consider the following factors: experience, expectations, and supports, to tailor a successful support initiative that caters to the needs of the volunteer workforce.
This study assessed the information services provided in special collections unit in federal and state University libraries in Nigeria. One research question was formulated to guide the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted in carrying out the study. A purposive sampling procedure was used to obtain a sample of 178 ...
Boggs, Sharon A. C.; And Others
A survey of 130 rural community pharmacists in Washington State found 70% in towns with five or fewer pharmacies; almost all provided nutrition information to their communities though only 20% had taken a nutrition course during pharmacy training. Most common questions concerned supplements and weight loss. Respondents relied on pharmacy journals,…
Student support is a major factor in distance education. This study was concerned with the use of ICT as a medium for providing student support at the University of Zambia. It was necessary to study the factors that would affect the application of ICT, in order to inform policy makers and managers of distance education which ...
Full Text Available Background Mental illness may strongly affect relatives’ lives. Therefore, it is important to empower relatives by providing health information according to their preferences. Methods An online cross-sectional survey was conducted using a purpose-designed questionnaire on online health information and decision-support needs. Results Prevalent reasons for online health information search of the 185 participating relatives were the need for general information and the insufficiency of the information given by the health care provider. The most difficult treatment decisions concerned the treatment setting (inpatient or outpatient as well as the psychopharmacological treatment. Discussion Since psychiatric patients’ relatives report extensive information and decision-support needs, it is essential to address their needs in health information material. Assessment of relatives’ needs when developing health information materials is recommended.
Ølholm, Anne Mette; Kidholm, Kristian; Birk-Olsen, Mette; Christensen, Janne Buck
There is growing interest in implementing hospital-based health technology assessment (HB-HTA) as a tool to facilitate decision making based on a systematic and multidisciplinary assessment of evidence. However, the decision-making process, including the informational needs of hospital decision makers, is not well described. The objective was to review empirical studies analysing the information that hospital decision makers need when deciding about health technology (HT) investments. A systematic review of empirical studies published in English or Danish from 2000 to 2012 was carried out. The literature was assessed by two reviewers working independently. The identified informational needs were assessed with regard to their agreement with the nine domains of EUnetHTA's Core Model. A total of 2,689 articles were identified and assessed. The review process resulted in 14 relevant studies containing 74 types of information that hospital decision makers found relevant. In addition to information covered by the Core Model, other types of information dealing with political and strategic aspects were identified. The most frequently mentioned types of information in the literature related to clinical, economic and political/strategic aspects. Legal, social, and ethical aspects were seldom considered most important. Hospital decision makers are able to describe their information needs when deciding on HT investments. The different types of information were not of equal importance to hospital decision makers, however, and full agreement between EUnetHTA's Core Model and the hospital decision-makers' informational needs was not observed. They also need information on political and strategic aspects not covered by the Core Model.
There is a demand in industry for both computer science graduates and business information systems graduates. Educators need to start this training at the secondary level with an introduction to all phases of data processing for any interested student. (CT)
Strauss, Alexandra T; Martinez, Diego A; Garcia-Arce, Andres; Taylor, Stephanie; Mateja, Candice; Fabri, Peter J; Zayas-Castro, Jose L
Important barriers for widespread use of health information exchange (HIE) are usability and interface issues. However, most HIEs are implemented without performing a needs assessment with the end users, healthcare providers. We performed a user needs assessment for the process of obtaining clinical information from other health care organizations about a hospitalized patient and identified the types of information most valued for medical decision-making. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were used to evaluate the process to obtain and use outside clinical information (OI) using semi-structured interviews (16 internists), direct observation (750 h), and operational data from the electronic medical records (30,461 hospitalizations) of an internal medicine department in a public, teaching hospital in Tampa, Florida. 13.7 % of hospitalizations generate at least one request for OI. On average, the process comprised 13 steps, 6 decisions points, and 4 different participants. Physicians estimate that the average time to receive OI is 18 h. Physicians perceived that OI received is not useful 33-66 % of the time because information received is irrelevant or not timely. Technical barriers to OI use included poor accessibility and ineffective information visualization. Common problems with the process were receiving extraneous notes and the need to re-request the information. Drivers for OI use were to trend lab or imaging abnormalities, understand medical history of critically ill or hospital-to-hospital transferred patients, and assess previous echocardiograms and bacterial cultures. About 85 % of the physicians believe HIE would have a positive effect on improving healthcare delivery. Although hospitalists are challenged by a complex process to obtain OI, they recognize the value of specific information for enhancing medical decision-making. HIE systems are likely to have increased utilization and effectiveness if specific patient-level clinical information is
Douglas, Tracy; Redley, Bernice; Ottmann, Goetz
The aim of this study was to explore the information needs of parents of infants with an intellectual disability in the first year of life. Parents whose infant has an intellectual disability need access to information if they are to facilitate optimal care for their child. A lack of timely, accurate information provision by health professionals, particularly nurses and midwives, can increase parental stress and hinder access to the supports they and their infant require. A qualitative descriptive methodology was used for the study. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with parents of 11 children with intellectual disabilities in Victoria, Australia in 2014. Data were analysed using descriptive thematic analysis. Parents experienced challenges accessing quality information during the first year of their child's life. Parents required incremental information provision to build a strong knowledge base to facilitate optimal care for their infants. Three types of knowledge were identified as crucial for parents: knowledge about (1) the infant's condition; (2) the infant's specific needs and (3) available supports and services. Health professionals were the key resource to access this information. Health professionals' responsibilities include providing relevant, timely information to parents of infants with intellectual disabilities. This study conceptualises three types of information parents need to develop a strong knowledge base to guide their infant's care and provides guidance concerning the optimal timing for the delivery of information. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The need for increase in fish production in order to improve protein intake by Nigerians led to this study. The study analyzed information needs of backyard fish farmers in Osun State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigated the socio-economic characteristics of backyard fish farmers, frequency of performance, importance and difficulties of management practices as well as the constraints facing backyard fish farming. Questionnaire was used to elicit information from 70 backyard fish far...
Stein, Bradley D; Kogan, Jane N; Essock, Susan; Fudurich, Stephanie
This qualitative study examined consumer preferences regarding the content and use of provider performance data and other provider information to aid in consumers' decision making. Focus groups were conducted with 41 adults who were consumers of mental health care, and discussions were transcribed and analyzed with standard qualitative research methods. Consumers supported trends toward enhancing information about providers and its availability. Several key themes emerged, including the need for easily accessible information and the most and least useful types of information. Current efforts to share provider performance information do not meet consumer preferences. Modest changes in the types of information being shared and the manner in which it is shared may substantially enhance use of such information. Such changes may help consumers to be more informed and empowered in making decisions about care, improve the quality of the care delivered, and support the movement toward a more recovery-focused system of care.
The study pointed out the need to acquaint pineapple farmers with credible information that will emphasize on prediction of rain and specific mitigation and adaptive measures to climate change on pineapple farms and in general for a better agriculture and a healthier nation. Key words: Information, Climate, Pineapple ...
INFORMATION TOOL, DATABASE, DATA PRESENTATION. Opsomming: ...... The task of the lexicographer or information specialist is to design tools .... programming level this distinction is important and requires very careful plan- ning. ..... Access to and Presentation of Needs-adapted Data in Monofunctional Inter-.
This study examined the socio-economic characteristics of people involved in urban farming, their information needs and seeking behaviour. The study area was Ilorin metropolis in Kwara state. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from 100 urban farmers. Purposive sampling technique was used in ...
E M IGBOKWE
change information. The study recommends the empowerment of extension agents by government to teach farmers climate change adaptation and mitigation measures using languages they can ... Keywords: Adaptation strategy, climate change, information needs, rural farmers, ..... Use of improve/resistant crop & animal.
Peterson, Kendra; Hahn, Howard; Lee, Amber J; Madison, Catherine A; Atri, Alireza
Most patients with dementia or cognitive impairment receive care from family members, often untrained for this challenging role. Caregivers may not access publicly available caregiving information, and caregiver education programs are not widely implemented clinically. Prior large surveys yielded broad quantitative understanding of caregiver information needs, but do not illuminate the in-depth, rich, and nuanced caregiver perspectives that can be gleaned using qualitative methodology. We aimed to understand perspectives about information sources, barriers and preferences, through semi-structured interviews with 27 caregivers. Content analysis identified important themes. We interviewed 19 women, 8 men; mean age 58.5 years; most adult children (15) or spouses (8) of the care recipient. Dementia symptoms often developed insidiously, with delayed disease acknowledgement and caregiver self-identification. While memory loss was common, behavioral symptoms were most troublesome, often initially unrecognized as disease indicators. Emerging themes: 1.) Barriers to seeking information often result from knowledge gaps, rather than reluctance to assume the caregiver role; 2.) Most caregivers currently receive insufficient information. Caregivers are open to many information sources, settings, and technologies, including referrals to other healthcare professionals, print material, and community and internet resources, but expect the primary care provider (PCP) to recommend, endorse, and guide them to specific sources. These findings replicated and expanded on results from previous quantitative surveys and, importantly, revealed a previously unrecognized essential factor: despite receiving insufficient information, caregivers place critical value on their relationship with care recipient PCPs to receive recommendations, guidance and endorsement to sources of caregiving information. Implications include: 1.) Greater public education is needed to help caregivers identify and
Felin, Elina; Jukola, Elias; Raulo, Saara; Heinonen, Jaakko; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria
Meat inspection now incorporates a more risk-based approach for protecting human health against meat-borne biological hazards. Official post-mortem meat inspection of pigs has shifted to visual meat inspection. The official veterinarian decides on additional post-mortem inspection procedures, such as incisions and palpations. The decision is based on declarations in the food chain information (FCI), ante-mortem inspection and post-mortem inspection. However, a smooth slaughter and inspection process is essential. Therefore, one should be able to assess prior to slaughter which pigs are suitable for visual meat inspection only, and which need more profound inspection procedures. This study evaluates the usability of the FCI provided by pig producers and considered the possibility for risk ranking of incoming slaughter batches according to the previous meat inspection data and the current FCI. Eighty-five slaughter batches comprising 8954 fattening pigs were randomly selected at a slaughterhouse that receives animals from across Finland. The mortality rate, the FCI and the meat inspection results for each batch were obtained. The current FCI alone provided insufficient and inaccurate information for risk ranking purposes for meat inspection. The partial condemnation rate for a batch was best predicted by the partial condemnation rate calculated for all the pigs sent for slaughter from the same holding in the previous year (p<0.001) and by prior information on cough declared in the current FCI (p=0.02) statement. Training and information to producers are needed to make the FCI reporting procedures more accurate. Historical meat inspection data on pigs slaughtered from the same holdings and well-chosen symptoms/signs for reporting, should be included in the FCI to facilitate the allocation of pigs for visual inspection. The introduced simple scoring system can be easily used for additional information for directing batches to appropriate meat inspection procedures. To
Full Text Available This study analyzed college students’ reactions toward the issues of personal information. Students’ needs and seeking behaviors for personal information were assessed. Relevant literature was reviewed for framing the research questions and designing the questionnaire items for survey. Survey subjects were students from an university at northern Taiwan. A set of questionnaire items were used to collect research data. Statistical analysis from 252 valid data reveals some items were highly rated: Students reflected highly for their need of knowledge under the security threat of personal information (M = 4.29. They reacted strongly on acquiring knowledge and resources through the Internet (M = 4.24. They preferred the use of resources clear and easy to be understood (M = 4.04. However, most students had low level faith toward either government or non-governmental organizations in securing their personal information (M < 3.0 for most items. More effort among education and government should be emphasized in the future to improve personal use and reduce uncertainty in the use of personal information.
Law, James; McCann, Dolly; O'May, Fiona
This paper is a report of a descriptive qualitative study of the role and activities of nursing and allied health professionals caring for children with complex needs in a community setting. Health care is changing in terms of service provision and delivery, with an increased focus on person-centred care, prevention and community-based services. The role of nursing and allied health professionals is central to these changes but is not well described in terms of capacity, or the knowledge and skills required to meet increasing demand. Within four Health Boards, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted in 2007 with three nursing and four allied health managers, followed by four focus groups with 15 nursing and 11 allied health practitioners; in addition, three nurses and one speech therapist were interviewed by telephone. Respondents identified challenges related to communication and information systems, equity of service provision, family-centred care and partnership working. Generic and specialized knowledge and skills are needed, although providing the right skills in the right place can often prove problematic with potential implications for service provision. Findings support the adoption of integrated partnership working, going beyond the identification of key professionals, to developing a set of criteria against which future service provision could be judged. Research priorities were identified; comparative evaluation of services, better understanding of the transition process and a clearer sense of the individual's response to the increasing customization of services. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
This study was based on a Master's dissertation which investigated the information needs and information seeking behaviour of Type 2 diabetic patients at Addington Hospital in Durban. Longo's 2010, Health Information Model provided ... health information relating to their chronic illness. Innovation, no.45, December 2012 ...
Full Text Available Despite the advances in IT, information systems intended for management informing did not uniformly fulfil the increased expectations of users; this can be said mostly about complex information needs. Although some of the technologies for supporting complicated insights, like management decision support systems and technologies, experienced reduction in interest both from researchers and practitioners, this did not reduce the importance of well-supported business informing and decision making. Being attributed to the group of intelligent systems and technologies, decision support (DS technologies have been largely supplemented by business intelligence (BI technologies. Both types of technologies are supported by respective information technologies, which often appear to be quite closely related. The objective of this paper is to define relations between simple and complex informing intended to satisfy different sets of needs and provided by different sets of support tools. The paper attempts to put together decision support and business intelligence technologies, based on common goals of sense-making and use of advanced analytical tools. A model of two interconnected cycles has been developed to relate the activities of decision support and business intelligence. Empirical data from earlier research is used to direct possible further insights into this area.
Muzumdar, Jagannath M; Pantaleo, Nicholas L
This study compared the following effects of two vaccine information flyers-one developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) versus one adapted from this information to a comic medium (comic)-on adults: (a) attitude toward the flyer; (b) perceived informativeness of the flyer; (c) intention to seek more information about adult immunizations after viewing the flyer; and (d) intention to get immunized after viewing the flyer. A between-group, randomized trial was used to randomly assign adults (age 18 years or older) at an ambulatory care center to review the CDC or comic flyer. Participants were asked to complete a survey to measure several outcome variables. Items were measured using a 7-point semantic differential scale. Independent-samples t-test was used for comparisons. A total of 265 surveys (CDC n = 132 vs comic n = 133) were analyzed. The comic flyer had a statistically significant effect on participants' attitudes and their perception of the flyer's informativeness compared to the CDC flyer. Flyer type did not have a statistically significant effect on intention-related variables. The study findings showed that the comic flyer was positively evaluated compared to the CDC flyer. These findings could provide a new direction for developing adult educational materials.
Wong, Helen W L; Forrest, Damien; Healey, Andrew; Shirafkan, Hanieh; Hanna, George B; Vincent, Charles A; Sevdalis, Nick
Safe surgical care requires effective information transfer between members of the operating room (OR) team. The present study aims to assess directly, systematically, and comprehensively, information needs of all OR team-members. Thirty-three OR team-members (16 surgeons/anesthesiologists, 17 nurses) took part in a mixed-method interview. Participants indicated what information they need, their problems accessing it, and potential interventions to improve information transfer. They also rated the importance of different sources of information and the quality (accuracy, availability, timeliness, completeness, and clarity) of the information that they typically receive. Theme extraction and statistical analyses (descriptive and inferential) were used to analyze the data. The patient emerged as the top source of information. Surgeons and anesthesiologists relied more on information from fellow clinicians, as well as information originating from diagnostic and imaging labs. They were also more critical about the quality of the information than nursing personnel. Anesthesiologists emerged as the most reliable source of information, whereas information coming from surgeons was deemed lacking in quality (even by surgeons themselves). Finally, the more time participants had spent working in ORs, the more negative views they had about the information that they receive-an unexpected finding. Communication skills training, standardized communication protocols, and information technology (IT) systems to function as a central information repository were the top three proposed interventions. This study comprehensively maps information sources, problems, and solutions expressed by OR end-users. Recent developments in skills training modules and patient safety interventions for the OR (Surgical Safety Checklist) are discussed as potential interventions that will ameliorate communication in ORs, with a view to enhance patient safety and surgical care.
People with disabilities use various assistance devices to improve their capacity to lead independent and fulfilling lives. Service dogs can be crucial lifesaving companions for their owners. As the use of service dogs increases, nurses are more likely to encounter them in healthcare settings. Service dogs are often confused with therapy or emotional support dogs. While some of their roles overlap, service dogs have distinct protection under the American Disabilities Act (ADA). Knowing the laws and proper procedures regarding service dogs strengthens the abilities of healthcare providers to deliver holistic, patient-centered care. This article provides background information about use of dogs, and discusses benefits to patients and access challenges for providers. The author reviews ADA laws applicable to service dog use and potential challenges and risks in acute care settings. The role of the healthcare professional is illustrated with an exemplar, along with recommendations for future research and nursing implications related to care of patients with service dogs.
Full Text Available Objectives – The purpose of this research project was to gain insight into the information behaviour of healthcare services managers as they use information while engaged in decision-making unrelated to individual patient care. Methods – This small-scale, exploratory, multiple case study used the critical incident technique in nineteen semi-structured interviews. Responses were analyzed using ‘Framework,’ a matrix-based content analysis system. Results – This paper presents findings related to the internal information that healthcare services managers need and use. Their decisions are influenced by a wide variety of factors. They must often make decisions without all of the information they would prefer to have. Internal information and practical experience set the context for new research-based information, so they are generally considered first.Conclusions – Healthcare services managers support decisions with both facts and value-based information. These results may inform both delivery of health library services delivery and strategic health information management planning. They may also support librarians who extend their skills beyond managing library collections and teaching published information retrieval skills, to managing internal and external information, teaching information literacy, and supporting information sharing.
Full Text Available This research investigates what information German Fairtrade coffee consumers search for during pre-purchase information seeking and to what extent information is retrieved. Furthermore, the sequence of the information search as well as the degree of cognitive involvement is highlighted. The role of labeling, the importance of additional ethical information and its quality in terms of concreteness as well as the importance of product price and organic origin are addressed. A set of information relevant to Fairtrade consumers was tested by means of the Information Display Matrix (IDM method with 389 Fairtrade consumers. Results show that prior to purchase, information on product packages plays an important role and is retrieved rather extensively, but search strategies that reduce the information processing effort are applied as well. Furthermore, general information is preferred over specific information. Results of two regression analyses indicate that purchase decisions are related to search behavior variables rather than to socio-demographic variables and purchase motives. In order to match product information with consumers’ needs, marketers should offer information that is reduced to the central aspects of Fairtrade.
Carlson, Barbara A; Neal, Diane; Magwood, Gayenell; Jenkins, Carolyn; King, Marilyn Givens; Hossler, Charles L
This article describes the participatory research process, results, action plan, and implications of the community health information needs assessment conducted within the African American community in two South Carolina counties. The REACH 2010: Charleston and Georgetown Diabetes Coalition library program is a partnership among community organizations, public and health sciences libraries, and lay community health advisors. A planning committee studied digital divide issues related to health information, designed and implemented a survey, held focus groups, analyzed data, identified needs and assets, and formulated an action plan to increase the dissemination of diabetes information. Key survey findings show that older (older than 60) and less educated (fewer than 12 years of education) African Americans in Charleston and Georgetown counties lack skills to access Internet and library services and suffer disparities in health information. Based on assessment evidence, the community plans to increase Internet access points and provide a train-the-trainer program to teach people skills for using Internet and library resources to get high-quality information about diabetes and its complications. This process taps community resources, builds local capacities and technical skills, educates about health, and empowers participants as active partners in their own health and their community's health.
Kinnersley, P; Edwards, A; Hood, K; Cadbury, N; Ryan, R; Prout, H; Owen, D; Macbeth, F; Butow, P; Butler, C
patient satisfaction (SMD 0.09 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.16)). There was a notable but not statistically significant decrease in patient anxiety before consultations (weighted mean difference (WMD) -1.56 (95% CI -7.10 to 3.97)). There were small and not statistically significant changes in patient anxiety after consultations (reduced) (SMD -0.08 (95%CI -0.22 to 0.06)), patient knowledge (reduced) (SMD -0.34 (95% CI -0.94 to 0.25)), and consultation length (increased) (SMD 0.10 (95% CI -0.05 to 0.25)). Further analyses showed that both coaching and written materials produced similar effects on question asking but that coaching produced a smaller increase in consultation length and a larger increase in patient satisfaction. Interventions immediately before consultations led to a small and statistically significant increase in consultation length, whereas those implemented some time before the consultation had no effect. Both interventions immediately before the consultation and those some time before it led to small increases in patient satisfaction, but this was only statistically significant for those immediately before the consultation. There appear to be no clear benefits from clinician training in addition to patient interventions, although the evidence is limited. Interventions before consultations designed to help patients address their information needs within consultations produce limited benefits to patients. Further research could explore whether the quality of questions is increased, whether anxiety before consultations is reduced, the effects on other outcomes and the impact of training and the timing of interventions. More studies need to consider the timing of interventions and possibly the type of training provided to clinicians.
Yuon, Egor; Soukhanov, Mikhail; Markov, Kirill
One of the Russian Federal аgency of mineral resources problems is to provide the geological information which was delivered during the field operation for the means of federal budget. This information should be present in the current, conditional form. Before, the leading way of presenting geological information were paper geological maps, slices, borehole diagrams reports etc. Technologies of database construction, including distributed databases, technologies of construction of distributed information-analytical systems and Internet-technologies are intensively developing nowadays. Most of geological organizations create their own information systems without any possibility of integration into other systems of the same orientation. In 2012, specialists of VNIIgeosystem together with specialists of VSEGEI started the large project - creating the system of providing digital geological materials with using modern and perspective internet-technologies. The system is based on the web-server and the set of special programs, which allows users to efficiently get rasterized and vectorised geological materials. These materials are: geological maps of scale 1:1M, geological maps of scale 1:200 000 and 1:2 500 000, the fragments of seamless geological 1:1M maps, structural zoning maps inside the seamless fragments, the legends for State geological maps 1:200 000 and 1:1 000 000, full author's set of maps and also current materials for international projects «Atlas of geological maps for Circumpolar Arctic scale 1:5 000 000» and «Atlas of Geologic maps of central Asia and adjacent areas scale 1:2 500 000». The most interesting and functional block of the system - is the block of providing structured and well-formalized geological vector materials, based on Gosgeolkart database (NGKIS), managed by Oracle and the Internet-access is supported by web-subsystem NGKIS, which is currently based on MGS-Framework platform, developed by VNIIgeosystem. One of the leading elements
Ølholm, Anne Mette; Kidholm, Kristian; Birk-Olsen, Mette
decision makers, is not well described. The objective was to review empirical studies analysing the information that hospital decision makers need when deciding about health technology (HT) investments. METHODS: A systematic review of empirical studies published in English or Danish from 2000 to 2012...... was carried out. The literature was assessed by two reviewers working independently. The identified informational needs were assessed with regard to their agreement with the nine domains of EUnetHTA's Core Model. RESULTS: A total of 2,689 articles were identified and assessed. The review process resulted...
Full Text Available The article reports the results of the study on the critical success factors and related information needs in Estonian industry conducted in 1999. Data were collected by interviews with 27 managers and engineers from 16 manufacturing companies in various industries. Most of the critical success factors taken up were related to marketing, information management, quality management, product development and technological innovations. The information needs of managers and engineers were related to competitors, customers, markets, technology, regulations, etc. Some identified CSFs expressed also priorities for development by Estonian economic authorities: to support the implementation of new technologies and introduction of quality management methods. The finding that information management was perceived as a very critical area supports the result of the recent Finnish study on CSFs.
Moon, Sherril; Simonsen, Monica L.; Neubert, Debra A.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to survey community rehabilitation providers (CRPs) to determine their perceptions of the skills, experiences, and information that transitioning youth with developmental disabilities (DD) and their families need to access supported employment (SE) services. Supervisors of SE from 12 CRPs across one state…
Grispen, Janaica E J; Ickenroth, Martine H P; de Vries, Nanne K; van der Weijden, Trudy; Ronda, Gaby
Diagnostic self-tests (tests on body materials that are initiated by consumers with the aim of diagnosing a disorder or risk factor) are becoming increasingly available. Although the pros and cons of self-testing are currently not clear, it is an existing phenomenon that is likely to gain further popularity. To examine consumers' use of and needs for information about self-testing, and to assess the quality of consumer information provided with home test kits, as perceived by consumers and as assessed using a checklist of quality criteria. A cross-sectional Internet survey among 305 self-testers assessed their use of and needs for information and their perception of the quality of consumer information provided with self-test kits. A meta-search engine was used to identify Dutch and English consumer information for home diagnostic tests available online at the time of the study. The quality of this consumer information was evaluated using a checklist of quality criteria. The consumers' information needs were in line with the most frequently used information, and the information was perceived as being of moderate to good quality. The information was mostly in agreement with clinical practice guidelines, although information on reliability and follow-up behaviour was limited. Approximately half of the instruction leaflets did not include information on the target group of the test. Although generally of moderate to good quality, some aspects of the information provided were in many cases insufficient. European legislation concerning self-tests and accompanying information needs to be adapted and adhered to more closely. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dr Jason Cooper
Full Text Available As developers of the open source LORLS Resource/Reading List Management System we have developed a dashboard to better support academic staffs’ understanding of how their students use reading lists. This dashboard provides both graphical and tabulated information drawn from LORLS and the Aleph Integrated Library System. Development of the dashboard required changes to back-end functionality of LORLS such as logging views of reading lists and caching of loan data. Changes to the front end included the use of HTML5 canvas elements to generate pie charts and line graphs. Recently launched to academic staff at Loughborough University, the dashboard has already garnered much praise. It is hoped that further development of the dashboard will provide even more support for academics in the compilation of their reading lists.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find the needs of Iranian undergraduate Information Technology (IT engineering students for their ESP course. To this end, a needs analysis questionnaire was administered to 30 undergraduate IT students to elicit information about their needs in English language at Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch. The results of data analysis revealed that among four skills reading was the highly needed skill followed by writing. It was also found that a majority of participants were dissatisfied with the current ESP courses for undergraduate students. This, in fact, indicated that ESP curricula have not yet been successfully developed in satisfying the students’ professional needs in target situations. Findings point to the fact that ESP and its teaching in Iran has to undergo serious rethinking not only in the content of the course but also the whole process of teaching the language. The findings can help course designers to both put much more credit for ESP courses, and consider appropriate and suitable materials which can give useful information to the students. It can also help ESP teachers to meet the language needs of their students.
Full Text Available Alternative health practices have become increasingly popular in recent years. Many patients visit specific complementary practitioners, while others attempt to educate themselves, trusting advice from employees at local health food stores or the Internet. Thirty-two retail health food stores were surveyed on the nature of the information provided by their staff. A research assistant visited the stores and presented as the mother of a child in whom Crohn’s disease had been diagnosed. Seventy-two per cent (23 of 32 of store employees offered advice, such as to take nutritional and herbal supplements. Of the 23 stores where recommendations were made, 15 (65% based their recommendation on a source of information. Fourteen of the 15 stores using information sources used the same reference book. This had a significant impact on the recommendations; the use of nutritional supplements was favoured. In conclusion, retail health food stores are not as inconsistent as hypothesized, although there are many variances in the types of supplements recommended for the same chronic disease.
Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Jamieson, Denise J.
From January 1 to April 3, 2015, 159 people from 18 states and the District of Columbia were reported as having measles. Most cases are part of an outbreak linked to a California amusement park. Because measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000, most U.S. clinicians are unfamiliar with the condition. We reviewed information on the current outbreak, measles manifestations, diagnostic methods, treatment, and infection-control recommendations. To identify information on measles and pregnancy, we reviewed reports with 20 or more measles cases during pregnancy that included data on effects on pregnant women or pregnancy outcomes. These reports were identified through MEDLINE from inception through February 2015 using the following strategy: (((pregnan*) AND measles) AND English[Language]) NOT review[Publication Type]. Reference lists also were reviewed to identify additional articles. Pregnant women infected with measles are more likely to be hospitalized, develop pneumonia, and die than nonpregnant women. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss, preterm birth, and low birth weight, are associated with maternal measles; however, the risk of congenital defects does not appear to be increased. No antiviral therapy is available; treatment is supportive. Early identification of possible cases is needed so that appropriate infection control can be instituted promptly. The recent measles outbreak highlights the role that obstetric health care providers play in vaccine-preventable illnesses; obstetrician–gynecologists should ensure that patients are up to date on all vaccines, including measles-containing vaccines, and should recommend and ideally offer a measles-containing vaccine to women without evidence of measles immunity before or after pregnancy. PMID:25899422
Crowley, Abby L. Winkler
Notes the difficulty of finding quality day care for special needs children. Discusses Project Specialcare, designed to support family child-care providers who accept such children into their programs. Describes how providers participated in Saturday sessions focused on a topic followed by open discussion and how the advice and counsel of a…
Uncertainty in clinical encounters is inevitable and despite this uncertainty clinicians must still work with patients to make diagnostic and treatment decisions. Explicit diagnostic reasoning based on probabilities will optimise information in relation to uncertainty. In clinical diagnostic encounters, there is often pre-existing information that reflects the probability any particular patient has a disease. Diagnostic testing provides extra information that refines diagnostic probabilities. However, in general diagnostic tests will be positive in most, but not all cases of disease (sensitivity) and may not be negative in all cases of disease absence (specificity). Bayes rule is an arithmetic method of using diagnostic testing information to refine diagnostic probabilities. In this method, when probabilities are converted to odds, multiplication of the odds of disease before diagnostic testing, by the positive likelihood ratio (LR+), the sensitivity of a test divided by 1 minus the specificity refines the probability of a particular diagnosis. Similar arithmetic applies to the probability of not having a disease, where the negative likelihood ratio is the specificity divided by 1 minus the sensitivity. A useful diagnostic test is one where the LR+ is greater than 5-10. This can be clarified by creating a contingency table for hypothetical groups of patients in relation to true disease prevalence and test performance predicted by sensitivity and specificity. Most screening tests in populations with a low prevalence of disease have a very high ratio of false positive results to true positive results, which can also be illustrated by contingency tables. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Stayner, L.T.; Meinhardt, T.; Hardin, B. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)
Under the Occupational Safety and Health, and Mine Safety and Health Acts, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is charged with development of recommended occupational safety and health standards, and with conducting research to support the development of these standards. Thus, NIOSH has been actively involved in the analysis of risk associated with occupational exposures, and in the development of research information that is critical for the risk assessment process. NIOSH research programs and other information resources relevant to the risk assessment process are described in this paper. Future needs for information resources are also discussed.
Governmental Affairs requested that the DoD Inspector General determine whether noncareer officials were adversely affecting the Freedom of Information... determined whether noncareer2 officials were adversely affecting the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) process at DoD between January 2007 and July 2015...S T 1 6 , 2 0 1 6 DoD Freedom of Information Act Policies Need Improvement Report No. DODIG-2016-124 I N T E G R I T Y E F F I C I E N C Y
Marlow, Laura A V; Wardle, Jane; Grant, Nina; Waller, Jo
With the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and vaccination in the UK, health professionals will start to receive questions about the virus from their patients. This study aimed to identify the key questions about HPV that British women will ask when considering having an HPV test or vaccination. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 21 women to discover what they wanted to know about HPV. A thematic framework approach was used to analyse the data and identify key themes in women's HPV knowledge requirements. Women's questions about HPV fell into six areas: identity (e.g. What are the symptoms?), cause (e.g. How do you get HPV?), timeline (e.g. How long does it last?), consequences (e.g. Does it always cause cervical cancer?) and control-cure (e.g. Can you prevent infection?). In addition, they asked procedural questions about testing and vaccination (e.g. Where do I get an HPV test?). These mapped well onto the dimensions identified in Leventhal's description of lay models of illness, called the 'Common Sense Model' (CSM). These results indicated that the majority of the questions women asked about HPV fitted well into the CSM, which therefore provides a structure for women's information needs. The findings could help health professionals understand what questions they may be expected to answer. Framing educational materials using the CSM themes may also help health educators achieve a good fit with what the public want to know.
Full Text Available Fenomena unmet need di Propinsi Bali masih relatif tinggi, meskipun masih lebih rendah daripada angka nasional. Dari data hasil SDKI tahun 2002-2003 unmet need di Provinsi Bali relatif tinggi yaitu sekitar 6,9 persen dari pasangan usia subur. Mengingat demikian pentingnya fenomena unmet need di Propinsi ini, maka sudah dilakukan pengkajian pada tahap pertama yaitu pada tahun 2004 untuk mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor yang diperkirakan berpengaruh terhadap fenomena unmet need tersebut. Setelah dapat diidentifikasi faktor-faktor tersebut maka pada tahun 2005 dilakukan intervensi yang berupa: (1 sosialisasi; (2 pelayanan pemasangan alat kontrasepsi untuk menurunkan secara langsung persentase unmet need, serta (3 evaluasi terhadap kepuasan PUS yang tergolong unmet need yang telah bersedia menggunakan kontrasepsi setelah beberapa waktu dari saat pemasangan dilakukan. Beberapa temuan spesifik dari hasil intervensi yang telah dilakukan pada tahun sebelumnya antara lain diuraikan sebagai berikut. Beberapa alasan PUS unmet need bersedia menggunakan kontrasepsi setelah intervensi dilakukan berkaitan dengan faktor internal program maupun faktor eksternal. Dari hasil intervensi yang telah dilakukan pada tahun 2005, tahun 2006 terdapat 2 kelompok target/sasaran yaitu: (1 kelompok PUS yang tergolong unmet need yang tetap tidak bersedia menggunakan kontrasepsi meskipun telah dilakukan intervensi; (2 kelompok PUS tergolong unmet need yang telah bersedia menggunakan kontrasepsi setelah dilakukan intervensi. Dari kegiatan intervensi yang telah dilakukan melalui penerapan model ?Optimalisasi Peran Provider?, dapat disimpulkan bahwa kegiatan tersebut dinilai sangat berhasil dalam menurunkan proporsi unmet need.
Fitch, Rebecca C; Harnack, Lisa J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R; Story, Mary T; French, Simone A; Oakes, J Michael; Rydell, Sarah A
To gather consumer input about approaches to providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. We asked a subset of individuals (n = 150) in an experimental study about the influence of nutrition labeling on fast-food meal choices to evaluate calorie information on mock fast-food menus in various formats. Three community sites in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, metropolitan area. Adolescents and adults who ate fast food at least once per week were recruited. Via a series of open- and close-ended questions, participants gave feedback about several formats for providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. Means and frequencies were calculated, and chi2 tests were conducted. When asked to compare a menu that provided calorie information for each menu item with a menu that provided the number of minutes of running that would be required to burn the calories contained in each menu item, 71.0% of participants preferred the calorie information over the physical activity information. Participants also compared two approaches to providing caloric reference information on the menu (average daily calorie needs per day vs. per meal), and 61.3% preferred the calorie needs-per-meal format. Our results may be useful in designing approaches to providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus.
Ramsey, Imogen; Corsini, Nadia; Peters, Micah D J; Eckert, Marion
This rapid review summarizes best available evidence on consumers' needs and preferences for information about healthcare, with a focus on the Australian context. Three questions are addressed: 1) Where do consumers find and what platform do they use to access information about healthcare? 2) How do consumers use the healthcare information that they find? 3) About which topics or subjects do consumers need healthcare information? A hierarchical approach was adopted with evidence first sought from reviews then high quality studies using Medline (via PubMed), CINAHL, Embase, the JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, the Campbell Collaboration Library of Systematic Reviews, EPPI-Centre, and Epistemonikos. Twenty-eight articles were included; four systematic reviews, three literature reviews, thirteen quantitative studies, six qualitative studies, and two mixed methods studies. Consumers seek health information at varying times along the healthcare journey and through various modes of delivery. Complacency with historical health information modes is no longer appropriate and flexibility is essential to suit growing consumer demands. Health information should be readily available in different formats and not exclusive to any single medium. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
the information needs, seeking behavior and sources used by the Distance Leaning Students of. University of Lagos. .... a response rate of 95.5%. Table 1: Demographic Characteristics of Respondents. Variables. Departments. Total. No. %. Business. Administration. No. %. Accounting. No. %. Educatio n. Science. No. % ...
The study examined farmers' information needs in soap opera utilisation for agricultural enterprise promotion in Southwestern Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling procedure, 150 farmers were randomly selected across selected states in the study area. Data were collected with the use of interview schedule on farmers' ...
The objective of the study was to assess the information needs, seeking behavior and sources used by the Distance Leaning Students of University of Lagos. The survey research design method was adopted for the study with a structured questionnaire. Stratified random sampling was used to select respondents from the ...
Based on this, there is urgent need to use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which can be seen in computers, satellite, global system of mobile communication etc. and its application to the teaching of social studies in Nigeria Colleges of Education. This paper establishes that relying on textbooks and ...
This article discusses the use of newspapers for satisfying basic information needs in The Polytechnic, Ibadan community. Social survey research was employed in carrying out the research. Questionnaire and observation were the data collection instruments used to establish newspaper usage, respondents' interest in ...
The degree of knowledge acquired by lecturers is important in every progressive teaching and learning in a higher institution. The information needs of 30 lecturers in the faculty of Business Administration, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus were investigated in this study. A structured questionnaire was used in collecting ...
This article reflects on the first phase of a research project aimed at the empowerment of Information Technology (IT) teachers in black rural schools in the North-West province of South Africa. In order to empower these IT teachers, the first phase aimed at understanding their unique challenges and needs. Qualitative ...
The study examined information needs of grasscutter farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling was used to select a total of 76 grasscutter farmers in the study area, as descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentages, as well as inferential statistics as Pearson product Moment Correlation (PPMC) ...
Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L.; Kremer, Leontien C.; van den Bos, Cor; Braam, Katja I.; Jaspers, Monique W. M.
Background. Knowledge about past disease, treatment, and possible late effects has previously been shown to be low in survivors of childhood cancer and their relatives. This study investigated the information needs of childhood cancer survivors and their parents and explored possible determinants
This paper presented the result of an investigation on information need and seeking behaviour of Diploma students of Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology, Kano. A cross sectional survey research method was used for this study. Questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. The investigation ...
The information needs on climate change as perceived by farmers were: use of improved varieties ( χ= 1.80), occupational diversification ( χ=1.78), and change in timing of farm operations ( χ=1.76), among others. Poor extension services and infrastructure were the major constraints to effective communication of climate ...
Information Needs and Seeking Behaviour of Islamic Studies Teachers in Secondary Schools in Borno State, Nigeria. ... underfunding of t he libraries. As a way forward, the paper recommends that the libraries should be adequately funded to employ qualified staff to meet the enormous demands made on them by users.
Carol Miller; Peter Landres
We report the results of a questionnaire and workshop that sought to gain a better and deeper understanding of the contemporary information needs of wildland fire and fuels managers. Results from the questionnaire indicated that the decision to suppress a wildland fire was most often influenced by factors related to safety and that the decision to allow a fire to burn...
The article reports on the findings regarding students' knowledge, skill and training needs in using Electronic Information Resources (EIRs). Data was collected using a questionnaire-based survey administered to 1123 undergraduate students. Probability sampling was used to sample students across the four universities, ...
Simon, DeShea; Jackson, Kanata
This study examined the perspectives on academic preparation and job skill needs of Information Systems program graduates from an Eastern state in the US. A historical review of the literature surrounding information systems skill requirements was conducted for this study, to provide an understanding of the changes in information systems over the…
Wallengren, Catarina; Segesten, Kerstin; Friberg, Febe
To explore relatives' information needs and the characteristics of their information-seeking process shortly after the stroke event and six months later. Providing relatives of stroke survivors with information is important, as lack of information increases their uncertainty and risk becoming the 'second patient in the family' and early death. Therefore, it is essential to be aware of relatives' information needs and information-seeking process the first six months after stroke. This qualitative study has a descriptive design. Open-ended interviews were conducted with sixteen relatives after stroke survivor's admission to stroke unit and six months later with nine of these relatives. Data were analysed by means of content analysis. The identified information needs covered the spectrum from stroke survivor's medical condition because nurses' actions to relatives' changed health and life situation. Furthermore, relatives' information-seeking process was found to be related to their level of personal involvement, situational circumstances, different forms of knowledge and sources of information. Relatives' search for information emerges when health and lifestyle changes occur in survivors or themselves. It is important that this information affect them personally. Also, they need to develop different forms of knowledge when they cannot trust their own competences. As a result, instead of following established curricula based on their beliefs of relatives' information needs, nurses need to practice on identifying relatives' information needs. Different information needs and characteristics described in the study can serve as guidance in the development and implementation of pedagogical interventions to support relatives of stroke survivors. One pedagogical implication is to explore what a specific relative wants to know by how he/she talks or thinks about it. Thus, it must be taken into consideration that level of personal involvement, situational circumstances
Pulwarty, R. S.; Webb, R. S.
The demand for improved climate knowledge and information is well documented. As noted in the IPCC Reports (SREX, AR5) and other assessments, this demand has increased pressure for better information to support planning under changing rates of extremes event occurrence. This demand has focused on mechanisms used to respond to past variability and change, including, integrated resource management (watersheds, coasts), infrastructure design, information systems, technological optimization, financial risk management, and behavioral and institutional change. Climate inputs range from static site design statistics (return periods) to dynamic, emergent thresholds and transitions preceded by steep response curves and punctuated equilibria. Tradeoffs are evident in the use of risk-based anticipatory strategies vs. resilience measures. In such settings, annual decision calendars for operational requirements can confound adaptation expectations. Key knowledge assessment questions include: (1) How predictable are potential impacts of events in the context of other stressors, (2) how is action to anticipate such impacts informed, and (3) How often should criteria for "robustness" be reconsidered? To illustrate, we will discuss the climate information needs and uses for two areas of concern for both short and long-term risks (i) climate and disaster risk financing, and (ii) watershed management. The presentation will focus on the climate information needed for (1) improved monitoring, modeling and methods for understanding and analyzing exposure risks, (2) generating risk profiles, (3) developing information systems and scenarios for critical thresholds across climate time and space scales, (4) embedding annual decision calendars in the context of longer-term risk management, (5) gaming experiments to show the net benefits of new information. We will conclude with a discussion of the essential climate variables needed to implement services-delivery and development efforts such
Full Text Available The wetland has a strategic role in national development. The potential uses of the wetland are varied such as for agriculture, fisheries, industries, and forestry. The intensive use of the wetland for agricultural development in Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua through transmigration projects has been run since in 1973. Unfortunately, not all the projects were well developed, causing the social, economic, and physical environmental problems. These problems resulted in the negative impact for the life of the transmigration people. For that reason, the community empowerment for the unlucky transmigration people by handling the physical and non physical aspects is very important. This paper will describe the importance of providing spatial data and information biophysical wetland as an initial step in empowering people who live in the wetland resource.
Vladimir D. Secerin
Full Text Available The thesis of importance of informative constituent Comes into question as non-material assets in a postindustrial economy. Importance of limitations is shown in realization of technological processes to want of authenticity, objectivity and timeliness of actualization of knowledge of specialists. As recommendations on providing of accordance of actuality of on-line tutorial to the level of technological development on a production at the limitations determined by the system requirements of educational standard “From a teacher to a student”, the chart of forming of the creative thinking of student is offered as nooswear technologies are in organization of feed-back “From a student to a teacher “.
Weberschock, T; Valipour, A; Ochsendorf, F
Involuntary childlessness is a common problem. In about 50% of cases, inadequate semen quality plays a relevant role. A semen analysis provides information regarding exocrine function of the male reproductive organs of the testes, epidydimis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and vas deferens. These parameters can only be interpreted in conjunction with medical history and physical examination. Then they can be useful to identify relevant disorders or the causes of these disturbances. The fundamental principles for the interpretation of a semen analysis are easily learned and traditionally belong to the field of dermatology. This article explains the variables which are examined in a routine semen analysis as well as the reference values. Furthermore, common causes for deviations from the normal values are discussed to allow decision-making for further diagnostic workup. The interpretation of these values must always take into account the situation of the couple.
Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste; Stenbæk, Jonas; Santos, Susana S.
Despite the critical ecological roles of microeukaryotes in terrestrial ecosystems, most descriptive studies of soil microbes published so far focused only on specific groups. Meanwhile, the fast development of metagenome sequencing leads to considerable data accumulation in public repositories......, providing microbiologists with substantial amounts of accessible information. We took advantage of public metagenomes in order to investigate microeukaryote communities in a well characterized grassland soil. The data gathered allowed the evaluation of several factors impacting the community structure...... on metagenomic microeukaryote DNA. Choosing the correct annotation procedure and reference database has proven to be crucial, as it considerably limits the risk of wrong assignments. In addition, a significant and pronounced effect of the DNA extraction method on the taxonomical structure of soil microeukaryotes...
Full Text Available Treating morphologically complex words (MCWs as atomic units in translation would not yield a desirable result. Such words are complicated constituents with meaningful subunits. A complex word in a morphologically rich language (MRL could be associated with a number of words or even a full sentence in a simpler language, which means the surface form of complex words should be accompanied with auxiliary morphological information in order to provide a precise translation and a better alignment. In this paper we follow this idea and propose two different methods to convey such information for statistical machine translation (SMT models. In the first model we enrich factored SMT engines by introducing a new morphological factor which relies on subword-aware word embeddings. In the second model we focus on the language-modeling component. We explore a subword-level neural language model (NLM to capture sequence-, word- and subword-level dependencies. Our NLM is able to approximate better scores for conditional word probabilities, so the decoder generates more fluent translations. We studied two languages Farsi and German in our experiments and observed significant improvements for both of them.
Hamilton, David B.; Auble, Gregor T.
The marshes in and around Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge (the Refuge) are extremely dynamic; expanding and contracting in size both seasonally, due to runoff and subsequent evapotranspiration, and over longer periods, due to climatic variation. The dynamic nature of these marshes results in a diversity of wetland habitats, which support a variety of migratory birds. To maintain this wetland diversity and control the loss of migratory bird habitat in the Lahontan Valley, the Refuge was established and currently manages a complex of marsh units. However, changes in the hydrology, and changes that will occur as a result of the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone and Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act (Public Law 101-618, 104 Stat. 3389), greatly affect the Refuge's wetland management capability. In light of these changes, and the legal requirements associated with environmental impact assessments, the Refuge convened a workshop to discuss several aspects of wetland management in the Lahontan Valley. The workshop, described in this report, had three primary objectives: 1. discuss the types and relative proportions of primary wetland habitats that should be provided as described in the settlement act; 2. discuss wetland management models that might be developed to help manage these marshes under hydrologic regimes likely in the future; and 3. discuss future information and monitoring needs, including proposals for valley-wide biodiversity surveys, which would be helpful when considering withdrawn Bureau of Reclamation (BR) lands for possible incorporation into the Refuge. Several presentations at the beginning of the workshop provided a common basis for discussing these objectives. Refuge staff provided background on the history and past management. The Nature Conservatory discussed their role in the settlement act, proposals for valley-wide biodiversity surveys, and results of a literature review for Stillwater Marsh and the Lahontan Valley (Nachlinger
The purpose of this qualitative, exploratory study was to better understand the needs of immigrants and refugees and how they are affected by poverty and post-immigration stresses. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews with 62 health and social service providers working with immigrants in the state of Minnesota. Although the state is home to many refugees who were victims of torture or severe deprivation in their home countries, the majority of providers defined the principal needs of their clients as affordable housing, jobs, and access to health services rather than needs related to health conditions or services per se. The providers' open-ended comments painted a picture of the ways in which post-immigration experiences lead to tangible stresses that compromise immigrants' health and well-being.
Sakai, Hitomi; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Miyako
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the United States recommends that all cancer survivors be provided with a survivorship care plan (SCP), which includes a patient treatment summary and a follow-up care plan. However, SCPs have not been widely adopted in Japan. To provide basic data necessary for implementing SCPs in Japan, we aimed to investigate the forms of clinical and survivorship-related information that Japanese cancer survivors receive from their healthcare providers, and to examine whether written information increases their satisfaction. We performed a cross-sectional online survey of cancer survivors who underwent acute cancer treatment and had at least one follow-up with a physician in the past year. Cancer survivors provided the elements and forms (verbally and/or written) of information they received, as well as the degree of satisfaction with the information provided. Responses were obtained from 545 cancer survivors. Information elements such as surgical procedure (98.3%), surgical outcome (98.1%), and names of administered chemotherapy agents (97.8%) were commonly provided, whereas mental care resources and providers (29.7%), effects on marital relationship and sexual health (35.7%), and effects on fertility (43.4%) were less common. A large proportion of cancer survivors received verbal information only. For 18 of 20 elements, except for effects on fertility and duration of hormonal therapy, satisfaction was significantly higher when both forms of information were provided (P information can better meet the needs of Japanese cancer survivors.
Ebell, Mark H; Shaughnessy, Allen
Traditional continuing medical education (CME) has been disconnected from the actual practice of medicine and has not focused on providing the most useful information in the most efficient way. Physicians have different information needs at different times. When asked at the end of a day of patient care, physicians will typically report having had one question for every four or five patients. However, direct observation during patient care reveals many more questions. In the outpatient primary care setting, most studies have found, on average, that about two clinical questions are generated during every three patient encounters, with even higher numbers reported in the inpatient teaching setting. Thus, a physician seeing 25 patients in a typical day of outpatient care may have 15 clinical questions. Because clinical questions are the result of critical reflection by a clinician on his or her practice, they are central, to physician learning. This connection between "need" and learning is consistent with generally accepted theories of adult learning. When applied to continuing education, this connection suggests that physicians will learn best when learning is in the context of patient care, answers their questions, does not take too much time, and is directly applicable to their work. Pursuing answers to these questions and answering them with the best available evidence, at the time the answer is needed, may well change the physician's general approach to patient care.
Geiger, Brian F; O'Neal, Marcia R; Smith, Kay Hogan; Evans, Retta R; Jackson, Jeri B; Firsing, Stephen L
The role of a medical librarian includes guiding consumers to search for information related to specific health needs and interpret information for personal use. Little is known about barriers to accessing health information and clinical services for those with cognitive and physical disabilities. The purpose of this paper is to describe a statewide needs assessment of the health information and services needs of individuals with disabilities and their caregivers.Data from the needs assessment conducted by the Health Services Training Project of more than 1,000 respondents indicate unmet needs for outreach to increase effective use of library and information resources. Fewer consumers and their caregivers utilized the Internet to search for health information as compared to clinical service providers and students in health professions. A majority of consumers reported difficulty obtaining and understanding online health information. Service providers and students shared concerns about information quality. Consumers and caregivers expressed highest levels of trust in information provided by service providers, nonprofit health agencies, reference books, and libraries.
Kurimoto, Fuki; Hori, Satoko; Satoh, Hiroki; Miki, Akiko; Sawada, Yasufumi
For drug fostering and evolution, it is important to collect information directly from patients on the efficacy and safety of drugs as well as patient needs. At present, however, information gathered by healthcare professionals, pharmaceutical companies, or governments is not sufficient. There is concern that patients may fail to recognize the importance of providing information voluntarily. The present study was conducted to provide drug information to patients/consumers, to enlighten them on the importance of providing drug information by themselves, and to develop an Internet website, called "Minkusu," for collecting drug information from patients. This website is based on a registration system (free of charge). It is designed to provide information on proper drug use, and to collect opinions about drugs. As of May 31, 2012, a total of 1149 people had been registered. The male/female ratio of registered members was approximately 1:1, and patients/consumers accounted for 23%. According to the results of a questionnaire survey, several patient/consumer members appreciated the usefulness of the information service, and they took an opportunity to know of the concepts of drug development and evolution (Ikuyaku, in Japanese) through the information services provided by this site. In conclusion, the developed information system would contribute to the proper use of drugs by patients/consumers and to the promotion of drug development and evolution.
Hämäläinen, Liisa; Rowland, Hannah M; Mappes, Johanna; Thorogood, Rose
Video playback is becoming a common method for manipulating social stimuli in experiments. Parid tits are one of the most commonly studied groups of wild birds. However, it is not yet clear if tits respond to video playback or how their behavioural responses should be measured. Behaviours may also differ depending on what they observe demonstrators encountering. Here we present blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) videos of demonstrators discovering palatable or aversive prey (injected with bitter-tasting Bitrex) from coloured feeding cups. First we quantify variation in demonstrators' responses to the prey items: aversive prey provoked high rates of beak wiping and head shaking. We then show that focal blue tits respond differently to the presence of a demonstrator on a video screen, depending on whether demonstrators discover palatable or aversive prey. Focal birds faced the video screen more during aversive prey presentations, and made more head turns. Regardless of prey type, focal birds also hopped more frequently during the presence of a demonstrator (compared to a control video of a different coloured feeding cup in an empty cage). Finally, we tested if demonstrators' behaviour affected focal birds' food preferences by giving individuals a choice to forage from the same cup as a demonstrator, or from the cup in the control video. We found that only half of the individuals made their choice in accordance to social information in the videos, i.e., their foraging choices were not different from random. Individuals that chose in accordance with a demonstrator, however, made their choice faster than individuals that chose an alternative cup. Together, our results suggest that video playback can provide social cues to blue tits, but individuals vary greatly in how they use this information in their foraging decisions.
Full Text Available Video playback is becoming a common method for manipulating social stimuli in experiments. Parid tits are one of the most commonly studied groups of wild birds. However, it is not yet clear if tits respond to video playback or how their behavioural responses should be measured. Behaviours may also differ depending on what they observe demonstrators encountering. Here we present blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus videos of demonstrators discovering palatable or aversive prey (injected with bitter-tasting Bitrex from coloured feeding cups. First we quantify variation in demonstrators’ responses to the prey items: aversive prey provoked high rates of beak wiping and head shaking. We then show that focal blue tits respond differently to the presence of a demonstrator on a video screen, depending on whether demonstrators discover palatable or aversive prey. Focal birds faced the video screen more during aversive prey presentations, and made more head turns. Regardless of prey type, focal birds also hopped more frequently during the presence of a demonstrator (compared to a control video of a different coloured feeding cup in an empty cage. Finally, we tested if demonstrators’ behaviour affected focal birds’ food preferences by giving individuals a choice to forage from the same cup as a demonstrator, or from the cup in the control video. We found that only half of the individuals made their choice in accordance to social information in the videos, i.e., their foraging choices were not different from random. Individuals that chose in accordance with a demonstrator, however, made their choice faster than individuals that chose an alternative cup. Together, our results suggest that video playback can provide social cues to blue tits, but individuals vary greatly in how they use this information in their foraging decisions.
Halvorsen, Ann T.; And Others
This needs assessment instrument was developed as part of the PEERS (Providing Education for Everyone in Regular Schools) Project, a California project to integrate students with severe disabilities who were previously at special centers into services at regular school sites and students who were in special classes in regular schools into general…
Hayden, Seth Christian Walter
Service providers are increasingly recognizing the need to develop effective methods for delivering supporting services to military families during deployment. Research suggests that military families experience increased levels of stress during the cycle of deployment. Bronfenbrenner (1979) conceptualized the family operating within the context…
Kumar, Manish; Mostafa, Javed; Ramaswamy, Rohit
Health information systems (HIS) in India, as in most other developing countries, support public health management but fail to enable healthcare providers to use data for delivering quality services. Such a failure is surprising, given that the population healthcare data that the system collects are aggregated from patient records. An important reason for this failure is that the health information architecture (HIA) of the HIS is designed primarily to serve the information needs of policymakers and program managers. India has recognised the architectural gaps in its HIS and proposes to develop an integrated HIA. An enabling HIA that attempts to balance the autonomy of local systems with the requirements of a centralised monitoring agency could meet the diverse information needs of various stakeholders. Given the lack of in-country knowledge and experience in designing such an HIA, this case study was undertaken to analyse HIS in the Bihar state of India and to understand whether it would enable healthcare providers, program managers and policymakers to use data for decision-making. Based on a literature review and data collected from interviews with key informants, this article proposes a federated HIA, which has the potential to improve HIS efficiency; provide flexibility for local innovation; cater to the diverse information needs of healthcare providers, program managers and policymakers; and encourage data-based decision-making.
Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne; Bekele, Rahel
In a developing country like Ethiopia, marketing of agricultural products is influenced by local, socioeconomic, cultural and IT infrastructure characteristics. ICT-based agriculture information systems have been proposed to support farmers with market information. However, such initiatives have...
Owen, John M.; Lambert, Faye C.
Conceptualizes key differences between management and leadership as a basis for suggesting ways in which evaluators might operate to serve the decision-making needs of organizational leaders. Evaluators will provide maximum leverage if they work directly with the leadership to promote review and change. (SLD)
Ismail Shaiful B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmaceutical representatives provide medicines information on their promoted products to doctors. However, studies have shown that the quality of this information is often low. No study has assessed the medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Malaysia and no recent evidence in Australia is present. We aimed to compare the provision of medicines information by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Australia and Malaysia. Methods Following a pharmaceutical representative's visit, general practitioners in Australia and Malaysia who had agreed to participate, were asked to fill out a questionnaire on the main product and claims discussed during the encounter. The questionnaire focused on provision of product information including indications, adverse effects, precautions, contraindications and the provision of information on the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS listings and restrictions (in Australia only. Descriptive statistics were produced. Chi-square analysis and clustered linear regression were used to assess differences in Australia and Malaysia. Results Significantly more approved product information sheets were provided in Malaysia (78% than in Australia (53% (P Conclusions Information on indications and dosages were usually provided by pharmaceutical representatives in Australia and Malaysia. However, risk and harmful effects of medicines were often missing in their presentations. Effective control of medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives is needed.
Park, Gun Chul; Suh, Kune Y.; Lee, Seung Dong; Lee, Jin Yong [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Moo Sung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
In this study we examined instrument information, which is related to the severe accident management, guidance. We also examined the hydrogen control and management strategy. Hydrogen control occupies and important part in severe accident management and adequate hydrogen control strategy i needed to maintain the plant integrity. Reducing containment hydrogen during a severe accident will mitigate a potential containment failure mechanism. One of the hydrogen control strategies os intentional burning by the hydrogen igniter. Though intentional hydrogen burn strategy may cause pressure and temperature spikes, which are adverse effects, it si the fastest way of reducing the containment hydrogen concentration. From the Ulchin 3 and 4 plant information we developed a simple hydrogen ignition decision tree. And from the information of decision tree, hydrogen ignition decision can be determined in Containment Event Tree (CET). The end branch values in the CET are hydrogen concentrations, which will be used to assess the accident management measure.
Durso, Francis T.; Johnson, Brian R.; Crutchfield, Jerry M.
In an effort to determine the information needs of tower air traffic controllers, instructors from the Federal Aviation Administration's Academy in Oklahoma City were asked to control traffic in a high-fidelity tower cab simulator. Information requests were made apparent by eliminating access to standard tower information sources. Instead,…
Full Text Available Background: Malaria is an infectious disease that is still a health problem in Indonesia, which can cause death, especially in high-risk groups such as infants, toddlers, pregnant women and can directly lead to anemia and decreased work productivity. South Ogan Komering Ulu District was one of the endemic areas in South Sumatera Province. In a previous study in the District South Ogan Komering Ulu County Superior Data AMI found that high and low knowledge society related to malaria and most of respondents have not received counseling. Objective:The purpose of this study was to determine the needs of health care providers in malaria control programs. Methods:Data collected through in-depth interviews. Informant interviews are two people responsible for malaria at the health department, the head of health centers and two people responsible for malaria in health centers. Results: The results showed that the needs required by the health care providers to improve health care services, especially malaria is a need for laboratory equipment (microscope, reagents, and rapid diagnostic test, the need for microscopic power, the need for malaria drugs that are still effective, procurement of mosquito nets, education malaria to the community, and training needs for existing microscopic officer. Conclusion: The need of health care providers is the fulfillment of the malaria supplies equipment, laboratory personnel and training that support the ability of health care providers. With the fulfillment of the provider of health services to the community are expected to be performing well. Recommendation:Budget is needed to support supplier equipment & training.
Rose, India D; Friedman, Daniela B
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have unique health concerns, including high rates of HIV infection. To prevent HIV, YMSM need credible information from trusted sources, specifically parents. Little is known about what health information resources parents of YMSM need to communicate with their child about HIV prevention. The primary objective of this study was to examine the proxy health information seeking behaviours of parents of YMSM and to identify information resources that parents need to communicate with their YMSM identified child about HIV prevention. Qualitative findings were grouped into four categories: parents' current health information sources; barriers to seeking health information; parents' health information needs; and recommendations for delivery of health information for parents. Ten in-depth interviews were conducted with parents of YMSM. Parents reported consulting physicians and the Internet for HIV/AIDS information. They reported finding limited information targeted towards parents of YMSM and provided suggestions for improving the delivery of health information including training, websites and the local news. Delivery of tailored HIV prevention information to parents may be effective in helping combat HIV among YMSM. Given that YMSM bear the greatest burden for HIV, this study highlights the need to include parents of YMSM in future interventions aimed at reducing YMSM's risk of HIV/AIDS. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.
Jewson, Ashlee; Lamaro, Greer; Crisp, Beth R; Hanna, Lisa; Taket, Ann
Service providers in Geelong, one of the priority locations for the resettlement of refugees in regional Australia, were interviewed to explore their perceptions of the health and wellbeing needs of refugees, and the capacity of service providers in a regional area to meet these. In all, 22 interviews were conducted with health and human service professionals in a range of organisations offering refugee-specific services, culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) services in general, and services to the wider community, including refugees. The findings revealed that a more coordinated approach would increase the effectiveness of existing services; however, the various needs of refugees were more than could be met by organisations in the region at current resource levels. More staff and interpreting services were required, as well as professional development for staff who have had limited experience in working with refugees. It should not be assumed that service needs for refugees resettled in regional Australia will be the same as those of refugees resettled in capital cities. Some services provided in Melbourne were not available in Geelong, and there were services not currently provided to refugees that may be critical in facilitating resettlement in regional and rural Australia.
Cacace, Mirella; Ettelt, Stefanie; Brereton, Laura; Pedersen, Janice S; Nolte, Ellen
This article provides details on a report that reviews and discusses information systems reporting on the quality or performance of providers of healthcare ("quality information systems") in seven countries: Denmark, England, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United States. Data collection involves a review of the published and grey literature and is complemented by information provided by key informants in the selected countries using a detailed questionnaire. Quality information systems typically address a number of audiences, including patients (or respectively the general public before receiving services and becoming patients), commissioners, purchasers and regulators. We observe that as the policy context for quality reporting in countries varies, so also does the nature and scope of quality information systems within and between countries. Systems often pursue multiple aims and objectives, which typically are (a) to support patient choice (b) to influence provider behaviour to enhance the quality of care (c) to strengthen transparency of the provider-commissioner relationship and the healthcare system as a whole and (d) to hold healthcare providers and commissioners to account for the quality of care they provide and the purchasing decisions they make. We emphasise that the main users of information systems are the providers themselves as the publication of information provides an incentive for improving the quality of care. Finally, based on the evidence reviewed, we identify a number of considerations for the design of successful quality information systems, such as the clear definition of objectives, ensuring users' accessibility and stakeholder involvement, as well as the need to provide valid, reliable and consistent data.
Bilodeau, B A; Degner, L F
To describe preferred and actual roles in treatment decision making among women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, to describe their sources of information, and to identify and prioritize their information needs. Cross-sectional survey. Seventy-four women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Two tertiary, outpatient oncology clinics in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Three measures were completed: control preferences card sort, Thurstone scaling of information needs, and ranking of information sources. Decisional roles, sources of information, and information needs. More women (43%) preferred and more (57%) actually assumed a passive role in treatment decision making. This is particularly true of older women. Although 37% of women preferred a collaborative role, only 19% were able to assume such a role. The women preferred personal sources of information (physician, nurse, friend, or relative) over written sources. A medical journal was more relevant to women with higher levels of education. Most information needs included stage of disease, likelihood of cure, and treatment options. The women ranked self-care issues and sexuality as least important; older women, however, ranked self-care issues as more important. Women who want collaborative roles in decision making may experience difficulty in achieving such roles. Personal sources of information were more important to women than written sources. Nurses can use a knowledge of women's priorities for information to guide information sharing. Nurses can assess women's desired roles in treatment decision making and facilitate women achieving their preferred roles.
Abu Bakar, Siti Hajar; Weatherley, Richard; Omar, Noralina; Abdullah, Fatimah; Mohamad Aun, Nur Saadah
This article presents the findings of a self-report study of the consequences of being an informal caregiver in Malaysia. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine Malaysian efforts in assisting informal caregivers, based on an analysis of the issues and concerns raised by the caregivers themselves. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of informal caregivers in 2009. This sample comprised parents, spouses and/or adult siblings, and adult children, caring for their children, spouses or siblings and parents who were chronically ill and/or had a disability. Of 300 prospective participants, only 175 could be located (58%), but all those contacted agreed to participate. Respondents were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire to identify the emotional, financial, social and physical issues consequent upon being a caregiver. Most respondents reported that their care-giving responsibilities had impacted their emotional, financial, social and/or physical well-being. Inadequate and/or uncertain income was by far the greatest concern followed in descending order by social, physical and emotional consequences. The one-way analysis of variance showed significant differences among the three categories of caregivers with respect to physical and emotional consequences. The findings show that care-giving has detrimental effects on the lives of informal caregivers, and that they are in significant need of social support to help them deal with care-giving tasks and responsibilities. Based on the findings, an integrated social support programme is proposed, tailored to the needs of informal caregivers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kolthoff, Sie Karen; Hestbech, Mie Sara; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether invitations for publicly funded cervical screening provide sufficient information to enable an informed choice about participation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using a checklist of 23 information items on benefits and harms from cervical screening and the risks...... OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of information items presented in invitations for cervical screening. RESULTS: We contacted 21 coordinating units from 11 countries and 20 (95%) responded. Of these, four units did not issue invitations, but the remaining 16 coordinating units in 10 different countries supplied...... a sample. The invitations for cervical screening were generally information poor and contained a median of only four out of 23 information items possible (17%), ranging from 0 to 12 (0-52%). The most important harms of cancer screening, overdiagnosis and overtreatment, were typically downplayed...
O. S. Solovjov
Full Text Available The controversial questions of the pharmaceutical market informatization are considered. The main principles and legal frameworks to manage population ensure with medicines based on use of information technology are proposed. The logic and conception framework of related information automatization for hospitals and population under the current legislation are discussed.
Lasell, Jon R
.... This study identifies the need for change in collecting data on patient care time, reviews different methods/systems for gathering data, documents the implementation of the selected system (eUCAPERS...
Medical devices that met standards have been recalled. Quality systems that were said by internal audits to be in compliance with FDA regulations or ISO quality standards received serious questions after external auditing. Devices meeting standards or produced by quality systems felt to be in compliance have put patients at risk by failing at critical moments. Something more than just meeting standards and regulations is needed to provide safe and effective medical devices.
Full Text Available Women living with fibromyalgia consistently report experiencing a change in their lives in terms of stigma, inability to work, isolation from society and difficulty in managing their illness. Lack of understanding and knowledge about their disease has been linked to compromised health and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of information use of women living with fibromyalgia. A descriptive phenomenology was used for this study. Participants were identified through gatekeepers for women living with fibromyalgia across Canada. Data was collected via taperecorded interviews. The study was conducted in Canada between 2009-2010. Ten women (18 or older participated in the research. Three essential themes emerged from the analysis that were vital to understand the unique experiences of women: i understanding the need for information required to live with fibromyalgia, ii struggling to meet vital and fundamental information needs and iii transforming themselves to improve health and quality of life. Women living with fibromyalgia have vital and specific information needs and struggle to find and access appropriate information. They use diverse strategies in overcoming some of the challenges in accessing information. Most significantly, women draw on the information to make changes and to begin to coordinate their lives to live with fibromyalgia. For women living with fibromyalgia, the phenomenon of information use has a significant effect on their lives. Healthcare providers are perceived as an important source of information and need to be better informed, more prepared and dedicated to assisting women with their information needs.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), is a debilitating terminal condition. Informal caregivers are key figures in ALS care provision. The physical, psychological and emotional impact of providing care in the home requires appropriate assistance and support. The objective of this analysis is to explore the needs of informal ALS caregivers across the caregiving course.
Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria; Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina
Building an understanding of the impact of a wildfire is critical to the management of ecosystems. Aspects of fire severity such as the amount of soil heating, can relate to post-fire ecosystem recovery. Yet, there is no quantitative measure of this in current post-burn fire severity assessments, which are mostly qualitative ground-based visual assessments of organic matter loss, and as such can be subjective and variable between ecosystems. In order to develop a unifying fire severity assessment we explore the use of charcoal produced during a wildfire, as a tool. Charcoal has been suggested to retain some information about the nature of the fire in which it was created and one such physical property of charcoal that can be measured post-fire is its ability to reflect light when studied under oil using reflectance microscopy. The amount of light reflected varies between charcoals and is thought to be explained by the differential ordering of graphite-like phases within the char however, to what aspects of a fire's nature this alteration pertains is unknown. We have explored the formation of charcoal reflectance in 1) laboratory-based experiments using an iCone calorimeter and in 2) experimental forest scale and natural wildland fires occurring in Canada in spring 2015. In our laboratory experiments we assessed the formation and evolution of charcoal reflectance during pre-ignition heating, peak fire intensity through to the end of flaming and the transition to oxidative/smoldering heating regimes. In the prescribed and natural wildland fires we positioned the same woods used in our laboratory experiments, rigged with thermocouples in the path of oncoming fires in order to assess the resulting charcoal reflectance in response to the heating regime imposed by the fire on the samples. In this presentation we will outline our approach, findings and discuss the potential for charcoal reflectance to provide a tool in post-fire assessments seeking to determine levels of
Peters, Casey B; Schwartz, Mark W; Lubell, Mark N
Meeting ecosystem management challenges posed by climate change requires building effective communication channels among researchers, planners and practitioners to focus research on management issues requiring new knowledge. We surveyed resource managers within two regions of the western United States regions to better understand perceived risks and vulnerabilities associated with climate change and barriers to obtaining and using relevant climate science information in making ecosystem management decisions. We sought to understand what types of climate science information resource managers find most valuable, and the formats in which they prefer to receive climate science information. We found broad concern among natural resource managers in federal agencies that climate change will make it more difficult for them to achieve their management goals. Primary barriers to incorporating climate science into planning are distributed among challenges identifying, receiving, and interpreting appropriate science and a lack of direction provided by agency leadership needed to meaningfully use this emerging science in resource planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Kathleen Abrahamson1, Morgan Durham1, Rebekah Fox21Department of Public Health, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA; 2Department of Communication, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USAAbstract: In this article, we synthesize current literature regarding the unmet needs of cancer patients, with a specific focus on interventions that address psychosocial distress, social support, and information deficits. Research indicates many patients diagnosed with cancer express unmet needs in terms of emotional distress, decision-making support, and practical concerns such as childcare, transportation, and financial assistance. Four types of system-level barriers to the meeting of patient psychosocial and information-based needs emerge from the literature: underidentification of needs due to inadequate assessment, time constraints on cancer care providers, lack of adequate reimbursement for psychosocial and information services, and barriers related to communication of disease-related information. There is also evidence that unmet need, especially unmet information need, is related to the level of patient health literacy. Patient empowerment through the resolution of unmet needs increases patient participation in care, and is especially crucial in regards to understanding risks and benefits of treatment. There is evidence that some interventions are effective for some patients, and that even relatively simple interventions can reduce psychosocial and information-based needs. The challenge is therefore to discover which intervention will be effective for each individual patient, and to attain the skills and resources necessary to intervene appropriately.Keywords: cancer, unmet need, health literacy, intervention
Yu, Hong; Cao, Yong-Gang
Automatically extracting information needs from ad hoc clinical questions is an important step towards medical question answering. In this work, we first explored supervised machine-learning approaches to automatically classify an ad hoc clinical question into general topics. We then evaluated different methods for automatically extracting keywords from an ad hoc clinical question. Our methods were evaluated on the 4,654 clinical questions maintained by the National Library of Medicine. Our best systems or methods showed F-score of 76% for the task of question-topic classification and an average F-score of 56% for extracting keywords from ad hoc clinical questions.
Kidholm, Kristian; Ølholm, Anne Mette; Birk-Olsen, Mette
. The hospital managers identified the clinical, economic, safety and organizational aspects of new treatments as being the most relevant for decision-making. With regard to economic aspects, the hospital managers typically had a narrower focus on budget impact and reimbursement. In addition to the information......Assessments of new health technologies in Europe are often made at the hospital level. However, the guidelines for health technology assessment (HTA), e.g. the EUnetHTA Core Model, are produced by national HTA organizations and focus on decision-making at the national level. This paper describes...... the results of an interview study with European hospital managers about their need for information when deciding about investments in new treatments. The study is part of the AdHopHTA project. Face-to-face, structured interviews were conducted with 53 hospital managers from nine European countries...
Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M.; Narahari, M. G.
Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephon...
Full Text Available European parking information center (EPIC – it will provide unified and detailed information about European parking areas. The EPIC system will receive the data from local information centres. For Slovak republic there will be one provider for traffic data – a National traffic information center (NDIC. The EPIC system is available at http://truckinform.eu. Intelligent parking system (IPS will be linked with NDIC. The aim of the IPS system is to provide information as follows: number of free parking places, services to be used in parking area and so one.
В. В. Степко
Full Text Available The article highlights information resources of the scientific library of the Kiev National University of Culture and Arts and characterizes its use in the system of providing librarian and informational services for users. It is proved that the important information resource of the library is website, which provides additional opportunities for users, forming a positive image of the library in the virtual space. The site contains information on various directions of the library’s activities, librarian services, projects and media products. One of the main tasks of the library is formation and presentation on the website of the electronic catalog as a multifunctional bibliographic resource, which is the basis for informational services and the basic information product of the library. The creation of an electronic library continues as the essential element of providing qualitative and effective services to users. The article discusses the functioning of the “Virtual Help” service as an effective form of working with remote users. The authors also consider such an actual direction of the library’s activity as the presentation of the scientific and creative heritage of the university with help of “12 + books of the year” project. The aim of the project is to inform about new editions of university’s teachers published this year and presented in the library fund. The implementation of the patriotic innovation and educational project “Treasures of the Nation”, whose purpose is to study and popularize the elements of the intangible cultural heritage ofUkraine, is analyzed. The booktrails and flash presentations are considered as a means of presenting books prepared by the library staff. The preparation of longreed, a new format for submitting information on the Internet, is also considered. Thanks to the use of Tilda Publishing and ThingLink services, innovative products were created: a complex multimedia story that combined photos
Full Text Available Because of the rapid uptake of information and communication technology (ICT, understanding the ways in which information seeking has changed over the past decade is crucial to gaining a picture of how information literacy needs may also be changing in the electronic age. This qualitative research took an interpretivist/ constructivist approach in examining the ways in which access to electronic information-seeking affects the information literacy needs of 15 research students in an Australian university setting. An ethnographic technique, the interview, was used for the data collection. Three particular areas, related to information seeking and use, were selected: (1 information source use because of the burgeoning availability of electronic sources; (2 knowing when to stop collecting information because the advent of the Internet has the consequence of greater quantities of information being more easily available than was the case in the past; and 3 managing information following its collection, which has also been affected by the vast amount of information that is now accessible. The conclusion points to enhanced roles for both supervisors and academic librarians, with the need for the latter to become perceived as educators within their university communities.
information technology to support thousands of networks and millions of computers and other electronic devices connected to its networks. In August 2010...portable, cloud -enabled command and control capability Enterprise services Services, such as e-mail, provided in a common way across the department...further permission from GAO. However, because this work may contain copyrighted images or other material, permission from the copyright holder may be
Demetriades, Andreas K; Alg, Varinder Singh; Hardwidge, Carl
Trigeminal neuralgia has a variety of treatments with variable efficacy. Sufferers present to a spectrum of disciplines. While traditional delivery of medical information has been by oral/printed communication, up to 50-80% patients access the internet for information. Confusion, therefore, may arise when seeking treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. We evaluated the quality of information on the internet for trigeminal neuralgia using the DISCERN© instrument. Only 54% websites had clear objectives; 42% delivered on these. A total of 71% provided relevant information on trigeminal neuralgia, 54% being biased/unbalanced; 71% not providing clear sources of information. No website detailed the side-effect profile of treatments; 79% did not inform patients of the consequences/natural history if no treatment was undertaken; it was unclear if patients could anticipate symptoms settling or when treatment would be indicated. Internet information on trigeminal neuralgia is of variable quality; 83% of sites assessed were of low-to-moderate quality, 29% having 'serious shortcomings.' Only two sites scored highly, only one being in the top 10 search results. Websites on trigeminal neuralgia need to appreciate areas highlighted in the DISCERN© instrument, in order to provide balanced, reliable, evidence-based information. To advise patients who may be misguided from such sources, neurosurgeons should be aware of the quality of information on the internet.
Goldberg, Holly Bianca; Shorten, Allison
The objective of this study was to determine whether differences exist between patient and provider perceptions regarding the decision-making process around use of epidural analgesia during childbirth. The dyadic patient-provider Decisional Conflict Scale was modified to measure first-time mother (n = 35) and maternity care provider (n = 52) perceptions. Providers perceived a greater degree of informed decision making than patients (84.97 vs. 79.41, p = .04) and were more likely to recall they upheld patients' rights to make informed choices than patients were to perceive their rights had been upheld (85.95 vs. 71.73, p < .01). This incongruity highlights the need to align legal principles with practice to create mutual agreement between stakeholder perceptions of informed decision making.
Lee, Jisan; Kim, Jeongeun
Mobile device applications can be used to manage health. However, healthcare providers hesitate to use them because selection methods that consider the needs of health consumers and identify the most appropriate application are rare. This study aimed to create an effective method of identifying applications that address user needs. Women experiencing dysmenorrhea and premenstrual syndrome were the targeted users. First, we searched for related applications from two major sources of mobile applications. Brainstorming, mind mapping, and persona and scenario techniques were used to create a checklist of relevant criteria, which was used to rate the applications. Of the 2784 applications found, 369 were analyzed quantitatively. Of those, five of the top candidates were evaluated by three groups: application experts, clinical experts, and potential users. All three groups ranked one application the highest; however, the remaining rankings differed. The results of this study suggest that the method created is useful because it considers not only the needs of various users but also the knowledge of application and clinical experts. This study proposes a method for finding and using the best among existing applications and highlights the need for nurses who can understand and combine opinions of users and application and clinical experts.
Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Milkman, Katherine L.
Using a field experiment in a 401(k) plan, we measure the effect of disseminating information about peer behavior on savings. Low-saving employees received simplified plan enrollment or contribution increase forms. A randomized subset of forms stated the fraction of age-matched coworkers participating in the plan or age-matched participants contributing at least 6% of pay to the plan. We document an oppositional reaction: the presence of peer information decreased the savings of nonparticipants who were ineligible for 401(k) automatic enrollment, and higher observed peer savings rates also decreased savings. Discouragement from upward social comparisons seems to drive this reaction. PMID:26045629
Skillman, Susan M; Andrilla, C Holly A; Patterson, Davis G; Fenton, Susan H; Ostergard, Stefanie J
This study assessed electronic health record (EHR) and health information technology (HIT) workforce resources needed by rural primary care practices, and their workforce-related barriers to implementing and using EHRs and HIT. Rural primary care practices (1,772) in 13 states (34.2% response) were surveyed in 2012 using mailed and Web-based questionnaires. EHRs or HIT were used by 70% of respondents. Among practices using or intending to use the technology, most did not plan to hire new employees to obtain EHR/HIT skills and even fewer planned to hire consultants or vendors to fill gaps. Many practices had staff with some basic/entry, intermediate and/or advanced-level skills, but nearly two-thirds (61.4%) needed more staff training. Affordable access to vendors/consultants who understand their needs and availability of community college and baccalaureate-level training were the workforce-related barriers cited by the highest percentages of respondents. Accessing the Web/Internet challenged nearly a quarter of practices in isolated rural areas, and nearly a fifth in small rural areas. Finding relevant vendors/consultants and qualified staff were greater barriers in small and isolated rural areas than in large rural areas. Rural primary care practices mainly will rely on existing staff for continued implementation and use of EHR/HIT systems. Infrastructure and workforce-related barriers remain and must be overcome before practices can fully manage patient populations and exchange patient information among care system partners. Efforts to monitor adoption of these skills and ongoing support for continuing education will likely benefit rural populations. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.
... part to participants by making it available on the TSP Web site. A participant can request paper copies of that information from the TSP by calling the ThriftLine, submitting a request through the TSP Web site, or by writing to the TSP record keeper. ...
Peter, Johannes; Leichner, Nikolas; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter
This paper presents an approach to information literacy instruction in colleges and universities that combines online and classroom learning (Blended Learning). The concept includes only one classroom seminar, so the approach presented here can replace existing one-shot sessions at colleges and universities without changes to the current workflow.…
The main purpose of establishing library in any academic environment is to serve as the information centre to the community of users. But many have failed to serve this purpose after spending lots of money due to some reason and the other. This survey study is aimed at assessing Effectiveness of Reference Services in ...
Mohammad Reza Davarpanah
Full Text Available A periodic information needs assessment in libraries and information centers will allow libraries to focus on providing access to the most appropriate resources for specific groups and increase users satisfaction and library effectiveness. The present research paper, which is an applied survey, focuses on the subjects’ attitude towards factors affecting information needs assessment in academic libraries. Research population included 190 subjects from 29 medical and non-medical academic libraries who were asked to fill-in a research-made questionnaire. The results showed that 70 percent of the surveyed libraries had never undertaken a systematic information needs assessment. Some of the significant factors affecting information needs assessment were: managerial commitment to identifying users’ information needs, postulation of user needs, managing s resistance to change, paying no attention to reality and policy. The tests showed meaningful differences among the subjects attitudes relating to their demographic variables; also the test indicated no significant differences between the attitudes towards the barriers of information needs assessment.
Cao, Yong-gang; Cimino, James J; Ely, John; Yu, Hong
Clinicians pose complex clinical questions when seeing patients, and identifying the answers to those questions in a timely manner helps improve the quality of patient care. We report here on two natural language processing models, namely, automatic topic assignment and keyword identification, that together automatically and effectively extract information needs from ad hoc clinical questions. Our study is motivated in the context of developing the larger clinical question answering system AskHERMES (Help clinicians to Extract and aRrticulate Multimedia information for answering clinical quEstionS). We developed supervised machine-learning systems to automatically assign predefined general categories (e.g. etiology, procedure, and diagnosis) to a question. We also explored both supervised and unsupervised systems to automatically identify keywords that capture the main content of the question. We evaluated our systems on 4654 annotated clinical questions that were collected in practice. We achieved an F1 score of 76.0% for the task of general topic classification and 58.0% for keyword extraction. Our systems have been implemented into the larger question answering system AskHERMES. Our error analyses suggested that inconsistent annotation in our training data have hurt both question analysis tasks. Our systems, available at http://www.askhermes.org, can automatically extract information needs from both short (the number of word tokens questions (the number of word tokens >20), and from both well-structured and ill-formed questions. We speculate that the performance of general topic classification and keyword extraction can be further improved if consistently annotated data are made available. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heron, Jessica; Gilbert, Naomi; Dolman, Clare; Shah, Sonal; Beare, Ines; Dearden, Sarah; Muckelroy, Nicola; Jones, Ian; Ives, Jonathan
Postpartum Psychosis (PP) is a severe and debilitating psychiatric illness with acute onset in the days following childbirth. Recovering from an episode can be a long and difficult process. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the difficulties faced by recovering women and to inform the planning of post-discharge information and support services. A study was designed collaboratively by service user and academic researchers. Women with experience of PP were trained in qualitative research methodology. Service user researchers (SURs) led in-depth interviews into women's experiences of recovery. PP is a life-changing experience that challenges women's sense of personal and social identity. Recovery themes are organised around ruminating and rationalising, rebuilding social confidence, gaining appropriate health service support, the facilitation of family functioning, obtaining appropriate information, and understanding that recovery will take time. Women suffering from PP must be adequately supported following discharge from psychiatric hospital if we are to address maternal suicide rates. We describe a successful collaboration between academics and service users exploring the needs of women and their families.
Thomas, Arthur; Grandner, Michael; Nowakowski, Sara; Nesom, Genevieve; Corbitt, Charles; Perlis, Michael L
Although it is widely acknowledged that there are not enough clinicians trained in either Behavioral Sleep Medicine (BSM) in general or in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) in specific, what is unclear is whether this problem is more acute in some regions relative to others. Accordingly, a geographic approach was taken to assess this issue. Using national directories as well as e-mail listservs (Behavioral Sleep Medicine group and Behavioral Treatment for Insomnia Roster), the present study evaluated geographic patterning of CBSM and BSM providers by city, state, and country. Overall, 88% of 752 BSM providers worldwide live in the United States (n = 659). Of these, 58% reside in 12 states with ≥ 20 providers (CA, NY, PA, IL, MA, TX, FL, OH, MI, MN, WA, and CO), and 19% reside in just 2 states (NY and CA). There were 4 states with no BSM providers (NH, HI, SD, and WY). Of the 167 U.S. cities with a population of > 150,000, 105 cities have no BSM providers. These results clearly suggest that a targeted effort is needed to train individuals in both the unserved and underserved areas.
Sushko, O. P.; Kaznin, A. A.; Babkin, A. V.; Bogdanov, D. A.
The study we are conducting involves the analysis of information security levels achieved by energy providers operating in the North Arctic Region. We look into whether the energy providers’ current information security levels meet reliability standards and determine what further actions may be needed for upgrading information security in the context of the digital transformation that the world community is undergoing. When developing the information security systems for electric energy providers or selecting the protection means for them, we are governed by the fact that the assets to be protected are process technologies. While information security risk can be assessed using different methods, the evaluation of the economic damage from these risks appears to be a difficult task. The most probable and harmful risks we have identified when evaluating the electric energy providers’ information security will be used by us as variables. To provide the evaluation, it is necessary to calculate the costs relating to elimination of the risks identified. The final stage of the study will involve the development of an operation algorithm for the North Arctic Region’s energy provider’s business information protection security system – a set of information security services, and security software and hardware.
Dunning, R.J.; Grayson, A.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to renew a research agenda considering the impact that information providers’ processes are having on the housing market; in particular to develop a research agenda around the role of the Internet in shaping households’ perceptions of the spatial nature of housing markets. Design/methodology/approach – This paper reviews the existing literature. It uses preliminary extensive survey findings about the role of the Internet in housing search to hypothesise ...
Othman, Noordin; Vitry, Agnes I; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Ismail, Shaiful B; Omar, Khairani
practitioners. Information on indications and dosages were usually provided by pharmaceutical representatives in Australia and Malaysia. However, risk and harmful effects of medicines were often missing in their presentations. Effective control of medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives is needed.
Full Text Available Paul Smith’s College provides library hours and workstation availability using SMS Text Messages. The service was implemented using an easy and affordable web-based API for SMS sending and receiving, from twilio.com. A new class of ‘cloud-based‘ SMS vendors make simple SMS-based services efficient and cost-effective to implement, and have many possible applications in the library environment. A simple PHP example is provided which supplies workstation availability over SMS based on a database of computer availability from a previous Code4Lib Journal Article.
Full Text Available Cancer is the third highest cause of death in Kenya, preceded by infectious and cardiovascular diseases, and in most cases, diagnosed in later stages. Nurses are the primary caregivers, assessing and managing these patients in the clinic, in inpatient settings, and in rural and remote communities. While cancer rates remain high, the burden to the patient, the caregiver, and society as a whole continues to rise. Kenya's poverty complicates cancer even further. Many Kenyans are unaware of cancer's signs and symptoms, and limited diagnostic and treatment centers are available. Despite these barriers, there is still hope and help for those in Kenya, who suffer from cancer. The World Health Organization has stated that palliative care is a basic human right and nurses providing this care in Kenya are making efforts to support cancer patients' ongoing needs, in order to promote compassionate palliative care and prevent suffering. The purpose of this paper is to address the palliative care needs of patients with cancer in Kenya by providing education to nurses and influencing health-care policy and education at micro and macro levels. A case study weaved throughout will highlight these issues.
From the parent population of micro and small business enterprises, seven municipal areas of the geopolitical zone were randomly sampled. Research instrument used for collecting data was the questionnaire which was constructed along the theoretical frame of the study. Hypotheses were formulated to provide basis for ...
Major topics studied were on communicable diseases (22%), environmental health (11%), demography/family planning (10%), nutrition (9%), pharmacy & drug testing (8%) using quantitative methods (86%). Conclusion: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences served its primary purpose providing scientific and technological ...
Perley, Cathy M; Gentry, Camillia A; Fleming, A Sue; Sen, Kristin M
The research sought to provide evidence to support the development of a long-term strategy for the Via Christi Regional Medical Center Libraries. An information needs assessment was conducted in a large medical center serving approximately 5,900 physicians, clinicians, and nonclinical staff in 4 sites in 1 Midwestern city. Quantitative and qualitative data from 1,295 self-reporting surveys, 75 telephone interviews, and 2 focus groups were collected and analyzed to address 2 questions: how could the libraries best serve their patrons, given realistic limitations on time, resources, and personnel, and how could the libraries best help their institution improve patient care and outcomes? Clinicians emphasized the need for "just in time" information accessible at the point of care. Library nonusers emphasized the need to market library services and resources. Both clinical and nonclinical respondents emphasized the need for information services customized to their professional information needs, preferences, and patterns of use. Specific information needs in the organization were identified. The results of this three-part, user-centered information needs assessment were used to develop an evidence-based strategic plan. The findings confirmed the importance of promoting library services in the organization and suggested expanded, collaborative roles for hospital librarians.
Perley, Cathy M.; Gentry, Camillia A.; Fleming, A. Sue; Sen, Kristin M.
Purpose: The research sought to provide evidence to support the development of a long-term strategy for the Via Christi Regional Medical Center Libraries. Methods: An information needs assessment was conducted in a large medical center serving approximately 5,900 physicians, clinicians, and nonclinical staff in 4 sites in 1 Midwestern city. Quantitative and qualitative data from 1,295 self-reporting surveys, 75 telephone interviews, and 2 focus groups were collected and analyzed to address 2 questions: how could the libraries best serve their patrons, given realistic limitations on time, resources, and personnel, and how could the libraries best help their institution improve patient care and outcomes? Results: Clinicians emphasized the need for “just in time” information accessible at the point of care. Library nonusers emphasized the need to market library services and resources. Both clinical and nonclinical respondents emphasized the need for information services customized to their professional information needs, preferences, and patterns of use. Specific information needs in the organization were identified. Discussion/Conclusions: The results of this three-part, user-centered information needs assessment were used to develop an evidence-based strategic plan. The findings confirmed the importance of promoting library services in the organization and suggested expanded, collaborative roles for hospital librarians. PMID:17443250
Durso, Francis T; Johnson, Brian R; Crutchfield, Jerry M
In an effort to determine the information needs of tower air traffic controllers, instructors from the Federal Aviation Administration's Academy in Oklahoma City were asked to control traffic in a high-fidelity tower cab simulator. Information requests were made apparent by eliminating access to standard tower information sources. Instead, controllers were required to ask for precisely the information they needed during the scenarios. The information requests were classified using an elaboration of Zwaan and Radvansky's (1998) dimensions of situation models. The vast majority of requests were about three of the dimensions originally developed for reading comprehension: the protagonist, intentionality, and space. The information requests were also classified into 28 operational categories (e.g., aircraft identification, destination). From these results, the data were summarized, not just statistically, but by the creation of display-hypotheses. The display-hypotheses were organized according to the situation-model dimensions. Controllers preferred data blocks organized by the situation-model principle over those that violated this organization. The summary display-hypotheses were quite simple and accounted for the vast majority of the information requests controllers made. The display-hypotheses accounted for the information needs of controllers during routine as well as off-nominal events. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Beaver, Kinta; Bogg, Janet; Luker, Karen A.
OBJECTIVE: An exploratory study has been carried out to examine decision-making role preferences and information needs for a sample of people with colorectal cancer (n=48). The work replicated a larger study carried out for women with breast cancer (n=150), and this paper compares and contrasts findings for both disease groups. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design was employed, involving structured interviews. The main variables investigated were decision-making preference (using a decisional role preference card sort), perceived decisional role and information need (using an information needs questionnaire). RESULTS: The majority (78%) of the colorectal cancer patients preferred to play a passive role in decision making, in contrast to 52% of women with breast cancer in previous work. Eighty per cent of the colorectal sample and 61% of the women with breast cancer perceived that the doctor had made treatment decisions. Priority information needs for both groups related to cure, spread of disease and treatment options. CONCLUSIONS: The two most striking findings from the comparison between the two disease groups relate to the differences in decision-making role preferences and the similarities in information needs. The process of involving people with colorectal cancer in treatment decision making warrants further investigation. The similarity in information needs of the two disease groups has implications for health care professionals providing information to people with cancer.
Beaver, Kinta; Bogg, Janet; Luker, Karen A.
Objective An exploratory study has been carried out to examine decision‐making role preferences and information needs for a sample of people with colorectal cancer (n=48). The work replicated a larger study carried out for women with breast cancer (n=150), and this paper compares and contrasts findings for both disease groups. Design A cross‐sectional design was employed, involving structured interviews. The main variables investigated were decision‐making preference (using a decisional role preference card sort), perceived decisional role and information need (using an information needs questionnaire). Results The majority (78%) of the colorectal cancer patients preferred to play a passive role in decision making, in contrast to 52% of women with breast cancer in previous work. Eighty per cent of the colorectal sample and 61% of the women with breast cancer perceived that the doctor had made treatment decisions. Priority information needs for both groups related to cure, spread of disease and treatment options. Conclusions The two most striking findings from the comparison between the two disease groups relate to the differences in decision‐making role preferences and the similarities in information needs. The process of involving people with colorectal cancer in treatment decision making warrants further investigation. The similarity in information needs of the two disease groups has implications for health care professionals providing information to people with cancer. PMID:11281903
The results of studies conducted in the last 5 years in Poland formed the basis for the assumption that amongst many needs an individual or a Polish household seeks to satisfy, the need to provide for security in old age takes a prominent position. Determining the position of this need among other needs as defined in Schrab's classification…
P du Rand
Full Text Available The frail elderly in informal settlements find themselves in an extremely vulnerable position due to a number of factors, namely, their increasing dependency status, limited resources and adverse physical environment. Various aspects that influence the aged in their present environment will be highlighted. A survey method was used to explore and to describe the world in which they live in informal areas. The attitude, expectation and needs of the elderly in respect of their care was also determined. A random cluster sample was taken. Data was collected by means of interviews in terms of a semi-structured questionnaire. It appears that the frail elderly were happy in the environment in which they received care in spite of their unfavourable physical environment and limited resources. The communities where the frail elderly lived were largely unaware of the valuable inputs they can make regarding the care of the aged. This necessitates the development of programs in the heart of communities, owned by communities, where all role players in the care of the aged participate.
Lillebo, Børge; Seim, Andreas; Faxvaag, Arild
Perioperative work requires the collaborative efforts of a multitude of actors. Coordinating such collaboration is challenging, and coordination breakdowns may be very expensive and jeopardize patient safety. We studied the needs for status information and projection of future status and events for key actors in the perioperative environment. We found that information and projection needs differed significantly between actors. While just-in-time notifications sufficed for some, others were dependent on projections to provide high quality and efficient care. Finally, information on current status and support in projecting the future unfolding of events could improve actors situated coordination capabilities.
However, few trained information specialists, inadequate information infrastructures and funds characterize most libraries in the country. At the same time the majority of the patrons are not information literate, lack the ability to select, reject and use information using the appropriate information technologies .The information ...
at the same period, staff performance were not desirable in some processes and/or sub-processes. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the educational needs of family health providers in 6 task processes and prioritized them according to their views. Regular and comprehensive educational needs assessments are required to revise staff training programs, in order to give quality services to general population.
Full Text Available The University of Northern British Columbia’s Geoffrey R. Weller Library can boast of a healthy and stable reference service. While statistical analysis reveals that patron use of this service is on the decline, this is not unlike current trends experienced by many libraries today. The library averages a total of 6300 reference transactions per year, a significant number for a small, research-intensive university serving 3500 FTE. The unanswered question is why are the numbers dropping? One theory is that providing research and reference assistance in a traditional manner is affecting the number of transactions. Reference service is traditionally provided in a stationary manner, whereby patrons are required to visit the reference desk of their own volition. Recognizing that a stationary librarian cannot reach a stationary patron, UNBC library began an innovative roaming reference pilot project in September, 2010. Combining the power of wireless networks, tablet computing and chat services, 5 librarians provided point-of-need, face-to-face and virtual reference services during peak reference hours over the fall 2010 semester. This article outlines the project and technologies employed to make it happen (iPad, apps, instant messaging widgets and wireless networks.
Taiwo Adeleke, Ibrahim; Hakeem Lawal, Adedeji; Adetona Adio, Razzaq; Adisa Adebisi, AbdulLateef
There is a lack of effective health information management systems in Nigeria due to the prevalence of cumbersome paper-based and disjointed health data management systems. This can make informed healthcare decision making difficult. This study examined the information technology (IT) skills, utilisation and training needs of Nigerian health information management professionals. We deployed a cross-sectional structured questionnaire to determine the IT skills and training needs of health information management professionals who have leadership roles in the nation's healthcare information systems (n=374). It was found that ownership of a computer, level of education and age were associated with knowledge and perception of IT. The vast majority of participants (98.8%) acknowledged the importance and relevance of IT in healthcare information systems and many expressed a desire for further IT training, especially in statistical analysis. Despite this, few (8.1 %) worked in settings where such systems operate and there exists an IT skill gap among these professionals which is not compatible with their roles in healthcare information systems. To rectify this anomaly they require continuing professional development education, especially in the areas of health IT. Government intervention in the provision of IT infrastructure in order to put into practice a computerised healthcare information system would therefore be a worthwhile undertaking.
Tolnai, Sandra; Dolležal, Lena-Vanessa; Klump, Georg M
Informational masking (IM) describes the insensitivity of detecting a change in sound features in a complex acoustical environment when such a change could easily be detected in the absence of distracting sounds. IM occurs because of the similarity between deviant sound and distracting sounds (so-called similarity-based IM) and/or stimulus uncertainty stemming from trial-to-trial variability (so-called uncertainty-based IM). IM can be abolished if similarity-based or uncertainty-based IM are minimized. Here, we modulated similarity-based IM using binaural cues. Standard/deviant tones and distracting tones were presented sequentially, and level-increment thresholds were measured. Deviant tones differed from standard tones by a higher sound level. Distracting tones covered a wide range of levels. Standard/deviant tones and distracting tones were characterized by their interaural time difference (ITD), interaural level difference (ILD), or both ITD and ILD. The larger the ITD or ILD was, the better similarity-based IM was overcome. If both interaural differences were applied to standard/deviant tones, the release from IM was larger than when either interaural difference was used. The results show that binaural cues are potent cues to abolish similarity-based IM and that the auditory system makes use of multiple available cues. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Objective: Setting research priorities in the research management cycle is a key. It is important to set the research priorities to make optimal use of scarce resources. The aim of this research was to determine the research needs of Health Insurance Organization based on its health care centers research needs.Methods: This is a qualitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2011. A purposeful sample of 60 participants from 14 hospitals, seven dispensaries, five dental clinics, two rehabilitation centers, four radiology centers, six medical diagnostic laboratories, 12 pharmacies, and 20 medical offices that were contracted with the Health Insurance Organization in Iran was interviewed. The framework analysis method (a qualitative research method was used for analysis of interviews. Atlas-Ti software was used to analyze quantitative data, respectively. The topics were prioritized using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method through Expert Choice software.Results: Based on the problems extracted in our qualitative study, 12 research topics were proposed by the experts. Among these “Design of standard treatment protocols,” “Designing model of ranking the health care centers under contract,” and “Pathology of payment system” took the priority ranks of 1 to 3, earning the scores of 0.44, 0.42, and 0.37, respectively.Conclusion: Considering limited resources and unlimited needs and to prevent research resource wasting, conducting research related to health care providers in the Health Insurance Organization can help it achieve its goals.
Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Cowan, Frances M; Busza, Joanna; Bolton-Moore, Carolyn; Kelley, Karen; Fairlie, Lee
Adolescence is a time of physical, emotional and social transitions that have implications for health. In addition to being at high risk for HIV, young key populations (YKP) may experience other health problems attributable to high-risk behaviour or their developmental stage, or a combination of both. We reviewed the needs, barriers and gaps for other non-HIV health services for YKP. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles that provided specific age-related data on sexual and reproductive health; mental health; violence; and substance use problems for adolescent, youth or young sex workers, men who have sex with men, transgender people, and people who inject drugs. YKP experience more unprotected sex, sexually transmitted infections including HIV, unintended pregnancy, violence, mental health disorders and substance use compared to older members of key populations and youth among the general population. YKP experience significant barriers to accessing care; coverage of services is low, largely because of stigma and discrimination experienced at both the health system and policy levels. YKP require comprehensive, integrated services that respond to their specific developmental needs, including health, educational and social services within the context of a human rights-based approach. The recent WHO Consolidated Guidelines on HIV Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care for Key Populations are an important first step for a more comprehensive approach to HIV programming for YKP, but there are limited data on the effective delivery of combined interventions for YKP. Significant investments in research and implementation will be required to ensure adequate provision and coverage of services for YKP. In addition, greater commitments to harm reduction and rights-based approaches are needed to address structural barriers to access to care.
Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a time of physical, emotional and social transitions that have implications for health. In addition to being at high risk for HIV, young key populations (YKP may experience other health problems attributable to high-risk behaviour or their developmental stage, or a combination of both. Methods: We reviewed the needs, barriers and gaps for other non-HIV health services for YKP. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles that provided specific age-related data on sexual and reproductive health; mental health; violence; and substance use problems for adolescent, youth or young sex workers, men who have sex with men, transgender people, and people who inject drugs. Results: YKP experience more unprotected sex, sexually transmitted infections including HIV, unintended pregnancy, violence, mental health disorders and substance use compared to older members of key populations and youth among the general population. YKP experience significant barriers to accessing care; coverage of services is low, largely because of stigma and discrimination experienced at both the health system and policy levels. Discussion: YKP require comprehensive, integrated services that respond to their specific developmental needs, including health, educational and social services within the context of a human rights-based approach. The recent WHO Consolidated Guidelines on HIV Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care for Key Populations are an important first step for a more comprehensive approach to HIV programming for YKP, but there are limited data on the effective delivery of combined interventions for YKP. Significant investments in research and implementation will be required to ensure adequate provision and coverage of services for YKP. In addition, greater commitments to harm reduction and rights-based approaches are needed to address structural barriers to access to care.
The aim of this project was to identify the support required by registered nurses and unregistered healthcare support workers to provide palliative care for people with dementia in an acute hospital in England. A quantitative approach was taken and participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Data were collated and analysed to identify support needs and any emerging themes. Respondents were confident in identifying the different stages of dementia. There was less confidence in identifying a patient with dementia for palliative care referral compared with a patient without dementia. Further needs were identified by respondents in supporting the family/carer of the person with dementia and being aware of available support to facilitate palliative care for people with dementia and support for end of life care (EoLC) planning. The findings suggest that further work is required in relation to dementia and EoLC. Practical and educational collaboration with EoLC/palliative care practitioners and dementia leads would be beneficial.
Víctor CORCOBA MAGAÑA
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a solution to reduce the stress level of the driver, minimize fuel consumption and improve safety. The system analyzes the driving style and the driver’s workload during the trip while driving. If it discovers an area where the stress increases and the driving style is not appropriate from the point of view of energy efficiency and safety for a particular driver, the location of this area is saved in a shared database. On the other hand, the implemented solution warns a particular user when approaching a region where the driving is difficult (high fuel consumption and stress using the shared database based on previous recorded knowledge of similar drivers in that area. In this case, the proposal provides an optimal deceleration profile if the vehicle speed is not adequate. Therefore, he or she may adjust the vehicle speed with both a positive impact on the driver workload and fuel consumption. The Data Envelopment Analysis algorithm is used to estimate the efficiency of driving and the driver’s workload in in each area. We employ this method because there is no preconceived form on the data in order to calculate the efficiency and stress level. A validation experiment has been conducted using both a driving simulator and a real environment with 12 participants who made 168 driving tests. The system reduced the slowdowns (38%, heart rate (4.70%, and fuel consumption (12.41% in the real environment. The proposed solution is implemented on Android mobile devices and does not require the installation of infrastructure on the road. It can be installed on any model of vehicle.
Gillis, M D
Canada's current National Forest Inventory is a periodic compilation of existing inventory material from across the country. While the current approach has many advantages, it lacks information on the nature and rate of changes to the resource, and does not permit projections or forecasts. Being a compilation of inventories of different dates, the current national forest inventory cannot reflect the current state of the forests and therefore cannot be used as a satisfactory baseline for monitoring change. The current format of Canada's National Forest Inventory has served its purpose by providing national statistical compilations and reporting. However, its useful life is coming to a conclusion. To meet new demands, Canada is considering a new National Forest Inventory design consisting of a plot-based system of permanent observational units located on a national grid. The objective of the new inventory design is to assess and monitor the extent, state and sustainability of Canada's forests in a timely and accurate manner. Details of the new inventory design are described. A strategy to respond to Canada's national and international forest reporting commitments through a National Forest Information System is also discussed.
Kaufmann, J O; Smit, J W; Huisman, W; Idema, R N; Bakker, E; Giordano, P C
After a first survey in 2001, the Dutch Association of Hematological Laboratory Research (VHL) advised its members to adopt a basic protocol for haemoglobinopathy carrier detection and to provide genetic information with all positive results to allow health-care professionals to inform carriers about potential genetic risks. This article reports on the compliance with these recommendations and their consequences. Clinical chemists of all 106 Dutch laboratories were invited to answer a survey on patient population, diagnostic techniques used, (self-reported) knowledge, use and effect of the additional information. The average increase in diagnostic output was over 60% and the recommended basic protocol was applied by 65% of the laboratories. Over 84% of the laboratories reported to be aware of the additional recommendations and 77% to be using them. Most laboratories with limited diagnostic requests were still sending their cases to other laboratories and included the genetic information received from these laboratories in their diagnostic reports. The effect of information on subsequent 'family analysis' was estimated to be between 26 and 50%. The present study shows an increase in diagnostic potential for haemoglobinopathy over the last decade, especially in the larger cities. Low 'family testing' rates were mostly found in areas with lower carrier prevalence or associated with local reluctance to pass the information to carriers. In spite of a dramatic improvement, too many carriers are still not informed because of lack of awareness among health-care providers and more education is needed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lee, Kenneth; Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeffery David; Emmerton, Lynne M
The Internet provides a platform to access health information and support self-management by consumers with chronic health conditions. Despite recognized barriers to accessing Web-based health information, there is a lack of research quantitatively exploring whether consumers report difficulty finding desired health information on the Internet and whether these consumers would like assistance (ie, navigational needs). Understanding navigational needs can provide a basis for interventions guiding consumers to quality Web-based health resources. We aimed to (1) estimate the proportion of consumers with navigational needs among seekers of Web-based health information with chronic health conditions, (2) describe Web-based health information-seeking behaviors, level of patient activation, and level of eHealth literacy among consumers with navigational needs, and (3) explore variables predicting navigational needs. A questionnaire was developed based on findings from a qualitative study on Web-based health information-seeking behaviors and navigational needs. This questionnaire also incorporated the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS; a measure of self-perceived eHealth literacy) and PAM-13 (a measure of patient activation). The target population was consumers of Web-based health information with chronic health conditions. We surveyed a sample of 400 Australian adults, with recruitment coordinated by Qualtrics. This sample size was required to estimate the proportion of consumers identified with navigational needs with a precision of 4.9% either side of the true population value, with 95% confidence. A subsample was invited to retake the survey after 2 weeks to assess the test-retest reliability of the eHEALS and PAM-13. Of 514 individuals who met our eligibility criteria, 400 (77.8%) completed the questionnaire and 43 participants completed the retest. Approximately half (51.3%; 95% CI 46.4-56.2) of the population was identified with navigational needs. Participants with
Rangraz Jeddi F.* PhD,
Full Text Available Aims Hospital information system may offer a way to increased self-care management. The aim of this study was to determine the patients’ informational needs for self-care management and evaluation of different HIS software according to these needs. Materials & Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was done during 2011-2012 in Kashan City, Iran at two phases; compiling the required information, and evaluation. The questionnaire items were discussed in three conversation sessions with 20 faculty members by Delphi technique. 15 HIS software provider companies in Iran were selected purposefully and 2 hospitals from each company were participated in the study. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software using Chi-square test. Findings 7 items in the health protection dimension were covered by HIS software; “Need to consult with attending physicians”, “Length of disease duration”, “Diagnostic and treatment cost resource”, “Different treatment approach”, “Convenient information recourses”, “Offer good information resources”, and “Prognosis”. No item of health promotion dimension were supported by any HIS software. 6 items in the health maintenance dimension were covered completely by all HIS software; “Blood Sugar”, “hct”, “hb”, “Blood Group Type”, “CBC/Diff”, and “Electrolytes”. Conclusion Present HIS software can not meet the self-care management informational needs of recently discharged patients and should be improved.
This Thesis focuses on improving the information flow regarding customer needs from Marine segments to the Electrical Engineering department. The case company provides its services for Land and Marine applications all over the world – either as turnkey or instrument deliveries. End-customer delivery projects tend to vary significantly from each other due to local regulations and customer specifications. Therefore, the case company needs to deliver a unique system for each End-customer individ...
Rasmussen, Laura Vang; Mertz, Ole; Rasmussen, Kjeld
There has been an increasing focus on providing better weather, climate, and resource information for decision making in drylands. This study explores what kind of information pastoralists in the Sahel received in 2013 and how they responded to this information. Moreover, the study assesses whether...... the disseminated information corresponds to the actual needs of pastoralists. The overall objective is thus to identify the outcome of providing weather, climate, and resource information to pastoralists and thereby to explore whether and how various products may guide their mobility and decision-making patterns....... The results show that few of the interviewed pastoralists receive the seasonal rainfall forecasts, which have been produced since 1998 by the Climate Outlook Forum for West Africa. The pastoralists who did receive the forecasts used the information to adjust their crop cultivation strategies rather than...
Full Text Available This investigation seeks to address two issues: first, to discover if there is evidence that university students in foundational language courses need information resources to support their language learning and second, if such evidence exists, what the specific information resource needs might be and how important those resources are to students’ language learning. After engaging in a year of foreign language study, the author used the evidence gathered to develop and conduct a survey of the user needs of language students at the Self Access Centre (CAADI of the University of Guanajuato, Mexico. Results of the survey supported the personal learning experiences of the author. Over 80% of students surveyed reported using the information resources in the CAADI at least once a week with general grammar books, course text books and films being reported as the most important resources. This investigation provides a starting point for research in to the collection development practices of academic libraries supporting the learning of foreign languages. By examining the information needs of one population, evidence has been provided that these students do indeed need information resources to support their language learning. The study suggests specific resource types that could be important for these users.
Petrosky, Charlie (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID); Kinney, William J. (Washington Department of Fishereis, Olympia, WA); Rowe, Mike (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID)
Successful application of adaptive management to rebuilding the Columbia Basin`s anadromous fish resources requires that available information and experience be organized and shared between numerous organizations and individuals. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin`s collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases and recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognize these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project is now completing the process of scoping and identification of information needs. Construction of prototype systems will begin in 1992. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information on System scoping and needs identification phase.
Ranade-Kharkar, Pallavi; Weir, Charlene; Norlin, Chuck; Collins, Sarah A; Scarton, Lou Ann; Baker, Gina B; Borbolla, Damian; Taliercio, Vanina; Del Fiol, Guilherme
Identify and describe information needs and associated goals of physicians, care coordinators, and families related to coordinating care for medically complex children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN). We conducted 19 in-depth interviews with physicians, care coordinators, and parents of CYSHCN following the Critical Decision Method technique. We analyzed the interviews for information needs posed as questions using a systematic content analysis approach and categorized the questions into information need goal types and subtypes. The Critical Decision Method interviews resulted in an average of 80 information needs per interview. We categorized them into 6 information need goal types: (1) situation understanding, (2) care networking, (3) planning, (4) tracking/monitoring, (5) navigating the health care system, and (6) learning, and 32 subtypes. Caring for CYSHCN generates a large amount of information needs that require significant effort from physicians, care coordinators, parents, and various other individuals. CYSHCN are often chronically ill and face developmental challenges that translate into intense demands on time, effort, and resources. Care coordination for CYCHSN involves multiple information systems, specialized resources, and complex decision-making. Solutions currently offered by health information technology fall short in providing support to meet the information needs to perform the complex care coordination tasks. Our findings present significant opportunities to improve coordination of care through multifaceted and fully integrated informatics solutions.
Valero-Aguilera, Beatriz; Bermúdez-Tamayo, Clara; García-Gutiérrez, José Francisco; Jiménez-Pernett, Jaime; Cózar-Olmo, José Manuel; Guerrero-Tejada, Rosario; Alba-Ruiz, Rubén
This study aims to describe the information needs of urological and breast cancer patients and factors related to use of the Internet as a source of health information. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out, using individual questionnaire-based interviews held during the oncology appointments of 169 patients with urological cancer and 100 with breast cancer at the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital in Granada, Spain. The variables studied were use of the Internet as a source of health information, health status, patient's role in the decision-making process, information sources, satisfaction with the health-care system, type of information received, and Internet use. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out. Breast cancer patients are more concerned with long-term results and the effects on their family and personal life. They are also interested in the experiences of other patients and support groups or staff who could help them to cope with their illness. The information needs of patients with urological cancer are linked to short-term alternative treatments, their sex life, keeping healthy, and exercise. More clinical aspects, such as tests and experiments linked to their treatment, are not a frequent information need. The factors linked to use of the Internet as a source of health information are younger age, high level of education, the patient's active role in the decision-making process, and undergoing more aggressive treatment. There is no link between using the Internet as a source of health information and level of satisfaction with the health-care system, or with Internet use in general. Patients need additional information about their illness on top of that given to them by health-care staff, and they often use the Internet to find it. The greatest information need is related to the effects of their illness on their day-to-day life. Health-care staff should provide patients with advice about reliable websites and
Black, Betty S; Brandt, Jason; Rabins, Peter V; Samus, Quincy M; Steele, Cynthia D; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Rosenblatt, Adam
This study's goal was to identify factors associated with providing either informed consent or assent for research in individuals at high risk for cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional baseline data were used to identify predictors of consent or assent status. The study was conducted at 22 assisted living facilities in Maryland. A stratified random sample of 198 assisted living residents participated in the study. Residents' consent or assent status was documented as providing informed consent, written assent, or verbal assent/no objection. Potential predictors included residents' demographic characteristics, measures of physical and mental health status, and neuropsychological test performance. Most participants provided written assent (32.8%) or verbal assent/no objection (30.3%) rather than informed consent (36.9%). Although many resident characteristics correlated with consent or assent status based on bivariate analyses, few variables distinguished those who provided written assent from those in the verbal assent/no objection group. On the basis of multiple discriminant analysis, the best predictors of consent or assent status were Mini-Mental State Exam scores, impairments in instrumental activities of daily living, and dementia diagnosis, which together classified correctly 63.6% of residents. The relatively small proportion of participants who could provide informed consent highlights the importance of assessing decisional capacity for research in a high-risk population and identifying an appropriate surrogate decision maker to provide proxy consent if needed. Consensus on how to define assent is lacking, and specific measures of assent capabilities are needed to better characterize the assent capacity continuum.
Rosa Schleenbecker; Ulrich Hamm
This research investigates what information German Fairtrade coffee consumers search for during pre-purchase information seeking and to what extent information is retrieved. Furthermore, the sequence of the information search as well as the degree of cognitive involvement is highlighted. The role of labeling, the importance of additional ethical information and its quality in terms of concreteness as well as the importance of product price and organic origin are addressed. A set of informatio...
Full Text Available Rare diseases by definition do not occur often and it is difficult to provide palliative care for those affected due to the lack of information and treatment for those rare diseases. The families of those with rare diseases bear a heavy burden and have a harder time than even the families of disabled people. This research’s goal is to provide the families of those with rare diseases with information on how to provide care for their family members. The study uses the qualitative research method of semi-structured interview. We interviewed 10 rare disease children and adolescents’ primary caregivers. The results of the study indicated that if no one suffers from the rare diseases in their family, primary caregivers are not aware of the rare disease information. After their initial diagnosis, the caregivers will want to know how to best care for their family member, from how best to provide supportive care to providing physical therapy, in order to improve their quality of life and prognosis. When they discover their child’s disease is incurable, primary caregivers need information about social welfare and their child’s future. The main source of medical care information is provided by hospitals and patient-support organizations. Regarding information behavior, primary caregivers employ the information which they obtain and they either check the information they obtain with a professional authority, multiple sources, or compare it with patient experience to validate if the information is accurate or not. Finally, primary caregivers are glad to share what they find with other families that have children with a rare disease. They may use different ways of sharing information such as the Internet or face to face. [Article content in Chinese
Mora, E.; Gemmani, M.; Zayas-Castro, J.
Summary Background Important barriers to health information exchange (HIE) adoption are clinical workflow disruptions and troubles with the system interface. Prior research suggests that HIE interfaces providing faster access to useful information may stimulate use and reduce barriers for adoption; however, little is known about informational needs of hospitalists. Objective To study the association between patient health problems and the type of information requested from outside healthcare providers by hospitalists of a tertiary care hospital. Methods We searched operational data associated with fax-based exchange of patient information (previous HIE implementation) between hospitalists of an internal medicine department in a large urban tertiary care hospital in Florida, and any other affiliated and unaffiliated healthcare provider. All hospitalizations from October 2011 to March 2014 were included in the search. Strong association rules between health problems and types of information requested during each hospitalization were discovered using Apriori algorithm, which were then validated by a team of hospitalists of the same department. Results Only 13.7% (2 089 out of 15 230) of the hospitalizations generated at least one request of patient information to other providers. The transactional data showed 20 strong association rules between specific health problems and types of information exist. Among the 20 rules, for example, abdominal pain, chest pain, and anaemia patients are highly likely to have medical records and outside imaging results requested. Other health conditions, prone to have records requested, were lower urinary tract infection and back pain patients. Conclusions The presented list of strong co-occurrence of health problems and types of information requested by hospitalists from outside healthcare providers not only informs the implementation and design of HIE, but also helps to target future research on the impact of having access to outside
Martinez, D A; Mora, E; Gemmani, M; Zayas-Castro, J
Important barriers to health information exchange (HIE) adoption are clinical workflow disruptions and troubles with the system interface. Prior research suggests that HIE interfaces providing faster access to useful information may stimulate use and reduce barriers for adoption; however, little is known about informational needs of hospitalists. To study the association between patient health problems and the type of information requested from outside healthcare providers by hospitalists of a tertiary care hospital. We searched operational data associated with fax-based exchange of patient information (previous HIE implementation) between hospitalists of an internal medicine department in a large urban tertiary care hospital in Florida, and any other affiliated and unaffiliated healthcare provider. All hospitalizations from October 2011 to March 2014 were included in the search. Strong association rules between health problems and types of information requested during each hospitalization were discovered using Apriori algorithm, which were then validated by a team of hospitalists of the same department. Only 13.7% (2 089 out of 15 230) of the hospitalizations generated at least one request of patient information to other providers. The transactional data showed 20 strong association rules between specific health problems and types of information exist. Among the 20 rules, for example, abdominal pain, chest pain, and anaemia patients are highly likely to have medical records and outside imaging results requested. Other health conditions, prone to have records requested, were lower urinary tract infection and back pain patients. The presented list of strong co-occurrence of health problems and types of information requested by hospitalists from outside healthcare providers not only informs the implementation and design of HIE, but also helps to target future research on the impact of having access to outside information for specific patient cohorts. Our data
Waggoner, Phyllis A.
The prime function of a special library is the correlation of all aspects of patron needs, coupled with extensive knowledge of the parent organization. Business librarians should be alert to their role as facilitators, and routing sheets are an example of internally generated information distribution. Feedback from employees can also provide the…
Conclusion: CCWs were motivated and proud of their contribution to TB patient management and the education they provided to patients and to lay community members. Ongoing training was identified as a need, along with access to quality information materials to improve their knowledge and facilitate patient counselling.
Lewis, Elise C.
This study was designed to explore the relationships between users and interactive images. Three factors were identified and provided different perspectives on how users interact with images: image utility, information-need, and images with varying levels of interactivity. The study used a mixed methodology to gain a more comprehensive…
Lynda M. Baker
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the information behavior of female police officers involved in undercover prostitution work. Seven Vice Officers were interviewed during the summer of 2003 and two were observed during one decoy operation. The model, Information Seeking of Professionals, provided the framework for understanding their needs within the context of their role as decoys. The results revealed that the officers need a variety of information and start seeking it before they transfer to the Vice Unit. Their work demands the use several methods of informal communication, including signals and dress code. Information sources include the men who solicit their services, the female sex workers with whom they share space, members of the community, and their fellow officers who are responsible for protecting their lives.
Pediatric information seeking behaviour, information needs, and information preferences of health care professionals in general emergency departments: Results from the Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids (TREKK) Needs Assessment.
Scott, Shannon D; Albrecht, Lauren; Given, Lisa M; Hartling, Lisa; Johnson, David W; Jabbour, Mona; Klassen, Terry P
The majority of children requiring emergency care are treated in general emergency departments (EDs) with variable levels of pediatric care expertise. The goal of the Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids (TREKK) initiative is to implement the latest research in pediatric emergency medicine in general EDs to reduce clinical variation. To determine national pediatric information needs, seeking behaviours, and preferences of health care professionals working in general EDs. An electronic cross-sectional survey was conducted with health care professionals in 32 Canadian general EDs. Data were collected in the EDs using the iPad and in-person data collectors. Total of 1,471 surveys were completed (57.1% response rate). Health care professionals sought information on children's health care by talking to colleagues (n=1,208, 82.1%), visiting specific medical/health websites (n=994, 67.7%), and professional development opportunities (n=941, 64.4%). Preferred child health resources included protocols and accepted treatments for common conditions (n=969, 68%), clinical pathways and practice guidelines (n=951, 66%), and evidence-based information on new diagnoses and treatments (n=866, 61%). Additional pediatric clinical information is needed about multisystem trauma (n=693, 49%), severe head injury (n=615, 43%), and meningitis (n=559, 39%). Health care professionals preferred to receive child health information through professional development opportunities (n=1,131, 80%) and printed summaries (n=885, 63%). By understanding health care professionals' information seeking behaviour, information needs, and information preferences, knowledge synthesis and knowledge translation initiatives can be targeted to improve pediatric emergency care. The findings from this study will inform the following two phases of the TREKK initiative to bridge the research-practice gap in Canadian general EDs.
Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In a visionary future, Human-Computer Interaction HCI and Information Management IM have the potential to enable humans to better manage their lives through the use...
Broos, Elizabeth; Cronje, Johannes C.
Dealing effectively with information and communication technology in the information society is a complex task and the human dimension is often under-estimated. This paper tries to give a voice to some managers about their experiences with information, communication and technology in their working environment, which involves participating in a…
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a major factor in shaping a new global economy and producing rapid changes in society. In order to function in this new world economy, students and their teachers have to learn to deal with large amount of information. This entails the analysis of such information and ...
Turturro, A. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)
The manner in which the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) uses information resources comprises an interesting illustration of federal agency information use. A description of the context in which risk assessment occurs within the FDA is followed by a discussion of information access and use, as well as a practical example.
The study recommends that the hospital management should liaise with the library of the adjacent College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan to design appropriate information literacy and information and communication technology training programmes to improve the nurses' information seeking behaviour and use.
Chanturidze, Tata; Obermann, Konrad
Governance in health is cited as one of the key factors in balancing the concerns of the government and public sector with the interests of civil society/private players, but often remains poorly described and operationalized. Richard Saltman and Antonio Duran look at two aspects in the search for new provider models in a context of health markets signalling liberalisation: (i) the role of the government to balance public and private interests and responsibilities in delivering care through modernised governance arrangements, and (ii) the finding that operational complexities may hinder well-designed provider governance models, unless governance reflects country-specific realities. This commentary builds on the discussion by Saltman and Duran, and argues that the concept of governance needs to be clearly defined and operationalized in order to be helpful for policy debate as well as for the development of an applicable framework for performance improvement. It provides a working definition of governance and includes a reflection on the prevailing cultural norms in an organization or society upon which any governance needs to be build. It proposes to explore whether the "evidence-based governance" concept can be introduced to generate knowledge about innovative and effective governance models, and concludes that studies similar to the one by Saltman and Duran can inform this debate. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
Huang, X; Butow, P; Meiser, B; Goldstein, D
The information needs of ethnic minorities often differ from that of the dominant culture, leading to dissatisfaction among both patients and health professionals. This research project aims to identify attitudes towards cancer and associated information and communication needs of Chinese patients and their relatives in Sydney, thereby providing a framework for the provision of culturally appropriate cancer care for Chinese-Australians. A qualitative data collection strategy was selected as the most appropriate method, because no validated measures are available and no previous research has examined attitudes and needs of Chinese-Australian cancer patients. Patients were recruited from three major teaching hospitals in Sydney and from a Chinese cancer support organisation. Sampling was discontinued when informational redundancy was achieved. Four focus groups and 26 individual telephone interviews were conducted with a total of 36 cancer patients and 12 relatives born in China, Singapore and Malaysia. While individual differences were observed, a majority view was expressed on a range of issues. Non-disclosure of a poor prognosis was favoured, and the role of the family in liaising between health professionals and the patient was emphasised. Patients preferred a confident and clear diagnosis and treatment recommendation. Most patients wished to incorporate Chinese culture-specific treatments into their care. The need for interpreters and psychological and spiritual support was emphasised. Providing information in a culturally sensitive manner will assist doctors in providing optimum care and support for ethnic minority groups in this country.
This study has demonstrated that although an information need could trigger off an information activity, the subsequent information processes could only be sustained by the value of information. The value of information is therefore the core category, while the moderation of constraints and interaction with sources for latent ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the relatively sudden change from learner to teacher-provider that new consultants experience and the likely clinical and managerial challenges this may pose, there is a relative dearth of research into the problems they may have in relation to their new roles, or how supported they feel by senior colleagues acting in a mentoring role. This research sought to determine new consultants views on the quality and relevance of their training, its relationship to their confidence in clinical and managerial skills and their views on mentorship by senior colleagues. Methods Detailed postal questionnaire to new consultants using open and closed questions. Open questionnaire to established consultants to validate new consultant responses. Results Respondents felt their clinical training was good and were generally confident in most clinical skills although some perceived deficiencies in more complex procedures and specialist areas. Most lacked confidence in many managerial skills. These perceptions were verified by established consultants. Although no relationship was found between total training time or quality of training with confidence, extra training in specific sub-specialities improved confidence in these areas. While most established consultants thought that mentorship would be useful for new consultants, only 52% of them shared this view. Conclusion Training and experience in management should be given greater emphasis. There may be a need for specific, targeted training in complex procedures for doctors who experience lack of confidence in these areas. Mentorship should be offered to new consultants and recognised in the job-plan of the new consultant contract.
Cox, Cheryl L; Zhu, Liang; Ojha, Rohit P; Li, Chenghong; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Riley, Barth B; Hudson, Melissa M; Robison, Les L
This study describes the prevalence and predisposing factors for potentially modifiable unmet emotional, care/support, and information needs among adult survivors of childhood malignancies. A randomly selected/stratified sample of participants in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) responded to the CCSS-Needs Assessment Questionnaire (CCSS-NAQ) (n = 1189; mean [SD] current age, 39.7 [7.7], range = 26-61 years; 60.9 % women; mean [SD] years since diagnosis, 31.6 [4.7]). Survivors self-reported demographic information, health concerns, and needs; diagnosis/treatment data were obtained from medical records. Adjusted proportional risk ratios (prevalence ratios, PRs) were used to evaluate 77 separate needs. Fifty-four percent of survivors reported unmet psycho-emotional, 41 % coping, and 35 % care/support needs; 51, 35, and 33 %, respectively, reported unmet information needs related to cancer/treatment, the health care system, and surveillance. Female sex and annual income cancer-related anxiety/fear was associated with all needs, including a >6-fold increased prevalence for help dealing with "worry" (PR = 6.06; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 3.79-9.69) and anxiety (PR = 6.10; 95 % CI, 3.82-9.72) and a >5-fold increased prevalence for "needing to move on with life" (PR = 5.56; 95 % CI, 3.34-9.25) and dealing with "uncertainty about the future" (PR = 5.50; 95 % CI, 3.44-8.77). Radiation exposure and perceived health status were related to 42 and 29 needs, respectively. Demographic factors, disease/treatment characteristics, and intrapersonal factors can be used to profile survivors' unmet emotional, care/support, and information needs. These data can be used to enhance provider-survivor communication, identify at-risk subsamples, and appraise core intervention content.
Kruglanski, Arie W.; Pierro, Antonio; Mannetti, Lucia; De Grada, Eraldo
Theory and research are presented relating the need for cognitive closure to major facets of group behavior. It is suggested that a high need for closure, whether it is based on members' disposition or the situation, contributes to the emergence of a behavioral syndrome describable as group-centrism--a pattern that includes pressures to opinion…
Liebherz, Sarah; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg; Tlach, Lisa
People with anxiety disorders are faced with treatment decisions considerably affecting their life. Patient decision aids are aimed at enabling patients to deliberate treatment options based on individual values and to participate in medical decisions. This is the first study to determine patients' information and decision-making needs as a pre-requisite for the development of patient decision aids for anxiety disorders. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted between January and April 2013 on the e-health portal http://www.psychenet.de by using a self-administered questionnaire with items on internet use, online health information needs, role in decision making and important treatment decisions. Descriptive and inferential statistical as well as qualitative data analyses were performed. A total of 60 people with anxiety disorders with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD 10.5) participated in the survey. The most prevalent reasons for online health information search were the need for general information on anxiety disorders, the search for a physician or psychiatrist and the insufficiency of information given by the healthcare provider. Respondents experienced less shared and more autonomous decisions than they preferred. They assessed decisions on psychotherapy, medication, and treatment setting (inpatient or outpatient) as the most difficult decisions. Our results confirm the importance of offering patient decision aids for people with anxiety disorders that encourage patients to participate in decision making by providing information about the pros and cons of evidence-based treatment options.
Pauer, Frédéric; Göbel, Jens; Storf, Holger; Litzkendorf, Svenja; Babac, Ana; Frank, Martin; Lührs, Verena; Schauer, Franziska; Schmidtke, Jörg; Biehl, Lisa; Wagner, Thomas Of; Ückert, Frank; Graf von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias; Hartz, Tobias
The European Union considers diseases to be rare when they affect less than 5 in 10,000 people. It is estimated that there are between 5000 and 8000 different rare diseases. Consistent with this diversity, the quality of information available on the Web varies considerably. Thus, quality criteria for websites about rare diseases are needed. The objective of this study was to generate a catalog of quality criteria suitable for rare diseases. First, relevant certificates and quality recommendations for health information websites were identified through a comprehensive Web search. Second, all considered quality criteria of each certification program and catalog were examined, extracted into an overview table, and analyzed by thematic content. Finally, an interdisciplinary expert group verified the relevant quality criteria. We identified 9 quality certificates and criteria catalogs for health information websites with 304 single criteria items. Through this, we aggregated 163 various quality criteria, each assigned to one of the following categories: thematic, technical, service, content, and legal. Finally, a consensus about 13 quality criteria for websites offering medical information on rare diseases was determined. Of these categories, 4 (data protection concept, imprint, creation and updating date, and possibility to contact the website provider) were identified as being the most important for publishing medical information about rare diseases. The large number of different quality criteria appearing within a relatively small number of criteria catalogs shows that the opinion of what is important in the quality of health information differs. In addition, to define useful quality criteria for websites about rare diseases, which are an essential source of information for many patients, a trade-off is necessary between the high standard of quality criteria for health information websites in general and the limited provision of information about some rare diseases
Ma, Xiaogang; Fox, Peter; Tilmes, Curt; Jacobs, Katherine; Waple, Anne
Global change information demands access to data sources and well-documented provenance to provide evidence needed to build confidence in scientific conclusions and, in specific applications, to ensure the information's suitability for use in decision-making. A new generation of Web technology, the Semantic Web, provides tools for that purpose. The topic of global change covers changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric composition and or chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life and support human systems. Data and findings associated with global change research are of great public, government, and academic concern and are used in policy and decision-making, which makes the provenance of global change information especially important. In addition, since different types of decisions benefit from different types of information, understanding how to capture and present the provenance of global change information is becoming more of an imperative in adaptive planning.
Full Text Available The rise of the information revolution has led to information becoming a major producer of wealth. This revolution has increased the importance of being able to access and utilize information from a variety of sources, including information published electronically. The Skills.net program was designed to increase electronic- information literacy skills by providing "free or low cost access to training in online services and the Internet for those in the community who are least likely to have access." (Cavill & Miller, 1998 This study found that the Skills.net program did increase electronic information literacy. However the program did not adequately address the accepted training needs of its participants and therefore was not as successful as it could have been.
Irish, D Elizabeth; Lyman, Deborah M; Squillace, Helen A; Geyer, Enid M; Cosgrove, Tammy D; Hagzan, Amanda; Leinung, Jill; Tosh, Traci
A successful partnership model between an academic health sciences library and a K-12 school district to provide librarians, nurses, and special education staff with access to health information to support special needs children and their parents is presented. Train-the-trainer staff sessions and a parent session were collaboratively developed. Funding support was used to purchase iPads for librarians and nurses to deliver mobile support. The results indicate the resources taught are being used to find health information and the school librarians and nurses are being sought after to assist in finding health information. Positive feedback from the school district indicates this model could be replicated in similar settings.
Kaplan, Alan L.; Lillich, Thomas T.
Use of the Application Transfer Study (ATS), a method of assessing information systems, to evaluate a dental school's information system is described, and its results are reported. It is concluded that the ATS was a worthwhile undertaking for both direct and indirect benefits derived from the analysis and the implementation of resulting…
Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology, Kano was established by the. Federal Government of .... utterances, gesture, anger, anxiety, eagerness reluctance, zeal, etc. portrayed by information user in his effort ... information seeking behaviour of students of the Federal College of Agricultural. Produce Technology ...
Most Tanzanian universities are expanding in terms of students and staff as well as increased subject areas in the curriculum. However, few trained information specialists, inadequate information infrastructures and funds characterize most libraries in the country. At the same time the majority of the patrons are not ...
de Vries, B.R.; Leenes, R.E.; Zeleznikow, J.; Zeleznikow, J.; Lodder, A.R.
However, in order to determine BATNAs online, we need a proper understanding of exactly what is a BATNA. This paper argues that current understanding of what comprises BATNAs is insufficient for the intended purposes.
James-Martin, G; Koczwara, B; Smith, E L; Miller, M D
While advanced cancer is often associated with weight loss, curative cancer treatment is often associated with weight gain. Weight gain during treatment may be associated with greater risk of cancer recurrence and development of lifestyle diseases. Currently, limited resources are available to cancer patients focussed on weight control. This study assessed the information needs of patients undergoing curative chemotherapy regarding diet, exercise and weight management for the purpose of developing weight management resources. Focus groups were held with oncology practitioners, patients and survivors to determine current information provision and needs. Focus groups highlighted a perception that information provision regarding diet, exercise and weight management is insufficient and no routine assessment of weight occurs during chemotherapy. Barriers to information provision described included lack of resources and time, and practitioners' uncertainty regarding appropriate messages to provide. Patients wanted more information regarding diet, exercise and weight during treatment time. The findings of this study suggest an increase in provision of diet, exercise and weight management information is needed. This information should be evidence-based and delivered at an appropriate time by the preferred health care professional. It would also be beneficial to implement protocols regarding assessment of weight during treatment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pierro, Antonio; Mannetti, Lucia; De Grada, Eraldo; Livi, Stefano; Kruglanski, Arie W
Two experiments investigated the tendency of groups with members under high (vs. low) need for cognitive closure to develop an autocratic leadership structure in which some members dominate the discussion, constitute the "hubs" of communication, and influence the group more than other members. The first experiment found that high (vs. low) need for closure groups, as assessed via dispositional measure of the need for closure, manifested greater asymmetry of conversational floor control, such that members with autocratic interactional style were more conversationally dominant and influential than less autocratic members. The second experiment manipulated the need for closure via time pressure and utilized a social network analysis. Consistent with expectation, groups under time pressure (vs. no pressure) showed a greater asymmetry of participation, of centrality, and of prestige among the group members, such that the more focal members were perceived to exert the greater influence over the groups' decisions.
More than two-thirds of NHS psychotherapy departments now use questionnaires in assessment of new patients. Their content is described for the first time. Most are primarily designed to gather biographical information but salient questions are frequently omitted. These questionnaires have suffered from being designed and used in isolation. Psychotherapy service providers need to consider how collaboration will enable questionnaires to be more effective during their assessments and to assist research into which historical factors are of greatest prognostic significance among newly referred patients.
Riotte, Clare O; Kukora, Stephanie K; Keefer, Patricia M; Firn, Janice I
Despite the number of interprofessional team members caring for children at the end of life, little evidence exists on how institutions can support their staff in providing care in these situations. We sought to evaluate which aspects of the hospital work environment were most helpful for multidisciplinary team members who care for patients at the end of life and identify areas for improvement to better address staff needs. Qualitative thematic analysis was completed of free-text comments from a survey distributed to interprofessional staff members involved in the care of a recently deceased pediatric patient. A total of 2701 surveys were sent; 890 completed. Free-text responses were provided by 306 interprofessional team members. Interprofessional team members involved in the care of a child who died at a 348 bed academic children's hospital in the Midwestern United States. Realist thematic analysis of free-text responses was completed in Dedoose using a deductive and inductive approach with line-by-line coding. Descriptive statistics of demographic information was completed using Excel. Thematic analysis of the 306 free-text responses identified three main support-related themes. Interprofessional team members desire to have (1) support through educational efforts such as workshops, (2) support from colleagues, and (3) support through institutional practices. Providers who participate in end-of-life work benefit from ongoing support through education, interpersonal relationships, and institutional practices. Addressing these areas from an interprofessional perspective enables staff to provide the optimal care for patients, patients' families, and themselves.
Data Quality Campaign, 2014
Local school board members need to be able to access and use high-quality data to make good decisions. Often this data is collected and stored locally, but information that is publicly reported by the state can provide additional value. Most state public reporting is designed to serve information needs, and are geared toward compliance with state…
Report #10-P-0146, June 15, 2010. Williams Adley found that EPA program offices lacked evidence that they planned and executed tests of information system security controls as required by federal requirements.
...) Memorandum, 31 Mar 1995, Medical Program Guidance, FY 1997-2001; ASD(HA) DoD Corporate Information Management Strategic Plan and Enterprise Integration Implementing Strategy, Goals 2, 3, and 4...
Alba-Ruiz, Ruben; Bermúdez-Tamayo, Clara; Pernett, Jaime Jiménez; Garcia-Gutierrez, Jose Francisco; Cózar-Olmo, José Manuel; Valero-Aguilera, Beatriz
People who use the Internet to research health topics do not usually find all the information they need and do not trust what they read. This study was designed to assess the reliability, accessibility, readability, and popularity of cancer Web sites in Spanish and to analyze the suitability of Web site content in accordance with the specific information needs of cancer patients. This was a two-phase, cross-sectional, descriptive study. The first phase involved data gathering through online searches and direct observation. The second phase involved individual structured interviews with 169 patients with breast, prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. Spearman rank correlations were calculated between variables. Most sites belonged to nonprofit organizations, followed by universities or medical centers (14%). Thirty-one percent of the Web sites had quality seals, 59% provided details of authorship, 62% provided references to bibliographic sources, 38% identified their funding sources, and 54% showed the date of their last update. Twenty-one percent of the Web sites did not meet the minimum accessibility criteria. With regard to readability, 24% of the texts were considered to be "quite difficult." Patients' information needs vary depending on the type of cancer they have, although all patients want to know about the likelihood of a cure, survival rates, the side effects, and risks of treatment. The health information on cancer available on the Internet in Spanish is not very reliable, accessible, or readable and is not necessarily the information that breast, kidney, prostate, and bladder cancer patients require. The content of cancer Web sites needs to be assessed according to the information needs of patients.
Vugteveen, Pim; van Katwijk, Marieke M.; Rouwette, Etiënne; Hanssen, Lucien
Integrated Coastal Management cannot operate effectively without reliable information and knowledge on changes in the environment and on the causes of those changes. Monitoring is essential to provide data needed for a real understanding of socio-economic and ecological functioning in multi-user nature areas. We present a web-based and comprehensive assessment methodology to articulate, structure and prioritize information needs and ensuing monitoring needs. We applied this methodology in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region, which includes a designated UNESCO World Heritage nature reserve. The methodology consists of the following steps: i) exploring social-ecological issues of concern and defining the monitoring scope; ii) articulating information needs expressed as tractable questions; iii) elaborating monitoring needs; iv) grounding in scientific models and current monitoring; v) synthesizing assessment findings into target entities, i.e. analysis variables for monitoring. In this paper we focus on the first three steps. As part of our methodology we performed two online surveys amongst a broad range of stakeholders and amongst monitoring professionals. In the case of the Dutch Wadden Sea Region, main monitoring questions were related to biodiversity and food web relations; effects of fisheries and its pressures on the ecosystem; channel and port dredging; spatial planning and multifunctional use; sustainable energy production; and effects of changing storm regimes due to climate change. Subsequently we elaborated these general issues into analysis variables within five themes. The presented methodology enables large scale and unbiased involvement of stakeholders in articulating information needs in a multi-user nature reserve like the Wadden Sea. In addition the methodology facilitates the input and feedback of monitoring professionals by providing a detailed elaboration of monitoring needs.
Mays, Keith A; Maguire, Meghan
Since 2000, reports have documented the challenges faced by many Americans in receiving oral health care and the consequences of inadequate care such as high levels of dental caries among many U.S. children. To help address this problem, many dental schools now include community-based dental education (CBDE) in their curricula, placing students in extramural clinics where they provide care in underserved communities. CBDE is intended to both broaden the education of future oral health professionals and expand care for patients in community clinics. The aim of this study was to develop a three-year profile of the patients seen and the care provided by students at extramural clinics associated with one U.S. dental school. Three student cohorts participated in the rotations: final-year students in the Doctor of Dental Surgery, Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene, and Master of Dental Therapy programs. The study was a retrospective analysis of data retrieved from the school's database for three consecutive academic years. The data included patients' demographics and special health care needs status (based on information collected by students from their patients) and procedures students performed while on rotations. For the three-year period, the results showed a total of 43,128 patients were treated by 418 student providers. Approximately 25% of all encounters were with pediatric patients. Students completed 5,908 child prophylaxis, 5,386 topical fluoride varnish, and 7,678 sealant procedures on pediatric patients. Annually, 7% of the total patients treated had special health care needs. The results show that these students in CBDE rotations provided a substantial amount of oral health care at extramural sites and gained additional experience in caring for a diverse population of patients and performing a wide range of procedures.
Martín, Estefanía; Carro, Rosa M
User Modeling and Adaptation for Daily Routines is motivated by the need to bring attention to how people with special needs can benefit from adaptive methods and techniques in their everyday lives. Assistive technologies, adaptive systems and context-aware applications are three well-established research fields. There is, in fact, a vast amount of literature that covers HCI-related issues in each area separately. However, the contributions in the intersection of these areas have been less visible, despite the fact that such synergies may have a great impact on improving daily living.Presentin
Koller, Ulrich; Waldstein, Wenzel; Schatz, Klaus-Dieter; Windhager, Reinhard
YouTube is increasingly becoming a key source for people to satisfy the need for additional information concerning their medical condition. This study analyses the completeness of accurate information found on YouTube pertaining to hip arthritis. The present study analyzed 133 YouTube videos using the search terms: hip arthritis, hip arthritis symptoms, hip arthritis diagnosis, hip arthritis treatment and hip replacement. Two quality assessment checklists with a scale of 0 to 12 points were developed to evaluate available video content for the diagnosis and the treatment of hip arthritis. Videos were grouped into poor quality (grade 0-3), moderate quality (grade 4-7) and excellent quality (grade 8-12), respectively. Three independent observers assessed all videos using the new grading system and independently scored all videos. Discrepancies regarding the categories were clarified by consensus discussion. For intra-observer reliabilities, grading was performed at two occasions separated by four weeks. Eighty-four percent (n = 112) had a poor diagnostic information quality, 14% (n = 19) a moderate quality and only 2% (n = 2) an excellent quality, respectively. In 86% (n = 114), videos provided poor treatment information quality. Eleven percent (n = 15) of videos had a moderate quality and only 3% (n = 4) an excellent quality, respectively. The present study demonstrates that YouTube is a poor source for accurate information pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of hip arthritis. These finding are of high relevance for clinicians as videos are going to become the primary source of information for patients. Therefore, high quality educational videos are needed to further guide patients on the way from the diagnosis of hip arthritis to its proper treatment.
Slater, Penelope J; Fielden, Philippa E; Bradford, Natalie K
The Oncology Family App supports families across the vast state of Queensland, Australia, with easy access to vital information, including management plans for a deteriorating child, patient specific information and other resources. This article describes the development and evaluation of this mobile app. The app was developed and tested in collaboration with parents, caregivers, and clinicians and released in November 2015. This first version featured "Statewide Hospital Contacts," including phone numbers, links to Google maps, and 24-hour emergency contacts with click to call functionality; "When to Call" describing symptoms to look out for in a deteriorating child; "Blood Results Table"; and "Information" listing recommended websites, health care team contacts, appointments, and notes. The app was evaluated through interviews with parents, caregivers and patients and download metrics. Six months after the app release, 68% of the 38 parents and caregivers surveyed had downloaded the app. The most used modules were "Blood Results Table," "When to Call," and "Statewide Hospital Contacts," but families reported using all features available. Families were enthusiastic about the support the app provided and gave useful feedback to direct future development. Using mobile health technology to support families is a novel, but rapidly growing concept. Family and caregiver feedback showed that the Oncology Family App was an efficient and convenient way to provide much needed information. A new version of the app is under development and evaluation of outcomes will be ongoing.
Speer, Natasha M.; Wagner, Joseph F.
Using case study analysis and a cognitive theoretical orientation, we examine elements of knowledge for teaching needed by a mathematician to orchestrate whole-class discussions in an undergraduate mathematics classroom. The instructor, an experienced teacher and mathematics researcher, used an inquiry-oriented curriculum to teach a differential…
Baslevent, Cem; Kirmanoglu, Hasan
We examine whether employees' preferences for various job attributes are associated with their individual characteristics in ways that are in line with "hierarchy of needs" theories. Using data from the fifth round of the European Social Survey, we observe the influence of socio-demographic and dispositional characteristics as well as…
Xie, Jianfei; Ming, Yingzi; Ding, Siqing; Wu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Jia; Liu, Lifang; Zhou, Jianda
Health education positively affects the efficacy of self-management and should be carried out according to the status of patients' needs, knowledge, and the competence of the primary caregivers. This study was to investigate the needs of health education knowledge in transplant patients and the competence of the primary caregivers. This is a cross-sectional study using a convenient sampling approach. Self-report questionnaires were applied to 351 renal transplantation patients and their primary caregivers. Three-hundred nine valid questionnaires were included in the analysis. The intensive care unit environment, stress coping strategies, the operation procedure, anesthesia and adverse reactions, and hand hygiene were the 5 most poorly understood aspects in health education. Stress coping strategies, at-home self-monitoring of health, pulmonary infection prevention, dietary needs, and anesthesia and other adverse reactions were the top 5 health education needs. Decision and self-efficacy were the weakest caregiving competence. Significant positive correlations were observed between health education knowledge level and caregiving competence in the primary caregivers. Marriage, education level, career, expense reimbursement, and residence significantly contributed to the health education demand questionnaire model, whereas gender, age, ethnic group, education level, career, and expense reimbursement significantly contributed to health education knowledge questionnaire model ( P decision-making and self-efficacy.
Giannakopoulos, Christos; Kotroni, Vasso; Lagouvardos, Kostas; Korakaki, Evi; Hatzaki, Maria; Tenentes, Vassilis; Roussos, Anargyros; Karali, Anna; Goodess, Clare
In EU project CLIMRUN, there has been a continuous interaction with stakeholders and end-users to develop new and improved tools to extract useful and useable information tailored to the needs of specific sectors. In this work, we review the provision of climate information services required in the Mediterranean country of Greece where forest fires represent a major hazard. Intense terrain, sparsely vegetated with typical Mediterranean flora makes Greece a fire prone environment. That, in addition to the abandonment of rural lands and extreme weather conditions due to climate change the last few decades, constitutes an issue of an annual cycle of catastrophe from forest fires. An iterative and bottom-up (i.e. stakeholder led) approach for optimizing the two-way information transfer between climate experts and stakeholders has been adopted from the start of the project with a workshop in Athens helping to define the framework for the forest fires case study. The main objectives of this workshop were to better understand who the wildfires stakeholders are and what they need from climate services. After the first workshop three main categories of stakeholders were identified: short term fire planners, long term policy makers and education stakeholders. To address the needs of these stakeholders' categories the following actions were taken: 1. In collaboration with the forecasting team at the National Observatory of Athens, an application providing fire risk forecasts for the following 3 days (http://cirrus.meteo.noa.gr/forecast/bolam/index.htm) was developed, to address the needs of short term fire planners. 2. A web-based application providing long term fire risk and other fire related indices changes due to climate change (time horizon up to 2050 and up to 2100) was developed in collaboration with the Greek WWF office, to address the needs of long term fire policy makers (http://www.oikoskopio.gr/map/). 3. Finally, an educational tool was built in order to
This survey study examined the inf ormation needs of National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) members and it is one of the few to do so. A purposive sample of 500 which is equal to about a fifth of the serving men and women from various parts of Ondo State, Nigeria answered to the questionnaire. Copies of this ...
As news migrates to mobile phones, media companies are turning to data visualization to wet readers' appetites for stories they can read at length on their home or work computers. Journalists are trained to write stories, not in statistics or coding, however. The big news organizations have the funds to hire computer graphics experts, but local news organizations need help.
Badalamente, R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Anzelon, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Deland, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whiteson, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
The International Atomic Energy Agency is undertaking a program for strengthening its safeguards on the recognition that safeguards must give assurance not only of the non-diversion of declared material or that declared facilities are not being misused, but also of the absence of any undeclared nuclear activities in States which have signed comprehensive safeguards agreements with the Agency. The IAEA has determined that the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and the creation of confidence in the continuing peaceful use of declared material and facilities is largely dependent on more information being made available to the Agency and on the capability of the Agency to make more effective use of this additional information, as well as existing information.
Kaufman, Taylor; Geraghty, Estella M; Dullet, Navjit; King, Jesse; Kissee, Jamie; Marcin, James P
Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) superimpose data on geographical maps to provide visual representations of data by region. Few studies have used GIS data to investigate if telemedicine services are preferentially provided to communities of greatest need. This study compared the healthcare needs of communities with and without telemedicine services from a university-based telemedicine program. Originating sites for all telemedicine consultations between July 1996 and December 2013 were geocoded using ArcGIS software. ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) were extracted from the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau's Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing file and assigned a community needs index (CNI) score to reflect the ZCTA community's healthcare needs based on evidence-based barriers to healthcare access. CNI scores were compared across communities with and without active telemedicine services. One hundred ninety-four originating telemedicine clinic sites in California were evaluated. The mean CNI score for ZCTAs with at least one telemedicine clinic was significantly higher (3.32 ± 0.84) than those without a telemedicine site (2.95 ± 0.99) and higher than the mean ZCTAs for all of California (2.99 ± 1.01). Of the 194 telemedicine clinics, 71.4% were located in communities with above average need and 33.2% were located in communities with very high needs. Originating sites receiving telemedicine services from a university-based telemedicine program were located in regions with significantly higher community healthcare needs. Leveraging a geospatial information system to understand community healthcare needs provides an opportunity for payers, hospitals, and patients to be strategic in the allocation of telemedicine services.
Engi, D.; Guillen, S.M.; Vammen, K.
This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital the Nicaraguan Water Resources Management Initiative, Issues process as implemented for a collaborative effort between the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Nicamgua. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for developing a project that will develop and implement an advanced information system for managing Nicaragua's water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to 1) develop a mission statement and evaluation criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Nicaragua 2) define and rank the vital issues; and 3) identify a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives- government, industiy, academe, and citizens' groups (through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs))-ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels. The already existing need for a water resource management information system has been magnified in the aftemnath of Hurricane Mitch. This information system would be beneficial for an early warning system in emergencies, and the modeling and simulation capabilities of the system would allow for advanced planning. Additionally, the outreach program will provide education to help Nicaraguan improve their water hygiene practices.
Full Text Available Reporting on performance was legislatively established in South Africa in terms of the Public Finance Management Act, Act 1 of 1999, section 40 (3(a. The auditing of the reported information was legislated in the Public Audit Act, Act 25 of 2004, section 20(2 (c. The objectives of the article are firstly to provide an overview of the development and application of the reporting and secondly providing assurance on service delivery information and thirdly to reflect on challenges to the implementation thereof in South Africa. The aim through deploying these set objectives is to formulate possible future considerations for improved governance. As central part of the methodology, review of literature on reporting and audit of non-financialwas conducted. The research included scrutiny of the different philosophies and approaches adopted by different countries to the reporting and providing assurance on service delivery information. In this respect, the research reflects a comparative element. In South Africa the Auditor-General adopted a phasing-in approach. The development of the audit approach and audit procedures has reached a stable stage, nine years after the initial process started. The audit of performance information now forms an integral part of the regularity audit process. The analysis of audit findings of the period under study indicates a considerable improvement once initiated, but stagnation persists in subsequent years. Numerous challenges remain around the application of performance reporting in South Africa including non-compliance, the lack of sufficient and appropriate audit evidence, inconsistencies between the various strategic documents and the need to improve the usefulness of performance information. In conclusion the article proposes some steps to address the challenges.
Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage and mean scores) for objectives 1, 2, 3 and 4. ... It was recommended that governments at all levels should introduce measures that would ensure easy access to credit, agricultural information and market as well as rural infrastructures in line with ...
Recommendations based on the findings were made which include that information repackaging for rural women should involve community mobilization during the time of dissemination; workshops, seminars and adult education extension programmes should be organized from time to time in the rural areas; qualified ...
The study found written text infonnation such as talking books, sign language textbooks and talking fingers, to be most preferred by the respondents. They also expressed reliance on Internet facilities as a good source of information. Electronic and print media, professional publications and interaction with colleagues are ...
Much of today’s success in Information Retrieval (IR) comes from a hard approach: employing blazingly fast machines, ever more refined statistics, and increasingly powerful classification schemes. In recent years, however, the hard approach has entered a phase of diminishing returns. This paper
... the school librarian will use assistive devices like listenaiders and telephone relay system, as well as visual display facilities. In developing information skills for the gifted learner, the teacher librarian will teach and demonstrate in such a way that as fast learners, their learning programmes are not boring and uninteresting.
Daemen, Jaak J. K.
An outline of topics we need to understand better in order to apply mining technology to a nonterrestrial environment is presented. The proposed list is not intended to be complete. It aims to identify representative topics that suggest productive research. Such research will reduce the uncertainties associated with extrapolating from conventional earthbound practice to nonterrestrial applications. One objective is to propose projects that should put future discussions of nonterrestrial mining on a firmer, less speculative basis.
Hunt, Lynn; Eagle, Lynne; Kitchen, Philip J.
The use of new information technology in marketing education has been widely, and often uncritically, accepted as both inevitable and beneficial with little in-depth analysis of this phenomenon, which is both a new mode of teaching (and learning) and a competency domain in its own right. This article examines both the potential advantages and…
Andriole, Katherine P
The responsibility that physicians have to protect their patients from harm extends to protecting the privacy and confidentiality of patient health information including that contained within radiological images. The intent of HIPAA and subsequent HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules is to keep patients' private information confidential while allowing providers access to and maintaining the integrity of relevant information needed to provide care. Failure to comply with electronic protected health information (ePHI) regulations could result in financial or criminal penalties or both. Protected health information refers to anything that can reasonably be used to identify a patient (eg, name, age, date of birth, social security number, radiology examination accession number). The basic tools and techniques used to maintain medical information security and patient privacy described in this article include physical safeguards such as computer device isolation and data backup, technical safeguards such as firewalls and secure transmission modes, and administrative safeguards including documentation of security policies, training of staff, and audit tracking through system logs. Other important concepts related to privacy and security are explained, including user authentication, authorization, availability, confidentiality, data integrity, and nonrepudiation. Patient privacy and security of medical information are critical elements in today's electronic health care environment. Radiology has led the way in adopting digital systems to make possible the availability of medical information anywhere anytime, and in identifying and working to eliminate any risks to patients. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
prior GAO reports, and interviewed DOD officials. What GAO Recommends GAO recommends that DOD (1) enforce current policy requiring DISA to acquire...its components to procure commercial SATCOM through the Defense Information Systems Agency ( DISA ), but GAO found that some components are...bought independently by DOD components, even though DOD found the average cost of commercial SATCOM bought through DISA is about 16 percent lower than
When students who are deaf or hard of hearing are appropriately placed, program-level and curriculum-level adaptations may both need to be discussed to ensure social as well as academic progress. Programmatic modifications may involve communication, linguistic, and grading issues, and both the listening and physical settings. Curricular modifications may involve the classroom structure, rapport and affect, the instructional format and language, the lesson format and materials, comprehension monitoring, activity and assignment completion, and placement choices. Professionals should work cooperatively to make and monitor changes.
manufacturer on both the container and pack of the drug} were mentioned in 65.6% and 50% adverts, respectively. The product and package descriptions were provided in 57 (72.2% Nigerian medical journals, which was significantly higher than in other African medical journals 39 (37.9% (P<0.001.Conclusions: None of the drug advertisements in the journals adequately provided the basic information required by the WHO for appropriate prescribing. More guidance and regulation is needed to ensure adequate information is provided.
This briefing report discusses the extent to which the energy Information Agency (EIA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are meeting the energy emergency statistical data and information needs of states and industry. Objectives were to obtain information on (1) what data and information are needed by states and industry to allow them to properly meet an oil shortage, whether EIA and DOE are meeting those needs, and what effective steps might be taken to better serve those needs.
Sayin, Yazile; Aksoy, Güler
In 2008, we conducted a nonexperimental, cross-sectional, descriptive study in the surgical services department of a hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, with the aim of determining how much information was required by perioperative patients and their family members, the extent to which this information was provided, and the role that nurses play in this process. We included a total of 394 outpatients and inpatients and their family members (ie, 197 patients, 197 family members) and 30 nurses in the study. We collected the research data by using one questionnaire for patients, a second for family members of patients, and a third for nurses. We discovered that the patients and their family members wanted to be given more information about the surgical process than they had received. Patients wanted more information about the intraoperative period, whereas their family members wanted more information about the postoperative period. We also found that nurses were aware that they did not play an effective role in providing information to patients and their family members because of a lack of knowledge about what information they were responsible for providing and insufficient staffing. We concluded that nurses should know what education they are responsible for providing, put more effort into understanding patient and family member information needs, and plan a better means of providing information to meet those needs. Copyright © 2012 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cloninger, T.H. [Houston Lighting & Power Company, Wadsworth, TX (United States)
This presentation was made by an executive in the utility which operates the South Texas Project reactors, and summarizes their perspective on probabilistic safety analysis, risk-based operation, and risk-based regulation. They view it as a tool to help them better apply their resources to maintain the level of safety necessary to protect the public health and safety. South Texas served as one of the pilot plants for the application of risk-based regulation to the maintenance rule. The author feels that the process presents opportunities as well as challenges. Among the opportunities is the involvement of more people in the process, and the sense of investment they take in the decisions, in addition to the insight they can offer. In the area of challenges there is the need for better understanding of how to apply what already is known on problems, rather than essentially reinventing the wheel to address problems. Research is needed to better understand when some events are not truly of a significant safety concern. The demarcation between deterministic decisions and the appropriate application of risk-based decisions must be better defined, for the sake of the operator as well as the public observing plant operation.
Thomason, Elizabeth; Stacks, Ann M.; McComish, Judith Fry
An estimated 5-25% of women suffer from perinatal depression (PD). If left untreated, PD can have negative consequences for maternal and child mental health. During pregnancy and the postpartum period, women are in contact with a variety of professionals and paraprofessionals such as public health nurses, early childhood providers and home…
Vissink, A.; Baat, C. de
Many patients who visit a dentist, oral hygienist or other oral healthcare provider use medicines. As a result of the ageing of the Dutch population, the number of patients using medicines will further increase, including the number of patients who are using more than one medicine. In addition to
dual mode institution by providing academic services to both conventional and distance learners. The Centre went operational in the 2005/2006 academic session with a .... to library resources, or to arm their students with library use skills which will facilitate learning, both during their course and throughout their lifespan”.
Trujillo, Anna C.; Fan, Henry; Cross, Charles D.; Hempley, Lucas E.; Cichella, Venanzio; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, Syed Bilal
With the anticipated explosion of small unmanned aerial vehicles, it is highly likely that operators will be controlling fleets of autonomous vehicles. To fulfill the promise of autonomy, vehicle operators will not be concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead, they will deal with the overall mission. Furthermore, the one operator to many vehicles is becoming a constant meme with various industries including package delivery, search and rescue, and utility companies. In order for an operator to concurrently control several vehicles, his station must look and behave very differently than the current ground control station instantiations. Furthermore, the vehicle will have to be much more autonomous, especially during non-normal operations, in order to accommodate the knowledge deficit or the information overload of the operator in charge of several vehicles. The expected usage increase of small drones requires presenting the operational information generated by a fleet of heterogeneous autonomous agents to an operator. NASA Langley Research Center's Autonomy Incubator has brought together researchers in various disciplines including controls, trajectory planning, systems engineering, and human factors to develop an integrated system to study autonomy issues. The initial human factors effort is focusing on mission displays that would give an operator the overall status of all autonomous agents involved in the current mission. This paper will discuss the specifics of the mission displays for operators controlling several vehicles.
performing the job of operator/maintainers are required to perform many complex tasks, resulting in poor operator performance. Army officials told us they...additional development required could present an opportunity for DOD to provide a level of oversight and accountability not seen by the Patriot upgrade...determine the typical requirements for facilitating Congressional oversight and accountability of major defense acquisition programs. To assess the
Taylor, April; Lizzi, Michele; Marx, Alison; Chilkatowsky, Maryann; Trachtenberg, Symme W; Ogle, Sue
Care coordination has been a key theme in national forums on healthcare quality, design, and improvement. This article describes the characteristics of a care coordination program aimed at supporting families in building care coordination competencies and providers in the coordination of care across multiple specialties. The program included implementation of a Care Coordination Counselor (CC Counselor) and several supporting tools-Care Binders, Complex Scheduling, Community Resources for Families Database, and a Care Coordination Network. Patients were referred by a healthcare provider to receive services from the CC Counselor or to receive a Care Binder organizational tool. To assess the impact of the counselor role, we compared patient experience survey results from patients receiving CC Counselor services to those receiving only the Care Binder. Our analysis found that patients supported by the CC Counselor reported greater agreement with accessing care coordination resources and identifying a key point person for coordination. Seventy-five percent of CC Counselor patients have graduated from the program. Our findings suggest that implementation of a CC Counselor role and supporting tools offers an integrative way to connect patients, families, and providers with services and resources to support coordinated, continuous care. © 2012 National Association for Healthcare Quality.
Anzhelika G. GERASYMENKO
Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of informative advertising in creation and augment of market power as well as the ability of an advertiser to maximize the value of its economic rent. Informative advertising is considered to be a merit good unlike a persuasive one that is mostly associated with a bad. But analysis of the advertisement breakdown in Ukraine shows that the share of price advertisements, which are the most beneficial for the public, is negligible today. Further still those advertisements are mostly situated in the sectors, where price competition is the least strong. Another kind of informative advertising – differentiating advertising – turns from an instrument of informing consumers into the vehicle of manipulation of consumer choice. Using the blind tests the author has compared the quality and the prices of the range of advertised goods and has found out a low level of correlation between the variables. That means that informative advertising serves a function of informing consumers inefficiently. At the same time phantom differentiation and misleading advertising proliferation as well as informative advertising concentration on experience and credible goods instead search ones testify to effective serving a function of maximizing advertiser welfare.
Kolodny, Michael A.
Today's battlefield space is extremely complex, dealing with an enemy that is neither well-defined nor well-understood. Adversaries are comprised of widely-distributed, loosely-networked groups engaging in nefarious activities. Situational understanding is needed by decision makers; understanding of adversarial capabilities and intent is essential. Information needed at any time is dependent on the mission/task at hand. Information sources potentially providing mission-relevant information are disparate and numerous; they include sensors, social networks, fusion engines, internet, etc. Management of these multi-dimensional informational sources is critical. This paper will present a new approach being undertaken to answer the challenge of enhancing battlefield understanding by optimizing the utilization of available informational sources (means) to required missions/tasks as well as determining the "goodness'" of the information acquired in meeting the capabilities needed. Requirements are usually expressed in terms of a presumed technology solution (e.g., imagery). A metaphor of the "magic rabbits" was conceived to remove presumed technology solutions from requirements by claiming the "required" technology is obsolete. Instead, intelligent "magic rabbits" are used to provide needed information. The question then becomes: "WHAT INFORMATION DO YOU NEED THE RABBITS TO PROVIDE YOU?" This paper will describe a new approach called Mission-Informed Needed Information - Discoverable, Available Sensing Sources (MINI-DASS) that designs a process that builds information acquisition missions and determines what the "magic rabbits" need to provide in a manner that is machine understandable. Also described is the Missions and Means Framework (MMF) model used, the process flow utilized, the approach to developing an ontology of information source means and the approach for determining the value of the information acquired.
Gries, C.; Vanderbilt, K.; Reid, D.; Melendez-Colom, E.; San Gil, I.
Over the last five years several Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites have collaboratively developed a standardized yet flexible approach to ecological information management based on the open source Drupal content management system. These LTER sites adopted a common data model for basic metadata necessary to describe data sets, but also used for site management and web presence. Drupal core functionality provides web forms for easy management of information stored in this data model. Custom Drupal extensions were developed to generate XML files conforming to the Ecological Metadata Language (EML) for contribution to the LTER Network Information System (NIS) and other data archives. Each LTER site then took advantage of the flexibility Drupal provides to develop its unique web presence, choosing different themes and adding additional content to the websites. By nature, information presented is highly interlinked which can easily be modeled in Drupal entities and is further supported by a sophisticated tagging system (Fig. 1). Therefore, it is possible to provide the visitor with many different entry points to the site specific information presented. For example, publications and datasets may be grouped for each scientist, for each research project, for each major research theme at the site, making the information presented more accessible for different visitors. Experience gained during the early years was recently used to launch a complete re-write for upgrading to Drupal 7. LTER sites from multiple academic institutions pooled resources in order to partner with professional Drupal developers. Highlights of the new developments are streamlined data entry, improved EML output and integrity, support of IM workflows, a faceted data set search, a highly configurable data exploration tool with intelligent filtering and data download, and, for the mobile age, a responsive web design theme. Seven custom modules and a specific installation profile were developed
Watts, R; Horne, D; Sandells, J; Petrie, M
This paper examines the need for a systematic way of detecting individuals likely to encounter moderate to severe psychological sequelae after being injured in a motor vehicle accident. It presents the findings of assessments of consecutive adult admissions during a six-month period to the Accident and Emergency Department of Royal Melbourne Hospital, a major acute hospital in Melbourne, within two days of being injured in a motor vehicle accident. Seventy of the 250 subjects surveyed completed the General Health Questionnaire 12 and the Impact of Event Scale questionnaire, with 77 per cent found likely to have had a psychiatric disorder. Seventy-four per cent had at least moderate levels of intrusion or avoidance phenomena. Forty-four per cent had severe levels of one or the other. Prevalence of these psychological sequelae was greater than that found in several recent studies on the effects of motor vehicle accidents. A small number (11-15 per cent) sought or received professional counselling within the first three months. This group did not differ, according to levels of intrusion, avoidance, or scores on the GHQ 12, to subjects who did not seek or receive such assistance. Results identify the necessity of investigating and implementing methods of detecting and treating the many who apparently sustain significant psychological sequelae following injury in a motor vehicle accident.
Adu-Boahene, Akosua Boadiwaa; Laws, Michael Barton; Dapaah-Afriyie, Kwame
African immigrants in the United States may experience barriers to health-care access and effectiveness. This mixed-methods study used paper-based surveys of people (N=101) in the target population from Nigeria, Ghana, and Liberia, recruited through convenience and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 3 clergy members who pastor churches with large Nigerian, Ghanaian, and Liberian populations, respectively; and five physicians and a clinical pharmacist who serve African immigrants. Length of stay in the United States was associated with the health status of refugee children. Undocumented immigration status was associated with lack of health insurance. Cardiovascular diseases, uterine fibroids and stress-related disorders were the most prevalent reported conditions. Regardless of English fluency, many immigrants are unfamiliar with medical terminology. African immigrants in the state of Rhode Island need more health education and resources to navigate the US health-care system. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-01.asp].
Biederman, Donna J; Gamble, Julia; Manson, Marigny; Taylor, Destry
For homeless persons, posthospitalization care is increasingly provided in formal medical respite programs, and their success is now reported in the literature. However, there is a dearth of literature on posthospitalization transitional care for homeless persons in the absence of a respite program. Through this formative study, we sought to understand the process of securing posthospitalization care in the absence of a formal homeless medical respite. Results demonstrated a de facto patchwork respite process that has emerged. We describe both human and monetary costs associated with patchwork respite and demonstrate opportunities for improvement in homeless health care transitions.
Vatenmacher, Michael; Isaac, Shabtai; Svoray, Tal
This study seeks to attain a better understanding of the information that is required by governments to prepare for earthquakes, and of the constraints they face in obtaining this information. The contributions of the study are two-fold. A survey that was conducted among those responsible for earthquake preparedness actions in different governmental agencies and at different levels revealed on the one hand a desire for information on a broad range of topics, but on the other hand that no resources were allocated in practice to gather this information. A Geographic Information System-based process that was developed following the survey, allowed the required information on seismic hazards and loss and damage risks to be rapidly collected, mapped and integrated. This supported the identification of high-priority areas, for which a more detailed analysis could be initiated. An implementation of the process showed promise, and confirmed its feasibility. Its relative simplicity may ensure that an earthquake preparedness process is initiated by governments that are otherwise reluctant to allocate resources for this purpose.
Bailey, J.A. [Arizona Public Service Company, Phoenix, AZ (United States)
Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station has used PRA-derived risk insights for about 10 years now. The plant originally started applying PRA modeling to an auxiliary feedwater system during the initial licensing phases of the plant, and as a result of that, they were able to work with the NRC and apply some graded quality requirements to that particular system. There was a third redundant auxiliary feedwater pump, and they now can treat that system as partially safety related and partially non-safety related. So it was an advance for Palo Verde at that time to be able to make decisions with a PRA and they began learning how to use those techniques. After completing the IPE it became natural for the plant to make a transition into other areas at the plant to look for areas where the insights gained from PRA could be applied into their decision-making processes. Those that the plant embarked upon initially were areas where they could gain operational risk assessment insights. The author goes on to discuss experiences gained in using these techniques to better assess the safety of operations within the plant. In addition he offers comments on areas which need further development and research to make them more applicable to a plant by plant basis.
This article summarizes the activities of the Office of Research of the NRC, both from a historical aspect as well as it applies to the application of risk-based decision making. The office has been actively involved in problems related to understanding risks related to core accidents, to understanding the problem of aging of reactor components and materials from years of service, and toward the understanding and analysis of severe accidents. In addition new policy statements regarding the role of risk assessment in regulatory applications has given focus for the need of further work. The NRC has used risk assessment in regulatory questions in the past but in a fairly ad hoc sort of manner. The new policies will clearly require a better defined application of risk assessment, and help for people evaluating applications in judging the applicability of such applications when a component of them is based on risk-based decision making. To address this, standard review plans are being prepared to serve as guides for such questions. In addition, with regulatory decisions being allowed to be based upon risk-based decisions, it is necessary to have an adequate data base prepared, and made publically available, to support such a position.
Correll, D.L. Jr.
In providing an adequate energy technology for the future, which new programs should be considered by the Department of Energy national laboratories to ensure that the US remains in the forefront of international science and technology is an important question. This paper suggests that the urgency for energy independence demands an active communication program that would increase awareness of energy as a critical national issue and would present fusion, with its benefits and risks, as one of the long-term alternative energy sources.
Full Text Available The risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes can be minimized through the adoption of healthy lifestyles before pregnancy by women of childbearing age. Initiatives for promotion of preconception health may be difficult to implement. Internet can be used to build tailored health interventions through identification of the public's information needs. To this aim, we developed a semi-automatic web-based system for monitoring Google searches, web pages and activity on social networks, regarding preconception health.Based on the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines and on the actual search behaviors of Italian Internet users, we defined a set of keywords targeting preconception care topics. Using these keywords, we analyzed the usage of Google search engine and identified web pages containing preconception care recommendations. We also monitored how the selected web pages were shared on social networks. We analyzed discrepancies between searched and published information and the sharing pattern of the topics.We identified 1,807 Google search queries which generated a total of 1,995,030 searches during the study period. Less than 10% of the reviewed pages contained preconception care information and in 42.8% information was consistent with ACOG guidelines. Facebook was the most used social network for sharing. Nutrition, Chronic Diseases and Infectious Diseases were the most published and searched topics. Regarding Genetic Risk and Folic Acid, a high search volume was not associated to a high web page production, while Medication pages were more frequently published than searched. Vaccinations elicited high sharing although web page production was low; this effect was quite variable in time.Our study represent a resource to prioritize communication on specific topics on the web, to address misconceptions, and to tailor interventions to specific populations.
D'Ambrosio, Angelo; Agricola, Eleonora; Russo, Luisa; Gesualdo, Francesco; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Bortolus, Renata; Castellani, Carlo; Lalatta, Faustina; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio
The risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes can be minimized through the adoption of healthy lifestyles before pregnancy by women of childbearing age. Initiatives for promotion of preconception health may be difficult to implement. Internet can be used to build tailored health interventions through identification of the public's information needs. To this aim, we developed a semi-automatic web-based system for monitoring Google searches, web pages and activity on social networks, regarding preconception health. Based on the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines and on the actual search behaviors of Italian Internet users, we defined a set of keywords targeting preconception care topics. Using these keywords, we analyzed the usage of Google search engine and identified web pages containing preconception care recommendations. We also monitored how the selected web pages were shared on social networks. We analyzed discrepancies between searched and published information and the sharing pattern of the topics. We identified 1,807 Google search queries which generated a total of 1,995,030 searches during the study period. Less than 10% of the reviewed pages contained preconception care information and in 42.8% information was consistent with ACOG guidelines. Facebook was the most used social network for sharing. Nutrition, Chronic Diseases and Infectious Diseases were the most published and searched topics. Regarding Genetic Risk and Folic Acid, a high search volume was not associated to a high web page production, while Medication pages were more frequently published than searched. Vaccinations elicited high sharing although web page production was low; this effect was quite variable in time. Our study represent a resource to prioritize communication on specific topics on the web, to address misconceptions, and to tailor interventions to specific populations.
Ballermann, Mark; Shaw, Nicola T; Mayes, Damon C; Gibney, R T Noel
Electronic documentation methods may assist critical care providers with information management tasks in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). We conducted a quasi-experimental observational study to investigate patterns of information tool use by ICU physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists during verbal communication tasks. Critical care providers used tools less at 3 months after the CCIS introduction. At 12 months, care providers referred to paper and permanent records, especially during shift changes. The results suggest potential areas of improvement for clinical information systems in assisting critical care providers in ensuring informational continuity around their patients.
Rafla, S; Khafif, R; Ross, P; McGroarty, K
The traditional role of primary care physicians (PCPs) in cancer care has been primarily cancer detection, and their training and education were similarly oriented. Propelled by the changing health care delivery system, this role is now expanding substantially. A survey of 31 health maintenance organizations active in the New York market area was performed. The HMOs were grouped into three main categories according to method of payment of the physician. Patient care responsibilities vary depending on the method of payment but stay constant within the group. Of 19 HMOs that responded to the survey, 13 had shifted much of the responsibilities for diagnosis and treatment decisions to the PCP. A national survey of all academic radiation oncology program directors in the United States, as well as training programs of primary care physicians, showed a unanimous lack of educational or training programs or opportunities to familiarize the PCP with radiation oncology as a therapeutic discipline and with its after-therapy requirements. This deficiency extended also to multimodality training and other aspects. The internal medicine programs surveyed scored only an average of 1.25 out of a possible 5 in education areas directly related to oncology training. These programs comprised 78% of the residents of all programs surveyed. The information gathered from these surveys reveals a shift towards mandating the provision of oncologic services by PCPs, who have inadequate training in oncology, with no system in place to remedy the deficiencies except on-the-job training. The inevitability of the changing role of the PCP must be accompanied by either an expansion of residency programs to encompass training in important aspects of oncology care or expansion and formalization of continuing education programs to achieve the same objective.
Balmford, Andrew; Crane, Peter; Dobson, Andy; Green, Rhys E; Mace, Georgina M
At the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development, 190 countries endorsed a commitment to achieve, by 2010, a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national levels. A wide range of approaches is available to the monitoring of progress towards this objective. The strengths and weaknesses of many of these approaches are considered, with special attention being given to the proposed and existing indicators described in the other papers in this issue. Recommendations are made about the development of indicators. Most existing and proposed indicators use data collected for other purposes, which may be unrepresentative. In the short term, much remains to be done in expanding the databases and improving the statistical techniques that underpin these indicators to minimize potential biases. In the longer term, indicators based on unrepresentative data should be replaced with equivalents based on carefully designed sampling programmes. Many proposed and existing indicators do not connect clearly with human welfare and they are unlikely to engage the interest of governments, businesses and the public until they do so. The extent to which the indicators already proposed by parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity are sufficient is explored by reference to the advice an imaginary scientific consultant from another planet might give. This exercise reveals that the range of taxa and biomes covered by existing indicators is incomplete compared with the knowledge we need to protect our interests. More fundamentally, our understanding of the mechanisms linking together the status of biodiversity, Earth system processes, human decisions and actions, and ecosystem services impacting human welfare is still too crude to allow us to infer reliably that actions taken to conserve biodiversity and protect ecosystem services are well chosen and effectively implemented. The involvement of social and Earth system
Song, Mei; Spallek, Heiko; Polk, Deborah; Schleyer, Titus; Wali, Teena
A major challenge in designing useful clinical information systems in dentistry is to incorporate clinical evidence based on dentists' information needs and then integrate the system seamlessly into the complex clinical workflow. However, little is known about the actual information needs of dentists during treatment sessions. The purpose of this study is to identify general dentists' information needs and the information sources they use to meet those needs in clinical settings so as to inform the design of dental information systems. A semi-structured interview was conducted with a convenience sample of 18 general dentists in the Pittsburgh area during clinical hours. One hundred and five patient cases were reported by these dentists. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed using thematic analysis with a constant comparative method to identify categories and themes regarding information needs and information source use patterns. Two top-level categories of information needs were identified: foreground and background information needs. To meet these needs, dentists used four types of information sources: clinical information/tasks, administrative tasks, patient education and professional development. Major themes of dentists' unmet information needs include: (1) timely access to information on various subjects; (2) better visual representations of dental problems; (3) access to patient-specific evidence-based information; and (4) accurate, complete and consistent documentation of patient records. Resource use patterns include: (1) dentists' information needs matched information source use; (2) little use of electronic sources took place during treatment; (3) source use depended on the nature and complexity of the dental problems; and (4) dentists routinely practiced cross-referencing to verify patient information. Dentists have various information needs at the point of care. Among them, the needs for better visual representation and patient-specific evidence
Price, Joseph Daniel [Idaho National Laboratory; Anderson, Robert Stephen [Idaho National Laboratory
Current engineering and risk management methodologies do not contain the foundational assumptions required to address the intelligent adversary’s capabilities in malevolent cyber attacks. Current methodologies focus on equipment failures or human error as initiating events for a hazard, while cyber attacks use the functionality of a trusted system to perform operations outside of the intended design and without the operator’s knowledge. These threats can by-pass or manipulate traditionally engineered safety barriers and present false information, invalidating the fundamental basis of a safety analysis. Cyber threats must be fundamentally analyzed from a completely new perspective where neither equipment nor human operation can be fully trusted. A new risk analysis and design methodology needs to be developed to address this rapidly evolving threatscape.
Objective: To explore perceptions of CCWs of their role in TB care and TB information needs. Methods: CCWs working with TB patients were recruited from Grahamstown Hospice and local primary healthcare clinics in Grahamstown. Focus group discussions and semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 CCWs using a question guide. Data were thematically analysed. Results: Three themes emerged from data analysis. Firstly, altruism was identified as the major motivational factor, with a desire to help others often stimulated by previously caring for sick relatives. Some CCWs had experienced being patients needing care, which motivated them to become involved in offering patient care. Secondly, CCWs reported great fulfilment and pride in their work as they believed they made a meaningful impact on patients' lives and in the surrounding community, and were respected for this contribution. Thirdly, most identified a need for further training and access to additional information about TB, particularly MDR- and XDR-TB, in order to reinforce both their own knowledge and to educate patients about drug-resistant TB. Conclusion: CCWs were motivated and proud of their contribution to TB patient management and the education they provided to patients and to lay community members.Ongoing training was identified as a need, along with access to quality information materials to improve their knowledge and facilitate patient counselling.
Duff, Jennifer M; Leather, Helen; Walden, Edmund O; LaPlant, Kourtney D; George, Thomas J
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) improve clinical care through evidence-based results. Guidelines exist for RCT result reporting, but specific details of therapeutic administration promote clinical application and reproduction of the trial design. We assess the reporting methodology in RCTs published in major oncology journals. Ten essential elements of RCT reporting were identified and included drug name, dose, route, cycle length, maximum number of cycles, premedication, growth factor support, patient monitoring parameters, and dosing adjustments for hematologic and organ-specific toxicity. All therapy-based oncology RCTs published between 2005 and 2008 in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), Journal of Clinical Oncology (JCO), Journal of the National Cancer Institute (JNCI), Blood, and Cancer were analyzed for inclusion of these 10 elements. Of 339 identified articles, 262 were included in the final analysis (165 from JCO, 31 from NEJM, 27 from Cancer, 20 from JNCI, and 19 from Blood). Premedication, growth factor support, and dose adjustments for toxicities were each reported less than half of the time. Only 30 articles (11%) met the main objective of complete data reporting (ie, all 10 essential elements) and was highest in JNCI (5/20; 25%), followed by Cancer (5/27; 18%), JCO (18/165; 11%), Blood (1/19; 5%), and NEJM (1/31; 3%). The presence of an online appendix did not substantially improve complete reporting. RCTs published in major oncology journals do not consistently report essential therapeutic details necessary for translation of the trial findings to clinical practice. Potential solutions to improve reporting include modification of submission guidelines, use of online appendices, and providing open access to trial protocols.
Borlund, Pia; Jensen, Sabine Dreier Elgaard
We report a naturalistic interactive information retrieval (IIR) study of 18 ordinary users in the age of 20–25 who carry out everyday-life information seeking (ELIS) on the Internet with respect to the three types of information needs identified by Ingwersen (1986): the verificative information...... need (VIN), the conscious topical information need (CIN), and the muddled topical information need (MIN). The searches took place in the private homes of the users in order to ensure as realistic searching as possible. Ingwersen (1996) associates a given search behaviour to each of the three types...... of information needs, which are analytically deduced, but not yet empirically tested. Thus the objective of the study is to investigate whether empirical data does, or does not, conform to the predictions derived from the three types of information needs. The main conclusion is that the analytically deduced...
Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie
themes as well as a photo gallery of the Austrian soil types is available. Selected content from the website and the internet platform will be presented. During the past years the ASSS has perceived a growing need to educate pupils on soil issues and started projects to develop concepts and materials for education. In one project a soil workshop for secondary schools was developed. The workshop comprises four stations which allow the children to see, feel and understand soil by doing simple experiments, looking for soil biota or drawing examples of soil functions. The project was awarded by the Austrian UNESCO Commission as a project of the UN decade of education for sustainable development. In addition to that project an overview of nearly 100 programmes introducing children to the topic of soils in Austria was made available as report on the ASSS website. Results of the project and information on its implementation in schools will be provided.
Othman, Noordin; Vitry, Agnes I; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Ismail, Shaiful B; Omar, Khairani
.... However, studies have shown that the quality of this information is often low. No study has assessed the medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Malaysia and no recent evidence in Australia is present...
French, N. H.; Erickson, T.; McKenzie, D.
A major goal of the North American Carbon Program is to resolve uncertainties in understanding and managing the carbon cycle of North America. As carbon modeling tools become more comprehensive and spatially oriented, accurate datasets to spatially quantify carbon emissions from fire are needed, and these data resources need to be accessible to users for decision-making. Under a new NASA Carbon Cycle Science project, Drs. Nancy French and Tyler Erickson, of the Michigan Technological University, Michigan Tech Research Institute (MTRI), are teaming with specialists with the USDA Forest Service Fire and Environmental Research Applications (FERA) team to provide information for mapping fire-derived carbon emissions to users. The project focus includes development of a web-based system to provide spatially resolved fire emissions estimates for North America in a user-friendly environment. The web-based Decision Support System will be based on a variety of open source technologies. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) raster map of fuels and MODIS-derived burned area vector maps will be processed using the Geographic Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) and OGR Simple Features Library. Tabular and spatial project data will be stored in a PostgreSQL/PostGIS, a spatially enabled relational database server. The browser-based user interface will be created using the Django web page framework to allow user input for the decision support system. The OpenLayers mapping framework will be used to provide users with interactive maps within the browser. In addition, the data products will be made available in standard open data formats such as KML, to allow for easy integration into other spatial models and data systems.
Garimella, Roja; Koenig, Harold G; Larson, David L; Hultman, Charles Scott
Burn treatment has grown increasingly advanced and technologically capable. Clinicians must take into account, however, multidimensional patient needs that factor into long-term burn recovery. Important psychosocial factors associated with burn care include psychiatric comorbidities, such as anxiety and depression, healthy family relationships, social support, and community involvement. Spiritual factors and resources, such as time spent praying and/or meditating and access to pastoral services, are also important to consider. Further study is needed to identify specific psychosocial and spiritual needs of patients and to develop interventions or therapies that specifically provide for these needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tarapanoff, Kira; Miranda, Silvania V
.... Three dimensions are examine: cognitive, affective and situational. The recognition of an information need was linked to the development of competencies to analyse the problem in focus. Methodology...
Ismail Shaiful B; Roughead Elizabeth E; Vitry Agnes I; Othman Noordin; Omar Khairani
Abstract Background Pharmaceutical representatives provide medicines information on their promoted products to doctors. However, studies have shown that the quality of this information is often low. No study has assessed the medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Malaysia and no recent evidence in Australia is present. We aimed to compare the provision of medicines information by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Australia and Malaysia. Metho...
Khan, Sameer; Dasrath, Florence; Farghaly, Sara; Otobo, Emamuzo; Riaz, Muhammad Safwan; Rogers, Jason; Castillo, Anabella; Atreja, Ashish
In order to develop an application that addresses the most significant challenges facing IBD patients, this qualitative study explored the major hurdles of living with IBD, the information needs of IBD patients, and how application technology may be used to improve quality of life. 15 IBD patients participated in two focus groups of 120 minutes each. Data collection was achieved by combining focus groups with surveys and direct observation of patients looking at a patient-engaged app (HealthPROMISE) screenshots. The survey elicited information on demographics, health literacy and quality of life through the Short IBD Questionnaire (SIBDQ). The needs of IBD patients center around communication as it relates to both patient information needs and navigating the social impacts of IBD on patients' lives: Communication Challenges regarding Information Needs: Patients cited a doctor-patient communication divide where there is a continued lack of goal setting when discussing treatments and a lack of objectivity in disease control. When objectively compared with the SIBDQ, nearly half of the patients in the focus groups wrongly estimated their IBD control.Communication Challenges regarding Social Impacts of IBD: Patients strongly felt that while IBD disrupts routines, adds significant stress, and contributes to a sense of isolation, the impact of these issues would be significantly alleviated through more conversation and better support.Implication for Mobile Health Solutions: Patients want a tool that improves tracking of symptoms, medication adherence and provides education. Physician feedback to patient input on an application is required for long-term sustainability. IBD patients need mobile health technologies that evaluate disease control and the goals of care. Patients feel an objective assessment of their disease control, goal setting and physician feedback will greatly enhance utilization of all mobile health applications.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with primary brain tumors (PBT often have acute depression, anxiety and complications of social adaptation. The goal of this study was to examine difficulties and information needs of patients with PBT and their caregivers during diagnostic and treatment period. METHODS: Thirteen in-depth interviews were conducted with convenience sample of nine patients and four caregivers who were under treatment in the Kyiv “Feofaniya” clinic in October 2011 – April 2012. Convenience strategy was used because of poor availability of the target group. Data collection was stopped when saturation was achieved.RESULTS: PBT patients and their caregivers need information about diagnosis and prognosis, while uncertainty about the future is increased due to a long diagnostic period and delayed contacts with neuro-oncology professionals. In making decision, patients rely on the doctors, which confirms the paternalistic relationships. Most patients avoid talking about their feelings with the family and tend to deny the change of roles in the family due to illness. Those who consider chances of recovery as high express need for psychological support, but those who are emotionally suppressed and scared, don’t want to discuss their state with professionals. Caregivers also experience increased responsibility and fear about the future. Possibly, religious patients have lower information needs and willingness to discuss the disease and its treatment with the doctor. CONCLUSIONS: During the diagnostics patients face problems of uncertainty regarding the diagnosis, the availability of appropriate health professional, and the treatment strategy. Communication with doctor and quality of information provided to the patient is important as well as professional psychological support for patients and their caregivers. Limitations of the study include poor sample strategy, all participants were recruited from a single clinic, which is not the typical for
Full Text Available The study analyses information needs and behaviours of master’s and doctoral theology students currently studying at the International Baptist Theological Seminary (IBTS in Prague, Czech Republic. The aim is two-fold: first, to extend understanding of the information behaviour of theologians working as distance learners in a cross cultural setting; and secondly, to provide guidance for the development of library information services for this group. The study follows a quantitative research approach with a survey design and attempts to replicate in a modified way studies by Gorman (1990 and Stieg Dalton and Charnigo (2004. The findings suggest that theology students at IBTS use many and varied types of materials in their interdisciplinary studies while giving clear preference to books, periodicals and theses. Most of the participants have, partly successfully, embraced information technology as a tool and use it extensively. To satisfy their research needs they employ a variety of methods to find relevant information and fall back on “typical” humanists’ research behaviours when “usual” channels do not work: engage their networks, expand their personal library, and browse. While the humanist profile is evident throughout the diverse group, there are also notable differences. Theologians increasingly work interdisciplinary and integrate approaches considered typical for other disciplines. Partly differences are caused by the fact that the group under consideration are students who still experiment with research approaches. Many differences are caused by technological developments and contextual aspects.
Deane, K A; Degner, L F
A retrospective, descriptive study to determine the information needs of women who underwent a breast biopsy with a benign outcome and to ascertain the levels of uncertainty and anxiety they experienced was conducted in two community health care sites in Winnipeg, Manitoba. A sample of 70 women completed a four-part survey after learning the benign breast biopsy diagnosis. The survey consisted of an Information Needs Questionnaire, Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale--Community Form, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and a Demographic Questionnaire. Before the study, nine information needs were identified in a focus group composed of women (n = 9) who had a benign breast biopsy. The nine information needs were arranged in 36 pairs in the Information Needs Questionnaire. Profiles of information needs were developed through Statistical Analysis Systems analysis using Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement--Case V. The most important information need of women who underwent a benign breast biopsy was knowing when they would learn the diagnosis. The next four information needs were categorized as information about the risks of developing breast cancer. Information about follow-up and diagnostic tests were less important than information about the threat of breast cancer. Women experienced heightened uncertainty and anxiety levels related to the benign breast biopsy experience. Profiles of information needs were developed for women experiencing various levels of uncertainty and anxiety, women of different age groups, and women who experienced with a loved one with breast cancer.
Hanoch, Yaniv; Pachur, Thorsten
Nurses are increasingly being called upon to be the conveyers of important statistical information to patients. This trend is particularly evident in the domains of genetics and cancer screening. These new roles, however, demand new competencies, such as the ability to solve statistical problems, and the skill to communicate the answers effectively, as effective communication is an important ingredient in shared decision making. Genetic testing, perhaps more than other medical domains, relies heavily on the use of statistics. Being able to convey statistical information effectively is vital. In this paper, we illustrate the problems health care professionals have had in tackling and communicating statistical information. We introduce the natural frequencies method of solving Bayesian inference problems and review empirical evidence that shows the superiority of this format. Being able to transform probabilities into natural frequencies facilitates correct Bayesian inferences. It is argued that the conventional approach to educating nurses in Bayesian problem solving should be reconsidered and their statistical curriculum should be supplemented with instruction in using the natural frequency format.
Dean, Marleah; Scherr, Courtney L; Clements, Meredith; Koruo, Rachel; Martinez, Jennifer; Ross, Amy
To investigate BRCA-positive, unaffected patients' - referred to as previvors - information needs after testing positive for a deleterious BRCA genetic mutation. 25 qualitative interviews were conducted with previvors. Data were analyzed using the constant comparison method of grounded theory. Analysis revealed a theoretical model of previvors' information needs related to the stage of their health journey. Specifically, a four-stage model was developed based on the data: (1) pre-testing information needs, (2) post-testing information needs, (3) pre-management information needs, and (4) post-management information needs. Two recurring dimensions of desired knowledge also emerged within the stages-personal/social knowledge and medical knowledge. While previvors may be genetically predisposed to develop cancer, they have not been diagnosed with cancer, and therefore have different information needs than cancer patients and cancer survivors. This model can serve as a framework for assisting healthcare providers in meeting the specific information needs of cancer previvors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Khorrami, F; Ahmadi, M; Alizadeh, A; Roozbeh, N; Mohseni, S
Introduction: Given the ever-increasing importance and value of information, providing the management with a reliable information system, which can facilitate decision-making regarding planning, organization and control, is vitally important. This study aimed to analyze and evaluate the information needs of medical equipment offices. Methods: This descriptive applied cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010. The population of the study included the managers of statistic and medical records at the offices of vice-chancellor for treatment in 39 medical universities in Iran. Data were collected by using structured questioners. With regard to different kinds of designing information systems, sampling was done by two methods, BSP (based on processes of job description) and CSF method (based on critical success factors). The data were analyzed by SPSS-16. Results: Our study showed that 41% of information needs were found to be critical success factors of managers of office. The first priority of managers was "the number of bed and bed occupancy in hospitals". Of 29 identified information needs, 62% were initial information needs of managers (from the viewpoints of managers). Of all, 4% of the information needs were obtained through the form, 14% through both the form and database, 11% through the web site, and 71% had no sources (forms, databases, web site). Conclusion: Since 71% of the information needs of medical equipment offices managers had no information sources, the development of information system in these offices seems to be necessary. Despite the important role of users in designing the information systems (identifying 62% of information needs), other scientific methods is also needed to be utilized in designing the information systems.
Wang, Panpan; Hou, Yuexian; Li, Jingfei; Zhang, Yazhou; Song, Dawei; Li, Wenjie
Recently, a number of quantum theory (QT)-based information retrieval (IR) models have been proposed for modeling session search task that users issue queries continuously in order to describe their evolving information needs (IN). However, the standard formalism of QT cannot provide a complete description for users' current IN in a sense that it does not take the 'future' information into consideration. Therefore, to seek a more proper and complete representation for users' IN, we construct a representation of quasi-current IN inspired by an emerging Two-State Vector Formalism (TSVF). With the enlightenment of the completeness of TSVF, a ;two-state vector; derived from the 'future' (the current query) and the 'history' (the previous query) is employed to describe users' quasi-current IN in a more complete way. Extensive experiments are conducted on the session tracks of TREC 2013 & 2014, and show that our model outperforms a series of compared IR models.
Mendes, Karina Dal Sasso; Rossin, Fabiana Murad; Ziviani, Luciana da Costa; de Castro-E-Silva, Orlando; Galvão, Cristina Maria
'Information need' is defined as a deficiency of information or skill related to a domain of life that is relevant to the patient. This study's objective was to identify the information needs of candidates on the waiting list for a liver transplant. This is a descriptive study and was conducted at a transplant center in the State of São Paulo-Brazil. The sample consisted of 55 patients and data were collected from March to June 2009. The results showed higher average scores for information needs concerning the preoperativeperiod. Identifying the information needs of liver transplant candidates is important to planning the teaching-learning process.
Curseu, Petru Lucian
In a sample of 213 students organized in 44 groups this study tests the impact of need for cognition on active information search by using a multilevel analysis. The results show that group members with high need for cognition seek more advice in task related issues than those with low need for cognition and this pattern of information exchange is…
McCarthy, Maria C; McNeil, Robyn; Drew, Sarah; Orme, Lisa; Sawyer, Susan M
This study aimed to explore health-related information needs of adolescent and young adults (AYAs) and their parent-carers and to examine demographic and clinical variables associated with unmet information needs, including patient activation. In a national cross-sectional study, 196 Australian AYAs diagnosed with cancer between 15 and 25 years and within 24 months of diagnosis and 204 parent-carers reported on total and unmet needs for cancer and health-related information. Fifty-one percent of AYAs were male, 81% had completed treatment and 86% were treated in adult hospitals. AYAs and parents reported high levels of total need for information. The mean number of unmet needs was 5.63 and 6.82 for AYAs and parents, respectively. AYAs reported the highest unmet needs in relation to their cancer (e.g. late effects and cancer recurrence, and having children in the future). The highest unmet parent information needs were related to medical information about their child as well as information on financial issues for their children and themselves. Unmet information need was associated with psychological distress (posttraumatic stress symptoms) for AYAs and parents. Patient activation was negatively associated with unmet information needs for AYAs. Demographic and treatment variables were not significantly associated with information needs. These findings indicate the importance of information needs for AYAs and their carers. The association between patient activation and information needs suggests that promoting young people's engagement with healthcare is a key opportunity within AYA care. Parent information needs and associated emotional distress additionally highlight the importance of family-centered care.
Mulcare, H; Schofield, P; Kashima, Y; Milgrom, J; Wirth, A; Bishop, M; Wheeler, G
Although typically high, the need for information varies between cancer patients. Few studies, however, have examined the factors that predict patient information needs. This study investigated the influence of different styles of adjustment to cancer on information needs. It was proposed that adjustment styles can be defined in terms of goal pursuit and that adjustment influences information needs as these also arise from goal pursuit. Seventy-three lung cancer patients were recruited at their first appointment with their radiation oncologist. Participants completed the Patient Information Needs Questionnaire measuring Disease Orientated (DO) information and Action Orientated (AO) information, the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale, and a purpose-built measure of cancer-related personal goals. High levels of the adjustment styles, Fighting Spirit and Anxious Preoccupation, were related to a high need for DO information (p=0.042 and 0.023, respectively). Conversely, high levels of the adjustment style Cognitive Avoidance was related to a low need for DO information (p=0.041). High levels of Anxious Preoccupation were also positively related to a high need for AO information (p=0.018). Support for the proposed theoretical model was also found: information goals predicted information needs and mediated the relationship between Fighting Spirit and DO information need. These findings suggest that information needs vary as a function of adjustment to cancer. Consequently information provision to cancer patients could be more appropriately tailored by attending to how a patient is adjusting to their diagnosis of cancer. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kuruppu, Pali U.; Gruber, Anne Marie
This study investigates the information needs of faculty and graduate students in agricultural and biological sciences. Qualitative research methods, interviews and focus groups, were used to examine what types of information these scholars need for their research, teaching and learning, how they seek that information, and perceptions. The…
Meyer, Robert S.
Special circumstances surround the surveying of businessmen's information needs. The businessman's characteristics must be considered; he is pragmatic and practical is time-oriented, has simple and basic information needs, is probably unaware that the public library can help him, has limited and specialized information resources, and uses a…
Zhang, Mingyuan; Fiol, Guilherme Del; Grout, Randall W.; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Medlin, Richard; Mishra, Rashmi; Weir, Charlene; Liu, Hongfang; Mostafa, Javed; Fiszman, Marcelo
Online knowledge resources such as Medline can address most clinicians’ patient care information needs. Yet, significant barriers, notably lack of time, limit the use of these sources at the point of care. The most common information needs raised by clinicians are treatment-related. Comparative effectiveness studies allow clinicians to consider multiple treatment alternatives for a particular problem. Still, solutions are needed to enable efficient and effective consumption of comparative effectiveness research at the point of care. Objective Design and assess an algorithm for automatically identifying comparative effectiveness studies and extracting the interventions investigated in these studies. Methods The algorithm combines semantic natural language processing, Medline citation metadata, and machine learning techniques. We assessed the algorithm in a case study of treatment alternatives for depression. Results Both precision and recall for identifying comparative studies was 0.83. A total of 86% of the interventions extracted perfectly or partially matched the gold standard. Conclusion Overall, the algorithm achieved reasonable performance. The method provides building blocks for the automatic summarization of comparative effectiveness research to inform point of care decision-making. PMID:23920677
Zhang, Mingyuan; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Grout, Randall W; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Medlin, Richard; Mishra, Rashmi; Weir, Charlene; Liu, Hongfang; Mostafa, Javed; Fiszman, Marcelo
Online knowledge resources such as Medline can address most clinicians' patient care information needs. Yet, significant barriers, notably lack of time, limit the use of these sources at the point of care. The most common information needs raised by clinicians are treatment-related. Comparative effectiveness studies allow clinicians to consider multiple treatment alternatives for a particular problem. Still, solutions are needed to enable efficient and effective consumption of comparative effectiveness research at the point of care. Design and assess an algorithm for automatically identifying comparative effectiveness studies and extracting the interventions investigated in these studies. The algorithm combines semantic natural language processing, Medline citation metadata, and machine learning techniques. We assessed the algorithm in a case study of treatment alternatives for depression. Both precision and recall for identifying comparative studies was 0.83. A total of 86% of the interventions extracted perfectly or partially matched the gold standard. Overall, the algorithm achieved reasonable performance. The method provides building blocks for the automatic summarization of comparative effectiveness research to inform point of care decision-making.
Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Wim; Igwe, Stanley C.; Tezzon, Frediano; Nardone, Raffaele
There is a general need for high-quality, easily accessible, and comprehensive health-care information on epilepsy to better inform the general population about this highly stigmatized neurological disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health literacy level of eight popular
Gordon, E J; Mullee, J; Beauvais, N; Warren, E; Theodoropoulos, N; McNatt, G; Rassiwala, J; Ison, M G
Transplant providers must understand the definition of increased risk donor (IRD) organs to effectively educate transplant candidates and obtain informed consent. This study surveyed non-physician providers from 20 transplant centers about their educational and informed consent practices of IRD kidneys. An anonymous, web-based survey about the content and timing of education and informed consent for potential recipients of IRD kidneys, providers' knowledge of IRD kidneys, and provider and center characteristics was completed by most (67%; 90 of 135) of those invited to participate; 87 responses were included in analysis. Most (80%) reported understanding the concept of IRD kidneys. However, few reported sufficient knowledge of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network definition of IRDs, risk factors, screening tests, window periods, and infection transmission rates. Most (56%) felt uncomfortable with obtaining specific informed consent for IRD kidneys. Most respondents received informal education about IRD kidneys (78%), and recognized the need for (98%) and were interested in receiving (99%) further education on this topic. Non-physician transplant providers need and are interested in better education about IRD kidneys to effectively educate patients and obtain patients' informed consent. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pommer, Bernhard; Zechner, Werner; Watzak, Georg; Ulm, Christian; Watzek, Georg; Tepper, Gabor
Little is known about the level of information on implant dentistry in the public. A representative opinion poll on dental implants in the Austrian population was published in 2003 (Clinical Oral Implants Research 14:621-642). Seven years later, the poll was rerun to assess the up-to-date information level and evaluate recent progress and trends in patients' mindset on dental implants. One thousand adults--representative for the Austrian population--were presented with a total of 19 questionnaire items regarding the level and the sources of information about dental implants as well as the subjective and objective need for patient information. Compared with the survey of 2003, the subjective level of patient information about implant dentistry has significantly increased in the Austrian population. The patients' implant awareness rate was 79%. The objective level of general knowledge about dental implants was still all but satisfactory revealing unrealistic patient expectations. Three-quarters trusted their dentists for information about dental implants, while one-quarter turned to the media. The patients' wish for high-quality implant restorations was significantly higher than in 2003, yet the majority felt that only specialists should perform implant dentistry. This representative survey reveals that dentists are still the main source of patient information, but throws doubt on the quality of their public relations work. Dentists must improve communication strategies to provide their patients with comprehensible, legally tenable information on dental implants and bridge information gaps in the future. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Full Text Available This study aimed to provide insights into Australian women’s experiences in gaining nutrition information during pregnancy. Individual semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 17 pregnant (across all trimesters and 9 postpartum women in five Australian states. Data were transcribed and analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Women valued nutrition information, actively sought it, and passively received it mainly from three sources: healthcare providers (HCPs, media, and their social networks. Women reported HCPs as highest for reliability but they had limited time and indifferent approaches. Various media were easily and most frequently accessed but were less reliable. Social networks were considered to be the least reliable and least accessed. Women reported becoming overwhelmed and confused. This in turn influenced their decisions (pragmatic/rational and their eating behaviours (“overdo it,” “loosen it,” “ignore it,” and “positive response”. Individual and environmental barriers impacted their application of knowledge to dietary practice. Women wanted more constructive and interactive engagement with their HCPs. This study identified the need to establish and maintain mutually respectful environments where women feel able to raise issues with their HCPs throughout their pregnancies and where they are confident that the information they receive will be accurate and meet their needs.
Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira
This study aimed to provide insights into Australian women's experiences in gaining nutrition information during pregnancy. Individual semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 17 pregnant (across all trimesters) and 9 postpartum women in five Australian states. Data were transcribed and analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Women valued nutrition information, actively sought it, and passively received it mainly from three sources: healthcare providers (HCPs), media, and their social networks. Women reported HCPs as highest for reliability but they had limited time and indifferent approaches. Various media were easily and most frequently accessed but were less reliable. Social networks were considered to be the least reliable and least accessed. Women reported becoming overwhelmed and confused. This in turn influenced their decisions (pragmatic/rational) and their eating behaviours (“overdo it,” “loosen it,” “ignore it,” and “positive response”). Individual and environmental barriers impacted their application of knowledge to dietary practice. Women wanted more constructive and interactive engagement with their HCPs. This study identified the need to establish and maintain mutually respectful environments where women feel able to raise issues with their HCPs throughout their pregnancies and where they are confident that the information they receive will be accurate and meet their needs. PMID:28890896
Conti, Alessio; Garrino, Lorenza; Montanari, Paola; Dimonte, Valerio
Spinal cord injuries (SCI) are one of the most complex and disabling diseases, implying severe consequences on aspects of life of people affected by SCI and their caregivers. The aim of our study was to explore the situation of informal caregivers of persons with SCI when discharged home from a SCI Unit, in relation to needs, emotional experiences, difficulties and subsequent reactions to discharge. A purposive sample of 11 caregivers were interviewed on patients' discharge home from the Spinal Injury Care Unit and at 6 months. The semi-structured interviews were analyzed using a qualitative phenomenological methodology as described by Giorgi. Five main themes emerged from the caregivers' experiences including their implicit and explicit needs. Problems concerning communication with healthcare professionals and the need for an adequate multidisciplinary taking charge of caregivers in order to support their new role emerged within all the themes. Results suggest that greater caregiver involvement in the rehabilitation process and their preparation for discharge are required. Communication with healthcare professionals needs to be enhanced. It would be useful to organize follow-up visits after discharge to assess intervention effectiveness. Understanding the importance of discharge from the spinal cord unit as a meaningful step in the rehabilitation path for both patients and their informal caregivers. Orientating healthcare professionals towards a better caregiver involvement during the rehabilitation process. Promoting rehabilitation interventions addressed to the patients and their caregivers concerning supportive communication strategies as well as providing meaningful information, psychological and social support, educational intervention besides the physical aspects of care. Understanding SCI survivors caregivers' needs can assist healthcare professionals in planning and improving taking charge of this core aspect of nursing care.
Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.
The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and environmental information, even though this information…
Garoufallou, Emmanouel; Balatsoukas, Panos; Siatri, Rania; Zafeiriou, Georgia; Asderi, S.; Ekizoglou; P.
The increased popularity of Google search engine in the daily routine in one's workplace and in the academic information seeking process is undeniable. "Googling" challenges the traditional skills of librarians as information providers and the role of library and information service provision in the digital era. This paper reports on the…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis who are considering spinal surgery face a major decision that requires access to in-depth information and support. Unfortunately, most online resources provide incomplete and inconsistent information and minimal social support. The aim of this study was to develop an online information and support resource for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS patients considering spinal surgery. Prior to website development, a user-based needs assessment was conducted. The needs assessment involved a total of six focus groups with three stakeholder groups: (1 post-operative AIS patients or surgical candidates (10-18 years (n = 11, (2 their parents (n = 6 and (3 health care providers (n = 11. This paper reports on the findings from focus groups with health care providers. Methods Focus group methodology was used to invite a range of perspectives and stimulate discussion. During audio-recorded focus groups, an emergent table of website content was presented to participants for assessment of relevance, viability and comprehensiveness in targeting global domains of need. Specifically, effective presentation of content, desired aspects of information and support, and discussions about the value of peer support and the role of health professionals were addressed. Focus group transcripts were then subject to content analysis through a constant comparative review and analysis. Results Two focus groups were held with health care providers, consisting of 5 and 6 members respectively. Clinicians provided their perceptions of the information and support needs of surgical patients and their families and how this information and support should be delivered using internet technology. Health care providers proposed four key suggestions to consider in the development of this online resource: (1 create the website with the target audience in mind; (2 clearly state the purpose of the website and organize website content
Macculloch, Radha; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Nicholas, David; Donaldson, Sandra; Wright, James G
Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis who are considering spinal surgery face a major decision that requires access to in-depth information and support. Unfortunately, most online resources provide incomplete and inconsistent information and minimal social support. The aim of this study was to develop an online information and support resource for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients considering spinal surgery. Prior to website development, a user-based needs assessment was conducted. The needs assessment involved a total of six focus groups with three stakeholder groups: (1) post-operative AIS patients or surgical candidates (10-18 years) (n = 11), (2) their parents (n = 6) and (3) health care providers (n = 11). This paper reports on the findings from focus groups with health care providers. Focus group methodology was used to invite a range of perspectives and stimulate discussion. During audio-recorded focus groups, an emergent table of website content was presented to participants for assessment of relevance, viability and comprehensiveness in targeting global domains of need. Specifically, effective presentation of content, desired aspects of information and support, and discussions about the value of peer support and the role of health professionals were addressed. Focus group transcripts were then subject to content analysis through a constant comparative review and analysis. Two focus groups were held with health care providers, consisting of 5 and 6 members respectively. Clinicians provided their perceptions of the information and support needs of surgical patients and their families and how this information and support should be delivered using internet technology. Health care providers proposed four key suggestions to consider in the development of this online resource: (1) create the website with the target audience in mind; (2) clearly state the purpose of the website and organize website content to support the user; (3) offer a
Gatto, Francesca; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Vandekerkhove, Jochen; Zenetos, Argyro; Cardoso, Ana Cristina
Europe is severely affected by alien invasions, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem services, economy, and human health. A large number of national, regional, and global online databases provide information on the distribution, pathways of introduction, and impacts of alien species. The sufficiency and efficiency of the current online information systems to assist the European policy on alien species was investigated by a comparative analysis of occurrence data across 43 online databases. Large differences among databases were found which are partially explained by variations in their taxonomical, environmental, and geographical scopes but also by the variable efforts for continuous updates and by inconsistencies on the definition of "alien" or "invasive" species. No single database covered all European environments, countries, and taxonomic groups. In many European countries national databases do not exist, which greatly affects the quality of reported information. To be operational and useful to scientists, managers, and policy makers, online information systems need to be regularly updated through continuous monitoring on a country or regional level. We propose the creation of a network of online interoperable web services through which information in distributed resources can be accessed, aggregated and then used for reporting and further analysis at different geographical and political scales, as an efficient approach to increase the accessibility of information. Harmonization, standardization, conformity on international standards for nomenclature, and agreement on common definitions of alien and invasive species are among the necessary prerequisites.
Bernard J. Lewis; Edwin Kallio
Public and private forest managers in Minnesota feel they need better information in such areas as supply and demand, timber growth projections, and reforestation. Needs varied by agency and level of management.
Guo, Ruiling; Bain, Barbara A.; Willer, Janene
Objectives: The research assesses the information needs of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and audiologists in Idaho and identifies specific needs for training in evidence-based practice (EBP) principles and searching EBP resources.
Lim, Bee Teng; Butow, Phyllis; Mills, Jill; Miller, Annie; Goldstein, David
The information needs of patients and carers from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, including from the Chinese community, are not well understood, and there has been no previous synthesis of the literature. We conducted a systematic review of the information needs of the Chinese community affected by cancer. Database, reference list, and author searches were conducted to identify studies reporting information needs of the Chinese community affected by cancer. Data synthesis was undertaken to define categories of information needs. Initial searches yielded 2558 articles. Out of the 40 full-text articles reviewed, 26 met all the eligibility criteria. Cancer-specific, treatment, and prognosis information were the most frequently reported information needs across the cancer care continuum. Similarly, this information was the most commonly reported information needs across different health systems, migration statuses, and Chinese cultural values. Though less frequent, information needs related to interpersonal/social, financial/legal, and body image/sexuality were also raised. Thirteen studies quantified the prevalence of unmet needs, and the most frequently reported unmet needs were related to health system and information, followed by psychological, patient care and support, physical daily living, and sexuality needs. Language and cultural factors were identified in all studies involving Chinese migrants living in English-speaking countries. Failing to meet the information needs of the Chinese community members affected by cancer increases the risk for poor cancer outcomes. Potential interventions such as translated resources, bilingual advocates, an online information portal, and communication aids can be helpful in addressing the unmet needs for this community. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Nowadays, economic development is characterized by increasing of contradictions between ecological and economic systems. As a result, the necessity of unity achievement is growing in the existence of ecological and economic values as one of the main conditions of the concept of sustainable development. For this purpose it is important to implement and create an ecological and economic management system at the enterprise to ensure ecological and economic efficiency. There is a need to improve accounting as a system of measuring economic phenomena and processes for a high level of ecological and economic management. The research is aimed at the development of theoretical and methodological approaches to accounting management for ecological quality of products based on the definition of the essence of the concept as an object of management under conditions of sustainable development, identification and systematization of factors of increasing the ecological quality of products and their management features, accounting identification of costs for ecological quality of products. According to the results of the research, it is established that the ecological quality of products is a combination of properties, which ensure excellent performance of assigned functions and the presence in products of those properties and characteristics that promote the maximum satisfaction of consumer needs and inquiries. The existing order of organization of accounting in Ukraine does not provide the provision of necessary information for the management of the ecological quality of products. The proposed directions of development of elements of the expense accounting method for the ecological quality of products will promote the expansion of information support for the adoption of substantiated and effective management decisions regarding the activities of business entities in accordance with the provisions of the concept of sustainable development.
Kaushal, R.; Vest, J.R.
Summary Background Health information exchange (HIE) has the potential to improve the quality of healthcare by enabling providers with better access to patient information from multiple sources at the point of care. However, HIE efforts have historically been difficult to establish in the US and the failure rates of organizations created to foster HIE have been high. Objectives We sought to better understand how RHIO-based HIE systems were used in practice and the challenges care practitioners face using them. The objective of our study were to so investigate how HIE can better meet the needs of care practitioners. Methods We performed a multiple-case study using qualitative methods in three communities in New York State. We conducted interviews onsite and by telephone with HIE users and non-users and observed the workflows of healthcare professionals at multiple healthcare organizations participating in a local HIE effort in New York State. Results The empirical data analysis suggests that challenges still remain in increasing provider usage, optimizing HIE implementations and connecting HIE systems across geographic regions. Important determinants of system usage and perceived value includes users experienced level of available information and the fit of use for physician workflows. Conclusions Challenges still remain in increasing provider adoption, optimizing HIE implementations, and demonstrating value. The inability to find information reduced usage of HIE. Healthcare organizations, HIE facilitating organizations, and states can help support HIE adoption by ensuring patient information is accessible to providers through increasing patient consents, fostering broader participation, and by ensuring systems are usable. PMID:25589903
Tunde Kamal Omopupa; Issa Abdulraheem
.... This study, therefore, examines the information needs and utilisation of undergraduates in the Departments of Accountancy and Business Administration within three selected Nigerian Universities based on ownership...
Aghili, Omid; Sanderson, Mark
We describe the results of a qualitative study on journalists' information seeking behavior on social media. Based on interviews with eleven journalists along with a study of a set of university level journalism modules, we determined the categories of information need types that lead journalists to social media. We also determined the ways that social media is exploited as a tool to satisfy information needs and to define influential factors, which impacted on journalists' information seekin...
Murray, Christine E.; Welch, Metoka L.
This article presents the results of a statewide survey of domestic violence (DV) service providers that focused on the needs, background characteristics, and opinions of service providers related to research. The survey included an examination of service providers' motivation for working in the field, research background and training, and…
Stover, Carla Smith; Lent, Kimberly
Domestic violence (DV) continues to constitute an enormous public health problem in the United States. Knowledge and understanding of the complexities involved in DV has grown significantly in recent years revealing a need for providers who have broad training in a variety of legal, safety, developmental, and clinical issues that face families impacted by DV. This paper reviews current approaches to training and the ability of such methods to adequately prepare providers. There are no nationa...
Patricia L. Winter; Heidi Bigler-Cole
Making complex risk-related decisions involves a degree of uncertainty. How that uncertainty is addressed or presented in reports or data tables can be tailored to meet information usersâ needs and preferences. Involving the recipients of risk-related information in the design of information to be delivered (including the types of information delivered, format, and...
Patricia L. Winter; Heidi. Bigler-Cole
Making complex risk-related decisions involves a degree of uncertainty. How that uncertainty is addressed or presented in reports or data tables can be tailored to meet information usersâ needs and preferences. Involving the recipients of risk-related information in the design of information to be delivered (including the types of information delivered, format, and...
Hammarberg, Karin; Prentice, Tess; Purcell, Isabelle; Johnson, Louise
Many factors influence the chance of having a baby with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A 2016 Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) investigation concluded that ART clinics needed to improve the quality of information they provide about chance of ART success. To evaluate changes in the quality of information about success rates provided on the websites of ART clinics in Australia and New Zealand before and after the ACCC investigation. Desktop audits of websites of ART clinics in Australia and New Zealand were conducted in 2016 and 2017 and available information about success rates was scored using a matrix with eight variables and a possible range of scores of 0-9. Of the 54 clinic websites identified in 2016, 32 had unique information and were eligible to be audited. Of these, 29 were also eligible to be audited in 2017. While there was a slight improvement in the mean score from 2016 to 2017 (4.93-5.28), this was not statistically significantly different. Of the 29 clinics, 14 had the same score on both occasions, 10 had a higher and five a lower information quality score in 2017. To allow people who consider ART to make informed decisions about treatment they need comprehensive and accurate information about what treatment entails and what the likely outcomes are. As measured by a scoring matrix, most ART clinics had not improved the quality of the information about success rates following the ACCC investigation. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Wharton, Tracy; Manu, Erika; Vitale, Caroline A
This article describes a pilot model to increase palliative care (PC) knowledge and collaboration among providers and to systematically identify chronic multimorbid home care patients who would benefit from focused discussion of potential PC needs. Thirty health care providers from a home-based primary care team attended interdisciplinary trainings. The Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) tool was used to trigger discussions of potential palliative needs at team rounds for patients who scored below a cutoff point on the tool. Palliative Performance Scale implementation added little burden on nurses and triggered a discussion in 51 flagged patients. The tool successfully identified 75% of patients who died or were discharged. Screening was systematic and consistent and resulted in targeted discussions about PC needs without generating additional burden on our PC consult service. This model shows promise for enhancing collaborative patient care and access to PC. © The Author(s) 2013.
ter Huurne, E.F.J.; Gutteling, Jan M.
This paper introduces a theoretical framework that describes the importance of public's information sufficiency, risk perception, and self-efficacy as predictors of intended risk information seeking behaviour. Based on theoretical assumptions, measurement instruments for relevant concepts were
Sazonets Olga M.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the peculiarities of the innovative activity in the context of providing the enterprise information security. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists the essence of the concept of «information security» has been considered and components of the innovation development process from the standpoint of providing information security have been identified. The article discusses issues of providing information security on the basis of introducing innovations, which will allow achieving a state in which there would be realized a sustainable, protected from threats, development of the enterprise. It has been proved that the formation of the innovative enterprise policy should include measures to ensure information security. As a result of the study the types of threats to the enterprise information security have been identified. It has been determined that the innovation process in the field of information security is provided by means of research, administrative, industrial, technological and commercial activities leading to the emergence and commercialization of innovations. The prospect for further research in this area is determining a system of indicators for forecasting the integral innovation indicator of economic information security. The system of indicators for diagnostics of the enterprise information security level enables monitoring the indicators of the state of the enterprise innovation and information activity in order to prevent the emergence of threats.
Carter, Jocelyn; Broder-Fingert, Sarabeth; Neumeyer, Ann; Giauque, Ann; Kao, Ann; Iyasere, Christiana
In an effort to meet the needs of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) while hospitalized, a team of experts and providers from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), MGH for Children as well as parents of individuals with ASD was sparked in 2013. This became a multidisciplinary collaborative, the MGH Autism Care Collaborative, to improve…
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must projects that serve adults with limited English proficiency provide for the needs of those adults? 472.33 Section 472.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION...
management information systems for collecting data on their reconstruction activities, but there is no single management information system that provides...spreadsheets, presentations, and other ad hoc reports. An integrated management information system that provides a common operating picture of all U.S
Kossman, Susan; Jones, Josette; Brennan, Patricia Flatley
Depression can derail teenagers' lives and cause serious chronic health problems. Acquiring pertinent knowledge and skills supports care management, but retrieving appropriate information can be difficult. This poster presents a strategy to tailor online information to user attributes using a logical semantic approach to natural language processing (NLP) and mapping propositions to UMLS terms. This approach capitalizes on existing NLM resources and presents a potentially sustainable plan for meeting consumers and providers information needs.
Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang
Scientific literature is one of the popular resources for providing decision support at point of care. It is highly desirable to bring the most relevant literature to support the evidence-based clinical decision making process. Motivated by the recent advance in semantically enhanced information retrieval, we have developed a system, which aims to bring semantically enriched literature, Semantic Medline, to meet the information needs at point of care. This study reports our work towards operationalizing the system for real time use. We demonstrate that the migration of a relational database implementation to a NoSQL (Not only SQL) implementation significantly improves the performance and makes the use of Semantic Medline at point of care decision support possible.
Full Text Available Survey method was used and 92 valid questionnaires were collected for the analyses. The results showed that the majority of the rural elder people expressed the need for and attention to health information. ‘‘health service information’’ and ‘‘prevention health care information’’ were the most needed and important. Family, friends and television were the main channels for accessing health information. However, fewer respondents actively sought health information. When health problems occurred, they tended to seek direct medical treatment. This study also found that men were more attentive and active in seeking health information. Respondents over 75 years old rarely concerned about their health information need. People with more education were also more aware of their health information needs and more attentive to information disseminated via mass media. [Article content in Chinese
Eby, David W; Molnar, Lisa J; Kostyniuk, Lidia P; St Louis, Renée M; Zanier, Nicole
The study aim was to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of informal caregivers who provide transportation assistance and to explore the types and frequency of this assistance. A telephone survey was administered to a representative sample of 268 informal caregivers (age 45-80) who provide transportation assistance to older adults (age 70 and older) in Michigan. Responses were analyzed overall and by the caregiver sex and care recipient age. Informal transportation caregivers were: most often women; on average 61 years old; generally college educated; employed full- or part-time jobs; relatively healthy; providing care to a parent/family member 1-4 times per week, living close to the care recipient; and providing assistance by giving rides. Less than one-half of caregivers sought information to help them provide assistance. No significant burden was reported and there were few differences by sex of the caregiver of the age group of the care recipient.
David W Eby
Full Text Available The study aim was to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of informal caregivers who provide transportation assistance and to explore the types and frequency of this assistance. A telephone survey was administered to a representative sample of 268 informal caregivers (age 45-80 who provide transportation assistance to older adults (age 70 and older in Michigan. Responses were analyzed overall and by the caregiver sex and care recipient age. Informal transportation caregivers were: most often women; on average 61 years old; generally college educated; employed full- or part-time jobs; relatively healthy; providing care to a parent/family member 1-4 times per week, living close to the care recipient; and providing assistance by giving rides. Less than one-half of caregivers sought information to help them provide assistance. No significant burden was reported and there were few differences by sex of the caregiver of the age group of the care recipient.
Montague, Brian T; Kahler, Christopher W; Colby, Suzanne M; McHugh, R Kathryn; Squires, Daniel; Fitzgerald, Brianne; Operario, Don; Gallagher, Donna; Monti, Peter M; Mayer, Kenneth H
Unhealthy alcohol use is common among HIV-infected patients and contributes to co-morbidities, cognitive decline, unprotected sex, and poor medication adherence. Studies consistently show missed opportunities to address unhealthy alcohol use as part of care. Although treatment of other drug use has been integrated into HIV care in some settings, more information is needed regarding provider attitudes regarding the need for integration of alcohol treatment and HIV care. We surveyed 119 HIV and 159 addiction providers regarding the following domains: existing knowledge, desire for new knowledge (with subdomains relative advantage, compatibility, and complexity of integrating knowledge), and individual and program development needs. Scale scores for each domain were correlated with demographics to identify factors associated with training need. Both HIV and addiction providers reported agreement with statements of existing knowledge and the need for additional skills. The priority attributed to training, however, was low for both groups. Knowledge and perceived prevalence of HIV and unhealthy alcohol use increased with years of experience. Perceived prevalence correlated with compatibility but not the relative advantage of training. Though addressing alcohol use and HIV was acknowledged to be important, the priority of this was low, particularly early career providers. These providers may be important targets for training focusing on motivating coordination of care and skills related to assessment and counseling.
Risks for patients and consumers can be minimized depending on how they are provided appropriate drug information. Therefore, from the viewpoint of hospital pharmacists, I would like to report on how information should be provided in order to minimize patient risk. For example, there is an ongoing opinion that the provision of easy-to-understand drug information to patients and consumers "does not appear necessary". The reasons for this include the following: Because the level of understanding varies greatly among patients, it is difficult to define what "easy-to-understand" information entails; rather, it may cause misunderstanding. These problems occur repeatedly if they are resolved by individual institutions. Therefore, it is essential to standardize the drug information provided to patients, that is, to establish a system to transmit drug information to patients and consumers. Regardless of whether the development of a hospital information system is in progress or not, it can be said that the development of such information systems is gradually spreading outside of hospitals and the situation is changing. From the viewpoint of patients, medical services are not limited to those from hospitals. Patient-centered collaboration between hospitals/clinics and pharmacies (but not the collaboration between hospital pharmacists and community pharmacists (why not?)) can provide good medical services only if patient information is shared. It is essential to establish a system for providing a drug guide for patients, in order to have patients understand drug information. The preparation of Drug Information for Patients would provide health care specialists a communication tool that helps minimize patient risk.
Nielsen, Mandy; Jull, Gwendolen; Hodges, Paul W
To identify the information needs of people with low back pain (LBP) in Australia, and the preferred methods to present this information online, as a basis for development of a patient-centred website. Available online LBP resources are limited in quality and content and it is not clear if they are meeting the needs of sufferers. Focus groups and semi-structured telephone interviews, involving 28 people with LBP. Seven categories of information were identified: reasons for LBP, treatment and management options, self-help information, psychological and social dimensions, lay stories, quality assurance of information and roles of different healthcare professionals and locally available services. Identified preferences for online presentation included: multimodality, emphasis on visual media, readability and interactivity. Participants had been unable to obtain desired LBP information using existing resources. This study provides important guidance for development of a patient-centred website grounded in the expressed needs and preferences of people with LBP. Understanding the breadth of patients' questions and concerns is essential for provision of patient-centred information and interventions. Incorporating these with the current evidence base would provide an accessible and relevant LBP patient education referral point, which is currently lacking. Implications for Rehabilitation Use of the internet to obtain health information is increasing, although there is little evidence that existing low back pain websites are meeting the expressed needs of health consumers. Our research suggests that people with low back pain have difficulty finding relevant and trustworthy information about the condition on the internet. Taking patient information needs and presentation preferences into account when designing online information material will provide people with low back pain an accessible and relevant educational resource that is currently lacking.
Ozegowski, S; Sundmacher, L
Since the 1990s licenses for opening a medical practice in Germany are granted based on a needs-based planning system which regulates the regional allocation of physicians in primary care. This study aims at an analysis of the distribution of physicians (and hence the effects of the planning system) with regard to the overarching objective of primary care supply: the safeguarding of "needs-based and evenly distributed health care provision" (Section 70 para 1 German Social Code V). The need for health care provision of each German district (or region) and the actual number of physicians in the respective area are compared using a concentration analysis. For this purpose, the local health-care need was approximated in a model based on the morbidity predictors age and sex and by combining data on the local population structure with the age- and sex-specific frequency of physician consultations (according to data of the GEK sickness fund). The concentration index then measures the degree of regional inequity in the distribution of outpatient care. The results of the analysis demonstrate an inequitable regional distribution between medical needs of the local population and the existing outpatient health care provider capacities. These regional disparities in needs-adjusted supply densities are particularly large for -outpatient secondary care physicians and psychotherapists, even when taking into account the care provision of urban physicians for peri-urban areas as well as the adequacy of longer travel times to specialists. One major reason for these inequities is the design of today's physician planning mechanism which mainly conserves a suboptimal status quo of the past. The initiated reforms of the planning mechanism should progress and be further deepened. Especially today's quota-based allocation of practice licenses requires fundamental changes taking into account the relevant factors approximating local health care needs, re-assessing the adequate spatial
... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Planning) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: NCA PreNeed Burial Planning, VA Form 40-10007. OMB Control Number: 2900--New. Type of..., service members, and their eligible family members with planning for burial in a VA national cemetery...
An adequate understanding of the information needs of the youth is crucial in planning programmes that address their socio-economic wellbeing. This study investigated the information needs of the youth in Uzoagba, a rural community in South-Eastern Nigeria. Data were collected from the youth through focus group ...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information we need concerning marriage when you apply for SSI. 416.1816 Section 416.1816 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION....1816 Information we need concerning marriage when you apply for SSI. When you apply for SSI benefits...
Nail-Chiwetalu, Barbara; Bernstein Ratner, Nan
Objectives: This study assessed the information-seeking practices and needs of speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Improved understanding of these needs can inform librarians and educators to better prepare students in principles and methods of evidence-based practice (EBP) and, through continuing education (CE), promote the integration of EBP into clinical practice of SLPs.
John R. Squires; Patricia L. Kennedy
The contentious and litigious history associated with managing Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) has focused much research attention toward understanding this speciesâ life history. Results from these studies address many key information needs that are useful to managers and decision makers, but many pressing information needs exist to address key...
Agatha Gifty LARSON
Full Text Available The study focuses on the information needs of distance learners of the Winneba Study Centre of the University of Education, Winneba. The main objective was to investigate the information needs of this group of students who live far away from their host institution and have minimal interaction with their tutors. The study was a survey and made use of a questionnaire as research instrument. The target population consisted of all distance learners of the Centre; this includes the Diploma and Post Diploma students numbering 1,029 as at 2014/2015 academic year. A sample size of 206 representing 20% of the population was selected through random sampling. The questionnaire was analyzed using frequency tables and percentages. Findings of the study were that distance learners depend solely on the course materials and lecture notes as the only source of information due to their tight schedule. They were also not using libraries to support their learning and other academic activities as they lacked searching and library use skills. Furthermore, it was found that the learners prefer print format to electronic format and lack of time and inability to search for information are some of the hindrances to their information utilization. Based on the findings, it was recommended among other things that, tutors should endeavour to give assignments that would require the use of libraries, efforts should also be made by library management in partnership with distance education administrators to run mobile library services, instruction on library use, negotiate for space in public and school libraries to keep library materials for use by the learners and also provide instruction on how to access and use both print and electronic resources in libraries.
Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants. An Adaptive Thermal Comfort System is defined as the whole of passive and active comfort components of the dwelling that dynamically adapts its settings to varying user comfort demands and weather conditions (seasonal, diurnal and hourly depending on the aspects adapted, thus providing comfort only where, when and at the level needed by the user, to improve possibilities of harvesting the environmental energy (e.g. solar gain and outdoor air when available and storing it when abundant. In order to be able to create an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System to save energy knowledge is needed as to where, when, what kind and how much energy is needed to provide the thermal comfort. Therefore, this research aimed to gain insight in the dynamic behaviour of the weather and the occupant and the opportunities to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants answering the main research question; What are the most efficient strategies for delivering thermal comfort in the residential sector with respect to better energy performances and an increasing demand for flexibility in use and comfort conditions? To answer the main research question three steps were taken, which also represent the three parts of the research: 1. The dynamic information of the factors influencing the thermal heat balance of the dwelling was gathered in order to determine their opportunities for adaptivity. A multidisciplinary approach to Thermal Comfort Systems is followed taking into account the dynamic of occupancy profiles, weather, building physics, HVAC and controls. A
Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants. An Adaptive Thermal Comfort System is defined as the whole of passive and active comfort components of the dwelling that dynamically adapts its settings to varying user comfort demands and weather conditions (seasonal, diurnal and hourly depending on the aspects adapted, thus providing comfort only where, when and at the level needed by the user, to improve possibilities of harvesting the environmental energy (e.g. solar gain and outdoor air when available and storing it when abundant.In order to be able to create an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System to save energy knowledge is needed as to where, when, what kind and how much energy is needed to provide the thermal comfort. Therefore, this research aimed to gain insight in the dynamic behaviour of the weather and the occupant and the opportunities to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants answering the main research question; What are the most efficient strategies for delivering thermal comfort in the residential sector with respect to better energy performances and an increasing demand for flexibility in use and comfort conditions?To answer the main research question three steps were taken, which also represent the three parts of the research:1. The dynamic information of the factors influencing the thermal heat balance of the dwelling was gathered in order to determine their opportunities for adaptivity. A multidisciplinary approach to Thermal Comfort Systems is followed taking into account the dynamic of occupancy profiles, weather, building physics, HVAC and controls
Dingman, Deirdre A; Schulz, Mark R; Wyrick, David L; Bibeau, Daniel L; Gupta, Sat N
In 2010, the United States (US) enacted a restaurant menu labeling law. The law also applied to vending machine companies selling food. Research suggested that providing nutrition information on menus in restaurants might reduce the number of calories purchased. We tested the effect of providing nutrition information and 'healthy' designations to consumers where vending machines were located in college residence halls. We conducted our study at one university in Southeast US (October-November 2012). We randomly assigned 18 vending machines locations (residence halls) to an intervention or control group. For the intervention we posted nutrition information, interpretive signage, and sent a promotional email to residents of the hall. For the control group we did nothing. We tracked sales over 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after we introduced the intervention. Our intervention did not change what the residents bought. We recommend additional research about providing nutrition information where vending machines are located, including testing formats used to present information.
Keller, Richard M.; Lucas, Paul J.; Compton, Michael M.; Stewart, Helen J.; Baya, Vinod; DelAlto, Martha
The deployment of information-sharing systems in large organizations can significantly impact existing policies and procedures with regard to authority and control over information. Unless information-sharing systems explicitly support organizational structures and needs, these systems will be rejected summarily. The Postdoc system is a deployed Web-based information-sharing system created specifically to address organizational needs. Postdoc contains various organizational support features including a shared, globally navigable document space, as well as specialized access control, distributed administration, and mailing list features built around the key notion of hierarchical group structures. We review successes and difficulties in supporting organizational needs with Postdoc
Longing, Jeffrey Lucian
The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in the perceptions of teachers teaching in high-need areas (i.e., math, science, special education, etc.) and teachers not teaching in high-need areas, (i.e., business education, physical education, etc.) as defined by the states of Arkansas and Louisiana, regarding higher compensation for high-need teachers. In addition, possible perception differences among principals and teachers were determined. The independent variables consisted of gender, position held, years of certified experience, and certification areas. The dependent variable was the perceptions of the participants on providing higher compensation for high-need teachers in order to attract and retain them. The data for all variables were collected using the Teacher Compensation Survey. The sample for this study was limited to teachers, grades 9 through 12, and principals of public high schools in south Arkansas and north Louisiana. Forty-four school districts in south Arkansas (Arkansas Department of Education, 2008a) and north Louisiana (Louisiana Department of Education, 2008a) met the criteria for this study. Twenty-two superintendents gave permission for their districts to participate in the research. A sample of 849 teachers and 38 principals were identified in these districts. Surveys were returned from 350 teachers, creating a 41% response rate. When the 31 principals that returned surveys were added to the total population, the response rate increased to 43% with 381 of the 887 surveyed responding. However, 42 of the teachers and two of the principals skipped some of the questions on the survey and were not included in the study. The researcher used a One-Way ANOVA and independent t-tests to determine the presence of statistical differences at the .05 level. The data showed that most math and science teachers agreed that high-need teachers should be compensated at a higher rate than teachers not teaching in high-need areas. The data
.... Whereas expansion of a water utility typically involves the replacement of informal providers, the experience in Manila demonstrates that the rapid connection of low-income areas actually hinges...
Patel, Sonal; Dowse, Ros
Although much health information-seeking behaviour (HISB) research has been reported in patients with good literacy skills, little is known about HISB in patients with limited literacy skills served by under-resourced health-care systems. To investigate medicine information-seeking behaviour and information needs in patients with limited literacy. Using a question guide, four focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted to explore themes related to information needs, information-seeking practices and awareness of and ability to utilize information sources. Twenty-two isiXhosa-speaking long-term patients with limited formal education were recruited from a primary health-care clinic in South Africa. Discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. NVivo(®) was used for initial coding of transcripts. Codes were analysed, and potential themes and subthemes in the entire data set were identified and refined. The results of this study reflect a passive, disempowered patient. Poor awareness of information sources, lack of health-related knowledge and stigma contributed to a lack of information-seeking practice, thus potentially adversely influencing patient-provider interactions. Patients neither asked questions nor were encouraged to ask questions. All expressed an unmet need for information and a desire for receiving the illustrated written medicines-related information displayed in the FGDs. The main sources of information were health-care professionals, followed by family and friends. The significant level of patient disempowerment and passivity reported amongst patients underpinned their inability to actively seek information. Neither sources of information nor types of appropriate medicines information could be identified. Unmet information needs and a desire for information were reported. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schmidt, Anna; Ernstmann, Nicole; Wesselmann, Simone; Pfaff, Holger; Wirtz, Markus; Kowalski, Christoph
After a short hospital stay of just some days follows long-term outpatient care for breast cancer patients. The aim of the study is to describe the information needs of breast cancer outpatients and to get in touch with aspects of health literacy, as well as contact various health care workers. In a multicenter study, patients were asked about their information needs 10 weeks after surgery. The analysis on hand includes data about 1248 female patients. In addition to descriptive analyses identifying the most prevalent information needs, logistic regression analyses were calculated to identify factors associated with these. The results show that information needs of breast cancer outpatients are mainly in "follow-up after acute treatment", "coping with long-term side effects", and "heredity of breast cancer". In addition to sociodemographic patient characteristics, perceived helpful contacts with various health care workers as well as a satisfactory patient's level of health literacy reduced the probability of unmet information needs. Breast cancer outpatients have numerous information needs. In addition to provide information at the right time regarding a specific disease phase, it is important that health professionals' support affected breast cancer patients in coping with the new situation.
花岡, 智恵; Hanaoka, Chie
In this paper, we investigate whether expected bequests from elderly parents affects the probability of children providing informal care, using Japanese micro data. We found that elderly parents with home equity were more likely to receive informal care from their children compared to those without. The results imply that the assets of the elderly may affect the probability of receiving informal care from their children.
Knapp, Caprice A; Madden, Vanessa L; Marcu, Mircea I
Partnering between families and their children's providers is a cornerstone of family-centered care. This study aimed to identify factors associated with family-provider partnership and determine the association between partnership and other outcome measures for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using data from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Multivariate models showed that CSHCN who are White non-Hispanic, younger than 12, reside in households with incomes above 400% of the federal poverty level, and have a usual source of care were associated with family-provider partnership. Multivariate models showed that family-provider partnership was significantly associated with adequate insurance, early and continual screening, organized health care services, and transition preparedness. Family-provider partnership was associated with 20% fewer emergency department visits and 9% fewer school days missed. This study suggests that policies aimed at promoting family-provider partnership could increase health outcomes for CSHCN.
Aber, Susan Ward
was a lack of time and funding for converting photographic prints and slides to digital images. Findings have implications for academic librarians to provide more visual media or assistance with organizing and formatting existing outdated media formats and to create collaborative collection development through repackaging personal collections of geoscience participants to enhance teaching. Implications for library school educators include providing curriculum on information needs and behaviors from a user's perspective, subject specialty librarianship, and internal collaborative collection development to complement external collection development.
Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.
The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and
Dinnen, Stephanie; Kane, Vince; Cook, Joan M
Exposure to traumatic events is a highly prevalent, although often overlooked, aspect in the lives of homeless veterans. In this study, the prevalence and correlates of potentially traumatic events, including posttraumatic stress disorder, in the homeless veteran population are presented. Presently, there exists a lack of trauma-informed case management services for homeless veterans. Failing to recognize the association between trauma and homelessness may lead to further victimization, exacerbate mental health symptomology, and hinder a provider's ability to effectively intervene on behalf of homeless veterans. Subgroups of homeless veterans such as those who served in the Vietnam and post-Vietnam era, more recent returnees from Iraq and Afghanistan, women, rural-residing veterans, and those who are justice involved, are discussed for unique trauma histories and service needs. Barriers to receiving trauma-informed care among homeless veterans are reviewed. Information to assist providers in assessing trauma histories and current best practices in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder are noted. Suggestions for how this document can be used in varied organizational settings are made.
Callaghan, Lynne; Doherty, Alan; Lea, Susan J; Webster, Daniel
Students on health and social care degree programmes spend 50% of their time on practice placements. Because of the diversity of settings and the need to evidence their work, it is vital to understand the information and resource needs of placement students. The aim of this investigation was to understand the needs of placement students in terms of accessing resources whilst they are in the field in order to inform a guide to meet these needs. Focus groups were conducted with students on midwifery, social work and post-registration health professions degree programmes on three different sites across the region. Data were analysed using Thematic Content Analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: inequality, user education needs and students' solutions and strategies. It is essential to speak to placement students in order to understand their needs in terms of accessing and using library resources. The timing and content of information skills training is key to meeting student needs while on placement.
Full Text Available Background: This study analyzed differences between transparency of information disclosure and related demands from the health service consumer’s perspective. It also compared how health service providers and consumers are associated by different levels of mandatory information disclosure. Methods: We obtained our research data using a questionnaire survey (health services providers, n = 201; health service consumers, n = 384. Results: Health service consumers do not have major concerns regarding mandatory information disclosure. However, they are concerned about complaint channels and settlement results, results of patient satisfaction surveys, and disclosure of hospital financial statements (p < 0.001. We identified significant differences in health service providers’ and consumers’ awareness regarding the transparency of information disclosure (p < 0.001. Conclusions: It may not be possible for outsiders to properly interpret the information provided by hospitals. Thus, when a hospital discloses information, it is necessary for the government to consider the information’s applicability. Toward improving medical expertise and information asymmetry, the government has to reduce the burden among health service consumers in dealing with this information, and it has to use the information effectively.
Madadi, Parvaz; Joly, Yann; Avard, Denise; Chitayat, David C; Smith, M Anne; D Ross, Colin J; Carleton, Bruce C; Hayden, Michael R; Koren, Gideon
In this brief investigation, the informational needs of research participants [n = 62; mothers who had breastfed, taken codeine, and participated in a pharmacogenetic study] were probed during a counselling session in which they received their CYP2D6 pharmacogenetic research results and overall study results. In addition to the standard information, developed by a multidisciplinary team and provided to the participants, 38% of individuals had further questions related to potential adverse effects in babies, future codeine or medication use, heredity, and consequences for policies and programmes. The diversity and complexity of the questions raised support the need to communicate the results in the context of personalized genetic counselling information sessions.
Zullig, Leah L; Sanders, Linda L; Shaw, Ryan J; McCant, Felicia; Danus, Susanne; Bosworth, Hayden B
We conducted a feasibility study of a web-based intervention, which provided personalized cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk information, behavioural risk reduction strategies and educational resources. Participants were block-randomized to the 3-month intervention (n = 47) or to usual care (n = 49). Participants in the intervention group were presented with their CVD risk based on the Framingham risk score, and in three subsequent online encounters could select two behavioural/lifestyle modules, giving them an opportunity to complete six modules over the course of the study. Because it was self-guided, participants had differing levels of engagement with intervention materials. Most intervention group participants (77%, n = 36) completed all modules. After 3 months there were no significant differences between the intervention and usual care groups for systolic blood pressure, body-mass index, CVD risk, smoking cessation or medication non-adherence. The study suggests that modest clinical improvements can be achieved by interventions that are entirely web-administered. However, web-based interventions do not replace the need for human interaction to communicate CVD risk and assist with decision-making.
Full Text Available Objectives: Occupational medicine is a discipline continually evolving in response to technological advances, changes in workplaces and production processes, emergence of new occupational risks and diseases and modifications in regulatory framework for occupational health and safety. Therefore, the recurrent revaluation of professional activity, information demands and education and training needs of occupational physicians is essential in order to identify methodologies and tools that may contribute to improvement of their professional knowledge and competency. In this regard, we conducted the first large-scale national survey of Italian occupational medicine physicians to define their demographic and professional activity and to assess their information demands, training and updating needs. Material and Methods: A random sample of occupational physicians, listed in the national register of the Italian Ministry of Health, was selected to complete a voluntary survey. Subjects recruited in this study were asked to complete 3 different sections (personal and professional information, training and updating needs, professional activity and practice characteristics of a questionnaire for a total of 35 questions. Results: Most of participants were specialized in occupational medicine, worked for a large number of companies and carried out health surveillance on a total number of workers that exceeds 1500. Occupational physicians would like to have a higher training offer towards practical aspects of health surveillance, risks assessment, manual handling of loads, chemical substances and upper limb biomechanical overload. Interestingly, statistically significant differences were observed subdividing the sample into different groups according to the legal requirements to perform the professional activity of occupational physicians in Italy or according to particular aspects of their professional activity. Conclusions: This study has provided interesting
van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Vitikainen, Emma; D'Ettorre, Patrizia
-sister relatedness workers should bias their sex ratio towards males. However, in order to achieve this, workers need to be able to reliably assess the type of colony in which they live. The information on colony kin structure may be encoded in cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), assuming that genetic variability...
Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.
This report discusses the management of scientific and technical bibliographic data bases by the Federal Government, the existence of overlapping and duplicative bibliographic information services, the application of cost recovery principles to bibliographic information services, and the need to manage information as a resource. Questionnaires…
... management information system? 102-34.340 Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that — (a...
... Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Institute of Education Sciences; Needs Sensing Survey..., Washington, DC 20202-4537. Copies of the proposed information collection request may be accessed from http.... When you access the information collection, click on ``Download Attachments'' to view. Written requests...
... Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Institute of Education Sciences; Needs Sensing Survey..., Washington, DC 20202-4537. Copies of the proposed information collection request may be accessed from http.... When you access the information collection, click on ``Download Attachments'' to view. Written requests...
library blog: Critical Commodities - http://criticalcommodities.com/ ITIL - Information Technology Infrastructure Library - ( ITIL ) A method of...organizing the system and network management departments of large organizations. ITIL defines the (work) processes involved and the interfaces between
van Wyk, Ernita; Roux, Dirk J; Drackner, Mikael; McCool, Stephen F
Scientific information is not always effectively incorporated into decision-making processes. This phenomenon seems to hold even when the information is aligned with an articulated need, is generated according to sound scientific procedures, and is packaged with end-user preferences in mind. We propose that contextual or cultural differences contribute significantly to the misalignment in communication between those who generate information and those who seek information for improved management of natural resources. The solution is to cultivate shared understanding, which in turn relies on acknowledgment and sharing of diverse values and attitudes. This constitutes a difficult challenge in a culturally diverse environment. Whereas cultural diversity represents wealth in experiences, knowledge and perspectives it can constrain the potential to develop the shared understandings necessary for effective integration of new information. This article illustrates how a lack of shared understanding among participants engaged in a resource-management process can produce and perpetuate divergent views of the world, to the extent that information and knowledge flows are ineffective and scientific information, even when requested, cannot be used effectively. Four themes were distilled from interviews with management and scientific staff of a natural resource-management agency in South Africa. The themes are used to illustrate how divergent views embedded in different cultures can discourage alignment of effort toward a common purpose. The article then presents a sense-making framework to illustrate the potential for developing shared understandings in a culturally diverse world.
Bruce, Jordan G; Tucholka, Jennifer L; Steffens, Nicole M; Mahoney, Jane E; Neuman, Heather B
Patients facing decisions for breast cancer surgery commonly search the internet. Directing patients to high-quality websites prior to the surgeon consultation may be one way of supporting patients' informational needs. The objective was to test an approach for delivering web-based information to breast cancer patients. The implementation strategy was developed using the Replicating Effective Programs framework. Pilot testing measured the proportion that accepted the web-based information. A pre-consultation survey assessed whether the information was reviewed and the acceptability to stakeholders. Reasons for declining guided refinement to the implementation package. Eighty-two percent (309/377) accepted the web-based information. Of the 309 that accepted, 244 completed the pre-consultation survey. Participants were a median 59 years, white (98%), and highly educated (>50% with a college degree). Most patients who completed the questionnaire reported reviewing the website (85%), and nearly all found it helpful. Surgeons thought implementation increased visit efficiency (5/6) and would result in patients making more informed decisions (6/6). The most common reasons patients declined information were limited internet comfort or access (n = 36), emotional distress (n = 14), and preference to receive information directly from the surgeon (n = 7). Routine delivery of web-based information to breast cancer patients prior to the surgeon consultation is feasible. High stakeholder acceptability combined with the low implementation burden means that these findings have immediate relevance for improving care quality.
Lee, Susan K; Sulaiman-Hill, Cheryl M R; Thompson, Sandra C
Preferences for topics and means of access to health information among newly arrived, culturally and linguistically diverse women in Perth, Western Australia, were explored. A mixed-methods approach was adopted. Qualitative material obtained from focus groups and interviews with 22 service providers and 26 migrant women was used to develop a questionnaire, which was then administered to 268 newly arrived migrant and refugee women from 50 countries. Participants' information and support priorities were ascertained from a ranking exercise conducted in a non-threatening context. Responses of migrant and refugee women were compared quantitatively. Women's top priorities for information and support included employment advice, as well as information regarding mental health issues, women's health, exercise and nutrition, family violence and alcohol and other drug issues. Their preferred methods for receiving information were interactive talks or presentations, with written material support. Audiovisual and Web-based material were also considered useful. There were differences between refugee women's and other migrants' preferences for means of receiving information and topics of most concern. The use of a non-threatening ranking process encouraged women to prioritise sensitive topics, such as family violence, and revealed a need for such topics to be incorporated within general health information presentations. Internet-based technologies are becoming increasingly important methods for disseminating information to migrant women. SO WHAT? Differences between migrant and refugee women's priority health issues and their preferred methods for receiving information highlight the desirability of tailoring information to particular groups. Although advice on employment pathways and mental health concerns were top priorities, the study revealed a need for more discussion on other sensitive topics, such as family violence and alcohol-related issues, and that ideally these should
... mental health services. 51.46 Section 51.46 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... a provider of mental health services. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, if a... of mental health services, it may not disclose information from such records to the individual who is...
.../or per diem for programs to assist homeless veterans' transition to independent living and to... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program) Activity; Comment.... Titles a. Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program, Capital Grant. Application, VA Form 10-0361-CG...
Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu
A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.
Full Text Available Increasing the global flow of information forms qualitatively new complex information processing and filing requirements. The flow of information, data and knowledge manages the various activities of the original search for technological solutions. Very abundant and rapidly growing technology solutions groups are based on semantic technologies. Therefore, this article aims to provide user access needs for producing perspective survey methodology and the empirical study is based on the prospective development of innovative product lines. This article is formed based on the recommendations of the semantics of the applicability of technology development to business end users, public administration, organization of information flows the value of the generation of knowledge—based on environment and development issues. At a practical level, based on empirical evidence substantiates the semantics it is based on technology solutions for organizations in the integration of business processes, which can become the modern aspect of the success factors of the value of domestic and global market and facilitate the diffusion of innovation. The field of qualitative research has revealed the final consumer habits and problems of information search, organization, grouping aspects. Secondly, the study determined the idea of the necessity of technology in business processes, innovation generation and diffusion of knowledge issues aspects. Third, the authors submit proposals based on the semantics of the applicability of technology development opportunities in the business. Finally—users, public administrations and their mutual interaction activities. ST applicability of these segments may occur based on ST integration of IT systems in organizations, the general structure of existing products or used as a service by buying them from outside suppliers. It is important to emphasize that the ST innovative methods to ensure successful use of advanced, modern
Full Text Available Managing water resources, air quality, forests, rangelands and agricultural systems in the context of climate change requires a new level of integrated knowledge. In order to articulate a role for university-based research teams as providers of climate services, this paper analyzes environmental change concerns and expectations about climate models among natural resources decision-makers in the Northwest US. Data were collected during a series of workshops organized by researchers from BioEarth, a regional earth systems modeling initiative. Eighty-three stakeholders from industry, government agencies and non-governmental organizations engaged with a team of academic researchers developing integrated biophysical and economic climate modeling tools. Analysis of transcripts of workshop discussions, surveys, and questionnaires reveals diverse attitudes among stakeholders about: 1 preferred modes of engaging in climate science research, 2 specific concerns and questions about climate change impacts, and 3 the most relevant and usable scope and scale of climate change impacts projections. Diverse concerns and information needs among natural resource decision-makers highlight the need for research teams to define clear and precise goals for stakeholder engagement. Utilizing the skills of research team members who have communication and extension expertise is pivotally important. We suggest impactful opportunities for research teams and natural resource decision-makers to interface and learn from one another. Effective approaches include structuring group discussions to identify gaps in existing climate change impacts information, explicitly considering changing policies, technologies and management practices, and exploring possible unintended consequences of decisions.
Collins, Sarah A; Yoon, Sunmoo; Rockoff, Maxine L; Nocenti, David; Bakken, Suzanne
Despite of its emotional benefits, communication with family members who live abroad can present a large financial burden for low-income foreign-born individuals. The aims of this study were (1) to explore the current technologies available for low-cost communication with family living abroad and (2) to assess the level of awareness and use of low-cost technologies for family communication as well as related information needs among low-income foreign-born individuals. This mixed-methods study included an environmental scan, survey, and focus groups with low-income foreign-born individuals living in East Harlem in New York City. Low-income individuals who have family members living abroad face financial stress with complicated technology choices for communication with family living abroad and they have many information needs. They would welcome interactive and convenient educational tools that (1) build skills for utilization of various technologies and (2) provide decision support to simplify choosing among the vast array of available communication options. © The Author(s) 2014.
Matsuyama, Robin K; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Kuhn, Laura; Moghanaki, Drew; Vachhani, Hetal; Paasche-Orlow, Michael
Cancer patients receiving adjuvant therapy encounter increasingly complex situations and decisions with each new procedure and therapy. To make informed decisions about care, they need to be able to access, process, and understand information. Individuals with limited health literacy may not be able to obtain or understand important information about their cancer and treatment. The rate of low health literacy has been shown to be higher among African Americans than among non-Hispanic Whites. This study examined the associations between race, health literacy, and self-reported needs for information about disease, diagnostic tests, treatments, physical care, and psychosocial resources. Measures assessing information needs were administered to 138 newly diagnosed cancer patients. Demographics were assessed by survey and health literacy was assessed with two commonly used measures: the Rapid Estimate Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and the Short Test of Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA). Study findings indicate that educational attainment, rather than health literacy, is a significant predictor of information needs. Overcoming barriers to information needs may be less dependent on literacy considerations and more dependent on issues that divide across levels of educational attainment. Oncologists and hospital staff should be attentive to the fact that many patients require additional assistance to meet their information needs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gendron, Marie-Pierre; Martin, Brigitte; Oraichi, Driss; Bérard, Anick
Medication use during pregnancy and lactation is prevalent. However, current knowledge of the risks and benefits of medication use during pregnancy and lactation is incomplete as the best available evidence has been obtained from cohort studies of inadvertent exposures and registries. This situation may partly explain health care providers' (HCP) risk perceptions and thus the increasing number of calls to Teratogen Information Services (TIS). The objectives of this study were (1) to identify the medication classes for which HCP are seeking counseling from the IMAGe center, a Quebec TIS; (2) to identify the medical conditions for which medication classes were used during pregnancy and lactation; (3) to identify and quantify predictors of medication information requests during pregnancy and lactation. A retrospective analysis of data was conducted within the population served by the IMAGe center, a TIS based at CHU Ste-Justine in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, that serves the French population of Canada. To be included, calls had to be received between January 1, 2004 and April 30, 2007, and the subject of the call had to be directly associated with the exposure, or not, of a pregnant or breastfeeding woman to medication. Multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models were performed to identify the predictors of medication requests. A total of 11, 076 requests regarding medication exposure during pregnancy, 12 055 requests regarding pregnant women before the exposure took place, and 13, 364 requests regarding lactation were included for analyses. Pregnant women were most frequently exposed to antidepressants (17.3), antibiotics (6.3%), and benzodiazepines (5.3%). Prior to drug exposure, the most frequent inquiries by HCP were on antibiotics (11.0%), anti-inflammatory drugs (6.0%), and antiemetics (5.1%). Inquiries concerning lactating women most frequently requested information on the drug classes of antidepressants (10.8%), antibiotics (9.1%), and
Davoody, Nadia; Koch, Sabine; Krakau, Ingvar; Hägglund, Maria
Despite the potential of eHealth services to revolutionize the way healthcare and prevention is provided many applications developed for patients fail to deliver their promise. Therefore, the aim of this study is to use patient journey mapping to explore post-discharge stroke patients' information needs to propose eHealth services that meet their needs throughout their care and rehabilitation processes. Three focus groups with younger ( = 65 years) stroke patients were performed. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Stroke patients' information needs was explored using patient journey model. Four main events (discharge from hospital, discharge from rehab clinic, coming home, and clinical encounters) and two phases (at rehab clinic, at home) have been identified in patients' post-discharge journey. The main categories identified in this study indicate that patients not only need to have access to health related information about their care and rehabilitation processes but also practical guidance through healthcare and community services. Patients also have different information needs at different events and during different phases. Potential supportive eHealth services were suggested by the researchers considering different parts of the patients' journeys. Patient journey models and qualitative analysis of patients' information needs are powerful tools that can be used to improve healthcare from a patient perspective. As patients' understanding of their illness changes over time, their need of more flexible support throughout the care and rehabilitation processes increases. To design appropriate eHealth services that meet patients' information needs, it is imperative to understand the current care and rehabilitation processes and identify patients' information needs throughout their journey.
Meegen, van A.E.; Limpens, I.A.M.
Nowadays technology makes information accessible for everyone everywhere. The art of selecting the best information in a short period of time and use it correctly is called information literacy. Information literacy training provides students with the tools necessary to efficiently find and
Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Robinson, Elizabeth T; Raney, Laura; Seck, Karim
Many health professionals and policymakers in Africa lack access to the information needed to make evidence-based decisions for effective health care. This study collected qualitative data from 75 key informants and members of two focus groups in Senegal on various aspects of health information needs, particularly in family planning and reproductive health, including information sources, strategies, and systems to transfer and share information; and barriers to accessing, sharing, and using health information. Respondents reported needing information on ways to motivate men's involvement in reproductive health and to address rumors and religious barriers to family planning. Results identified mobile phones as one scalable platform to improve health knowledge. Nevertheless, a nearly universal and persistent need for paper-based information exists, and many health personnel prefer interpersonal communication as a method for information sharing, knowledge synthesis, and learning. Hierarchy and social organization play a crucial role in the flow of communication and in knowledge exchange. The study also identified the importance of political support for a comprehensive knowledge management strategy for the health sector, including the need for strategies to empower and better support the knowledge role of health coordinators and supervisors.
Maqsood Ahmad Shaheen
Full Text Available This study probes into the information needs and seeking behavior of women parliamentarians in the 12th National Assembly of Pakistan during 2002 through 2007. It attempts to answer some of the questions raised on women’s political participation in the parliament and their information habits and needs by analyzing their preferred sources used in preparing for speeches, resolutions, bills, and laws. It also measures their information and communication technology skills. The study gauges their dependence and perception about the National Assembly Library and other sources of information available and suggests possible means by which information services to parliamentarians can be further enhanced. The findings of this study may present aspects which have never before been considered by researchers in trying to meet women parliamentarians’ information needs.
Afram, Basema; Verbeek, Hilde; Bleijlevens, Michel H C; Hamers, Jan P H
Alongside providing care, informal caregivers of people with dementia often need support and guidance themselves, especially during difficult periods such as the care-transition from home towards a nursing home. Knowledge on needs of informal caregivers during this period is sparse. This study aims to provide insight into problems and needs of informal caregivers caring for people with dementia during care-transition from home-based care to institutional long-term care. A systematic electronic search in CINAHL, Cochrane, Medline, PsycINFO, Pubmed and Web of Knowledge. All qualitative articles up to September 2013 were considered. The included articles underwent a quality appraisal. Thematic analysis was used to analyze problems and needs described in the articles. Thirteen publications were included providing 14 topics comprising needs and problems of informal caregivers during the care-transition period. The most stated topics were: "emotional concerns" (e.g. grief and shame about the decision), "knowledge/information" (e.g. understanding the care system) and "support" (e.g. need for counseling). Similar topics were found prior and after admission, with examples specific to the either the home or nursing home situation. The care-transition period should be considered a continuum, as similar needs and problems were identified prior and after admission. This should be kept in mind in developing support and guidance for informal caregivers during this process. Whereas currently the situation prior and post admission are seen and treated as adjacent stages, they should be considered one integrated stage. Multicomponent programmes should be offered that are designed in a continuous way, starting prior to admission, and continuing after.
Golding, Lenette; Rubin, Donald
Government public information officers and risk communicators bear the burden for reaching all Americans with public health and emergency messages. To assess needs specifically regarding communication to reduce health disparities, an Internet survey is made available to members of the National Public Health Information Coalition. Respondents are asked to rate their own needs at their level of organizational responsibility as well as the needs of staff whom they may be supervising on 25 communication and cultural competencies. Multicultural understanding, culturally appropriate message development, and ways to better collaborate with diverse populations are identified as communication competencies in which more training is especially needed.
Liu, Jian-Ming; Xu, Ru-Xiang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Ren, Lian-Kun; Qiao, Hui; Ding, Hu; Liu, Zhi-Liang
Most patients with epilepsy want to learn as much as possible about the disease, and many have turned to the internet for information. Patients are likely to use information obtained from the internet to control their epilepsy, but little is known about the accuracy of this information. In this survey, we have assessed the feasibility and usability of internet-based interventions for the treatment of epilepsy. Data were collected from an internet search. Different search terms were used to obtain general information on epilepsy together with information about medication, types of epilepsy, treatment, women's health, and other information. The accuracy of the information was evaluated by a group of experts. A total of 1320 web pages were assessed. The majority were websites related to health. A large number (80.2%) of web pages contained content related to the search term. A significant number of web pages 450/1058 (42.5%) claimed to provide information from a credible source; however, only 206/1058 (19.5%) of the information was accurate and complete; 326/1058 (30.8%) was accurate but incomplete; 328/1058 (31.0%) was correct but nonstandard, and 198/1058 (18.8%) was inaccurate. The authenticity of the information was not significantly different between the two search engines (χ2 = 0.009, P = 0.924). No significant difference was observed in the information obtained from a specialist or nonspecialist source (χ2 = 7.538, P = 0.057). There was also no correlation between the quality of the information and the priority (χ2 = 6.880, P = 0.076). Searching for information about epilepsy on the internet is convenient, but the information provided is not reliable. Too much information is inaccurate or for advertisement purposes, and it is difficult for patients to find the useful information. Turning to the internet for medical knowledge may be harmful. Physicians should be aware that their patients may search for information on the internet and guide them to safe
Full Text Available Background: Most patients with epilepsy want to learn as much as possible about the disease, and many have turned to the internet for information. Patients are likely to use information obtained from the internet to control their epilepsy, but little is known about the accuracy of this information. In this survey, we have assessed the feasibility and usability of internet-based interventions for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods: Data were collected from an internet search. Different search terms were used to obtain general information on epilepsy together with information about medication, types of epilepsy, treatment, women′s health, and other information. The accuracy of the information was evaluated by a group of experts. Results: A total of 1320 web pages were assessed. The majority were websites related to health. A large number (80.2% of web pages contained content related to the search term. A significant number of web pages 450/1058 (42.5% claimed to provide information from a credible source; however, only 206/1058 (19.5% of the information was accurate and complete; 326/1058 (30.8% was accurate but incomplete; 328/1058 (31.0% was correct but nonstandard, and 198/1058 (18.8% was inaccurate. The authenticity of the information was not significantly different between the two search engines (χ2 = 0.009, P = 0.924. No significant difference was observed in the information obtained from a specialist or nonspecialist source (χ2 = 7.538, P = 0.057. There was also no correlation between the quality of the information and the priority (χ2 = 6.880, P = 0.076. Conclusions: Searching for information about epilepsy on the internet is convenient, but the information provided is not reliable. Too much information is inaccurate or for advertisement purposes, and it is difficult for patients to find the useful information. Turning to the internet for medical knowledge may be harmful. Physicians should be aware that their patients may search for
Winner D. Chawinga
Full Text Available Background: The Centre for Open and Distance Learning at Mzuzu University was established in 2006 with the aim to increase and broaden access to higher education to most Malawians who despite meeting entry requirements into higher education were not selected because of shortage of space on campus and other learning and teaching resources. Although Open and Distance Learning (ODL is hyped as a practical option for making higher education available to many people as widely reported in the literature, universities need to address several issues for it to hold its ground.Objectives: The study set out to investigate information needs and barriers to information sources by ODL students by addressing three objectives, namely information needs of ODL students, information sources of ODL students and challenges that ODL students face when seeking information for their courses of study.Method: A survey questionnaire with a mix of closed-ended and open-ended questions was distributed to 350 students to find out the information sources and challenges that the ODL students face when searching for information to accomplish their academic activities.Results: According to the findings, all 258 (100% students who answered the questionnaire need information to prepare for the end-of-semester examinations. Information sources that are used most by students include lecture notes, Internet and library books with scores of 238 (92.6%, 207 (80.5% and 199 (77.4%, respectively.Conclusion: ODL students have limited access to information materials for accomplishing their academic activities and Mzuzu University can resolve this challenge by introducing satellite information centres in the three geographical regions of Malawi.
Davoody, Nadia; Koch, Sabine; Krakau, Ingvar; H?gglund, Maria
Background Despite the potential of eHealth services to revolutionize the way healthcare and prevention is provided many applications developed for patients fail to deliver their promise. Therefore, the aim of this study is to use patient journey mapping to explore post-discharge stroke patients? information needs to propose eHealth services that meet their needs throughout their care and rehabilitation processes. Methods Three focus groups with younger (?=?65 years) stroke patients were perf...
This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital Issues process as implemented for the Senegal Water Resources Management Initiative, a collaborative effort between the Senegalese Ministry of Water Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This Initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Senegal. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for the development of a proposal that will recommend actions to address the key management issues and establish a state-of-the-art decision support system (DSS) for managing Senegal`s water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to (1) develop a goal statement and criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Senegal; (2) define and rank the issues, and (3) identify and prioritize a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives (government, industry, academe, and citizens` interest groups) ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels.
Buys, Laurie; Aird, Rosemary; van Megen, Kimberley; Miller, Evonne; Sommerfeld, Jeffrey
Disagreement within the global science community about the certainty and causes of climate change has led the general public to question what to believe and whom to trust on matters related to this issue. This paper reports on qualitative research undertaken with Australian residents from two rural areas to explore their perceptions of climate change and trust in information providers. While overall, residents tended to agree that climate change is a reality, perceptions varied in terms of its causes and how best to address it. Politicians, government, and the media were described as untrustworthy sources of information about climate change, with independent scientists being the most trusted. The vested interests of information providers appeared to be a key reason for their distrust. The findings highlight the importance of improved transparency and consultation with the public when communicating information about climate change and related policies.
Aarts, J W M; van Oers, A M; Faber, M J; Cohlen, B J; Nelen, W L D M; Kremer, J A M; van Dulmen, A M
Online patient-provider communication has become increasingly popular in fertility care. However, it is not known to what extent patients express cues or concerns and how providers respond. In this study, we investigated cues and responses that occur in online patient-provider communication at an infertility-specific expert forum. We extracted 106 threads from the multidisciplinary expert forum of two Dutch IVF clinics. We performed the following analyses: (1) thematic analysis of patients' questions; and (2) rating patients' emotional and informational cues and subsequent professionals' responses using an adaptation of the validated Medical Interview Aural Rating Scale. Frequencies of themes, frequencies of cues and responses, and sequences (what cue is followed by what response) were extracted. Sixty-five infertile patients and 19 providers participated. The most common themes included medication and lifestyle. Patients gave more informational than emotional cues (106 versus 64). Responses to informational cues were mostly adequate (61%). The most common response to emotional cues was empathic acknowledgment (72%). Results indicate that an online expert forum could have a positive effect on patient outcomes, which should guide future research. Offering infertile patients an expert forum to communicate with providers can be a promising supplement to usual care in both providing information and addressing patients' concerns.
Anderson, Robert Stephen [Idaho National Laboratory
Engineering disciplines may not currently understand or fully embrace cyber security aspects as they apply towards analysis, design, operation, and maintenance of nuclear research reactors. Research reactors include a wide range of diverse co-located facilities and designs necessary to meet specific operational research objectives. Because of the nature of research reactors (reduced thermal energy and fission product inventory), hazards and risks may not have received the same scrutiny as normally associated with power reactors. Similarly, security may not have been emphasized either. However, the lack of sound cybersecurity defenses may lead to both safety and security impacts. Risk management methodologies may not contain the foundational assumptions required to address the intelligent adversary’s capabilities in malevolent cyber attacks. Although most research reactors are old and may not have the same digital footprint as newer facilities, any digital instrument and control function must be considered as a potential attack platform that can lead to sabotage or theft of nuclear material, especially for some research reactors that store highly enriched uranium. This paper will provide a discussion about the need for cyber-informed engineering practices that include the entire engineering lifecycle. Cyber-informed engineering as referenced in this paper is the inclusion of cybersecurity aspects into the engineering process. A discussion will consider several attributes of this process evaluating the long-term goal of developing additional cyber safety basis analysis and trust principles. With a culture of free information sharing exchanges, and potentially a lack of security expertise, new risk analysis and design methodologies need to be developed to address this rapidly evolving (cyber) threatscape.
Williams, Katelyn; Blencowe, Jenna; Ind, Melissa; Willis, David
Misconceptions and uncertainties about radiotherapy compound the anxiety patients experience at the commencement of treatment. This project investigated the utility of locally produced treatment process videos in meeting patients' informational needs. In-house video production was conducted on a voluntary basis by staff and patients at a regional Australian radiotherapy centre. Videos included real footage and animated sections created with PEARL(TM) 3D visualisation software (Vertual Ltd, UK) to meet specific key content objectives. Quantitative cross sectional analysis was conducted. Patients attending for simulation watched a relevant video. After their first fraction of radiotherapy they were asked to complete an ethics-reviewed questionnaire about how well the video addressed their information needs. The survey completion rate was 29% (n = 61/212). Surveys were collected over 9 months from August 2014 to April 2015. Statistical analysis found 98% of patients reported that the video was useful in meeting one or more of the learning objectives. Forty-nine percent of patients also reported a reduction in fear and anxiety as a result of watching the video. Patients reported subsequent review of videos at home (39%), primarily to explain treatment processes to loved ones (46%). The combination of real footage and 3D visualisation software assisted in meeting learning objectives regarding the treatment process. Standardised videos provided consistency of information provision to patients and facilitated multiple viewings of the video if desired. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.
Pylypiv, Nadiia; Motyl, Vasyl
This article explores the impact of organization of managerial accounting on formation of informational base on the local (level of the individual enterprise), regional, disciplinary and national levels in the context of providing stable economic development for building enterprises. Based on our findings, we built a cognitive map of such an influence, which shows itself through different spheres, such as: economic, ecological and social, and will enjoy informational requests of management fo...
The Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provide consumers with web-based information on the environmental effects of automobiles so that individuals can make informed choices about the vehicles they use or may purchase. DOE and EPA maintain a web site (www.fueleconomy.gov) that provides users with information about fuel economy [as well as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution emissions] for the cars and trucks they use or may consider purchasing. EPA also maintains a separate web site (www.epa.gov/greenvehicles) that offers similar information, with the focus on air pollution emissions rather than fuel economy. The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) (www.greenercars.com) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) (www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/ccbg/ccbg.htm) also maintain web sites that provide consumers with information on the environmental effects of automobiles. Through the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE has supported some initial qualitative research with people who are interested in purchasing a new or used vehicle and whose actions identify them as at least somewhat concerned about the environment. The purpose of this research was to explore and understand how these people respond to the different ratings and measurements of environmental effects provided by the four web sites. The goal of the research is to optimize the communication of information provided on the DOE/EPA web site (www.fueleconomy.gov). Working with a private marketing research firm (The Looking Glass Group of Knoxville, Tennessee), NTRC staff initiated this research by meeting with two focus groups in Knoxville on February 27, 2001. To obtain information for comparison, staff from the NTRC and the Looking Glass Group also met with two focus groups in Los Angeles, California, on August 13, 2001.
Patients have to acquire information to support their decision on choosing a suitable healthcare provider. But in developing countries like Vietnam, accessibility issues remain an obstacle, thus adversely affect both quality and costliness of healthcare information. Vietnamese use both sources from health professionals and friends/relatives, especially when quality of the Internet-based cheaper sources appear to be still questionable. The search of information from both professionals and friends/relatives incurs some cost, which can be viewed as low or high depending low or high accessibility to the sources. These views potentially affect their choices. To investigate the effects that medical/health services information on perceived expensiveness of patients' labor costs. Two related objectives are a) establishing empirical relations between accessibility to sources and expensiveness; and, b) probabilistic trends of probabilities for perceived expensiveness. There is evidence for established relations among the variables "Convexp" and "Convrel" (all p's information sources (experts and friends/relatives) have influence on patients perception of information expensiveness. The use of experts source tends to increase the probability of perceived expensiveness. a) Probabilistic trends show Vietnamese patients have propensity to value healthcare information highly and do not see it as "expensive"; b) The majority of Vietnamese households still take non-professional advices at their own risks; c) There is more for the public healthcare information system to do to reduce costliness and risk of information. The Internet-based health service users communities cannot replace this system.
Kuralová, Kateřina; Margarisová, Klára
The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent and quality of intellectual capital disclosure at Czech public universities in relation to information need of identified stakeholders – students...
Kirkegaard, Brian; Borlund, Pia
as objects of analysis in empirical research. Secondly, the needs are related to three broadcast dimensions: 1) Transmission; 2) Archive; and 3) Reception. Thirdly, four fundamental types of information needs are verified in a television broadcast context: 1) Known item; 2) Factual data; 3) Known topic...... research on characteristics of information needs in a television broadcast context. This knowledge is imperative for the design and construction of future broadcast retrieval systems.......This paper reports on an explorative study of information need characteristics in a television broadcast context. Nine in-depth interviews are conducted with scholars and students within the academic field of Media Studies, and we identify four characteristics. Firstly, broadcasts are needed...
Consolidate Training Report to Congressional Committees February 2016 GAO-16-45 United States Government Accountability Office...REALIGNMENTS AND CLOSURES More Guidance and Information Needed to Take Advantage of Opportunities to Consolidate Training Why GAO Did This Study...recommendations in any future BRAC rounds, GAO recommends that DOD provide additional guidance for consolidating training and reporting BRAC costs and
Kateřina Kuralová; Klára Margarisová
The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent and quality of intellectual capital disclosure at Czech public universities in relation to information need of identified stakeholders – students. This research is based on the theoretical framework for voluntary intellectual capital disclosure, the proposed intellectual capital disclosure index, the identification of stakeholders including their information need as well as the content analysis of the universities’ annual reports has been app...
Zeguers, Maaike; Haes, Hanneke C.J.M. de [Department of Medical Psychology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zandbelt, Linda C. [Department of Quality and Process Innovation, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoeven, Claartje L. ter; Franssen, Sanne J. [Department of Medical Psychology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Geijsen, Debbie D.; Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smets, Ellen M.A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Medical Psychology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Purpose: To establish 1) further psychometric properties of the information preference for radiotherapy patients scale (IPRP); 2) what information new radiotherapy patients want to receive; 3) which patients have a lower information need. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients (n = 159; response rate 54%) of 15 radiation oncologists completed the IPRP and provided background characteristics before their first radiotherapy consultation. Exclusion criteria were: age <18 years, having undergone radiotherapy before, unable to read and write Dutch, cognitive problems or a brain tumor. Results: Reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.84-0.97) and concurrent validity (r from .39 to .57, p < 0.001) of the subscales of the IPRP were good. New radiotherapy patients want extensive information about their disease, treatment, procedures, side effects, and prognosis (mean scores between 4.1 and 4.4 on a scale from 1 to 5) but less information about psychosocial issues (mean = 3.4). Patients who are older and male, have lung or rectal cancer, more difficulty understanding and a higher trait anxiety level, need less information. Conclusions: The IPRP can reliably and validly address information needs of patients undergoing radiation treatment. Most new radiotherapy patients want much information. Yet, information giving should be tailored according to their background, understanding and anxiety.
Clements, Anna; Darroch, Peter I.; Green, John
Delivered at the CRIS2016 Conference in St Andrews; published in Procedia Computer Science 106 (Mar 2017).-- Contains conference paper (8 pages) and presentation (16 slides). Universities and funders need robust metrics to help them develop and monitor evidence-based strategies. Metrics are a part, albeit an important part, of the evaluation landscape, and no single metric can paint a holistic picture or inform strategy. A “basket of metrics” alongside other evaluation methods such as peer...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent and quality of intellectual capital disclosure at Czech public universities in relation to information need of identified stakeholders – students. This research is based on the theoretical framework for voluntary intellectual capital disclosure, the proposed intellectual capital disclosure index, the identification of stakeholders including their information need as well as the content analysis of the universities’ annual reports has been applied. The quality of disclosed information on intangible resources in public universities in the Czech Republic is in the middle level. In the highest quality is disclosed relational capital, followed by structural and human capital. Information need of students is highest for information falling under the relational capital followed by structural capital and human capital. This study opens new approach regarding intellectual capital disclosure including suggested recommendations for Czech public universities, as there was no research related to the issue conducted in the past.
Brouwer, A.; Faramarzi, A; Hoogendoorn, M.
The basic question we raise in this paper is whether the 2013 Discussion Paper (DP 2013) on the Conceptual Framework provides adequate principles for reporting an entity’s performance and what improvements could be made in light of both user needs and evidence from academic literature. DP 2013
Haruna, Hussein; Tshuma, Ndumiso; Hu, Xiao
Understanding health information needs and health-seeking behavior is a prerequisite for developing an electronic health information literacy (EHIL) or eHealth literacy program for nondegree health sciences students. At present, interest in researching health information needs and reliable sources paradigms has gained momentum in many countries. However, most studies focus on health professionals and students in higher education institutions. The present study was aimed at providing new insight and filling the existing gap by examining health information needs and reliability of sources among nondegree health sciences students in Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 conveniently selected health training institutions, where 403 health sciences students were participated. Thirty health sciences students were both purposely and conveniently chosen from each health-training institution. The selected students were pursuing nursing and midwifery, clinical medicine, dentistry, environmental health sciences, pharmacy, and medical laboratory sciences courses. Involved students were either in their first year, second year, or third year of study. Health sciences students' health information needs focus on their educational requirements, clinical practice, and personal information. They use print, human, and electronic health information. They lack eHealth research skills in navigating health information resources and have insufficient facilities for accessing eHealth information, a lack of specialists in health information, high costs for subscription electronic information, and unawareness of the availability of free Internet and other online health-related databases. This study found that nondegree health sciences students have limited skills in EHIL. Thus, designing and incorporating EHIL skills programs into the curriculum of nondegree health sciences students is vital. EHIL is a requirement common to all health settings, learning environments, and
Ross, W.A.; Jensen, G.A.; Clark, L.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Jarrett, J.H.; Katayama, Y.B.; McKee, R.W.; Morgan, L.G.; Nealey, S.M.; Platt, A.M.; Tingey, G.L.
Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the projected uses and demands for a variety of nuclear byproducts. Because the major large-scale near-term demand is for gamma irradiation sources, this report concentrates on the needs for gamma sources and evaluates the options for providing the needed material. Projections of possible growth in the irradiation treatment industry indicate that there will be a need for 180 to 320 MCi of /sup 60/Co (including /sup 137/Cs equivalent) in service in the year 2000. The largest current and projected use of gamma irradiation is for the sterilization of medical devices and disposable medical supplies. Currently, 40% of US disposable medical products are treated by irradiation, and within 10 years it is expected that 90% will be treated in this manner. Irradiation treatment of food for destruction of pathogens or parasites, disinfestation, or extension of allowable storage periods is estimated to require an active inventory of 75 MCi of /sup 60/Co-equivalent gamma source in about a decade. 90 refs., 7 figs., 25 tabs.
Vandrevala, T; Samsi, K; Rose, C; Adenrele, C; Barnes, C; Manthorpe, J
The aim of the current exploratory study was to investigate the impact on care home staff when working with people with dementia at the end of life and to explore how they cope with this aspect of their work. With UK policy encouraging death in the place of residence, rather than hospital, more people with dementia are dying in care homes. A qualitative approach was employed; 20 care home staff working in five English care homes were interviewed. Thematic Analysis was used to analyse the data. Care home staff found the external demands on them and difficulties associated with interacting with people with dementia sometimes challenging, stressful and anxiety-provoking, particularly as residents approached end of life. Emotional aspects of caring for dying residents were sometimes heightened by close attachments with residents and their families. Staff were able to recognise these unmet needs and identified a need for further training and emotional support to manage these stressors. This study revealed rich and complex understandings of the practice dimensions of caring for people with dementia at the end of life and the impact these have on staff. There is a need to develop effective psychosocial interventions that focus on emotional support for care home staff. There will be challenges in providing this in employment settings that are generally low paid, low status, have high turnover and are reliant on temporary or migrant staff, where training is not rewarded, mandatory or culturally valued. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that the information requirements necessary to safely treat children with therapeutic medications cannot be met with the same approaches used in adults. Over a 1-year period, Duke University Hospital engaged in the challenging task of enhancing an established computerized provider order entry (CPOE system to address the unique medication dosing needs of pediatric patients. Methods An advanced dosing model (ADM was designed to interact with our existing CPOE application to provide decision support enabling complex pediatric dose calculations based on chronological age, gestational age, weight, care area in the hospital, indication, and level of renal impairment. Given that weight is a critical component of medication dosing that may change over time, alerting logic was added to guard against erroneous entry or outdated weight information. Results Pediatric CPOE was deployed in a staggered fashion across 6 care areas over a 14-month period. Safeguards to prevent miskeyed values became important in allowing providers the flexibility to override the ADM logic if desired. Methods to guard against over- and under-dosing were added. The modular nature of our model allows us to easily add new dosing scenarios for specialized populations as the pediatric population and formulary change over time. Conclusions The medical needs of pediatric patients vary greatly from those of adults, and the information systems that support those needs require tailored approaches to design and implementation. When a single CPOE system is used for both adults and pediatrics, safeguards such as redirection and suppression must be used to protect children from inappropriate adult medication dosing content. Unlike other pediatric dosing systems, our model provides active dosing assistance and dosing process management, not just static dosing advice.
Piero C. Giordano
Full Text Available The aims of this study are: i to enquire whether informing healthy hemoglobinopathy carriers about their condition is a welcome initiative in The Netherlands; ii to study whether using information letters and thorough explanation is associated with presence or absence of undesired feelings or emotions. We have approached 100 multi-ethnic carriers previously diagnosed in our lab. All subjects had previously received our information letter through their physician who was supposed to have provided an explanation of the letter if required. We have enquired whether the subjects had experienced negative or positive emotions after receiving our diagnosis and explanation and to which degree, if they were sufficiently informed and satisfied and if they would have considered prevention in case of risk. The rate negative versus positive feelings was calculated using a numerical distribution. We have registered negative feelings in a rate that was directly proportional to the lack of information. While the number of registered negative feelings in well-informed carriers was very low it was more present in badly informed. Nevertheless, all participants found carrier information a welcome initiative and over 80% of them declared to be in favor of prenatal diagnosis in case of risk.