WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing high energy

  1. Defining the essential anatomical coverage provided by military body armour against high energy projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Lewis, E A; Fryer, R; Hepper, A E; Mahoney, Peter F; Clasper, Jon C

    2016-08-01

    Body armour is a type of equipment worn by military personnel that aims to prevent or reduce the damage caused by ballistic projectiles to structures within the thorax and abdomen. Such injuries remain the leading cause of potentially survivable deaths on the modern battlefield. Recent developments in computer modelling in conjunction with a programme to procure the next generation of UK military body armour has provided the impetus to re-evaluate the optimal anatomical coverage provided by military body armour against high energy projectiles. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify those anatomical structures within the thorax and abdomen that if damaged were highly likely to result in death or significant long-term morbidity. These structures were superimposed upon two designs of ceramic plate used within representative body armour systems using a computerised representation of human anatomy. Those structures requiring essential medical coverage by a plate were demonstrated to be the heart, great vessels, liver and spleen. For the 50th centile male anthropometric model used in this study, the front and rear plates from the Enhanced Combat Body Armour system only provide limited coverage, but do fulfil their original requirement. The plates from the current Mark 4a OSPREY system cover all of the structures identified in this study as requiring coverage except for the abdominal sections of the aorta and inferior vena cava. Further work on sizing of plates is recommended due to its potential to optimise essential medical coverage. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. High-energy photon activation tandem mass spectrometry provides unprecedented insights into the structure of highly sulfated oligosaccharides extracted from macroalgal cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropartz, David; Giuliani, Alexandre; Hervé, Cécile; Geairon, Audrey; Jam, Murielle; Czjzek, Mirjam; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2015-01-20

    Extreme ultraviolet photon activation tandem mass spectrometry (MS) at 69 nm (18 eV) was used to characterize mixtures of oligo-porphyrans, a class of highly sulfated oligosaccharides. Porphyrans, hybrid polymers whose structures are far from known, continue to provide a challenge for analytical method development. Activation by 18 eV photons led to a rich fragmentation of the oligo-porphyrans, with many cross-ring and glycosidic cleavages. In contrast to multistage MSn strategies such as activated electron photodetachment dissociation, a single step of irradiation by energetic UV of multiply charged anions led to a complete fragmentation of the oligo-porphyrans. In both ionization modes, the sulfate groups were retained on the backbone, which allowed the pattern of these modifications along the porphyran backbone to be described in unprecedented detail. Many structures released by the enzymatic degradation of the porphyran were completely resolved, including isomers. This work extends the existing knowledge of the structure of porphyrans. In addition, it provides a new demonstration of the potential of activation by high-energy photons for the structural analysis of oligosaccharides, even in unseparated mixtures, with a particular focus on sulfated compounds.

  3. Nutritional intakes in community-dwelling older Japanese adults: high intakes of energy and protein based on high consumption of fish, vegetables and fruits provide sufficient micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Reiko; Hanamori, Kiyoko; Kadoya, Hiroko; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2004-06-01

    is not an important determinant of dietary intake among apparently healthy elderly Japanese people aged 74 y. In addition, the high intake of energy and protein in the Japanese dietary pattern, based upon high consumption of fish and/or shellfish, vegetables, and fruits, provide sufficient minerals and vitamins.

  4. High Energy $\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a high statistics exposure of BEBC filled with hydrogen to both @n and &bar.@n beams. The principal physics aims are : \\item a) The study of the production of charmed mesons and baryons using fully constrained events. \\end{enumerate} b) The study of neutral current interactions on the free proton. \\item c) Measurement of the cross-sections for production of exclusive final state N* and @D resonances. \\item d) Studies of hadronic final states in charged and neutral current reactions. \\item e) Measurement of inclusive charged current cross-sections and structure functions. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ The neutrino flux is determined by monitoring the flux of muons in the neutrino shield. The Internal Picket Fence and External Muon Identifier of BEBC are essential parts of the experiment. High resolution cameras are used to search for visible decays of short-lived particles.

  5. High energy semiconductor switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, R. L.

    1989-02-01

    The objective was a controller for electric motors. By operating standard Nema B induction motors at variable speed a great deal of energy is saved. This is especially true in pumping and air conditioning applications. To allow wider use of variable speed AC drives, and to provide improved performance, a better semiconductor switch was sought. This was termed the High Energy Semiconductor Switch.

  6. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  7. Providing energy services to prosumer communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wim H. Timmerman

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have shown the emergence of numerous local energy initiatives (prosumer communities) in the Netherlands. Many of them have set the goal to establish a local and sustainable energy provision on a not-for-profit basis. In this study we carried out exploratory case studies on a number

  8. Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

  9. Shielding high energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Graham Roger

    2001-01-01

    After introducing the subject of shielding high energy accelerators, point source, line-of-sight models, and in particular the Moyer model. are discussed. Their use in the shielding of proton and electron accelerators is demonstrated and their limitations noted. especially in relation to shielding in the forward direction provided by large, flat walls. The limitations of reducing problems to those using it cylindrical geometry description are stressed. Finally the use of different estimators for predicting dose is discussed. It is suggested that dose calculated from track-length estimators will generally give the most satisfactory estimate. (9 refs).

  10. Hybrid willows provide renewable energy for greenhouse growers in Petrolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, C. [LandSaga Biogeographical, New Hamburg, ON (Canada)

    2007-03-15

    This article demonstrated that hybrid willows, as a wood to energy crop, can provide a level of independence from fossil fuel use. Hybrid willows are bred specifically for high biomass production. The greenhouse growers at the Enniskillen Pepper Company planted fast growing hybrid willows as a fuel source to heat their 6 acres of greenhouse ranges in Petrolia, Ontario. Heated greenhouses, high energy costs and adjacent agricultural land in this region of Ontario provides optimal agronomic and economic conditions for this energy crop to realize its potential. It was estimated that heating all of the greenhouses in Ontario with willow biomass alone could replace dependence on more than 37 million GJ of fossil fuel energy per year. Biomass plantations also have value in providing carbon credits for achieving Kyoto targets for greenhouse gas emitters because the root systems are permanent carbon sinks. The biomass burner at the Enniskillen greenhouse range currently burns oat hull pellets. The hybrid willows will provide a chipped product for experimentation in the existing burner system. The wood has a high BTU content and dries quickly compared to denser hardwoods. High biomass hybrid willows can be repeatedly harvested in 3 year rotations over a 25 year period. This system of short rotation intensive coppice (SRIC) is widely practiced in Sweden, where hybrid willow is planted for energy and for the treatment of municipal solid waste, which is applied as a fertilizer. Hybrid willows are generally planted in the spring using 25 cm long cuttings which are sections of tree stem up to 2 cm in diameter. Some varieties will grow 2 meters in one year. At Enniskillen, the first harvest for biomass fuel will occur in 2008 and every three years after for the next 25 years or longer. Once the plantation is established, there are no major operating expenses other than harvesting. However, nutrient enhancement will stimulate willow growth. Other plantations of hybrid willows have

  11. Providing clean energy and energy access through cooperatives

    CERN Document Server

    Studies, International Institute of Labour

    2013-01-01

    This publication is a collection of case studies on cooperatives in energy production, distribution and consumption as a contribution to the on-going search for ways in which the goal of sustainable Energy for All can be turned into a reality.

  12. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It provides a panoramic view of the main theoretical developments in high energy physics since its inception more than half a century ago, a period in which experiments have spanned an enormous range of energies, theories have been developed leading up to the Standard Model, and proposals – including the radical ...

  13. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  14. FSU High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Adams, Todd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Askew, Andrew [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Berg, Bernd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Okui, Takemichi [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Reina, Laura [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  15. Experimental high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Paula, L

    2004-01-01

    A summary of the contributions on experimental high energy physics to the XXIV Brazilian National Meeting on Particle and Fields is presented. There were 5 invited talks and 32 submitted contributions. The active Brazilian groups are involved in several interesting projects but suffer from the lack of funding and interaction with Brazilian theorists.

  16. High Energy Exoplanet Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llama, Joe; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.

    2017-10-01

    X-ray and ultraviolet transits of exoplanets allow us to probe the atmospheres of these worlds. High energy transits have been shown to be deeper but also more variable than in the optical. By simulating exoplanet transits using high-energy observations of the Sun, we can test the limits of our ability to accurately measure the properties of these planets in the presence of stellar activity. We use both disk-resolved images of the Solar disk spanning soft X-rays, the ultraviolet, and the optical and also disk-integrated Sun-as-a-star observations of the Lyα irradiance to simulate transits over a wide wavelength range. We find that for stars with activity levels similar to the Sun, the planet-to-star radius ratio can be overestimated by up to 50% if the planet occults an active region at high energies. We also compare our simulations to high energy transits of WASP-12b, HD 189733, 55 Cnc b, and GJ 436b.

  17. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  18. High energy particle astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, A.; Muller, R. A.; Smith, L. H.; Smoot, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of techniques currently used in high energy particle astronomy for measuring charged and neutral cosmic rays and their isotope and momentum distribution. Derived from methods developed for accelerator experiments in particle physics, these techniques help perform important particle astronomy experiments pertaining to nuclear cosmic ray and gamma ray research, electron and position probes, and antimatter searches.

  19. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  20. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  1. Energy Provider: Delivered Energy Efficiency: A global stock-taking based on case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    In 2011 the IEA and the Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP) took on a work programme focused on the role of energy providers in delivering energy efficiency to end-users. This work was part of the IEA’s contribution to the PEPDEE Task Group, which falls under the umbrella of the International Partnership on Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC). In addition to organizing regional dialogues between governments, regulators, and energy providers, the PEPDEE work stream conducted global stock-takings of regulatory mechanisms adopted by governments to obligate or encourage energy providers to delivery energy savings and the energy savings activities of energy providers. For its part the IEA conducted a global review of energy provider-delivered energy savings programmes. The IEA reached out to energy providers to identify the energy savings activities they engaged in. Some 250 energy saving activities were considered, and 41 detailed case studies spanning 18 countries were developed. Geographic balance was a major consideration, and much effort was expended identifying energy provider-delivered energy savings case studies from around the world. Taken together these case studies represent over USD 1 billion in annual spending, or about 8% of estimated energy provider spending on energy efficiency.

  2. High energy astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray astronomy, neutrino astronomy, and gravitational wave astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the astrophysics targets and the requirements with respect to instrumentation and observation methods. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between the reference books and the specialized literature. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities. The physical principles of photon and particle detectors are then addressed, and the specific telescopes and combinations of detectors, presented. Finally the instruments and their limits are discussed with a view to assisting readers in the planning and execution of observations. Astronomical observations with high-energy photons and particles represent the newest additions to multimessenger astronomy and this book will be of value to all with an interest in the field.

  3. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb{sup {minus}}1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989.

  4. High energy density aluminum battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  5. High energy astrophysics. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courvoisier, Thierry J.L. [Geneva Univ., Versoix (Switzerland). ISDC, Data Centre for Astrophysics

    2013-07-01

    Based on observational examples this book reveals and explains high-energy astrophysical processes. Presents the theory of astrophysical processes in a didactic approach by deriving equations step by step. With several attractive astronomical pictures. High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad basis on which they should be able to build the more specific knowledge they will need. While in the first part of the book the physical processes are described and derived in detail, the second part studies astrophysical objects in which high-energy astrophysics plays a crucial role. This two-pronged approach will help students recognise physical processes by their observational signatures in contexts that may differ widely from those presented here.

  6. Organization of primary care practice for providing energy balance care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klabunde, Carrie N; Clauser, Steven B; Liu, Benmei; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Huang, Terry T-K; Smith, Ashley Wilder

    2014-01-01

    Primary care physicians (PCPs) may not adequately counsel or monitor patients regarding diet, physical activity, and weight control (i.e., provide energy balance care). We assessed the organization of PCPs' practices for providing this care. The study design was a nationally representative survey conducted in 2008. The study setting was U.S. primary care practices. A total of 1740 PCPs completed two sequential questionnaires (response rate, 55.5%). The study measured PCPs' reports of practice resources, and the frequency of body mass index assessment, counseling, referral for further evaluation/management, and monitoring of patients for energy balance care. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression modeling were used. More than 80% of PCPs reported having information resources on diet, physical activity, or weight control available in waiting/exam rooms, but fewer billed (45%), used reminder systems (energy balance care. A total of 26% reported regularly assessing body mass index and always/often providing counseling as well as tracking patients for progress related to energy balance. In multivariate analyses, PCPs in practices with full electronic health records or those that bill for energy balance care provided this care more often and more comprehensively. There were strong specialty differences, with pediatricians more likely (odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.51) and obstetrician/gynecologists less likely (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.44) than others to provide energy balance care. PCPs' practices are not well organized for providing energy balance care. Further research is needed to understand PCP care-related specialty differences.

  7. High-energy electron diffraction and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, L M; Whelan, M J

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to high energy electron diffraction and elastic and inelastic scattering of high energy electrons, with particular emphasis on applications to modern electron microscopy. Starting from a survey of fundamental phenomena, the authors introduce the most important concepts underlying modern understanding of high energy electron diffraction. Dynamical diffraction in transmission (THEED) and reflection (RHEED) geometries is treated using ageneral matrix theory, where computer programs and worked examples are provided to illustrate the concepts and to f

  8. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA?s future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art energy storage devices which require high energy density, high reliability, and...

  9. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics Program at the University of California, Riverside. In 1990, we will concentrate on analysis of LEP data from the OPAL detector. We expect to record 10{sup 5} Z`s by the end of 1989 and 10{sup 6} in 1990. This data will be used to measure the number of quark-lepton families in the universe. In the second half of 1990 we will also be occupied with the installation of the D-Zero detector in the Tevatron Collider and the preparation of software for the 1991 run. A new initiative made possible by generous university support is a laboratory for detector development at UCR. The focus will be on silicon strip tracking detectors both for the D-Zero upgrade and for SSC physics. The theory program will pursue further various mass-generating radiative mechanisms for understanding small quark and lepton masses as well as some novel phenomenological aspects of supersymmetry.

  10. Extreme Events and Energy Providers: Science and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiou, P.; Vautard, R.

    2012-04-01

    Most socio-economic regulations related to the resilience to climate extremes, from infrastructure or network design to insurance premiums, are based on a present-day climate with an assumption of stationarity. Climate extremes (heat waves, cold spells, droughts, storms and wind stilling) affect in particular energy production, supply, demand and security in several ways. While national, European or international projects have generated vast amounts of climate projections for the 21st century, their practical use in long-term planning remains limited. Estimating probabilistic diagnostics of energy user relevant variables from those multi-model projections will help the energy sector to elaborate medium to long-term plans, and will allow the assessment of climate risks associated to those plans. The project "Extreme Events for Energy Providers" (E3P) aims at filling a gap between climate science and its practical use in the energy sector and creating in turn favourable conditions for new business opportunities. The value chain ranges from addressing research questions directly related to energy-significant climate extremes to providing innovative tools of information and decision making (including methodologies, best practices and software) and climate science training for the energy sector, with a focus on extreme events. Those tools will integrate the scientific knowledge that is developed by scientific communities, and translate it into a usable probabilistic framework. The project will deliver projection tools assessing the probabilities of future energy-relevant climate extremes at a range of spatial scales varying from pan-European to local scales. The E3P project is funded by the Knowledge and Innovation Community (KIC Climate). We will present the mechanisms of interactions between academic partners, SMEs and industrial partners for this project. Those mechanisms are elementary bricks of a climate service.

  11. Dosimetry of high energy radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sahare, P D

    2018-01-01

    High energy radiation is hazardous to living beings and a threat to mankind. The correct estimation of the high energy radiation is a must and a single technique may not be very successful. The process of estimating the dose (the absorbed energy that could cause damages) is called dosimetry. This book covers the basic technical knowledge in the field of radiation dosimetry. It also makes readers aware of the dangers and hazards of high energy radiation.

  12. Photoproduction at high energy and high intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photon beam used for this programme is tagged and provides a large flux up to very high energies (150-200 GeV). It is also hadron-free, since it is obtained by a two-step conversion method. A spectrometer is designed to exploit this beam and to perform a programme of photoproduction with a high level of sensitivity (5-50 events/picobarn).\\\\ \\\\ Priority will be given to the study of processes exhibiting the point-like behaviour of the photon, especially deep inelastic Compton scattering. The spectrometer has two magnets. Charged tracks are measured by MWPC's located only in field-free regions. Three calorimeters provide a large coverage for identifying and measuring electrons and photons. An iron filter downstream identifies muons. Most of the equipment is existing and recuperated from previous experiments.

  13. MEET ISOLDE - High Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    Meet ISOLDE - High Energy Physics. ISOLDE is always developing, equipment moves on and off the hall floor, new groups start and end experiments regularly, visiting scientists come and go and experiments evolve. So it was a natural step for ISOLDE to expand from its core low energy science into high-energies.

  14. Energy peaks: A high energy physics outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    Energy distributions of decay products carry information on the kinematics of the decay in ways that are at the same time straightforward and quite hidden. I will review these properties and discuss their early historical applications, as well as more recent ones in the context of (i) methods for the measurement of masses of new physics particle with semi-invisible decays, (ii) the characterization of Dark Matter particles produced at colliders, (iii) precision mass measurements of Standard Model particles, in particular of the top quark. Finally, I will give an outlook of further developments and applications of energy peak method for high energy physics at colliders and beyond.

  15. High Energy Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    sition giving out heat, light, sound and large volumes of gases. The amount of energy released varies with the ... Explosives are classified according to applications either for. 2 Pyrotechnics is the art of manu- facturing or .... rockets are based on Newton's Third Law: an action will always have an equal and opposite reaction.

  16. High energy neutrinos from GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    De Paolis, F; Orlando, D; Perrone, L

    2001-01-01

    It is by now recognized that GRBs can accelerate protons to relativistic energies and that high density media may be present nearby the source. We compute the high-energy gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from the decay of pions produced through the interaction of accelerated protons with nucleons in the surrounding medium. Then, we estimate the flux of high-energy muons induced on a detector by upward-going neutrinos interacting through charge current processes with the surrounding matter.

  17. 1570 nm High Energy Fiber Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy fiber laser for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all features of...

  18. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  19. High-energy communication

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Communication Group

    2015-01-01

    On Wednesday at 10.40 a.m., the LHC operators declared “stable beams” after two years of technical stop and a few months of commissioning. It was an exciting day for all the teams involved, including those who worked on communicating the news to the public and the media on multiple platforms.   CERN’s most successful tweet on 3 June featured collision images from ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb and was shared 800 times by the Twitter audience. Live blogging, social media posts, a live webcast, and a constant outpouring of photos and videos: Wednesday morning was a crazy time for the communication teams from CERN, the experiments and various institutes around the world. Even though the event started very early in the morning (the live CCC blog started at 7 a.m. and the live webcast at 8.20 a.m.), the public and the media tuned in to follow and generously cover the start of the LHC’s physics run at an unprecedented energy of 13 TeV. The statistics showed th...

  20. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    Hadron collider studies will focus on: (i) the search for the top quark with the newly installed D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, (ii) the upgrade of the D0 detector to match the new main injector luminosity and (iii) R&D on silicon microstrip tracking devices for the SSC. High statistics studies of Z{sup 0} decay will continue with the OPAL detector at LEP. These studies will include a direct measurement of Z decay to neutrinos, the search for Higgs and heavy quark decays of Z. Preparations for the Large Scintillation Neutrino Detector (LSND) to measure neutrino oscillations at LAMPF will focus on data acquisition and testing of photomultiplier tubes. In the theoretical area E. Ma will concentrate on mass-generating radiative mechanisms for light quarks and leptons in renormalizable gauge field theories. J. Wudka`s program includes a detailed investigation of the magnetic-flip approach to the solar neutrino.

  1. The Economic Potential of Three Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Providing Thermal Energy to Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). Previous reports provided results of an analysis of two N-R HES scenarios. This report builds that analysis with a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario providing the basis in which the N-R HES sells heat directly to an industrial customer. Subsystems were included that convert electricity to heat, thus allowing the renewable energy subsystem to generate heat and benefit from that revenue stream. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector's evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources.

  2. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    The Counter Group continues to work on data analysis for Fermilab Experiment E653. Altogether, they expect several thousand reconstructed charm events and approximately 25 B pair events of which 12 have been observed thus far. Preparation continue for Fermilab Experiment E781, a high statistics study of charm baryon production. In the Theory Group, Cutkosky and collaborators study hadron phenomenology and non-perturbative QCD calculations. Levine has a long standing program in computational QED to obtain improved theoretical values for g-2 of the electron. Wolfenstein, Li, and their collaborators have worked on areas of weak interaction phenomenology that may yield insights beyond the standard model, e.g. CP violation and non-zero neutrino masses. Holman has been concerned with phase transitions in gauge theories relevant to cosmological problems. During 1991 most of the group effort was concentrated on the L3 experiment at CERN. Highlights of the results from the analysis of the Z[degrees] resonance include (a) a measurement of the strong coupling constant [alpha][sub s] for b quarks (b) a precision measurement of the average time of B hadrons and (c) a direct determination of the number of light neutrino faculties from the reaction e[sup +]e[sup [minus

  3. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    The Counter Group continues to work on data analysis for Fermilab Experiment E653. Altogether, they expect several thousand reconstructed charm events and approximately 25 B pair events of which 12 have been observed thus far. Preparation continue for Fermilab Experiment E781, a high statistics study of charm baryon production. In the Theory Group, Cutkosky and collaborators study hadron phenomenology and non-perturbative QCD calculations. Levine has a long standing program in computational QED to obtain improved theoretical values for g-2 of the electron. Wolfenstein, Li, and their collaborators have worked on areas of weak interaction phenomenology that may yield insights beyond the standard model, e.g. CP violation and non-zero neutrino masses. Holman has been concerned with phase transitions in gauge theories relevant to cosmological problems. During 1991 most of the group effort was concentrated on the L3 experiment at CERN. Highlights of the results from the analysis of the Z{degrees} resonance include (a) a measurement of the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s} for b quarks (b) a precision measurement of the average time of B hadrons and (c) a direct determination of the number of light neutrino faculties from the reaction e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}}{gamma}. We also began a major upgrade of the L3 luminosity monitor by replacing PWC chamber by a Si strip system in front of the BGO calorimeters. Finally we have continued our SSC R&D work on BaF{sub 2} by joining the GEM collaboration.

  4. Can an energy balance model provide additional constraints on how to close the energy imbalance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Widmoser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the causes for the energy imbalance, i.e. the phenomenon that eddy covariance latent and sensible heat fluxes fall short of available energy, is an outstanding problem in micrometeorology. This paper tests the hypothesis that the full energy balance, through incorporation of additional independent measurements which determine the driving forces of and resistances to energy transfer, provides further insights into the causes of the energy imbalance and additional constraints on energy balance closure options. Eddy covariance and auxiliary data from three different biomes were used to test five contrasting closure scenarios. The main result of our study is that except for nighttime, when fluxes were low and noisy, the full energy balance generally did not contain enough information to allow further insights into the causes of the imbalance and to constrain energy balance closure options. Up to four out of the five tested closure scenarios performed similarly and in up to 53% of all cases all of the tested closure scenarios resulted in plausible energy balance values. Our approach may though provide a sensible consistency check for eddy covariance energy flux measurements. PMID:24465072

  5. Farmers as providers of raw materials and energy. Proceedings; Der Landwirt als Energie- und Rohstoffwirt. Konferenzbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the 10th EUROSOLAR conference at 14th to 15th April, 2008, at Leipzig (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Bioenergy in the Federal Republic of Germany: Potentials, state of the art and perspectives (M. Kaltschmitt, V. Lenz, D. Thraen); (b) Chances and risks of the energy production from biomass in rural area (G. Thalheim); (c) To the compatibility of utilizing bio energy and environmental preservation (K. Mueschen); (d) Biorefinery systems - industrial material use of regenerative raw materials (B. Kamm); (e) Agriculturists and forestry experts as producers of raw material - current risks and new chances (H. Fischer); (f) Potentials of the improvement of productivity by means of an expansion of options of useful plants (K. Goedeke); (g) Farmers as providers of energy and raw materials (H. Loick); (h) Problems and challenges of the utilization of biomass (P. Volkmer); (i) Energetic recycling management (G. Mehler); (j) Pure fuels instead of fuel mixtures - The farmer as providers of energy and raw materials (P. Schrum); (k) Feed and distribution of bio-natural gas from the view of a regional provider (J. Horn); (l) Biogasification and feed into natural gas networks - by the example of BGA Darmstadt-Wixhausen (M. Schlegel); (m) The right framework for the feed of bio methane into natural gas nets (S. Reichelt); (n) Virtual power plants - Efficient option of the local energy production (G. Weissmueller); (o) The role of bio energy in the power mix renewable energies (R. Bischof); (p) The autonomous power supply - from the bio energy village to the autonomous solar energy village (K. Scheffer); (q) Bio energy villages at the Lake Constance - Model projects for the rural area (B. Mueller); (r) Bio energy region Mureck / Steiermark (K. Totter); (s) The bio energy in the current German legislation process (H.-J. Fell).

  6. Community Renewable Energy Deployment Provides Replicable Examples of Clean Energy Projects (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-01

    This fact sheet describes the U.S. Department of Energy's Community Renewable Energy Deployment (CommRE) program, which is a more than $20 million effort funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, to promote investment in clean energy solutions and provide real-life examples for other local governments, campuses, and small utilities to replicate. Five community-based renewable energy projects received funding from DOE through the CommRE and their progress is detailed.

  7. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  8. High-energy astroparticle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Semikoz, A

    2010-01-01

    In these three lectures I discuss the present status of high-energy astroparticle physics including Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR), high-energy gamma rays, and neutrinos. The first lecture is devoted to ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. After a brief introduction to UHECR I discuss the acceleration of charged particles to highest energies in the astrophysical objects, their propagation in the intergalactic space, recent observational results by the Auger and HiRes experiments, anisotropies of UHECR arrival directions, and secondary gamma rays produced by UHECR. In the second lecture I review recent results on TeV gamma rays. After a short introduction to detection techniques, I discuss recent exciting results of the H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and Milagro experiments on the point-like and diffuse sources of TeV gamma rays. A special section is devoted to the detection of extragalactic magnetic fields with TeV gammaray measurements. Finally, in the third lecture I discuss Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) neutrinos. I review t...

  9. High Energy Physics Research at Louisiana Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Lee [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Greenwood, Zeno [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Wobisch, Marcus [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2013-06-28

    The goal of this project was to create, maintain, and strengthen a world-class, nationally and internationally recognized experimental high energy physics group at Louisiana Tech University, focusing on research at the energy frontier of collider-based particle physics, first on the DØ experiment and then with the ATLAS experiment, and providing leadership within the US high energy physics community in the areas of jet physics, top quark and charged Higgs decays involving tau leptons, as well as developing leadership in high performance computing.

  10. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  11. Providing energy services to prosumer communities : 24 april 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wim Timmerman

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have shown the emergence of numerous local energy initiatives (prosumer communities) in the Netherlands. Many of them have set the goal to establish a local and sustainable energy provision on a not-for-profit basis. In this study we carried out exploratory case studies on a number of

  12. High-energy scissors mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojarov, R.; Faessler, A.; Dingfelder, M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    1995-05-01

    All the orbital {ital M}1 excitations, at both low and high energies, obtained from a rotationally invariant quasiparticle random-phase approximation, represent the fragmented scissors mode. The high-energy {ital M}1 strength is almost purely orbital and resides in the region of the isovector giant quadrupole resonance. In heavy deformed nuclei the high-energy scissors model is strongly fragmented between 17 and 25 MeV (with uncertainties arising from the poor knowledge of the isovector potential). The coherent scissors motion is hindered by the fragmentation and {ital B}({ital M}1){lt}0.25{mu}{sub {ital N}}{sup 2} for single transitions in this region. The ({ital e},{ital e}{prime}) cross sections for excitations above 17 MeV are one order of magnitude larger for {ital E}2 than for {ital M}1 excitations even at backward angles.

  13. High energy chemical laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, D.W.; Pearson, R.K.

    1975-12-23

    A high energy chemical laser system is described wherein explosive gaseous mixtures of a reducing agent providing hydrogen isotopes and interhalogen compounds are uniformly ignited by means of an electrical discharge, flash- photolysis or an electron beam. The resulting chemical explosion pumps a lasing chemical species, hydrogen fluoride or deuterium fluoride which is formed in the chemical reaction. The generated lasing pulse has light frequencies in the 3- micron range. Suitable interhalogen compounds include bromine trifluoride (BrF$sub 3$), bromine pentafluoride (BrF$sub 5$), chlorine monofluoride (ClF), chlorine trifluoride (ClF$sub 3$), chlorine pentafluoride (ClF$sub 5$), iodine pentafluoride (IF$sub 5$), and iodine heptafluoride (IF$sub 7$); and suitable reducing agents include hydrogen (H$sub 2$), hydrocarbons such as methane (CH$sub 4$), deuterium (D$sub 2$), and diborane (B$sub 2$H$sub 6$), as well as combinations of the gaseous compound and/or molecular mixtures of the reducing agent.

  14. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  15. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High-energy physics; gauge theories; Standard Model; physics beyond the ... elusive goal. The Standard Model describes the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions, but only unifies the first two. Despite its spectacular success in ex ..... Towards the end of the 1960s, a path-breaking new 'deep inelastic' electron scat-.

  16. Progress toward high energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergei Nagaitsev

    2001-07-20

    All electron cooling systems in operation to date can be classified as low energy systems. The electron beam kinetic energy in such a system is limited to about 0.6-1 MeV by the use of a conventional commercial Cockcroft-Walton high-voltage power supply. This, in turn, bounds the maximum ion kinetic energy, accessible for cooling with today's standard technology, to about 2 GeV/nucleon (about a factor of 2-3 times higher than the electron systems in operation today). Electron cooling systems with kinetic energies above 1 MeV could provide economically justifiable improvements in the performance of many existing and proposed accelerator complexes, such as RHIC, Tevatron and HERA. This paper reviews the status of the development of the technology needed for high energy electron cooling.

  17. A Can of Bull? Do Energy Drinks Really Provide a Source of Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Merle; Urquhart, Gerald R.

    2005-01-01

    This case study involves the biochemical analysis of the components of commonly available energy drinks, which many students purchase at fairly high prices. Students research the ingredients in each product and their physiological role in the human body, and then attempt to match what they learn with the product manufacturers' marketing claims.…

  18. A high energy physics perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-13

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional {open_quotes}Hidden Symmetries {close_quotes} are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover {open_quotes}New Physics{close_quotes} associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given.

  19. Quantum chromodynamics at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    Filling a gap in the current literature, this book is the first entirely dedicated to high energy QCD including parton saturation. It presents groundbreaking progress on the subject and describes many of the problems at the forefront of research, bringing postgraduate students, theorists and advanced experimentalists up to date with the current status of the field. A broad range of topics in high energy QCD are covered, most notably on the physics of parton saturation and the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). The material is presented in a pedagogical way, with numerous examples and exercises. Discussion ranges from the quasi-classical McLerran–Venugopalan model to the linear and non-linear BFKL/BK/JIMWLK small-x evolution equations. The authors adopt both a theoretical and experimental outlook and present the physics of strong interactions in a universal way, making it useful to physicists from various sub-communities and applicable to processes studied at high energy accelerators around the world.

  20. Opportunities for high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.; Hansen, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Wind power is today a mature technology, which at windy locations, is economically competitive to conventional power generation technologies. This and growing global environmental concerns have led governments to encourage and plan for wind energy development, a typical aim being 10% of electricity...... consumption. The successful operation of the three major power systems of Cape Verde, with a total wind energy penetration of about 15% since December 1994, demonstrates that power systems can be operated with high penetration of wind energy by adding simple control and monitoring systems only. Thorough...... analyses conclude that expanding to even above 15% wind energy penetration in the Cape Verde power systems is economical. Worldwide, numerous locations with favorable wind conditions and power systems similar to the Capeverdean provide good opportunities for installing wind farms and achieving high wind...

  1. Agreement to provide energy planning, analysis, and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    Three separate subjects are analyzed: (1) the incremental pricing requirements of LNG projects, (2) cooperative Arab/Israeli energy programs based on natural gas, and (3) the effects of the 1978 Natural Gas Policy Act on the country as a whole and particularly on Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. The studies found that (1) incremental pricing of LNG complicates the financing of LNG projects and reduces the number of viable projects, leading to increased oil and LP-gas imports, (2) cooperative gas-utilization ventures between Egypt and Israel should aim at developing a regional pipeline network, constructing export facilities, and producing chemical feedstocks, and (3) the peculiarities of each region of the US, along with the interdependency of the factors involved in assessing the NGPA's impact on each region, complicate any attempt to quantify the act's effects, but the profile constructed for Region 5 will facilitate quantification when more data become available.

  2. Department of Energy High-Performance Computing Act of 1991. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, on S. 343, To Provide for Continued United States Leadership in High-Performance Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.

    This report of a hearing begins with an opening statement by Senator J. Bennett Johnston, Chairman of the Committee, and prepared statements from Committee members Larry E. Craig and Pete V. Domenici. The text of the bill, which provides for continued U.S. leadership in high-performance computing, is then presented, followed by additional…

  3. Duke University high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1992-07-01

    This Progress Report presents a review of the research done in 1992 by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This is the first year of a three-year grant which was approved by the Office of High Energy Physics at DOE after an external review of our research program during the summer of 1991. Our research is centered at Fermilab where we are involved with two active experiments, one using the Tevatron collider (CDF, the Collider Detector Facility) and the other using a proton beam in the high intensity laboratory (E771, study of beauty production). In addition to these running experiments we are continuing the analysis of data from experiments E735 (collider search for a quark-gluon plasma), E705 (fixed target study of direct photon and {sub {Chi}} meson production) and E597 (particle production from hadron-nucleus collisions). Finally, this year has seen an expansion of our involvement with the design of the central tracking detector for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and an increased role in the governance of the collaboration. Descriptions of these research activities are presented in this report.

  4. Experimental High Energy Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohlmann, Marcus [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Space Sciences

    2016-01-13

    This final report summarizes activities of the Florida Tech High Energy Physics group supported by DOE under grant #DE-SC0008024 during the period June 2012 – March 2015. We focused on one of the main HEP research thrusts at the Energy Frontier by participating in the CMS experiment. We were exploiting the tremendous physics opportunities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and prepared for physics at its planned extension, the High-Luminosity LHC. The effort comprised a physics component with analysis of data from the first LHC run and contributions to the CMS Phase-2 upgrades in the muon endcap system (EMU) for the High-Luminosity LHC. The emphasis of our hardware work was the development of large-area Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for the CMS forward muon upgrade. We built a production and testing site for such detectors at Florida Tech to complement future chamber production at CERN. The first full-scale CMS GE1/1 chamber prototype ever built outside of CERN was constructed at Florida Tech in summer 2013. We conducted two beam tests with GEM prototype chambers at CERN in 2012 and at FNAL in 2013 and reported the results at conferences and in publications. Principal Investigator Hohlmann served as chair of the collaboration board of the CMS GEM collaboration and as co-coordinator of the GEM detector working group. He edited and authored sections of the detector chapter of the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the GEM muon upgrade, which was approved by the LHCC and the CERN Research Board in 2015. During the course of the TDR approval process, the GEM project was also established as an official subsystem of the muon system by the CMS muon institution board. On the physics side, graduate student Kalakhety performed a Z' search in the dimuon channel with the 2011 and 2012 CMS datasets that utilized 20.6 fb⁻¹ of p-p collisions at √s = 8 TeV. For the dimuon channel alone, the 95% CL lower limits obtained on the mass of a Z' resonance are 2770 Ge

  5. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  6. Tactical high-energy laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwartz, Josef; Wilson, Gerald T.; Avidor, Joel M.

    2002-06-01

    The Nautilus Project was started in 1995 as a joint US-Israel feasibility study for using laser systems to defend against short-range artillery rockets. It has now matured into a successful laser weapon demonstration program - the Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) Program. By now the THEL Demonstrator has engaged and destroyed a large number of artillery rockets in mid-flight in an extended series of demonstration tests at the US Army's White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The THEL ACTD hardware and development process are described in this paper, as well as the major test results. The paper also describes the operational concept for a deployed THEL weapon system and some possible growth paths for the THEL ACTD Program.

  7. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles

    1987-01-01

    The theory and current status of materials research for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion are reviewed. Semiconductors are shown to be the preferred class of materials for this application. Optimization of the figure of merit of both broadband and narrow-band semiconductors is discussed as a function of temperature. Phonon scattering mechanisms are discussed, and basic material guidelines are given for reduction of thermal conductivity. Two general classes of materials show promise for high temperature figure of merit (Z) values, namely the rare earth chalcogenides and the boron-rich borides. The electronic transport properties of the rare earth chalcogenides are explicable on the basis of degenerate or partially degenerate n-type semiconductors. Boron and boron-rich borides exhibit p-type hopping conductivity, with detailed explanations proposed for the transport differing from compound to compound. Some discussion is presented on the reasons for the low thermal conductivities in these materials. Also, ZTs greater than one appear to have been realized at high temperature in many of these compounds.

  8. High energy physics at UCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.

    1997-07-01

    The hadron collider group is studying proton-antiproton interactions at the world`s highest collision energy 2 TeV. Data-taking with the D0 detector is in progress at Fermilab and the authors have begun the search for the top quark. S. Wimpenny is coordinating the effort to detect t{bar t} decaying to two leptons, the most readily identifiable channel. At UC Riverside design and testing for a silicon tracker for the D0 upgrade is in progress; a parallel development for the SDC detector at SSC is also underway. The major group effort of the lepton group has been devoted to the OPAL experiment at LEP. They will continue to focus on data-taking to improve the quality and quantity of their data sample. A large number of papers have been published based on approximately 500,000 events taken so far. The authors will concentrate on physics analysis which provides stringent tests of the Standard Model. The authors are continuing participation in the RD5 experiment at the SPS to study muon triggering and tracking. The results of this experiment will provide critical input for the design of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment being proposed for the LHC. The theory group has been working on problems concerning the possible vilation of e-{mu}-{tau} universality, effective Lagrangians, neutrino physics, as well as quark and lepton mass matrices.

  9. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part I. Understanding and practicing energy conservation in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parady, W. Harold; Turner, J. Howard

    1980-06-01

    This is a training program to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. A teacher guide and student workbook are available to supplement the basic guide, which contains three parts. Part I considers the following: understanding the importance of energy; developing a concern for conserving energy; understanding the use of energy in buildings; care and maintenance of energy-efficient buildings; and developing energy-saving habits. A bibliography is presented.

  10. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  11. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC): Providing Analysis and Insights on Clean Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nicholi S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  12. Electrolysis Propulsion Provides High-Performance, Inexpensive, Clean Spacecraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroot, Wim A.

    1999-01-01

    An electrolysis propulsion system consumes electrical energy to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. These gases are stored in separate tanks and used when needed in gaseous bipropellant thrusters for spacecraft propulsion. The propellant and combustion products are clean and nontoxic. As a result, costs associated with testing, handling, and launching can be an order of magnitude lower than for conventional propulsion systems, making electrolysis a cost-effective alternative to state-of-the-art systems. The electrical conversion efficiency is high (>85 percent), and maximum thrust-to-power ratios of 0.2 newtons per kilowatt (N/kW), a 370-sec specific impulse, can be obtained. A further advantage of the water rocket is its dual-mode potential. For relatively high thrust applications, the system can be used as a bipropellant engine. For low thrust levels and/or small impulse bit requirements, cold gas oxygen can be used alone. An added innovation is that the same hardware, with modest modifications, can be converted into an energy-storage and power-generation fuel cell, reducing the spacecraft power and propulsion system weight by an order of magnitude.

  13. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-11-01

    The Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools--Tropical Island Climates provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs.

  14. The High Energy Telescope for STEREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Reames, D. V.; Baker, R.; Hawk, J.; Nolan, J. T.; Ryan, L.; Shuman, S.; Wortman, K. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Cook, W. R.; Labrador, A. W.; Leske, R. A.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2008-04-01

    The IMPACT investigation for the STEREO Mission includes a complement of Solar Energetic Particle instruments on each of the two STEREO spacecraft. Of these instruments, the High Energy Telescopes (HETs) provide the highest energy measurements. This paper describes the HETs in detail, including the scientific objectives, the sensors, the overall mechanical and electrical design, and the on-board software. The HETs are designed to measure the abundances and energy spectra of electrons, protons, He, and heavier nuclei up to Fe in interplanetary space. For protons and He that stop in the HET, the kinetic energy range corresponds to ˜13 to 40 MeV/n. Protons that do not stop in the telescope (referred to as penetrating protons) are measured up to ˜100 MeV/n, as are penetrating He. For stopping He, the individual isotopes 3He and 4He can be distinguished. Stopping electrons are measured in the energy range ˜0.7 6 MeV.

  15. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Mars Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMars server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Mars images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of Mars. The OnMars server is an implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server. Unlike other Mars Internet map servers that provide Martian data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMars WMS server supports encoding of data in Mars-specific coordinate systems. The OnMars server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Martian image and elevation data, including an 8-meter-per-pixel uncontrolled mosaic of most of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) image collection, which is not available elsewhere. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. The OnMars server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  16. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Lunar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMoon server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Lunar images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of the Moon. The OnMoon server implements the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server protocol and supports Moon-specific extensions. Unlike other Internet map servers that provide Lunar data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMoon server supports encoding of data in Moon-specific coordinate systems. The OnMoon server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Lunar image and elevation data. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF) or the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. Full-precision spectral arithmetic processing is also available, by use of a custom SLD extension. This server can dynamically add shaded relief based on the Lunar elevation to any image layer. This server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  17. Providing Personalized Energy Management and Awareness Services for Energy Efficiency in Smart Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Eleni; Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Terroso-Sáenz, Fernando; Şimşek, Umutcan; González-Vidal, Aurora; Tsiolis, George; Gouvas, Panagiotis; Liapis, Paris; Fensel, Anna; Skarmeta, Antonio

    2017-09-07

    Considering that the largest part of end-use energy consumption worldwide is associated with the buildings sector, there is an inherent need for the conceptualization, specification, implementation, and instantiation of novel solutions in smart buildings, able to achieve significant reductions in energy consumption through the adoption of energy efficient techniques and the active engagement of the occupants. Towards the design of such solutions, the identification of the main energy consuming factors, trends, and patterns, along with the appropriate modeling and understanding of the occupants' behavior and the potential for the adoption of environmentally-friendly lifestyle changes have to be realized. In the current article, an innovative energy-aware information technology (IT) ecosystem is presented, aiming to support the design and development of novel personalized energy management and awareness services that can lead to occupants' behavioral change towards actions that can have a positive impact on energy efficiency. Novel information and communication technologies (ICT) are exploited towards this direction, related mainly to the evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT), data modeling, management and fusion, big data analytics, and personalized recommendation mechanisms. The combination of such technologies has resulted in an open and extensible architectural approach able to exploit in a homogeneous, efficient and scalable way the vast amount of energy, environmental, and behavioral data collected in energy efficiency campaigns and lead to the design of energy management and awareness services targeted to the occupants' lifestyles. The overall layered architectural approach is detailed, including design and instantiation aspects based on the selection of set of available technologies and tools. Initial results from the usage of the proposed energy aware IT ecosystem in a pilot site at the University of Murcia are presented along with a set of identified

  18. Grid Computing in High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Paul

    2004-09-01

    Over the next two decades, major high energy physics (HEP) experiments, particularly at the Large Hadron Collider, will face unprecedented challenges to achieving their scientific potential. These challenges arise primarily from the rapidly increasing size and complexity of HEP datasets that will be collected and the enormous computational, storage and networking resources that will be deployed by global collaborations in order to process, distribute and analyze them. Coupling such vast information technology resources to globally distributed collaborations of several thousand physicists requires extremely capable computing infrastructures supporting several key areas: (1) computing (providing sufficient computational and storage resources for all processing, simulation and analysis tasks undertaken by the collaborations); (2) networking (deploying high speed networks to transport data quickly between institutions around the world); (3) software (supporting simple and transparent access to data and software resources, regardless of location); (4) collaboration (providing tools that allow members full and fair access to all collaboration resources and enable distributed teams to work effectively, irrespective of location); and (5) education, training and outreach (providing resources and mechanisms for training students and for communicating important information to the public). It is believed that computing infrastructures based on Data Grids and optical networks can meet these challenges and can offer data intensive enterprises in high energy physics and elsewhere a comprehensive, scalable framework for collaboration and resource sharing. A number of Data Grid projects have been underway since 1999. Interestingly, the most exciting and far ranging of these projects are led by collaborations of high energy physicists, computer scientists and scientists from other disciplines in support of experiments with massive, near-term data needs. I review progress in this

  19. Theory Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Subir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of ISVHECRI 2012 from a theorist’s perspective. A hundred years after their discovery, there is renewed interest in very high energy cosmic raysand their interactions which can provide unique information on new physics well beyond the Standard Model if only we knew how to unambiguously decipher the experimental data. While the observational situation has improved dramatically on the past decade with regard to both improved statistics and better understood systematics, the long standing questions regarding the origin of cosmic rays remain only partially answered, while further questions have been raised by new data. A recent development discussed at this Symposium is the advent of forward physics data from several experiments at the LHC, which have broadly vindicated the air shower simulation Monte Carlos currently in use and reduced their uncertainties further. Nevertheless there is still a major extrapolation required to interpret the highest energy air showers observed which appear to be undergoing a puzzling change in their elemental composition, even casting doubt on whether the much vaunted GZK cutoff has indeedbeen observed. The situation is further compounded by the apparent disagreement between Auger and Telescope Array data. A crucial diagnostic will be provided by the detection of the accompanying ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos — two intriguing events have recently been recorded by IceCube.

  20. Systems Engineering Provides Successful High Temperature Steam Electrolysis Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles V. Park; Emmanuel Ohene Opare, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes two Systems Engineering Studies completed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support development of the High Temperature Stream Electrolysis (HTSE) process. HTSE produces hydrogen from water using nuclear power and was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) for integration with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The first study was a reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) analysis to identify critical areas for technology development based on available information regarding expected component performance. An HTSE process baseline flowsheet at commercial scale was used as a basis. The NGNP project also established a process and capability to perform future RAM analyses. The analysis identified which components had the greatest impact on HTSE process availability and indicated that the HTSE process could achieve over 90% availability. The second study developed a series of life-cycle cost estimates for the various scale-ups required to demonstrate the HTSE process. Both studies were useful in identifying near- and long-term efforts necessary for successful HTSE process deployment. The size of demonstrations to support scale-up was refined, which is essential to estimate near- and long-term cost and schedule. The life-cycle funding profile, with high-level allocations, was identified as the program transitions from experiment scale R&D to engineering scale demonstration.

  1. Characteristics of US Health Care Providers Who Counsel Adolescents on Sports and Energy Drink Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the proportion of health care providers who counsel adolescent patients on sports and energy drink (SED consumption and the association with provider characteristics. Methods. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers who see patients ≤17 years old. The proportion providing regular counseling on sports drinks (SDs, energy drinks (EDs, or both was assessed. Chi-square analyses examined differences in counseling based on provider characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR for characteristics independently associated with SED counseling. Results. Overall, 34% of health care providers regularly counseled on both SEDs, with 41% regularly counseling on SDs and 55% regularly counseling on EDs. On adjusted modeling regular SED counseling was associated with the female sex (aOR: 1.44 [95% CI: 1.07–1.93], high fruit/vegetable intake (aOR: 2.05 [95% CI: 1.54–2.73], family/general practitioners (aOR: 0.58 [95% CI: 0.41–0.82] and internists (aOR: 0.37 [95% CI: 0.20–0.70] versus pediatricians, and group versus individual practices (aOR: 0.59 [95% CI: 0.42–0.84]. Modeling for SD- and ED-specific counseling found similar associations with provider characteristics. Conclusion. The prevalence of regular SED counseling is low overall and varies. Provider education on the significance of SED counseling and consumption is important.

  2. High Energy Density Electrolytic Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David A.

    1996-01-01

    A new type of electrolytic capacitor which combines an electrolytic capacitor anode with an electrochemical capacitor cathode was developed. The resulting capacitor has a four time higher energy density than standard electrolytic capacitors, with comparable electric performance. The prototype, a 480 microFarad, 200 V device, has an energy density exceeding 4 J/cc. Now a 680 microFarad 50 V, MIL-style all tantalum device has been constructed and is undergoing qualification testing. Pending a favorable outcome, work will begin on other ratings. The potential for commercially significant development exists in applying this technology to aluminum-based electrolytic capacitors. It is possible to at least double the energy density of aluminum electrolytics, while using existing manufacturing methods, and without adding material expense. Data presented include electrical characteristics and performance measurements of the 200 V and 50 V hybrid capacitors and results from ongoing qualification testing of the MIL-style tantalum capacitors.

  3. Method for providing a low density high strength polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.; Goods, Steven H.; Skala, Dawn M.; Henderson, Craig C.; Keifer, Patrick N.

    2013-06-18

    Disclosed is a method for making a polyurethane closed-cell foam material exhibiting a bulk density below 4 lbs/ft.sup.3 and high strength. The present embodiment uses the reaction product of a modified MDI and a sucrose/glycerine based polyether polyol resin wherein a small measured quantity of the polyol resin is "pre-reacted" with a larger quantity of the isocyanate in a defined ratio such that when the necessary remaining quantity of the polyol resin is added to the "pre-reacted" resin together with a tertiary amine catalyst and water as a blowing agent, the polymerization proceeds slowly enough to provide a stable foam body.

  4. GEM applications outside high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, Serge

    2013-01-01

    From its invention in 1997, the Gas Electron Multiplier has been applied in nuclear and high energy physics experiments. Over time however, other applications have also exploited the favorable properties of GEMs. The use of GEMs in these applications will be explained in principle and practice. This paper reviews applications in research, beam instrumentation and homeland security. The detectors described measure neutral radiations such as photons, x-rays, gamma rays and neutrons, as well as all kinds of charged radiation. This paper provides an overview of the still expanding range of possibilities of this versatile detector concept.

  5. High Current Energy Recovery Linac at BNL

    CERN Document Server

    Litvinenko, Vladimir N; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Burger, Al; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Favale, Anthony; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Lambiase, Robert; Mahler, George; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Warren Funk, L; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2004-01-01

    We present the design and the parameters of a small Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) facility, which is under construction at BNL. This R&D facility has goals to demonstrate CW operation of ERL with average beam current in the range of 0.1 - 1 ampere, combined with very high efficiency of energy recovery. The possibility for future up-grade to a two-pass ERL is being considered. The heart of the facility is a 5-cell 703.75 MHz super-conducting RF linac with HOM damping. Flexible lattice of ERL provides a test-bed for testing issues of transverse and longitudinal instabilities and diagnostics of intense CW e-beam. We present the status and plans for this facility.

  6. High-energy neutrinos from AGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toschke, Marius [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); TU Dortmund (Germany); Becker Tjus, Julia [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Rhode, Wolfgang [TU Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the outer space there are galactic and extragalactic sources like gamma-ray bursts (GRB), active galactic nuclei (AGN), supernovae or other phenomena which produce high-energy neutrinos. In contrast to supernovae, GRBs and AGN are supposed to generate neutrinos at the highest energies. Neutrinos have a tiny cross section as they mainly suffer from the weak interaction. Therefore, they are useful messenger particles providing information about the direction of the source. With observations of the gamma flux from galactic and extragalactic sources, it is possible to make predictions for the neutrino flux. We suppose that neutrinos are predominantly generated by inelastic proton-proton interactions and derive the possible galactic and extragalactic sources. In this talk, first results are presented.

  7. High Current Energy Recovery Linac at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir N. Litvinenko; Donald Barton; D. Beavis; Ilan Ben-Zvi; Michael Blaskiewicz; J.M. Brennan; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X. Chang; Roger Connolly; D. Gassner; H. Hahn; A. Hershcovitch; H.C. Hseuh; P. Johnson; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; R. Lambiase; G. McIntyre; W. Meng; T. C. Nehring; A. Nicoletti; D. Pate; J. Rank; T. Roser; T. Russo; J. Scaduto; K. Smith; T. Srinivasan-Rao; N. Williams; K.-C. Wu; Vitaly Yakimenko; K. Yip; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; H. Bluem; A. Burger; Mike Cole; A. Favale; D. Holmes; John Rathke; Tom Schultheiss; A. Todd; J. Delayen; W. Funk; L. Phillips; Joe Preble

    2004-08-01

    We present the design, the parameters of a small test Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) facility, which is under construction at Collider-Accelerator Department, BNL. This R&D facility has goals to demonstrate CW operation of ERL with average beam current in the range of 0.1 - 1 ampere, combined with very high efficiency of energy recovery. A possibility for future up-grade to a two-pass ERL is considered. The heart of the facility is a 5-cell 700 MHz super-conducting RF linac with HOM damping. Flexible lattice of ERL provides a test-bed for testing issues of transverse and longitudinal instabilities and diagnostics of intense CW e-beam. ERL is also perfectly suited for a far-IR FEL. We present the status and our plans for construction and commissioning of this facility.

  8. High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV40 Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Jane [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    TIAX has developed long-life lithium-ion cells that can meet and exceed the energy and power targets (200Wh/kg and 800W/kg pulse power) set out by DOE for PHEV40 batteries. To achieve these targets, we selected and scaled-up a high capacity version of our proprietary high energy and high power CAM-7® cathode material. We paired the cathode with a blended anode containing Si-based anode material capable of delivering high capacity and long life. Furthermore, we optimized the anode blend composition, cathode and anode electrode design, and selected binder and electrolyte compositions to achieve not only the best performance, but also long life. By implementing CAM-7 with a Si-based blended anode, we built and tested prototype 18650 cells that delivered measured specific energy of 198Wh/kg total energy and 845W/kg at 10% SOC (projected to 220Wh/kg in state-of-the-art 18650 cell hardware and 250Wh/kg in 15Ah pouch cells). These program demonstration cells achieved 90% capacity retention after 500 cycles in on-going cycle life testing. Moreover, we also tested the baseline CAM-7/graphite system in 18650 cells showing that 70% capacity retention can be achieved after ~4000 cycles (20 months of on-going testing). Ultimately, by simultaneously meeting the PHEV40 power and energy targets and providing long life, we have developed a Li-ion battery system that is smaller, lighter, and less expensive than current state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries.

  9. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    them aimed at a final unification of all fundamental forces including gravity. Attempts have been made to extend the reach of some of these theories, based on an underlying string-theory picture, all the way to the Planck energy scale MPl = (8πGN). −1/2,. GN being Newton's gravitational constant. MPl is. Keywords.

  10. Free energy calculation provides insight into the action mechanism of selective PARP-1 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ran

    2016-04-01

    Selective poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 inhibitor represents promising therapy against cancers with a good balance between efficacy and safety. Owing to the conserved structure between PARP-1 and PARP-2, most of the clinical and experimental drugs show equivalent inhibition against both targets. Most recently, it's disclosed a highly selective PARP-1 inhibitor (NMS-P118) with promising pharmacokinetic properties. Herein, we combined molecular simulation with free energy calculation to gain insights into the selective mechanism of NMS-P118. Our results suggest the reduction of binding affinity for PARP-2 is attributed to the unfavorable conformational change of protein, which is accompanied by a significant energy penalty. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis study further reveals the important role for a tyrosine residue of donor loop (Tyr889(PARP-1) and Tyr455(PARP-2)) in contributing to the ligand selectivity. Retrospective structural analysis indicates the ligand-induced movement of Tyr455(PARP-2) disrupts the intra-molecule hydrogen bonding network, which partially accounts for the "high-energy" protein conformation in the presence of NMS-P118. Interestingly, such effect isn't observed in other non-selective PARP inhibitors including BMN673 and A861695, which validates the computational prediction. Our work provides energetic insight into the subtle variations in the crystal structures and could facilitate rational design of new selective PARP inhibitor.

  11. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  12. Perspectives on future high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samios, N.P.

    1996-12-31

    The author states two general ways in which one must proceed in an attempt to forecast the future of high energy physics. The first is to utilize the state of knowledge in the field and thereby provide theoretical and experimental guidance on future directions. The second approach is technical, namely, how well can one do in going to higher energies with present techniques or new accelerator principles. He concludes that the future strategy is straightforward. The present accelerator facilities must be upgraded and run to produce exciting and forefront research. At the same time, the theoretical tools should be sharpened both extrapolating from lower energies (100 GeV) to high (multi TeV) and vice versa. The US should be involved in the LHC, both in the accelerator and experimental areas. There should be an extensive R and D program on accelerators for a multi-TeV capability, emphasizing e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders. Finally, the international cooperative activities should be strengthened and maintained.

  13. High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is the primary archive for NASA missions dealing with extremely energetic phenomena, from...

  14. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  15. High energy microlaser and compact MOPA transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickeen, Brian K.; Bernot, Dave; Geathers, Eliot; Mosovsky, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    A compact micro-oscillator incorporating a dual-bounce, grazing incidence gain module with a folded resonator cavity is presented. The gain module, previously developed for Nd:YVO4, is embodied in highly doped ceramic Nd:YAG to generate improved Q-switch performance while maintaining localized pump absorption. The cavity design utilizes a doubly folded optics path around the gain crystal to increase the intra-cavity mode for a more optimum overlap with the pump light volume produced by standard lensed laser diode bars. A modified CS-package diode mount is developed to facilitate the reduced size of the oscillator without sacrificing the ability to use a high-energy, side-pumping arrangement. The oscillator is combined with a high gain, high energy extraction VHGM amplifier to generate a transmitter source on the order of 50 mJ. Cooling for both the oscillator and amplifier modules is provided via a conductive path through the base of the package. Both devices are mounted on opposite sides of a phase-change cooling reservoir to enable self-contained, burst-mode operation. Beam shaping of the oscillator output, in preparation for injection into the amplifier, is contained in a small cut-away path on the reservoir side.

  16. The interaction region of high energy protons

    CERN Document Server

    Dremin, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial view of the interaction region of colliding high energy protons (in terms of impact parameter) is considered. It is shown that the region of inelastic collisions has a very peculiar shape. It saturates for central collisions at an energy of 7 TeV. We speculate on the further evolution with energy, which is contrasted to the "black disk" picture.

  17. URBox : High tech energy and informal housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Y.J.; Smets, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the URBox concept encompassing the high tech end of solar energy and informal low cost and affordable housing. It aims to contribute to solving the global energy crisis by building solar energy settlements in deserts where land is affordable and sunshine in abundance. First the

  18. High-Energy Neutrino Interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment studies neutrino interactions in iron at the highest available energies using the narrow-band neutrino beam N3 and the wide-band neutrino beam N1. The basis of the detector is a massive target-calorimeter in which the energy deposited by a neutrino (or antineutrino) is measured by electronic techniques and the momentum of outgoing muons is determined by magnetic deflection. The detector is constructed in the form of a 20 m long iron-cored toroidal magnet, composed of modules of length 70~cm and 90~cm, and of 3.75~m diameter. Drift chambers placed in between each module measure the trajectory of muons from the neutrino interactions. The modules are of three types. The first ten modules are constructed of 2.5~cm iron plates with 20~scintillator planes inserted between the plates. The next five modules are constructed of 5~cm plates with 15~planes of scintillator and the last six modules are constructed of 15~cm plates with 5~planes of scintillators. The total mass of the detector is @=~1400 tons...

  19. High Energy Particles from the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, R A

    2000-01-01

    The field of high energy particle astronomy is exciting and rapidly developing. In the last few years, we have detected extragalactic sources of intense TeV gamma radiation and individual cosmic ray particles with energies exceeding 25 Joules. Understanding the workings of astrophysics under extreme conditions is the primary goal of this field. Also important is the possibility of using high energy particles from space to probe beyond the standard models of particle physics and cosmology. This paper presents a review of high energy particle astronomy using photons, cosmic rays, and neutrinos.

  20. Grid computing in high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Avery, P

    2004-01-01

    Over the next two decades, major high energy physics (HEP) experiments, particularly at the Large Hadron Collider, will face unprecedented challenges to achieving their scientific potential. These challenges arise primarily from the rapidly increasing size and complexity of HEP datasets that will be collected and the enormous computational, storage and networking resources that will be deployed by global collaborations in order to process, distribute and analyze them. Coupling such vast information technology resources to globally distributed collaborations of several thousand physicists requires extremely capable computing infrastructures supporting several key areas: (1) computing (providing sufficient computational and storage resources for all processing, simulation and analysis tasks undertaken by the collaborations); (2) networking (deploying high speed networks to transport data quickly between institutions around the world); (3) software (supporting simple and transparent access to data and software r...

  1. Laboratory high-energy astrophysics on lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, W.H.; Liedahl, D.A.; Walling, R.S.; Foord, M.E.; Osterheld, A.L.; Wilson, B.G.

    1994-12-01

    The tremendous range of temperatures and densities spanned by astrophysical plasmas has significant overlap with conditions attainable using high-power laser facilities. These facilities provide an opportunity to create, control, and characterize plasmas in the laboratory that mirror conditions in some of the most important cosmological systems. Moreover, laboratory experiments can enhance astrophysical understanding by focusing on and isolating important physical processes, without necessarily reproducing the exact conditions of the integral system. Basic study of radiative properties, transport phenomena, thermodynamic response and hydrodynamic evolution in plasmas under properly scaled conditions leads both directly and indirectly to improved models of complex astrophysical systems. In this paper, we will discuss opportunities for current and planned highpower lasers to contribute to the study of high-energy astrophysics.

  2. Supernovae and supernova remnants at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Roger A.

    1990-01-01

    The physical phenomena that are observable with X- and gamma-ray observations of supernovae are discussed with respect to possible high-energy astrophysics experiments. Prompt photospheric emission and its echo are discussed, supernova radioactivity and neutron star effects are examined, and circumstellar and interstellar interaction are reviewed. The primary uncertainties are found to be the hardening of the spectrum by non-LTE effects and the amount of absorption of the radiation from the initial soft X-ray burst. The radioactivity in supernovae is theorized to lead to gamma-ray lines and continuum emission unless the event is low-mass type II. Gamma-ray observations are proposed to examine the efficiency of particle acceleration, and high-resolution spectroscopy can provide data regarding ionization, temperature, composition, and velocities of the X-ray-emitting gas.

  3. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Capacitor size and reliability are often limiting factors in pulse power, high speed switching, and power management and distribution (PMAD) systems. T/J...

  4. High energy interactions of cosmic ray particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    The highlights of seven sessions of the Conference dealing with high energy interactions of cosmic rays are discussed. High energy cross section measurements; particle production-models of experiments; nuclei and nuclear matter; nucleus-nucleus collision; searches for magnetic monopoles; and studies of nucleon decay are covered.

  5. The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guainazzi, Matteo

    2017-08-01

    Athena (the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) is a next generation X-ray observatory currently under study by ESA for launch in 2028. Athena is designed to address the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme, which addresses two key questions: 1) How did ordinary matter evolve into the large scale structures we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe. To address these topics Athena employs an innovative X-ray telescope based on Silicon Pore Optics technology to deliver extremely light weight and high throughput, while retaining excellent angular resolution. The mirror can be adjusted to focus onto one of two focal place instruments: the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) which provides spatially-resolved, high resolution spectroscopy, and the Wide Field Imager (WFI) which provides spectral imaging over a large field of view, as well as high time resolution and count rate tolerance. Athena is currently in Phase A and the study status will be reviewed, along with the scientific motivations behind the mission.

  6. Innovative paths for providing green energy for sustainable global economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra; Alapatt, G. F.

    2012-10-01

    According to United Nation, world population may reach 10.1 billion by the year 2100. The fossil fuel based global economy is not sustainable. For sustainable global green energy scenario we must consider free fuel based energy conversion, environmental concerns and conservation of water. Photovoltaics (PV) offers a unique opportunity to solve the 21st century's electricity generation because solar energy is essentially unlimited and PV systems provide electricity without any undesirable impact on the environment. Innovative paths for green energy conversion and storage are proposed in areas of R and D, manufacturing and system integration, energy policy and financing. With existing silicon PV system manufacturing, the implementation of new innovative energy policies and new innovative business model can provide immediately large capacity of electricity generation to developed, emerging and underdeveloped economies.

  7. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings: teacher guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    A teacher guide to the basic manual, providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings, is presented. Three parts to the manual are: understanding and practicing energy conservation in buildings; determining amount of energy lost or gained in a building; and determining which practices are most efficient and installing materials. The guide gives answers to questions in the student workbook and directions for special exercises and problems related to the subject.

  8. Summaries of FY 1977, research in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through the Office of Energy Research and the Division of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, provides approximately 90% of the total federal support for high energy physics research effort in the United States. The High Energy Physics Program primarily utilizes four major U.S. high energy accelerator facilities and over 50 universities under contract to do experimental and theoretical investigations on the properties, structure and transformation of matter and energy in their most basic forms. This compilation of research summaries is intended to present a convenient report of the scope and nature of high energy physics research presently funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The areas covered include conception, design, construction, and operation of particle accelerators; experimental research using the accelerators and ancillary equipment; theoretical research; and research and development programs to advance accelerator technology, particle detector systems, and data analysis capabilities. Major concepts and experimental facts in high energy physics have recently been discovered which have the promise of unifying the fundamental forces and of understanding the basic nature of matter and energy. The summaries contained in this document were reproduced in essentially the form submitted by contractors as of January 1977.

  9. 45 CFR 96.89 - Exemption from standards for providing energy crisis intervention assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... crisis intervention assistance. 96.89 Section 96.89 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... from standards for providing energy crisis intervention assistance. The performance standards in... Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Pub. L. 99-425)—concerning provision of energy crisis assistance within specified...

  10. High peak power diode stacks for high energy lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoita, Viorel C.; Vethake, Thilo; Jiang, John; Roff, Robert; Shih, Ming; Duck, Richard; Bauer, Marc; Mite, Roberto; Boucke, Konstantin; Treusch, Georg

    2015-02-01

    High energy solid state lasers are being developed for fusion experiments and other research applications where high energy per pulse is required but the repetition rate is rather low, around 10Hz. We report our results on high peak power diode laser stacks used as optical pumps for these lasers. The stacks are based on 10 mm bars with 4 mm cavity length and 55% fill factor, with peak power exceeding 500 W per bar. These bars are stacked and mounted on a cooler which provides backside cooling and electrical insulation. Currently we mount 25 bars per cooler for a nominal peak power of 12.5 kW, but in principle the mounting scheme can be scaled to a different number of devices depending on the application. Pretesting of these bars before soldering on the cooler enables us to select devices with similar wavelength and thus we maintain tight control of the spectral width (FWHM less than 6 nm). Fine adjustments of the centroid wavelength can be done by means of temperature of the cooling fluid or bias current. The available wavelength range spans from 880 nm to 1000 nm, and the wavelength of the entire assembly of stacks can be controlled to within 0.5 nm of the target value, which makes these stacks suitable for pumping a variety of gain media. The devices are fast axis collimated, with over 95% power being collimated in 6 mrad (full angle). The slow axis divergence is 9° (full angle) for 95% power content.

  11. New accelerators in high-energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blewett, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    First, I should like to mention a few new ideas that have appeared during the last few years in the accelerator field. A couple are of importance in the design of injectors, usually linear accelerators, for high-energy machines. Then I shall review some of the somewhat sensational accelerator projects, now in operation, under construction or just being proposed. Finally, I propose to mention a few applications of high-energy accelerators in fields other than high-energy physics. I realize that this is a digression from my title but I hope that you will find it interesting.

  12. CERN and the high energy frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsesmelis Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the particle physics programme at CERN at the high-energy frontier. Starting from the key open questions in particle physics and the large-scale science facilities existing at CERN, concentrating on the Large Hadron Collider(LHC, this paper goes on to present future possibilities for global projects in high energy physics. The paper presents options for future colliders, all being within the framework of the recently updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, and all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics. The paper concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward for high-energy physics research.

  13. Nonextensive statistical mechanics and high energy physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsallis Constantino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of the celebrated Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and statistical mechanics is justified for ergodic-like systems. In contrast, complex systems typically require more powerful theories. We will provide a brief introduction to nonadditive entropies (characterized by indices like q, which, in the q → 1 limit, recovers the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and associated nonextensive statistical mechanics. We then present somerecent applications to systems such as high-energy collisions, black holes and others. In addition to that, we clarify and illustrate the neat distinction that exists between Lévy distributions and q-exponential ones, a point which occasionally causes some confusion in the literature, very particularly in the LHC literature

  14. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiangwu [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Fedkiw, Peter [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Khan, Saad [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Huang, Alex [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Fan, Jiang [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 μm or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  15. Studies In Theoretical High Energy Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keung, Wai Yee [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This is a final technical report for grant no. DE-SC0007948 describing research activities in theoretical high energy physics at University of Illinois at Chicago for the whole grant period from July 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017.

  16. Research in High Energy Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, John S.

    2013-08-09

    This final report details the work done from January 2010 until April 2013 in the area of experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics and cosmology at the University of California, Davis.

  17. The evolution of high energy accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.D.

    1989-10-01

    In this lecture I would like to trace how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to gigantic projects being hotly debated in Congress as well as in the scientific community.

  18. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, M; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M; von Steinkirch, M

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi acceleration, though not entirely satisfactory, is the most promising mechanism for explaining the ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray flux.

  19. High-Intensity Sweeteners and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E.; Martin, Ashley A.; Davidson, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence points to a link between a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g. metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) and the consumption of both calorically sweetened beverages and beverages sweetened with high-intensity, non-caloric sweeteners. Research on the possibility that non-nutritive sweeteners promote food intake, body weight gain, and metabolic disorders has been hindered by the lack of a physiologically-relevant model that describes the mechanistic basis for these outcomes. We have suggested that based on Pavlovian conditioning principles, consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners could result in sweet tastes no longer serving as consistent predictors of nutritive postingestive consequences. This dissociation between the sweet taste cues and the caloric consequences could lead to a decrease in the ability of sweet tastes to evoke physiological responses that serve to regulate energy balance. Using a rodent model, we have found that intake of foods or fluids containing non-nutritive sweeteners was accompanied by increased food intake, body weight gain, accumulation of body fat, and weaker caloric compensation, compared to consumption of foods and fluids containing glucose. Our research also provided evidence consistent with the hypothesis that these effects of consuming saccharin may be associated with a decrement in the ability of sweet taste to evoke thermic responses, and perhaps other physiological, cephalic phase, reflexes that are thought to help maintain energy balance. PMID:20060008

  20. European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental and phenomenological physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lecture notes on the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, Monte Carlo generators, relativistic heavy-ion physics, the flavour dynamics and CP violation in the Standard Model, cosmology, and high-energy neutrino astronomy with IceCube.

  1. Future of high energy physics some aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Prokofiev, Kirill

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises 26 carefully edited articles with well-referenced and up-to-date material written by many of the leading experts. These articles originated from presentations and dialogues at the second HKUST Institute for Advanced Study Program on High Energy Physics are organized into three aspects, Theory, Accelerator, and Experiment, focusing on in-depth analyses and technical aspects that are essential for the developments and expectations for the future high energy physics.

  2. New developments in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the important developments in the field of high energy physics are reviewed. Starting from the status of knowledge of the structure of matter the details of experiments leading to the discovery of charmed particles and psi resonances are emphasized. Also some of the areas of activity of the Indiana University High Energy group are reviewed and related to the principal unsolved problems in the field. (JFP)

  3. Heavy Quark Production at High Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R D

    2001-01-01

    We report on QCD radiative corrections to heavy quark production valid at high energy. The formulae presented will allow a matched calculation of the total cross section which is correct at $O(\\as^3)$ and includes resummation of all terms of order $\\as^3 [\\as \\ln (s/m^2)]^n$. We also include asymptotic estimates of the effect of the high energy resummation. A complete description of the calculation of the heavy quark impact factor is included in an appendix.

  4. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

  5. Institute for High Energy Density Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Alan [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-01-13

    The project objective was for the Institute of High Energy Density Science (IHEDS) at the University of Texas at Austin to help grow the High Energy Density (HED) science community, by connecting academia with the Z Facility (Z) and associated staff at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). IHEDS was originally motivated by common interests and complementary capabilities at SNL and the University of Texas System (UTX), in 2008.

  6. Fundamentals of high energy electron beam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turman, B. N.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Neau, E. L.

    High energy electron beam accelerator technology has been developed over the past three decades in response to military and energy-related requirements for weapons simulators, directed-energy weapons, and inertially-confined fusion. These applications required high instantaneous power, large beam energy, high accelerated particle energy, and high current. These accelerators are generally referred to as 'pulsed power' devices, and are typified by accelerating potential of millions of volts (MV), beam current in thousands of amperes (KA), pulse duration of tens to hundreds of nanoseconds, kilojoules of beam energy, and instantaneous power of gigawatts to teffawatts (10(exp 9) to 10(exp 12) watts). Much of the early development work was directed toward single pulse machines, but recent work has extended these pulsed power devices to continuously repetitive applications. These relativistic beams penetrate deeply into materials, with stopping range on the order of a centimeter. Such high instantaneous power deposited in depth offers possibilities for new material fabrication and processing capabilities that can only now be explored. Fundamental techniques of pulse compression, high voltage requirements, beam generation and transport under space-charge-dominated conditions will be discussed in this paper.

  7. Identifying the nature of high energy Astroparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, Karen Salomé Caballero

    2016-01-01

    High energy Astroparticles include Cosmic Ray, gamma ray and neutrinos, all of them coming from the universe. The origin and production, acceleration and propagation mechanisms of ultrahigh-energy CR (up to $10^{20}$ eV) are still unknown. Knowledge on particle interactions taking place at those energies, useful for studying current theories on particle physics, can be obtained only from measurements of high energy astroparticles. In the present document some techniques on data analysis of mass composition of UHECR with the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. The relevance of the muon component of air showers produced by the primary CR, as well as some low energy simulations of that component, are explained.

  8. Identifying the nature of high energy Astroparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé Caballero Mora, Karen

    2016-10-01

    High energy Astroparticles include Cosmic Ray (CR), gamma ray and neutrinos, all of them coming from the universe. The origin and production, acceleration and propagation mechanisms of ultrahigh-energy CR (UHECR ∼ 1020 eV) are still unknown. Knowledge on particle interactions taking place at those energies, useful for studying current theories on particle physics, can be obtained only from measurements of high energy astroparticles. In the present document some techniques on data analysis of mass composition of UHECR with the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. The relevance of the muon component of air showers produced by the primary CR, as well as some low energy simulations of that component, are explained.

  9. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dova, M.T.

    2015-05-22

    The origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above E > 10 17 eV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. This is a written version of a series of lectures devoted to UHECR at the 2013 CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics. We present anintroduction to acceleration mechanisms of charged particles to the highest energies in astrophysical objects, their propagation from the sources to Earth, and the experimental techniques for their detection. We also discuss some of the relevant observational results from Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatory. These experiments deal with particle interactions at energies orders of magnitude higher than achieved in terrestrial accelerators.

  10. An automated tool for evaluating compliance and providing assistance with building energy standards during design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, R.W.; Brambley, M.R.; Stratton, R.C.

    1992-04-30

    In an effort to encourage the maximum cost-effective level of energy efficiency in new building design, energy-efficiency standards have become more location-specific and performance-based. As a result, standards often provide more than one path for ensuring and demonstrating that a design complies, but at the cost of increased complexity. In addition, the burden of remedying a noncompliant design rests on the designers` knowledge and experience, with only general guidance provided by the standards. As part of efforts in the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT) project, a team at DOE`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a computer program known as the Energy Standards Intelligent Design Tool (ES-IDT). The ES-IDT is one component of a prototype computer-based building design environment. It performs automatic compliance checking for parts of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 and provides designers assistance in bringing noncomplying designs into compliance. This paper describes the ES-IDT, the functions it provides, and how it is integrated into the design process via the AEDOT prototype building design environment. 9 refs.

  11. Reparable, high-density microelectronic module provides effective heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, K. J.; Maytone, F. F.

    1967-01-01

    Reparable modular system is used for packaging microelectronic flat packs and miniature discrete components. This three-dimensional compartmented structure incorporates etched phosphor bronze sheets and frames with etched wire conductors. It provides an effective heat sink for electric power dissipation in the absence of convective cooling means.

  12. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  13. Variably spaced superlattice energy filter, a new device design concept for high-energy electron injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    A new variably spaced superlattice energy filter is proposed which provides high-energy injection of electrons into a bulk semiconductor layer based on resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum well levels which are brought into alignment by an applied bias. Applications of this concept to a variety of optoelectronic devices and to thin-film electroluminescent devices and photodetectors are discussed.

  14. Providing solutions to energy and environmental problems. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-10-01

    The Jointly Sponsored Research Program emphasizes technology commercialization and continues to be highly successful and supported strongly and enthusiastically by WRI`s industrial clientele. All of the available Department of Energy (USDOE) funding for each of the first seven years has been committed to projects. This report provides a description of projects and expenditures on fossil projects and environmental monitoring.

  15. High School Child Development Courses Provide a Valuable Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombie, Sally M.

    2009-01-01

    The current media are laden with reports of the many significant problems facing today's youth. In fact, parenting has become a national topic of discussion. Parenting instruction, a responsibility that had previously rested in the home, has become part of educational curricula. Courses in child development are offered for high school students in…

  16. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2018-01-23

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  17. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  18. An automated tool for evaluating compliance and providing assistance with building energy standards during design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, R.W.; Brambley, M.R.; Stratton, R.C.

    1992-04-30

    In an effort to encourage the maximum cost-effective level of energy efficiency in new building design, energy-efficiency standards have become more location-specific and performance-based. As a result, standards often provide more than one path for ensuring and demonstrating that a design complies, but at the cost of increased complexity. In addition, the burden of remedying a noncompliant design rests on the designers' knowledge and experience, with only general guidance provided by the standards. As part of efforts in the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT) project, a team at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a computer program known as the Energy Standards Intelligent Design Tool (ES-IDT). The ES-IDT is one component of a prototype computer-based building design environment. It performs automatic compliance checking for parts of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 and provides designers assistance in bringing noncomplying designs into compliance. This paper describes the ES-IDT, the functions it provides, and how it is integrated into the design process via the AEDOT prototype building design environment. 9 refs.

  19. Optimization of process parameters in high-energy film radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur C.; Cochran, Joseph L.

    2001-04-01

    Film radiography provides unequaled resolution for component and assembly inspection, certification, and quality evaluations. However, improvements can be made in our ability to identify defects and to obtain much more detail about fine features. A systematic approach to make incremental changes in current high-energy radiography may well provide the additional improvement needed. Consequently, the work described is concerned with optimizing important parameters affecting image quality. Modeling and simulation with advanced parallel computer systems provide a more detailed understanding of latent image formation at high x-ray energies and help explain image degradation mechanisms in enhancement screens.

  20. STACKING FAULT ENERGY IN HIGH MANGANESE ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mazancová

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Stacking fault energy of high manganese alloys (marked as TWIP and TRIPLEX is an important parameter determining deformation mechanism type realized in above mentioned alloys. Stacking fault energy level can be asserted with a gliding of partial and/or full dislocations, b gliding mechanism and twinning deformation process in connection with increasing of fracture deformation level (deformation elongation and with increasing of simultaneously realized work hardening proces., c gliding mechanism and deformation induced e-martensite formation. In contribution calculated stacking fault energies are presented for various chemical compositions of high manganese alloys. Stacking fault energy dependences on manganese, carbon, iron and alluminium contents are presented. Results are confronted with some accessible papers.The aim of work is to deepen knowledge of presented data. The TWIP and TRIPLEX alloys can be held for promissing new automotive materials.

  1. Utilization of Wind Energy at High Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Ground based, wind energy extraction systems have reached their maximum capability. The limitations of current designs are: wind instability, high cost of installations, and small power output of a single unit. The wind energy industry needs of revolutionary ideas to increase the capabilities of wind installations. This article suggests a revolutionary innovation which produces a dramatic increase in power per unit and is independent of prevailing weather and at a lower cost per unit of energ...

  2. Modern organic and broiler chickens sold for human consumption provide more energy from fat than protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqun; Lehane, Catherine; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab; Crawford, Michael A

    2010-03-01

    In 1976, the Royal College of Physicians and the British Cardiac Society recommended eating less fatty red meat and more poultry instead because it was lean. However, the situation has changed since that time, with a striking increase in fat content of the standard broiler chicken. The aim of the present study was to report a snapshot of data on fat in chickens now sold to the public. Samples were obtained randomly between 2004 and 2008 from UK supermarkets, farm shops and a football club. The amount of chicken fat was estimated by emulsification and chloroform/methanol extraction. Food sold in supermarkets and farms in England. Chicken samples. The fat energy exceeded that of protein. There has been a loss of n-3 fatty acids. The n-6:n-3 ratio was found to be as high as 9:1, as opposed to the recommendation of about 2:1. Moreover, the TAG level in the meat and whole bird mostly exceeded the proportion of phospholipids, which should be the higher for muscle function. The n-3 fatty acid docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22 : 5n-3) was in excess of DHA (22 : 6n-3). Previous analyses had, as usual for birds, more DHA than DPA. Traditional poultry and eggs were one of the few land-based sources of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, especially DHA, which is synthesized from its parent precursor in the green food chain. In view of the obesity epidemic, chickens that provide several times the fat energy compared with protein seem illogical. This type of chicken husbandry needs to be reviewed with regard to its implications for animal welfare and human nutrition.

  3. Economic Evaluation of the Information Security Levels Achieved by Electric Energy Providers in North Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, O. P.; Kaznin, A. A.; Babkin, A. V.; Bogdanov, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    The study we are conducting involves the analysis of information security levels achieved by energy providers operating in the North Arctic Region. We look into whether the energy providers’ current information security levels meet reliability standards and determine what further actions may be needed for upgrading information security in the context of the digital transformation that the world community is undergoing. When developing the information security systems for electric energy providers or selecting the protection means for them, we are governed by the fact that the assets to be protected are process technologies. While information security risk can be assessed using different methods, the evaluation of the economic damage from these risks appears to be a difficult task. The most probable and harmful risks we have identified when evaluating the electric energy providers’ information security will be used by us as variables. To provide the evaluation, it is necessary to calculate the costs relating to elimination of the risks identified. The final stage of the study will involve the development of an operation algorithm for the North Arctic Region’s energy provider’s business information protection security system – a set of information security services, and security software and hardware.

  4. On the Integration of Wind and Solar Energy to Provide a Total Energy Supply in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, E. C.; Rhoades, A.; Sloggy, M.; Mills, D.; Archer, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    This study examines the feasibility of using renewable energy - mostly wind and solar radiation - as the primary sources of energy in the U.S., under the assumption that a nationwide electric transmission grid is in place. Previous studies have shown that solar output from California and Texas using energy storage is well correlated with the state energy load on an hour by hour basis throughout the year and with the US national load on a monthly basis. Other studies have shown that solar or wind alone can power the present US grid on average. This study explores scenarios for use of wind and solar energy together at the national scale on an hour by hour basis to determine if such a combination is a better match to national seasonal load scenarios than either of the two alone on an hour-by-hour basis. Actual hour by hour national load data from a particular year will be used as a basis, with some scenarios incorporating vehicle sector electrification and building heating and cooling using electric heat pumps. Hydro and geothermal generation can provide additional controllable output, when needed, to fulfill the hourly electricity and/or energy needs. Hourly wind speed data were calculated at the hub height of 80 m above the ground for the year 2006 at over 150 windy locations in the continental US using an extrapolation technique based on 10-m wind speed measurements and vertical sounding profiles. Using a 1.5 MW wind turbine as benchmark, the hourly wind power production nationwide was determined at all locations. Similarly, the hourly output from solar plants, with and without thermal storage, was calculated based on Ausra’s model assuming that the solar production would occur in the Southwest, the area with the greatest solar radiation density in the U.S. Hourly electricity demand for the year 2006 was obtained nationwide from a variety of sources, including the Federal Energy Regulation Commission. Hourly residential heating and cooking, industrial heat

  5. High energy particles and quanta in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, F. B. (Editor); Fichtel, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    The various subdisciplines of high-energy astrophysics are surveyed in a series of articles which attempt to give an overall view of the subject as a whole by emphasizing the basic physics common to all fields in which high-energy particles and quanta play a role. Successive chapters cover cosmic ray experimental observations, the abundances of nuclei in the cosmic radiation, cosmic electrons, solar modulation, solar particles (observation, relationship to the sun acceleration, interplanetary medium), radio astronomy, galactic X-ray sources, the cosmic X-ray background, and gamma ray astronomy. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  6. A Parton Shower for High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Lonnblad, Leif; M. Smillie, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to match the multi-parton states generated by the High Energy Jets Monte Carlo with parton showers generated by the Ariadne program using the colour dipole model. The High Energy Jets program already includes a full resummation of soft divergences. Hence, in the matching...... it is important that the corresponding divergences in the parton shower are subtracted, keeping only the collinear parts. We present a novel, shower-independent method for achieving this, enabling us to generate fully exclusive and hadronized events with multiple hard jets, in hadronic collisions. We discuss...

  7. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran,L.

    2008-09-07

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N{sub c} arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.

  8. Nuclear and High-Energy Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Fridolin

    2003-10-01

    There has never been a more exciting time in the overlapping areas of nuclear physics, particle physics and relativistic astrophysics than today. Orbiting observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope, Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), Chandra X-ray satellite, and the X-ray Multi Mirror Mission (XMM) have extended our vision tremendously, allowing us to see vistas with an unprecedented clarity and angular resolution that previously were only imagined, enabling astrophysicists for the first time ever to perform detailed studies of large samples of galactic and extragalactic objects. On the Earth, radio telescopes (e.g., Arecibo, Green Bank, Parkes, VLA) and instruments using adaptive optics and other revolutionary techniques have exceeded previous expectations of what can be accomplished from the ground. The gravitational wave detectors LIGO, LISA VIRGO, and Geo-600 are opening up a window for the detection of gravitational waves emitted from compact stellar objects such as neutron stars and black holes. Together with new experimental forefront facilities like ISAC, ORLAND and RIA, these detectors provide direct, quantitative physical insight into nucleosynthesis, supernova dynamics, accreting compact objects, cosmic-ray acceleration, and pairproduction in high energy sources which reinforce the urgent need for a strong and continuous feedback from nuclear and particle theory and theoretical astrophysics. In my lectures, I shall concentrate on three selected topics, which range from the behavior of superdense stellar matter, to general relativistic stellar models, to strange quark stars and possible signals of quark matter in neutron stars.

  9. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, "New Data From the Energy Frontier." There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week's events included a public lecture ("The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson" given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was "Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter." It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled "What Makes Up Dark Matter." There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics cafe to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  10. High-energy, high-rate materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, H. L.; Bourell, D. L.; Eliezer, Z.; Persad, C.; Weldon, W.

    1987-12-01

    The increasingly available range of pulsed-power, high energy kinetic storage devices, such as low-inductance pulse-forming networks, compulsators, and homopolar generators, is presently considered as a basis for industrial high energy/high rate (HEHR) processing to accomplish shock hardening, drilling, rapid surface alloying and melting, welding and cutting, transformation hardening, and cladding and surface melting in metallic materials. Time-temperature-transformation concepts furnish the basis for a fundamental understanding of the potential advantages of this direct pulsed power processing. Attention is given to the HEHR processing of a refractory molybdenum alloy, a nickel-base metallic glass, tungsten, titanium aluminides, and metal-matrix composites.

  11. Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, S; Strauss, M J; Snow, J; Rizatdinova, F; Abbott, B; Babu, K; Gutierrez, P; Kao, C; Khanov, A; Milton, K A; Neaman, H; H Severini, P Skubic

    2012-02-29

    The DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, with the support from the State of Oklahoma and from the three universities, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma and Langston University, resulted in establishing of the Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP) in 2004. Currently, OCHEP continues to flourish as a vibrant hub for research in experimental and theoretical particle physics and an educational center in the State of Oklahoma. All goals of the original proposal were successfully accomplished. These include foun- dation of a new experimental particle physics group at OSU, the establishment of a Tier 2 computing facility for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Tevatron data analysis at OU and organization of a vital particle physics research center in Oklahoma based on resources of the three universities. OSU has hired two tenure-track faculty members with initial support from the grant funds. Now both positions are supported through OSU budget. This new HEP Experimental Group at OSU has established itself as a full member of the Fermilab D0 Collaboration and LHC ATLAS Experiment and has secured external funds from the DOE and the NSF. These funds currently support 2 graduate students, 1 postdoctoral fellow, and 1 part-time engineer. The grant initiated creation of a Tier 2 computing facility at OU as part of the Southwest Tier 2 facility, and a permanent Research Scientist was hired at OU to maintain and run the facility. Permanent support for this position has now been provided through the OU university budget. OCHEP represents a successful model of cooperation of several universities, providing the establishment of critical mass of manpower, computing and hardware resources. This led to increasing Oklahoma's impact in all areas of HEP, theory, experiment, and computation. The Center personnel are involved in cutting edge research in experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of High Energy Physics with the research areas ranging

  12. A Gas Calorimeter for High-Energy Experiment and Study of High-Energy Cascade Shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Hitoshi [Tsukuba U.

    1984-01-01

    High energy behavior of the electromagnetic cascade shower has been studied. high energy showers were created by electron and hadron beams with energies between 25 GeV and 150 GeV at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The showers were observed by a shower detector consisting of multi-layer of lead plates and proportional chambers. The experimental results were analyzed with special emphasis on the fluctuation problem of the electromagnetic cascade shower....

  13. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; /SLAC; Le Diberder, Francois; /Orsay, LAL; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; /SLAC; Bellis, Matt; /Stanford U.; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab; Konigsberg, Jacobo; /Florida U.; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; /Fermilab; Lucchesi, Donatella; /INFN, Padua; Denisov, Dmitri; /Fermilab; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; /Manchester U.; Li, Qizhong; /Fermilab; Varnes, Erich; /Arizona U.; Jonckheere, Alan; /Fermilab; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

    2012-04-03

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  14. High-Energy Physics: Exit America?

    CERN Multimedia

    Seife, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Budget cuts and cancellations threaten to end U.S. exploration of the particle frontier. Fermilab's Tevatron, due to shut down around 200, could be the last large particle accelerator in the United States; the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva should ensure European dominance of high-energy physics (3 pages)

  15. Hard scattering in high-energy QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, Michelangelo L

    2000-01-01

    I review the recent results in the field of QCD at high energy presented to this Conference. In particular, I will concentrate on measurements of $\\as$ from studies of event structures and jet rates, jet production in hadronic collisions, and heavy quark production.

  16. Perspective in high energy physics instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, L. [INFN, Genoa (Italy)

    1995-10-01

    The discovery potential of the next generation of particle accelerators, and in particular of the large hadron collider (LHC), can only be fully exploited by very sophisticated particle detectors. The basics of detectors for momentum and energy measurement is here presented together with a recollection of recent developments which are relevant for use at high luminosity accelerators.

  17. Detecting ultra high energy neutrinos with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevius, M.; Buitink, S.; Falcke, H.; Horandel, J.; James, C. W.; McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Singh, K.; Stappers, B.; ter Veen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The NuMoon project aims to detect signals of Ultra High Energy (UHE) Cosmic Rays with radio telescopes on Earth using the Lunar Cherenkov technique at low frequencies (similar to 150 MHz). The advantage of using low frequencies is the much larger effective detecting volume, with as trade-off the

  18. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervera-Lierta, Alba; Latorre, José I.; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca

    2017-01-01

    We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i) $s$-channel processes

  19. High energy bosons do not propagate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkov, M.A., E-mail: Kurkov@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Lizzi, Fedele, E-mail: fedele.lizzi@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Departament de Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria, Institut de Ciéncies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Vassilevich, Dmitri, E-mail: dvassil@gmail.com [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, S.P. (Brazil)

    2014-04-04

    We discuss the propagation of bosons (scalars, gauge fields and gravitons) at high energy in the context of the spectral action. Using heat kernel techniques, we find that in the high-momentum limit the quadratic part of the action does not contain positive powers of the derivatives. We interpret this as the fact that the two-point Green functions vanish for nearby points, where the proximity scale is given by the inverse of the cutoff.

  20. 75 FR 26747 - U.S. Gas & Electric, Inc., Energy Services Providers, Inc., ESPI New England, Inc; Supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... No: 2010-11240] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Docket Nos. ER10-1129-000; ER10-1130-000; ER10-1131-000] U.S. Gas & Electric, Inc., Energy Services Providers, Inc., ESPI New... U.S. Gas & Electric, Inc., Energy Services Providers, Inc., and ESPI New England, Inc.'s application...

  1. Automatic Energy Schemes for High Performance Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Although high-performance computing traditionally focuses on the efficient execution of large-scale applications, both energy and power have become critical concerns when approaching exascale. Drastic increases in the power consumption of supercomputers affect significantly their operating costs and failure rates. In modern microprocessor architectures, equipped with dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (throttling), the power consumption may be controlled in software. Additionally, network interconnect, such as Infiniband, may be exploited to maximize energy savings while the application performance loss and frequency switching overheads must be carefully balanced. This work first studies two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather and proposes energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. Next, it targets point-to-point communications to group them into phases and apply frequency scaling to them to save energy by exploiting the architectural and communication stalls. Finally, it proposes an automatic runtime system which combines both collective and point-to-point communications into phases, and applies throttling to them apart from DVFS to maximize energy savings. The experimental results are presented for NAS parallel benchmark problems as well as for the realistic parallel electronic structure calculations performed by the widely used quantum chemistry package GAMESS. Close to the maximum energy savings were obtained with a substantially low performance loss on the given platform.

  2. IRIS Reactor a Suitable Option to Provide Energy and Water Desalination for the Mexican Northwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R.; Gomez, C.; Viais, J.

    2004-10-03

    The Northwest region of Mexico has a deficit of potable water, along this necessity is the region growth, which requires of additional energy capacity. The IRIS reactor offers a very suitable source of energy given its modular size of 300 MWe and it can be coupled with a desalination plant to provide the potable water for human consumption, agriculture and industry. The present paper assess the water and energy requirements for the Northwest region of Mexico and how the deployment of the IRIS reactor can satisfy those necessities. The possible sites for deployment of Nuclear Reactors are considered given the seismic constraints and the closeness of the sea for external cooling. And in the other hand, the size of the desalination plant and the type of desalination process are assessed accordingly with the water deficit of the region.

  3. Method for providing slip energy control in permanent magnet electrical machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.

    2006-11-14

    An electric machine (40) has a stator (43), a permanent magnet rotor (38) with permanent magnets (39) and a magnetic coupling uncluttered rotor (46) for inducing a slip energy current in secondary coils (47). A dc flux can be produced in the uncluttered rotor when the secondary coils are fed with dc currents. The magnetic coupling uncluttered rotor (46) has magnetic brushes (A, B, C, D) which couple flux in through the rotor (46) to the secondary coils (47c, 47d) without inducing a current in the rotor (46) and without coupling a stator rotational energy component to the secondary coils (47c, 47d). The machine can be operated as a motor or a generator in multi-phase or single-phase embodiments and is applicable to the hybrid electric vehicle. A method of providing a slip energy controller is also disclosed.

  4. MARIACHI - Detecting Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays with radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Helio

    2006-04-01

    Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays with energies in excess of 10^20eV (100 EeV) have been detected by several experiments. They present a conundrum whose solution may provide insight into the origins and evolution of the universe. There are no known sources within our galaxy or those close to us that could accelerate particles to these almost macroscopic energies, and yet the turn-on of pion production through the interactions of high energy charged particles with the 2.7K microwave background provides a strong limit for propagation from greater distances. The detection of UHECR to date has been accomplished either by detection of the particles from the extensive air showers by ground arrays or by means of detection of the light produced by the EAS in the atmosphere from Cerenkov radiation. MARIACHI (Mixed Apparatus for Radar Investigation of Cosmic-rays of High Ionization) is an innovative concept that will explore the detection of UHECR by bi-static radar using VHF transmitters. If successful, the MARIACHI technique will allow for detection of UHECR economically over much larger areas than currently possible, and might provide for detection of the associated ultra high energy neutrino flux. MARIACHI is also innovative in that ground array detectors that will initially confirm the radio signals are scintillator arrays to be built and operated by high school students and teachers. We will present the present status of the experiment.

  5. Radio Telescopes Extend Astronomy's Best "Yardstick," Provide Vital Tool for Unraveling Dark Energy Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Radio astronomers have directly measured the distance to a faraway galaxy, providing a valuable "yardstick" for calibrating large astronomical distances and demonstrating a vital method that could help determine the elusive nature of the mysterious Dark Energy that pervades the Universe. Galaxy UGC 3789 Visible-light image of UGC 3789 CREDIT: STScI "We measured a direct, geometric distance to the galaxy, independent of the complications and assumptions inherent in other techniques. The measurement highlights a valuable method that can be used to determine the local expansion rate of the Universe, which is essential in our quest to find the nature of Dark Energy," said James Braatz, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), who presented the work to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Pasadena, California. Braatz and his colleagues used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), and the Effelsberg Radio Telescope of the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Germany to determine that a galaxy dubbed UGC 3789 is 160 million light-years from Earth. To do this, they precisely measured both the linear and angular size of a disk of material orbiting the galaxy's central black hole. Water molecules in the disk act as masers to amplify, or strengthen, radio waves the way lasers amplify light waves. The observation is a key element of a major effort to measure the expansion rate of the Universe, known as the Hubble Constant, with greatly improved precision. That effort, cosmologists say, is the best way to narrow down possible explanations for the nature of Dark Energy. "The new measurement is important because it demonstrates a one-step, geometric technique for measuring distances to galaxies far enough to infer the expansion rate of the Universe," said Braatz. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The VLBA Very Long Baseline Array CREDIT: NRAO

  6. Adventures in high energy theory and phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dean Jonathan

    Various studies of high energy theory and phenomenology are presented. We first present a mechanism that naturally produces light Dirac neutrinos. The central idea is that the right-handed neutrinos are composite. Any realistic composite model must involve 'hidden flavor' chiral symmetries. In general some of these symmetries may survive confinement, and in particular, if a U(1) survives it must imply an exact B -- L symmetry at low energies. Dirac neutrinos are therefore produced, which are naturally light due to compositeness. In general, elementary keV sterile Dirac neutrinos can be a natural ingredient of this composite neutrino scenario. For a certain class of composite neutrino theories, these sterile neutrinos naturally have the appropriate mixing angles to be resonantly produced warm dark matter (WDM). Alternatively, we show these sterile neutrinos can be WDM produced by an entropy-diluted thermal freeze-out, with the necessary entropy production arising not from an out-of-equilibrium decay, but rather from the confinement of the composite neutrino sector, provided there is sufficient supercooling. We next present a formalism for the flavor oscillation of unstable particles that relies only upon the analytic structure of the time Fourier-transformed two-point function. We derive exact oscillation probability and integrated oscillation probability formulae, and verify that our results reproduce the known results for both neutrino and neutral meson oscillation in the expected regimes of parameter space. The generality of our approach permits us to investigate flavor oscillation in exotic parameter regimes, and present the corresponding oscillation formulae. Kinematic edges in cascade decays provide a probe of the masses of new particles. In some new physics scenarios the decay chain involves intermediate particles of different flavors that can mix and oscillate. We discuss the implication of such oscillation, and in particular its interplay with the non

  7. Photons as Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays ?

    CERN Document Server

    Kalashev, O E; Semikoz, D V; Tkachev, Igor I

    2001-01-01

    We study spectra of the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays assuming primaries are protons and photons, and that their sources are extragalactic. We assume power low for the injection spectra and take into account the influence of cosmic microwave, infrared, optical and radio backgrounds as well as extragalactic magnetic fields on propagation of primaries. Our additional free parameters are the maximum energy of injected particles and the distance to the nearest source. We find a parameter range where the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off is avoided.

  8. High Energy Emission From Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2003-01-01

    Emission at X-ray and gamma-ray energies has been detected from millisecond pulsars, both isolated and in binary systems. Although these pulsars have low surface magnetic fields, their short periods allow them to have large magnetospheric potential drops, so that high-energy emission from these sources is not unexpected. In fact, several nearby energetic millisecond pulsars that have been detected in X-rays could easily have been detected in gamma-rays by EGRET, but they were not. The reason for this may lie in a high-energy spectrum that is very different in these sources from that of normal pulsars. Both polar cap and outer gap models predict a two-component spectrum, one component peaking in hard X-rays and the other peaking above 1 GeV, with a gap at EGRET peak sensitivity. I will discuss the models for high-energy emission from millisecond pulsars, highlighting the differences between polar cap and outer gap models in spectrum and geometry of the emission.

  9. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David A.; Vogt, Ramona

    2005-03-31

    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from Bevalac and AGS to RHIC to CERN-LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the Next Linear Collider. To enhance the utility of this database, we propose periodically performing evaluations of the data and summarizing the results in topical reviews.

  10. Polarization charge densities provide a predictive quantification of hydrogen bond energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamt, Andreas; Reinisch, Jens; Eckert, Frank; Hellweg, Arnim; Diedenhofen, Michael

    2012-01-14

    A systematic density functional theory based study of hydrogen bond energies of 2465 single hydrogen bonds has been performed. In order to be closer to liquid phase conditions, different from the usual reference state of individual donor and acceptor molecules in vacuum, the reference state of donors and acceptors embedded in a perfect conductor as simulated by the COSMO solvation model has been used for the calculation of the hydrogen bond energies. The relationship between vacuum and conductor reference hydrogen bond energies is investigated and interpreted in the light of different physical contributions, such as electrostatic energy and dispersion. A very good correlation of the DFT/COSMO hydrogen bond energies with conductor polarization charge densities of separated donor and acceptor atoms was found. This provides a method to predict hydrogen bond strength in solution with a root mean square error of 0.36 kcal mol(-1) relative to the quantum chemical dimer calculations. The observed correlation is broadly applicable and allows for a predictive quantification of hydrogen bonding, which can be of great value in many areas of computational, medicinal and physical chemistry.

  11. Solar Flares and the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Solar flares are the biggest explosions in the solar system. They are important both for understanding explosive events in the Universe and for their impact on human technology and communications. The satellite-based HESSI is designed to study the explosive release of energy and the acceleration of electrons, protons, and other charged particles to high energies in solar flares. HESSI produces "color" movies of the Sun in high-energy X rays and gamma rays radiated by these energetic particles. HESSI's X-ray and gamma-ray images of flares are obtained using techniques similar to those used in radio interferometry. Ground-based radio observations of the Sun provide an important complement to the HESSI observations of solar flares. I will describe the HESSI Project and the high-energy aspects of solar flares, and how these relate to radio astronomy techniques and observations.

  12. Energy harvesting in high voltage measuring techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żyłka, Pawel; Doliński, Marcin

    2016-02-01

    The paper discusses selected problems related to application of energy harvesting (that is, generating electricity from surplus energy present in the environment) to supply autonomous ultra-low-power measurement systems applicable in high voltage engineering. As a practical example of such implementation a laboratory model of a remote temperature sensor is presented, which is self-powered by heat generated in a current-carrying busbar in HV- switchgear. Presented system exploits a thermoelectric harvester based on a passively cooled Peltier module supplying micro-power low-voltage dc-dc converter driving energy-efficient temperature sensor, microcontroller and a fibre-optic transmitter. Performance of the model in laboratory simulated conditions are presented and discussed.

  13. Evaluation of Monte Carlo tools for high energy atmospheric physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjes, Casper; Sarria, David; Broberg Skeltved, Alexander; Luque, Alejandro; Diniz, Gabriel; Østgaard, Nikolai; Ebert, Ute

    2016-11-01

    The emerging field of high energy atmospheric physics (HEAP) includes terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, electron-positron beams and gamma-ray glows from thunderstorms. Similar emissions of high energy particles occur in pulsed high voltage discharges. Understanding these phenomena requires appropriate models for the interaction of electrons, positrons and photons of up to 40 MeV energy with atmospheric air. In this paper, we benchmark the performance of the Monte Carlo codes Geant4, EGS5 and FLUKA developed in other fields of physics and of the custom-made codes GRRR and MC-PEPTITA against each other within the parameter regime relevant for high energy atmospheric physics. We focus on basic tests, namely on the evolution of monoenergetic and directed beams of electrons, positrons and photons with kinetic energies between 100 keV and 40 MeV through homogeneous air in the absence of electric and magnetic fields, using a low energy cutoff of 50 keV. We discuss important differences between the results of the different codes and provide plausible explanations. We also test the computational performance of the codes. The Supplement contains all results, providing a first benchmark for present and future custom-made codes that are more flexible in including electrodynamic interactions.

  14. Evaluation of Monte Carlo tools for high energy atmospheric physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rutjes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of high energy atmospheric physics (HEAP includes terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, electron–positron beams and gamma-ray glows from thunderstorms. Similar emissions of high energy particles occur in pulsed high voltage discharges. Understanding these phenomena requires appropriate models for the interaction of electrons, positrons and photons of up to 40 MeV energy with atmospheric air. In this paper, we benchmark the performance of the Monte Carlo codes Geant4, EGS5 and FLUKA developed in other fields of physics and of the custom-made codes GRRR and MC-PEPTITA against each other within the parameter regime relevant for high energy atmospheric physics. We focus on basic tests, namely on the evolution of monoenergetic and directed beams of electrons, positrons and photons with kinetic energies between 100 keV and 40 MeV through homogeneous air in the absence of electric and magnetic fields, using a low energy cutoff of 50 keV. We discuss important differences between the results of the different codes and provide plausible explanations. We also test the computational performance of the codes. The Supplement contains all results, providing a first benchmark for present and future custom-made codes that are more flexible in including electrodynamic interactions.

  15. High power and high energy electrodes using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Fabrizio; Brambilla, Nicolo Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo

    2015-04-07

    An electrode useful in an energy storage system, such as a capacitor, includes an electrode that includes at least one to a plurality of layers of compressed carbon nanotube aggregate. Methods of fabrication are provided. The resulting electrode exhibits superior electrical performance in terms of gravimetric and volumetric power density.

  16. Current Perspectives in High Energy Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormes, Jonathan F. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    High energy astrophysics is a space-age discipline that has taken a quantum leap forward in the 1990s. The observables are photons and particles that are unable to penetrate the atmosphere and can only be observed from space or very high altitude balloons. The lectures presented as chapters of this book are based on the results from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) and Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) missions to which the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center made significant hardware contributions. These missions study emissions from very hot plasmas, nuclear processes, and high energy particle interactions in space. Results to be discussed include gamma-ray beaming from active galactic nuclei (AGN), gamma-ray emission from pulsars, radioactive elements in the interstellar medium, X-ray emission from clusters of galaxies, and the progress being made to unravel the gamma-ray burst mystery. The recently launched X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and prospects for upcoming Astro-E and Advanced X-ray Astronomy Satellite (AXAF) missions are also discussed.

  17. Phase conjugation of high energy lasers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, David E; Valley, Michael T.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Bigman, Verle Howard; Boye, Lydia Ann; Broyles, Robin Scott; Kimmel, Mark W.; Law, Ryan J.; Yoder, James R.

    2013-01-01

    In this report we explore claims that phase conjugation of high energy lasers by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) can compensate optical aberrations associated with severely distorted laser amplifier media and aberrations induced by the atmosphere. The SBS media tested was a gas cell pressurized up to 300 psi with SF6 or Xe or both. The laser was a 10 Hz, 3J, Q-switched Nd:YAG with 25 ns wide pulses. Atmospheric aberrations were created with space heaters, helium jets and phase plates designed with a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum characterized by a Fried parameter, ro , ranging from 0.6 6.0 mm. Phase conjugate tests in the laboratory were conducted without amplification. For the strongest aberrations, D/ro ~ 20, created by combining the space heaters with the phase plate, the Strehl ratio was degraded by a factor of ~50. Phase conjugation in SF6 restored the peak focusable intensity to about 30% of the original laser. Phase conjugate tests at the outdoor laser range were conducted with laser amplifiers providing gain in combination with the SBS cell. A large 600,000 BTU kerosene space heater was used to create turbulence along the beam path. An atmospheric structure factor of Cn2 = 5x10-13 m2/3 caused the illumination beam to expand to a diameter 250mm and overfill the receiver. The phase conjugate amplified return could successfully be targeted back onto glints 5mm in diameter. Use of a lenslet arrays to lower the peak focusable intensity in the SBS cell failed to produce a useful phase conjugate beam; The Strehl ratio was degraded with multiple random lobes instead of a single focus. I will review literature results which show how multiple beams can be coherently combined by SBS when a confocal reflecting geometry is used to focus the laser in the SBS cell.

  18. Stress-adapted extremophiles provide energy without interference with food production

    KAUST Repository

    Bressan, Ray Anthony

    2011-02-19

    How to wean humanity off the use of fossil fuels continues to receive much attention but how to replace these fuels with renewable sources of energy has become a contentious field of debate as well as research, which often reflects economic and political factors rather than scientific good sense. It is clear that not every advertized energy source can lead to a sustainable, humane and environment-friendly path out of a future energy crisis. Our proposal is based on two assertions: that the use of food crops for biofuels is immoral, and that for this purpose using land suitable for growing crops productively is to be avoided. We advocate a focus on new "extremophile" crops. These would either be wild species adapted to extreme environments which express genes, developmental processes and metabolic pathways that distinguish them from traditional crops or existing crops genetically modified to withstand extreme environments. Such extremophile energy crops (EECs), will be less susceptible to stresses in a changing global environment and provide higher yields than existing crops. Moreover, they will grow on land that has never been valuable for agriculture or is no longer so, owing to centuries or millennia of imprudent exploitation. Such a policy will contribute to striking a balance between ecosystem protection and human resource management. Beyond that, rather than bulk liquid fuel generation, combustion of various biomass sources including extremophiles for generating electrical energy, and photovoltaics-based capture of solar energy, are superbly suitable candidates for powering the world in the future. Generating electricity and efficient storage capacity is quite possibly the only way for a sustainable post-fossil and, indeed, post-biofuel fuel economy. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. & International Society for Plant Pathology.

  19. Scotts Valley Energy Office and Human Capacity Building that will provide energy-efficiency services and develop sustainable renewable energy projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Temashio [Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians

    2013-06-28

    The primary goal of this project is to develop a Scotts Valley Energy Development Office (SVEDO). This office will further support the mission of the Tribe's existing leadership position as the DOE Tribal Multi-County Weatherization Energy Program (TMCWEP) in creating jobs and providing tribal homes and buildings with weatherization assistance to increase energy efficiency, occupant comfort and improved indoor air quality. This office will also spearhead efforts to move the Tribe towards its further strategic energy goals of implementing renewable energy systems through specific training, resource evaluation, feasibility planning, and implementation. Human capacity building and continuing operations are two key elements of the SVEDO objectives. Therefore, the project will 1) train and employ additional Tribal members in energy efficiency, conservation and renewable resource analyses and implementation; 2) purchase materials and equipment required to implement the strategic priorities as developed by the Scotts Valley Tribe which specifically include implementing energy conservation measures and alternative energy strategies to reduce energy costs for the Tribe and its members; and 3) obtain a dedicated office and storage space for ongoing SVEDO operations.

  20. High energy electron-positron physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed

    1988-01-01

    With the termination of the physics program at PETRA, and with the start of TRISTAN and the SLC and later LEP, an era of e+e- physics has come to an end and a new one begins. The field is changing from a field of few specialists, to becoming one of the mainstream efforts of the high energy community. It seems appropriate at this moment to summarize what has been learned over the past years, in a way most useful to any high energy physicists, in particular to newcomers in the e+e- field. This is the purpose of the book. This book should be used as a reference for future workers in the field of

  1. High energy physics at UC Riverside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report discusses progress made for the following two tasks: experimental high energy physics, Task A, and theoretical high energy physics, Task B. Task A1 covers hadron collider physics. Information for Task A1 includes: personnel/talks/publications; D0: proton-antiproton interactions at 2 TeV; SDC: proton-proton interactions at 40 TeV; computing facilities; equipment needs; and budget notes. The physics program of Task A2 has been the systematic study of leptons and hadrons. Information covered for Task A2 includes: personnel/talks/publications; OPAL at LEP; OPAL at LEP200; CMS at LHC; the RD5 experiment; LSND at LAMPF; and budget notes. The research activities of the Theory Group are briefly discussed and a list of completed or published papers for this period is given.

  2. High energy density redox flow device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, Craig W.; Ho, Bryan Y.; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2017-10-10

    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  3. New Prospects in High Energy Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandford, Roger; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-11-15

    Recent discoveries using TeV, X-ray and radio telescopes as well as Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray arrays are leading to new insights into longstanding puzzles in high energy astrophysics. Many of these insights come from combining observations throughout the electromagnetic and other spectra as well as evidence assembled from different types of source to propose general principles. Issues discussed in this general overview include methods of accelerating relativistic particles, and amplifying magnetic field, the dynamics of relativistic outflows and the nature of the prime movers that power them. Observational approaches to distinguishing hadronic, leptonic and electromagnetic outflows and emission mechanisms are discussed along with probes of the velocity field and the confinement mechanisms. Observations with GLAST promise to be very prescriptive for addressing these problems.

  4. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  5. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  6. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C.

    1987-01-01

    Theory of thermoelectric energy conversion at high temperatures and status of research on conversion materials reviewed in report. Shows highest values of thermoelectric figure of merit, Z, found in semiconductor materials. Semiconductors keep wide choice of elements and compounds. Electrical properties tailored to particular application by impurity doping and control of stoichiometry. Report develops definition of Z useful for comparing materials and uses it to evaluate potentials of different classes of materialsmetals, semiconductors, and insulators.

  7. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  8. MASS SEPARATION OF HIGH ENERGY PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, L.

    1962-09-25

    An apparatus and method are described for separating charged, high energy particles of equal momentum forming a beam where the particles differ slightly in masses. Magnetic lenses are utilized to focus the beam and maintain that condition while electrostatic fields located between magnetic lenses are utilized to cause transverse separation of the particles into two beams separated by a sufficient amount to permit an aperture to block one beam. (AEC)

  9. An Experimental Study of Energy Consumption in Buildings Providing Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yashen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Afshari, Sina [University of Michigan; Wolfe, John [University of Michigan; Nazir, Md Salman [University of Michigan; Hiskens, Ian A. [University of Michigan; Johnson, Jeremiah X. [University of Michigan; Mathieu, Johanna L. [University of Michigan; Barnes, Arthur K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geller, Drew A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-10-03

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial buildings can provide ancillary services (AS) to the power grid, but by providing AS their energy consumption may increase. This inefficiency is evaluated using round-trip efficiency (RTE), which is defined as the ratio between the decrease and the increase in the HVAC system's energy consumption compared to the baseline consumption as a result of providing AS. This paper evaluates the RTE of a 30,000 m2 commercial building providing AS. We propose two methods to estimate the HVAC system's settling time after an AS event based on temperature and the air flow measurements from the building. Experimental data gathered over a 4-month period are used to calculate the RTE for AS signals of various waveforms, magnitudes, durations, and polarities. The results indicate that the settling time estimation algorithm based on the air flow measurements obtains more accurate results compared to the temperature-based algorithm. Further, we study the impact of the AS signal shape parameters on the RTE and discuss the practical implications of our findings.

  10. 10th Latin American Symposium on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fazio, Angelo Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    SILAFAE is one of the most important and traditional events on High Energy Physicsin Latin America. Bringing together theorists and experimentalists to present the state of the art of many different topics, it provides a major forum for the discussion of the latest developments in the field. It is a unique opportunity to exchange new ideas and to foster new collaborations.

  11. R\\'enyi statistics in high energy particle production

    OpenAIRE

    Kropivnitskaya, A.; Rostovtsev, A.

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that R\\'enyi statistics provides a plausible basis to describe the hadron distributions measured in high energy particle interactions. Generalized Boltzmann and gamma distributions obtained by maximization of R\\'enyi entropy under constraints on Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages are used to describe the hadron transverse momentum and multiplicity spectra correspondingly.

  12. Fiber based hydrophones for ultra-high energy neutrino detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, E.J.; Doppenberg, E.J.J.; Eijk, D. van; Lahmann, R.; Nieuwland, R.A.; Toet, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    It is a well studied process [1, 2] that energy deposition of cosmic ray particles in water that generate thermo-acoustic signals. Hydrophones of sufficient sensitivity could measure this signal and provide a means of detecting ultra-high energetic cosmic neutrinos. We investigate optical

  13. High energy neutrinos from the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masip, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The Sun is a main source of high energy neutrinos. These neutrinos appear as secondary particles after the Sun absorbs high-energy cosmic rays, that find there a low-density environment (much thinner than our atmosphere) where most secondary pions, kaons and muons can decay before they lose energy. The main uncertainty in a calculation of the solar neutrino flux is due to the effects of the magnetic fields on the absorption rate of charged cosmic rays. We use recent data from HAWC on the cosmic-ray shadow of the Sun to estimate this rate. We evaluate the solar neutrino flux and show that at 1 TeV it is over ten times larger than the atmospheric one at zenith θz =30∘ /150∘ . The flux that we obtain has a distinct spectrum and flavor composition: it is harder and richer in antineutrinos and tau/electron neutrinos than the atmospheric background. This solar flux could be detected in current and upcoming neutrino telescopes. KM3NeT, in particular, looks very promising: it will see the Sun high in the sky (the atmospheric flux is lower there than near the horizon) and expects a very good angular resolution (the Sun's radius is just 0.27°).

  14. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kogler, Roman; Steder, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Data from high-energy physics experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. However, until recently no coherent strategy existed for data preservation and re-use, and many important and complex data sets have simply been lost. While the current focus is on the LHC at CERN, in the current period several important and unique experimental programs at other facilities are coming to an end, including those at HERA, b-factories and the Tevatron. To address this issue, an inter-experimental study group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis (DPHEP) was convened at the end of 2008. The group now aims to publish a full and detailed review of the present status of data preservation in high energy physics. This contribution summarises the results of the DPHEP study group, describing the challenges of data preservation in high energy physics and the group's first conclusions and recommendations. The physics motivation for data preservation, generic computing and pre...

  15. Advanced Detectors for Nuclear, High Energy and Astroparticle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Supriya; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2018-01-01

    The book presents high-quality papers presented at a national conference on ‘Advanced Detectors for Nuclear, High Energy and Astroparticle Physics’. The conference was organized to commemorate 100 years of Bose Institute. The book is based on the theme of the conference and provides a clear picture of basics and advancement of detectors for nuclear physics, high-energy physics and astroparticle physics together. The topics covered in the book include detectors for accelerator-based high energy physics; detectors for non-accelerator particle physics; nuclear physics detectors; detection techniques in astroparticle physics and dark matter; and applications and simulations. The book will be a good reference for researchers and industrial personnel working in the area of nuclear and astroparticle physics.

  16. Embolism of high energy firearm projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Álvarez Soler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The embolism of a projectile is very rare and out of the normal context, so the cor-oner in front of a wound projectile firearm must make a very judicious and careful analysis to recover the projectile and/or its fragments. This case presents evidence how modern military high-velocity weapons have a high kinetic energy which is transferred to body tissues, so including their fragments and parts of the projectile can cause serious injury and embolism, requiring a great effort scientific and in-terdisciplinary to give technical support to justice.

  17. EXTRACTOR FOR HIGH ENERGY CHARGED PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertson, G.R.

    1964-04-01

    A particle-extracting apparatus for use with a beam of high-energy charged particles such as travel in an evacuated chamber along a circular equilibrium axis is described. A magnetized target is impacted relatively against the beam whereby the beam particles are deflected from the beam by the magnetic induction in the target. To this end the target may be moved into the beam or the beam may coast into the target and achieve high angular particle deflection and slow extraction. A deflecting septum magnet may additionally be used for deflection at even sharper angles. (AEC)

  18. Quantum Phenomena in High Energy Density Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, Margaret [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Kapteyn, Henry [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-10

    The possibility of implementing efficient (phase matched) HHG upconversion of deep- UV lasers in multiply-ionized plasmas, with potentially unprecedented conversion efficiency is a fascinating prospect. HHG results from the extreme nonlinear response of matter to intense laser light:high harmonics are radiated as a result of a quantum coherent electron recollision process that occurs during laser field ionization of an atom. Under current support from this grant in work published in Science in 2015, we discovered a new regime of bright HHG in highly-ionized plasmas driven by intense UV lasers, that generates bright harmonics to photon energies >280eV

  19. Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...

  20. Modular High-Energy Systems for Solar Power Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Carrington, Connie K.; Marzwell, Neville I.; Mankins, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Modular High-Energy Systems are Stepping Stones to provide capabilities for energy-rich infrastructure located in space to support a variety of exploration scenarios as well as provide a supplemental source of energy during peak demands to ground grid systems. Abundant renewable energy at lunar or other locations could support propellant production and storage in refueling scenarios that enable affordable exploration. Renewable energy platforms in geosynchronous Earth orbits can collect and transmit power to satellites, or to Earth-surface locations. Energy-rich space technologies also enable the use of electric-powered propulsion systems that could efficiently deliver cargo and exploration facilities to remote locations. A first step to an energy-rich space infrastructure is a 100-kWe class solar-powered platform in Earth orbit. The platform would utilize advanced technologies in solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, thermal management, electric propulsion, wireless avionics, autonomous in space rendezvous and docking, servicing, and robotic assembly. It would also provide an energy-rich free-flying platform to demonstrate in space a portfolio of technology flight experiments. This paper summary a preliminary design concept for a 100-kWe solar-powered satellite system to demonstrate in-flight a variety of advanced technologies, each as a separate payload. These technologies include, but are not limited to state-of-the-art solar concentrators, highly efficient multi-junction solar cells, integrated thermal management on the arrays, and innovative deployable structure design and packaging to enable the 100-kW satellite feasible to launch on one existing launch vehicle. Higher voltage arrays and power distribution systems (PDS) reduce or eliminate the need for massive power converters, and could enable direct-drive of high-voltage solar electric thrusters.

  1. High-energy vector boson scattering after the Higgs discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, Wolfgang; Sekulla, Marco [University of Siegen, Siegen (Germany); Ohl, Thorsten [Wuerzburg University, Wuerzburg (Germany); Reuter, Juergen [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Weak vector boson scattering (VBS)at high energies will be one of the key measurements in the upcoming LHC runs. It is very sensitive to any new physics associated with electroweak symmetry breaking. But a conventional EFT analysis will fail at high energies, especially in the presence of the light 125 GeV Higgs boson. In this talk I present how to extend the EFT to a simplified model by adding additional resonances to VBS and therefore increase the energy validity of the theoretical description. Furthermore I introduce the T-matrix unitarization scheme as an extension of the K-matrix unitarization prescription. It provides an asymptotically consistent reference model, which has been matched to the low-energy effective theory of arbitrary non-perturbative and perturbative models.

  2. High-energy particles. [in Jovian magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, A. W.; Goertz, C. K.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the magnetosphere of Jupiter is in many respects quite different from that of the earth. The energy required to drive the Jovian magnetosphere is apparently extracted from Jupiter's rotational energy rather than from the solar wind. Jupiter is a strong source of energetic charged particles which can be detected as far away as the orbit of Mercury. The structure and dynamics of the energetic particle distribution in the inner magnetosphere is discussed, taking into account observations, transport and losses in the inner magnetosphere, satellite interactions, and electron synchrotron radiation. The subsolar hemisphere is considered, giving attention to particle fluxes in the subsolar magnetosphere, conditions in the middle magnetosphere, and the characteristics of the outer magnetosphere. A description of the predawn magnetosphere is also provided.

  3. Extreme Transients in the High Energy Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2013-01-01

    The High Energy Universe is rich in diverse populations of objects spanning the entire cosmological (time)scale, from our own present-day Milky Way to the re-ionization epoch. Several of these are associated with extreme conditions irreproducible in laboratories on Earth. Their study thus sheds light on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions, such as super-strong magnetic fields (in excess of 10^14 G), high gravitational potentials (e.g., Super Massive Black Holes), very energetic collimated explosions resulting in relativistic jet flows (e.g., Gamma Ray Bursts, exceeding 10^53 ergs). In the last thirty years, my work has been mostly focused on two apparently different but potentially linked populations of such transients: magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars) and Gamma Ray Bursts (strongly beamed emission from relativistic jets), two populations that constitute unique astrophysical laboratories, while also giving us the tools to probe matter conditions in the Universe to redshifts beyond z=10, when the first stars and galaxies were assembled. I did not make this journey alone I have either led or participated in several international collaborations studying these phenomena in multi-wavelength observations; solitary perfection is not sufficient anymore in the world of High Energy Astrophysics. I will describe this journey, present crucial observational breakthroughs, discuss key results and muse on the future of this field.

  4. Extremely High Current, High-Brightness Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Burger, Al; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Favale, Anthony; Gassner, David M; Grimes, Jacob T; Hahn, Harald; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Segalov, Zvi; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Warren-Funk, L; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    Next generation ERL light-sources, high-energy electron coolers, high-power Free-Electron Lasers, powerful Compton X-ray sources and many other accelerators were made possible by the emerging technology of high-power, high-brightness electron beams. In order to get the anticipated performance level of ampere-class currents, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for its electron cooling of RHIC application, as well as a possible future electron-hadron collider. We will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun and an accelerator cavity capable of producing low emittance (about 1 micron rms normalized) one nano-Coulomb bunches at currents of the order of one ampere average.

  5. Experimental Facilities at the High Energy Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, P.

    2016-01-01

    The main theme of the lectures covered the experimental work at hadron colliders, with a clear focus on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and on the roadmap that led finally to the discovery of the Higgs boson. The lectures were not a systematic course on machine and detector technologies, but rather tried to give a physics-motivated overview of many experimental aspects that were all relevant for making the discovery. The actual lectures covered a much broader scope than what is documented here in this write- up. The successful concepts for the experiments at the LHC have benefitted from the experience gained with previous generations of detectors at lower- energy machines. The lectures included also an outlook to the future experimental programme at the LHC, with its machine and experiments upgrades, as well as a short discussion of possible facilities at the high energy frontier beyond LHC.

  6. High energy neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardini, Cecilia; Razzaque, Soebur

    2012-06-01

    Recently the Fermi-LAT data have revealed two gamma-ray emitting bubble-shaped structures at the Galactic center. If the observed gamma rays have hadronic origin (collisions of accelerated protons), the bubbles must emit high energy neutrinos as well. This new, Galactic, neutrino flux should trace the gamma-ray emission in spectrum and spatial extent. Its highest energy part, above 20-50 TeV, is observable at a kilometer-scale detector in the northern hemisphere, such as the planned KM3NeT, while interesting constraints on it could be obtained by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. The detection or exclusion of neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles will discriminate between hadronic and leptonic models, thus bringing unique information on the still mysterious origin of these objects and on the time scale of their formation.

  7. QCD and high-energy nuclear collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Six years ago, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven started colliding heavy nuclei at record center-of-mass energies of up to 200 GeV/nucleon. Very soon, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will push the energy of the ions to an astounding 5 TeV/nucleon. What can be learnt from the experiments at these machines? What do we know about the physics of super--dense matter already? I will argue that heavy ion accelerators bring us to the new frontiers of physical knowledge by creating strong color fields and very high densities of partons, at which qualitatively new phenomena emerge. I will also discuss the cross-disciplinary implications for cosmology, astrophysics, and connections to condensed matter physics.

  8. Graphene supercapacitor with both high power and energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Kannappan, Santhakumar; Pandian, Amaresh S.; Jang, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Yun Sung; Lu, Wu

    2017-11-01

    Supercapacitors, based on fast ion transportation, are specialized to provide high power, long stability, and efficient energy storage using highly porous electrode materials. However, their low energy density excludes them from many potential applications that require both high energy density and high power density performances. Using a scalable nanoporous graphene synthesis method involving an annealing process in hydrogen, here we show supercapacitors with highly porous graphene electrodes capable of achieving not only a high power density of 41 kW kg-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of 97.5%, but also a high energy density of 148.75 Wh kg-1. A high specific gravimetric and volumetric capacitance (306.03 F g-1 and 64.27 F cm-3) are demonstrated. The devices can retain almost 100% capacitance after 7000 charging/discharging cycles at a current density of 8 A g-1. The superior performance of supercapacitors is attributed to their ideal pore size, pore uniformity, and good ion accessibility of the synthesized graphene.

  9. University of Oklahoma - High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubic, Patrick L. [University of Oklahoma

    2013-07-31

    The High Energy Physics program at the University of Oklahoma, Pat Skubic, Principal Investigator, is attempting to understand nature at the deepest level using the most advanced experimental and theoretical tools. The four experimental faculty, Brad Abbott, Phil Gutierrez, Pat Skubic, and Mike Strauss, together with post-doctoral associates and graduate students, are finishing their work as part of the D0 collaboration at Fermilab, and increasingly focusing their investigations at the Large Hadron Collidor (LHC) as part of the ATLAS Collaboration. Work at the LHC has become even more exciting with the recent discovery by ATLAS and the other collaboration, CMS, of the long-sought Higgs boson, which plays a key role in generating masses for the elementary constituents of matter. Work of the OUHEP group has been in the three areas of hardware, software, and analysis. Now that the Higgs boson has been discovered, completing the Standard Model of fundamental physics, new efforts will focus on finding hints of physics beyond the standard model, such as supersymmetry. The OUHEP theory group (Kim Milton, PI) also consists of four faculty members, Howie Baer, Chung Kao, Kim Milton, and Yun Wang, and associated students and postdocs. They are involved in understanding fundamental issues in formulating theories of the microworld, and in proposing models that carry us past the Standard Model, which is an incomplete description of nature. They therefore work in close concert with their experimental colleagues. One also can study fundamental physics by looking at the large scale structure of the universe; in particular the ``dark energy'' that seems to be causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate, effectively makes up about 3/4 of the energy in the universe, and yet is totally unidentified. Dark energy and dark matter, which together account for nearly all of the energy in the universe, are an important probe of fundamental physics at the very shortest

  10. Very high energy emission sources beyond the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN are considered as potential extragalactic sources of very and ultra high energy cosmic rays. According to theoretical predictions cosmic ray acceleration can take place at the shock created by the expanding cocoons around active galactic nuclei as well as at AGN jets. The measurements of AGN TeV spectra, the variability time scale of TeV emission can provide essential information on the dynamics of AGN jets, the localization of acceleration region and an estimation of its size. SHALON observations yielded data on extragalactic sources of different AGN types in the energy range of 800 GeV–100 TeV. The data from SHALON observations are compared with those from other experiments at high and very high energies.

  11. Shade-lux simulation model for the evaluation of energy savings in buildings provided with external non homogeneous shading devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, P. [CIRPS, Centro Interuniv. de Ricerca per i Paesi in Via di Sviluppo, Roma (Italy); Maccari, A. [ENEA, Ente Nazionale per l' Energia e l' Ambiente, Roma (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    During the hot season, an important amount of energy is necessary to guarantee good internal conditions in tertiary buildings, especially in those used during the daytime and provided with large glazed surfaces exposed to the sun. In order to reduce such amount of energy consumption specific shading devices are required, in particular in buildings located in the Mediterranean area where the solar radiation values are very high. The main purpose of this work is to develop a simulation model that allows to evaluate the energy performances of a building equipped with external non-homogeneous shading devices, traditional or innovative glass surfaces, and internal curtains (complex building envelope transparent systems, BETS) taking also into account the lighting load necessary to guarantee an adequate level of illuminance. In a widely diffused computer code two new routines have been added in order to evaluate the shading factor of the above-mentioned shading devices and the internal daylighting performance. Several runs of the modified program were carried out considering three different sizes of shading devices, with two values of reflectance coefficient, in horizontal position located a south facade with 33%, 50% and 65% of glass surface in three different Italian locations: Milan, Rome and Palermo. The results show that significant energy savings, up to about 40% in terms of primary energy and a diminution of up to 45% of the cooling system power, can be obtained. (au)

  12. Tibiofibula Transposition in High-Energy Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. Loughenbury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of failed attempts at closed reduction of high-energy tibial fractures with an associated fibula fracture. The first case was a 39-year-old male involved in high-speed motorbike collision, while the second was a 14-year-old male who injured his leg following a fall of three metres. Emergency medical services at the scenes of the accidents reported a 90-degree valgus deformity of the injured limb and both limbs were realigned on scene and stabilized. Adequate alignment of the tibia could not be achieved by manipulation under sedation or anaesthesia. Open reduction and exposure of the fracture sites revealed that the distal fibula fragment was “transposed” and entrapped in the medulla of the proximal tibial fragment. Reduction required simulation of the mechanism of injury in order to disengage the fragments and allow reduction. Tibiofibula transposition is a rare complication of high-energy lower limb fractures which has not previously been reported and may prevent adequate closed reduction. Impaction of the distal fibula within the tibial medulla occurs as the limb is realigned by paramedic staff before transfer to hospital. We recommend that when this complication is identified the patient is transferred to the operating room for open reduction and stabilization of the fracture.

  13. UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherfoord, John P. [University of Arizona; Johns, Kenneth A. [University of Arizona; Shupe, Michael A. [University of Arizona; Cheu, Elliott C. [University of Arizona; Varnes, Erich W. [University of Arizona; Dienes, Keith [University of Arizona; Su, Shufang [University of Arizona; Toussaint, William Doug [University of Arizona; Sarcevic, Ina [University of Arizona

    2013-07-29

    The High Energy Physics Group at the University of Arizona has conducted forefront research in elementary particle physics. Our theorists have developed new ideas in lattice QCD, SUSY phenomenology, string theory phenomenology, extra spatial dimensions, dark matter, and neutrino astrophysics. The experimentalists produced significant physics results on the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider and on the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. In addition, the experimentalists were leaders in detector development and construction, and on service roles in these experiments.

  14. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mount, Richard; Le Diberder, Francois; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; Bellis, Matt; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; Lucchesi, Donatella; Denisov, Dmitri; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Li, Qizhong; Varnes, Erich; Jonckheere, Alan; Gasthuber, Martin; Gülzow, Volker; Kemp, Yves; Ozerov, Dmitri; Diaconu, Cristinel; South, David; Lobodzinski, Bogdan; Olsson, Jan; Haas, Tobias; Wrona, Krzysztof; Szuba, Janusz; Schnell, Gunar; Sasaki, Takashi; Katayama, Nobu; Hernandez, Fabio; Mele, Salvatore; Holzner, Andre; Hemmer, Frederic; Schroeder, Matthias; Barring, Olof; Brun, Rene; Maggi, Marcello; Igo-Kemenes, Peter; Van Wezel, Jos; Heiss, Andreas; Chen, Gang; Wang, Yifang; Asner, David; Riley, Daniel; Corney, David; Gordon, John

    2009-01-01

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group.

  15. Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)

  16. Advanced Analysis Methods in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushpalatha C. Bhat

    2001-10-03

    During the coming decade, high energy physics experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron and around the globe will use very sophisticated equipment to record unprecedented amounts of data in the hope of making major discoveries that may unravel some of Nature's deepest mysteries. The discovery of the Higgs boson and signals of new physics may be around the corner. The use of advanced analysis techniques will be crucial in achieving these goals. The author discusses some of the novel methods of analysis that could prove to be particularly valuable for finding evidence of any new physics, for improving precision measurements and for exploring parameter spaces of theoretical models.

  17. Reclustering of high energy physics data

    CERN Document Server

    Schaller, M

    1999-01-01

    The coming high energy physics experiments will store Petabytes of data into object databases. Analysis jobs will frequently traverse collections containing millions of stored objects. Clustering is one of the most effective means $9 to enhance the performance of these applications. The paper presents a reclustering algorithm for independent objects contained in multiple possibly overlapping collections on secondary storage. The algorithm decomposes the stored $9 objects into a number of independent chunks and then maps these chunks to a traveling salesman problem. Under a set of realistic assumptions, the number of disk seeks is reduced almost to the theoretical minimum. Experimental results $9 obtained from a prototype are included. (17 refs).

  18. Photomask specifications for high energy physics detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pindo, M

    2002-01-01

    Planar technologies used for radiation detector fabrication imply an extensive use of photomasks whose characteristics are critical in determining final detector performance. Compatibly with their manufacturing process, photomasks must satisfy the application-specific requirements dictated both by wafer manufacturers and detector final users. The design and realization of microstrip and pixel detectors, widely used in high energy physics experiments, ask for intensive scientific effort, advanced technology and important economical investments. Photomask specification definition is one of the fundamental steps to optimize detector fabrication processes and fulfill experimental requirements at the most appropriate cost.

  19. Predictions of High Energy Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight predictions of high energy experimental results are presented. The predictions contain the $Sigma ^+$ charge radius and results of two kinds of experiments using energetic pionic beams. In addition, predictions of the failure to find the following objects are presented: glueballs, pentaquarks, Strange Quark Matter, magnetic monopoles searched by their direct interaction with charges and the Higgs boson. The first seven predictions rely on the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory and the last one relies on mathematical inconsistencies of the Higgs Lagrangian density.

  20. Particle identification methods in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' Vra, J.

    2000-01-27

    This paper deals with two major particle identification methods: dE/dx and Cherenkov detection. In the first method, the authors systematically compare existing dE/dx data with various predictions available in the literature, such as the Particle Data group recommendation, and judge the overall consistency. To my knowledge, such comparison was not done yet in a published form for the gaseous detectors used in High-Energy physics. As far as the second method, there are two major Cherenkov light detection techniques: the threshold and the Ring imaging methods. The authors discuss the recent trend in these techniques.

  1. [Experimental and theoretical high energy physics program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, J.; Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1993-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics research at Purdue is summarized in a number of reports. Subjects treated include the following: the CLEO experiment for the study of heavy flavor physics; gas microstrip detectors; particle astrophysics; affine Kac{endash}Moody algebra; nonperturbative mass bounds on scalar and fermion systems due to triviality and vacuum stability constraints; resonance neutrino oscillations; e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions at CERN; {bar p}{endash}p collisions at FNAL; accelerator physics at Fermilab; development work for the SDC detector at SSC; TOPAZ; D-zero physics; physics beyond the standard model; and the Collider Detector at Fermilab. (RWR)

  2. Computing support for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, P.; Yelton, J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This computing proposal (Task S) is submitted separately but in support of the High Energy Experiment (CLEO, Fermilab, CMS) and Theory tasks. The authors have built a very strong computing base at Florida over the past 8 years. In fact, computing has been one of the main contributions to their experimental collaborations, involving not just computing capacity for running Monte Carlos and data reduction, but participation in many computing initiatives, industrial partnerships, computing committees and collaborations. These facts justify the submission of a separate computing proposal.

  3. Predicting Induced Radioactivity at High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, Alberto

    1999-08-27

    Radioactive nuclides are produced at high-energy electron accelerators by different kinds of particle interactions with accelerator components and shielding structures. Radioactivity can also be induced in air, cooling fluids, soil and groundwater. The physical reactions involved include spallations due to the hadronic component of electromagnetic showers, photonuclear reactions by intermediate energy photons and low-energy neutron capture. Although the amount of induced radioactivity is less important than that of proton accelerators by about two orders of magnitude, reliable methods to predict induced radioactivity distributions are essential in order to assess the environmental impact of a facility and to plan its decommissioning. Conventional techniques used so far are reviewed, and a new integrated approach is presented, based on an extension of methods used at proton accelerators and on the unique capability of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code to handle the whole joint electromagnetic and hadronic cascade, scoring residual nuclei produced by all relevant particles. The radiation aspects related to the operation of superconducting RF cavities are also addressed.

  4. GHG and black carbon emission inventories from Mezquital Valley: The main energy provider for Mexico Megacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montelongo-Reyes, M.M.; Otazo-Sánchez, E.M.; Romo-Gómez, C.; Gordillo-Martínez, A.J.; Galindo-Castillo, E.

    2015-09-15

    The greenhouse gases and black carbon emission inventory from IPCC key category Energy was accomplished for the Mezquital Valley, one of the most polluted regions in Mexico, as the Mexico City wastewater have been continuously used in agricultural irrigation for more than a hundred years. In addition, thermoelectric, refinery, cement and chemistry industries are concentrated in the southern part of the valley, near Mexico City. Several studies have reported air, soil, and water pollution data and its main sources for the region. Paradoxically, these sources contaminate the valley, but boosted its economic development. Nevertheless, no research has been done concerning GHG emissions, or climate change assessment. This paper reports inventories performed by the 1996 IPCC methodology for the baseline year 2005. Fuel consumption data were derived from priority sectors such as electricity generation, refineries, manufacturing & cement industries, transportation, and residential use. The total CO{sub 2} emission result was 13,894.9 Gg, which constituted three-quarters of Hidalgo statewide energy category. The principal CO{sub 2} sources were energy transformation (69%) and manufacturing (19%). Total black carbon emissions were estimated by a bottom-up method at 0.66 Gg. The principal contributor was on-road transportation (37%), followed by firewood residential consumption (26%) and cocked brick manufactures (22%). Non-CO{sub 2} gas emissions were also significant, particularly SO{sub 2} (255.9 Gg), which accounts for 80% of the whole Hidalgo State emissions. Results demonstrated the negative environmental impact on Mezquital Valley, caused by its role as a Megacity secondary fuel and electricity provider, as well as by the presence of several cement industries. - Highlights: • First GHG & black carbon inventory for Mezquital Valley: Mexico City energy supplier • Energy industries caused the largest CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions from residual fuel oil. • Diesel

  5. High stakes and high emotions: providing safe care in Canadian emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Samina Ali,1,2 Denise Thomson,3 Timothy A D Graham,4 Sean E Rickard,3 Antonia S Stang5 1Women and Children’s Health Research Institute, 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Cochrane Child Health Field, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, 4Department of Emergency Medicine, 5Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Background: The high-paced, unpredictable environment of the emergency department (ED contributes to errors in patient safety. The ED setting becomes even more challenging when dealing with critically ill patients, particularly with children, where variations in size, weight, and form present practical difficulties in many aspects of care. In this commentary, we will explore the impact of the health care providers’ emotional reactions while caring for critically ill patients, and how this can be interpreted and addressed as a patient safety issue. Discussion: ED health care providers encounter high-stakes, high-stress clinical scenarios, such as pediatric cardiac arrest or resuscitation. This health care providers’ stress, and at times, distress, and its potential contribution to medical error, is underrepresented in the current medical literature. Most patient safety research is limited to error reporting systems, especially medication-related ones, an approach that ignores the effects of health care provider stress as a source of error, and limits our ability to learn from the event. Ways to mitigate this stress and avoid this type of patient safety concern might include simulation training for rare, high-acuity events, use of pre-determined clinical order sets, and post-event debriefing. Conclusion: While there are physiologic and anatomic differences that contribute to patient safety, we believe that they are insufficient to explain the need to address critical life-threatening event-related patient safety issues for both adults and, especially, children

  6. High energy gravitational scattering: a numerical study

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesini, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    The S-matrix in gravitational high energy scattering is computed from the region of large impact parameters b down to the regime where classical gravitational collapse is expected to occur. By solving the equation of an effective action introduced by Amati, Ciafaloni and Veneziano we find that the perturbative expansion around the leading eikonal result diverges at a critical value signalling the onset of a new regime. We then discuss the main features of our explicitly unitary S-matrix down to the Schwarzschild's radius R=2G s^(1/2), where it diverges at a critical value b ~ 2.22 R of the impact parameter. The nature of the singularity is studied with particular attention to the scaling behaviour of various observables at the transition. The numerical approach is validated by reproducing the known exact solution in the axially symmetric case to high accuracy.

  7. High energy laser demonstrators for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M.; Riesbeck, Th.; Schmitz, J.; Baumgärtel, Th.; Ludewigt, K.; Graf, A.

    2017-01-01

    Rheinmetall Waffe Munition has worked since 30 years in the area of High Energy Laser (HEL) for defence applications, starting from pulsed CO2 to pulsed glass rods lasers. In the last decade Rheinmetall Waffe Munition changed to diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) technology and has successfully developed, realised and tested a variety of versatile HEL weapon demonstrators for air- and ground defence scenarios like countering rocket, artillery, mortar, missile (RAMM), unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and unexploded ordnances clearing. By employing beam superimposing technology and a modular laser weapon concept, the total optical power has been successively increased. Stationary weapon platforms, military vehicles and naval platforms have been equipped with high energy laser effectors. The contribution gives a summary of the most recent development stages of Rheinmetalls HEL weapon program. In addition to the stationary 30 kW laser weapon demonstrator, we present vehicle based HEL demonstrators: the 5 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Track V, the 20 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Wheel XX and the 50 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Container L and the latest 10 kW HEL effector integrated in the naval weapon platform MLG 27. We describe the capabilities of these demonstrators against different potential targets. Furthermore, we will show the capability of the 30 kW stationary Laser Weapon Demonstrator integrated into an existing ground based air defence system to defeat saturated attacks of RAMM and UAS targets.

  8. GHG and black carbon emission inventories from Mezquital Valley: The main energy provider for Mexico Megacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo-Reyes, M M; Otazo-Sánchez, E M; Romo-Gómez, C; Gordillo-Martínez, A J; Galindo-Castillo, E

    2015-09-15

    The greenhouse gases and black carbon emission inventory from IPCC key category Energy was accomplished for the Mezquital Valley, one of the most polluted regions in Mexico, as the Mexico City wastewater have been continuously used in agricultural irrigation for more than a hundred years. In addition, thermoelectric, refinery, cement and chemistry industries are concentrated in the southern part of the valley, near Mexico City. Several studies have reported air, soil, and water pollution data and its main sources for the region. Paradoxically, these sources contaminate the valley, but boosted its economic development. Nevertheless, no research has been done concerning GHG emissions, or climate change assessment. This paper reports inventories performed by the 1996 IPCC methodology for the baseline year 2005. Fuel consumption data were derived from priority sectors such as electricity generation, refineries, manufacturing & cement industries, transportation, and residential use. The total CO2 emission result was 13,894.9 Gg, which constituted three-quarters of Hidalgo statewide energy category. The principal CO2 sources were energy transformation (69%) and manufacturing (19%). Total black carbon emissions were estimated by a bottom-up method at 0.66 Gg. The principal contributor was on-road transportation (37%), followed by firewood residential consumption (26%) and cocked brick manufactures (22%). Non-CO2 gas emissions were also significant, particularly SO2 (255.9 Gg), which accounts for 80% of the whole Hidalgo State emissions. Results demonstrated the negative environmental impact on Mezquital Valley, caused by its role as a Megacity secondary fuel and electricity provider, as well as by the presence of several cement industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fan cycling strategies and heat pipe heat exchangers provide energy efficient dehumidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirey, D.B. III [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This article describes two methods to reduce energy consumption and peak demand in buildings that require humidity control that were demonstrated at the Salvador Dali Museum in St. Petersburg, Florida. The first method centered on alternative indoor fan cycling strategies and the second method involved the use of heat pipe heat exchangers. Both approaches increased the dehumidification performance of the existing air-conditioning systems and provided substantial savings. Simple, low cost alternative fan cycling strategies were used. When possible, auto fan control replaced constant fan operation to avoid excess fan energy consumption, ventilation load and compressor operation. The alternative fan control strategies reduced indoor humidity fluctuations in all zones, and significantly reduced overall humidity levels in the museum lobby and storage area. An HPHX was installed within one of the two gallery RTUs to improve the unit`s dehumidification performance. The passive HPHX significantly reduced electric reheat and compressor operation while maintaining the precise temperature and humidity requirements within the gallery. The second gallery RTU now operates primarily as a back-up unit to the heat pipe-assisted air-conditioning unit.

  10. Protecting High Energy Barriers: A New Equation to Regulate Boost Energy in Accelerated Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinko, William; de Oliveira, César Augusto F; Pierce, Levi C T; McCammon, J Andrew

    2012-01-10

    Molecular dynamics (MD) is one of the most common tools in computational chemistry. Recently, our group has employed accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) to improve the conformational sampling over conventional molecular dynamics techniques. In the original aMD implementation, sampling is greatly improved by raising energy wells below a predefined energy level. Recently, our group presented an alternative aMD implementation where simulations are accelerated by lowering energy barriers of the potential energy surface. When coupled with thermodynamic integration simulations, this implementation showed very promising results. However, when applied to large systems, such as proteins, the simulation tends to be biased to high energy regions of the potential landscape. The reason for this behavior lies in the boost equation used since the highest energy barriers are dramatically more affected than the lower ones. To address this issue, in this work, we present a new boost equation that prevents oversampling of unfavorable high energy conformational states. The new boost potential provides not only better recovery of statistics throughout the simulation but also enhanced sampling of statistically relevant regions in explicit solvent MD simulations.

  11. UPR/Mayaguez High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Hector [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico)

    2014-10-31

    This year the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPRM) High Energy Physics (HEP) group continued with the ongoing research program outlined in the grant proposal. The program is centered on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the proton-proton (pp) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The main research focus is on data analysis and on the preparation for the High Luminosity (HL) LHC or experiment detector upgrade. The physics data analysis included Higgs Doublet Search and measurement of the (1) Λ0b branching fraction, (2) B meson mass, and (3) hyperon θ-b lifetime. The detector upgrade included work on the preparations for the Forward Pixel (FPIX) detector Silicon Sensor Testing in a production run at Fermilab. In addition, the group has taken responsibilities on the Software Release through our former research associate Dr. Eric Brownson who acted until last December as a Level Two Offline Manager for the CMS Upgrade. In support of the CMS data analysis activities carried out locally, the UPRM group has built and maintains an excellent Tier3 analysis center in Mayaguez. This allowed us to analyze large data samples and to continue the development of algorithms for the upgrade tracking robustness we started several years ago, and we plan to resume in the near future. This project involves computer simulation of the radiation damage to be suffered at the higher luminosities of the upgraded LHC. This year we continued to serve as a source of outstanding students for the field of high energy physics. Three of our graduate students finished their MS work in May, 2014, Their theses research were on data analysis of heavy quark b-physics. All of them are currently enrolled at Ph.D. physics program across the nation. One of them (Hector Moreno) at New Mexico University (Hector Moreno), one at University of New Hampshire (Sandra Santiesteban) and one at University of

  12. Standoff spectroscopic interrogation of samples irradiated by high energy lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Jean-François; Pudo, Dominik; Théberge, Francis

    2017-10-01

    We report on a novel method that shows the potential to provide real-time, standoff forensic analysis of samples being irradiated by a high energy laser (HEL). The interaction of the HEL beam with matter produces specific optical signatures that can be detected from the location of the HEL system. A spectroscopic analysis of these signals can then provide useful information to the operator including the impact the laser has on the sample as well as providing data about the its structure and composition.

  13. High energy high rate pulsed power processing of materials by powder consolidation and by railgun deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, C.; Marcus, H. L.; Weldon, W. F.

    1987-03-01

    This exploratory research program was initiated to investigate the potential of using pulse power sources for powder consolidation, deposition and other High Energy High Rate Processing. The characteristics of the High Energy High Rate (1MJ/s) powder consolidation using megampere current pulses from a Homopolar Generator, have been defined. Molybdenum Alloy TZM, A Nickel based metallic glass, Copper graphite composites, and P/M Aluminum Alloy X7091 have been investigated. The powder consolidation process produced high densification rates. Density values of 80% to 99% could be obtained with sub second high temperature exposure. Specific energy input and applied pressure were controlling process parameters. Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) concepts underpin a fundamental understanding of pulsed power processing. Deposition experiments were conducted using an exploding foil device (EFD) providing an armature feed to railgun mounted in a vacuum chamber. The material to be deposited - in plasma, gas, liquid or solid state - was accelerated electromagnetically in the railgun and deposited on a substrate.

  14. Co-axial, high energy gamma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijonen, Jani Petteri [Princeton, NJ; Gicquel, Frederic [Pennington, NJ

    2011-08-16

    A gamma ray generator includes an ion source in a first chamber. A second chamber is configured co-axially around the first chamber at a lower second pressure. Co-axially arranged plasma apertures separate the two chambers and provide for restricted passage of ions and gas from the first to the second chamber. The second chamber is formed by a puller electrode having at least one long channel aperture to draw ions from the first chamber when the puller electrode is subject to an appropriate applied potential. A plurality of electrodes rings in the third chamber in third pressure co-axially surround the puller electrode and have at least one channel corresponding to the at least one puller electrode aperture and plasma aperture. The electrode rings increase the energy of the ions to a selected energy in stages in passing between successive pairs of the electrodes by application of an accelerating voltage to the successive pairs of accelerator electrodes. A target disposed co-axially around the plurality of electrodes receives the beam of accelerated ions, producing gamma rays.

  15. 22nd DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics (HEP) Symposium is a premier event held every other year in India, supported by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), India. The symposium will consist of parallel & invited plenary sessions. A poster session will also be held to provide an opportunity to the young researchers to showcase their research. The deliberations, from both experimental & theoretical perspectives, are expected to cover a variety of topics in particle physics, astroparticle physics, cosmology and related areas.

  16. Solar Energy Generation Model for High Altitude Long Endurance Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Brizon, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    For designing and evaluating new concepts for HALE platforms, the energy provided by solar cells is a key factor. The purpose of this thesis is to model the electrical power which can be harnessed by such a platform along any flight trajectory for different aircraft designs. At first, a model of the solar irradiance received at high altitude will be performed using the solar irradiance models already existing for ground level applications as a basis. A calculation of the efficiency of the energy g...

  17. Combining high-scale inflation with low-energy SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. of Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut; Dutta, Koushik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Halter, Sebastian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut

    2011-12-15

    We propose a general scenario for moduli stabilization where low-energy supersymmetry can be accommodated with a high scale of inflation. The key ingredient is that the stabilization of the modulus field during and after inflation is not associated with a single, common scale, but relies on two different mechanisms. We illustrate this general scenario in a simple example, where during inflation the modulus is stabilized with a large mass by a Kaehler potential coupling to the field which provides the inflationary vacuum energy via its F-term. After inflation, the modulus is stabilized, for instance, by a KKLT superpotential. (orig.)

  18. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  19. Deriving an Improved Dynamic EROI to Provide Better Information for Energy Planners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Kessides

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The two most frequently quantified metrics of net energy analysis–the energy return on (energy investment and the energy payback period–do not capture the growth rate potential of an energy supply infrastructure. This is because the analysis underlying these metrics is essentially static–all energy inputs and outputs are treated the same, regardless of where they occur in the life cycle of the infrastructure. We develop a dynamic energy analysis framework to model the growth potential of alternative electricity supply infrastructures. An additional figure of merit, the infrastructure doubling time, is introduced. This metric highlights the critical importance of the time phasing of the initial energy investment for emplacing a given infrastructure, as opposed to the ongoing O&M energy expenditures, for the infrastructure’s growth potential. The doubling time metric also captures the influence of capacity factor, licensing and construction time lags.

  20. The High Field Path to Practical Fusion Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumgaard, Robert; Whyte, D.; Greenwald, M.; Hartwig, Z.; Brunner, D.; Sorbom, B.; Marmar, E.; Minervini, J.; Bonoli, P.; Irby, J.; Labombard, B.; Terry, J.; Vieira, R.; Wukitch, S.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a faster, lower cost development path for fusion energy enabled by high temperature superconductors, devices at high magnetic field, innovative technologies and modern approaches to technology development. Timeliness, scale, and economic-viability are the drivers for fusion energy to combat climate change and aid economic development. The opportunities provided by high-temperature superconductors, innovative engineering and physics, and new organizational structures identified over the last few years open new possibilities for realizing practical fusion energy that could meet mid-century de-carbonization needs. We discuss re-factoring the fusion energy development path with an emphasis on concrete risk retirement strategies utilizing a modular approach based on the high-field tokamak that leverages the broader tokamak physics understanding of confinement, stability, and operational limits. Elements of this plan include development of high-temperature superconductor magnets, simplified immersion blankets, advanced long-leg divertors, a compact divertor test tokamak, efficient current drive, modular construction, and demountable magnet joints. An R&D plan culminating in the construction of an integrated pilot plant and test facility modeled on the ARC concept is presented.

  1. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bornheim, Adolf, E-mail: bornheim@hep.caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ronzhin, Anatoly [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States)

    2016-07-11

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm{sup 3} sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  2. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Ronzhin, Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm3 sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  3. Energy storage via high temperature superconductivity (SMES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkonen, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The technology concerning high temperature superconductors (HTS) is matured to enabling different kind of prototype applications including SMES. Nowadays when speaking about HTS systems, attention is focused on the operating temperature of 20-30 K, where the critical current and flux density are fairly close to 4.2 K values. In addition by defining the ratio of the energy content of a novel HTS magnetic system and the required power to keep the system at the desired temperature, the optimum settles to the above mentioned temperature range. In the frame of these viewpoints a 5 kJ HTS SMES system has been designed and tested at Tampere University of Technology with a coil manufactured by American Superconductor (AMSC). The HTS magnet has inside and outside diameters of 252 mm and 317 mm, respectively and axial length of 66 mm. It operates at 160 A and carries a total of 160 kA-turns to store the required amount of energy. The effective magnetic inductance is 0.4 H and the peak axial field is 1.7 T. The magnet is cooled to the operating temperature of 20 K with a two stage Gifford-McMahon type cryocooler with a cooling power of 60 W at 77 K and 8 W at 20 K. The magnetic system has been demonstrated to compensate a short term loss of power of a sensitive consumer

  4. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Monolithic pixel detectors for high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon have revolutionized imaging for consumer applications, but despite years of research they have not yet been widely adopted for high energy physics. Two major requirements for this application, radiation tolerance and low power consumption, require charge collection by drift for the most extreme radiation levels and an optimization of the collected signal charge over input capacitance ratio ( Q / C ). It is shown that monolithic detectors can achieve Q / C for low analog power consumption and even carryout the promise to practically eliminate analog power consumption, but combining suf fi cient Q / C , collection by drift, and integration of readout circuitry within the pixel remains a challenge. An overview is given of different approaches to address this challenge, with possible advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Polarized targets in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cates, G.D. Jr. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Various approaches are discussed for producing polarized nuclear targets for high energy physics experiments. As a unifying theme, examples are drawn from experiments to measure spin dependent structure functions of nucleons in deep inelastic scattering. This single physics goal has, over roughly two decades, been a driving force in advances in target technology. Actual or planned approaches have included solid targets polarized by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), several types of internal targets for use in storage rings, and gaseous {sup 3}He targets polarized by spin-exchange optical pumping. This last approach is the type of target adopted for SLAC E-142, an experiment to measure the spin structure function of the neutron, and is described in detail.

  7. High energy physics, past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Hirotaka

    2017-03-01

    At the beginning of last century we witnessed the emergence of new physics, quantum theory and gravitational theory, which gave us correct understanding of the world of atoms and deep insight into the structure of universe we live in. Towards the end of the century, string theory emerged as the most promising candidate to unify these two theories. In this talk, I would like to assert that the understanding of the origin of physical constants, ℏ (Planck constant) for quantum theory, and G (Newton’s gravitational constant) for gravitational theory within the framework of string theory is the key to understanding string theory. Then, I will shift to experimental high energy physics and discuss the necessity of world-wide collaboration in the area of superconducting technology which is essential in constructing the 100 TeV hadron collider.

  8. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors for High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Maoddi, Pietro; Mapelli, Alessandro

    This thesis deals with the development and study of microfluidic scintillation detectors, a technology of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles. Most of the interest for such devices comes from the use of a liquid scintillator, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to increased radiation resistance. A first part of the thesis focuses on the work performed in terms of design and modelling studies of novel prototype devices, hinting to new possibilities and applications. In this framework, the simulations performed to validate selected designs and the main technological choices made in view of their fabrication are addressed. The second part of this thesis deals with the microfabrication of several prototype devices. Two different materials were studied for the manufacturing of microfluidic scintillation detectors, namely the SU-8 photosensitive epoxy and monocrystalline silicon. For what concerns the former, an original fabrication appro...

  9. The high energy telescope on EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J.; Grindlay, J. E.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Skinner, G. K.; Gehrels, N.

    2009-08-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is a proposed next generation multi-wavelength survey mission. The primary instrument is a High Energy telescope (HET) that conducts the deepest survey for Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs), obscured-accreting and dormant Supermassive Black Holes and Transients of all varieties for immediate followup studies by the two secondary instruments: a Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) and an Optical/Infrared Telescope (IRT). EXIST will explore the early Universe using high redshift GRBs as cosmic probes and survey black holes on all scales. The HET is a coded aperture telescope employing a large array of imaging CZT detectors (4.5 m2, 0.6 mm pixel) and a hybrid Tungsten mask. We review the current HET concept which follows an intensive design revision by the HET imaging working group and the recent engineering studies in the Instrument and Mission Design Lab at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The HET will locate GRBs and transients quickly (<10-30 sec) and accurately (< 20") for rapid (< 1-3 min) onboard followup soft X-ray and optical/IR (0.3-2.2 μm) imaging and spectroscopy. The broad energy band (5-600 keV) and the wide field of view (~90° × 70&° at 10% coding fraction) are optimal for capturing GRBs, obscured AGNs and rare transients. The continuous scan of the entire sky every 3 hours will establish a finely-sampled long-term history of many X-ray sources, opening up new possibilities for variability studies.

  10. A New Envelope with Highly Energy-Efficient Insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Pastor, Luis Alberto; Lauret Aguirregabiria, Benito; Alonso Amo, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This article examines, from the insulation viewpoint, a new lightweight, slim, high energy efficient, lighttransmitting envelope system, providing for seamless, free-form designs for use in architectural projects. The research was based on envelope components already existing on the market, especially components implemented with granular silica gel insulation, as this is the most effective translucent thermal insulation there is today. The tests run on these materials revealed tha...

  11. A hydrophone prototype for ultra high energy neutrino acoustic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrufo, A.; Plotnikov, A.; Yershova, O.; Anghinolfi, M.; Piombo, D.

    2009-06-01

    The design of an air-backed fiber-optic hydrophone is presented. With respect to the previous models this prototype is optimized to provide a bandwidth sufficiently large to detect acoustic signals produced by high energy hadronic showers in water. In addiction to the geometrical configuration and to the choice of the materials, the preliminary results of the measured performances in air are presented.

  12. On the Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T; Colgate, S; Li, H

    2009-07-01

    Turbulence-driven plasma accelerators produced by magnetized accretion disks around black holes are proposed as the mechanism mainly responsible for observed cosmic ray protons with ultra high energies 10{sup 19}-10{sup 21} eV. The magnetized disk produces a voltage comparable to these cosmic ray energies. Here we present a Poynting model in which this voltage provides all of the energy to create the jet-like structures observed to be ejected from accretion disks, and this voltage also accelerates ions to high energies at the top of the expanding structure. Since the inductive electric field E = -v x B driving expansion has no component parallel to the magnetic field B, ion acceleration requires plasma wave generation - either a coherent wave accelerator as recently proposed, or instability-driven turbulence. We find that turbulence can tap the full inductive voltage as a quasi-steady accelerator, and even higher energies are produced by transient events on this structure. We find that both MHD modes due to the current and ion diffusion due to kinetic instability caused by the non-Maxwellian ion distribution contribute to acceleration. We apply our results to extragalactic giant radiolobes, whose synchrotron emissions serve to calibrate the model, and we discuss extrapolating to other astrophysical structures. Approximate calculations of the cosmic ray intensity and energy spectrum are in rough agreement with data and serve to motivate more extensive MHD and kinetic simulations of turbulence that could provide more accurate cosmic ray and synchrotron spectra to be compared with observations. A distinctive difference from previous models is that the cosmic ray and synchrotron emissions arise from different parts of the magnetic structure, thus providing a signature for the model.

  13. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part III. Determining which practices are most effective and installing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The training program is designed to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. A teacher guide and student workbook are available to supplement the basic manual. Subjects covered in Part III are: determining which practices are most efficient and economical; installing energy-saving materials; and improving efficiency of equipment.

  14. 3D Printers Can Provide an Added Dimension for Teaching Structure-Energy Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauch, David N.; Carroll, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D printer is used to prepare a variety of models representing potential energy as a function of two geometric coordinates. These models facilitate the teaching of structure-energy relationships in molecular conformations and in chemical reactions.

  15. UPR/Mayaguez High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Angel M. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico)

    2015-10-27

    For the period of sixteen years covered by this report (June 1, 1997 - July 31, 2013) the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Puerto Rico’s Mayaguez Campus (UPRM) carried out an extensive research program that included major experiments at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), the Cornell Electron-positron Collider and CERN. In particular, these were E831 (FOCUS) at Fermilab, CLEOc at Cornell and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The group’s history is one of successful execution and growth. Beginning with one faculty researcher in 1985, it eventually included four faculty researchers, one post-doctoral research associate, two undergraduates and as many as six graduate students at one time working on one of the experiments that discovered the Higgs boson. Some of this expansion was due to the group’s leveraging of funds from the Department of Energy’s core grant to attract funds from National Science Foundation programs not targeted to high energy physics. Besides the group’s research productivity, its other major contribution was the training of a large number of MS students who later went on to successful technical careers in industry as well as academia including many who obtained PhD degrees at US universities. In an attempt to document this history, this final report gives a general description of the Group’s work prior to June 1, 2010, the starting date for the last grant renewal period. Much more detail can, of course, be found in the annual reports submitted up to that date. The work during the last grant period is discussed in detail in a separate section. To summarize the group’s scientific accomplishments, one can point to the results of the experiments. Both FOCUS and CLEOc were designed to carry out precise measurements of processes involving the heavy quarks, charm and bottom. Heavy quarks are particularly interesting because, due to their mass, theoretical calculations

  16. 75 FR 17701 - High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Kogut, Executive Secretary; High Energy Physics Advisory Panel...

  17. 78 FR 50405 - High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Intent... hereby given that the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel will be renewed for a two-year period beginning...-range planning and priorities in the national high-energy physics program. Additionally, the renewal of...

  18. Long Life, High Energy Cell Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has a need to develop higher energy density battery systems to meet the power requirements of future energy devices. In this proposed Phase I program, PSI will...

  19. Providing solutions to energy and environmental programs. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The goals of WRI`s jointly sponsored research program are to: (1) increase the production of US and western energy resources--low-sulfur coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) enhance the competitiveness of US and western energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) reduce the nation`s dependence upon foreign energy supplies and strengthen the US and regional economies; and (4) minimize the impact of energy production and utilization on the environment. A summary of appropriations, obligations and expenditures is given, then a summary of objectives and accomplishments for the 21 tasks being supported is presented.

  20. Modular, Reconfigurable, High-Energy Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe

    2006-01-01

    The Modular, Reconfigurable High-Energy (MRHE) Technology Demonstrator project was to have been a series of ground-based demonstrations to mature critical technologies needed for in-space assembly of a highpower high-voltage modular spacecraft in low Earth orbit, enabling the development of future modular solar-powered exploration cargo-transport vehicles and infrastructure. MRHE was a project in the High Energy Space Systems (HESS) Program, within NASA's Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESR&T) Program. NASA participants included Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Glenn Research Center (GRC). Contractor participants were the Boeing Phantom Works in Huntsville, AL, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto, CA, ENTECH, Inc. in Keller, TX, and the University of AL Huntsville (UAH). MRHE's technical objectives were to mature: (a) lightweight, efficient, high-voltage, radiation-resistant solar power generation (SPG) technologies; (b) innovative, lightweight, efficient thermal management systems; (c) efficient, 100kW-class, high-voltage power delivery systems from an SPG to an electric thruster system; (d) autonomous rendezvous and docking technology for in-space assembly of modular, reconfigurable spacecraft; (e) robotic assembly of modular space systems; and (f) modular, reconfigurable distributed avionics technologies. Maturation of these technologies was to be implemented through a series of increasingly-inclusive laboratory demonstrations that would have integrated and demonstrated two systems-of-systems: (a) the autonomous rendezvous and docking of modular spacecraft with deployable structures, robotic assembly, reconfiguration both during assembly and (b) the development and integration of an advanced thermal heat pipe and a high-voltage power delivery system with a representative lightweight high-voltage SPG array. In addition, an integrated simulation testbed would have been developed

  1. Conversion of zero point energy into high-energy photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivlev, B. I. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Fisica, Av. Manuel Nava No. 6, Zona Universitaria, 78290 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico)

    2016-11-01

    An unusual phenomenon, observed in experiments is studied. X-ray laser bursts of keV energy are emitted from a metal where long-living states, resulting in population inversion, are totally unexpected. Anomalous electron-photon states are revealed to be formed inside the metal. These states are associated with narrow, 10{sup -11} cm, potential well created by the local reduction of zero point electromagnetic energy. In contrast to analogous van der Waals potential well, leading to attraction of two hydrogen atoms, the depth of the anomalous well is on the order of 1 MeV. The states in that well are long-living which results in population inversion and subsequent laser generation observed. The X-ray emission, occurring in transitions to lower levels, is due to the conversion of zero point electromagnetic energy. (Author)

  2. Low Energy Lorentz Violation from Modified Dispersion at High Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Viqar; Louko, Jorma

    2016-02-12

    Many quantum theories of gravity propose Lorentz-violating dispersion relations of the form ω=|k|f(|k|/M⋆), with recovery of approximate Lorentz invariance at energy scales much below M⋆. We show that a quantum field with this dispersion predicts drastic low energy Lorentz violation in atoms modeled as Unruh-DeWitt detectors, for any f that dips below unity somewhere. As an example, we show that polymer quantization motivated by loop quantum gravity predicts such Lorentz violation below current ion collider rapidities.

  3. High-energy Emission Components in the Short GRB 090510

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Alessandra; Guetta, Dafne; Piro, Luigi

    2010-09-01

    We investigate the origin of the prompt and delayed emission observed in the short GRB 090510. We use the broadband data to test whether the most popular theoretical models for gamma-ray burst emission can accommodate the observations for this burst. We first attempt to explain the soft-to-hard spectral evolution associated with the delayed onset of a GeV tail with the hypothesis that the prompt burst and the high-energy tail both originate from a single process, namely, synchrotron emission from internal shocks (IS). Considerations on the compactness of the source imply that the high-energy tail should be produced in a late-emitted shell, characterized by a Lorentz factor greater than the one generating the prompt burst. However, in this hypothesis, the predicted evolution of the synchrotron peak frequency does not agree with the observed soft-to-hard evolution. Given the difficulties of a single-mechanism hypothesis, we test two alternative double-component scenarios. In the first, the prompt burst is explained as synchrotron radiation from IS and the high-energy emission (up to about 1 s following the trigger) as IS synchrotron-self-Compton. In the second scenario, in view of its long duration (~100 s), the high-energy tail is decoupled from the prompt burst and has an external shock origin. In this case, we show that a reasonable choice of parameters does indeed exist to accommodate the optical-to-GeV data, provided the Lorentz factor of the shocked shell is sufficiently high. Finally, we attempt to explain the chromatic break observed around ~103 s with a structured jet model. We find that this might be a viable explanation and that it lowers the high value of the burst energy derived by assuming isotropy, ~1053 erg, below ~1049 erg, which is more compatible with the energetics from a binary merger progenitor.

  4. Interpreting New Data from the High Energy Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, Jesse [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-09-26

    This is the final technical report for DOE grant DE-SC0006389, "Interpreting New Data from the High Energy Frontier", describing research accomplishments by the PI in the field of theoretical high energy physics.

  5. Antennas tune in to high-energy particles

    CERN Document Server

    Gorham, P W

    2001-01-01

    After 40 years of research, physicists met at the first international workshop on the radio detection of high energy particles to discuss the detection of high-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos using radio waves. (0 refs).

  6. Jet Physics at High Energy Colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yang-Ting

    The future of new physics searches at the LHC will be to look for hadronic signals with jets. In order to distinguish a hadronic signal from its background, it is important to develop advanced collider physics techniques that make accurate theoretical predictions. This work centers on phenomenological and formal studies of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), including resummation of hadronic observables using Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), calculating anomalous dimensions of multi-Wilson line operators in AdS, and improving jet physics analysis using multiple event interpretations. Hadronic observables usually involve physics at different energy scales, and the calculations depend on large logarithms of the energy ratios. We can prove factorization theorems of observables and resum large logarithms using renormalization-group techniques. The heavy jet mass distribution for e +e- collisions is calculated at next-to-next-to-next-to leading logarithmic order (N3LL), and we measure the strong coupling constant at 0.3% accuracy. We also calculate the jet-mass distribution at partial N2LL in gamma + jet events at the LHC. The effect of non-global logarithms in resummation estimated, and it is significant only at the peak region. Soft QCD interactions among jets can be described by multi-Wilson line operators, with each Wilson line pointing along one of the jet directions. The anomalous dimensions of these operators are key for higher-order resummation. We study these operators using radial quantization and conformal gauge, which leads to a drastic simplification of the two-loop anomalous dimension calculation. We also find that the anomalous dimension calculation is closely related to a corresponding Witten diagram calculation. Jets are complicated objects to identify in high energy collider experiments. A single interpretation of each event can only extract a limited amount of information. We propose telescoping jet algorithms which give multiple event

  7. Design of high energy density thermoelectric energy conversion unit by using FGM compliant pads

    CERN Document Server

    Kambe, M

    1999-01-01

    In order to provide increasingly large amounts of electrical power to space and terrestrial systems with a sufficiently high level of reliability at a reasonable cost, thermoelectric (TE) energy conversion system by using $9 functionally graded material (FGM) compliant pads has been focused. To achieve high thermal energy density in TE power conversion systems, conductively coupling the TE units to the hot and cold heat exchangers is the most effective $9 configuration. This is accomplished by two sets of FGM compliant pads. This design strategy provides (1) a high flux, direct conduction path to heat source and heat sink, (2) the structural flexibility to protect the cell from high $9 stress due to thermal expansion, (3) an extended durability by a simple FGM structure, and (4) manufacturing cost reduction by spark plasma sintering. High thermal energy density of ten times as much as conventional radioisotope $9 thermoelectric generator is expected. Manufacturing of Cu/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3//Cu symmetrical FGM co...

  8. Understanding the Pulsar High Energy Emission: Macroscopic and Kinetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Brambilla, Gabriele; Timokhin, Andrey; Kust Harding, Alice; Kazanas, Demos

    2017-08-01

    Pulsars are extraordinary objects powered by the rotation of magnetic fields of order 10^8, 10^12G anchored onto neutron stars and rotating with periods 10^(-3)-10s. These fields mediate the conversion of their rotational energy into MHD winds and at the same time accelerate particles to energies sufficiently high to produce GeV photons. Fermi, since its launch in 2008, has established several trends among the observed gamma-ray pulsar properties playing a catalytic role in the current modeling of the high energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. We judiciously use the guidance provided by the Fermi data to yield meaningful constraints on the macroscopic parameters of our global dissipative pulsar magnetosphere models. Our FIDO (Force-Free Inside, Dissipative Outside) models indicate that the dissipative regions lie outside the light cylinder near the equatorial current sheet. Our models reproduce the light-curve phenomenology while a detailed comparison of the model spectral properties with those observed by Fermi reveals the dependence of the macroscopic conductivity parameter on the spin-down rate providing a unique insight into the understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the high-energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. Finally, we further exploit these important results by building self-consistent 3D global kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) models which, eventually, provide the dependence of the macroscopic parameter behavior (e.g. conductivity) on the microphysical properties (e.g. particle multiplicities, particle injection rates). Our PIC models provide field structures and particle distributions that are not only consistent with each other but also able to reproduce a broad range of the observed gamma-ray phenomenology (light curves and spectral properties) of both young and millisecond pulsars.

  9. Testing Open-Air Storage of Stumps to Provide Clean Biomass for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available When orchards reach the end of the productive cycle, the stumps removal becomes a mandatory operation to allow new soil preparation and to establish new cultivations. The exploitation of the removed stump biomass seems a valuable option, especially in the growing energy market of the biofuels; however, the scarce quality of the material obtained after the extraction compromises its marketability, making this product a costly waste to be disposed. In this regard, the identification of affordable strategies for the extraction and the cleaning of the material will be crucial in order to provide to plantation owners the chance to sell the biomass and offset the extraction costs. Mechanical extraction and cleaning technologies have been already tested on forest stumps, but these systems work on the singular piece and would be inefficient in the conditions of an intensive orchard, where stumps are small and numerous. The objective of this study was to test the possibility to exploit a natural stumps cleaning system through open-air storage. The tested stumps were obtained from two different vineyards, extracted with an innovative stump puller specifically designed for continuous stump removal in intensively-planted orchards. The effects of weathering were evaluated to determine the fuel quality immediately after the extraction and after a storage period of six months with respect to moisture content, ash content, and heating value. Results indicated interesting storage performance, showing also different dynamics depending on the stumps utilized.

  10. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2009-09-01

    -models for overall analysis of the system. It also provides control over key user input parameters and the ability to effectively consolidate vital output results for uncertainty/sensitivity analysis and optimization procedures. The preliminary analysis has shown promising advanced fuel cycle scenarios that include Pressure Water Reactors Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTRs) and dedicated HEST waste incineration facilities. If deployed, these scenarios may substantially reduce nuclear waste inventories approaching environmentally benign nuclear energy system characteristics. Additionally, a spent fuel database of the isotopic compositions for multiple design and control parameters has been created for the VHTR-HEST input fuel streams. Computational approaches, analysis metrics, and benchmark strategies have been established for future detailed studies.

  11. Assessing Security Needs of the multifaceted relationships of Energy and Water Providers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N; Newmark, R; Burton, L; May, D; McMahon, J; Whitehead, C D; Ghatikar, G

    2007-08-22

    In the near future, the United States will be facing constraints on energy availability due to the heightened demand for both energy and water, especially during droughts and summers. Increasing stress on the inextricably linked resource availability of both water and energy can be mitigated with integrated planning. Exchanging data is an important component to current and future mitigation approaches within the Energy-Water Nexus. We describe the types of relationships that are formed in the United States EWN, and address the data sharing obstacles within. Approaches to removing the obstacles of data sharing are presented, based on case studies.

  12. Laboratory for Nuclear Science. High Energy Physics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-07-30

    High energy and nuclear physics research at MIT is conducted within the Laboratory for Nuclear Science (LNS). Almost half of the faculty in the MIT Physics Department carry out research in LNS at the theoretical and experimental frontiers of subatomic physics. Since 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy has funded the high energy physics research program through grant DE-FG02-05ER41360 (other grants and cooperative agreements provided decades of support prior to 2004). The Director of LNS serves as PI. The grant supports the research of four groups within LNS as “tasks” within the umbrella grant. Brief descriptions of each group are given here. A more detailed report from each task follows in later sections. Although grant DE-FG02-05ER41360 has ended, DOE continues to fund LNS high energy physics research through five separate grants (a research grant for each of the four groups, as well as a grant for AMS Operations). We are pleased to continue this longstanding partnership.

  13. Spin structure in high energy processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deporcel, L.; Dunwoodie, C.

    1994-12-01

    This report contains papers of the following topics: Spin, Mass, and Symmetry; physics with polarized Z(sup 0)s; spin and precision electroweak physics; polarized electron sources; polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics; polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; polarized targets in high energy physics; spin dynamics in storage rings and linear accelerators; spin formalism and applications to new physics searches; precision electroweak physics at LEP; recent results on heavy flavor physics from LEP experiments using 1990--1992 data; precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions; preliminary results on heavy flavor physics at SLD; QCD tests with SLD and polarized beams; recent results from TRISTAN at KEK; recent B physics results from CLEO; searching for the H dibaryon at Brookhaven; recent results from the compton observatory; the spin structure of the deuteron; spin structure of the neutron ((sup 3)HE) and the Bjoerken sum rule; a consumer's guide to lattice QCD results; top ten models constrained by b yields sy; a review of the Fermilab fixed target program; results from the D0 experiment; results from CDF at FNAL; quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung; report from the ZEUS collaboration at HERA; physics from the first year of H1 at HERA, and hard diffraction. These papers have been cataloged separately elsewhere.

  14. Automatic keywording of High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dallman, David Peter

    1999-01-01

    Bibliographic databases were developed from the traditional library card catalogue in order to enable users to access library documents via various types of bibliographic information, such as title, author, series or conference date. In addition these catalogues sometimes contained some form of indexation by subject, such as the Universal (or Dewey) Decimal Classification used for books. With the introduction of the eprint archives, set up by the High Energy Physics (HEP) Community in the early 90s, huge collections of documents in several fields have been made available on the World Wide Web. These developments however have not yet been followed up from a keywording point of view. We will see in this paper how important it is to attribute keywords to all documents in the area of HEP Grey Literature. As libraries are facing a future with less and less manpower available and more and more documents, we will explore the possibility of being helped by automatic classification software. We will specifically menti...

  15. Spin structure in high energy processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePorcel, L.; Dunwoodie, C. [eds.

    1994-12-01

    This report contains papers as the following topics: Spin, Mass, and Symmetry; physics with polarized Z{sup 0}s; spin and precision electroweak physics; polarized electron sources; polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics; polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; polarized targets in high energy physics; spin dynamics in storage rings and linear accelerators; spin formalism and applications to new physics searches; precision electroweak physics at LEP; recent results on heavy flavor physics from LEP experiments using 1990--1992 data; precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions; preliminary results on heavy flavor physics at SLD; QCD tests with SLD and polarized beams; recent results from TRISTAN at KEK; recent B physics results from CLEO; searching for the H dibaryon at Brookhaven; recent results from the compton observatory; the spin structure of the deuteron; spin structure of the neutron ({sup 3}HE) and the Bjoerken sum rule; a consumer`s guide to lattice QCD results; top ten models constrained by b {yields} sy; a review of the Fermilab fixed target program; results from the D0 experiment; results from CDF at FNAL; quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung; report from the ZEUS collaboration at HERA; physics from the first year of H1 at HERA, and hard diffraction. These papers have been cataloged separately elsewhere.

  16. High Energy Electron Detectors on Sphinx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. R.; Porte, A.; Zucchini, F.; Calamy, H.; Auriel, G.; Coleman, P. L.; Bayol, F.; Lalle, B.; Krishnan, M.; Wilson, K.

    2008-11-01

    Z-pinch plasma radiation sources are used to dose test objects with K-shell (˜1-4keV) x-rays. The implosion physics can produce high energy electrons (> 50keV), which could distort interpretation of the soft x-ray effects. We describe the design and implementation of a diagnostic suite to characterize the electron environment of Al wire and Ar gas puff z-pinches on Sphinx. The design used ITS calculations to model detector response to both soft x-rays and electrons and help set upper bounds to the spurious electron flux. Strategies to discriminate between the known soft x-ray emission and the suspected electron flux will be discussed. H.Calamy et al, ``Use of microsecond current prepulse for dramatic improvements of wire array Z-pinch implosion,'' Phys Plasmas 15, 012701 (2008) J.A.Halbleib et al, ``ITS: the integrated TIGER series of electron/photon transport codes-Version 3.0,'' IEEE Trans on Nuclear Sci, 39, 1025 (1992)

  17. Three Decades of High Energy Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts are the most brilliant explosions in space. The first GRB was discovered on 1967, just over 40 years ago. It took several years and multiple generations of space and ground instruments to unravel some of the mysteries of this phenomenon. However, many questions remain open today. I will discuss the history, evolution and current status of the GRB field and its contributions in our understanding of the transient high energy sky. Finally, I will describe how GRBs can be utilized in future missions as tools, to probe the cosmic chemical evolution of the Universe Magnetars are magnetically powered rotating neutron stars with extreme magnetic fields (over 10(exp 14) Gauss). They were discovered in the X- and gamma-rays where they predominantly emit their radiation. Very few sources (roughly 24) have been found since their discovery in 1987. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched June 11, 2009; since then the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) recorded emission from several magnetar sources. In total, six new sources were discovered between 2008 and 2011, with a synergy between Swift, RXTE, Fermi and the Interplanetary Network (IPN). I will give a short history of magnetars and describe how this, once relatively esoteric field, has emerged as a link between several astrophysical areas including Gamma-Ray Bursts.

  18. Precision probes of QCD at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioli, Simone; Farina, Marco; Pappadopulo, Duccio; Ruderman, Joshua T.

    2017-07-01

    New physics, that is too heavy to be produced directly, can leave measurable imprints on the tails of kinematic distributions at the LHC. We use energetic QCD processes to perform novel measurements of the Standard Model (SM) Effective Field Theory. We show that the dijet invariant mass spectrum, and the inclusive jet transverse momentum spectrum, are sensitive to a dimension 6 operator that modifies the gluon propagator at high energies. The dominant effect is constructive or destructive interference with SM jet production. We compare differential next-to-leading order predictions from POWHEG to public 7 TeV jet data, including scale, PDF, and experimental uncertainties and their respective correlations. We constrain a New Physics (NP) scale of 3.5 TeV with current data. We project the reach of future 13 and 100 TeV measurements, which we estimate to be sensitive to NP scales of 8 and 60 TeV, respectively. As an application, we apply our bounds to constrain heavy vector octet colorons that couple to the QCD current. We project that effective operators will surpass bump hunts, in terms of coloron mass reach, even for sequential couplings.

  19. High specific energy, high capacity nickel-hydrogen cell design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.

    1993-01-01

    A 3.5 inch rabbit-ear-terminal nickel-hydrogen cell was designed and tested to deliver high capacity at steady discharge rates up to and including a C rate. Its specific energy yield of 60.6 wh/kg is believed to be the highest yet achieved in a slurry-process nickel-hydrogen cell, and its 10 C capacity of 113.9 AH the highest capacity yet of any type in a 3.5 inch diameter size. The cell also demonstrated a pulse capability of 180 amps for 20 seconds. Specific cell parameters and performance are described. Also covered is an episode of capacity fading due to electrode swelling and its successful recovery by means of additional activation procedures.

  20. High Efficiency and Low Cost Thermal Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Bucknor, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-09-29

    BgtL, LLC (BgtL) is focused on developing and commercializing its proprietary compact technology for processes in the energy sector. One such application is a compact high efficiency Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system that utilizes the heat of fusion through phase change between solid and liquid to store and release energy at high temperatures and incorporate state-of-the-art insulation to minimize heat dissipation. BgtL’s TES system would greatly improve the economics of existing nuclear and coal-fired power plants by allowing the power plant to store energy when power prices are low and sell power into the grid when prices are high. Compared to existing battery storage technology, BgtL’s novel thermal energy storage solution can be significantly less costly to acquire and maintain, does not have any waste or environmental emissions, and does not deteriorate over time; it can keep constant efficiency and operates cleanly and safely. BgtL’s engineers are experienced in this field and are able to design and engineer such a system to a specific power plant’s requirements. BgtL also has a strong manufacturing partner to fabricate the system such that it qualifies for an ASME code stamp. BgtL’s vision is to be the leading provider of compact systems for various applications including energy storage. BgtL requests that all technical information about the TES designs be protected as proprietary information. To honor that request, only non-proprietay summaries are included in this report.

  1. Implications of virtualization on Grids for high energy physics applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gilbert, L; Newman, R; Iqbal, S; Pepper, R; Celebioglu, O; Hsieh, J; Mashayekhi, V; Cobban, M

    2006-01-01

    The simulations used in the field of high energy physics are compute intensive and exhibit a high level of data parallelism. These features make such simulations ideal candidates for Grid computing. We are taking as an example the GEANT4 detector simulation used for physics studies within the ATLAS experiment at CERN. One key issue in Grid computing is that of network and system security, which can potentially inhibit the widespread use of such simulations. Virtualization provides a feasible solution because it allows the creation of virtual compute nodes in both local and remote compute clusters, thus providing an insulating layer which can play an important role in satisfying the security concerns of all parties involved. However, it has performance implications. This study provides quantitative estimates of the virtualization and hyper-threading overhead for GEANT on commodity clusters. Results show that virtualization has less than 15% run time overhead, and that the best run time (with the non-SMP licens...

  2. Machine Protection and High Energy Density States in Matter for High Energy Hadron Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco Sancho, Juan; Schmidt, R

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest accelerator in the world. It is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7TeV. The energy stored in each beam is 362MJ, sufficient to melt 500kg of copper. An accidental release of even a small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. Machine protection systems are essential to safely operate the accelerator and handle all possible accidents. This thesis deals with the study of different failure scenarios and its possible consequences. It addresses failure scenarios ranging from low intensity losses on high-Z materials and superconductors to high intensity losses on carbon and copper collimators. Low beam losses are sufficient to quench the superconducting magnets and the stabilized superconducting cables (bus-bars) that connects the main magnets. If this occurs and the energy from the bus-bar is not extracted fast enough it can lead to a situation similar to the accident in 2008 at LHC during pow...

  3. Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Technology for High-Altitude Airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Elliott, James R.; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon

    2011-01-01

    The High Altitude Airship (HAA) has various application potential and mission scenarios that require onboard energy harvesting and power distribution systems. The power technology for HAA maneuverability and mission-oriented applications must come from its surroundings, e.g. solar power. The energy harvesting system considered for HAA is based on the advanced thermoelectric (ATE) materials being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The materials selected for ATE are silicon germanium (SiGe) and bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3), in multiple layers. The layered structure of the advanced TE materials is specifically engineered to provide maximum efficiency for the corresponding range of operational temperatures. For three layers of the advanced TE materials that operate at high, medium, and low temperatures, correspondingly in a tandem mode, the cascaded efficiency is estimated to be greater than 60 percent.

  4. Provider Knowledge of Trivalent Inactivated and High-Dose Influenza Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Tewell, Chad; Wright, Patty W.; Talbot, H. Keipp

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess provider knowledge about trivalent inactivated and high dose influenza vaccines. Hence, a 20 item survey was distributed to providers within the Internal Medicine department at an urban academic medical center.

  5. Fuzzy systems in high-energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Marcello; Masulli, Francesco; Penna, Massimo

    1996-06-01

    Decision making is one of the major subjects of interest in physics. This is due to the intrinsic finite accuracy of measurement that leads to the possible results to span a region for each quantity. In this way, to recognize a particle type among the others by a measure of a feature vector, a decision must be made. The decision making process becomes a crucial point whenever a low statistical significance occurs as in space cosmic ray experiments where searching in rare events requires us to reject as many background events as possible (high purity), keeping as many signal events as possible (high efficiency). In the last few years, interesting theoretical results on some feedforward connectionist systems (FFCSs) have been obtained. In particular, it has been shown that multilayer perceptrons (MLPs), radial basis function networks (RBFs), and some fuzzy logic systems (FLSs) are nonlinear universal function approximators. This property permits us to build a system showing intelligent behavior , such as function estimation, time series forecasting, and pattern classification, and able to learn their skill from a set of numerical data. From the classification point of view, it has been demonstrated that non-parametric classifiers based FFCSs holding the universal function approximation property, can approximate the Bayes optimal discriminant function and then minimize the classification error. In this paper has been studied the FBF when applied to a high energy physics problem. The FBF is a powerful neuro-fuzzy system (or adaptive fuzzy logic system) holding the universal function approximation property and the capability of learning from examples. The FBF is based on product-inference rule (P), the Gaussian membership function (G), a singleton fuzzifier (S), and a center average defuzzifier (CA). The FBF can be regarded as a feedforward connectionist system with just one hidden layer whose units correspond to the fuzzy MIMO rules. The FBF can be identified both by

  6. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Arctic and Subarctic Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-11-01

    The Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools--Arctic and Subarctic Climates provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school in arctic and subarctic climates. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs.

  7. Innovation development for highly energy-efficient housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings account for 40% of EU final energy demand and policy developments like the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive are stimulating the innovation development for nearly zero-energy housing. However, businesses switching to innovative products for highly energy-efficient houses is a

  8. 76 FR 53119 - High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of renewal. SUMMARY: Pursuant... Energy Physics Advisory Panel will be renewed for a two-year period, beginning on August 12, 2011. The... priorities in the national High Energy Physics program. Additionally, the renewal of the HEPAP has been...

  9. School for Young High Energy Physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, M E

    2003-01-01

    Forty-seven experimental particle physicists attended the 2002 Summer School, held, as usual, at The Cosener's House in Abingdon during September. The weather was glorious allowing a number of tutorials and impromptu seminars to take place in the lovely gardens. The lectures were of a high standard and were delivered and received enthusiastically, providing material for lively discussions in tutorials and elsewhere. The students each gave a ten-minute seminar and the general quality of the talks was impressive and the time keeping excellent. The activities described ranged from front-line physics analysis to preparations for the next generation of machines and detectors, and gave a clear indication of the breadth of particle physics activities in the UK

  10. Energy Efficient Beam Transfer Channels for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Gardlowski, Philipp; Ondreka, David

    2016-01-01

    conducting (NC) magnets or high current pulsed (HCP) magnets are an economic solution. For high repetition rates above 1.0 Hz, superconducting Cos(N) (SC) magnets or superferric (SF) magnets are more attractive; at least if they are operated in DC mode and if no dynamic losses occur in the cryogenic system. Unfortunately, a range between these values exist, in which no...

  11. On the integration of wind and solar energy to provide a total energy supply in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Cristina; Mills, David; Cheng, Weili; Sloggy, Matthew; Liebig, Edwin; Rhoades, Alan

    2010-05-01

    This study examines the feasibility of using renewable energy - mostly wind and solar radiation - as the primary source of energy in the USA, under the assumption that a nationwide electric transmission grid is in place. Previous studies have shown that solar or wind alone can power the present U.S. grid on average. Other studies have shown that solar output from California and Texas using energy storage is well correlated with the state energy load on an hour by hour basis throughout the year and with the U.S. national load on a monthly basis. This study explores scenarios for use of wind and solar energy together at the national scale on an hour by hour basis to determine if such a combination is a better match to national seasonal load scenarios than either of the two alone on an hour-by-hour basis. Actual hour by hour national load data from the year 2006 are used as a basis, with some scenarios incorporating vehicle sector electrification and building heating and cooling using electric heat pumps. Hourly wind speed data were calculated at the hub height of 80 m above the ground for the year 2006 at over 150 windy locations in the continental U.S. using an extrapolation technique based on 10-m wind speed measurements and vertical sounding profiles. Using a 1.5 MW wind turbine as benchmark, the hourly wind power production nationwide was determined at all suitable locations. Similarly, the hourly output from solar plants, with and without thermal storage, was calculated based on Ausra's model assuming that the solar production would occur in the Southwest, the area with the greatest solar radiation density in the U.S. Hourly electricity demand for the year 2006 was obtained nationwide from a variety of sources, including the Federal Energy Regulation Commission. Hourly residential heating and cooking, industrial heat processing, and future electrified transportation loads were calculated from monthly and yearly energy consumption data from the Energy Information

  12. Investigation of lithium sulphate for high temperature thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Alicia; Liu, Ming; Bruno, Frank; Hinkley, Jim

    2017-06-01

    Lithium sulphate (Li2SO4) was evaluated as a solid-solid PCM material to be coupled with concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies. The energy is stored in a cubic crystalline phase that is formed at temperatures above 576°C and can potentially be discharged at temperatures as low as 150°C, providing both sensible and latent thermal energy storage in a hybrid sensible-latent system. These operational conditions are appropriate for current CSP technologies based on subcritical steam Rankine power cycles. Results from thermal cycling experiments in air showed no change in energy storage capacity after 15 cycles. There was up to a 5% reduction in latent thermal capacity and 0.95% in total thermal capacity after 150 cycles in air. In our paper, we evaluate a hybrid sensible-latent thermal energy storage system based on lithium sulphate from an economic and technical performance point of view, demonstrating its potential as a high temperature thermal energy storage material.

  13. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R W

    2007-10-19

    High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded

  14. Plant Growth under Natural Light Conditions Provides Highly Flexible Short-Term Acclimation Properties toward High Light Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Tobias; Paul, Suman; Melzer, Michael; Dörmann, Peter; Jahns, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Efficient acclimation to different growth light intensities is essential for plant fitness. So far, most studies on light acclimation have been conducted with plants grown under different constant light regimes, but more recent work indicated that acclimation to fluctuating light or field conditions may result in different physiological properties of plants. Thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) was grown under three different constant light intensities (LL: 25 μmol photons m−2 s−1; NL: 100 μmol photons m−2 s−1; HL: 500 μmol photons m−2 s−1) and under natural fluctuating light (NatL) conditions. We performed a thorough characterization of the morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties focusing on photo-protective mechanisms. Our analyses corroborated the known properties of LL, NL, and HL plants. NatL plants, however, were found to combine characteristics of both LL and HL grown plants, leading to efficient and unique light utilization capacities. Strikingly, the high energy dissipation capacity of NatL plants correlated with increased dynamics of thylakoid membrane reorganization upon short-term acclimation to excess light. We conclude that the thylakoid membrane organization and particularly the light-dependent and reversible unstacking of grana membranes likely represent key factors that provide the basis for the high acclimation capacity of NatL grown plants to rapidly changing light intensities. PMID:28515734

  15. Smart Energy Management for Households - A practical guide for designers, HEMS developers, energy providers, and the building industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    This publication is an extended version of the summary and conclusions of the doctoral thesis ‘Smart Energy Management for Households’. It is specifically intended to give practitioners dealing with HEMS in their day to day profession practical tools to strive to improve the use and effectiveness of

  16. Dialogue and collaboration for Energy Efficient Facilities Management: municipal sector strategies and the role of external service providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenqvist, Christian; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Bengtsson, Per-Otto

    2015-01-01

    reorientations on the Swedish energy efficiency service market, e.g. municipal organisations show greater preference for in-house capacity as opposed to long-term contractual arrangements with external companies. Collaborations are sought with energy efficiency service providers that can deliver real...

  17. Space-charge effects in high-energy photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verna, Adriano, E-mail: adriano.verna@uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); CNISM Unità di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Greco, Giorgia [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Lollobrigida, Valerio [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Scuola Dottorale in Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Offi, Francesco; Stefani, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); CNISM Unità di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • N-body simulations of interacting photoelectrons in hard X-ray experiments. • Secondary electrons have a pivotal role in determining the energy broadening. • Space charge has negligible effects on the photoelectron momentum distribution. • A simple model provides the characteristic time for energy-broadening mechanism. • The feasibility of time-resolved high-energy experiments with FELs is discussed. - Abstract: Pump-and-probe photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) with femtosecond pulsed sources opens new perspectives in the investigation of the ultrafast dynamics of physical and chemical processes at the surfaces and interfaces of solids. Nevertheless, for very intense photon pulses a large number of photoelectrons are simultaneously emitted and their mutual Coulomb repulsion is sufficiently strong to significantly modify their trajectory and kinetic energy. This phenomenon, referred as space-charge effect, determines a broadening and shift in energy for the typical PES structures and a dramatic loss of energy resolution. In this article we examine the effects of space charge in PES with a particular focus on time-resolved hard X-ray (∼10 keV) experiments. The trajectory of the electrons photoemitted from pure Cu in a hard X-ray PES experiment has been reproduced through N-body simulations and the broadening of the photoemission core-level peaks has been monitored as a function of various parameters (photons per pulse, linear dimension of the photon spot, photon energy). The energy broadening results directly proportional to the number N of electrons emitted per pulse (mainly represented by secondary electrons) and inversely proportional to the linear dimension a of the photon spot on the sample surface, in agreement with the literature data about ultraviolet and soft X-ray experiments. The evolution in time of the energy broadening during the flight of the photoelectrons is also studied. Despite its detrimental consequences on the energy

  18. High energy particle collisions near black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2016-10-01

    If two geodesic particles collide near a rotating black hole, their energy in the centre of mass frame Ec.m. can become unbound under certain conditions (the so-called BSW effect). The special role is played here by so-called critical geodesics when one of particles has fine-tuned energy and angular momentum. The nature of geodesics reveals itself also in fate of the debris after collisions. One of particles moving to a remote observer is necessarily near-critical. We discuss, when such a collision can give rise not only unboud Ec.m. but also unbound Killing energy E (so-called super-Penrose process).

  19. FLUKA as a new high energy cosmic ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistoni, Giuseppe [INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Margiotta, Annarita, E-mail: margiotta@bo.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Bologna and INFN, Sezione di Bologna, V.le Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127, Bologna (Italy); Muraro, Silvia [INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Sioli, Maximiliano [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Bologna and INFN, Sezione di Bologna, V.le Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-01-21

    FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code, which can transport particles over a wide range of energies in user-defined geometries. Here we present a new FLUKA library, which allows the interaction and propagation of high energy cosmic rays in the Earth atmosphere and the transport of high energy muons in underground/underwater environments.

  20. Progress with High-Field Superconducting Magnets for High-Energy Colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Prestemon, Soren; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2015-10-01

    One of the possible next steps for high-energy physics research relies on a high-energy hadron or muon collider. The energy of a circular collider is limited by the strength of bending dipoles, and its maximum luminosity is determined by the strength of final focus quadrupoles. For this reason, the high-energy physics and accelerator communities have shown much interest in higher-field and higher-gradient superconducting accelerator magnets. The maximum field of NbTi magnets used in all present high-energy machines, including the LHC, is limited to ˜10 T at 1.9 K. Fields above 10 T became possible with the use of Nb3Sn superconductors. Nb3Sn accelerator magnets can provide operating fields up to ˜15 T and can significantly increase the coil temperature margin. Accelerator magnets with operating fields above 15 T require high-temperature superconductors. This review discusses the status and main results of Nb3Sn accelerator magnet research and development and work toward 20-T magnets.

  1. Novel Lithium Ion High Energy Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this SBIR project a new chemistry for Li-ion cells will be developed that will enable a major advance in secondary battery gravimetric and volumetric energy...

  2. Providing renewable energy solutions in Ghana : Overview of the business environment in Ghana regarding some selected renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Dramani, Iliyasu

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was prepared as part of the CONNECT project embarked on by Laurea University of Applied sciences, other Universities of Applied Sciences and other stakeholders in partial fulfillment of a bachelor’s degree in business management. The main purpose of the CONNECT project is to enhance growth and speed up the internationalization within developing country markets of Finnish Small and Medium scale Enterprises (SMEs) renewable energy companies. The main research question addressed ...

  3. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part II. Determining amount of energy lost or gained in a building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The training program is designed to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. There are 3 parts to the training program. They are entitled: Understanding and Practicing Energy Conservation in Buildings; Determining Amount of Energy Lost or Gained in a Building; and Determining Which Practices Are Most Efficient and Installing Materials. For Part Two, it is recommended that cooling and heating load calculation manual (GRP 158) ASHRAE, 1979, be used. Specific subjects covered in Part II are: Terms Used to Measure Energy in Buildings; Understanding Heat Losses and Gains in Buildings; Estimating Heating Loads in Buildings; Special Applications for Estimating Cooling Loads in Buildings; Estimating Cooling Loads in Buildings; and Determining Cost Benefits of Using Energy-Saving Practices.

  4. Testing quantum chromodynamics in electron-positron annihilation at high energies. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.S.

    1979-01-01

    Various measures of the distribution of hadronic energy produced in high energy electron-positron annihilation provide precise tests of the promising fundamental theory of hadronic physics, quantum chromodynamics. Recent work at the University of Washington on such energy cross sections is reviewed.

  5. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    Design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into construction or renovation plans, schools can reduce energy consumption and costs.

  6. High Energy Density Lithium Air Batteries for Oxygen Concentrators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For NASA's Exploration Medical Capabilities mission, extremely high specific energy power sources, with specific energy over 2000 Wh/kg, are urgently sought after....

  7. Thermal comfort in sun spaces: To what extend can energy collectors and seasonal energy storages provide thermal comfort in sun space?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wiegel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparation for fossil fuel substitution in the building sector persists as an essential subject in architectural engineering. Since the building sector still remains as one of the three major global end energy consumer – climate change is closely related to construction and design. We have developed the archetype sun space to what it is today : a simple but effective predominant naturally ventilated sun trap and as well as living space enlargement. With the invention of industrial glass orangery’s more and more changed from frost protecting envelopes to living spaces from which we meantime expect thermal comfort in high quality. But what level of thermal comfort provide sun spaces? And to what extend may sun spaces manage autarkic operation profiting from passive solar gains and, beyond that, surplus energy generation for energy neutral conditioning of aligned spaces? We deliver detailed information for this detected gap of knowledge. We know about limited thermal comfort in sun spaces winter times. This reasons the inspection of manifold collector technologies, which enable to be embedded in facades and specifically in sun space envelopes. Nonetheless, effective façade integrated collectors are ineffective in seasons with poor irradiation. Hence, the mismatch of offer and demand we have experienced with renewable energies ignites thinking about appropriate seasonal energy storages, which enlarges the research scope of this work. This PhD thesis project investigates on both, a yearly empirical test set up analysis and a virtual simulation of different oriented and located sun spaces abroad Germany. Both empirical and theoretical evaluation result in a holistic research focusing on a preferred occupation time in terms of cumulative frequencies of operational temperature and decided local discomfort, of potential autarkic sun space operation and prospective surplus exergy for alternative heating of aligned buildings. The results are mapped

  8. Investigation in Query System Framework for High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Jatuphattharachat, Thanat

    2017-01-01

    We summarize an investigation in query system framework for HEP (High Energy Physics). Our work was an investigation on distributed server part of Femtocode, which is a query language that provides the ability for physicists to make plots and other aggregations in real-time. To make the system more robust and capable of processing large amount of data quickly, it is necessary to deploy the system on a redundant and distributed computing cluster. This project aims to investigate third party coordination and resource management frameworks which fit into the design of real-time distributed query system. Zookeeper, Mesos and Marathon are the main frameworks for this investigation. The results indicate that Zookeeper is good for job coordinator and job tracking as it provides robust, fast, simple and transparent read and write process for all connecting client across distributed Zookeeper server. Furthermore, it also supports high availability access and consistency guarantee within specific time bound.

  9. HEASARC - The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Alan P.

    2011-01-01

    The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is NASA's archive for high-energy astrophysics and cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, supporting the broad science goals of NASA's Physics of the Cosmos theme. It provides vital scientific infrastructure to the community by standardizing science data formats and analysis programs, providing open access to NASA resources, and implementing powerful archive interfaces. Over the next five years the HEASARC will ingest observations from up to 12 operating missions, while serving data from these and over 30 archival missions to the community. The HEASARC archive presently contains over 37 TB of data, and will contain over 60 TB by the end of 2014. The HEASARC continues to secure major cost savings for NASA missions, providing a reusable mission-independent framework for reducing, analyzing, and archiving data. This approach was recognized in the NRC Portals to the Universe report (2007) as one of the HEASARC's great strengths. This poster describes the past and current activities of the HEASARC and our anticipated developments in coming years. These include preparations to support upcoming high energy missions (NuSTAR, Astro-H, GEMS) and ground-based and sub-orbital CMB experiments, as well as continued support of missions currently operating (Chandra, Fermi, RXTE, Suzaku, Swift, XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL). In 2012 the HEASARC (which now includes LAMBDA) will support the final nine-year WMAP data release. The HEASARC is also upgrading its archive querying and retrieval software with the new Xamin system in early release - and building on opportunities afforded by the growth of the Virtual Observatory and recent developments in virtual environments and cloud computing.

  10. High energy particle collisions near black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaslavskii O. B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available If two geodesic particles collide near a rotating black hole, their energy in the centre of mass frame Ec.m. can become unbound under certain conditions (the so-called BSW effect. The special role is played here by so-called critical geodesics when one of particles has fine-tuned energy and angular momentum. The nature of geodesics reveals itself also in fate of the debris after collisions. One of particles moving to a remote observer is necessarily near-critical. We discuss, when such a collision can give rise not only unboud Ec.m. but also unbound Killing energy E (so-called super-Penrose process.

  11. SUNSEED - An evolutionary path to smart grid comms over converged telco and energy provider networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefanovic, C.; Popovski, P.; Jorguseski, L.; Sernec, R.

    2014-01-01

    SUNSEED, 'Sustainable and robust networking for smart electricity distribution', is a 3-year project started in 2014 and partially funded under call FP7-ICT-2013-11. The project objective is to research, design and implement methods for exploitation of existing communication infrastructure of energy

  12. Salt intrusions providing a new geothermal exploration target for higher energy recovery at shallower depths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniilidis, Alexandros; Herber, Rien

    2017-01-01

    Direct use of geothermal energy can present challenges of financial feasibility in a low-enthalpy setting. The average temperature gradients in sedimentary basins make it necessary to reach larger depths for meaningful heat production, thus increasing the drilling cost. Therefore, full realization

  13. Model of a multiverse providing the dark energy of our universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhan, E.

    2017-09-01

    It is shown that the dark energy presently observed in our universe can be regarded as the energy of a scalar field driving an inflation-like expansion of a multiverse with ours being a subuniverse among other parallel universes. A simple model of this multiverse is elaborated: Assuming closed space geometry, the origin of the multiverse can be explained by quantum tunneling from nothing; subuniverses are supposed to emerge from local fluctuations of separate inflation fields. The standard concept of tunneling from nothing is extended to the effect that in addition to an inflationary scalar field, matter is also generated, and that the tunneling leads to an (unstable) equilibrium state. The cosmological principle is assumed to pertain from the origin of the multiverse until the first subuniverses emerge. With increasing age of the multiverse, its spatial curvature decays exponentially so fast that, due to sharing the same space, the flatness problem of our universe resolves by itself. The dark energy density imprinted by the multiverse on our universe is time-dependent, but such that the ratio w = ϱ/(c2p) of its mass density and pressure (times c2) is time-independent and assumes a value - 1 + 𝜖 with arbitrary 𝜖 > 0. 𝜖 can be chosen so small, that the dark energy model of this paper can be fitted to the current observational data as well as the cosmological constant model.

  14. Solar-energy conversion system provides electrical power and thermal control for life-support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, B. K.

    1974-01-01

    System utilizes Freon cycle and includes boiler turbogenerator with heat exchanger, regenerator and thermal-control heat exchangers, low-pressure and boiler-feed pumps, and condenser. Exchanger may be of interest to engineers and scientists investigating new energy sources.

  15. Invisible decays of ultra-high energy neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eDorame

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs are expected to provide a source of ultra high energy cosmic rays, accompanied with potentially detectable neutrinos at neutrino telescopes. Recently, IceCube has set an upper bound on this neutrino flux well below theoretical expectation. We investigate whether this mismatch between expectation and observation can be due to neutrino decay. We demosntrate the phenomenological consistency and theoretical plausibility of the neutrino decay hypothesis. A potential implication is the observability of majoron-emitting neutrinoless double beta decay.

  16. Fundamental understanding and rational design of high energy structural microbatteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuxing; Li, Qiuyan; Cartmell, Samuel; Li, Huidong; Mendoza, Sarah; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Xiao, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Microbatteries play a critical role in determining the lifetime of downsized sensors, wearable devices and medical applications, etc. More often, structural batteries are required from the perspective of aesthetics and space utilization, which is however rarely explored. Herein, we discuss the fundamental issues associated with the rational design of practically usable high energy microbatteries. The tubular shape of the cell further allows the flexible integration of microelectronics. A functioning acoustic micro-transmitter continuously powered by this tubular battery has been successfully demonstrated. Multiple design features adopted to accommodate large mechanical stress during the rolling process are discussed providing new insights in designing the structural microbatteries for emerging technologies.

  17. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2010-10-01

    A new high-fidelity integrated system method and analysis approach was developed and implemented for consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles leading to minimized Transuranic (TRU) inventories. The method has been implemented in a developed code system integrating capabilities of Monte Carlo N - Particle Extended (MCNPX) for high-fidelity fuel cycle component simulations. In this report, a Nuclear Energy System (NES) configuration was developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized TRU waste inventories, long-term activities, and radiotoxicities. The reactor systems and fuel cycle components that make up the NES were selected for their ability to perform in tandem to produce clean, safe, and dependable energy in an environmentally conscious manner. The diversity in performance and spectral characteristics were used to enhance TRU waste elimination while efficiently utilizing uranium resources and providing an abundant energy source. A computational modeling approach was developed for integrating the individual models of the NES. A general approach was utilized allowing for the Integrated System Model (ISM) to be modified in order to provide simulation for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the ISM is capable of performing system evaluations under many different design parameter options. Additionally, the predictive capabilities of the ISM and its computational time efficiency allow for system sensitivity/uncertainty analysis and the implementation of optimization techniques.

  18. Observation of high energy gamma rays in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beard, K.B.; Benenson, W.; Bloch, C.; Kashy, E.; Stevenson, J.; Morrissey, D.J.; Plicht, J. van der; Sherrill, B.; Winfield, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    High energy electrons and positrons observed in medium energy nucleus-nucleus collisions are shown to be primarily due to the external conversion of high energy gamma rays. The reaction 14N+Cu was studied at E/A=40 MeV, and a magnetic spectrograph was used with a specially constructed multiwire

  19. High energy physics advisory panel`s subpanel on vision for the future of high-energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This report was requested by the Secretary of Energy to (1) define a long-term program for pursuing the most important high-energy physics goals since the termination of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project, (2) assess the current US high-energy physics program, and (3) make recommendations regarding the future of the field. Subjects on which recommendations were sought and which the report addresses were: high-energy physics funding priorities; facilitating international collaboration for future construction of large high-energy physics facilities; optimizing uses of the investment made in the SSC; how to encourage displaced scientists and engineers to remain in high-energy physics and to attract young scientists to enter the field in the future. The report includes a description of the state of high-energy physics research in the context of history, a summary of the SSC project, and documentation of the report`s own origins and development.

  20. High energy nuclear collisions: Theory overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Universe a few microseconds after the Big Bang was filled with a hot and dense phase of matter. We believe that quarks and gluons at those temperatures, above. 1012 K, were deconfined and existed as a quark gluon plasma (QGP). These ideas can be tested in collisions of nuclei at ultra-relativistic energies.

  1. The high energy source 3C 273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonmontigny, Corinna

    1990-01-01

    The properties of 3C 273 are reviewed and an attempt is made to find an answer to the question why 3C 273 is the only extragalactic source so far, which was detected at energies greater than or equal to 50 MeV.

  2. High-energy band structure of gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N. Egede

    1976-01-01

    The band structure of gold for energies far above the Fermi level has been calculated using the relativistic augmented-plane-wave method. The calculated f-band edge (Γ6-) lies 15.6 eV above the Fermi level is agreement with recent photoemission work. The band model is applied to interpret...

  3. Regularity of high energy photon events from gamma ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haowei; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The effect of Quantum Gravity (QG) may bring a tiny light speed variation as v(E)=c(1‑E/ELV), where E is the photon energy and ELV is a Lorentz violation scale. A remarkable regularity was suggested in previous studies to look for the light speed variation from high energy photon events of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). We provide a general analysis on the data of 25 bright GRBs observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST). Such method allows a completed scan over all possibilities in a more clean and impartial way without any bias compared to previous intuitive analysis. The results show that with the increase in the intrinsic energies of photons, such regularity truly emerges and gradually becomes significant. For photons with intrinsic energies higher than 40 GeV, the regularity exists at a significance of 3–5 σ with ELV=3.6× 1017 GeV determined by the GRB data.

  4. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekhiche, Mike [Principal Investigator; Dufera, Hiz [Project Manager; Montagna, Deb [Business Point of Contact

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  5. A query result merging scheme for providing energy efficiency in underwater sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunsung; Park, Soo-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Underwater sensor networks are emerging as a promising distributed data management system for various applications in underwater environments, despite their limited accessibility and restricted energy capacity. With the aid of recent developments in ubiquitous data computing, an increasing number of users are expected to overcome low accessibility by applying queries to underwater sensor networks. However, when multiple users send queries to an underwater sensor network in a disorganized manner, it may incur lethal energy waste and problematic network traffic. The current query management mechanisms cannot effectively deal with this matter due to their limited applicability and unrealistic assumptions. In this paper, a novel query management scheme involving query result merging is proposed for underwater sensor networks. The mechanism is based on a relational database model and is adjusted to the practical restrictions affecting underwater communication environments. Network simulations will prove that the scheme becomes more efficient with a greater number of queries and a smaller period range.

  6. SUNSEED — An evolutionary path to smart grid comms over converged telco and energy provider networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar; Jorguseski, Ljupco

    2014-01-01

    of energy distribution service operators (DSO) and telecom operators (telco) for the future smart grid operations and services. To achieve this objective, SUNSEED proposes an evolutionary approach to converge existing DSO and telco networks, consisting of six steps: overlap, interconnect, interoperate......, manage, plan and open. Each step involves identification of the related smart grid service requirements and implementation of the appropriate solutions. The promise of SUNSEED approach lies in potentially much lower investments and total cost of ownership of future smart energy grids within dense......SUNSEED, “Sustainable and robust networking for smart electricity distribution”, is a 3-year project started in 2014 and partially funded under call FP7-ICT-2013-11. The project objective is to research, design and implement methods for exploitation of existing communication infrastructure...

  7. Evaluation of Monte Carlo tools for high energy atmospheric physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Rutjes (Casper); D. Sarria (David); A.B. Skeltved (Alexander Broberg); A. Luque (Alejandro); G. Diniz (Gabriel); N. Østgaard (Nikolai); U. Ebert (Ute)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe emerging field of high energy atmospheric physics (HEAP) includes terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, electron-positron beams and gamma-ray glows from thunderstorms. Similar emissions of high energy particles occur in pulsed high voltage discharges. Understanding these phenomena requires

  8. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  9. The High Energy Particle Detector (HEPD) for the CSES satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparvoli, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    of precipitating particles). The East-West or West-East drift direction is an essential information to retrieve the longitude of the starting point of the burst precipitation and then to reconstruct the geographical area where the interaction between particles and seismo-electromagnetic emissions occurred. HEPD has been designed to provide good energy resolution and high angular resolution for electrons (3 - 100 MeV) and proton (30 - 200 MeV). The detector consists of two layers of segmented plastic scintillators and a calorimeter, constituted by a tower of scintillator counters. The direction of the incident particle is provided by two planes of double-side silicon micro-strip detectors placed in front of the trigger scintillator planes to limit the effect of Coulomb multiple scattering on the direction measurement. The electron angular resolution varies between 13° at 2.5 MeV and ≤ 1° for energies above 35 MeV. The detector has a wide angular acceptance (>60°) over the full energy range 2.5-100 MeV. The angle-integrated, total acceptance is larger than 100 cm2sr between 2.5 and 35 MeV, decreasing at higher energies (about 40 cm2sr at 100 MeV). The proton angular resolution is ≤1° over the full detection range. The proton integrated-angle, total acceptance is larger than 100 cm2sr between 30 MeV and 150 MeV, decreasing to 60 cm2sr at 200 MeV. The good energy-loss measurement of the silicon track, combined with the energy resolution of the scintillators and calorimeter, allows identifying electrons with acceptable proton background levels (10-5-10-3).

  10. Progress in ultra high energy neutrino experiments using radio techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jiali [Physics department, Kunming University, Kunming, 650214 (China); Tiedt, Douglas [Physics department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD, 57701-3995 (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Studying the source of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) can provide important clues on the understanding of UHE particle physics, astrophysics, and other extremely energetic phenomena in the universe. However, charged CR particles are deflected by magnetic fields and can not point back to the source. Furthermore, UHECR charged particles above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff (about 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV) suffer severe energy loss due to the interaction with the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR). Consequently almost all the information carried by CR particles about their origin is lost. Neutrinos, which are neutral particles and have extremely weak interactions with other materials can arrive at the earth without deflection and absorption. Therefore UHE neutrinos can be traced back to the place where they are produced. Due to their weak interaction and ultra high energies (thus extremely low flux) the detection of UHE neutrinos requires a large collecting area and massive amounts of material. Cherenkov detection at radio frequency, which has long attenuation lengths and can travel freely in natural dense medium (ice, rock and salt et al), can fulfill the detection requirement. Many UHE neutrino experiments are being performed by radio techniques using natural ice, lunar, and salt as detection mediums. These experiments have obtained much data about radio production, propagation and detection, and the upper limit of UHE neutrino flux.

  11. Studies of High Energy Particle Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitz, David F [Michigan Technological University; Fick, Brian E [Michigan Technological University

    2014-07-30

    This report covers the progress of the Michigan Technological University particle astrophysics group during the period April 15th, 2011 through April 30th, 2014. The principal investigator is Professor David Nitz. Professor Brian Fick is the Co-PI. The focus of the group is the study of the highest energy cosmic rays using the Pierre Auger Observatory. The major goals of the Pierre Auger Observatory are to discover and understand the source or sources of cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10**19 eV, to identify the particle type(s), and to investigate the interactions of those cosmic particles both in space and in the Earth's atmosphere. The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina was completed in June 2008 with 1660 surface detector stations and 24 fluorescence telescopes arranged in 4 stations. It has a collecting area of 3,000 square km, yielding an aperture of 7,000 km**2 sr.

  12. High energy physics in cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence W. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-02-07

    In the first half-century of cosmic ray physics, the primary research focus was on elementary particles; the positron, pi-mesons, mu-mesons, and hyperons were discovered in cosmic rays. Much of this research was carried out at mountain elevations; Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees, Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia, and Mt. Evans/Echo Lake in Colorado, among other sites. In the 1960s, claims of the observation of free quarks, and satellite measurements of a significant rise in p-p cross sections, plus the delay in initiating accelerator construction programs for energies above 100 GeV, motivated the Michigan-Wisconsin group to undertake a serious cosmic ray program at Echo Lake. Subsequently, with the succession of higher energy accelerators and colliders at CERN and Fermilab, cosmic ray research has increasingly focused on cosmology and astrophysics, although some groups continue to study cosmic ray particle interactions in emulsion chambers.

  13. Temporal optimization of ultrabroadband high-energy OPCPA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffrey Moses; Cristian Manzoni; Shu-Wei Huang; Giulio Cerullo; Franz X. Kaertner

    2009-01-01

    We present general guidelines for the design of ultrabroadband, high-energy optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers, where maximization of both conversion efficiency and bandwidth and simultaneous...

  14. Predicting the statistics of high-energy astrophysical backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feyereisen, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents improvements to a methodology for predicting the probability distribution of diffuse isotropic astrophysical backgrounds, applied to high-energy extragalactic gamma rays and neutrinos.

  15. Final Cooling for a High-Energy High-Luminosity Lepton Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Sayed, H. [Brookhaven; Hart, T. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. [Mississippi U.

    2015-12-03

    A high-energy muon collider scenario require a “final cooling” system that reduces transverse emittance by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of an alternative approach. Wedge-based emittance exchange could provide much of the required transverse cooling with longitudinal heating. Li-lens and quadrupole focusing systems could also provide much of the required final cooling.

  16. Observation of High-Energy Astrophysical Neutrinos in Three Years of IceCube Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.

    2014-01-01

    A search for high-energy neutrinos interacting within the IceCube detector between 2010 and 2012 provided the first evidence for a high-energy neutrino flux of extraterrestrial origin. Results from an analysis using the same methods with a third year (2012–2013) of data from the complete IceCube...

  17. High tonnage harvesting and skidding for loblolly pine energy plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Jernigan; Tom Gallagher; Dana Mitchell; Mathew Smidt; Larry Teeter

    2016-01-01

    The southeastern United States has a promising source for renewable energy in the form of woody biomass. To meet the energy needs, energy plantations will likely be utilized. These plantations will contain a high density of small-stem pine trees. Since the stems are relatively small when compared with traditional product removal, the harvesting costs will increase. The...

  18. Optimization of a neutron dosimeter for the high energy accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In high energy accelerator facilities the neutron radiation should be continuously measured during operation to control the ambient dose. This requires a reliable neutron dosimeter in a wide energy range. In this work we present an optimization of a compact cylindrical passive neutron dosimeter for the usage in wide energy neutron fields.

  19. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  20. Trajectories of high energy electrons in a plasma focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, W. L.; Lee, J. H.; Mcfarland, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements are made of high-energy electron trajectories in a plasma focus as functions of position, time, energy, and angle of emission. The spatial resolution of the X-ray emission shows that low-energy X-rays are emitted from the anode surface. It is also suggested that the highest energy X-rays originate from a small region on the axis. The so-called shadow technique shows that the electron beam is perpendicular to the anode surface. Polar diagrams of medium and high-energy X-rays agree with the bremsstrahlung emission from a relativistic electron beam, the current of which is several 100 A.

  1. Monitoring energy intake: a hand-held personal digital assistant provides accuracy comparable to written records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, Holly L; Sigrist, Lori D; Smith, Tracey J; Karl, J Philip; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Bathalon, Gaston P

    2009-07-01

    New approaches to assess energy intake (EI) may have advantages over traditional written methods, but validity of these emerging methodologies must be demonstrated. This exploratory study compared EI obtained using a hand-held personal digital assistant (PDA) and traditional written records with total energy expenditure measured by doubly labeled water (TEE(DLW)). Twenty-six volunteers (aged 23+/-4 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 24+/-2) participated in a randomized (either PDA or written record group) and matched (for sex, age, and body mass index) study for 7 consecutive days between June 2005 and April 2006 to record EI. Group comparisons were made with t and Mann-Whitney U tests. Bland-Altman plots were used to compare limits of agreement between methods. Volunteers remained weight stable during the study period (0.2+/-0.8 kg; P>0.05). Reported EI by written record and PDA were similar to TEE(DLW); 105% vs 92% of TEE(DLW), respectively (P>0.05). There was a significant relationship between reported EI by PDA and TEE(DLW) (r=0.60, Precord (r=0.45, P>0.05). Limits of agreement indicated both written record and PDA had large variability (range 1,394 to -1,472 kcal/day). Findings suggest the bias in using a PDA is similar to that observed when using a written record for estimation of EI in weight-stable volunteers.

  2. Providing Behavioral Feedback to Students in an Alternative High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Sara A.; Hefter, Sheera; Barker, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This column provides an example method for improving the consistency and quality of daily behavioral feedback provided to students in an alternative high school setting. Often, homeroom or advisory periods are prime points in the day for students to review their behavior from the previous day and set goals for a successful day to come. The method…

  3. Flexible online monitoring for high-energy physics with Pyrame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Roy, Miguel; Thiant, Floris; Magniette, Frédéric

    2017-10-01

    The present work reports on the new online monitoring capabilities of the software suite Pyrame, an open-source framework designed for high energy physics (HEP) applications. Pyrame provides an easy-to-deploy solution for command, control and data-acquisition of particle detectors and related test-benches. Pyrame’s new online monitoring architecture is based on the distribution of the data treatment operations among multiple modules in the system, with multiple input and output streams. Uncontrolled data loss is prevented by providing data at the speed of consumers. In addition to the distributed data treatment capabilities, Pyrame includes a performance-oriented module dedicated to real-time data acquisition, capable of handling and storing data at 4 Gbit/s for further treatment.

  4. Power/energy use cases for high performance computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laros, James H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelly, Suzanne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elmore, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Munch, Kristin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Power and Energy have been identified as a first order challenge for future extreme scale high performance computing (HPC) systems. In practice the breakthroughs will need to be provided by the hardware vendors. But to make the best use of the solutions in an HPC environment, it will likely require periodic tuning by facility operators and software components. This document describes the actions and interactions needed to maximize power resources. It strives to cover the entire operational space in which an HPC system occupies. The descriptions are presented as formal use cases, as documented in the Unified Modeling Language Specification [1]. The document is intended to provide a common understanding to the HPC community of the necessary management and control capabilities. Assuming a common understanding can be achieved, the next step will be to develop a set of Application Programing Interfaces (APIs) to which hardware vendors and software developers could utilize to steer power consumption.

  5. High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-29

    The functionality of heRXD includes the following: distance and angular calibration and viewing flat-panel detector images used for X-ray diffraction; image (polar) rebinning or "caking"; line position fitting in powder diffraction images; image segmentation or "blob finding"; crystal orentation indesing; and lattice vector refinement. These functionalities encompass a critical set analyzing teh data for high-energy diffraction measurements that are currently performed at synchrotron sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The software design modular and open source under LGPL. The intent is to provide a common framework and graphical user interface that has the ability to utillize internal as well as external subroutines to provide various optins for performing the fuctionalities listed above. The software will initially be deployed at several national user facilities--including APS, ALS, and CHESS--and then made available for download using a hosting service such as sourceforge.

  6. On the Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T K; Colgate, S; Li, H; Bulmer, R H; Pino, J

    2011-03-08

    We show that accretion disks around Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) could account for the enormous power in observed ultra high energy cosmic rays {approx}10{sup 20} eV (UHEs). In our model, cosmic rays are produced by quasi-steady acceleration of ions in magnetic structures previously proposed to explain jets around Active Galactic Nuclei with supermassive black holes. Steady acceleration requires that an AGN accretion disk act as a dynamo, which we show to follow from a modified Standard Model in which the magnetic torque of the dynamo replaces viscosity as the dominant mechanism accounting for angular momentum conservation during accretion. A black hole of mass M{sub BH} produces a steady dynamo voltage V {proportional_to} {radical}M{sub BH} giving V {approx} 10{sup 20} volts for M{sub BH} {approx} 10{sup 8} solar masses. The voltage V reappears as an inductive electric field at the advancing nose of a dynamo-driven jet, where plasma instability inherent in collisionless runaway acceleration allows ions to be steadily accelerated to energies {approx} V, finally ejected as cosmic rays. Transient events can produce much higher energies. The predicted disk radiation is similar to the Standard Model. Unique predictions concern the remarkable collimation of jets and emissions from the jet/radiolobe structure. Given MBH and the accretion rate, the model makes 7 predictions roughly consistent with data: (1) the jet length; (2) the jet radius; (3) the steady-state cosmic ray energy spectrum; (4) the maximum energy in this spectrum; (5) the UHE cosmic ray intensity on Earth; (6) electron synchrotron wavelengths; and (7) the power in synchrotron radiation. These qualitative successes motivate new computer simulations, experiments and data analysis to provide a quantitative verification of the model.

  7. Nurses and Dietitians Differ in Food Safety Information Provided to Highly Susceptible Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffer, Janet; Kendall, Patricia; Medeiros, Lydia; Schroeder, Mary; Sofos, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine content, education channels, and motivational factors that influence what health professionals teach about safe food handling to populations who are highly susceptible for foodborne illnesses. To assess the differences in information provided by health professionals to highly susceptible populations. Design: Descriptive,…

  8. The improving of the heat networks operating process under the conditions of the energy efficiency providing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinova Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the priorities it is important to highlight the modernization and improvement of energy efficiency of housing and communal services, as well as the transition to the principle of using the most efficient technologies used in reproduction (construction, creation of objects of municipal infrastructure and housing modernization. The main hypothesis of this study lies in the fact that in modern conditions the realization of the most important priorities of the state policy in the sphere of housing and communal services, is possible in the conditions of use of the most effective control technologies for the reproduction of thermal networks. It is possible to raise the level of information security Heat Distribution Company, and other market participants by improving business processes through the development of organizational and economic mechanism in the conditions of complex monitoring of heat network operation processes

  9. Research in High Energy Physics at Duke University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goshaw, Alfred; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kruse, Mark; Oh, Seog; Scholberg, Kate; Walter, Chris

    2013-07-29

    This is the Closeout Report for the research grant in experimental elementary particle physics, carried out by the Duke University High Energy Physics (HEP) group. We re- port on physics results and detector development carried out under this grant, focussing on the recent three-year grant period (2010 to 2013). The Duke HEP group consisted of seven faculty members, two senior scientists, five postdocs and eight graduate students. There were three thrusts of the research program. Measurements at the energy frontier at CDF and ATLAS were used to test aspects of elementary particle theory described by the Stan- dard Model (SM) and to search for new forces and particles beyond those contained within the SM. The neutrino sector was explored using data obtained from a large neutrino detector located in Japan, and R & D was conducted on new experiments to be built in the US. The measurements provided information about neutrino masses and the manner in which neutri- nos change species in particle beams. Two years ago we have started a new research program in rare processes based on the Mu2E experiment at Fermilab. This research is motivated by the search for the {mu} {yields} e transition with unprecedented sensitivity, a transition forbidden in the standard model but allowed in supersymmetric and other models of new physics. The high energy research program used proton and antiproton colliding beams. The experiments were done at the Fermilab Tevatron (proton-antiproton collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV) and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (proton-proton collisions at 7-8 TeV). The neutrino program used data obtained from the Super-Kamiokande detector. This water-filled Cherenkov counter was used to detect and measure the properties of neutrinos produced in cosmic ray showers, and from neutrino beams produced from acceler- ators in Japan. The Mu2E experiment will use a special stopped muon beam to be built at Fermilab.

  10. Research in High Energy Physics at Duke University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotwal, Ashutosh V. [PI; Goshaw, Al [Co-PI; Kruse, Mark [Co-PI; Oh, Seog [Co-PI; Scholberg, Kate [Co-PI; Walter, Chris [Co-PI

    2013-07-29

    This is the Closeout Report for the research grant in experimental elementary particle physics, carried out by the Duke University High Energy Physics (HEP) group. We re- port on physics results and detector development carried out under this grant, focussing on the recent three-year grant period (2010 to 2013). The Duke HEP group consisted of seven faculty members, two senior scientists, ve postdocs and eight graduate students. There were three thrusts of the research program. Measurements at the energy frontier at CDF and ATLAS were used to test aspects of elementary particle theory described by the Stan- dard Model (SM) and to search for new forces and particles beyond those contained within the SM. The neutrino sector was explored using data obtained from a large neutrino detector located in Japan, and R & D was conducted on new experiments to be built in the US. The measurements provided information about neutrino masses and the manner in which neutri- nos change species in particle beams. Two years ago we have started a new research program in rare processes based on the Mu2E experiment at Fermilab. This research is motivated by the search for the ! e transition with unprecedented sensitivity, a transition forbidden in the standard model but allowed in supersymmetric and other models of new physics. The high energy research program used proton and antiproton colliding beams. The experiments were done at the Fermilab Tevatron (proton-antiproton collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV) and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (proton-proton collisions at 7-8 TeV). The neutrino program used data obtained from the Super-Kamiokande detec- tor. This water- lled Cherenkov counter was used to detect and measure the properties of neutrinos produced in cosmic ray showers, and from neutrino beams produced from acceler- ators in Japan. The Mu2E experiment will use a special stopped muon beam to be built at Fermilab.

  11. High Energy Break-Up of Few-Nucleon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsian, Misak

    2008-03-01

    We discus recent developments in theory of high energy two-body break-up reactions of few-nucleon systems. The characteristics of these reactions are such that the hard two-body quasielastic subprocess can be clearly separated from the accompanying soft subprocesses. We discuss in details the hard rescattering model (HRM) in which hard photodisintegration develops in two stages. At first, photon knocks-out an energetic quark which rescatters subsequently with a quark of the other nucleon. The latter provides a mechanism of sharing the initial high momentum of the photon by the outgoing two nucleons. Within HRM we discuss hard break-up reactions involving 2D and 3He targets. Another development of HRM is the prediction of new helicity selection mechanism for hard two-body reactions, which was apparently confirmed in the recent JLab experiment.

  12. Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR at energies above ≃ 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ≃ 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF. If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological

  13. Apparatus for advancing a wellbore using high power laser energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-09-02

    Delivering high power laser energy to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. Down hole laser tools, laser systems and laser delivery techniques for advancement, workover and completion activities. A laser bottom hole assembly (LBHA) for the delivery of high power laser energy to the surfaces of a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics, a fluid path for debris removal and a mechanical means to remove earth.

  14. Italian Meeting on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nicrosini, Oreste; Vercesi, Valerio; IFAE 2006; Incontri Di Fisica Delle Alte Energie

    2007-01-01

    This book collects the Proceedings of the Workshop ``Incontri di Fisica delle Alte Energie (IFAE) 2006, Pavia, 19-21 April 2006". This is the fifth edition of a new series of meetings on fundamental research in particle physics and was attended by more than 150 researchers. Presentations, both theoretical and experimental, addressed the status of Standard Model and Flavour phyiscs, Neutrino and Cosmological topics, new insights beyond the present understanding of particle physics and cross-fertilization in areas such as medicine, biology, technological spin-offs and computing. Special emphasis was given to the expectations of the forthcoming Large Hadron Collider, due in operation in 2007. The venue of plenary sessions interleaved with parallel ones allowed for a rich exchange of ideas, presented in these Proceedings, that form a coherent picture of the findings and of the open questions in this extremely challenging cultural field.

  15. High energy asymptotics of the scattering amplitude for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    High energy asymptotics of the scattering amplitude for the. Schrödinger equation. D YAFAEV. Department of Mathematics, University Rennes-1, Campus Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes,. France. Abstract. We find an explicit function approximating at high energies the kernel of the scattering matrix with arbitrary accuracy.

  16. Participation in High Energy Physics at the University of Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinec, Emil J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.

    2013-06-27

    This report covers research at the University of Chicago in theoretical high energy physics and its connections to cosmology, over the period Nov. 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013. This research is divided broadly into two tasks: Task A, which covers a broad array of topics in high energy physics; and task C, primarily concerned with cosmology.

  17. CZT drift strip detectors for high energy astrophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Caroli, E.

    2010-01-01

    Requirements for X- and gamma ray detectors for future High Energy Astrophysics missions include high detection efficiency and good energy resolution as well as fine position sensitivity even in three dimensions.We report on experimental investigations on the CZT drift detector developed DTU Space...

  18. Space and Astrophysical Plasmas: High energy universe–Satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A variety of satellite missions to observe the high energy universe are currently operating and some more with more versatility and capability are on the anvil. In this paper, after giving a brief introduction to the constituents of the high energy universe and the related plasma physical problems, general as well as specific ...

  19. Metal azides under pressure: An emerging class of high energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metal azides are well-known for their explosive properties such as detonation or deflagration. As chemically pure sources of nitrogen, alkali metal azides under high pressure have the ability to form polymeric nitrogen, an ultimate green high energy density material with energy density three times greater than that of known ...

  20. Crystal collimator systems for high energy frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytov, A. I.; Tikhomirov, V. V.; Lobko, A. S.

    2017-07-01

    Crystalline collimators can potentially considerably improve the cleaning performance of the presently used collimator systems using amorphous collimators. A crystal-based collimation scheme which relies on the channeling particle deflection in bent crystals has been proposed and extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally. However, since the efficiency of particle capture into the channeling regime does not exceed ninety percent, this collimation scheme partly suffers from the same leakage problems as the schemes using amorphous collimators. To improve further the cleaning efficiency of the crystal-based collimation system to meet the requirements of the FCC, we suggest here a double crystal-based collimation scheme, to which the second crystal is introduced to enhance the deflection of the particles escaping the capture to the channeling regime in its first crystal. The application of the effect of multiple volume reflection in one bent crystal and of the same in a sequence of crystals is simulated and compared for different crystal numbers and materials at the energy of 50 TeV. To enhance also the efficiency of use of the first crystal of the suggested double crystal-based scheme, we propose: the method of increase of the probability of particle capture into the channeling regime at the first crystal passage by means of fabrication of a crystal cut and the method of the amplification of nonchanneled particle deflection through the multiple volume reflection in one bent crystal, accompanying the particle channeling by a skew plane. We simulate both of these methods for the 50 TeV FCC energy.

  1. High temperature solar energy absorbing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, J.M.; Schmitt, C.R.; Abbatiello, L.A.

    A solar collector having an improved coating is provided. The coating is a plasma-sprayed coating comprising a material having a melting point above 500/sup 0/C at which it is stable and selected from the group of boron carbide, boron nitride, metals and metal oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides, and silicates. The coatings preferably have a porosity of about 15 to 25% and a thickness of less than 200 micrometers. The coatings can be provided by plasma-spraying particles having a mean diameter of about 10 to 200 micrometers.

  2. High energy, high average and peak power phosphate-glass fiber amplifiers for 1micron band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, M.; Miller, A.; Wiersma, K.; Zong, J.; Rhonehouse, D.; Nguyen, D.; Chavez-Pirson, A.

    2014-03-01

    Heavy doping of common silica gain fibers is not practical; therefore long fibers are required for efficient amplification (usually 5-10m). This is undesirable due to nonlinearities that grow with fiber length. In contrast, NP Photonics phosphate-glass based fibers can be heavily doped without any side-effects, and hence can provide very high gain in short lengths (less than 0.5m). This enables an ideal pulsed fiber amplifier for a MOPA system that maximizes the energy extraction and minimizes the nonlinearities. We demonstrate 1W average power, 200μJ energy, and >10kW peak power from a SBS-limited all-fiber MOPA system at 1550nm, and 32W average power, 90μJ energy, and 45kW peak power from a SRS and SPM limited all-fiber MOPA system at 1064 nm. These results were limited by the seed and pump sources.

  3. Influence of high energy electrons on ECRH in LHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogasawara S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The central bulk electron temperature of more than 20 keV is achieved in LHD as a result of increasing the injection power and the lowering the electron density near 2 × 1018 m−3. Such collision-less regime is important from the aspect of the neoclassical transport and also the potential structure formation. The presences of appreciable amount of high energy electrons are indicated from hard X-ray PHA, and the discrepancy between the stored energy and kinetic energy estimated from Thomson scattering. ECE spectrum are also sensitive to the presence of high energy electrons and discussed by solving the radiation transfer equation. The ECRH power absorption to the bulk and the high energy electrons are dramatically affected by the acceleration and the confinement of high energy electrons. The heating mechanisms and the acceleration process of high energy electrons are discussed by comparing the experimental results and the ray tracing calculation under assumed various density and mean energy of high energy electrons.

  4. Improper ferroelectrics as high-efficiency energy conversion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakamatsu, Toru; Tanabe, Kenji; Terasaki, Ichiro; Taniguchi, Hiroki [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    An improper ferroelectric is a certain type of ferroelectrics whose primary order parameter is not polarization but another physical quantity such as magnetization. In contrast to a conventional proper ferroelectrics as represented by Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} and BaTiO{sub 3}, the improper ferroelectrics has been inconceivable for practical applications thus far. Herein, we illustrate the great potential of improper ferroelectrics for efficient conversion of temperature fluctuation to electric energy, as demonstrated with (Ca{sub 0.84}Sr{sub 0.16}){sub 8}[AlO{sub 2}]{sub 12}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} (CSAM-16). The present study has experimentally proven that CSAM-16 achieves an excellent electrothermal coupling factor and high electric field sensitivity for pyroelectric energy conversion that approach a practical level for application to self-powered autonomous electronic devices for rapidly spreading wireless sensor networks. The present results provide a novel approach to developing innovative pyroelectric energy harvesting devices using improper ferroelectrics. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. High energy resolution with transparent ceramic garnet scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepy, N. J.; Seeley, Z. M.; Payne, S. A.; Beck, P. R.; Swanberg, E. L.; Hunter, S.; Ahle, L.; Fisher, S. E.; Melcher, C.; Wei, H.; Stefanik, T.; Chung, Y.-S.; Kindem, J.

    2014-09-01

    Breakthrough energy resolution, R(662keV) Gadolinium Yttrium Gallium Aluminum Garnet, or GYGAG(Ce). Transparent ceramic GYGAG(Ce), has a peak emission wavelength of 550 nm that is better matched to Silicon photodetectors than to standard PMTs. We are therefore developing a spectrometer based on pixelated GYGAG(Ce) on a Silicon photodiode array that can provide R(662 keV) = 3.6%. In comparison, with large 1-2 in3 size GYGAG(Ce) ceramics we obtain R(662 keV) = 4.6% with PMT readout. We find that ceramic GYGAG(Ce) of a given stoichiometric chemical composition can exhibit very different scintillation properties, depending on sintering conditions and post-anneal treatments. Among the characteristics of transparent ceramic garnet scintillators that can be controlled by fabrication conditions are: scintillation decay components and their amplitudes, intensity and duration of afterglow, thermoluminescence glow curve peak positions and amplitudes, integrated light yield, light yield non-proportionality - as measured in the Scintillator Light Yield Non-Proportionality Characterization Instrument (SLYNCI), and energy resolution for gamma spectroscopy. Garnet samples exhibiting a significant fraction of Cerium dopant in the tetravalent valence also exhibit: faster overall scintillation decay, very low afterglow, high light yield, but poor light yield proportionality and degraded energy resolution.

  6. Optimizing The Imaging Performance Of The Exist High Energy Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Gerald K.; Finger, M. H.; Hong, J.; Jernigan, J. G.; Sturner, S. J.; Allen, B.; Grindlay, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    The baseline concept for the primary instrument of the EXIST mission, the high energy telescope (HET), is a coded mask instrument with a wide field of view and extremely good sensitivity (Hong et al., this meeting). Achieving the performance goals requires an imaging capability close to the statistical photon limit, minimizing systematic errors even when the total integration time is very long. At the same time there is a requirement to be able to reconstruct images on board in near real time in order to detect and localize gamma-ray bursts. This must be done while the spacecraft is scanning the sky with a motion designed to help reduce systematic errors and to provide all-sky coverage. During the 2008 Advanced Mission Concept Study, the Exist Imaging Technical Working Group has investigated and compared numerous alternative designs for the HET. The selected baseline concept meets all of the scientific requirements, while being compatible with spacecraft and launch constraints and with those imposed by the Infra-Red Telescope that forms the other key part of the mission. The approach adopted depends on a unique annular coded mask with two spatial scales, offering good resolution and low background at low energies, with a lower resolution but enhanced sensitivity in the upper part of the energy band. Monte Carlo simulations and analytic analysis techniques have been used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed design.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE ENERGY SYSTEM BALANCE EFFICIENCY PROVIDED WITH THE DIFFERENT GROUPS OF GENERATING PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Maksymovа

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently methods of efficiency analysis are being developed and applied, based on optimization tasks for various types and modes. Usually, the optimization criterion for these objectives is efficiency that can be calculated in various ways, for which there is no concurrent views. The target function based on minimization of given cost that allows comparing options with the same useful effect is used to search for the best indicators of power plants operated within the system. Marginal costs on the amount of difference in the useful effect are introduced to the target function in case of various useful effects. The criterion of selecting the best power plant from an economic point of view is the difference between the reduced costs of the considered and the basic options, but this approach does not allow using the results for long-term projections. Such approach depends on the situation and does not reflect the real costs. The value of the target function to optimize the effectiveness of the technical-economic method is not "marginal" and does not allow assessing the impact of various processes on the overall option efficiency. Therefore, the development of the efficiency criterion that considers the changing needs of the energy system is relevant for analyzing the power plant.

  8. Providing investment attractiveness of renewal and development of fixed assets in the energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Anatolyevich Malyshev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is a comparative analysis of economic mechanisms for the realization of investment projects for new construction and modernization power generation capacity in the energy sector and their effect on private investment. In this connection, planned and actual volumes of generating capacity, particular features of the industry, causing investment attractiveness are discussed. The necessity of using, and a comparison of primary economic mechanisms in order to guarantee the return of investments in the new construction and modernization of power generation capacity is shown. The method of calculating the tariff under the agreement of supply power capacity is analyzed. The study proved that the presence of an effective working mechanism of return on investment is a key element influencing the investment in new construction and modernization of power generation capacity. Also, it is shown that with the end of using agreement of supply power capacity, industry will face a significant reduction in investment. In this connection, it is recommended to speed up the formation of long-term capacity market, which involves the application of new investment incentives in the industry. The research results can be applied by investment banks, and other stakeholders as a methodological apparatus assessing investment and whether to participate in their financing.

  9. The choice of primary energy source including PV installation for providing electric energy to a public utility building - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomski, Bartosz; Ćwiek, Barbara; Mróz, Tomasz M.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents multicriteria decision aid analysis of the choice of PV installation providing electric energy to a public utility building. From the energy management point of view electricity obtained by solar radiation has become crucial renewable energy source. Application of PV installations may occur a profitable solution from energy, economic and ecologic point of view for both existing and newly erected buildings. Featured variants of PV installations have been assessed by multicriteria analysis based on ANP (Analytic Network Process) method. Technical, economical, energy and environmental criteria have been identified as main decision criteria. Defined set of decision criteria has an open character and can be modified in the dialog process between the decision-maker and the expert - in the present case, an expert in planning of development of energy supply systems. The proposed approach has been used to evaluate three variants of PV installation acceptable for existing educational building located in Poznań, Poland - the building of Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznań University of Technology. Multi-criteria analysis based on ANP method and the calculation software Super Decisions has proven to be an effective tool for energy planning, leading to the indication of the recommended variant of PV installation in existing and newly erected public buildings. Achieved results show prospects and possibilities of rational renewable energy usage as complex solution to public utility buildings.

  10. Sustaining high-energy orbits of bi-stable energy harvesters by attractor selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Janav P.; Arrieta, Andres F.

    2017-11-01

    Nonlinear energy harvesters have the potential to efficiently convert energy over a wide frequency range; however, difficulties in attaining and sustaining high-energy oscillations restrict their applicability in practical scenarios. In this letter, we propose an actuation methodology to switch the state of bi-stable harvesters from the low-energy intra-well configuration to the coexisting high-energy inter-well configuration by controlled phase shift perturbations. The strategy is designed to introduce a change in the system state without creating distinct metastable attractors by exploiting the basins of attraction of the coexisting stable attractors. Experimental results indicate that the proposed switching strategy yields a significant improvement in energy transduction capabilities, is highly economical, enabling the rapid recovery of energy spent in the disturbance, and can be practically implemented with widely used low-strain piezoelectric transducers.

  11. Electron clouds in high energy hadron accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Fedor

    2013-08-29

    The formation of electron clouds in accelerators operating with positrons and positively charge ions is a well-known problem. Depending on the parameters of the beam the electron cloud manifests itself differently. In this thesis the electron cloud phenomenon is studied for the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) conditions, and for the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-100 as a part of the FAIR complex in Darmstadt, Germany. Under the FAIR conditions the extensive use of slow extraction will be made. After the acceleration the beam will be debunched and continuously extracted to the experimental area. During this process, residual gas electrons can accumulate in the electric field of the beam. If this accumulation is not prevented, then at some point the beam can become unstable. Under the SPS and LHC conditions the beam is always bunched. The accumulation of electron cloud happens due to secondary electron emission. At the time when this thesis was being written the electron cloud was known to limit the maximum intensity of the two machines. During the operation with 25 ns bunch spacing, the electron cloud was causing significant beam quality deterioration. At moderate intensities below the instability threshold the electron cloud was responsible for the bunch energy loss. In the framework of this thesis it was found that the instability thresholds of the coasting beams with similar space charge tune shifts, emittances and energies are identical. First of their kind simulations of the effect of Coulomb collisions on electron cloud density in coasting beams were performed. It was found that for any hadron coasting beam one can choose vacuum conditions that will limit the accumulation of the electron cloud below the instability threshold. We call such conditions the ''good'' vacuum regime. In application to SIS-100 the design pressure 10{sup -12} mbar corresponds to the good vacuum regime. The transition to the bad vacuum

  12. High-frequency energy in singing and speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian Bruce

    While human speech and the human voice generate acoustical energy up to (and beyond) 20 kHz, the energy above approximately 5 kHz has been largely neglected. Evidence is accruing that this high-frequency energy contains perceptual information relevant to speech and voice, including percepts of quality, localization, and intelligibility. The present research was an initial step in the long-range goal of characterizing high-frequency energy in singing voice and speech, with particular regard for its perceptual role and its potential for modification during voice and speech production. In this study, a database of high-fidelity recordings of talkers was created and used for a broad acoustical analysis and general characterization of high-frequency energy, as well as specific characterization of phoneme category, voice and speech intensity level, and mode of production (speech versus singing) by high-frequency energy content. Directionality of radiation of high-frequency energy from the mouth was also examined. The recordings were used for perceptual experiments wherein listeners were asked to discriminate between speech and voice samples that differed only in high-frequency energy content. Listeners were also subjected to gender discrimination tasks, mode-of-production discrimination tasks, and transcription tasks with samples of speech and singing that contained only high-frequency content. The combination of these experiments has revealed that (1) human listeners are able to detect very subtle level changes in high-frequency energy, and (2) human listeners are able to extract significant perceptual information from high-frequency energy.

  13. High-energy-resolution monochromator for aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy/electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Ursin, Jonathan P; Bacon, Neil J; Corbin, George J; Dellby, Niklas; Hrncirik, Petr; Murfitt, Matthew F; Own, Christopher S; Szilagyi, Zoltan S

    2009-09-28

    An all-magnetic monochromator/spectrometer system for sub-30 meV energy-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the scanning transmission electron microscope is described. It will link the energy being selected by the monochromator to the energy being analysed by the spectrometer, without resorting to decelerating the electron beam. This will allow it to attain spectral energy stability comparable to systems using monochromators and spectrometers that are raised to near the high voltage of the instrument. It will also be able to correct the chromatic aberration of the probe-forming column. It should be able to provide variable energy resolution down to approximately 10 meV and spatial resolution less than 1 A.

  14. The diet quality index evaluates the adequacy of energy provided by dietary macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline MENDES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relationship between macronutrient intake adequacy and the national diet quality index score. Methods The study analyzed a representative sample of 1,662 individuals from the municipality of São Paulo who participated in a cross-sectional study called Health Survey-Capital (2008/2009. Two 24-hour recalls were collected. Habitual intake was determined by the Multiple Source Method. The Brazilian index was calculated as suggested, and macronutrient adequacy was given by the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations. A generalized linear model verified the relationship between the Brazilian index and macronutrient adequacy. All analyses with a descriptive level below 0.05 were considered significant. The analyses were performed by the software Stata 12.0, survey mode. Results The vast majority (91% of the population had inappropriate macronutrient intakes, and the total median Brazilian index score was 61.3 points (interquartile range=10.1. The total Brazilian index score of individuals with high lipid intake was worse than that of individuals with proper lipid intake (β=0,96; p=0,004, while those with high protein intake had a better score (β=1,10; p=0,003 than those with proper protein intake. Conclusion The revised Brazilian Healthy Eating Index assesses diet quality properly regarding high lipid intake, but it has some limitations regarding high protein intake according to the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations. New studies should investigate the possibility of adapting this index to the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations.

  15. Highly efficient distributed generation and high-capacity energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmes, Kas; Guerrero, Josep M.; Zhelev, Toshko

    2012-01-01

    and solar that deliver electricity to the grid. Solution directions are the development of smart grids, demand side management, virtual power plants and storage of electricity. These are directions that, rightly so, are already attracting a lot of attention and R&D funding. In this paper critical issues......With the growing amount of decentralized power production the design and operation of the grid has to be reconsidered. New problems include the two-way flow of electricity and maintaining the power balance given the increased amount of uncertain and fluctuating renewable energy sources like wind...... are identified and specified. However, we will also explore new solution directions based on an integrative approach as proposed by the Dutch Royal Academy of Science foresight committee on renewable energy conversions. These alternative solutions include flexible coproduction and local production of chemicals...

  16. High-energy photoproduction of neutral mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Charity, Tim

    1987-01-01

    This thesis presents results from the first full period of data-taking of the experiment WA69 at the Omega^'^ectrometer, CERN, Geneva. The experiment used a tagged photon beam of energy 60-180 GeV incident on a liquid hydrogen target to study photoproduction of hadronic states. The various components of the experiment are described, with particular emphasis on the electromagnetic calorimeters, and the associated offline software for event reconstruction and acceptance calculation. The performance of the outer calorimeter is discussed, and the pi^0 detection and reconstruction efficiency is examined by comparison with pi^{+/- } production. Searches for photoproduction of neutral meson states reveal a clear signal for the pi^0, eta^0 , and omega^0 mesons. The cross-section for elastic omega^0 production is estimated, and found to be consistent with the established value of 1 mub. The cross-section for inclusive pi^0 and eta^0 production is studied using the variable Feynman-x (x_{F }), and pi^0 production as a ...

  17. HiRadMat at CERN/SPS - A dedicated facility providing high intensity beam pulses to material samples

    CERN Multimedia

    Charitonidis, N; Efthymiopoulos, I

    2014-01-01

    HiRadMat (High Radiation to Materials), constructed in 2011, is a facility at CERN designed to provide high‐intensity pulsed beams to an irradiation area where material samples as well as accelerator component assemblies (e.g. vacuum windows, high power beam targets, collimators…) can be tested. The facility uses a 440 GeV proton beam extracted from the CERN SPS with a pulse length of up to 7.2 us, and with a maximum pulse energy of 3.4 MJ (3xE13 proton/pulse). In addition to protons, ion beams with energy of 440 GeV/charge and total pulse energy of 21 kJ can be provided. The beam parameters can be tuned to match the needs of each experiment. HiRadMat is not an irradiation facility where large doses on equipment can be accumulated. It is rather a test area designed to perform single pulse experiments to evaluate the effect of high‐intensity pulsed beams on materials or accelerator component assemblies in a controlled environment. The fa‐ cility is designed for a maximum of 1E16 protons per year, dist...

  18. Explanation for the low flux of high-energy astrophysical muon neutrinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakvasa, Sandip; Joshipura, Anjan; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2013-04-26

    There has been some concern about the unexpected paucity of cosmic high-energy muon neutrinos in detectors probing the energy region beyond 1 PeV. As a possible solution we consider the possibility that some exotic neutrino property is responsible for reducing the muon neutrino flux at high energies from distant sources; specifically, we consider (i) neutrino decay and (ii) neutrinos being pseudo-Dirac-particles. This would provide a mechanism for the reduction of high-energy muon events in the IceCube detector, for example.

  19. PREFACE: High Energy Particle Physics Workshop (HEPPW2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Alan S.; Mellado, B.

    2015-10-01

    The motivation for this workshop began with the discovery of the Higgs boson three years ago, and the realisation that many problems remain in particle physics, such as why there is more matter than anti-matter, better determining the still poorly measured parameters of the strong force, explaining possible sources for dark matter, naturalness etc. While the newly discovered Higgs boson seems to be compatible with the Standard Model, current experimental accuracy is far from providing a definitive statement with regards to the nature of this new particle. There is a lot of room for physics beyond the Standard Model to emerge in the exploration of the Higgs boson. Recent measurements in high-energy heavy ion collisions at the LHC have shed light on the complex dynamics that govern high-density quark-gluon interactions. An array of results from the ALICE collaboration have been highlighted in a recent issue of CERN courier. The physics program of high-energy heavy ion collisions promises to further unveil the intricacies of high-density quark-gluon plasma physics. The great topicality of high energy physics research has also seen a rapid increase in the number of researchers in South Africa pursuing such studies, both experimentally through the ATLAS and ALICE colliders at CERN, and theoretically. Young researchers and graduate students largely populate these research groups, with little experience in presenting their work, and few support structures (to their knowledge) to share experiences with. Whilst many schools and workshops have sought to educate these students on the theories and tools they will need to pursue their research, few have provided them with a platform to present their work. As such, this workshop discussed the various projects being pursued by graduate students and young researchers in South Africa, enabling them to develop networks for future collaboration and discussion. The workshop took place at the iThemba Laboratories - North facility, in

  20. High-energy gas fracturing in cased and perforated wellbores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuderman, J.F.

    1986-06-01

    A propellant-based technology, High-Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF), has been applied to fracturing through perforations in cased boreholes. HEGF is a tailored-pulse fracturing technique originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories for application in uncased, liquid-free gas wells in Appalachian Devonian shales. Because most oil and gas wells are liquid filled as well as cased and perforated, the potential impact of present research is significantly broader. A number of commercial tailored-pulse fracturing services, using a variety of explosives or propellants, are currently available. Present research provides valuable insight into phenomena that occur in those stimulations. The use of propellants that deflagrate or burn rather than detonate, as do high-order explosives, permits controlled buildup of pressure in the wellbore. The key to successful stimulation in cased and perforated wellbores is to control the pressure buildup of the combustion gases to maximize fracturing without destroying the casing. Eight experiments using cased and perforated wellbore were conducted in a tunnel complex at the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site, which provides a realistic in situ stress environment (4 to 10 MPa (600 to 1500 psi)) and provides access for mineback to directly observe fracturing obtained. Primary variables in the experiments include propellant burn rate and amount of propellant used, presence or absence of liquid in the wellbore, in situ stress orientation, and perforation diameter, density, and phasing. In general, the presence of liquid in the borehole results in a much faster pressure risetime and a lower peak pressure for the same propellant charge. Fracture surfaces proceed outward along lines of perforations as determined by phasing, then gradually turn toward the hydraulic fracture direction. 8 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Using hydropower to complement wind energy: a hybrid system to provide firm power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, O.A.; Borja, M.A.; Huacuz, J.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Morelos (Mexico). Energias No Convencionales

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of how wind power can be complemented by hydropower. A conceptual framework is provided for a hybrid power station that produces constant power output without the intermittent fluctuations inherent when using wind power. Two hypothetical facilities are considered as case studies. One of them is a hydropower plant located on the ''Presidente Benito Juarez'' dam in Jalapa del Marques, Oaxaca, Mexico. The other hypothetical facility is a wind farm located near ''La Venta's', an area in Juchitan, Oaxaca, Mexico. The wind-hydro-power system is a combined wind and hydro power plant in a region that is rich in both resources. The model shows that the hybrid plant could provide close to 20 MW of firm power to the electrical distribution system. On a techno-economic basis, we obtain the levelized production cost of the hybrid system. Taking into account two different discount rates of 7% and 10%, figures for levelized production cost are developed. (author)

  2. High Energy Gamma-rays from FR I Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, Marek

    2003-07-22

    Thanks to Hubble and Chandra telescopes, some of the large scale jets in extragalactic radio sources are now being observed at optical and X-ray frequencies. For the FR I objects the synchrotron nature of this emission is surely established, although a lot of uncertainties--connected for example with the particle acceleration processes involved--remain. In this paper we study production of high energy {gamma}-rays in FR I kiloparsec-scale jets by inverse-Compton emission of the synchrotron-emitting electrons. We consider different origin of seed photons contributing to the inverse-Compton scattering, including nuclear jet radiation as well as ambient, stellar and circumstellar emission of the host galaxies. We discuss how future detections or non-detections of the evaluated {gamma}-ray fluxes can provide constraints on the unknown large scale jet parameters, i.e. the magnetic field intensity and the jet Doppler factor. For the nearby sources Centaurus A and M 87, we find measurable fluxes of TeV photons resulting from synchrotron self-Compton process and from comptonization of the galactic photon fields, respectively. In the case of Centaurus A, we also find a relatively strong emission component due to comptonization of the nuclear blazar photons, which could be easily observed by GLAST at energy {approx} 10 GeV, providing important test for the unification of FR I sources with BL Lac objects.

  3. Optical fiber cable for transmission of high power laser energy over great distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Moxley, Joel F.; Koblick, Yeshaya

    2016-05-24

    There is provided a system and apparatus for the transmission of high power laser energy over great distances without substantial power loss and without the presence of stimulated Raman scattering. There is further provided systems and optical fiber cable configurations and optical fiber structures for the delivering high power laser energy over great distances to a tool or surface to perform an operation or work with the tool or upon the surface.

  4. High Energy Computed Tomographic Inspection of Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Picatinny scientists test body armor integrity, protect Soldiers’ lives,” http://www.army.mil/ article /94448, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, 2013. 2. Youngberg, J...The citation in this report of the names of commercial firms or commercially available products or services does not constitute official endorsement by...munitions and weapon systems. In many cases, the use of CT is overlooked or discounted due to its lack of use in high throughput production settings

  5. Electroweak splitting functions and high energy showering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junmou; Han, Tao; Tweedie, Brock

    2017-11-01

    We derive the electroweak (EW) collinear splitting functions for the Standard Model, including the massive fermions, gauge bosons and the Higgs boson. We first present the splitting functions in the limit of unbroken SU(2) L × U(1) Y and discuss their general features in the collinear and soft-collinear regimes. These are the leading contributions at a splitting scale ( k T ) far above the EW scale ( v). We then systematically incorporate EW symmetry breaking (EWSB), which leads to the emergence of additional "ultra-collinear" splitting phenomena and naive violations of the Goldstone-boson Equivalence Theorem. We suggest a particularly convenient choice of non-covariant gauge (dubbed "Goldstone Equivalence Gauge") that disentangles the effects of Goldstone bosons and gauge fields in the presence of EWSB, and allows trivial book-keeping of leading power corrections in v/ k T . We implement a comprehensive, practical EW showering scheme based on these splitting functions using a Sudakov evolution formalism. Novel features in the implementation include a complete accounting of ultra-collinear effects, matching between shower and decay, kinematic back-reaction corrections in multi-stage showers, and mixed-state evolution of neutral bosons ( γ/ Z/ h) using density-matrices. We employ the EW showering formalism to study a number of important physical processes at O (1-10 TeV) energies. They include (a) electroweak partons in the initial state as the basis for vector-boson-fusion; (b) the emergence of "weak jets" such as those initiated by transverse gauge bosons, with individual splitting probabilities as large as O (35%); (c) EW showers initiated by top quarks, including Higgs bosons in the final state; (d) the occurrence of O (1) interference effects within EW showers involving the neutral bosons; and (e) EW corrections to new physics processes, as illustrated by production of a heavy vector boson ( W ') and the subsequent showering of its decay products.

  6. Crystal Deflectors for High Energy Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, W

    2013-01-01

    The motion of charged particles entering a crystal at small angles with respect to a crystalline plane is strongly influenced by the average electric field of the ordered nuclei. For sufficiently small angles the particles can be captured in channeling states, thus performing quasi-harmonic oscillations in the potential well between the crystal planes. Channeled particles in a bent crystal are deflected along the bent planes of the crystal. This provides a powerful method to steer and control particle trajectories that has been investigated and occasionally exploited for some decades already.

  7. Synergy between low and high energy radical femtochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauduel, Y A, E-mail: yann.gauduel@ensta-paristech.fr [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee, CNRS UMR7639, Ecole Polytechnique ParisTech-ENS Techniques Avancees ParisTech, 91761 Palaiseau Cedex (France) and Radiation Biology MELUSYN Network, Armir-College de Polytechnique, Paris (France)

    2011-01-01

    The deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on integrated biological targets being dependent on the spatio-temporal distribution of short-lived radical processes, a thorough knowledge of these early events requires a real-time probing in the range 10{sup -15} - 10{sup -10} s. This manuscript review is focused on the synergy that exists between low (1-10 eV) and high (MeV) energy radiation femtochemistry (LERF, HERF respectively). The synergy remains crucial for the investigation of primary radical processes that take place within the prethermal regime of low energy secondary electrons. The quantum character of very-short lived electron in a prehydrated configuration provides a unique sub-nanometric probe to spatially explore some early radiation-induced biomolecular damage. This approach would foreshadow the development of innovative applications for spatio-temporal radiation biology such as, (i) a highly-selective pro-drug activation using well-defined quantum states of short-lived radicals, (ii) the real-time nanodosimetry in biologically relevant environments, and (iii) the ultrashort irradiation of living cells.

  8. Search for new physics in final states with a high energy electron and large missing transverse energy

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00345099

    The most successful and comprehensive theory describing the microcosm is the Standard Model of particle physics (SM). It comprises all known elementary particles and describes in high precision the basic processes of three of the four fundamental interactions. But still, not all experimental observations and theoretical challenges are covered. Many models exist that take the SM as a good approximation of natural phenomena in already discovered energy regions, but extend it in various ways. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) provides the opportunity to look into these high energy regions using proton-proton collisions at significantly higher center-of-mass energies than previous experiments. This dissertation searches for physics beyond the SM especially in final states with one highly energetic electron (respectively positron) and large missing transverse energy. With the data set recorded in 2012 by the ATLAS detector, a large multi-purpose detector making use of the LHC, the spectrum of the related combined ...

  9. Energy composition of high-energy neutral beams on the COMPASS tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitosinkova Klara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The COMPASS tokamak is equipped with two identical neutral beam injectors (NBI for additional plasma heating. They provide a beam of deuterium atoms with a power of up to ~(2 × 300 kW. We show that the neutral beam is not monoenergetic but contains several energy components. An accurate knowledge of the neutral beam power in each individual energy component is essential for a detailed description of the beam- -plasma interaction and better understanding of the NBI heating processes in the COMPASS tokamak. This paper describes the determination of individual energy components in the neutral beam from intensities of the Doppler-shifted Dα lines, which are measured by a high-resolution spectrometer viewing the neutral beam-line at the exit of NBI. Furthermore, the divergence of beamlets escaping single aperture of the last accelerating grid is deduced from the width of the Doppler-shifted lines. Recently, one of the NBI systems was modified by the removal of the Faraday copper shield from the ion source. The comparison of the beam composition and the beamlet divergence before and after this modification is also presented.

  10. High Energy Neutron Induced Gamma Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D A; Johnson, M; Navratil, P

    2007-09-28

    N Division has an interest in improving the physics and accuracy of the gamma data it provides to its customers. It was asked to look into major gamma producing reactions for 14 MeV incident neutrons for several low-Z materials and determine whether LLNL's processed data files faithfully represent the current state of experimental and theoretical knowledge for these reactions. To address this, we surveyed the evaluations of the requested materials, made recommendations for the next ENDL release and noted isotopes that will require further experimental study. This process uncovered several major problems in our translation and processing of the ENDF formatted evaluations, most of which have been resolved.

  11. Custom VLSI circuits for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, S. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1998-06-01

    This article provides a brief guide to integrated circuits, including their design, fabrication, testing, radiation hardness, and packaging. It was requested by the Panel on Instrumentation, Innovation, and Development of the International Committee for Future Accelerators, as one of a series of articles on instrumentation for future experiments. Their original request emphasized a description of available custom circuits and a set of recommendations for future developments. That has been done, but while traps that stop charge in solid-state devices are well known, those that stop physicists trying to develop the devices are not. Several years spent dodging the former and developing the latter made clear the need for a beginner`s guide through the maze, and that is the main purpose of this text.

  12. MODEL REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS TO PROVIDE ENERGY AND OTHER ATTRIBUTES FROM AN OFFSHORE WIND POWER PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremy Firestone; Dawn Kurtz Crompton

    2011-10-22

    This document provides a model RFP for new generation. The 'base' RFP is for a single-source offshore wind RFP. Required modifications are noted should a state or utility seek multi-source bids (e.g., all renewables or all sources). The model is premised on proposals meeting threshold requirements (e.g., a MW range of generating capacity and a range in terms of years), RFP issuer preferences (e.g., likelihood of commercial operation by a date certain, price certainty, and reduction in congestion), and evaluation criteria, along with a series of plans (e.g., site, environmental effects, construction, community outreach, interconnection, etc.). The Model RFP places the most weight on project risk (45%), followed by project economics (35%), and environmental and social considerations (20%). However, if a multi-source RFP is put forward, the sponsor would need to either add per-MWh technology-specific, life-cycle climate (CO2), environmental and health impact costs to bid prices under the 'Project Economics' category or it should increase the weight given to the 'Environmental and Social Considerations' category.

  13. High-fidelity multiactor emergency preparedness training for patient care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lancer A; Maddux, P Tim; Schnellmann, Jennifer; Hayes, Lauren; Tolley, Jessica; Wahlquist, Amy E

    2012-01-01

    Providing comprehensive emergency preparedness training (EPT) for patient care providers is important to the future success of emergency preparedness operations in the United States. Disasters are rare, complex events involving many patients and environmental factors that are difficult to reproduce in a training environment. Few EPT programs possess both competency-driven goals and metrics to measure life-saving performance during a multiactor simulated disaster. The development of an EPT curriculum for patient care providers-provided first to medical students, then to a group of experienced disaster medical providers-that recreates a simulated clinical disaster using a combination of up to 15 live actors and six high-fidelity human simulators is described. Specifically, the authors detail the Center for Health Professional Training and Emergency Response's (CHPTER's) 1-day clinical EPT course including its organization, core competency development, medical student self-evaluation, and course assessment. Two 1-day courses hosted by CHPTER were conducted in a university simulation center. Students who completed the course improved their overall knowledge and comfort level with EPT skills. The authors believe this is the first published description of a curriculum method that combines high-fidelity, multiactor scenarios to measure the life-saving performance of patient care providers utilizing a clinical disaster scenario with > 10 patients at once. A larger scale study, or preferably a multicenter trial, is needed to further study the impact of this curriculum and its potential to protect provider and patient lives.

  14. Scaling to Ultra-High Intensities by High-Energy Petawatt Beam Combining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siders, C W; Jovanovic, I; Crane, J; Rushford, M; Lucianetti, A; Barty, C J

    2006-06-23

    The output pulse energy from a single-aperture high-energy laser amplifier (e.g. fusion lasers such as NIF and LMJ) are critically limited by a number of factors including optical damage, which places an upper bound on the operating fluence; parasitic gain, which limits together with manufacturing costs the maximum aperture size to {approx} 40-cm; and non-linear phase effects which limits the peak intensity. For 20-ns narrow band pulses down to transform-limited sub-picosecond pulses, these limiters combine to yield 10-kJ to 1-kJ maximum pulse energies with up to petawatt peak power. For example, the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) project at NIF is designed to provide kilo-Joule pulses from 0.75-ps to 50-ps, with peak focused intensity above 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. Using such a high-energy petawatt (HEPW) beamline as a modular unit, they discuss large-scale architectures for coherently combining multiple HEPW pulses from independent apertures, called CAPE (Coherent Addition of Pulses for Energy), to significantly increase the peak achievable focused intensity. Importantly, the maximum intensity achievable with CAPE increases non-linearly. Clearly, the total integrated energy grows linearly with the number of apertures N used. However, as CAPE combines beams in the focal plane by increasing the angular convergence to focus (i.e. the f-number decreases), the foal spot diameter scales inversely with N. Hence the peak intensity scales as N{sup 2}. Using design estimates for the focal spot size and output pulse energy (limited by damage fluence on the final compressor gratings) versus compressed pulse duration in the ARC system, Figure 2 shows the scaled focal spot intensity and total energy for various CAPE configurations from 1,2,4, ..., up to 192 total beams. They see from the fixture that the peak intensity for event modest 8 to 16 beam combinations reaches the 10{sup 21} to 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} regime. With greater number of apertures, or with

  15. High-Performance Energy Applications and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Barton [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Paradyn project has a history of developing algorithms, techniques, and software that push the cutting edge of tool technology for high-end computing systems. Under this funding, we are working on a three-year agenda to make substantial new advances in support of new and emerging Petascale systems. The overall goal for this work is to address the steady increase in complexity of these petascale systems. Our work covers two key areas: (1) The analysis, instrumentation and control of binary programs. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the Dyninst API tool kits. (2) Infrastructure for building tools and applications at extreme scale. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the MRNet scalability framework. Note that work done under this funding is closely related to work done under a contemporaneous grant, “Foundational Tools for Petascale Computing”, SC0003922/FG02-10ER25940, UW PRJ27NU.

  16. High energy electromagnetic particle transportation on the GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canal, P. [Fermilab; Elvira, D. [Fermilab; Jun, S. Y. [Fermilab; Kowalkowski, J. [Fermilab; Paterno, M. [Fermilab; Apostolakis, J. [CERN

    2014-01-01

    We present massively parallel high energy electromagnetic particle transportation through a finely segmented detector on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). Simulating events of energetic particle decay in a general-purpose high energy physics (HEP) detector requires intensive computing resources, due to the complexity of the geometry as well as physics processes applied to particles copiously produced by primary collisions and secondary interactions. The recent advent of hardware architectures of many-core or accelerated processors provides the variety of concurrent programming models applicable not only for the high performance parallel computing, but also for the conventional computing intensive application such as the HEP detector simulation. The components of our prototype are a transportation process under a non-uniform magnetic field, geometry navigation with a set of solid shapes and materials, electromagnetic physics processes for electrons and photons, and an interface to a framework that dispatches bundles of tracks in a highly vectorized manner optimizing for spatial locality and throughput. Core algorithms and methods are excerpted from the Geant4 toolkit, and are modified and optimized for the GPU application. Program kernels written in C/C++ are designed to be compatible with CUDA and OpenCL and with the aim to be generic enough for easy porting to future programming models and hardware architectures. To improve throughput by overlapping data transfers with kernel execution, multiple CUDA streams are used. Issues with floating point accuracy, random numbers generation, data structure, kernel divergences and register spills are also considered. Performance evaluation for the relative speedup compared to the corresponding sequential execution on CPU is presented as well.

  17. DC microgrids with energy storage systems and demand response for providing support to frequency regulation of electrical power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basic, Hrvoje; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandzic, Hrvoje

    2017-01-01

    Frequency regulation of electric power systems efficiency depends on response time and on power reserves for frequency regulation. As integration of non-dispatchable renewable generation in the power system results with increased need for power reserves from fast responding power units, the idea...... of using aggregated DC microgrids in frequency regulation is presented. Model proposed in this work is based on using battery energy storage, combined with demand response for achieving efficient usage of battery energy storage. It is shown that large number of DC microgrids can provide sufficient....

  18. High-energy drinks may provoke aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonjev, Zivojin S; Bala, Gustav

    2013-05-01

    High-energy drinks have become extremely popular after Red Bull's promotion at 1987 in Austria and 1997 in the United States. Since then, we witnessed spectacular increase in different brands, caffeine content and market consumption all over the world. However, there are no reports published in the scientific literature related with detrimental side effects after heavy consumption of high-energy drinks. We report a series of three high-risk cardiovascular patients who had aortic dissection (De Bakey type I and II) following significant consumption of high-energy drinks. All of them required emergency surgical procedure and were remaining stable after surgery. We propose that uncontrolled consumption of high-energy drinks, especially in patients with underlying heart disease, could provoke potentially lethal cardiovascular events as well as acute aortic dissection.

  19. High Energy Ion Acceleration by Extreme Laser Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-14

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0015 High energy ion acceleration by extreme laser radiation pressure Paul McKenna UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE VIZ ROYAL COLLEGE...MM-YYYY)   14-03-2017 2. REPORT TYPE  Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To)  01 May 2013 to 31 Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High energy ion acceleration...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Page 1 of 1FORM SF 298 3/15/2017https://livelink.ebs.afrl.af.mil/livelink/llisapi.dll 1 HIGH ENERGY ION ACCELERATION BY

  20. High-Energy-Density Physics at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane, O. A.; Herrmann, M. C.

    2017-10-01

    At modern laser facilities, energy densities ranging from 1 Mbar to many hundreds of gigabars can regularly be achieved. These high-energy states of matter last for mere moments, measured in nanoseconds to tens of picoseconds, but during those times numerous high-precision instruments can be employed, revealing remarkable compressed matter physics, radiation-hydrodynamics physics, laser-matter interaction physics, and nuclear physics processes. We review the current progress of high-energy-density physics at the National Ignition Facility and describe the underlying physical principles.

  1. Multi-energy ion implantation from high-intensity laser

    OpenAIRE

    Cutroneo Mariapompea; Torrisi Lorenzo; Ullschmied Jiri; Dudzak Roman

    2016-01-01

    The laser-matter interaction using nominal laser intensity above 1015 W/cm2 generates in vacuum non-equilibrium plasmas accelerating ions at energies from tens keV up to hundreds MeV. From thin targets, using the TNSA regime, plasma is generated in the forward direction accelerating ions above 1 MeV per charge state and inducing high-ionization states. Generally, the ion energies follow a Boltzmann-like distribution characterized by a cutoff at high energy and by a Coulomb-shift towards high ...

  2. Parameterized neural networks for high-energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre; Cranmer, Kyle; Faucett, Taylor; Sadowski, Peter; Whiteson, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    We investigate a new structure for machine learning classifiers built with neural networks and applied to problems in high-energy physics by expanding the inputs to include not only measured features but also physics parameters. The physics parameters represent a smoothly varying learning task, and the resulting parameterized classifier can smoothly interpolate between them and replace sets of classifiers trained at individual values. This simplifies the training process and gives improved performance at intermediate values, even for complex problems requiring deep learning. Applications include tools parameterized in terms of theoretical model parameters, such as the mass of a particle, which allow for a single network to provide improved discrimination across a range of masses. This concept is simple to implement and allows for optimized interpolatable results.

  3. The High Energy Asymptotics of Scattering Processes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enberg, Rikard; Golec-Biernat, K.; Munier, S.

    2005-05-12

    High energy scattering in the QCD parton model was recently shown to be a reaction-diffusion process, and thus to lie in the universality class of the stochastic Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation. We recall that the latter appears naturally in the context of the parton model. We provide a thorough numerical analysis of the mean field approximation, given in QCD by the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. In the framework of a simple stochastic toy model that captures the relevant features of QCD, we discuss and illustrate the universal properties of such stochastic models. We investigate in particular the validity of the mean field approximation and how it is broken by fluctuations. We find that the mean field approximation is a good approximation in the initial stages of the evolution in rapidity.

  4. Parameterized Machine Learning for High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Baldi, Pierre; Faucett, Taylor; Sadowski, Peter; Whiteson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a new structure for machine learning classifiers applied to problems in high-energy physics by expanding the inputs to include not only measured features but also physics parameters. The physics parameters represent a smoothly varying learning task, and the resulting parameterized classifier can smoothly interpolate between them and replace sets of classifiers trained at individual values. This simplifies the training process and gives improved performance at intermediate values, even for complex problems requiring deep learning. Applications include tools parameterized in terms of theoretical model parameters, such as the mass of a particle, which allow for a single network to provide improved discrimination across a range of masses. This concept is simple to implement and allows for optimized interpolatable results.

  5. Parameterized neural networks for high-energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, Pierre; Sadowski, Peter [University of California, Department of Computer Science, Irvine, CA (United States); Cranmer, Kyle [NYU, Department of Physics, New York, NY (United States); Faucett, Taylor; Whiteson, Daniel [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We investigate a new structure for machine learning classifiers built with neural networks and applied to problems in high-energy physics by expanding the inputs to include not only measured features but also physics parameters. The physics parameters represent a smoothly varying learning task, and the resulting parameterized classifier can smoothly interpolate between them and replace sets of classifiers trained at individual values. This simplifies the training process and gives improved performance at intermediate values, even for complex problems requiring deep learning. Applications include tools parameterized in terms of theoretical model parameters, such as the mass of a particle, which allow for a single network to provide improved discrimination across a range of masses. This concept is simple to implement and allows for optimized interpolatable results. (orig.)

  6. High-energy nuclear optics of polarized particles

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, Vladimir G

    2012-01-01

    The various phenomena caused by refraction and diffraction of polarized elementary particles in matter have opened up a new research area in the particle physics: nuclear optics of polarized particles. Effects similar to the well-known optical phenomena such as birefringence and Faraday effects, exist also in particle physics, though the particle wavelength is much less than the distance between atoms of matter. Current knowledge of the quasi-optical effects, which exist for all particles in any wavelength range (and energies from low to extremely high), will enable us to investigate different properties of interacting particles (nuclei) in a new aspect. This pioneering book will provide detailed accounts of quasi-optical phenomena in the particle polarization, and will interest physicists and professionals in experimental particle physics.

  7. High-Energy Ion Linacs Based on Spoke Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Shephard, K W; Ostromov, P N

    2003-01-01

    The applicability of superconducting TEM-class spoke cavities to high-energy ion linacs is discussed, and detailed designs for two TEM-class, triple-spoke-loaded superconducting niobium resonant cavities are presented. The 345 MHz cavities have a velocity range of 0.4provide broader velocity acceptance, more accelerating voltage per cavity, reduced heat load, operation at 4.5 K, and increased longitudinal acceptance. Application to the proposed RIA driver linac is discussed in detail.

  8. High-current pulses from inductive energy stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipf, S. L.

    1981-11-01

    Superconducting inductive energy stores can be used for high power pulse supplies if a suitable current multiplication scheme is used. The concept of an inductive Marx generator is superior to a transformer. A third scheme, a variable flux linkage device, is suggested; in multiplying current it also compresses energy. Its function is in many ways analogous to that of a horsewhip. Superconductor limits indicate that peak power levels of TW can be reached for stored energies above 1 MJ.

  9. Robust Energy Management for Microgrids With High-Penetration Renewables

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Gatsis, Nikolaos; Georgios B. Giannakis

    2012-01-01

    Due to its reduced communication overhead and robustness to failures, distributed energy management is of paramount importance in smart grids, especially in microgrids, which feature distributed generation (DG) and distributed storage (DS). Distributed economic dispatch for a microgrid with high renewable energy penetration and demand-side management operating in grid-connected mode is considered in this paper. To address the intrinsically stochastic availability of renewable energy sources (...

  10. A time of flight detector for high energy heavy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z.; O`Connor, D.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    As a commonly used method to measure the energy of a particle with known mass, the flight time of the particle travelling over a certain distance is measured. A detector based on this principle is called a time-of-flight (TOF) detector which has attracted interests constantly during the last 15 years. For high energy heavy particle energy detection, TOF detector is an appropriated choice and such a system, developed recently, is described in this paper. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  11. High-Energy Emission From Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.; Usov, Vladimir V.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray and gamma-ray spectrum of rotation-powered millisecond pulsars is investigated in a model for acceleration and pair cascades on open field lines above the polar caps. Although these pulsars have low surface magnetic fields, their short periods allow them to have large magnetospheric potential drops, but the majority do not produce sufficient pairs to completely screen the accelerating electric field. In these sources, the primary and secondary electrons continue to accelerate to high altitude and their Lorentz factors are limited by curvature and synchrotron radiation reaction. The accelerating particles maintain high Lorentz factors and undergo cyclotron resonant absorption of radio emission, that produces and maintains a large pitch angle, resulting in a strong synchrotron component. The resulting spectra consist of several distinct components: curvature radiation from primary electrons dominating from 1 - 100 GeV, synchrotron radiation from primary and secondary electrons dominating up to about 100 MeV, and much weaker inverse-Compton radiation from primary electrons a t 0.1 - 1 TeV. We find that the relative size of these components depends on pulsar period, period derivative, and neutron star mass and radius with the level of the synchrotron component also depending sensitively on the radio emission properties. This model is successful in describing the observed X-ray and gamma-ray spectrum of PSR J0218+4232 as synchrotron radiation, peaking around 100 MeV and extending up to a turnover around several GeV. The predicted curvature radiation components from a number of millisecond pulsars, as well as the collective emission from the millisecond pulsars in globular clusters, should be detectable with AGILE and GLAST. We also discuss a hidden population of X-ray-quiet and radio-quiet millisecond pulsars which have evolved below the pair death line, some of which may be detectable by telescopes sensitive above 1 GeV. Subject headings: pulsars: general

  12. Provider knowledge of trivalent inactivated and high-dose influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewell, Chad; Wright, Patty W; Talbot, H Keipp

    2014-10-21

    The objective of this study was to assess provider knowledge about trivalent inactivated and high dose influenza vaccines. Hence, a 20-item survey was distributed to providers within the Internal Medicine department at an urban academic medical center. Two hundred and eighty-one (24.5%) providers responded. The correct response rate was 63.2%. The highest performing subspecialties were infectious diseases (80.5%), endocrinology (69.2%), and pulmonary (68%). Those who received an influenza vaccine during the most recent season scored significantly higher than those who did not (63.6% vs. 43.6%, p=.001). Areas where respondents did poorly included questions pertaining to contraindications to immunizations (27.4%), common adverse events after immunization (29.2%), target antigen (73.5%), number of strains in the trivalent inactivated vaccine (62.9%), and time to immunity (61.4%). High dose vaccine knowledge was poor, with 37% of providers unaware of its existence. Significant gaps in provider knowledge exist regarding both trivalent inactivated and high dose influenza vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Providing wireless bandwidth for high-speed rail operations : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This project examined the possibility of providing wireless communication for train control systems on American high-speed trains. In this : study, the key issue is that the frequencies allocated for rail operations in the U.S. and the frequencies us...

  14. Providing high-quality HIV care in a deeply rural setting – the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Providing high-quality HIV care in a deeply rural setting – the Zithulele experience. C Young, B Gaunt. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/sajhivmed.1035 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  15. High Voltage in Noble Liquids for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebel, B. [Fermilab; Bernard, E. [Yale U.; Faham, C. H. [LBL, Berkeley; Ito, T. M. [Los Alamos; Lundberg, B. [Maryland U.; Messina, M. [Columbia U.; Monrabal, F. [Valencia U., IFIC; Pereverzev, S. P. [LLNL, Livermore; Resnati, F. [Zurich, ETH; Rowson, P. C. [SLAC; Soderberg, M. [Fermilab; Strauss, T. [Bern U.; Tomas, A. [Imperial Coll., London; Va' vra, J. [SLAC; Wang, H. [UCLA

    2014-08-22

    A workshop was held at Fermilab November 8-9, 2013 to discuss the challenges of using high voltage in noble liquids. The participants spanned the fields of neutrino, dark matter, and electric dipole moment physics. All presentations at the workshop were made in plenary sessions. This document summarizes the experiences and lessons learned from experiments in these fields at developing high voltage systems in noble liquids.

  16. Indonesian residential high rise buildings: A life cycle energy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utama, Agya; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2009-11-15

    This study evaluates the effect of building envelopes on the life cycle energy consumption of high rise residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia. For high rise residential buildings, the enclosures contribute 10-50% of the total building cost, 14-17% of the total material mass and 20-30% of the total heat gain. The direct as well as indirect influence of the envelope materials plays an important role in the life cycle energy consumption of buildings. The initial embodied energy of typical double wall and single wall envelopes for high residential buildings is 79.5 GJ and 76.3 GJ, respectively. Over an assumed life span of 40 years, double walls have better energy performance than single walls, 283 GJ versus 480 GJ, respectively. Material selection, which depends not only on embodied energy but also thermal properties, should, therefore, play a crucial role during the design of buildings. (author)

  17. Cosmogenic neutrinos and ultra-high energy cosmic ray models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisio, R.; Petrera, S. [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Boncioli, D.; Grillo, A.F. [INFN/Laboratori Nazionali Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Di Matteo, A. [INFN and Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L' Aquila, L' Aquila (Italy); Salamida, F., E-mail: aloisio@arcetri.astro.it, E-mail: denise.boncioli@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: armando.dimatteo@aquila.infn.it, E-mail: aurelio.grillo@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: sergio.petrera@aquila.infn.it, E-mail: salamida@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay (IPNO), Université Paris 11, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay (France)

    2015-10-01

    We use an updated version of SimProp, a Monte Carlo simulation scheme for the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, to compute cosmogenic neutrino fluxes expected on Earth in various scenarios. These fluxes are compared with the newly detected IceCube events at PeV energies and with recent experimental limits at EeV energies of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This comparison allows us to draw some interesting conclusions about the source models for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We will show how the available experimental observations are almost at the level of constraining such models, mainly in terms of the injected chemical composition and cosmological evolution of sources. The results presented here will also be important in the evaluation of the discovery capabilities of the future planned ultra-high energy cosmic ray and neutrino observatories.

  18. Study of High Energy Positron Annihilation in GEANT4

    CERN Document Server

    Chikuma, Naruhiro

    2014-01-01

    A high energy positron may annihilate with an electron in atoms not only into two photons, but also into muon pairs or hadrons if the energy is over the energy threshold, 43.69 GeV in laboratory frame with electrons at rest. This report shows modication of high energy electromagnetic processes in GEANT4(version 10.01.b01) in order to include these annihilation processes properly, validation of GEANT4 cross-sections of these processes by theoretical calculation, and the results of simulation for high energy processes in a simple setup. As a results of simulation, both of annihilation to muon pairs and to hadrons happen by the probability of 10-6 to 10-5.

  19. ELABORATION OF HIGH-VOLTAGE PULSE INSTALLATIONS AND PROVIDING THEIR OPERATION PROTECTIVE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Hashimov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents design engineering methods for the high-voltage pulse installations of technological purpose for disinfection of drinking water, sewage, and edible liquids by high field micro- and nanosecond pulsing exposure. Designing potentialities are considered of the principal elements of the high-voltage part and the discharge circuit of the installations towards assuring the best efficient on-load utilization of the source energy and safe operation of the high-voltage equipment. The study shows that for disinfection of drinking water and sewage it is expedient to apply microsecond pulse actions causing the electrohydraulic effect in aqueous media with associated complex of physical processes (ultraviolet emission, generation of ozone and atomic oxygen, mechanical compression waves, etc. having detrimental effect on life activity of the microorganisms. In case of disinfecting edible liquids it is recommended to use the nanosecond pulses capable of straight permeating the biological cell nucleus, inactivating it. Meanwhile, the nutritive and biological values of the foodstuffs are saved and their organoleptic properties are improved. It is noted that in elaboration process of high-frequency pulse installations special consideration should be given to issues of the operating personnel safety discipline and securing conditions for the entire installation uninterrupted performance. With this objective in view the necessary requirements should be fulfilled on shielding the high- and low-voltage installation parts against high-frequency electromagnetic emissions registered by special differential sensors. Simultaneously, the abatement measures should be applied on the high-voltage equipment operational noise level. The authors offer a technique for noise abatement to admissible levels (lower than 80 dB A by means of coating the inside surface with shielded enclosure of densely-packed abutting sheets of porous electro-acoustic insulating

  20. Physics of Nuclear Collisions at High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwa, Rudolph C. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2012-05-01

    A wide range of problems has been investigated in the research program during the period of this grant. Although the major effort has been in the subject of heavy-ion collisions, we have also studied problems in biological and other physical systems. The method of analysis used in reducing complex data in multiparticle production to simple descriptions can also be applied to the study of complex systems of very different nature. Phase transition is an important phenomenon in many areas of physics, and for heavy-ion collisions we study the fluctuations of multiplicities at the critical point. Human brain activities as revealed in EEG also involve fluctuations in time series, and we have found that our experience enables us to find the appropriate quantification of the fluctuations in ways that can differentiate stroke and normal subjects. The main topic that characterizes the research at Oregon in heavy-ion collisions is the recombination model for the treatment of the hadronization process. We have avoided the hydrodynamical model partly because there is already a large community engaged in it, but more significantly we have found the assumption of rapid thermalization unconvincing. Recent results in studying LHC physics lead us to provide more evidence that shower partons are very important even at low p_T, but are ignored by hydro. It is not easy to work in an environment where the conventional wisdom regards our approach as being incorrect because it does not adhere to the standard paradigm. But that is just what a vibrant research community needs: unconventional approach may find evidences that can challenge the orthodoxy. An example is the usual belief that elliptic flow in fluid dynamics gives rise to azimuthal anisotropy. We claim that it is only sufficient but not necessary. With more data from LHC and more independent thinkers working on the subject what is sufficient as a theory may turn out to be incorrect in reality. Another area of investigation that

  1. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years

  2. Crack formation and fracture energy of normal and high strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. The crack path through composite materials such as concrete depends on the mechanical interaction of inclusions with the cement-based matrix. Fracture energy depends on the deviations of a real crack from an idealized crack plane. Fracture energy and strain softening of normal, high strength, and self- ...

  3. On the bremsstrahlung background correction to the high-energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A methodology for bremsstrahlung (BS) background correction to extract a true Compton profile in high-energy Compton scattering experiments is presented. The BS background profiles for Hg, computed within the Born approximation, are estimated for different values of incident energy. It is seen for the first time that the BS ...

  4. High energy astrophysical neutrino flux and modified dispersion relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alba, J. L. Bazo; Bustamante, M.; Gago, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the interest in searches for violation of CPT invariance, we study its possible effects in the flavour ratios of high-energy neutrinos coming from cosmic accelerators. In particular, we focus on the effect of an energy independent new physics contribution to the neutrino flavour osci...

  5. On the bremsstrahlung background correction to the high-energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A methodology for bremsstrahlung (BS) background correction to extract a true Compton profile in high-energy Compton scattering experiments is presented. The. BS background profiles for Hg, computed within the Born approximation, are estimated for different values of incident energy. It is seen for the first time ...

  6. Working group report: High energy and collider physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Rishikesh Vaidya20. 1Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005, India ... The projects undertaken in the working group I on high energy and collider physics can be classified into (i) Higgs ...... lous couplings for realistic polarization and integrated luminosity at a design LC energy of √s = 500 GeV.

  7. High Energy Charged Particles in Space at One Astronomical Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feynman, J.; Gabriel, S. B.

    1995-01-01

    Single event effects and many other spacecraft anomalies are caused by positively charged high energy particles impinging on the vehicle and its component parts. Reviewed here are the current knowledge of the interplanetary particle environment in the energy ranges that are most important for these effects. State-of-the-art engineering models are briefly described along with comments on the future work required.

  8. High Energy Studies of Astrophysical Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Lia Racquel

    Astrophysical dust---any condensed matter ranging from tens of atoms to micron sized grains---accounts for about one third of the heavy elements produced in stars and disseminated into space. These tiny pollutants are responsible for producing the mottled appearance in the spray of light we call the "Milky Way." However these seemingly inert particles play a strong role in the physics of the interstellar medium, aiding star and planet formation, and perhaps helping to guide galaxy evolution. Most dust grains are transparent to X-ray light, leaving a signature of atomic absorption, but also scattering the light over small angles. Bright X-ray objects serendipitously situated behind large columns of dust and gas provide a unique opportunity to study the dust along the line of sight. I focus primarily on X-ray scattering through dust, which produces a diffuse halo image around a central point source. Such objects have been observed around X-ray bright Galactic binaries and extragalactic objects that happen to shine through the plane of the Milky Way. I use the Chandra X-ray Observatory, a space-based laboratory operated by NASA, which has imaging resolution ideal for studying X-ray scattering halos. I examine several bright X-ray objects with dust-free sight lines to test their viability as templates and develop a parametric model for the Chandra HETG point spread function (PSF). The PSF describes the instrument's imaging response to a point source, an understanding of which is necessary for properly measuring the surface brightness of X-ray scattering halos. I use an HETG observation of Cygnus X-3, one of the brightest objects available in the Chandra archive, to derive a dust grain size distribution. There exist degenerate solutions for the dust scattering halo, but with the aid of Bayesian analytics I am able to apply prior knowledge about the Cyg X-3 sight line to measure the relative abundance of dust in intervening Milky Way spiral arms. I also demonstrate how

  9. Search for Quarks in High-Energy Neutrino Interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a search for quarks produced in high energy neutrino interactions. Neutrino interactions take place in a 23-ton lead target and are recognized by one or more particles crossing the counter hodoscopes S1 and S2, together with the absence of an incident particle signal in the initial veto counter V^0.\\\\ \\\\ The lead is viewed by an avalanche chamber to measure the specific ionization of the charged secondaries produced in the @n-interaction with high accuracy even in jet-like events, and by a series of two pairs of scintillation counter hodoscopes (ST1, ST2). The latter provide time-of-flight measurements and dE/dx measurements for a fast analysis in low and medium multiplicity provide a trigger for the chamber. \\\\ \\\\ In order to reduce the background in the set-up, very low momentum particles (mainly due to cascading processes in the target) are separated out by a @= 1 T.m magnet placed behind the target. \\\\ \\\\ A system of wire chambers W1, W2, which register both the position and the time at...

  10. Evaluation of energy response of neutron rem monitor applied to high-energy accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshihiro; Harada, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    A neutron rem monitor was newly developed for applying to the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) that is under construction as a joint project between the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. To measure the dose rate accurately for wide energy range of neutrons from thermal to high-energy region, the neutron rem monitor was fabricated by adding a lead breeder layer to a conventional neutron rem monitor. The energy response of the monitor was evaluated by using neutron transport calculations for the energy range from thermal to 150 MeV. For verifying the results, the response was measured at neutron fields for the energy range from thermal to 65 MeV. The comparisons between the energy response and dose conversion coefficients show that the newly developed neutron rem monitor has a good performance in energy response up to 150 MeV, suggesting that the present study offered prospects of a practical fabrication of the rem monitor applicable to the high intensity proton accelerator facility. (author)

  11. Overview. Department of High Energy Physics. Section 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coghen, T. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The activities of Department of High Energy Physics in 1994 have been presented. They cover a variety of problems of experimental and theoretical high energy elementary particle physics: hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (mainly characteristics of particle production , including heavy quark physics), e{sup +} e{sup -} interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also evaluations of radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles.Research on detectors and development of apparatus for high energy physics experiments at future accelerators such as LHC or RHIC were also carried out. The short information about personnel employed in the Department, seminars, publication, conferences and reports is also given.

  12. The role of technology in high-energy research

    CERN Document Server

    Carreras, Rafel

    1974-01-01

    A brief survey of the activities of CERN is presented, and examples of technological problems occurring in the performance of high-energy physics experiments are given. The main fields discussed are: acceleration, production of particles, detectors, and data handling.

  13. Theoretical high energy physics research at the University of Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, J.L.; Martinec, E.J.; Sachs, R.G.

    1990-09-01

    This report discusses research being done at the University of Chicago in High Energy Physics. Some topic covered are: CP violation; intermediate vector bosons; string models; supersymmetry; and rare decay of kaons. (LSP)

  14. Final Report. Research in Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greensite, Jeffrey P. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States); Golterman, Maarten F.L. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Grant-supported research in theoretical high-energy physics, conducted in the period 1992-2015 is briefly described, and a full listing of published articles result from those research activities is supplied.

  15. Realizing High-Performance Buildings; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-02

    High-performance buildings (HPBs) are exceptional examples of both design and practice. Their energy footprints are small, and these are buildings that people want to work in because of their intelligent structure, operations, and coincident comfort. However, the operation of most buildings, even ones that are properly constructed and commissioned at the start, can deviate significantly from the original design intent over time, particularly due to control system overrides and growing plug and data center loads. With early planning for systems such as submetering and occupant engagement tools, operators can identify and remedy the problems. This guide is a primer for owners and owners’ representatives who are pursuing HPBs. It describes processes that have been successful in the planning, procurement, and operation of HPBs with exceptional energy efficiency. Much of the guidance offered results from a series of semi-structured conference calls with a technical advisory group of 15 owners and operators of prominent HPBs in the United States. The guide provides a prescription for planning, achieving, and maintaining an HPB. Although the guide focuses on the operations stage of buildings, many of the operations practices are specified during the planning stage.

  16. Energy balance in high-power CO2 laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bello, Umberto; Rivela, Cristina; Cantello, Maichi; Penasa, Mauro

    1991-10-01

    The laser energy impinging on a metal workpiece is partially absorbed and partially reflected by the material surface. This work is aimed at gaining a better insight into the energy balance of the process, and it can also provide the correct input for process modeling and the optimum choice of parameters for increasing welding efficiency. Measurements of the absorption coefficient were made using platinum-platinum rhodium thermocouples which monitored the temperature rise. The radiation backscattered by the workpiece or plasma plume was also recorded, and tests were performed to measure the total amount of material lost by evaporation during laser welding. All the tests were performed on austenitic stainless steel. The resulting absorption curves show different behavior at low or high speed and this can be explained only by taking into account the influence on the process of both the size and inclination of the keyhole. To conserve the keyhole, the interaction process must be rapidly interrupted so as to freeze the molten material and preserve the cavity in the form assumed during the process. A fast mechanical switch has been devised and tests seem to confirm the assumption made.

  17. Astrophysical Sources of High-Energy Neutrinos in the IceCube Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, P.

    2017-10-01

    High-energy neutrino astrophysics has come of age with IceCube's discovery of neutrinos in the TeV to PeV energy range, attributable to extragalactic sources at cosmological distances. At such energies, astrophysical neutrinos must originate in cosmic-ray interactions, providing information about the sources of high-energy cosmic rays, as well as leading to the coproduction of high-energy γ-rays. The intimate link with these two independently observed types of radiation provides important tools for the quest to identify and understand the nature of the astrophysical sources of the neutrinos. These neutrinos can set important constraints on the cosmic-ray acceleration process, and because they travel essentially unimpeded, they can probe our Universe out to the farthest cosmological distances.

  18. Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat

    2017-07-05

    The Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2015) was held in the Catamaran Hotel in San Diego from August 23-27, 2015. This meeting was the fifth in a series which began in 2008 in conjunction with the April meeting of the American Physical Society (APS). The main goal of this conference has been to bring together researchers from all fields of High Energy Density Science (HEDS) into one, unified meeting.

  19. High-energy diffraction microscopy at the advanced photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lienert, U.; Li, S. F.; Hefferan, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    The status of the High Energy Diffraction Microscopy (HEDM) program at the 1-ID beam line of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. HEDM applies high energy synchrotron radiation for the grain and sub-grain scale structural and mechanical characterization of polycrystalline bulk materials in situ....... Complementary information is obtained by post mortem electron microscopy on the same sample volume previously investigated by HEDM....

  20. 11th Latin American Symposium on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    SILAFAE is one of the premier series of international meetings – High energy physics in Latin America. The present edition will be held in the city of Antigua Guatemala, from November 14 - 18th 2016. The program contains plenary talks aimed at reviewing the status of the recent advances in frontier topics in High Energy Physics, both theoretical and experimental. It also includes parallel sessions of specialized talks.

  1. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  2. High Energy Density Capacitors for Pulsed Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    resistor in terms of shock and vibration, mounting requirements, total volume, system reliability, and cost. All of these parameters were improved...protection from shock and vibration on a deployed system. III. STATE OF THE ART FOR HIGH ENERGY DENSITY CAPACITOR AND NEAR TERM PROJECTIONS The...it t tipo ymer m qua y an capac or cons ruc on. Energy Density of 10,000 Shot High Efficiency Pulse Power Capacitors The primary driver was 1 5

  3. High Energy Density Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems for Terrestrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) technology for energy storage has been a NASA power system concept for many years. Compared to battery-based energy storage systems, RFCS has received relatively little attention or resources for development because the energy density and electrical efficiency were not sufficiently attractive relative to advanced battery systems. Even today, RFCS remains at a very low technology readiness level (TRL of about 2 indicating feasibility has been demonstrated). Commercial development of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells for automobiles and other terrestrial applications and improvements in lightweight pressure vessel design to reduce weight and improve performance make possible a high energy density RFCS energy storage system. The results from this study of a lightweight RFCS energy storage system for a remotely piloted, solar-powered, high altitude aircraft indicate an energy density up to 790 w-h/kg with electrical efficiency of 53.4% is attainable. Such an energy storage system would allow a solar-powered aircraft to carry hundreds of kilograms of payload and remain in flight indefinitely for use in atmospheric research, earth observation, resource mapping. and telecommunications. Future developments in the areas of hydrogen and oxygen storage, pressure vessel design, higher temperature and higher- pressure fuel cell operation, unitized regenerative fuel cells, and commercial development of fuel cell technology will improve both the energy density and electrical efficiency of the RFCS.

  4. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Elaine [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  5. Searching for ultra-high energy cosmic rays with smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteson, Daniel; Mulhearn, Michael; Shimmin, Chase; Cranmer, Kyle; Brodie, Kyle; Burns, Dustin

    2016-06-01

    We propose a novel approach for observing cosmic rays at ultra-high energy (>1018 eV) by repurposing the existing network of smartphones as a ground detector array. Extensive air showers generated by cosmic rays produce muons and high-energy photons, which can be detected by the CMOS sensors of smartphone cameras. The small size and low efficiency of each sensor is compensated by the large number of active phones. We show that if user adoption targets are met, such a network will have significant observing power at the highest energies.

  6. Energy sources of the high latitude upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrodynamic (Joule) dissipation and plasma wave heating are reviewed as sources of energy for the upper atmosphere at high latitudes. Electrodynamic heating in the thermosphere is described by a generalized energy balance equation taking into account a variety of inelastic processes and energy losses, and the use of height-integrated values of the Joule heating rate to estimate the importance of electrodynamic heating at high latitudes is discussed. Observations of electrons between 95 and 115 km altitude that are up to 1000 K hotter than the neutral atmosphere is presented as evidence for atmospheric heating due to unstable plasma waves arising from the Farley-Buneman modified two-stream instability.

  7. High-Throughput Phase-Field Design of High-Energy-Density Polymer Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhong-Hui; Wang, Jian-Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen; Chen, Long-Qing; Shen, Yang

    2017-11-22

    Understanding the dielectric breakdown behavior of polymer nanocomposites is crucial to the design of high-energy-density dielectric materials with reliable performances. It is however challenging to predict the breakdown behavior due to the complicated factors involved in this highly nonequilibrium process. In this work, a comprehensive phase-field model is developed to investigate the breakdown behavior of polymer nanocomposites under electrostatic stimuli. It is found that the breakdown strength and path significantly depend on the microstructure of the nanocomposite. The predicted breakdown strengths for polymer nanocomposites with specific microstructures agree with existing experimental measurements. Using this phase-field model, a high throughput calculation is performed to seek the optimal microstructure. Based on the high-throughput calculation, a sandwich microstructure for PVDF-BaTiO3 nanocomposite is designed, where the upper and lower layers are filled with parallel nanosheets and the middle layer is filled with vertical nanofibers. It has an enhanced energy density of 2.44 times that of the pure PVDF polymer. The present work provides a computational approach for understanding the electrostatic breakdown, and it is expected to stimulate future experimental efforts on synthesizing polymer nanocomposites with novel microstructures to achieve high performances. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Evaluation of energy response of neutron rem monitor applied to high-energy accelerator facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Nakane, Y; Sakamoto, Y

    2003-01-01

    A neutron rem monitor was newly developed for applying to the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) that is under construction as a joint project between the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. To measure the dose rate accurately for wide energy range of neutrons from thermal to high-energy region, the neutron rem monitor was fabricated by adding a lead breeder layer to a conventional neutron rem monitor. The energy response of the monitor was evaluated by using neutron transport calculations for the energy range from thermal to 150 MeV. For verifying the results, the response was measured at neutron fields for the energy range from thermal to 65 MeV. The comparisons between the energy response and dose conversion coefficients show that the newly developed neutron rem monitor has a good performance in energy response up to 150 MeV, suggesting that the present study offered prospects of a practical fabrication of the rem monitor applicable...

  9. CALET: High energy cosmic ray observatory on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masaki; CALET Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The CALorimeteric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a Japanese-led international mission being developed as part of the utilization plan for the International Space Station (ISS). CALET will be launched by an H-II B rocket utilizing the Japanese developed HTV (H-II Transfer Vehicle) in 2014. The instrument will be robotically emplaced upon the Exposed Facility attached to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EF). CALET is a calorimeter based instrument which will have superior energy resolution and excellent separation between hadrons and electrons and between charged particles and gamma rays in the GeV to trans-TeV energy range. CALET will address many questions in high energy astrophysics, including (1) the nature of the sources of high energy particles and photons, through the high energy electron spectrum, (2) signatures of dark matter, in either the high energy electron or gamma ray spectrum, (3) the details of particle propagation in the Galaxy, by a combination of energy spectrum measurements of electrons, protons and highercharged nuclei. In this paper the outline and current status of CALET are summarized.

  10. A review of atomic layer deposition providing high performance lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Li, Xifei; Bai, Zhimin; Song, Xiaosheng; Xiong, Dongbin; Zhao, Mengli; Li, Dejun; Lu, Shigang

    2017-01-01

    With the significant obstacles that have been conquered in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, it is urgent to impel accelerating development of room-temperature Li-S batteries with high energy density and long-term stability. In view of the unique solid-liquid-solid conversion processes of Li-S batteries, however, designing effective strategies to address the insulativity and volume effect of cathode, shuttle of soluble polysulfides, and/or safety hazard of Li metal anode has been challenging. An atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a representative thin film technology with exceptional capabilities in developing atomic-precisely conformal films. It has been demonstrated to be a promise strategy of solving emerging issues in advanced electrical energy storage (EES) devices via the surface modification and/or the fabrication of complex nanostructured materials. In this review, the recent developments and significances on how ALD improves the performance of Li-S batteries were discussed in detail. Significant attention mainly focused on the various strategies with the use of ALD to refine the electrochemical interfaces and cell configurations. Furthermore, the novel opportunities and perspective associated with ALD for future research directions were summarized. This review may boost the development and application of advanced Li-S batteries using ALD.

  11. High energy high intensity coherent photon beam for the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    What is proposed for the 20 TeV protons hitting a fixed target is to make a tertiary electron beam similar to that which is the basis of the tagged photon beam at Fermilab. Briefly, a zero degree neutral beam is formed by sweeping out the primary proton beam and any secondary charged particles. Then the photons, from the decay of ..pi../sup 0/ in the neutral beam, are converted to e/sup +/e/sup -/ pairs in a lead converter and a high quality electron beam is formed. This beam is brought to the target area where it is converted to a photon beam by Bremsstrahlung in a radiator.

  12. High-energy X-ray spectra of five sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, G. R.; Mcclintock, J. E.; Gerassimenko, M.; Lewin , W. H. G.

    1973-01-01

    On October 15-16, 1970, we carried out balloon X-ray observations from Australia at energies above 15 keV. We present the high-energy X-ray spectra of three sources discovered by us, GX 301-2, GX 304-1, and GX 1 + 4. The data suggest that these high-energy sources correspond to the sources 2U 1223-62, 2U 1258-61, and 2U 1728-24 respectively. We also present the spectra for two additional sources, GX 5-1 (2U 1757-25) and GX 3 + 1 (2U 1744-26). The average intensity of the highly variable source GX 301-2 was observed to be as great as Tau X-1 in the energy range 15-50 keV.

  13. Spectral shape variation of interstellar electrons at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    The high energy electron spectrum analysis has shown that the electron intensity inside the H2 cloud region, or in a spiral arm, should be much lower than that outside it and the observed electron energy spectrum should flatten again at about 1 TeV. In the framework of the leady box model the recently established rigidity dependence of the escape pathlength of cosmic rays would predict a high energy electron spectrum which is flatter than the observed one. This divergence is explained by assuming that the leaky box model can only apply to cosmic ray heavy nuclei, and light nuclei and electrons in cosmic rays may have different behaviors in the interstellar propagation. Therefore, the measured data on high energy electrons should be analyzed based on the proposed nonuniform galactic disk (NUGD) mode.

  14. High-Energy Neutron Backgrounds for Underground Dark Matter Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Direct dark matter detection experiments usually have excellent capability to distinguish nuclear recoils, expected interactions with Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter, and electronic recoils, so that they can efficiently reject background events such as gamma-rays and charged particles. However, both WIMPs and neutrons can induce nuclear recoils. Neutrons are then the most crucial background for direct dark matter detection. It is important to understand and account for all sources of neutron backgrounds when claiming a discovery of dark matter detection or reporting limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross section. One type of neutron background that is not well understood is the cosmogenic neutrons from muons interacting with the underground cavern rock and materials surrounding a dark matter detector. The Neutron Multiplicity Meter (NMM) is a water Cherenkov detector capable of measuring the cosmogenic neutron flux at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, which has an overburden of 2090 meters water equivalent. The NMM consists of two 2.2-tonne gadolinium-doped water tanks situated atop a 20-tonne lead target. It detects a high-energy (>~ 50 MeV) neutron via moderation and capture of the multiple secondary neutrons released when the former interacts in the lead target. The multiplicity of secondary neutrons for the high-energy neutron provides a benchmark for comparison to the current Monte Carlo predictions. Combining with the Monte Carlo simulation, the muon-induced high-energy neutron flux above 50 MeV is measured to be (1.3 ± 0.2) ~ 10-9 cm-2s-1, in reasonable agreement with the model prediction. The measured multiplicity spectrum agrees well with that of Monte Carlo simulation for multiplicity below 10, but shows an excess of approximately a factor of three over Monte Carlo prediction for multiplicities ~ 10 - 20. In an effort to reduce neutron backgrounds for the dark matter experiment SuperCDMS SNO- LAB, an active neutron veto was developed

  15. High energy. Progress report, March 1, 1992--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, B.E.; Roberts, J.B. Jr.

    1996-09-01

    The Bonner Lab High Energy Group at Rice University has major hardware and software design and construction responsibilities in three of the flagship experiments of US High Energy Physics: D0, CMS, and KTeV. These commitments were undertaken after managing boards of the collaborations had evaluated the unique capabilities that Bonner Lab has to offer. Although fiscal constraints prohibited their participation in the final year of the SMC experiment (1996) on the spin dependent structure functions of nucleons, they played a major role there since it was proposed in 1988. The new results from the SMC data taken in previous years continue to generate a buzz of theoretical activity--and to increase understanding of the nucleon structure functions and their behavior as a function of Q{sup 2} and x. They have also spawned large new experimental spin physics programs at HERA and at RHIC that ultimately will provide answers to these fundamental questions. This is a direct result of the unprecedented precision and kinematic range of the SMC results. Such precision would not have been possible without the improvement in the knowledge of the muon beam polarization using the Rice-designed beam polarimeter. In D0 Bonner Lab has been active in data taking, data analysis, upgrade design, and upgrade construction projects. In CMS they are responsible for the design and construction of the trigger electronics for one of the crucial subsystems: the end cap muon detectors. Other responsibilities are fully expected as the US commitment to LHC projects becomes clearer. The technical capabilities are well matched to the enormous challenges posed by the physics measurements being contemplated for the CMS detector. KTeV will be taking data shortly. Rice made major contributions to the construction and commissioning of this experiment. The long list of publications and presentations during the past five years attests to the fact that the group has been working hard and productively.

  16. The proposed high-energy telescope (HET) for EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J.; Grindlay, J.; Allen, B.; Skinner, G.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Garson, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Cook, W.; Harrison, F.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P.

    2010-07-01

    The hard X-ray sky now being studied by INTEGRAL and Swift and soon by NuSTAR is rich with energetic phenomena and highly variable non-thermal phenomena on a broad range of timescales. The High Energy Telescope (HET) on the proposed Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission will repeatedly survey the full sky for rare and luminous hard X-ray phenomena at unprecedented sensitivities. It will detect and localize (<20", at 5σ threshold) X-ray sources quickly for immediate followup identification by two other onboard telescopes - the Soft X-ray imager (SXI) and Optical/Infrared Telescope (IRT). The large array (4.5 m2) of imaging (0.6 mm pixel) CZT detectors in the HET, a coded-aperture telescope, will provide unprecedented high sensitivity (~0.06 mCrab Full Sky in a 2 year continuous scanning survey) in the 5 - 600 keV band. The large field of view (90° × 70°) and zenith scanning with alternating-orbital nodding motion planned for the first 2 years of the mission will enable nearly continuous monitoring of the full sky. A 3y followup pointed mission phase provides deep UV-Optical-IR-Soft X-ray and Hard X-ray imaging and spectroscopy for thousands of sources discovered in the Survey. We review the HET design concept and report the recent progress of the CZT detector development, which is underway through a series of balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray telescope experiments, ProtoEXIST. We carried out a successful flight of the first generation of fine pixel large area CZT detectors (ProtoEXIST1) on Oct 9, 2009. We also summarize our future plan (ProtoEXIST2 & 3) for the technology development needed for the HET.

  17. Health-risk behaviors among high school athletes and preventive services provided during sports physicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen E; McRee, Annie-Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Preparticipation examinations (PPEs), or sports physicals, present opportunities for health care providers to identify and discuss common adolescent health-risk behaviors. We sought to examine the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among high school athletes and the proportion of providers who address these behaviors during PPEs. For this descriptive study we used data from two statewide surveys: a survey of adolescents (n = 46,492) and a survey of nurse practitioners and physicians (n = 561). The most prevalent risk behaviors reported by student athletes were low levels of physical activity (70%), bullying perpetration (41%), and alcohol use (41%). Most providers (≥75%) addressed many common risk behaviors during PPEs but fewer addressed bullying, violence, and prescription drug use. Topics discussed differed by provider type and patient population. Many providers addressed critical threats to adolescent health during PPEs, but findings suggest potential disconnects between topics addressed during PPEs and behaviors of athletes. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Seay, Rebekah F; Spain, Katie K; Clarke, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE). This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI) and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA). We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training. Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100%) and low (high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  19. Effect of Skin Cancer Training Provided to Maritime High School Students on Their Knowledge and Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümen, Adem; Öncel, Selma

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the effect of skin cancer training provided to maritime high school students on their knowledge and behaviour. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test intervention and control groups. Two maritime high schools located in the city of Antalya were included within the scope of the study between March and June 2013, covering a total of 567 students. While the knowledge mean scores of students regarding skin cancer and sun protection did not vary in the pre-test (6.2 ± 1.9) and post-test (6.8 ± 1.9) control group, the knowledge mean scores of students in the experimental group increased from 6.0 ± 2.3 to 10.6 ± 1.2 after the provided training. Some 25.4% of students in the experimental group had low knowledge level and 62.2% had medium knowledge level in the pre-test; whereas no students had low knowledge level and 94.3% had high knowledge level in the post-test. It was determined that tenth grade students, those who had previous knowledge on the subject, who considered themselves to be protecting from the sun better, had higher knowledge levels and their knowledge levels increased as the risk level increased. It was found that the provided training was effective and increased positively the knowledge, attitude and behaviour levels of students in the experimental group in terms of skin cancer and sun protection. Along with the provided training which started to form a lifestyle, appropriate attitudes and behaviours concerning skin cancer and sun protection could be brought to students who will work in outdoor spaces and are members of the maritime profession within the risk group.

  20. High energy pipe line break postulations and their mitigation - examples for VVER nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdarek, J.; Pecinka, L.; Kadecka, P.; Dotrel, J. [Nuclear Res. Inst., Rez (Czech Republic)

    1998-11-01

    The concept and the proposals for the protection and reinforcement of equipment against the effects of postulated rupture of the high-energy piping, in VVER Plant, are presented. The most recent version of the US NRC Guidelines has been used. The development of the legislation, the basic approach and selection of criteria for the assessment of the rupture of high energy piping, provide the basis for the application of the separation concept in the overall safety philosophy. (orig.)

  1. High energy 2-micron solid-state laser transmitter for NASA's airborne CO2 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin

    2017-11-01

    A 2-micron pulsed, Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for ground and airborne atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements via direct detection method is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This instrument will provide an alternate approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high precision measurement capability by having high signal-to-noise level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  2. VLA-Max '91 tests of high energy flare physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kenneth R.; Willson, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    The potential for the Very Large Array (VLA) contributions during the coming maximum in solar activity is illustrated by unpublished observations of solar flares on 28 May, 8 June, 24 June, and 30 September 1988. Some of this data appears in the two papers by Willson et al., referenced in this article. The VLA can be used to spatially resolve flaring active regions and their magnetic fields. These results can be compared with simultaneous x ray and gamma ray observations from space. Examples are provided in which spatially separated radio sources are resolved for the pre-burst, impulsive and decay phases of solar flares. The emergence of precursor coronal loops probably triggers the release of stored magnetic energy in adjacent coronal loops. Noise storm enhancements can originate in large-scale coronal loops on opposite sides of the visible solar disk. An interactive feedback mechanism may exist between activity in high-lying 90 cm coronal loops and lower-lying 20 cm ones.

  3. Dosimetry in radiation fields around high-energy proton accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Silari, M; Theis, C

    2008-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry at high-energy proton accelerators is a difficult task because of the complexity of the stray radiation field. A good knowledge of this mixed radiation field is very important to be able to select the type of detectors (active and/or passive) to be employed for routine area monitoring and to choose the personal dosimeter legally required for estimating the effective dose received by individuals. At the same time, the response function of the detectors to the mixed field must be thoroughly understood. A proper calibration of a device, which may involve a complex series of measurements in various reference fields, is needed. Monte Carlo simulations provide a complementary – and sometimes the principal – mean of determining the response function. The ambient dose equivalent rates during operation range from a few hundreds of μSv per year to a few mSv per year. To measure such rates one needs detectors of high sensitivity and/or capable of integrating over long periods. The main challenge...

  4. Time correlations of high energy muons in an underground detector

    CERN Document Server

    Becherini, Y; Chiarusi, T; Cozzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Esposito, L S; Giacomelli, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Maaroufi, F; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Moussa, A

    2005-01-01

    We present the result of a search for correlations in the arrival times of high energy muons collected from 1995 till 2000 with the streamer tube system of the complete MACRO detector at the underground Gran Sasso Lab. Large samples of single muons (8.6 million), double muons (0.46 million) and multiple muons with multiplicities from 3 to 6 (0.08 million) were selected. These samples were used to search for time correlations of cosmic ray particles coming from the whole upper hemisphere or from selected space cones. The results of our analyses confirm with high statistics a random arrival time distribution of high energy cosmic rays.

  5. Energy Efficient and Compact RF High-Power Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvillo Cortés, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are to improve the energy efficiency and physical form-factor of high-power amplifiers in base station applications. As such, the focus of this dissertation is placed on the outphasing amplifier concept, which can offer high-efficiency, good linearity and excellent

  6. High-energy pediatric pelvic and acetabular fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorosa, Louis F.; Kloen, Peter; Helfet, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric pelvic and acetabular fractures are rare injuries. They are almost always the result of a high-energy injury mechanism. A full trauma protocol should be instituted, having a high index of suspicion for associated life-threatening injuries. In the past, it was recommended that almost all of

  7. High energy neutrino scattering results from NuTeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, D.; Adams, T.; Alton, A.; Avvakumov, S.; de Barbaro, L.; de Barbaro, P.; Bernstein, R. H.; Bodek, A.; Bolton, T.; Brau, J.; Buchholz, D.; Budd, H.; Conrad, J.; Drucker, R. B.; Fleming, B. T.; Formaggio, J.; Frey, R.; Goldman, J.; Goncharov, M.; Harris, D. A.; Kim, J. H.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Johnson, R. A.; Lamm, M. J.; McDonald, J.; Marsh, W.; Mason, D.; McFarland, K. S.; McNulty, C.; Nienaber, P.; Radescu, V.; Romosan, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Schellman, H.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E. G.; Suwonjandee, N.; Tobien, N.; Tzanov, M.; Vaitaitis, A.; Vakili, M.; Yang, U. K.; Yu, J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2003-04-01

    The NuTeV experiment at Fermilab has obtained a unique high statistics sample of neutrino and antineutrino interactions using a novel high-energy sign-selected neutrino beam. Recent results from this sample are presented including a precision measurement of the electroweak parameter sin2≡ W, which is observed to be three standard deviations above the standard model prediction.

  8. High-energy pulsar models: Developments and new questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.

    2014-03-01

    The past few years have seen a major advance in observational knowledge of high-energy (HE) pulsars. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and {AGILE} have increased the number of known γ-ray pulsars by an order of magnitude, its members being divided roughly equally among millisecond pulsars (MSPs), young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. Many new and diverse emission characteristics are being measured, while radio and X-ray follow-up observations increase the pulsar detection rate and enrich our multiwavelength picture of these extreme sources. The wealth of new data has provided impetus for further development and improvement of existing theoretical pulsar models. Geometric light curve (LC) modelling has uncovered three broad classes into which HE pulsars fall: those where the radio profile leads, is aligned with, or lags the γ-ray profile. For example, the original MSP and original black widow system are members of the second class, requiring co-located emission regions and thereby breaking with traditional notions of radio emission origin. These models imply narrow accelerator gaps in the outer magnetosphere, indicating copious pair production even in MSP magnetospheres that were previously thought to be pair-starved. The increased quality and variety of the LCs necessitate construction of ever more sophisticated models. We will review progress in global magnetosphere solutions which specify a finite conductivity on field lines above the stellar surface, filling the gap between the standard vacuum and force-free (FF; plasma-filled) models. The possibility of deriving phase-resolved spectra for the brightest pulsars, coupled with the fact that the HE pulsar population is sizable enough to allow sampling of various pulsar geometries, will enable much more stringent testing of future radiation models. Reproduction of the observed phase-resolved behavior of this disparate group will be one of the next frontiers in pulsar science, impacting on our

  9. High-Energy Pulsar Models: Developments and New Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    The past few years have seen a major advance in observational knowledge of high-energy (HE) pulsars. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and AGILE have increased the number of known gamma-ray pulsars by an order of magnitude, its members being divided roughly equally among millisecond pulsars (MSPs), young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. Many new and diverse emission characteristics are being measured, while radio and X-ray follow-up observations increase the pulsar detection rate and enrich our multiwavelength picture of these extreme sources. The wealth of new data has provided impetus for further development and improvement of existing theoretical pulsar models. Geometric light curve (LC) modelling has uncovered three broad classes into which HE pulsars fall: those where the radio profile leads, is aligned with, or lags the gamma-ray profile. For example, the original MSP and original black widow system are members of the second class, requiring co-located emission regions and thereby breaking with traditional notions of radio emission origin. These models imply narrow accelerator gaps in the outer magnetosphere, indicating copious pair production even in MSP magnetospheres that were previously thought to be pair-starved. The increased quality and variety of the LCs necessitate construction of ever more sophisticated models. We will review progress in global magnetosphere solutions which specify a finite conductivity on field lines above the stellar surface, filling the gap between the standard vacuum and force-free (FF; plasma-filled) models. The possibility of deriving phase-resolved spectra for the brightest pulsars, coupled with the fact that the HE pulsar population is sizable enough to allow sampling of various pulsar geometries, will enable much more stringent testing of future radiation models. Reproduction of the observed phase-resolved behavior of this disparate group will be one of the next frontiers in pulsar science, impacting on

  10. CONSTRAINTS ON VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM GRB 130427A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Barnacka, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Biteau, J. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Dickinson, H. J.; Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connaughton, V. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Cui, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: aune@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: sjzhu@umd.edu, E-mail: veres@email.gwu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    Prompt emission from the very fluent and nearby (z = 0.34) gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A was detected by several orbiting telescopes and by ground-based, wide-field-of-view optical transient monitors. Apart from the intensity and proximity of this GRB, it is exceptional due to the extremely long-lived high-energy (100 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission, which was detected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope for ∼70 ks after the initial burst. The persistent, hard-spectrum, high-energy emission suggests that the highest-energy gamma rays may have been produced via synchrotron self-Compton processes though there is also evidence that the high-energy emission may instead be an extension of the synchrotron spectrum. VERITAS, a ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, began follow-up observations of GRB 130427A ∼71 ks (∼20 hr) after the onset of the burst. The GRB was not detected with VERITAS; however, the high elevation of the observations, coupled with the low redshift of the GRB, make VERITAS a very sensitive probe of the emission from GRB 130427A for E > 100 GeV. The non-detection and consequent upper limit derived place constraints on the synchrotron self-Compton model of high-energy gamma-ray emission from this burst.

  11. On formation of electromagnetic clot of high energy in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanakyan, Yu. R.

    2017-04-01

    It is known that an oscillating electromagnetic field can be localized inside a self-sustaining resonator formed in plasma. In this paper, it is shown that the Maxwell tension of the electromagnetic field can reduce the resonator volume, thereby increasing the energy density of the field considered. This results in the formation of a quasi-stationary structure of high electromagnetic energy density. A similar mechanism explains the ball lightning phenomenon.

  12. High-efficiency pumps drastically reduce energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2002-05-01

    Wilo's Stratos pumps for air conditioning and other domestic heating applications combine the advantages of wet runner technology with an innovative electronic commutator motor. The energy consumption of these high-efficiency pumps is halved compared with similar wet runner designs. With vast numbers of pumps used in buildings across Europe alone, the adoption of this technology potentially offers significant energy sayings. (Author)

  13. Investigation of high capacity heat energy storage for building applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Yate

    2014-01-01

    The problems of excessive consumption of fossil resources, oil shortages and greenhouse gas emissions are becoming increasingly severe. Research and development work on new methods of thermal energy storage are imminently required. To effectively store seasonal renewable energy, a novel high capacity heat storage system has been designed and evaluated/validated through laboratory experiments and numerical simulations in this research. The system is driven by direct flow evacuated tube solar c...

  14. High energy gain by volume ignition-A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliezer, S.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Piera, M. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Polytechnical University of Madrid (Spain); Hora, H. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Polytechnical University of Madrid (Spain)]|[Theoretical Physics Department, University of New South Wales, Kensington (Australia)

    1994-10-05

    Ignition models for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are analyzed on the basis of fuel energy balances. Spark ignition models are in general identified as more effective alternatives than raw volume ignition. Nevertheless, it is demonstrated that volume ignition can yield very high energy gains comparable to spark ignition if the whole picture is properly taken into account. References are made to some outstanding experiments and to numerical simulations which support this tutorial explanation. {copyright} 1994 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  15. High energy physics research. Final technical report, 1957--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.H.

    1995-10-01

    This is the final technical report to the Department of Energy on High Energy Physics at the University of Pennsylvania. It discusses research conducted in the following areas: neutrino astrophysics and cosmology; string theory; electroweak and collider physics; supergravity; cp violation and baryogenesis; particle cosmology; collider detector at Fermilab; the sudbury neutrino observatory; B-physics; particle physics in nuclei; and advanced electronics and detector development.

  16. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Schubert

    Full Text Available Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE. This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA. We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training.Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1 completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100% and low (< 100% levels of energy compensation were assessed. Linear regressions were utilized to determine associations between energy compensation and ΔVO2max, ΔEI, ΔNEPA, and Δresting metabolic rate.Very large individual differences in energy compensation were noted. In comparison to individuals with low levels of compensation, individuals with high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p < 0.001 and ΔNEPA (p < 0.001.Considerable variation exists in response to short-term, low dose interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  17. A model program: neonatal nurse practitioners providing community health care for high-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Elias Provencio; Pitts, Kathleen; Mejia, Nilson Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal drug exposure costs our communities millions of dollars each year in hospital fees and in services such as foster care, child protection, and drug treatment. Infants and their families in this group require substantial long-term health care and community resources. Neonatal health care providers should take an active role in developing and implementing home visitation programs to support early hospital discharge and continuity of care for these high-risk infants and their families. Neonatal nurse practitioners should prepare in the future to practice not only in secondary-- and tertiary--level neonatal centers, but also in follow-up clinics, long-term developmental centers, and the community This article describes a home intervention program delivered by neonatal nurse practitioners for high-risk infants and their mothers. The target population is infants exposed prenatally to drugs and/or alcohol.

  18. Perils of providing visual health information overviews for consumers with low health literacy or high stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Trudi

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study explores the impact of a health topics overview (HTO) on reading comprehension. The HTO is generated automatically based on the presence of Unified Medical Language System terms. In a controlled setting, we presented health texts and posed 15 questions for each. We compared performance with and without the HTO. The answers were available in the text, but not always in the HTO. Our study (n=48) showed that consumers with low health literacy or high stress performed poorly when the HTO was available without linking directly to the answer. They performed better with direct links in the HTO or when the HTO was not available at all. Consumers with high health literacy or low stress performed better regardless of the availability of the HTO. Our data suggests that vulnerable consumers relied solely on the HTO when it was available and were misled when it did not provide the answer. PMID:20190068

  19. Endogenous magnetic reconnection and associated high energy plasma processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, B.; Basu, B.

    2018-02-01

    An endogenous reconnection process involves a driving factor that lays inside the layer where a drastic change of magnetic field topology occurs. A process of this kind is shown to take place when an electron temperature gradient is present in a magnetically confined plasma and the evolving electron temperature fluctuations are anisotropic. The width of the reconnecting layer remains significant even when large macroscopic distances are considered. In view of the fact that there are plasmas in the Universe with considerable electron thermal energy contents this feature can be relied upon in order to produce generation or conversion of magnetic energy, high energy particle populations and momentum and angular momentum transport.

  20. Heavy Quark and Quarkonium Transport in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Kai [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dai, Wei [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Nu [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhuang, Pengfei [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-12-15

    The strong interaction between heavy quarks and the quark gluon plasma makes the open and hidden charm hadrons be sensitive probes of the deconfinement phase transition in high energy nuclear collisions. Both the cold and hot nuclear matter effects change with the colliding energy and significantly influence the heavy quark and charmonium yield and their transverse momentum distributions. The ratio of averaged quarkonium transverse momentum square and the elliptic flow reveal the nature of the QCD medium created in heavy ion collisions at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies.

  1. High efficiency energy harvesting from microbial fuel cells using a synchronous boost converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Do; Ren, Zhiyong

    2012-06-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert chemical energy stored in biodegradable substrates into direct electricity, which can be used to power remote sensors or offset the energy used during wastewater treatment. Power electronic converters have been developed to replace external resistors and harvest and store energy from MFCs, which is a significant improvement in MFC studies because external resistors only demonstrate power generation potential without actually capturing usable energy. However, the efficiency of conventional diode based energy harvester is low due to the high power loss of the diode. This study presents a synchronous boost converter based MFC energy harvester using a P-channel MOSFET, which improved the converter efficiency by 73%, from 43.8% to 75.9%. A modified hysteresis controller was developed to provide precise control during energy harvesting and operating and also prevented reverse current flows.

  2. High Energy Theory Workshops and Visitors at the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics FY16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Aaron [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-09-08

    This award provided partial support for the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics to host the 5-day workshop "Emergent themes in String Theory" this winter, March 15 - 19, 2016. on the University of Michigan campus. In addition, this award provided limited support for the Young High Energy Theorist (YHET) visitor program at the University of Michigan.

  3. High surface area aerogels for energy storage and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Ryan Patrick

    ADAI are demonstrated in a third-generation prototypical thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery. The second chapter then details two different aerogel-based materials for electrochemical energy storage. It begins with lithium titanate aerogel, which takes advantage of the high surface area of the aerogel morphology to display a batt-cap behavior. This should allow the lithium titanate aerogel to perform at higher rates than would normally be expected for the bulk oxide material. Additionally, the flexibility of the sol-gel process is demonstrated through the incorporation of electrically conductive high-surface area exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets in the oxide. The last section describes the characterization of a LiMn2O 4 spinel coated carbon nanofoam in a non-aqueous electrolyte. The short diffusion path, high surface area and intimately wired architecture of the nanofoam allows the oxide to retain its capacity at significantly higher rates when compared with literature values for the bulk oxide. Additionally, the nanometric length scale improves cycle life, and the high surface area dramatically increases the insertion capacity by providing a higher concentration of surface defects. Taken together, it is clear that aerogels are an extremely attractive class of material for applications pertaining to energy and efficiency, and further research in this area will provide valuable solutions for pressing societal needs. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  4. Integrated energy system for a high performance building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaczko, Kristen

    Integrated energy systems have the potential to reduce of the energy consumption of residential buildings in Canada. These systems incorporate components to meet the building heating, cooling and domestic hot water load into a single system in order to reduce energy losses. An integrated energy system, consisting of a variable speed heat pump, cold and hot thermal storage tanks, a photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector array and a battery bank, was designed for the Queen's Solar Design Team's (QSDT) test house. The system uses a radiant floor to provide space- heating and sensible cooling and a dedicated outdoor air system provides ventilation and dehumidifies the incoming fresh air. The test house, the Queen's Solar Education Centre (QSEC), and the integrated energy system were both modelled in TRNSYS. Additionally, a new TRNSYS Type was developed to model the PV/T collectors, enabling the modeling of the collection of energy from the ambient air. A parametric study was carried out in TRNSYS to investigate the effect of various parameters on the overall energy performance of the system. These parameters included the PV/T array size and the slope of the collectors, the heat pump source and load-side inlet temperature setpoints, the compressor speed control and the size of the thermal storage tanks and the battery bank. The controls of the heat pump were found to have a large impact on the performance of the integrated energy system. For example, a low evaporator setpoint improved the overall free energy ratio (FER) of the system but the heat pump performance was lowered. Reducing the heat loss of the PV/T panels was not found to have a large effect on the system performance however, as the heat pump is able to lower the inlet collector fluid temperature, thus reducing thermal losses. From the results of the sensitivity study, a recommended system model was created and this system had a predicted FER of 77.9% in Kingston, Ontario, neglecting the energy consumption of

  5. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Cold and Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-06-01

    School districts around the country are finding that the smart energy choices can help them save money and provide healthier, more effective learning environments. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs. These savings can be redirected to educational needs such as additional teachers, instructional materials, or new computers. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school. By incorporating these principles, you can create and exemplary building that is both energy and resource efficient.

  6. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Cool and Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-06-01

    School districts around the country are finding that the smart energy choices can help them save money and provide healthier, more effective learning environments. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs. These savings can be redirected to educational needs such as additional teachers, instructional materials, or new computers. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school. By incorporating these principles, you can create and exemplary building that is both energy and resource efficient.

  7. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-06-01

    School districts around the country are finding that the smart energy choices can help them save money and provide healthier, more effective learning environments. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs. These savings can be redirected to educational needs such as additional teachers, instructional materials, or new computers. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school. By incorporating these principles, you can create and exemplary building that is both energy and resource efficient.

  8. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Temperate and Mixed Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-06-01

    School districts around the country are finding that the smart energy choices can help them save money and provide healthier, more effective learning environments. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs. These savings can be redirected to educational needs such as additional teachers, instructional materials, or new computers. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school. By incorporating these principles, you can create and exemplary building that is both energy and resource efficient.

  9. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Cool and Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-06-01

    School districts around the country are finding that the smart energy choices can help them save money and provide healthier, more effective learning environments. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs. These savings can be redirected to educational needs such as additional teachers, instructional materials, or new computers. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school. By incorporating these principles, you can create and exemplary building that is both energy and resource efficient.

  10. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-01-01

    School districts around the country are finding that smart energy choices can help them save money and provide healthier, more effective learning environments. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs. These savings can be redirected to educational needs such as additional teachers, instructional materials, or new computers. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school. By incorporating these principles, you can create an exemplary building that is both energy and resource efficient.

  11. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Dry Climates (Revision)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-06-01

    School districts around the country are finding that the smart energy choices can help them save money and provide healthier, more effective learning environments. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs. These savings can be redirected to educational needs such as additional teachers, instructional materials, or new computers. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school. By incorporating these principles, you can create and exemplary building that is both energy and resource efficient.

  12. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Temperate and Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-06-01

    School districts around the country are finding that the smart energy choices can help them save money and provide healthier, more effective learning environments. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs. These savings can be redirected to educational needs such as additional teachers, instructional materials, or new computers. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school. By incorporating these principles, you can create and exemplary building that is both energy and resource efficient.

  13. Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.

    2004-07-20

    The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics

  14. Modified Thomson spectrometer design for high energy, multi-species ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, D; Kar, S; Doria, D; Ahmed, H; Cerchez, M; Fernandez, J; Gray, R J; Green, J S; Hanton, F; MacLellan, D A; McKenna, P; Najmudin, Z; Neely, D; Ruiz, J A; Schiavi, A; Streeter, M; Swantusch, M; Willi, O; Zepf, M; Borghesi, M

    2014-03-01

    A modification to the standard Thomson parabola spectrometer is discussed, which is designed to measure high energy (tens of MeV/nucleon), broad bandwidth spectra of multi-species ions accelerated by intense laser plasma interactions. It is proposed to implement a pair of extended, trapezoidal shaped electric plates, which will not only resolve ion traces at high energies, but will also retain the lower energy part of the spectrum. While a longer (along the axis of the undeflected ion beam direction) electric plate design provides effective charge state separation at the high energy end of the spectrum, the proposed new trapezoidal shape will enable the low energy ions to reach the detector, which would have been clipped or blocked by simply extending the rectangular plates to enhance the electrostatic deflection.

  15. A ground-up approach to High Throughput Cloud Computing in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00245123; Ganis, Gerardo; Bagnasco, Stefano

    The thesis explores various practical approaches in making existing High Throughput computing applications common in High Energy Physics work on cloud-provided resources, as well as opening the possibility for running new applications. The work is divided into two parts: firstly we describe the work done at the computing facility hosted by INFN Torino to entirely convert former Grid resources into cloud ones, eventually running Grid use cases on top along with many others in a more flexible way. Integration and conversion problems are duly described. The second part covers the development of solutions for automatizing the orchestration of cloud workers based on the load of a batch queue and the development of HEP applications based on ROOT's PROOF that can adapt at runtime to a changing number of workers.

  16. European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics, organized by the High Energy and Particle Physics Division of the European Physical Society, is a major international conference that reviews biennially since 1971 the state of our knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The latest conferences in this series were held in Stockholm, Grenoble, Krakow, Manchester, Lisbon, and Aachen. Jointly organized by the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the University of Vienna, the Vienna University of Technology, and the Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the 23rd edition of this conference took place in Vienna, Austria. Among the topics covered were Accelerators, Astroparticle Physics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Detector R&D; and Data Handling, Education and Outreach, Flavour Physics and Fundamental Symmetries, Heavy Ion Physics, Higgs and New Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Perturbative...

  17. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ULTRASHORT HIGH-ENERGY RADIATION AND MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, A J

    2004-01-15

    The workshop is intended as a forum to discuss the latest experimental, theoretical and computational results related to the interaction of high energy radiation with matter. High energy is intended to mean soft x-ray and beyond, but important new results from visible systems will be incorporated. The workshop will be interdisciplinary amongst scientists from many fields, including: plasma physics; x-ray physics and optics; solid state physics and material science; biology ; quantum optics. Topics will include, among other subjects: understanding damage thresholds for x-ray interactions with matter developing {approx} 5 keV x-ray sources to investigate damage; developing {approx} 100 keV Thomsom sources for material studies; developing short pulse (100 fs and less) x-ray diagnostics; developing novel X-ray optics; and developing models for the response of biological samples to ultra intense, sub ps x-rays high-energy radiation.

  18. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  19. Resummation of Hadroproduction Cross-sections at High Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    We reconsider the high energy resummation of photoproduction, electroproduction and hadroproduction cross-sections, in the light of recent progress in the resummation of perturbative parton evolution to NLO in logarithms of Q and x. We show in particular that the when the coupling runs the dramatic enhancements found at fixed coupling, due to soft singularities in the partonic cross-sections, are substantially reduced, and are in fact largely accounted for by the usual NLO and NNLO perturbative corrections. This leads to a novel explanation of the large K-factors commonly found in perturbative calculations of hadroproduction cross-sections. We give numerical estimates of high energy resummation effects in inclusive B-production, Drell-Yan and vector boson production, along with their rapidity distributions. We find that resummation modifies the B-production cross-section at the LHC by at most 15%, while the uncertainty due to high energy resummation in W-production is around 5%.

  20. Aesthetic skin resurfacing with the high-energy ultrapulsed CO2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, C; Roberts, T L

    1997-04-01

    CO2 laser resurfacing, using the new generation high-energy output pulsed lasers, provides a highly accurate method of resurfacing and rejuvenating facial skin. Its applications are widespread and well accepted by the general population (Color Figs. 3 to 8). Complications may occur, which may be minimized through adequate laser training and appreciation of the mechanisms of skin healing.